WorldWideScience

Sample records for repositories siting construction

  1. Siting, design and construction of underground repositories for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of the Symposium were to provide a forum for exchange of information internationally on the various scientific, technological, engineering and safety bases for the siting, design and construction of underground repositories, and to highlight current important issues and identify possible approaches. Forty-nine papers were presented, covering general approaches and regulatory aspects, disposal in shallow ground and rock cavities, disposal in deep geological formations and safety assessments related to the subject of the Symposium. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of these papers

  2. Construction of Basic Evaluation Criteria for Candidate HLW Repository Sites (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Yong Kwon; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Kim, Geon Young; Park, Kyung Woo; Ji, Sung Hoon; Ryu, Ji Hun

    2009-08-01

    We constructed the preliminary site assessment system for selection of proper site as high level radioactive disposal repository with consideration of Korean geological characteristics and underground environments. And, site assessment factor and standard as a point of geologic aspect were suggested for decision of candidate radioactive disposal site in Korea. The results can be used to develop the geological information system for assessment of candidate disposal site

  3. Repository site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, J.W.; Pentz, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The characterization of candidate repository sites has a number of programmatic objectives. Principal among these is the acquisition of data: a) to determine the suitability of a site relative to the DOE repository siting guidelines, b) to support model development and calculations to determine the suitability of a site relative to the post closure criteria of the NRC and EPA, c) to support the design of a disposal system, including the waste package and the engineered barrier system, as well as the shafts and underground openings of the repository. In meeting the gaols of site characterization, the authors have an obligation to conduct their investigations within an appropriate budget and schedule. This mandates that a well-constructed and systematic plan for field investigations be developed. Such a plan must fully account for the mechanisms which will control the radiologic performance in the repository. The plan must also flexibly and dynamically respond to the results of each step of field investigation, responding to the spatial variability of earth as well as to enhanced understandings of the performance of the disposal system. Such a plan must ensure that sufficient data are available to support the necessary probabilistic calculations of performance. This paper explores the planning for field data acquisition with specific reference to requirements for demonstrations of the acceptable performance for disposal systems

  4. Nuclear waste repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloman, B.D.; Cameron, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the geopolitics of nuclear waste disposal in the USA. Constitutional choice and social equity perspectives are used to argue for a more open and just repository siting program. The authors assert that every potential repository site inevitably contains geologic, environmental or other imperfections and that the political process is the correct one for determining sites selected

  5. Siting, design and construction of a deep geological repository for the disposal of high level and alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The main objective of this document is to summarize the basic principles and approaches to siting, design and construction of a deep geological repository for disposal of high level and alpha bearing radioactive wastes, as commonly agreed upon by Member States. This report is addressed to decision makers and technical managers as well as to specialists planning for siting, design and construction of geological repositories for disposal of high level and alpha bearing wastes. This document is intended to provide Member States of the IAEA with a summary outline for the responsible implementing organizations to use for siting, designing and constructing confinement systems for high level and alpha bearing radioactive waste in accordance with the protection objectives set by national regulating authorities or derived from safety fundamentals and standards of the IAEA. The protection objectives will be achieved by the isolation of the radionuclides from the environment by a repository system, which consists of a series of man made and natural safety barriers. Engineered barriers are used to enhance natural geological containment in a variety of ways. They must complement the natural barriers to provide adequate safety and necessary redundancy to the barrier system to ensure that safety standards are met. Because of the long timescales involved and the important role of the natural barrier formed by the host rock, the site selection process is a key activity in the repository design and development programme. The choice of the site, the investigation of its geological setting, the exploration of the regional hydrogeological setting and the primary underground excavations are all considered to be part of the siting process. 16 refs

  6. Law no. 10.308 of 20th November, 2001 on radioactive waste repositories siting, construction, licensing, operation, inspection, costs, indemnity, civil liability and guarantees concerning to the radioactive wastes repositories and other provisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This Act was published on November 20, 2001 and set forth regulations on the final disposal of radioactive wastes produced in Brazil, including siting, construction, licensing, operation, inspection, costs, indemnities, civil liability and guarantees concerning to the radioactive wastes repositories. This act allows for installation and operation of initial, intermediary and final repositories in accordance with the criteria established by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy National Commission - CNEN. The person or organization granted with CNEN authorization for operation of the initial repositories shall be liable for personal, patrimony and environmental radiological damages. The civil liability of CNEN is concerned to the radioactive waste intermediary and final disposals and transportation

  7. Waste repository planned for Bruce Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.

    2004-01-01

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG) and Kincardine, the municipality nearest the Bruce site, have agreed in principal to the construction of a deep geologic repository for low and medium level radioactive waste on the site. The two parties signed the 'Kincardine Hosting Agreement' on October 13, 2004 to proceed with planning, seek regulatory approval and further public consultation of the proposed project. A construction Licence is not expected before 2013. (author)

  8. Site investigations, design, construction, operation, shutdown and surveillance of repositories for low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in rock cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The report provides an overview and technical guidelines for considerations and for activities to be undertaken for safety assessment, site investigations, design, construction, operation, shutdown and surveillance of repositories for the disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in rock cavities. A generalized sequence of investigations is introduced which proceeds through region and site selection to the stage where the site is confirmed by detailed geoscientific investigations as being suitable for a waste repository. The different procedures and somewhat specific investigative needs with respect to existing mines are dealt with separately. General design, as well as specific requirements with respect to the different stages of design and construction, are dealt with. A review of activities related to the operational and post-operational stages of repositories in rock cavities is presented. The report describes in general terms the procedures related to different stages of disposal operation; also the conditions for shutdown together with essential shutdown and sealing activities and the related safety assessment requirements. Guidance is also given on the surveillance programme which will allow for inspection, testing, maintenance and security of a disposal facility during the operational phase, as well as for the post-operational stage for periods determined as necessary by the national authorities

  9. Criteria and results from the analysis of the problem of site selection for the construction of high level RAW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evstatiev, D.; Kozhoukharova, D.; Iliev, I.; Karagyuleva, J.

    1993-02-01

    The criteria for preliminary assessment of the Bulgarian territory and the results of the selection of prospective sites for future investigation concerning the choice of the suitable places for RAW repositories are presented. The selection of the prospective terrains has been performed in two stages: 1) Categorization of the country according to the prospective conditions for suitable sites and 2) Distinguishing and preliminary assessment of the suitable sites. The number of these sites was reduced to 20 by the method of successive screening. They are located in Northwest and Southeast Bulgaria and are built of marls, clays, granite, gneiss, serpentine and and volcanic rocks. The selected 20 sites has been subjected to preliminary investigation according to a programme specially worked out for the purpose. The investigation covers the analysis and summing up of the available geographical, geomorphological, geological, seismotectonic, hydrological, climatic, hydrogeological and geotechnical data, as well as a minimum of additional field research and laboratory tests. The results of the investigation of each site are presented and discussed. 1 ref

  10. Nuclear waste repository design and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohlke, B.M.; Monsees, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Extensive underground excavation will be required for construction of a mined geologic repository for nuclear waste. Hundreds of thousands of feet of drift will be required based on the conceptual layout design for each candidate nuclear waste repository. Comparison of boring and blasting excavation methods are discussed, as are special design and construction requirements (e.g., quality assurance procedures and performance assessment) for the nuclear waste repository. Comparisons are made between boring and blasting construction methods for the repository designs proposed for salt, volcanic tuff, and basalt

  11. Siting Process for HLW Repository in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, S.; Kitayama, K.; Umeki, H.; Naito, M.

    2002-01-01

    In the year 2000, the geological disposal program for high-level radioactive waste in Japan moved from the phase of generic research and development (R and D) into the phase of implementation. Following legislation entitled the ''Specified Radioactive Waste Final Disposal Act'', the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) was established as the implementing organization. The assigned activities of NUMO include selection of the repository site, demonstration of disposal technology at the site, developing relevant licensing applications and construction, operation and closure of the repository. As the first milestone of siting process, NUMO announced to the public an overall procedure for selection of preliminary investigation areas for potential candidate sites on October 29, 2001. The procedure specifies that NUMO will solicit volunteer municipalities for preliminary investigation areas with publishing four documents as an information package. These documents are tentatively entitled ''Instructions for Application'', ''Siting Factors for the Preliminary Investigation Areas'', a ''Repository Concepts'' as well as an ''Site Investigation Community Outreach Scheme''

  12. Rock stability considerations for siting and constructing a KBS-3 repository. Based on experiences from Aespoe HRL, AECL's URL, tunnelling and mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, C.D. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Christiansson, Rolf [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Soederhaell, J. [VBB VIAK AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-12-01

    Over the past 25 years the international nuclear community has carried out extensive research into the deep geological disposal of nuclear waste in hard rocks. In two cases this research has resulted in the construction of dedicated underground research facilities: SKB's Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, Sweden and AECL's Underground Research Laboratory, Canada. Both laboratories are located in hard rocks considered representative of the Fennoscandian and Canadian Shields, respectively. This report is intended to synthesize the important rock mechanics findings from these research programs. In particular the application of these finding to assessing the stability of underground openings. As such the report draws heavily on the published results from the SKB's ZEDEX Experiment in Sweden and AECL's Mine- by Experiment in Canada. The objectives of this report are to: 1. Describe, using the current state of knowledge, the role rock engineering can play in siting and constructing a KBS-3 repository. 2. Define the key rock mechanics parameters that should be determined in order to facilitate repository siting and construction. 3. Discuss possible construction issues, linked to rock stability, that may arise during the excavation of the underground openings of a KBS-3 repository. 4. Form a reference document for the rock stability analysis that has to be carried out as a part of the design works parallel to the site investigations. While there is no unique or single rock mechanics property or condition that would render the performance of a nuclear waste repository unacceptable, certain conditions can be treated as negative factors. Outlined below are major rock mechanics issues that should be addressed during the siting, construction and closure of a nuclear waste repository in Sweden in hard crystalline rock. During the site investigations phase, rock mechanics information will be predominately gathered from examination and testing of the rock core and

  13. Rock stability considerations for siting and constructing a KBS-3 repository. Based on experiences from Aespoe HRL, AECL's URL, tunnelling and mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, C.D.; Christiansson, Rolf; Soederhaell, J.

    2001-12-01

    Over the past 25 years the international nuclear community has carried out extensive research into the deep geological disposal of nuclear waste in hard rocks. In two cases this research has resulted in the construction of dedicated underground research facilities: SKB's Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, Sweden and AECL's Underground Research Laboratory, Canada. Both laboratories are located in hard rocks considered representative of the Fennoscandian and Canadian Shields, respectively. This report is intended to synthesize the important rock mechanics findings from these research programs. In particular the application of these finding to assessing the stability of underground openings. As such the report draws heavily on the published results from the SKB's ZEDEX Experiment in Sweden and AECL's Mine- by Experiment in Canada. The objectives of this report are to: 1. Describe, using the current state of knowledge, the role rock engineering can play in siting and constructing a KBS-3 repository. 2. Define the key rock mechanics parameters that should be determined in order to facilitate repository siting and construction. 3. Discuss possible construction issues, linked to rock stability, that may arise during the excavation of the underground openings of a KBS-3 repository. 4. Form a reference document for the rock stability analysis that has to be carried out as a part of the design works parallel to the site investigations. While there is no unique or single rock mechanics property or condition that would render the performance of a nuclear waste repository unacceptable, certain conditions can be treated as negative factors. Outlined below are major rock mechanics issues that should be addressed during the siting, construction and closure of a nuclear waste repository in Sweden in hard crystalline rock. During the site investigations phase, rock mechanics information will be predominately gathered from examination and testing of the rock core and mapping of the

  14. Siting guidelines and their role in repository site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    The first requirement of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act was for the Secretary of Energy to issue general guidelines for siting repositories. The guidelines were to specify detailed geologic considerations that would be the primary criteria for the selection of sites in various host rocks, as well as factors that would qualify or disqualify any site from development as a repository. These guidelines were clearly intended to provide not only the framework for the siting program but also the stimulus for establishing effective communication and consultation among the parties involved in the program. The Act further required that the guidelines be a factor in the development of all future decision documents of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, including the environmental assessments that would accompany the nomination of sites for characterization, the site-characterization plans that are to be prepared before the sinking of exploratory shafts at any candidate site, and the environmental impact statement that is to support the recommendation of a site for development as a repository. More than two years after its passage, the intention of the Act for the guidelines has been realized. Concurred in by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission on June 22, 1984, and issued by the Department in November 1984, the guidelines include postclosure technical guidelines that apply to conditions governing the long-term performance of the repository system; preclosure technical guidelines that apply to conditions governing the siting, construction, operation, and closure of the repository; and system guidelines whose objective is to ensure that the regulatory requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission are met

  15. Decision theory applied to radioactive repository construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilbron Filho, Paulo Fernando Lavalle; Pontedeiro, Elizabeth May

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present, through the presentation of an example, the applicability of the decision theory on the selection and construction of a repository for low and intermediate radioactive waste. (author)

  16. Methodology applied in Cuba for siting, designing, and building a radioactive waste repository under safety conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orbera, L.; Peralta, J.L.; Franklin, R.; Gil, R.; Chales, G.; Rodriguez, A.

    1993-01-01

    The work presents the methodology used in Cuba for siting, designing, and building a radioactive waste repository safely. This methodology covers both the technical and socio-economic factors, as well as those of design and construction so as to have a safe siting for this kind of repository under Cuba especial condition. Applying this methodology will results in a safe repository

  17. Hydrologic issues in repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remson, I.; Gorelick, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    Extrapolation of Darcy's law to the transport of water an solutes in unfractured poorly permeable rocks being studied for nuclear waste disposal is questioned. The hydrologic literature includes numerous references to both non-Darcian flow in dense materials devoid of macrofractures and microfractures and to threshold gradients below which no flow occurs. For such situations to occur, the pore-size range must be small enough so that all pore water is sufficiently close to mineral surfaces to be affected by the surficial forces. Then the flow will be non-Newtonian and non-Darcian, and solute transport will be by molecular diffusion. If fluid transport in very dense unfractured rocks is non-Darcian, useful methods of testing candidate host rocks become apparent. In situ nondestructive pressure testing of canister waste emplacement boreholes in a mined repository can verify the absence of both fracture flow and Darcian flow. 18 references

  18. Citizen participation in nuclear waste repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, R.E.; Olsen, D.

    1982-12-01

    The following study presents a proposed strategy for citizen participation during the planning stages of nuclear waste repository siting. It discusses the issue from the general perspective of citizen participation in controversial issues and in community development. Second, rural institutions and attitudes toward energy development as the context for developing a citizen participation program are examined. Third, major citizen participation techniques and the advantages and disadvantages of each approach for resolving public policy issues are evaluated. Fourth, principles of successful citizen participation are presented. Finally, a proposal for stimulating and sustaining effective responsible citizen participation in nuclear waste repository siting and management is developed

  19. Understanding the evolution of the repository and the olkiluoto site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskinen, K.; Pastina, B.

    2008-01-01

    Posiva Safety Case is organised in a portfolio including ten main reports: Site, Spent Fuel Characteristics and Inventories, Canister Design, Repository Design, Process, Evolution of the Repository and the Site, Biosphere Assessment, Radionuclide Transport, Complementary Evaluations of Safety, and Summary. This portfolio constitutes the basis of the Preliminary Safety Assessment Report, which will be presented to the authorities in 2012 as part of the repository construction license application. The Evolution report [1], which is the focus of this paper, is the main advance in the Safety Case portfolio since the implementation of the Safety Case plan [2] in 2005. The report provides the status of current knowledge with respect to the evolution of the site and the engineered barrier system and highlights areas where better understanding is needed. (authors)

  20. Management strategy for site characterization at candidate HLW repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a management strategy for HLW repository site characterization which is aimed at producing an optimal characterization trajectory for site suitability and licensing evaluations. The core feature of the strategy is a matrix of alternative performance targets and alternative information-level targets which can be used to allocate and justify program effort. Strategies for work concerning evaluation of expected and disrupted repository performance are distinguished, and the need for issue closure criteria is discussed

  1. Repository tunnel construction in deep clay formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, B.G.; Mair, R.J.; Taylor, R.N.

    1992-01-01

    One of the objects of the Hades project at Mol, Belgium has been to evaluate the feasibility of construction of a deep repository in the Boom clay formation at depth of approximately 225 metres. The main objective of the present project was to analyse and interpret the detailed geotechnical measurements made around the Hades trial shaft and tunnel excavations and evaluate the safety of radioactive waste disposal in a repository facility in deep clay formations. Plasticity calculations and finite element analyses were used which gave results consistent with the in-situ measurements. It was shown that effective stress analysis could successfully predict the observed field behaviour. Correct modelling of the small-strain stiffness of the Boom clay was essential if reasonable predictions of the pore pressure response due to construction are to be made. The calculations undertaken indicated that, even in the long term, the pressures on the test drift tunnel lining are likely to be significantly lower than the overburden pressure. Larger long-term tunnel lining pressures are predicted for impermeable linings. A series of laboratory stress path tests was undertaken to determine the strength and stiffness characteristics of the Boom clay. The tests were conducted at appropriate effective stress levels on high-quality samples retrieved during construction of the test drift. The apparatus developed for the testing is described and the results discussed. The development of a self boring retracting pressure-meter is described. This novel in-situ testing device was specifically designed to determine from direct measurements the convergence/confinement curve relevant to tunnelling in clay formations. 44 refs., 60 figs., 3 tabs

  2. General construction requirements for the deep repository in the KBS-3 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    The KBS-3 systems includes equipment and plants for transport of spent nuclear fuels and encapsulated spent fuels, central intermediate storage, encapsulation and deep geologic disposal. The requirements in this document concern the repository and have been put together in view of the tasks of designing, constructing and building the repository. The report presents: A general review of existing design plans; Laws and regulations relevant for the design of the repository; How the regulations have been broken down to functional demands and dimensioning requirements for the repository; How the site conditions influence the design, and how the layout of the different parts of the repository interact; Relations between the functions of the repository, the safety and the design; A foundation for developing construction plans for the repository. The requirements will be collected in a database that will develop as new knowledge is collected

  3. Basic repository environmental assessment design basis: Deaf Smith County site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This study examines the engineering factors and costs associated with the construction, operation, and decommissioning of a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt in the Palo Duro Basin in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The study assumes a repository capacity of 36,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) of unreprocessed spent fuel and 36,000 MTHM of commercial high-level reprocessing waste, along with 7,020 canisters of defense high-level reprocessing waste and associated quantities or remote- and contact-handled transuranic waste (TRU). With the exception of TRU, all the waste forms are placed in 300- to 1000-year-life carbon-steel waste packages in a collocated waste handling and packaging facility (WHPF), which is also described. The construction, operation, and decommissioning of the proposed repository is estimated to cost approximately $4.64 billion. Costs include those for the collocate WHPF, engineering, and contingency, but exclude waste form assembly and shipment to the site and waste package fabrication and shipment to the site. These costs reflect the relative average wage rates of the region, the relatively easy access to the site, and the relatively weak nature of the salt at this site. Construction would require an estimated 7 to 7.5 years. Engineering factors and costs are not strongly influenced by environmental considerations. 62 refs., 24 figs., 20 tabs

  4. Benchmark problems for repository siting models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, B.; Mercer, J.W.; Thomas, S.D.; Lester, B.H.

    1982-12-01

    This report describes benchmark problems to test computer codes used in siting nuclear waste repositories. Analytical solutions, field problems, and hypothetical problems are included. Problems are included for the following types of codes: ground-water flow in saturated porous media, heat transport in saturated media, ground-water flow in saturated fractured media, heat and solute transport in saturated porous media, solute transport in saturated porous media, solute transport in saturated fractured media, and solute transport in unsaturated porous media

  5. Study on construction technology for repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanai, Kenji; Iwasa, Kengo; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Miura, Kazuhiko; Okutsu, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Masaaki

    1999-11-01

    For the construction of underground facilities comprising access tunnels, connecting tunnels, main tunnels and disposal tunnels, a large number of tunnels will be excavated in deep rock formations. These excavations will extend hundreds kilometers in total length. Therefore, special attention must be paid, to transporting large volume of debris, ventilation, emergency escape routes in case of accident, and other factors. In addition, special attention must also paid to potential accidents which might in underground excavations, including unstable facing phenomena (such as collapse and swelling of facing at weak layer sections), spring water flow resulting collapse of rock, gas eruption, and rock burst. While considering these factors to be emphasized during the construction of geological disposal facilities, the investigation reviewed the existing working methods on individual construction technologies of access tunnels, main tunnels, connecting tunnels, disposal tunnels, and disposal pit, based on the recognition that the present state deals with a wide range of geological environments, and conducted investigation about the construction methods for each tunnel on the basis current technologies, and described the outline of these methods. Furthermore, for the items to be particularly emphasized on site characterization and siting data such as ground pressure and spring water, the investigation reviewed the current countermeasure works, and made survey on the phenomena appeared during actual tunnel construction works and their countermeasures, and carried out a study on effectiveness of these countermeasures. This constructing of disposal site in deep geological formations is basically possible by applying, or confirming, current excavation technologies for tunnels and underground facilities. A systematic construction system combines separate technologies relating to construction, (excavation technology, tunnel support work method, etc.). Such systems can be

  6. A review of construction techniques available for surface and underground radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, D.G.; Davies, I.L.; MacKenzie, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    In terms of engineering requirements the construction of surface or indeed underground radioactive waste repositories is not unduly difficult. The civil engineering techniques likely to be required have generally been carried out previously, albeit not in the context of radioactive waste repositories in this country. The emphasis will have to be very much on the quality of construction. This paper emphasises the need for quality construction and describes the techniques likely to be used in the construction of repositories. Reference is made to the materials likely to be used in the construction of repositories and also to the need for being able to convince the designers, regulating authorities and the general public that the materials used will indeed last for the required time. Brief reference is made at the end of the paper to the civil engineering parameters requiring consideration in the location of repository siting. (author)

  7. Croatian repository construction project - present status and main obstacles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucar Dragicevic, S.; Subasic, D.; Schaller, A.; Lokner, V.; Cerskov Klika, M.

    1999-01-01

    Croatia has been preparing backgrounds for the construction of the repository for low and intermediate radioactive waste on its territory, almost for a decade, now. In the name of Hrvtaska elektroprivreda, the co-owner of the NE Krsko, APO has been co-ordinating and organising numerous activities and projects during that time period. Siting process, safety assessment, disposal technology and repository design and public acceptance issues are the main fields of activities. The overall status of the project at the moment, including the overview of the present status of the main four aspects of activities, will be presented. Relatively, big and important progress made on the project work out during the last two years, as well as the main obstacles we were faced with during that time period, will be discussed.(author)

  8. Basic repository environment assessment design basis, Cypress Creek Dome Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    This study examines the engineering factors and costs associated with the construction, operation, and decommissioning of a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt in the Gulf Interior Region at Cypress Creek Cone, Mississippi. The study assumes a repository capacity of 36,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) of unreprocessed spent fuel and 36,000 MTHM of commercial high-level reprocessing waste, along with 7020 canisters of defense high-level reprocessing waste and associated quantities of remote- and contact-handled transuranic waste (TRU). With the exception of TRU, all the waste forms are placed in 300- to 1000-year-life carbon-steel waste packages in a collocated waste handling and packaging facility (WHPF), which is also described. The construction, operation, and decommissioning of the proposed repository is estimated to cost approximately $4.66 billion. Costs include those for the collocated WHPF, engineering, and contingency, but exclude waste from assembly and shipment to the site and waste package fabrication and shipment to the site. These costs reflect the relatively easy access to the site. Construction would require an estimated 7 years. Engineering factors and costs are not strongly influenced by environmental considerations. 53 refs., 24 figs., 10 tabs

  9. Basic repository environmental assessment design basis, Richton Dome site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This study examines the engineering factors and costs associated with the construction, operation, and decommissioning of a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt in the Gulf Interior Region at Richton Dome in Perry County, Mississippi. The study assumes a repository capacity of 36,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) of unreprocessed spent fuel and 36,000 MTHM of commercial high-level reprocessing waste, along with 7,020 canisters of defense high-level reprocessing waste and associated quantities of remote-and contact-handled transuranic waste (TRU). With the exception of TRU, all the waste forms are placed in 300- to 1,000-year-life carbon-steel waste packages in a collocated waste handling and packaging facility (WHPF), which is also described. The construction, operation, and decommissioning of the proposed repository is estimated to cost approximately $4.49 billion. Costs include those for the WHPF, engineering, and contingency, but exclude waste form assembly and shipment to the site and waste package fabrication and shipment to the site. These costs reflect the relative average wage rates of the region and the relatively easy access to the site. Construction would require an estimated 6.25 years. Engineering factors and costs are not strongly influenced by environmental considerations. 52 refs., 24 figs., 20 tabs

  10. Basic repository environmental assessment design basis, Davis Canyon site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This study examines the engineering factors and costs associated with the construction, operation, and decommissioning of a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt in the Paradox Basin in Davis Canyon, Utah. The study assumes a repository capacity of 36,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) of unreprocessed spent fuel and 36,000 MTHM of commercial high-level reprocessing waste, along with 7,020 canisters of defense high-level reprocessing waste and associated quantities of remote- and contact-handled transuranic waste (TRU). With the exception of TRU, all the waste forms are placed in 300- to 1,000-year-life carbon-steel waste packages in a collected waste handling and packaging facility (WHPF), which is also described. The construction, operation, and decommissioning of the proposed repository is estimated to cost approximately $5.49 billion. Costs include those for the collocated WHPF, engineering, and contingency, but exclude waste form assembly and shipment to the site and waste package fabrication and shipment to the site. These costs reflect the relative average wage rates of the region and the relatively sound nature of the salt at this site. Construction would require an estimated 7.75 years. Engineering factors and costs are not strongly influenced by environmental considerations. 50 refs., 24 figs., 20 tabs

  11. Basic repository environmental assessment design basis, Lavender Canyon site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This study examines the engineering factors and costs associated with the construction, operation, and decommissioning of a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt in the Paradox Basin in Lavender Canyon, Utah. The study assumes a repository capacity of 36,000 metric tons of heavy metal (MTHM) of unreprocessed spent fuel and 36,000 MTHM of commercial high-level reprocessing waste, along with 7020 canisters of defense high-level reprocessing waste and associated quantities of remote- and contact-handled transuranic waste (TRU). With the exception of TRU, all the waste forms are placed in 300- to 1000-year-life carbon-steel waste packages in a collocated waste handling and packaging facility (WHPF), which is also described. The construction, operation, and decommissioning of the proposed repository is estimated to cost approximately $5.51 billion. Costs include those for the collocated WHPP, engineering, and contingency, but exclude waste form assembly and shipment to the site and waste package fabrication and shipment to the site. These costs reflect the relative average wage rates of the region and the relatively sound nature of the salt at this site. Construction would require an estimated 7.75 years. Engineering factors and costs are not strongly influenced by environmental considerations. 51 refs., 24 figs., 20 tabs

  12. Summary of repository siting models. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.D.; Ross, B.; Mercer, J.W.

    1982-07-01

    This report is the first in a series of reports that will provide critical reviews and summaries of computer programs that can be used to analyze the potential performance of a high-level radioactive waste repository. The computer programs identified address the following phenomena: saturated and unsaturated subsurface flow, heat transport, solute transport, surface water runoff, geomechanical interactions, and geochemical interactions. The report identifies 183 computer programs that can be used to analyze a repository site and provides a summary description of 31 computer programs. The summary descriptions can be used: to assist in code evaluation, to facilitate code comparison, to determine applicability of codes to specific problems, to identify code deficiencies, and to provide a screening mechanism for code selection

  13. National radioactive waste repository site selection study. Phase 2. A report on public comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    Agreement was reached in principle between State/Territory and the Commonwealth of Australia Governments that a suitable site for a radioactive wastes repository must be found. The discussion papers resulting from the Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the site selection study were released for public comment. The national repository will be for disposal of low level and short-lived intermediate level radioactive wastes streaming from the medical, research and industrial use of radioisotopes in Australia. The purpose of this report is to summarise and respond in general terms to comment received on the discussion paper -Phase 2 of the study. Forty five submissions were received. Of these: 18 supported the Phase 2 study approach and the concept of a national repository; 13 did not state a clear position but either requested more information or provided constructive comment on the siting process; 7 supported the site selection approach and the repository concept but suggested that the repository should not be sited in a particular area; 3 opposed the siting of the repository in their vicinity but not necessarily the repository concept and site selection approach; 4 opposed the concept of a national repository. This compares with 124 submissions on Phase 1 of the study, of which 57 opposed the national repository concept (52 of these were from letters elicited by Greenpeace) and 48 supported the establishment of a national repository and the site selection approach proposed. 3 figs

  14. Constructibility issues associated with a nuclear waste repository in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    This report contains the text and slide reproductions of a speech on nuclear waste disposal in basalt. The presentation addresses the layout of repository access shafts and subsurface facilities resulting from the conceptual design of a nuclear repository in basalt. The constructibility issues that must be resolved prior to construction are described

  15. Radioactive waste disposal: Recommendations for a repository site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadelli, N.; Orlowski, S.

    1992-01-01

    This report is a guidebook on recommendations for site selection of radioactive waste repository, based on a consensus in european community. This report describes particularly selection criteria and recommendations for radioactive waste disposal in underground or ground repositories. 14 refs

  16. Social impact mitigation and nuclear waste repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelle, E.

    1980-01-01

    Some aspects of the socioeconomic impacts of siting, constructing, and operating radioactive waste repositories in rural areas are discussed. These include public perceptions of high risk and uncertainty; limited benefits and no incentives; dissociations of costs and benefits; remoteness and inaccessibility of the decision making process for large energy facilities; no institutions to provide protection and accountability for those who may be affected by the siting; the fact that not all risks or impacts are fully mitigable; and constraints on DOE's present ability or authority to mitigate impacts

  17. Repository surface design site layout analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montalvo, H.R.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to establish the arrangement of the Yucca Mountain Repository surface facilities and features near the North Portal. The analysis updates and expands the North Portal area site layout concept presented in the ACD, including changes to reflect the resizing of the Waste Handling Building (WHB), Waste Treatment Building (WTB), Carrier Preparation Building (CPB), and site parking areas; the addition of the Carrier Washdown Buildings (CWBs); the elimination of the Cask Maintenance Facility (CMF); and the development of a concept for site grading and flood control. The analysis also establishes the layout of the surface features (e.g., roads and utilities) that connect all the repository surface areas (North Portal Operations Area, South Portal Development Operations Area, Emplacement Shaft Surface Operations Area, and Development Shaft Surface Operations Area) and locates an area for a potential lag storage facility. Details of South Portal and shaft layouts will be covered in separate design analyses. The objective of this analysis is to provide a suitable level of design for the Viability Assessment (VA). The analysis was revised to incorporate additional material developed since the issuance of Revision 01. This material includes safeguards and security input, utility system input (size and location of fire water tanks and pump houses, potable water and sanitary sewage rates, size of wastewater evaporation pond, size and location of the utility building, size of the bulk fuel storage tank, and size and location of other exterior process equipment), main electrical substation information, redundancy of water supply and storage for the fire support system, and additional information on the storm water retention pond

  18. Site investigation requirements for a deep repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, I.W.

    1992-03-01

    Techniques currently available for measuring geotechnical parameters needed in the design, construction and assessment of a deep underground repository have been critically examined. These techniques have been considered under four main areas: definition of the rock discontinuity structure, definition of the in-situ stress distribution in the rock mass, estimation of the geomechanical characteristics of the rock mass, and estimation of flow and transport characteristics of the rock mass. The review concludes that generally rocks and rock masses are not well characterised by tests from cores or from boreholes and gives reason to support this view. The only parameters which can be measured accurately are laboratory index properties which are useful only in a comparative assessment of different rock types. Finally the review concludes that the only way to obtain useful data on rock behaviour is through large pilot scale tests with appropriate and controlled boundary conditions conducted preferably in the potential host strata. (author)

  19. Evaluation of the Overall Costs for the Croatian Repository: Varying Site, Design and Financial Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucar-Dragicevic, S.; Subasic, D.; Lebegner, J.

    2000-01-01

    Preliminary preparations for the construction of a LILW repository in Croatia included a number of activities and projects related to the siting process, safety assessment, disposal technology and repository design, and public acceptance issues. Costs evaluations have always been a part of the developing project documentation. However, only the estimates of the facility construction and equipment acquisition costs had been included, while other costs associated with the project development and management have not been considered up to now. For the first time the infrastructure status at the potential sites has been evaluated, and the costs of the repository operations as well as the post-closure management has been estimated. Cost parameters have been considered from both technical and fiscal points of view, comparing their relative influence on the overall repository costs. Assessment of the total project costs in eight cases for the four preferential sites and two repository designs gave a clearer picture of the development and management costs differences for the considered options. Without considerations of the operational and post-operational repository management expenses, the total project costs appear to have been heavily underestimated. Also, while the construction costs for the tunnel and the surface type repositories are significantly different, this influence of the repository type on the total project costs becomes far less important when the later phases management expenses are added. Finally, the role of fiscal parameters may further diminish the site and technology impacts on the overall costs. (author)

  20. Identification of candidate sites for a near surface repository for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motiejunas, S.

    2004-01-01

    This Report comprises results of the area survey stage, which involves regional screening to define the regions of interest and identification of potential sites within suitable regions. The main goal was to define a few sites potentially suitable for constructing of the near surface repository. It was concluded that a vicinity of Ignalina NPP is among the best suitable regions for the near surface repository. At the present investigation level a ridge in Galilauke village has the most favorable conditions. However, Apvardai site is potentially suitable for the repository too

  1. Environmental assessment overview, Reference repository location, Hanford site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a reference repository location at the Hanford Site in Washington as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The site is in the Columbia Plateau, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Hanford site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Hanford site is not disqualified under the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Hanford site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. 3 figs

  2. Design, construction, operation, shutdown and surveillance of repositories for solid radioactive wastes in shallow ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This report is a part of the IAEA publications under its Programme on Underground Disposal of Radioactive Wastes and is addressed to administrative and technical authorities and specialists who consider the shallow-ground disposal of low- and intermediate-level solid radioactive wastes of short half-lives. The report emphasizes the technological aspects, however it briefly discusses the safety philosophy and regulatory considerations too. The design, construction, operation, shutdown and surveillance of the repositories in shallow ground are considered in some detail, paying special attention to their interrelated aspects. In particular, a review is given of the following aspects: main design and construction considerations in relation to the natural features of the site; design and construction aspects during the repository development process; activities related to operational and post-operational stages of the repository; major steps in repository operation and essential activities in shutdown and operational and post-operational surveillance

  3. Use of limited information in a license application to construct a repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarry, J.M. III; Echols, F.S.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a rationale for the proposition that the Department of Energy's (DOE's) submittal of a license application (LA) for the construction of a geologic repository to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) may be, and arguably must be, based on statutorily-limited site characterization data and design information. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), as amended, is the controlling statute for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel in a licensed geologic repository. Applicable NRC regulations for the licensing of such a repository are found for the most part in 10 C.F.R. Part 60

  4. Constructability analysis for a deep repository - some thoughts on possibilities and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeckblom, G.; Leijon, B.; Stille, H.

    1995-01-01

    Potential site characterization for construction of a repository for geologic disposal of spent fuel in crystalline rock in Sweden is discussed. The present plan requires that the fuel be encapsulated in a composite steel-copper canister, that the repository be situated somewhere in Sweden with municipal approval, and that licensing be preceded by extensive studies and investigations. Important factors are mechanical stability, hydrology, and the suitability of construction materials. Site investigation will require a lot of surface and borehole information regarding rock types, zones, structures, fractures, hydraulic conductivity, stresses, rock strength, and groundwater chemistry. 6 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  5. Aspects of the studies for construction of a deep geological repository in Republic of Bulgaria. Concept for development of a specialized database for the purposes of siting and design of a deep geological repository in Republic of Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomov, E.; Yordanova, V.

    2009-01-01

    The strategy for the management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste there are considered three options for spent fuel management : Transportation of the all spent fuel for storage and reprocessing; Removal of a part of the spent fuel for storage and reprocessing and store the rest in the repository for long-term dry storage for at least 50 years, i e postponement of the decision making; Transportation of the spent fuel to Russia for storage and processing, return of the high-level activity waste from processing for storage and disposal in Bulgaria, further storage of the spent fuel at NPP Kozloduy

  6. Construction of First Phase of Spent Fuel Repository in Finland: Lessons Learned and Success Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varjoranta, T.; Paltemaa, R.

    2015-01-01

    The Finnish nuclear legislation defines spent fuel as nuclear waste and requires that it has to be disposed of in the Finnish bedrock. Over 30 years of systematic R&D has been carried out to develop the repository concept, site selection, technologies, safety assessment and the regulatory approach. Activities are based on the Finnish Government’s long term strategies since 1983 and the public acceptance at local, Governmental and Parliament levels, approved and documented in the legal “Decision in Principle” (DiP) in 2000 to locate the repository at Olkiluoto. The DiP provided authorization to construct the first phase of the repository to the depth of the planned disposal. The construction of the 1 st phase of the repository started 2004 and has now reached the depth of 407 m. This paper identifies and discusses lessons learned and key success factors of the progress made. (author)

  7. Deep geological repository: Starting communication at potentially suitable sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumberova, Vera

    2001-01-01

    The siting of a deep geological repository in the Czech Republic is and will be a complicated process, since it is the first siting process of a nuclear facility designed from the start to be located at non-nuclear sites and to be organised under democratic conditions. This presentation describes the concept of radioactive waste and spent nuclear management in the Czech Republic, Communication activities of Radioactive Waste Repository Authority (RAWRA) with local representatives and lessons learned

  8. Palaeohydrogeological modelling for potential future repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In order to consider the future behaviour of a groundwater system over time scales of relevance to repository safety assessment, it is necessary to develop an understanding of how the groundwater system has changed over time. This can be done through studying the palaeohydrogeology of the groundwater system. The EQUIP project (Evidence from Quaternary Infills for Palaeohydrogeology) set out to develop and evaluate methodologies for obtaining palaeohydrogeological information from fracture infill minerals formed under past groundwater conditions. EQUIP was a collaborative project funded jointly by the European Commission and, in the UK, by the Environment Agency and UK Nirex Limited. The project also involved partners in Finland, France, Spain and Sweden. The fracture infill material chosen for this investigation was calcite, because its reactions in low temperature groundwater environments are fairly well understood and it is fairly ubiquitous in both crystalline and sedimentary rocks. In addition, geochemical modelling suggests that plausible time scales for growth of individual calcite crystals are in the range 10 to 10,000 years, so they may accumulate a record of groundwater evolution over periods of significant climate change. The project was based on four sites, having different climate histories and geological conditions, at which drillcore samples of the deep crystalline rocks, accompanied by hydrogeological and hydrochemical data for the current groundwater conditions, were already available. The principal study sites were Olkiluoto in Finland, Aspo/Laxemar in Sweden, Sellafield in the UK and Vienne in France. The results of the study focus on the morphology and bulk compositions of calcite, compositional zoning of calcite crystals and compositions of fluid inclusions. There are systematic variations in bulk compositions with depth and also in discrete compositional fluctuations (or zones) in individual calcite crystals. These are inferred to reflect

  9. Understanding large scale groundwater flow to aid in repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, C.C.; Brown, A.; Gascoyne, M.; Stevenson, D.R.; Ophori, D.U.

    1996-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) with support from Ontario Hydro has developed a concept for the safe disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste in a deep (500 to 1000 m) mined repository in plutonic rocks of the Canadian Shield. The disposal concept involves the use of multiple engineered and natural barriers to ensure long-term safety. The geosphere, comprised of the enclosing rock mass and the groundwater which occurs in cracks and pores in the rock, is expected to serve as an important natural barrier to the release and migration of wastes from the engineered repository. Although knowledge of the physical and chemical characteristics of the groundwater in the rock at potential repository sites is needed to help design the engineered barriers of the repository it can also be used to aid in repository siting, to take greater advantage of natural conditions in the geosphere to enhance its role as a barrier in the overall disposal system

  10. Central repository for low- and intermediate-level waste (ALMA) conceptual design, siting and safety study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjellbert, N.; Haeggblom, H.; Cederstroem, M.; Lundgren, T.

    1980-07-01

    A generic design, siting and safety study of a proposed repository for low- and intermediate-level waste has been made. Special emphasis has been placed on safety characterostics. The conceptual design and the generic site, on which the study is based, are realistically chosen in accordance with present construction techniques and the existing geohydrological conditions in Sweden. (Auth.)

  11. Expert and non-expert groups perception of LILW repository site selection procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, N.; Polic, M.

    2001-01-01

    Slovenia is now in the process of the site selection for a low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) repository. Earlier searches for the LILW repository site confronted the Agency for radwaste management (ARAO) with a number of problems, mainly concerning the contacts with the local communities and their willingness to accept the repository. Therefore the Agency started with a new, so-called mixed mode approach to the site selection, where the special role of a mediator is introduced. The mediator represents the link between the investor and the local community, and facilitates the communication and negotiations between both. In this study we try to find out how people perceive the mediating process and conditions under which the LILW repository would be accepted in the local community. Therefore a special survey was conducted. The results showed some of the conditions under which participants would possibly accept the LILW repository. Differences in the perception between non-expert and expert groups were demonstrated and analysed, especially in the assessment of the consequences of LILW repository construction on the environment. Also the socio-psychological influences of the LILW repository were noted and examined. Consequences and recommendations for future work on the site selection procedure were prepared on the basis of the research results.(author)

  12. Repository construction management and quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hood, F.C.

    1984-01-01

    An emphasis on preventive rather than reactive management is key to an efficient construction management operation. Development of contingency plans to deal with unexpected adverse conditions, e.g., brine pockets during mining operations, are an integral part of the management program to ensure project safety, quality, cost, schedule and environmental objectives are met. A viable quality assurance program with active management support will optimize management effectiveness in reaching project goals. With adequate planning and perceptive application of the proper management controls, Quality Assurance becomes an essential ingredient for efficiently managing a job because it has been built into the management system rather than being an uninvolved peripheral entity. 6 references, 3 figures

  13. Environmental assessment: Reference repository location, Hanford site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a reference repository location at the Hanford Site in Washington as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The site is in the Columbia Plateau, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Hanford Site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Hanford site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that it is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Hanford site as one of five sites suitable for characterization.

  14. Environmental assessment: Reference repository location, Hanford site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a reference repository location at the Hanford Site in Washington as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The site is in the Columbia Plateau, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Hanford site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Hanford site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that is is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Hanford site as one of five sites available for characterization.

  15. Environmental assessment: Reference repository location, Hanford site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a reference repository location at the Hanford Site in Washington as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The site is in the Columbia Plateau, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Hanford Site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Hanford site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that it is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Hanford site as one of five sites suitable for characterization

  16. Environmental assessment: Reference repository location, Hanford site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a reference repository location at the Hanford Site in Washington as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The site is in the Columbia Plateau, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Hanford site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Hanford site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that is is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Hanford site as one of five sites available for characterization

  17. Siting factors for the Swedish deep repository for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroem, A.; Ericsson, Lars O.; Svemar, C.; Almen, K.E.; Andersson, Johan

    1998-01-01

    A project entitled Siting factors and criteria for site evaluation was initiated at the SKB in 1997. The project comprises an important part of the work of siting and site selection that is being pursued within SKB. The purpose of the project is to create a logical structure for the continued siting work, and its results should also be able to be used to assist in evaluating sites. The project will thereby also provide a means - in accordance with the Government's decision regarding Research Programme 95 - to obtain more detailed and quantified siting factors and criteria than those previously presented in the supplement to Research Programme 92. The overall goals of the project are to identify and quantify requirements and preferences regarding the properties of the rock and the soil from the perspectives of long-term safety, performance and planning and design of the rock works, and to identify siting factors and criteria. The latter should be able to be used to determine whether requirements and preferences are satisfied, both when screening sites for site investigation and after completed site investigation. Presented requirements, preferences, factors and criteria must be acceptable to national and municipal authorities or others with influence over the siting work. To start with, requirements and preferences regarding the performance of the rock in a deep repository have been clarified. These requirements and preferences are based on many years of experience of safety assessments and construction analyses within SKB. What is new here is the structuring that has been done, where a classification is made into different geoscientific disciplines, and the formalism that has been developed for the concepts requirements, preferences and performance. This is a prerequisite for a consistent and hopefully comprehensive set of requirements from a functional perspective. Work has continued on siting factors with reference to a coming site investigation programme. A

  18. Design bases for the construction of a repository in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, E.; Mattar, J.; Perucca, C.; Preisz, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Argentine nuclear programme provides for the reprocessing of spent fuel elements and the recycling of plutonium produced for the generation of electricity. As a result, high-level radioactive waste will initially arise in liquid form and will than have to be disposed of by appropriate treatment. The basic protection criteria applied for this purpose are: to avoid non-stochastic radiation hazards, to limit the risk to the individual and to reduce the collective radiological impact as far as is reasonably achievable. On the basis of these criteria, the selection of a site and a basic engineering project for the construction of a repository to meet the country's needs have been undertaken. In the first stage, some 200 potentially suitable granite occurrences distributed throughout the country were identified. A preselection was then made of granite formations which lie outside seismic areas, which are parts of stable and scarcely altered geological formations, and which also lie outside potential mining areas. Four granite outcrops were identified in this preselection as being the most promising for further study. Detailed investigations were subsequently taken up in one of the preselected granite formations which is located in the province of Chubut in southern Argentina. (author)

  19. Project Guarantee 1985. Repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste: construction and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    A constructional engineering project study aimed at clarification of the feasibility of a repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (type B repository) has been carried out; the study is based on a model data-set derived from the geological, rock mechanical and topographical characterictics of one of Nagra's planned exploration areas. Final storage is effected in subterranean rock caverns accessed by horizontal tunnel. The reception area also is sited below the surface. Storage is conceived in such a way that, after closure of the repository, maintenance and supervision can be dispensed with and a guarantee of high long-term safety can nevertheless be provided. The envisaged repository consists of an entry tunnel for road vehicles and a reception area with a series of caverns for receiving waste, for additional technical facilities and for the production of the concrete back-fill material. The connecting tunnel is serviced by a tunnel railway and the actual repository area consists of several storage caverns. The repository is intended to accomodate a total of 200'000 m3 of solidified low- and intermediate-level waste. Valanginian marl is assumed as the host rock, although it would also be basically possible to house the proposed installations in other host rocks. The excavated material will total around 1'000'000 m3. The construction time for the whole installation is estimated as about 7 years and a working team of around 30 people will be required for the estimated 60-year operational duration. The project described in the present report justifies the conclusion that construction of a repository for low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste is feasible with present-day technology. This conclusion takes into consideration quantitative and operational constraints as well as geological and hydrogeological data relevant to constructional engineering. The latter are derived from a model data-set based on a specific locality

  20. Construction of quality-assured infant feeding process of care data repositories: Construction of the perinatal repository (Part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-de-León-Chocano, Ricardo; Muñoz-Soler, Verónica; Sáez, Carlos; García-de-León-González, Ricardo; García-Gómez, Juan M

    2016-04-01

    This is the second in a series of two papers regarding the construction of data quality (DQ) assured repositories, based on population data from Electronic Health Records (EHR), for the reuse of information on infant feeding from birth until the age of two. This second paper describes the application of the computational process of constructing the first quality-assured repository for the reuse of information on infant feeding in the perinatal period, with the aim of studying relevant questions from the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) and monitoring its deployment in our hospital. The construction of the repository was carried out using 13 semi-automated procedures to assess, recover or discard clinical data. The initial information consisted of perinatal forms from EHR related to 2048 births (Facts of Study, FoS) between 2009 and 2011, with a total of 433,308 observations of 223 variables. DQ was measured before and after the procedures using metrics related to eight quality dimensions: predictive value, correctness, duplication, consistency, completeness, contextualization, temporal-stability, and spatial-stability. Once the predictive variables were selected and DQ was assured, the final repository consisted of 1925 births, 107,529 observations and 73 quality-assured variables. The amount of discarded observations mainly corresponds to observations of non-predictive variables (52.90%) and the impact of the de-duplication process (20.58%) with respect to the total input data. Seven out of thirteen procedures achieved 100% of valid births, observations and variables. Moreover, 89% of births and ~98% of observations were consistent according to the experts׳ criteria. A multidisciplinary approach along with the quantification of DQ has allowed us to construct the first repository about infant feeding in the perinatal period based on EHR population data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Radioactive waste repository site selection in the Republic of Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeran, M.

    1992-01-01

    The report shows the procedure for the low and intermediate level radwaste (LLW and ILW) repository site selection and the work performed up to the present. The procedure for the repository site selection is divided into four steps. In the first step the unsuitable areas are excluded by taking into consideration the rough exclusion criteria. In the second step, the remaining suitable areas are screened to identify the potential sites with respect to preference criteria. In the third step three to five candidate sites will be assessed and selected among the potential sites. In the final, the fourth step, detailed site investigation and confirmation of one or two most suitable sites will follow. In Slovenia the 1st and the 2nd step of site selection have been completed, while step 3 is now in its final stage. (author) [sl

  2. Siting regions for deep geological repositories. Why just here?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, A.

    2009-09-01

    This report helps to the popularization of the Nagra works accomplished for the management and disposal of the radioactive wastes in Switzerland. The programme for management and disposal of the radioactive wastes are extensively determined by regulations. Protection of mankind and environment is the primary objective. The basic storage process is considered as having been solved. The question addressed in the report is where the facility has to be built; the site selection procedure includes five steps: 1) according to their type the wastes have to be allocated to two different repositories: for low- and intermediate-level wastes (L/ILW), and for high-level and alpha-toxic wastes (HLW); 2) the safety concept for both repositories and the requirements on the geology have to be determined; 3) large suitable geological-tectonic zones must be found where repositories could be built; 4) in these geological zones a suitable host rock has to be identified; 5) the most important spatial geological conditions of the host rock (minimum depth with respect to surface erosion, maximum depth in terms of engineering requirements, lateral extent) have to be identified. Based on these criteria, three suitable siting regions for a HLW repository were found in the North of Switzerland. The preferred host rock is Opalinus clay because of its very low permeability; it is therefore an excellent barrier against nuclide transport. In the three proposed siting regions, Opalinus clay is present in sufficient volumes at a suitable depth. For a L/ILW repository six different possible siting regions were identified, five in Northern Switzerland and one in Central Switzerland. In the three siting regions found for a possible HLW repository, it would also be possible to built a combined repository for both HLW and L/ILW wastes

  3. A methodology for evaluating alternative sites for a near-surface radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, S.R.; Brownlow, S.A.

    1986-02-01

    This report addresses the issue of constructing an evaluation procedure for a near-surface radioactive waste repository. It builds on earlier work of the authors, and describes a basis for a practicable methodology for assessing the relative merits of different sites. (author)

  4. Establishing a site for A Slovenian LILW repository - 16151

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VIRSEK, SANDI; SPILER, JANJA; VESELIC, MIRAN

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we will describe the practice and siting process for a LILW repository in Slovenia. Slovenia is a small country, and, consequently, its nuclear programme is small. It does include almost everything that large programmes have, but we still do not have a repository. In 2004, the Slovenian Radwaste management agency (ARAO) initiated a new procedure to find a proper location for a LILW repository. ARAO asked all Slovenian communities to participate. All communities have the option to withdraw from the process until they have approved the site. We received eight responses, and we prepared methodologies with different parameters to evaluate all potential sites. All sites were assessed by Slovenian experts, and determinations were based on using prepared methodologies. On the basis of their expert opinions, we prepared a pre-feasibility study and chose the three most suitable sites. With these three we continued the process. After that time, one of the communities withdrew from the procedure, and another one reversed its proposed site and proposed a new one. For the third site we continued with the programme, and we prepared a feasibility study with a Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment and preliminary safety calculations for the comparison of different concepts of disposal units. If everything goes according to the plan for this site and the concept, we expect site approval in the first half of 2009. After that, we will start preparing everything necessary for building permission. (authors)

  5. Numerical simulation of groundwater flow in LILW Repository site:I. Groundwater flow modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Koung Woo; Ji, Sung Hoon; Kim, Chun Soo; Kim, Kyoung Su [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Yeon [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Based on the site characterization works in a low and intermediate level waste (LILW) repository site, the numerical simulations for groundwater flow were carried out in order to understand the groundwater flow system of repository site. To accomplish the groundwater flow modeling in the repository site, the discrete fracture network (DFN) model was constructed using the characteristics of fracture zones and background fractures. At result, the total 10 different hydraulic conductivity(K) fields were obtained from DFN model stochastically and K distributions of constructed mesh were inputted into the 10 cases of groundwater flow simulations in FEFLOW. From the total 10 numerical simulation results, the simulated groundwater levels were strongly governed by topography and the groundwater fluxes were governed by locally existed high permeable fracture zones in repository depth. Especially, the groundwater table was predicted to have several tens meters below the groundwater table compared with the undisturbed condition around disposal silo after construction of underground facilities. After closure of disposal facilities, the groundwater level would be almost recovered within 1 year and have a tendency to keep a steady state of groundwater level in 2 year.

  6. Approaches to gaining public acceptance of repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numark, N.J.; Wonder, E.F.

    1989-01-01

    An eight-country survey reveals a diversity of strategies that have been followed for siting radioactive waste repositories, as well as a range of levels of public acceptance of siting efforts. Although the strategies are not necessarily interchangeable from country to country, certain inferences may be drawn from worldwide siting experience regarding ways to maximize public acceptance. Furthermore, waste management organizations in these countries have placed varying amounts of stock in technical review by outside experts and in a range of communications strategies as means of improving public acceptance. Our survey of worldwide experience also allows some general observations to be made regarding the effectiveness of these efforts. Combining a strategy that elevates public acceptance to part of the overall mission of siting a waste management facility with strategies for appropriate communications and external technical review may be necessary and sufficient for gaining improvements in public acceptance of proposed repository sites

  7. Site characterization plan overview: reference repository location, Hanford Site, Washington: Consultation draft: Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 113)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    As part of the process for siting the nation's first geologic repository for radioactive waste, the Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a site characterization plan for the Hanford site in Benton County, Washington. As a step in the preparation of that plan, the DOE has provided, for information and review, a consultation draft of the plan to the State of Washington, the affected Indian Tribes - the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, the Nez Perce Indian Tribe, and the Yakima Indian Nation - and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The Hanford site is one of three sites that the DOE currently plans to characterize;the other sites are the Deaf Smith County site in Texas and the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. After site characterization has been completed and its results evaluated, the DOE will identify from among the three characterized sites the site that is preferred for the repository. The overview presented here consists of brief summaries of important topics covered in the consulation draft of the site characterization plan;it is not a substitute for the site characterization plan. The arrangement of the overview is similar to that of the plan itself, with breif descriptions of the dispoal system - the site, the repository, and the waste package - preceding the discussion of the characterization program to be carried out at the Hanford site. It is intended primarily for the management staff of organizations involved in the DOE's repository program or other persons who might wish to understand the general scope of the site-characterization program, the activities to be conducted, and the facilities to be constructed rather than the technical details of site characterization

  8. Site suitability criteria for solidified high level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.A.; Holdsworth, T.; Towse, D.F.

    1979-01-01

    Activities devoted to development of regulations, criteria, and standards for storage of solidified high-level radioactive wastes are reported. The work is summarized in sections on site suitability regulations, risk calculations, geological models, aquifer models, human usage model, climatology model, and repository characteristics. Proposed additional analytical work is also summarized

  9. A new approach to the LILW repository site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mele, I.; Zeleznik, N.

    1998-01-01

    After the failure of site selection, which was performed between 1990-1993, the Agency for Radwaste Management was urged to start a new site selection process for low and intermediate level waste (LILW). Since this is the most sensitive and delicate phase of the whole disposal project extensive analyses of foreign and domestic experiences in siting were performed. Three different models were studied and discussed at a workshop on preparation of the siting procedure for LILW repository. The participants invited to the workshop supported the combined approach, to the site selection, which is presented in this paper.(author)

  10. Strategy for safety case development: impact of a volunteering approach to siting a japanese HLW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitayama, K.; Ishiguro, K.; Takeuchi, M.; Tsuchi, H.; Kato, T.; Sakabe, Y.; Wakasugi, K.

    2008-01-01

    NUMO strategy for safety case development is constrained by a staged siting approach, which has been initiated by a call for volunteer municipalities to host the HLW repository. For each site, the safety case is an important factor to be considered at the selection steps which narrow down towards the preferred repository location. This is particularly challenging, however, as every site requires a tailored repository concept, with associated performance assessment and an individual site evaluation programme all of which evolve with gradually increasing understanding of the host environment. In order to maintain flexibility without losing focus, NUMO has developed a formalized tailoring procedure, termed the NUMO Structured Approach (NSA). The NSA guides the interaction of the key site characterisation, repository design and performance assessment groups and is facilitated by tools to help the decision making associated with the tailoring process (e.g. a requirements management system) and with comparison of siting and design options (e.g. multi-attribute analysis). Pragmatically, the post-closure safety case will initially emphasize near-field processes and a robust engineering barrier system, considering the limited geological information at early stages. This will be complemented by a more realistic assessment of total system performance, as needed to compare options. In addition, efforts to rigorously assess operational phase safety and the practicality of assuring quality of the constructed engineered barriers are components of the total safety case which are receiving particular attention now, as they may better discriminate between sites while information is still limited. (authors)

  11. SKI SITE-94, deep repository performance assessment project, summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    SITE-94 is a comprehensive performance assessment exercise for a hypothetical repository for spent nuclear fuel at a real site in Sweden. SITE-94 was carried out to develop the capability and tools to enable Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) to review fully the proposals for a deep repository which are expected to be made by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, SKB (the implementor). Sweden is one of the leading countries in the research and development of geological disposal of radioactive waste. The developed methodology for performance assessment has attracted interests from other countries. The Summary of the main report of the SITE-94 project is translated here into Japanese to allow to make the information on the methodology and the related issues available among Japanese concerned. (author)

  12. Siting of large diameter well type repositories for the central region of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitriev, A.S.; Tkachenko, A.V.; Prozorov, L.B.; Guskov, A.V.; Korneva, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    To date only 14 from 16 RADON facilities are in operation. Most of them have not more than about 10% of their repositories free and available for new upcoming radioactive waste. Construction of new repositories and selection of new perspective sites is very actual problem for RAW management in Russia now. Near surface repositories are considered to be acceptable for storage of wastes with low and intermediate activity levels (LILW), which decay to safe levels in some hundreds of years. However, the experience with LILW isolation in the near surface facilities in Russia has shown that a lot of operational and natural factors impact on the engineered barriers and may cause failure of the isolation. In addition, the exploitation of the old repositories and construction of new ones require more area. Significant increase in LILW isolation reliability and area saving may be achieved by wastes disposal/storage in Large Diameter Wells (LDW), drilled in homogeneous sediments with low permeable properties. It could be considered as an intermediate between near-surface and geological repositories, and its specific features should be taken into account when choosing new sites for RAW disposal or long-term storage. (author)

  13. Public reactions to nuclear waste: Citizens' views of repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    This book presents revised and updated papers from a panel of social scientists, at the 1989 AAAS meetings, that examined the public's reactions to nuclear waste disposal and the repository siting process. The papers report the results of original empirical research on citizens' views of nuclear waste repository siting. Topics covered include the following: content analysis of public testimony; sources of public concern about nuclear waste disposal in Texas agricultural communities; local attitudes toward high-level waste repository at Hanford; perceived risk and attitudes toward nuclear wastes; attitudes of Nevada urban residents toward a nuclear waste repository; attitudes of rural community residents toward a nuclear waste respository. An introductory chapter provides background and context, and a concluding chapter summarizes the implications of the reports. Two additional chapters cover important features of high-level waste disposal: long term trends in public attitudes toward nuclear energy and nuclear waste policy and assessment of the effects on the Los Vegas convention business if a high-level nuclear waste depository were sited in Nevada

  14. Conflict, location, and politics: Siting a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power and the management of high-level radioactive waste is examined with the goal of explaining the forces driving the formulation of the 1982 Nuclear Waste Policy Act and a subsequent decision to site a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The study draws upon geographic, political, economic, and organizational factors to examine the commitment to dispose of spent fuel in a geologic repository located in Nevada or in Utah, Texas, Mississippi, Louisiana, or at Hanford Washington. Special attention is given to the impact of location, science and technology on the definition of the nuclear waste problem and political agendas, public participation, and the power of the nuclear establishment. The study finds that the choice of a Yucca Mountain Nevada as the preferred site for a repository was based more on technological precedent and political-economic expediency than on the demonstrated superiority of that site's geology. Conflict over a repository location is interpreted as a symptom of more fundamental conflicts concerning: the credibility of nuclear science, the legitimacy of federal authority and administration, and the priorities of environmental protection and a nuclear economy

  15. Ethical considerations surrounding nuclear waste repository siting and mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, T.F.

    1983-01-01

    The potential long-term health and safety effects of the nuclear materials stored in repositories, the extremely long periods of time over which such materials may be dangerous, and the equity implications of the siting of a repository in any given area are unlike the issues involved in other large-scale projects. They involve major philosophical issues basic to human perspectives on social relationships and on insuring the future of mankind. Safety and permanence are the two basic criteria for determining whether a waste proposal is satisfactory. This chapter takes the approach of public (or micro) ethics, whose task is to 1) articulate and clarify public values relevant to a problem, 2) identify and evaluate public options, and 3) rank alternatives in some order of ethical preferability. It addresses the four major repository-related issues: uncertainty and risks, geographic equity, intergenerational ethics, and implementation ethics

  16. Expected brine movement at potential nuclear waste repository salt sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, V.S.; Raines, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    The BRINEMIG brine migration code predicts rates and quantities of brine migration to a waste package emplaced in a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt. The BRINEMIG code is an explicit time-marching finite-difference code that solves a mass balance equation and uses the Jenks equation to predict velocities of brine migration. Predictions were made for the seven potentially acceptable salt sites under consideration as locations for the first US high-level nuclear waste repository. Predicted total quantities of accumulated brine were on the order of 1 m 3 brine per waste package or less. Less brine accumulation is expected at domal salt sites because of the lower initial moisture contents relative to bedded salt sites. Less total accumulation of brine is predicted for spent fuel than for commercial high-level waste because of the lower temperatures generated by spent fuel. 11 refs., 36 figs., 29 tabs

  17. A new methodology for repository site suitability evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, I.; Kossik, R.; Cunnane, M.

    1992-01-01

    Golder Associates Inc. (GAI) has developed a probabilistic total system performance assessment and strategy evaluation model (RIP) which can be applied in an iterative manner to evaluate repository site suitability and guide site characterization. The major portion of the software is the performance assessment model, which consists of a series of coupled component models for radionuclide transfer. The performance model itself is embedded within a decision analysis model which allows the user to evaluate alternative site characterization strategies. This paper provides an overview of the methodology, and summarizes the basic concepts of RIP

  18. A radiological disadvantage for siting a repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegler, P.

    1996-01-01

    At Yucca mountain, the disposal of large amounts of U-238, U-234, and Pu-238 will result in a long term build-up of Rn-222. In time, because of erosion, the repository horizon will move closer to the surface and large amounts of Rn-222 gas will be able to leak into the atmosphere. The area surrounding Yucca Mountain will become a site of high radioactive background. Sullivan and Pescatore have brought the issue to the attention of the DOE

  19. The Construction of the Konrad Repository - Status and Perspective - 13034

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunze, V.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the Atomic Energy Act of Germany the Federation is responsible for the construction and operation of installations for the safekeeping and disposal of radioactive waste. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BfS) is assigned with this duty. In 1982 the abandoned iron ore mine Konrad near Salzgitter (Federal State of Lower Saxony) was proposed as a repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste with negligible heat generation. After 20 years of plan approval procedure the license was granted by the Ministry for Environment of Lower Saxony in May 2002. This decision was finally confirmed by the Federal Administrative Court in March 2007. The construction has started, but former assumptions about the beginning of waste emplacement tuned out to be too optimistic. In the course of the preparatory work and the implementation planning it turned out that many changes need to be done. As a matter of fact most of the documents and planning originate from the 1990's and need to be revised because from that time on until now no adaptation was appropriate. The necessity to apply the state-of-the-art technology and other legal implications give rise to further changes and new licensing procedures, especially building licenses. Furthermore, the license from 2002 also includes a lot of collateral clauses that need to be fulfilled before radioactive waste can be emplaced. With this in mind, the time frame for the construction of the Konrad repository was revised in 2010. As a result, the completion of the erection before 2019 does not seem to be realistic. (authors)

  20. Uncertainty management in radioactive waste repository site assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, J.f.; Martin, T.P.; Tocatlidou

    1994-01-01

    The problem of performance assessment of a site to serve as a repository for the final disposal of radioactive waste involves different types of uncertainties. Their main sources include the large temporal and spatial considerations over which safety of the system has to be ensured, our inability to completely understand and describe a very complex structure such as the repository system, lack of precision in the measured information etc. These issues underlie most of the problems faced when rigid probabilistic approaches are used. Nevertheless a framework is needed, that would allow for an optimal aggregation of the available knowledge and an efficient management of the various types of uncertainty involved. In this work a knowledge-based modelling of the repository selection process is proposed that through a consequence analysis, evaluates the potential impact that hypothetical scenarios will have on a candidate site. The model is organised around a hierarchical structure, relating the scenarios with the possible events and processes that characterise them, and the site parameters. The scheme provides for both crisp and fuzzy parameter values and uses fuzzy semantic unification and evidential support logic reference mechanisms. It is implemented using the artificial intelligence language FRIL and the interaction with the user is performed through a windows interface

  1. Repository for spent nuclear fuel. Preliminary construction description - layout D Oskarshamn the Simpevarp area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    This report presents the preliminary design of a repository located in the Simpevarp area. The description has been disposed so as to deal primarily with the site dependent layouts for the above- and underground constructions. The report is disposed as follows: c1 gives the background and some basic information. Chapter 2 presents the demands and necessary conditions that take precedence when adapting the plant to the local conditions, construction, operation and closure. Chapter 3 is a general description of the area, its infrastructure and the specific sites that have been studied. Chapter 4-5 describe the design of the plant for the two chosen sites. Chapter 6 gives a review of data for the plant, and Chapter 7 'References' is the last part of the main document. The appendices A-I give brief information on the general, non-site specific, parts of the plant, e.g. buildings, life cycle, system, operation and organization

  2. Repository for spent nuclear fuel. Preliminary construction description - layout D Oskarshamn the Laxemar area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    This report presents the preliminary design of a repository located in the Laxemar area. The description has been disposed so as to deal primarily with the site dependent layouts for the above- and underground constructions. The report is disposed as follows: Chapter 1 gives the background and some basic information. Chapter 2 presents the demands and necessary conditions that take precedence when adapting the plant to the local conditions, construction, operation and closure. Chapter 3 is a general description of the area, its infrastructure and the specific sites that have been studied. Chapters 4-5 describe the design of the plant for the two chosen sites. Chapter 6 gives a review of data for the plant, and Chapter 7 'References' is the last part of the main document. The appendices A-I give brief information on the general, non-site specific, parts of the plant, e.g. buildings, life cycle, system, operation and organization

  3. Strategies for the decision process of siting radioactive waste repositories concerning communication and interaction with the society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Ivan Pedro Salati de

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss the strategies to be followed in the siting and construction process of radioactive waste repositories considering the communication and relationship with the society. The paper analyzes the prospective advantages and disadvantages of each type of strategy. The strategies can be classified under three different types: 'define, announce and defend' strategy (also called DAD), participative strategy and spontaneous candidacy of host community. Up to the 90s the most common way of construct repositories was the DAD strategy. This type of strategy, despite of some cases of success, is gradually facing opposition in democratic regimes. Examples of failure are the first attempt to construct the Hungarian repository from 1982 to 1990; the French attempt of the construction of high and intermediate waste repository from 1987 to 1989 (both cancelled and substituted by the participative approach) and even the recent discussion to freeze the implantation of the Yucca Mountain repository in United States. The participative strategy has been preferred currently by most of the new repositories projects. Examples are the second attempt in Hungary, the construction of a repository in Slovenia and in the United Kingdom. The participative strategy has the disadvantage of greater expenses at the beginning of the process until the site of the repository is defined. This occurs because the body responsible for the construction has to deal with several potential candidates and spend time and money in the communication and participation process until the definition of the site by technical, economical and social criteria. On the other hand, this process decreases the risk of rejection by the local population. The spontaneous candidacy strategy was also analyzed and it is shown it has some similarities with the participative strategy but hides new risks in the process. (author)

  4. Site selection for Canada's national repository for used nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Belfadhel, M.; Watts, B.; Facella, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the Government of Canada selected Adaptive Phased Management as Canada's plan for the long-term management of Canada's used nuclear fuel. The approach provides for containment and isolation of the material in a deep geological repository at a safe site with an informed and willing host. The Nuclear Waste Management Organization is tasked through federal legislation with selecting the site and developing and managing all aspects of the plan. In May 2010, the organization published and initiated the site selection process that serves as a road map for decision making on the location for the deep geological repository. It continues to lead the site selection process for the repository and an associated Centre of Expertise. The screening process is advancing and, from an initial starting point of 22 communities expressing interest in learning about the project; as of September 2015, 9 communities are the focus of more detailed technical and community well-being studies. Preliminary Assessments, the third step in the 9-step site selection process are underway in these communities. The Assessments involve preliminary technical and social desktop and field assessments, engagement activities within and beyond each interested community, and involvement of Indigenous peoples and nearby municipalities in the planning and conduct of the work. This paper provides an update on the advancement of the site selection process. It describes the nature of the technical and social studies being conducted at this phase of work, including the progressively more detailed field studies that are the focus of technical work at the current stage, the approach to engagement and collaboration with communities to direct these studies, and the work underway to ensure the framework used for this assessment and engagement includes the range of priorities and perspectives of First Nations and Metis peoples and communities in the broader area. (author)

  5. Aquatic ecosystem characterisation strategy at a repository site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangasniemi, Ville; Ikonen, Ari T.K. [Environmental Research and Assessment EnviroCase, Ltd., Hallituskatu 1 D 4, 28100 Pori (Finland); Lahdenperae, Anne-Maj [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Laulukuja 4, 00420 Helsinki (Finland); Kirkkala, Teija [Pyhaejaervi Institute, Sepaentie 7, 27500 Kauttua (Finland); Koivunen, Sari [Water and Environment Research of South-West Finland, Telekatu 16, 20360 Turku (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    Olkiluoto Island on the western coast of Finland has been selected as a repository site for spent nuclear fuel disposal. According to regulatory requirements, the safety assessment for the repository should have an assessment timeframe of several millennia. Due to the post-glacial land uplift, the relatively shallow sea areas around Olkiluoto Island will change gradually to lakes, rivers and terrestrial areas. As there are no limnic systems at present Olkiluoto site, the reference area was delineated and reference lakes and rivers were selected as an analogue. For the modelling of the transport and accumulation of possible radionuclide releases in the surface environment, aquatic ecosystems were identified and divided into biotopes. Despite the number of available templates, the division of aquatic environment for the biosphere assessment of the Olkiluoto spent fuel repository was necessary to made separately. In this contribution, the processes behind the identification of aquatic ecosystems (e.g. legislation, physical and chemical properties) together with the biotope selection methodology (e.g. light and bottom conditions) and the challenges related to the amount of variable input parameters for each biotope in the modelling are presented. (authors)

  6. Topographical survey and soil characterization of a candidate site for Radioactive Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peconick, Diva Godoi de O.; Mourao, Rogerio P., E-mail: godiva@cdtn.br, E-mail: mouraor@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nucelar (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Brazil has already initiated the establishment of a national near-surface repository for the low- and intermediate short-lived radioactive wastes generated within its territory. With two nuclear power plants in operation and a third one under construction, five active nuclear research institutes and another one planned for the intermediate future, operational constraints and social pressure built up for a disposal solution for such a waste category. The Brazilian Nuclear Commission CNEN was tasked at designing, building and commissioning this repository, which implies, among other activities, finding a suitable place for the facility. After an initial technical desk job, a federal land, not far from the NPPs, was appointed and in situ studies for the site characterization were started. This paper describes the topographical survey and soil drilling campaign carried out for the initial evaluation of the feasibility of the site vis-a-vis the applicable national regulations for site selection and disposal facilities licensing. (author)

  7. Topographical survey and soil characterization of a candidate site for Radioactive Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peconick, Diva Godoi de O.; Mourao, Rogerio P.

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has already initiated the establishment of a national near-surface repository for the low- and intermediate short-lived radioactive wastes generated within its territory. With two nuclear power plants in operation and a third one under construction, five active nuclear research institutes and another one planned for the intermediate future, operational constraints and social pressure built up for a disposal solution for such a waste category. The Brazilian Nuclear Commission CNEN was tasked at designing, building and commissioning this repository, which implies, among other activities, finding a suitable place for the facility. After an initial technical desk job, a federal land, not far from the NPPs, was appointed and in situ studies for the site characterization were started. This paper describes the topographical survey and soil drilling campaign carried out for the initial evaluation of the feasibility of the site vis-a-vis the applicable national regulations for site selection and disposal facilities licensing. (author)

  8. Site selection - siting of the final repository for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    SKB has selected Forsmark as the site for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site selection is the end result of an extensive siting process that began in the early 1990s. The strategy and plan for the work was based on experience from investigations and development work over a period of more than ten years prior to then. This document describes the siting work and SKB's choice of site for the final repository. It also presents the information on which the choice was based and the reasons for the decisions made along the way. The document comprises Appendix PV to applications under the Nuclear Activities Act and the Environmental Code for licences to build and operate an encapsulation plant adjacent to the central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel in Oskarshamn, and to build and operate a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark in Oesthammar Municipality

  9. Site selection - siting of the final repository for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-03-15

    SKB has selected Forsmark as the site for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The site selection is the end result of an extensive siting process that began in the early 1990s. The strategy and plan for the work was based on experience from investigations and development work over a period of more than ten years prior to then. This document describes the siting work and SKB's choice of site for the final repository. It also presents the information on which the choice was based and the reasons for the decisions made along the way. The document comprises Appendix PV to applications under the Nuclear Activities Act and the Environmental Code for licences to build and operate an encapsulation plant adjacent to the central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel in Oskarshamn, and to build and operate a final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark in Oesthammar Municipality

  10. SKI SITE-94. Deep Repository Performance Assessment Project. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    The function of SITE-94 is to provide the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) with the capacity and supporting knowledge needed for reviewing the Swedish nuclear industry's R and D programs and for reviewing license applications, as stipulated in Swedish legislation. The report is structured as a Performance Assessment exercise needed for input to decisions regarding repository safety, but the SITE-94 is neither a safety assessment nor a model for future assessments to be undertaken by the prospective licensee. The specific project objectives of SITE-94 comprise site evaluation, performance assessment methodology, canister integrity and radionuclide release and transport calculations. The main report (SKI-R--96-36) gives a detailed description of the many inter-related studies undertaken as part of the research project, while the present report presents a condensed summary of the main report. 46 refs

  11. Assessment of Public Acceptability in LILW Repository Site Selection Process in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, N.; Kralj, M.; Polic, M.; Kos, D.

    2006-01-01

    Slovenian national agency for radioactive waste management ARAO has after longer period of preparation activities started with the more direct work on the site selection process for low and intermediate level waste (LILW) repository. In November 2004, the official administrative procedure for the siting of the repository started with the First public conference on spatial planning issues carried out by the Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning together with ARAO. Just after the conference the Program for the preparation of the Detailed plan of national importance for the LILW repository was accepted by the Ministry. ARAO invited in the beginning of December 2004 all local communities in Slovenia (except 3 of them which have already refused to cooperate) to participate and volunteer a site or area in their local community for further investigation. The invitation for the application of local communities provided clear instructions on how to participate in further determination of potentially suitable sites and under what conditions. By the beginning of April 2005 ARAO finished the bidding process with 8 applications of local communities which decided to participate in the further site selection for LILW repository. Due to the financial and other limitations (human resources, spatial planning procedure, etc.) only in maximum three local communities further characterization could be performed. Therefore prefeasibility study of all volunteer local communities was conducted in which besides technical, environmental and spatial availability also public acceptability should be assessed. For assessment of public acceptability the methodology has been prepared which includes objective parameters of local environment (such as demographic data, economy, infrastructure and social issues in relation to the repository) as well as subjective values (attitudes of individual groups - opinion makers, politicians and all residents - to the sitting and construction of LILW

  12. Evaluation of the damages in rocks caused by the construction of a repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devillers, C.; Escalier des Orres, P.

    1988-12-01

    The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (French Atomic Energy Commission) has conducted a bibliographic study of the damages in the rock caused by the construction of a repository, and several hydraulic simulations, to appreciate the influence of these damages on the safety of the repository. These studies have led to the proposal of construction techniques in accordance safety requirements and industrial feasibility [fr

  13. The site selection process for a spent fuel repository in Finland. Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, T. [EnvirosQuantiSci (United Kingdom); Aeikaes, T. [Posiva Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2000-12-01

    consequence of the change in primary legislation that resulted in spent fuel from the Loviisa power plant having to be disposed of in Finland, with the result that the island of Haestholmen was added to the list of potential disposal sites, is explained. The results of these detailed investigations are discussed in terms of the development of lithological and structural models of these sites, and with reference to the development of an understanding of their hydrogeological and hydrochemical environments and the generation of groundwater flow and hydrochemical models. These last two subjects are discussed with reference to their significance for spent fuel disposal. In addition, the constructability of the rock mass at these sites is described, including how a repository could be fitted into the rock mass, taking into account site-specific factors, in particular the location and orientation of fracture zones. The constructability of the Olkiluoto site is described in more detail. Other factors that could be of significance for site selection, namely future climate change and seismicity, are also discussed. The selection of Olkiluoto from these four sites is described with reference to the requirements of a disposal site, as specified by Government, and to factors such as long-term safety, the feasibility of repository development, the possibility of repository enlargement, repository operation, social acceptance, land usage and the environmental burden, infrastructure and costs. The conclusions of this analysis and the special issues at Olkiluoto, namely the presence and significance of saline water at depth and the modelling of groundwater flow, are discussed. The further investigations at Olkiluoto, in particular the main aspects to consider when planning the UCRF (Underground Rock Characterisation Facility) at the site, are presented with the aim of indicating the type of work that still needs to be done in order to demonstrate that a disposal facility can be constructed

  14. Planning for investigation and evaluation of potential repository sites in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almen, K.E.; Stroem, A.

    1998-01-01

    The present stage of siting of the Swedish Deep Repository for spent nuclear fuel involves general siting studies on national and regional scales and feasibility studies on a municipal scale. Based on these studies, two areas will be selected for surface-based site investigations. The geoscientific site information will be used in the site evaluation process, in which performance and safety assessments and design studies are the major activities, in combination with geoscientific characterization. The safety report and EIA document from the site investigation stage will be the most important documents in the application for the siting permit and the permit to construct the deep repository. Detailed characterization will then verify the suitability of the selected site. The programme for geoscientific site investigations is based on experience from more than 20 years of field studies in several SKB projects, such as the Study Site Investigations , the Stripa Project, and the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The strategies and methodologies developed, implemented and verified within the Aespoe HRL are a very important source of information and know-how for the development of the site investigation programme. The investigations will produce geoscientific models that include all information needed to analyze the long-term safety of a deep repository located in and adapted to the geological conditions of the rock. The type of geoscientific information needed for performance and safety assessment, layout and design, environmental studies and for fundamental geoscientific understanding has been specified and compiled in a 'parameter' report. The general strategy is that performance assessment, layout and design studies will be conducted in parallel with the geoscientific investigations. Information will be transferred at logical occasions, when decisions have to be taken and when feedback is desirable for new investigation steps. The role of the geoscientific evaluation is to

  15. NAGRA - Sites for geological repositories - Geological surveys for stage 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This brochure published by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) examines the aims involved in the selection of sites for deep geological repositories for nuclear wastes in Switzerland. Various methods involved in their implementation are described. These include 3D-seismology, deep probe drillings, shallow drillings as well as field studies, gravimetric measurements and the study of the electrical properties of the ground and rock involved. These factors are discussed in detail. Maps are presented of the locations that are to be surveyed and details of the selected perimeters are shown. Also, the layout of a sample drilling site is presented. A timescale for the various surveys and work to be done is presented

  16. Quality assurance during site construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eymess, K.J.; Haas, R.; Wellnitz, G.

    1980-01-01

    Quality Assurance for Nuclear Power Plants under consideration of pipe assembling. Flow of Quality Requirements during: - Desing - Construction - Procurement - Prefabrication - Site. Organizational Requirements and Measurements during Erection: - Incoming Control - Material Storage - Surveillance of Tools - Weld Surveillance - Nondestructive Testing - Cleaning - Final Documentation. Qualification and Training of QA Personnel. (orig.)

  17. Recommendations: Procedure to develop a preliminary safety report as part of the radioactive waste repository construction licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The structure of a preliminary safety report for the title purpose should be as follows: A. Textual part: 1. General (Introduction, Basic information about the construction, Timetable); 2. Site information (Siting, Geography and demography, Meteorology and climatic situation, Hydrology, Geology and hydrogeology); 3. Repository design description (Basic function and performance requirements, Design, Auxiliary systems, Fire prevention/protection, Emergency plans); 4. Operation of the repository (Waste acceptance and inspection, Waste handling and interim storage, Waste disposal, Operating monitoring), 5. Health and environmental impact assessment (Radionuclide inventory, Radionuclide transport paths and mechanisms of release into the environment, Radionuclide release in normal and emergency situations, Radiation protection - health impact assessment and regulatory compliance, Draft operating limits and conditions, Proposed ways of assuring physical protection, Uncertainty assessment), 6. Safe repository shutdown/decommissioning concept, 7 Quality assurance assessment, 8. List of selected equipment. B. Annexes: Maps, Drawings, Diagrams, Miscellaneous; C. Documentation: Previous safety report amendments, Protocols, Miscellaneous. (P.A.)

  18. Sequential evaluation of the potential geologic repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerstedt, T.W.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the changes that are planned for the characterization program at Yucca Mountain due to budget changes. Yucca Mountain is the only site being studied in the US for a geologic repository. Funding for the site characterization program at Yucca Mountain program was cut by roughly one half from the 1994 projected budget to complete three major milestones. These project milestones included: (1) a time-phased determination of site suitability, and if a positive finding, (2) completion of an Environmental Impact Statement, and (3) preparation of a License Application to the US NRC to authorize repository construction. In reaction, Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project has shifted from parallel development of these milestones to a sequenced approach with the site suitability evaluation being replaced with a management assessment. Changes to the regulatory structure for the disposal program are under consideration by DOE and the NRC. The possibility for NRC and Doe to develop a site-specific regulatory structure follows from the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 that authorized the US EPA to develop a site specific environmental standard for Yucca Mountain

  19. Site descriptive modelling during characterization for a geological repository for nuclear waste in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroem, A.; Andersson, J.; Skagius, K.; Winberg, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Swedish programme for geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel is approaching major milestones in the form of permit applications for an encapsulation plant and a deep geologic repository. This paper presents an overview of the bedrock and surface modelling work that comprises a major part of the on-going site characterization in Sweden and that results in syntheses of the sites, called site descriptions. The site description incorporates descriptive models of the site and its regional setting, including the current state of the geosphere and the biosphere as well as natural processes affecting long-term evolution. The site description is intended to serve the needs of both repository engineering with respect to layout and construction, and safety assessment, with respect to long-term performance. The development of site-descriptive models involves a multi-disciplinary interpretation of geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, transport properties and ecosystems using input in the form of available data for the surface and from deep boreholes

  20. Geoscientific programme for investigation and evaluation of sites for the deep repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-08-01

    SKB's goal is to be able to commence site investigations in 2002. Extensive preparations are now being made for this transition to the next phase in the siting process for the deep repository. This report describes the investigation and evaluation programme, which is focused on a deep repository in accordance with the KBS-3 method for spent nuclear fuel. When areas for site investigations have been chosen, the programmes will be adapted to the site-specific conditions. The geoscientific work during the site investigation phase is supposed to provide the broad knowledge base that is required to evaluate the suitability of investigated sites for a deep repository. The material must be comprehensive enough to: show whether the selected site satisfies fundamental safety requirements; permit comparisons with other investigated sites; and serve as a basis for adaptation of the deep repository to the properties and characteristics of the site with an acceptable impact on society and the environment. The work is being carried out in consultation with municipalities, regulatory authorities and nearby residents. The main product of the investigations is a site description, which presents collected data and interpreted parameters that are of importance both for the overall scientific understanding of the site and for the analyses and assessments that are made of design and safety assessment with respect to the deep repository's layout and construction as well as its long-term performance and radiological safety. The site description should furthermore present an integrated description of the site (geosphere and biosphere) and its regional environs with respect to current state and naturally ongoing processes. A technical risk evaluation is carried out, by which is meant a description of uncertainties in calculations and the environmental impact of the civil engineering work. The main product of the safety assessment is a safety report, which analyzes whether long-term safety

  1. Geoscientific programme for investigation and evaluation of sites for the deep repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    SKB's goal is to be able to commence site investigations in 2002. Extensive preparations are now being made for this transition to the next phase in the siting process for the deep repository. This report describes the investigation and evaluation programme, which is focused on a deep repository in accordance with the KBS-3 method for spent nuclear fuel. When areas for site investigations have been chosen, the programmes will be adapted to the site-specific conditions. The geoscientific work during the site investigation phase is supposed to provide the broad knowledge base that is required to evaluate the suitability of investigated sites for a deep repository. The material must be comprehensive enough to: show whether the selected site satisfies fundamental safety requirements; permit comparisons with other investigated sites; and serve as a basis for adaptation of the deep repository to the properties and characteristics of the site with an acceptable impact on society and the environment. The work is being carried out in consultation with municipalities, regulatory authorities and nearby residents. The main product of the investigations is a site description, which presents collected data and interpreted parameters that are of importance both for the overall scientific understanding of the site and for the analyses and assessments that are made of design and safety assessment with respect to the deep repository's layout and construction as well as its long-term performance and radiological safety. The site description should furthermore present an integrated description of the site (geosphere and biosphere) and its regional environs with respect to current state and naturally ongoing processes. A technical risk evaluation is carried out, by which is meant a description of uncertainties in calculations and the environmental impact of the civil engineering work. The main product of the safety assessment is a safety report, which analyzes whether long

  2. Siting of the Swedish deep geological repository - experiences and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, T.; Backblom, G.; Thegerstrom, C.; Ahlbom, K.; Leijon, B.

    1996-01-01

    The paper provides a brief overview of the Swedish siting programme for a deep repository. A stepwise process is a key element in the planning and implementation of deep disposal of long-lived waste in Sweden. The local siting work is made in cooperation with the affected and concerned municipalities. The programs, decisions and results that so far have been reported and ongoing feasibility studies is a solid platform for the continuing siting work. It can be noted that the siting work in some cases has caused heavy opposition and negative opinions. Careful considerations on how to proceed to develop the necessary background material must therefore be made. The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process that has started in conjunction with feasibility studies are judged to play an important role in the future. In this process, with extensive local involvement, critical issues can be detected at an early stage and sound ideas on both the process itself and on technical issues can be incorporated. To facilitate information exchange and cooperation between the municipalities involved and to coordinate liaison between the municipalities and county administrative boards affected by the studies, the Swedish government has appointed a National Coordinator for nuclear waste disposal. The government also has decided to provide the concerned municipalities with funding for their participation in the process. (author)

  3. General guidelines for recommendation of sites for nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    These guidelines were developed in accordance with the requirements of Section 112(a) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 for use by the Secretary of Energy in evaluating the suitability of sites for the development of repositories. The guidelines will be used for suitability evaluations and determinations made pursuant to Section 112(b) and any preliminary suitability determinations required by Section 114(f). The guidelines set forth in this Part are intended to complement the requirements set forth in the Act, 10 CFR Part 60, and 40 CFR Part 191. In applying these guidelines, the DOE will resolve any inconsistencies between these guidelines and the above documents in a manner determined by the DOE to most closely agree with the intent of the Act

  4. Report of early site suitability evaluation of the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younker, J.L.; Andrews, W.B.; Fasano, G.A.; Herrington, C.C.; Mattson, S.R.; Murray, R.C.; Ballou, L.B.; Revelli, M.A.; Ducharme, A.R.; Shephard, L.E.; Dudley, W.W.; Hoxie, D.T.; Herbst, R.J.; Patera, E.A.; Judd, B.R.; Docka, J.A.; Rickertsen, L.D.

    1992-01-01

    This study evaluated the technical suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential site for a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of radioactive waste. The evaluation was conducted primarily to determine early in the site characterization program if there are any features or conditions at the site that indicate it is unsuitable for repository development. A secondary purpose was to determine the status of knowledge in the major technical areas that affect the suitability of the site. This early site suitability evaluation (ESSE) was conducted by a team of technical personnel at the request of the Associate Director of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Geologic Disposal, a unit within the DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The Yucca Mountain site has been the subject of such evaluations for over a decade. In 1983, the site was evaluated as part of a screening process to identify potentially acceptable sites. The site was evaluated in greater detail and found suitable for site characterization as part of the Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE, 1986) required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). Additional site data were compiled during the preparation of the Site Characterization Plan (SCP) (DOE, 1988a). This early site suitability evaluation has considered information that was used in preparing both-documents, along with recent information obtained since the EA and SCP were published. This body of information is referred to in this report as ''current information'' or ''available evidence.''

  5. Safety Report within the licence application for the siting of a radioactive waste repository/disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horyna, J.; Sinaglova, R.

    2004-01-01

    The initial safety specification report, which is submitted to the licensing authority as one of the application documents, is the basic document assessing the planned repository/disposal facility with respect to the suitability of the chosen site for this purpose. The following topics are covered: General information; Description and evidence of suitability of the site chosen; Description and tentative assessment of the repository/disposal facility design; Tentative assessment of impacts of running the facility on the employees, general public and environment (radionuclide inventory, transport routes, radionuclide release in normal, abnormal and emergency situations); Proposed concept of repository/disposal facility shutdown; and Assessment of quality assurance in the site selection, in preparatory work for the construction of the facility and in the subsequent stages. (P.A.)

  6. The status of siting activities for a low level waste repository in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdezco, E.M.; Visitacion, M.; Palattao, B.; Marcelo, E.A.; Venida, L.L.

    2001-01-01

    The process of site selection for a low level waste repository was initiated in 1976 when the Philippine Government decided to go nuclear and constructed the first Philippine Nuclear Power Plant in the Bataan Peninsula. However, all siting activities were suspended when the nuclear power plant was mothballed and the final decision was made to convert the plant into a combined cycle power plant. In 1995, an inter-agency committee was created under the Nuclear Power Steering Committee and mandated to conduct studies on siting of radioactive waste disposal facilities, and at the same time, perform R and D activities in support of the project. This paper describes the various siting activities carried out to date. (author)

  7. Repository site data report for unsaturated tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tien, P.L.; Updegraff, C.D.; Siegel, M.D.; Wahi, K.K.; Guzowski, R.V.

    1985-11-01

    The US Department of Energy is currently considering the thick sequences of unsaturated, fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain, on the southwestern boundary of the Nevada Test Site, as a possible candidate host rock for a nuclear-waste repository. Yucca Mountain is in one of the most arid areas in the United States. The site is within the south-central part of the Great Basin section of the Basin and Range physiographic province and is located near a number of silicic calderas of Tertiary age. Although localized zones of seismic activity are common throughout the province, and faults are present at Yucca Mountain, the site itself is basically aseismic. No data are available on the composition of ground water in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. It has been suggested that the composition is bounded by the compositions of water from wells USW-H3, UE25p-1, J-13, and snow or rain. There are relatively few data available from Yucca Mountain on the moisture content and saturation, hydraulic conductivity, and characteristic curves of the unsaturated zone. The available literature on thermomechanical properties of tuff does not always distinguish between data from the saturated zone and data from the unsaturated zone. Geochemical, hydrologic, and thermomechanical data available on the unsaturated tuffs of Yucca Mountain are tabulated in this report. Where the data are very sparse, they have been supplemented by data from the saturated zone or from areas other than Yucca Mountain. 316 refs., 58 figs., 37 tabs

  8. Repository site data report for unsaturated tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien, P.L.; Updegraff, C.D.; Siegel, M.D.; Wahi, K.K.; Guzowski, R.V.

    1985-11-01

    The US Department of Energy is currently considering the thick sequences of unsaturated, fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain, on the southwestern boundary of the Nevada Test Site, as a possible candidate host rock for a nuclear-waste repository. Yucca Mountain is in one of the most arid areas in the United States. The site is within the south-central part of the Great Basin section of the Basin and Range physiographic province and is located near a number of silicic calderas of Tertiary age. Although localized zones of seismic activity are common throughout the province, and faults are present at Yucca Mountain, the site itself is basically aseismic. No data are available on the composition of ground water in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. It has been suggested that the composition is bounded by the compositions of water from wells USW-H3, UE25p-1, J-13, and snow or rain. There are relatively few data available from Yucca Mountain on the moisture content and saturation, hydraulic conductivity, and characteristic curves of the unsaturated zone. The available literature on thermomechanical properties of tuff does not always distinguish between data from the saturated zone and data from the unsaturated zone. Geochemical, hydrologic, and thermomechanical data available on the unsaturated tuffs of Yucca Mountain are tabulated in this report. Where the data are very sparse, they have been supplemented by data from the saturated zone or from areas other than Yucca Mountain. 316 refs., 58 figs., 37 tabs.

  9. Siting the high level radioactive waste repository in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourtellotte, J.

    1992-01-01

    For more than twenty-five years after the National Academy of Science issued its 1957 report recommending a Mined Geologic Disposal System (''MGDS'') for high level radioactive waste, no substantial progress was made in selecting and siting a repository. The United States Congress attempted to give substantive and procedural direction to the program in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Seeing that very little had been accomplished some five years later, Congress gave further direction and tentatively selected a single site, Yucca Mountain in Nevada, in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act Amendments of 1987. Selection of the Yucca Mountain site created a political conflict between federal and state authorities. Until recently, that conflict stalled the site characterization and evaluation program. Standards development under a polycentric regulatory regime has also been slow and has created a number of technical, legal and policy controversies. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), charged with setting radiation protection rules, may be developing regulatory standards which are technically unachievable and, therefore, legally unprovable in a licensing proceeding. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), having the responsibility for licensing and setting performance objectives, may be taking an overly conservative approach. This approach could seriously impact the cost and may preclude the ability to reach an affirmative finding on license issuance. The Department of Energy (DOE) has responsibility for siting, construction and operation of the repository. In so doing, DOE must apply both EPA and NRC standards. To the extent that EPA and NRC standards are untimely, poorly defined, unrealistic, inconsistent, and technically or legally unsound, DOE may be forestalled from fulfilling its responsibilities. The US must rethink its approach to siting the high level radioactive waste repository and take realistic, timely action to preserve the nuclear option. (Author)

  10. 2008 annual meeting on nuclear technology: topical sessions. Pt. 2. Construction of the final repository KONRAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broeskamp, H.

    2008-01-01

    Summary report by Dipl.-Ing. Holger Broeskamp on the Topical Session ''Constructing the Final Repository KONRAD'' of the Annual Conference on Nuclear Technology held in Hamburg, May 27-29, 2008. (orig.)

  11. Modelling of nuclide migration for support of the site selection for near surface repository in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilda, R.; Poskas, P.; Ragaisis, V.

    2006-01-01

    Construction of the near surface repository (NSR) for disposal of short-lived low-and intermediate-level waste (LILW) is planned in Lithuania. Reference design of the repository was prepared. Site selection process is going on. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Program and Report were prepared and are under review by regulators. Releases of radionuclides to water pathway and potential human exposure after closure of the NSR have been assessed for support of the site selection for NSR installation. Two candidate sites were taken under consideration. The assessments have been performed following ISAM methodology recommended by IAEA for safety assessments of near surface disposal facilities. The conceptual design of NSR as well as peculiarities of geological and hydro-geological environment relevant to each candidate site is taken into account. The results of the analysis as part of EIA Report are presented in the paper. It is demonstrated that estimated impact of potential radionuclide migration for both candidate sites is below dose constrain established by regulations of Lithuania. (author)

  12. Siting of a deep repository for spent fuel - how are we communicating the risks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammarstroem, Monika

    2000-01-01

    During 1998 the strategy of the Swedish Nuclear Waste Management Company for the siting process was refined in order to strengthen the possibilities for implementing deep geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Our new organisation was formed to meet the demands of the strategy. The strategy implies focused activities in municipalities where we are performing so called feasibility studies. An important milestone for us is to be able to choose two sites for site investigations in 2001. The problem of waste exists and has to be taken care of in Sweden. The work is performed in steps to ensure dialogue and changes and modifications if needed. The method for solution is robust, a repository can be constructed in a reasonable time and ensure safety in a long-term perspective Our attitude shall be characterised by high quality and competence in all aspects.Honesty and openness are key words. The fear that people feels regarding radioactive waste shall be taken seriously. We are proud to be able to show one already existing waste management system and of our knowledge and experiences. The results so far from the various communication activities show that we are going in the right direction. The support we are gaining from various sectors in society together with our own motivation and clear objectives will, I'm sure, lead us to at least two sites for site investigations for a deep repository in Sweden by the end of 2001

  13. Radioactive waste repository of high ecological safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, I.; Barinov, A.; Prozorov, L.

    2000-01-01

    With the purpose to construct a radioactive waste repository of high ecological safety and reliable containment, MosNPO 'Radon' specialists have developed an advanced type repository - large diameter well (LBD) one. A project is started for the development of a technology for LDW repository construction and pilot operation of the new repository for 25-30 years. The 2 LDW repositories constructed at the 'Radon' site and the developed monitoring system are described

  14. Seismic activity parameters of the Finnish potential repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, J.

    2000-10-01

    Posiva Oy has started a project for estimating the possible earthquake induced rock movements on the deposition holes containing canisters of spent nuclear fuel. These estimates will be made for the four investigation sites, Romuvaara, Kivetty, Olkiluoto and Haestholmen. This study deals with the current and future seismicity associated with the above mentioned sites. Seismic belts that participate the seismic behaviour of the studied sites have been identified and the magnitude-frequency distributions of these belts have been estimated. The seismic activity parameters of the sites have been deduced from the characteristics of the seismic belts in order to forecast the seismicity during the next 100,000 years. The report discusses the possible earthquakes induced by future glaciation. The seismic interpretation seems to indicate that the previous postglacial faults in Finnish Lapland have been generated in compressional environment. The orientation of the rather uniform compression has been NW-SE, which coincide with the current stress field. It seems that, although the impact of postglacial crustal rebound must have been significant, the impact of plate tectonics has been dominant. A major assumption of this study has been that future seismicity will generally resemble the current seismicity. However, when the postglacial seismicity is concerned, the magnitude-frequency distribution is likely different and the expected maximum magnitude will be higher. Maximum magnitudes of future postglacial earthquakes have been approximated by strain release examinations. Seismicity has been examined within the framework of the lineament maps, in order to associate the future significant earthquakes with active fault zones in the vicinity of the potential repository sites. (orig.)

  15. Symposium on the development of nuclear waste policy: Siting the high-level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pijawka, K.D.; Mushkatel, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) attempted to formulate a viable national policy for managing the disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. The NWPA authorized the selection of two repository sites: the first to be constructed in the West and a second site developed in the eastern United States. A detailed process for site selection was outlined in the NWPA. In addition, the NWPA authorized open-quotes the development of a waste transportation system; required the Department of Energy (DOE) to submit a proposal to construct a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) after conducting a study of the need for, and feasibility of such a facility; and required the President to evaluate the use of the repositories ... for the disposal of high-level waste resulting from defense activitiesclose quotes (DOE, 1988, p. 1). A series of provisions granting oversight participation to states and Indian tribes, as well as a compensation package for the ultimate host state were also included. Responsibility for implementing the NWPA was assigned to DOE

  16. General siting study 95. Siting of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    General Siting Study 95 is a detailed description of the work carried out to put the siting of a deep repository in a national and regional context. The report is based on SKB's siting factors, which have been applied on a national scale. Different factors of importance or of possible importance for the long-term radiological safety, technology, land and environment as well as society are described and evaluated. This report is the overall description on general siting studies which the government considered that SKB should report in connection with the RD and D Programme 95. 121 refs, 40 figs

  17. General siting study 95. Siting of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    General Siting Study 95 is a detailed description of the work carried out to put the siting of a deep repository in a national and regional context. The report is based on SKB`s siting factors, which have been applied on a national scale. Different factors of importance or of possible importance for the long-term radiological safety, technology, land and environment as well as society are described and evaluated. This report is the overall description on general siting studies which the government considered that SKB should report in connection with the RD and D Programme 95. 121 refs, 40 figs.

  18. The main demands and criteria for building site choice for radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelova, R.; Sandul, G.A.; Sen'ko, T.Ya.

    2002-01-01

    There are considered the main demands of building site choice for RAW repositories. At this the accent is placed on geological repositories (underground repositories of geological type) and near surface repositories assigned to disposal of low- and intermediate-level short- and mediate-lived radionuclides. These demands are conditionally separated into two blocks: account of social development of the adjoining territories; account of natural factors characterizing building site. Further there are discussed the questions of anthropogenous influence on a safety functioning of RAW repositories and of urgency of stable development of the adjoining territories. In context of the Ukrainian and other states nuclear laws there is also considered the lawful aspect defining the building site choice for RAW repositories

  19. Framework programme for detailed characterisation in connection with construction and operation of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-15

    This report presents a programme for the detailed investigations planned to be applied during construction and operation of the repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark. The report is part of SKB's application according to the Nuclear Activities Act. The detailed investigations shall provide relevant data on and site-descriptive models for the bedrock, soil deposits and eco-system of the site in order to facilitate a step-wise design and construction of the final repository. This shall be implemented in a manner that all demands on long-term safety are fulfilled, including accurate documentation of the construction work, and so that assessments of the environmental impact of the repository can be made. For the operational phase, the detailed investigations should also provide support to the deposition process with related decisions, thereby enabling fulfilment of the design premises for the siting and construction of deposition tunnels and deposition holes, as well as for deposition of canisters, and for the subsequent backfilling and closure of the repository. The Observational Method will be applied during the construction of the repository. This method entails establishing in advance acceptable limits of behaviour regarding selected geoscientific parameters and preparing a plan with measures to keep the outcome within these limits. Predictions of expected rock properties are established for each tunnel section. The outcome after excavation is compared with the acceptable range of outcomes. Information from detailed characterization will be of essential importance for application of the Observational Method and for adapting the repository to the prevailing rock properties. SKB has for the past several decades developed methods for site characterisation, applying both above- and underground investigation techniques. Experiences from this work, put into practice during the site investigations, has resulted in a solid knowledge and understanding of the

  20. 75 FR 8701 - Notice of Settlement Agreement Pertaining to Construction of a Waste Repository on the Settlors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... Construction of a Waste Repository on the Settlors' Property Pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental... a Settlement Agreement pertaining to Construction of a Waste Repository on Settlor's Property... waste repository on the property by resolving, liability the settling party might otherwise incur under...

  1. Salt Repository Project site study plan for stratigraphic boreholes: Revision 1, December 18, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This site study describes the Stratigraphic Boreholes field work to be conducted during the early stages of Site Characterization at the Deaf Smith County, Texas site. The field program has been designed to provide data useful in addressing information/data needs resulting from Federal/State/local regulations, and repository program requirements. Four Stratigraphic Holes will be drilled near the perimeter of the site to document the subsurface geologic conditions in that area and to provide data necessary for design and construction of the Exploratory Shaft Facilities. Continuous samples will be recovered from the ground surface to the total depth of each sell. Geophysical well logs will provide additional coverage of the stratigraphic section. In-situ down hole testing will include short term hydrologic tests and hydraulic fracture tests to provide information on deep groundwater characteristics and regional stress patterns, respectively. Field methods/tests are chosen that provide the best or only means of obtaining the required data. The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Networks specify the schedule which the program will operate. The Technical Services Contractor is responsible for conducting the field program of drilling and testing. Samples and data will be handled and reported in accordance with established SRP procedures. A quality assurance program will be utilized to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that the appropriate documentation is maintained. 30 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Science is the first step to siting nuclear waste repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzil, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    As Shaw [2014] notes, U.S. research on shale as a repository host was halted before expending anything close to the effort devoted to studying crystalline rock, salt, and - most notably - tuff at Yucca Mountain. The new political reality regarding Yucca Mountain may allow reconsideration of the decision to abandon research on shale as a repository host.

  3. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project exploratory studies facilities construction status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, J.N.; Leonard, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress to date on the construction planning and development of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Exploratory Studies Facilities (ESF). The purpose of the ESF is to determine early site suitability and to characterize the subsurface of the Yucca Mountain site to assess its suitability for a potential high level nuclear waste repository. The present ESF configuration concept is for two main ramps to be excavated by tunnel boring machines (TBM) from the surface to the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff Formation. From the main ramps, slightly above Topopah Spring level, supplemental ramps will be penetrated to the Calico Hills formation below the potential repository. There will be exploratory development drifts driven on both levels with the Main Test Area being located on the Topopah Spring level, which is the level of the proposed repository. The Calico Hills formation lies below the Topopah Spring member and is expected to provide the main geo-hydrologic barrier between the potential repository and the underlying saturated zones in the Crater Flat Tuff

  4. Some inspirations drawn from the SKB license-application report for the construction of the final repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guoqing

    2014-01-01

    The following problems are described in this paper: the current state of nuclear energy and spent fuel in Sweden, the brief process of repository site selection and the concise geological settings of candidate site Forsmark, the option of repository design, the data presented in license-application report on repository, construction, the review work presented by OECD/NEA international peer review team (IRT) and some considerations noted by the author: 1) Why the design of underground engineering, also known as 5 shafts + l ramp, is adopted? 2) Why the timescale for the assessment is one million years? 3) Why the computer codes used in performance assessment at Forsmark candidate repository site are different from those used at Yucca Mountain candidate repository site? 4) How to carry out the public involvement, support from local government and volumtary siting in China? 5) What is the most important in the R and D program of HLW disposal? 6) What shall we do for the future license-application report for the construction of the final repository in China? (author)

  5. Estimation of expenses for low and intermediate level radioactive waste repository project in Croatia up to site license acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, A.; Lokner, V.; Subasic, D.

    2003-01-01

    The expenses needed for development of low- and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) repository project in Croatia include: (a) preliminary activities, (b) preparatory activities, and (c) preparing of environmental impact study. The first group of expenses are referring to the project leading activities, project plan updating, build-up of required infrastructure, preparing of licensing documentation, site investigations, data acquisition programme, pre-operational radio-ecological monitoring, modelling, safety analysis (first iteration) and public related activities. Preparatory activities are referring to purchasing of land for repository and preparatory activities for carrying out of on-site investigations, while third group of expenses are related to preparation and validation of Environmental impact study. It was found out that about 50 % of total expenses refer to build-up of infrastructure. Additional 25 % finances are related to radio-ecological monitoring, site investigations and development of calculations and models, while remaining 25 % of total estimated sum is expected to be spent for repository safety assessment, public relations, purchasing and preparing the on-site terrain for construction, etc. It was calculated 607 EUR per m3 of LILW to be needed up to site license acquisition. According to the world-wide practice, by extrapolating of additional expenses necessary for construction of the repository and acquisition of operational license, it comes out the cost of 1.723 EUR per m3 of LILW for shallow-ground and 2.412 EUR per m3 of LILW for tunnel repository. The estimated expenses for Croatia are within the span of expenses for the same purpose in the countries considered. Expected duration of the project performance up to acquisition of the site license is 4 years and 3 months. (author)

  6. Draft environmental assessment: reference repository location, Hanford Site, Washington. Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Section 112)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified a reference repository location at the Hanford Site in Washington as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the reference repository location at the Hanford Site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations are reported in this draft environmental assessment (EA), which is being issued for public review and comment. The DOE findings and determinations that are based on these evaluations are preliminary and subject to public review and comment. A final EA will be prepared after considering the comments received on the draft EA. The reference repository location at Hanford is located in the Columbia Plateau, one of five distinct geohydrologic settings that are being considered for the first repository. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this draft EA, the DOE has found that the reference repository location at Hanford is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that it is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is proposing to nominate the reference repository location at Hanford as one of five sites suitable for characterization. Furthermore, having performed a comparative evaluation of the five sites proposed for nomination, the DOE has determined that the reference repository location at Hanford is one of three sites preferred for site characterization

  7. Surface facilities for geological deep repositories - Measures against dangers during construction and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-09-01

    This brochure published by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) discusses the measures that are to be taken to address the dangers encountered during the construction and operation of deep geological repositories for nuclear wastes. Firstly, the operation of such repositories during the emplacement of nuclear wastes is discussed and examples of possible repositories for fuel rods and highly-radioactive waste are presented. Various emission-protection issues and safety measures to be taken during construction of such repositories are looked at as is the protection of ground water. Safety considerations during the operational phase are discussed, including inclusion methods used for the wastes and radiation protection. The handling of radioactive wastes, the recognition of dangers and measures to be taken to counteract them are discussed. Various possible accidents are looked at

  8. Preliminary postclosure risk assessment: Yucca Mountain, Nevada, candidate repository site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslinger, P.W.; Elwood, D.M.; Freshley, M.D.; Reimus, P.W.; Tanner, J.E.; Doctor, P.G.; Engel, D.W.; Liebetrau, A.M.; Strenge, D.L.; Van Luik, A.E.

    1989-10-01

    A study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, to estimate the postclosure risk, in terms of population health effects, of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The risk estimates cover a time span of 1 million years following repository closure. Representative disruptive and intrusive events were selected and evaluated in addition to expected conditions. The estimates were generated assuming spent fuel as the waste form and included all important nuclides from inventory, half-life and dose perspectives. The base case results yield an estimate of 36 health effects over the first million years of repository operation. The doses attributed to the repository corresponds to about 0.1 percent of the doses received from natural background radiation. 16 refs., 1 fig

  9. Report of early site suitability evaluation of the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younker, J.L.; Andrews, W.B.; Fasano, G.A.; Herrington, C.C.; Mattson, S.R.; Murray, R.C. [Science Applications International Corp., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ballou, L.B.; Revelli, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Ducharme, A.R.; Shephard, L.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dudley, W.W.; Hoxie, D.T. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Herbst, R.J.; Patera, E.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Judd, B.R. [Decision Analysis Co., Portola Valley, CA (United States); Docka, J.A.; Rickertsen, L.D. [Weston Technical Associates, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This study evaluated the technical suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential site for a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of radioactive waste. The evaluation was conducted primarily to determine early in the site characterization program if there are any features or conditions at the site that indicate it is unsuitable for repository development. A secondary purpose was to determine the status of knowledge in the major technical areas that affect the suitability of the site. This early site suitability evaluation (ESSE) was conducted by a team of technical personnel at the request of the Associate Director of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Geologic Disposal, a unit within the DOE`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The Yucca Mountain site has been the subject of such evaluations for over a decade. In 1983, the site was evaluated as part of a screening process to identify potentially acceptable sites. The site was evaluated in greater detail and found suitable for site characterization as part of the Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE, 1986) required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). Additional site data were compiled during the preparation of the Site Characterization Plan (SCP) (DOE, 1988a). This early site suitability evaluation has considered information that was used in preparing both-documents, along with recent information obtained since the EA and SCP were published. This body of information is referred to in this report as ``current information`` or ``available evidence.``

  10. Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain. Volume 1: Introduction and Site Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-01

    This first volume contains an introduction to the viability assessment, including the purpose, scope, waste forms, technical challenges, an historical perspective, regulatory framework, management of the repository, technical components, preparations for the license application, and repository milestones after the assessment. The second part of this first volume addresses characteristics of the Yucca Mountain site.

  11. Site selection for deep geologic repositories - Consequences for society, economy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    In a few years, Switzerland will make the decision regarding site selection for geological underground repositories for the storage of radioactive wastes. Besides the safety issue, many citizens are interested in how such a repository will affect environment, economy and society in the selected site's region. This brochure summarizes the results of many studies on the socio-economic impacts of nuclear waste repositories. Radioactive wastes must be stored in such a way that mankind and environment are safely protected for a long period of time. How this goal may be achieved, is already known: geologic deep repositories warrant long-term safety. For the oncoming years in Switzerland the question is where the repository will be built. The search for an appropriate site for a repository in the proposed regions will launch discussions. Within the participative framework the regions may bring their requests. The demonstration of the safety of potential repository sites has the highest priority in the selection process. In the third procedural step additional rock investigations will be made. The socio-economic studies and the experience with existing plants show that radioactive waste management plants can be built and operated in good agreement with environmental requirements. The radioactive wastes in a deep underground repository are stored many hundred meters below the Earth's surface. There, they are isolated from our vital space. Technical barriers and the surrounding dense rock confinement prevent the release of radioactive materials into the environment. A deep repository has positive consequences for the regional economy. It increases trade and value creation and creates work places. The socio-economic impacts practically extend over one century, but strongly vary with time; they are the largest during the building period. High life quality and a positive population development in the selected site region are compatible with a deep repository. A fair and

  12. Experiences from the design and construction of plug II in the Prototype Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlstroem, Lars-Olof (NCC Teknik (Sweden))

    2009-12-15

    The intention with this document is to summarise the comprehensive documentation and experience that was gained during the design and construction of the temporary plugs in the Prototype Repository experiment at Aespoe HRL. The Prototype Repository experiment was designed to in full scale test the engineered barriers and their function, including the plug that separate the deposition tunnel from the temporary access- and transportation tunnels that are at atmospheric pressure. This plug is designed and constructed as a concrete plug with a spherical front side and a flat pressurised side. This report presents the processes and operations that were considered when developing the 'plug', design, construction and verification. In the Prototype Repository the demand of leakage control is very high and the maximum length of the plugs is constrained due to available clearance space, experimental set-up and configuration. Therefore a typical 'friction plug' normally used to block waterways in connection with hydropower plants, is not suitable. Instead a plug constructed as an 'arch plug' with abutments was considered. In order to minimize the Excavation Disturbed Zone (EDZ) the abutments, in which the plug is inserted, was excavated by seam drilling with coring technique. The steel formwork was pre-assembled at the ground surface before taken down to the tunnel. The steel was bolted and welded together and crossbars and plywood were mounted on top. Before taken down to the tunnel, the formwork was separated into smaller pieces that were easier to transport down the tunnel but easy to assembly at the Prototype Repository experiment. Before assembling the formwork, a retaining wall was installed to resist the earth and compaction pressure developed from the backfill material. The retaining wall consists of pre-fabricated concrete beams that were installed parallel with the installation of the backfill. Reinforcement was cut and bent at the

  13. Experiences from the design and construction of plug II in the Prototype Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlstroem, Lars-Olof

    2009-12-01

    The intention with this document is to summarise the comprehensive documentation and experience that was gained during the design and construction of the temporary plugs in the Prototype Repository experiment at Aespoe HRL. The Prototype Repository experiment was designed to in full scale test the engineered barriers and their function, including the plug that separate the deposition tunnel from the temporary access- and transportation tunnels that are at atmospheric pressure. This plug is designed and constructed as a concrete plug with a spherical front side and a flat pressurised side. This report presents the processes and operations that were considered when developing the 'plug', design, construction and verification. In the Prototype Repository the demand of leakage control is very high and the maximum length of the plugs is constrained due to available clearance space, experimental set-up and configuration. Therefore a typical 'friction plug' normally used to block waterways in connection with hydropower plants, is not suitable. Instead a plug constructed as an 'arch plug' with abutments was considered. In order to minimize the Excavation Disturbed Zone (EDZ) the abutments, in which the plug is inserted, was excavated by seam drilling with coring technique. The steel formwork was pre-assembled at the ground surface before taken down to the tunnel. The steel was bolted and welded together and crossbars and plywood were mounted on top. Before taken down to the tunnel, the formwork was separated into smaller pieces that were easier to transport down the tunnel but easy to assembly at the Prototype Repository experiment. Before assembling the formwork, a retaining wall was installed to resist the earth and compaction pressure developed from the backfill material. The retaining wall consists of pre-fabricated concrete beams that were installed parallel with the installation of the backfill. Reinforcement was cut and bent at the factory and was ready for

  14. Assessing the demographic and public service impacts of repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdock, S.H.; Hamm, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    Demographic and public service impacts are likely to be among the most evident of those changes resulting from nuclear waste repository development. Knowledge of the characteristics of such impacts and of the means to assess them is critical. The first section of this chapter examines those likely to be unique to repositories. The second section describes the alternatives for assessing such impacts and the particular difficulties likely to affect the assessments. Given the state of development of techniques for assessing impacts and the range of factors that must be considered, perhaps their best use is as a means of sensitizing decision makers to the potential implications of their decisions. 2 tables

  15. Preliminary site characterization at Beishan northwest China-A potential site for China's high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju; Su Rui; Xue Weiming; Zheng Hualing

    2004-01-01

    Chinese nuclear power plants,radioactive waste and radioactive waste disposal are introduced. Beishan region (Gansu province,Northwest China)for high-level radioactive waste repository and preliminary site characterization are also introduced. (Zhang chao)

  16. Perceived risk, trust in government, and response to repository siting in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    Conflicts over the siting of high-level radioactive waste repositories have been intense and unrelenting. Public and state opposition to implementation of the US Nuclear Waste Policy Act is tied closely to the perception of unacceptably high repository risks and to lack of trust and confidence in governmental agencies, particularly the DOE. This paper explores the relationship of perceived risk, trust in government, and opposition to repository siting in the US in an attempt to clarify the conditions of successful implementation of nuclear waste policy in the decades ahead

  17. Development of site suitability criteria for the high level waste repository for Lawrence Livermore Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    Results of our mining, geological and geotechnical studies provided in support of the development of site suitability criteria for the high level waste repository are presented. The primary purpose of the work was the identification and development of appropriate geotechnical descriptors and coefficients required for the Site Suitability Repository Model. This model was developed by The Analytic Sciences Corporation (TASC) of Reading, Massachusetts and is not described in this report

  18. Development of site suitability criteria for the high level waste repository for Lawrence Livermore Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    Results of our mining, geological and geotechnical studies provided in support of the development of site suitability criteria for the high level waste repository are presented. The primary purpose of the work was the identification and development of appropriate geotechnical descriptors and coefficients required for the Site Suitability Repository Model. This model was developed by The Analytic Sciences Corporation (TASC) of Reading, Massachusetts and is not described in this report.

  19. Project Guarantee 1985. Repository for high-level radioactive waste: construction and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    An engineering project study aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of constructing a deep repository for high-level waste (Type C repository) has been carried out; the study is based on a model data-set representing typical geological and rock mechanical conditions as found outside the so-called Permocarboniferous basin in the regions under investigation by Nagra in Cantons Aargau, Schaffhausen, Solothurn and Zuerich. The repository is intended for disposal of high-level waste and any intermediate-level waste from re-processing in which the concentration of long-lived alpha-emitters exceeds the permissible limits set for a Type B repository. Final disposal of high-level waste is in subterranean, horizontally mined tunnels and of intermediate-level waste in underground vertical silos. The repository is intended to accomodate a total of around 6'000 HWL-cylinders (gross volume of around 1'200 m3) and around 10'000 m3 of intermediate-level waste. The total excavated volume is around 1'100'000 m3 and a construction time for the whole repository (up to the beginning of emplacement) of around 15 years is expected. For the estimated 50-year emplacement operations, a working team of around 60 people will be needed and a team of around 160 for the simultaneous tunnelling operations and auxiliary work. The project described in the present report permits the conclusion that construction of a repository for high-level radioactive waste and, if necessary, spent fuel-rods is feasible with present-day technology

  20. Usability Evaluation of a Research Repository and Collaboration Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Maron, Deborah J.; Charles, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports results from an empirical usability evaluation of Human-Animal Bond Research Initiative Central as part of the effort to develop an open access research repository and collaboration platform for human-animal bond researchers. By repurposing and altering key features of the original HUBzero system, Human-Animal Bond Research…

  1. The alternative site selection procedure as covered in the report by the Repository Site Selection Procedures Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, M.

    2005-01-01

    The 2002 Act on the Regulated Termination of the Use of Nuclear Power for Industrial Electricity Generation declared Germany's opting out of the peaceful uses of nuclear power. The problem of the permanent management of radioactive residues is becoming more and more important also in the light of that political decision. At the present time, there are no repositories offering the waste management capacities required. Such facilities need to be created. At the present stage, eligible repository sites are the Konrad mine, a former iron ore mine near Salzgitter, and the Gorleben salt dome. While the fate of the Konrad mine as a repository for waste generating negligible amounts of heat continues to be uncertain, despite a plan approval decision of June 2002, the Gorleben repository is still in the planning phase, at present in a dormant state, so to speak. The federal government expressed doubt about the suitability of the Gorleben site. Against this backdrop, the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety in February 1999 established AkEnd, the Working Group on Repository Site Selection Procedures. The Group was charged with developing, based on sound scientific criteria, a transparent site selection procedure in order to facilitate the search for repository sites. The Working Group presented its final report in December 2002 after approximately four years of work. The Group's proposals about alternative site selection procedures are explained in detail and, above all, reviewed critically. (orig.)

  2. Regional and site geological frameworks : proposed Deep Geologic Repository, Bruce County, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raven, K.; Sterling, S.; Gaines, S.; Wigston, A. [Intera Engineering Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Frizzell, R. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization is conducting geoscientific studies on behalf of Ontario Power Generation into the proposed development of a Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (L and ILW) at the Bruce site, near Tiverton, Ontario. This paper presented a regional geological framework for the site that was based on a review of regional drilling; structural geology; paleozoic stratigraphy and sedimentology; a 3D geological framework model; a DGR geological site characterization model; bedrock stratigraphy and marker beds; natural fracture frequency data; and formation predictability. The studies have shown that the depth, thickness, orientation and rock quality of the 34 rock formations, members or units that comprise the 840 m thick Paleozoic bedrock sequence at the Bruce site are very uniform and predictable over distances of several kilometres. The proposed DGR will be constructed as an engineered facility comprising a series of underground emplacement rooms at a depth of 680 metres below ground within argillaceous limestones. The geoscientific studies are meant to provide a basis for the development of descriptive geological, hydrogeological and geomechanical models of the DGR site that will facilitate environmental and safety assessments. 11 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  3. Social and economical aspects in the selection of the site for the final Goiania waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.; Tranjan Filho, A.; Rosenthal, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    Site selection criteria for low and intermediate level waste repositories are usually well established as far as the technological and scientific bases are concerned. However, social, cultural and economical aspects need to be examined on a case by case basis because there are many situations to be faced before succeeding to convince the public and authorities that a waste repository is to be built at any chosen site. In the specific case of Goiania there is an ongoing process that started several years ago, to make the repository accepted by local, state and national authorities, and to answer legitimate questions raised by significant segments of the population. This paper will summarise those more relevant aspects concerning the site selection process for the Goiania repository. (author)

  4. Applying system engineering methods to site characterization research for nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, T.W.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear research and engineering projects can benefit from the use of system engineering methods. This paper is brief overview illustrating how system engineering methods could be applied in structuring a site characterization effort for a candidate nuclear waste repository. System engineering is simply an orderly process that has been widely used to transform a recognized need into a fully defined system. Such a system may be physical or abstract, natural or man-made, hardware or procedural, as is appropriate to the system's need or objective. It is a way of mentally visualizing all the constituent elements and their relationships necessary to fulfill a need, and doing so compliant with all constraining requirements attendant to that need. Such a system approach provides completeness, order, clarity, and direction. Admittedly, system engineering can be burdensome and inappropriate for those project objectives having simple and familiar solutions that are easily held and controlled mentally. However, some type of documented and structured approach is needed for those objectives that dictate extensive, unique, or complex programs, and/or creation of state-of-the-art machines and facilities. System engineering methods have been used extensively and successfully in these cases. The scientific methods has served well in ordering countless technical undertakings that address a specific question. Similarly, conventional construction and engineering job methods will continue to be quite adequate to organize routine building projects. Nuclear waste repository site characterization projects involve multiple complex research questions and regulatory requirements that interface with each other and with advanced engineering and subsurface construction techniques. There is little doubt that system engineering is an appropriate orchestrating process to structure such diverse elements into a cohesive, well defied project

  5. WIPP: construction and progress on a successful nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, W.R.; Sankey, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Department of Energy is constructing the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Southeastern New Mexico. The facility will retrievably store transuranic waste from defense activities of the United States and conduct experiments with Defense high-level waste which will be retrieved at the end of the experiments. This paper describes the progress and the present status of activities at WIPP. 4 refs

  6. Geographical information system (GIS) suitability analysis of radioactive waste repository site in Pahang, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faizal Azrin Abd Razalim; Noraini Surip; Ahmad Hasnulhadi; Nazran Harun; Nurul Nadia Abd Malek; Roziah Che Musa

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this project is to identify a suitable site for radioactive waste repository in Pahang using remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) technologies. There are ten parameters considered in the analysis, which divided into Selection Criteria and Exclusion Criteria. The Selection Criteria parameters consists of land use, rainfall, lineament, slope, groundwater potential and elevation while Exclusion Criteria parameters consist of urban, protected land and island. Furthermore, all parameters were integrated, given weight age and ranked for site selection evaluation in GIS environment. At the first place, about twelve sites have been identified as suitable sites for radioactive waste repository throughout the study area. These sites were further analysed by ground checking on the physical setting including geological, drainage, and population density in order to finalise three most suitable sites for radioactive waste repository. (author)

  7. Characterization Plan for L/ILW Repository Candidate Sites in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, A.; Lokner, V.; Kucar-Dragicevic, S.; Subasic, D.

    1998-01-01

    There have been four preferred sites for L/ILW repository selected in the siting program in Croatia so far. According to the accepted and verified site selection procedure, these sites are suitable for a more detailed characterization, including also site specific field investigations. The aim of these investigations is to measure and calculate all needed site specific parameters important for performance of safety assessment, aiming eventually with selection of the final disposal site. Both Croatian and IAEA regulations referring to radwaste repository siting procedure have been briefly discussed. Detailed site investigations foreseen to be done in order to perform a successful site characterization, refer to the following main topics: geomorphology, lithostratigraphy, tectonics, seismicity, rock mechanics, surface-water hydrology, aquifer features and groundwater hydrology, rock and groundwater chemistry, and radionuclide transport modeling. All these issues are listed in suggested site characterization format. (author)

  8. A Careful Blasting Technique During Construction of underground Openings for Nuclear Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ester, Z.; Vrkljan, D.

    1998-01-01

    Underground nuclear waste repositories are constructed in natural rock formations, with heterogenous compound and structure, and should be accommodated in design and construction according to rock conditions. The quality insurance of underground repository, during and after construction, is most demanding in view of contour and category of excavation. the technology of drilling and blasting, regarding the mechanical excavation, is accommodated in sense of response to cross section magnitude of underground openings, the rock conditions and category, the support performance and other design demands. The high level rock damage around underground openings, that is in opposition with reaching quality insurance. Conventional construction technology can be successful by implementation of controlled blasting technique avoiding extensive rock weakness. (author)

  9. Findings and recommendations of the ONWI peer review of the SocioEconomic Analysis of Repository Siting (SEARS) modeling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluett, C.; Bjornstad, D.; DeVeny, G.; Ellis, C.B.; Goldstone, S.E.; Ritchey, P.N.; Winter, R.

    1985-12-01

    A Peer Review Group was convened by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) of the Battelle Project Management Division (BPMD) to provide an outside professional assessment of the SocioEconomic Analysis of Repository Siting (SEARS) modeling system. The SEARS model is intended to provide detailed, site-specific projections by jurisdiction and political subdivision of the economic, demographic, infrastructure, and fiscal effects of constructing, operating, and decommissioning a geologic repository for the isolation of nuclear waste in one or more locations. In addition, it is expected to aid in the indentification of appropriate local correction actions and to aid in monitoring socioeconomic changes. The SEARS model will address program-related issues, local concerns, and statutory requirements relating to economic-demographic impacts; employ technically defensible methods and procedures; be adequately and appropriately documented, verified, and validated; and provide results that are consistent and replicable

  10. Turbidity monitoring at select MDOT construction sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this project was to establish baseline turbidity conditions at select construction : sites by establishing a water quality monitoring program and documenting MDOT approved : BMPs on site. In 2009 the United States Environmental Prote...

  11. Estimating and coping with public response to radioactive waste repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    The siting, construction, and operation of a radioactive waste repository is likely to be controversial in the communities being considered and at the state and national levels as well. Public response can be conceptualized at two levels: individual and group or organizational. At the individual level, public response is the behavior of people motivated by their attitudes, knowledge, and perceptions of radioactive waste and its hazards and risks. Groups or organizations provide a structure to public response through which to pool resources and talents, set up a division of labor, hire experts, develop a skilled leadership, take legal action, and so on. A broad range of organizations is possible: ad hoc, existing community groups with an added purpose, nationally-recognized organizations, or government offices and agencies. Two cases of response to radioactive waste disposal sites illustrate these sources and kinds of response and suggest indicators to estimate the nature and level of response. Specific coping strategies take different forms, depending on the nature and level of response (either supporting or opposing) to the proposed siting, the past experience of community members with similar projects, with federal agencies, and with citizens' action groups, and sources and accuracy of information individuals and groups have. All strategies are based on a policy of honesty and straight-forwardness, with a sincere effort on the part of site evaluators and decision-makers to be attentive and responsive to the public's concerns

  12. The projected environmental impacts of transportation of radioactive material to the first United States repository site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashwell, J.W.; Neuhauser, K.S.; Reardon, P.C.; McNair, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    The relative national environmental impacts of transporting spent fuel and other nuclear wastes to each of 9 candidate repository sites in the United States were analyzed for the 26-year period of repository operation. Two scenarios were examined for each repository: 1) shipment of 5-year-old spent fuel and Defence High-Level Waste (DHLW) directly from their points of origin to a repository (reference case); and 2) shipment of 5-year-old spent fuel to a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility and shipment (by dedicated rail) of 10-year-old consolidated spent fuel from the MRS to a repository. Transport by either all truck or all rail from the points of origin were analyzed as bounding cases. The computational system used to analyze these impacts included the WASTES II logistics code and the RADTRAN III risk analysis code. The radiological risks for the reference case increased as the total shipment miles to a repository increased for truck; the risks also increased with mileage for rail but at a lower rate. For the MRS scenario the differences between repository sites were less pronounced for both modal options, because of the reduction in total shipment miles possible with the large dedicated rail casks. All the risks reported are small in comparison to the radiological risks due to 'natural background'

  13. Site characterization information needs for a high-level waste geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, D.C.; Nataraja, M.S.; Justus, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    At each of the three candidate sites recommended for site characterization for High-Level Waste Geologic Repository development, the DOE has proposed to conduct both surface-based testing and in situ exploration and testing at the depths that wastes would be emplaced. The basic information needs and consequently the planned surface-based and in situ testing program will be governed to a large extent by the amount of credit taken for individual components of the geologic repository in meeting the performance objectives and siting criteria. Therefore, identified information to be acquired from site characterization activities should be commensurate with DOE's assigned performance goals for the repository system components on a site-specific basis. Because of the uncertainties that are likely to be associated with initial assignment of performance goals, the information needs should be both reasonably and conservatively identified

  14. Presentation of safety after closure of the repository for spent nuclear fuel. Main report of the project SR-Site. Part III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the safety assessment SR-Site is to investigate whether a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel by KBS-3 type can be constructed at Forsmark in Oesthammar in Sweden. The location of the Forsmark has been selected based on results of several surveys from surface conditions at depth in Forsmark and in Laxemar in Oskarshamn. The choice of location is not justified in SR-Site Report, but in other attachments to SKB's permit applications. SR-Site Report is an important part of SKB's permit applications to construct and operate a repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in Oesthammar. The purpose of the report in the applications is to show that a repository at Forsmark is safe after closure

  15. Presentation of safety after closure of the repository for spent nuclear fuel. Main report of the project SR-Site. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the safety assessment SR-Site is to investigate whether a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel by KBS-3 type can be constructed at Forsmark in Oesthammar in Sweden. The location of the Forsmark has been selected based on results of several surveys from surface conditions at depth in Forsmark and in Laxemar in Oskarshamn. The choice of location is not justified in SR-Site Report, but in other attachments to SKB's permit applications. SR-Site Report is an important part of SKB's permit applications to construct and operate a repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in Oesthammar. The purpose of the report in the applications is to show that a repository at Forsmark is safe after closure

  16. Addressing concerns about the agricultural impacts of siting a nuclear waste repository in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boryczka, M.; Darrough, B.

    1986-01-01

    Public concerns related to the siting of a nuclear repository have included the potential impacts to specific economic sectors. In Texas, local residents have expressed concern about how a repository will affect agriculture. Several major questions have arisen with respect to this issue including: 1) how will a repository's requirements for land and water affect agriculture, 2) how will a repository affect agricultural land values, and 3) how will actual or perceived contamination of locally grown products affect their marketability? This paper describes the concerns raised by local residents and discusses the approach to analyzing the concerns identified. An evaluation of agricultural impacts has been prepared for the Department of Energy's Enviromental Assessment (EA) documents. In addition, activities needed to further evaluate these impacts are planned for site characterization. Both the current analysis and planned activities are described

  17. Analysis for the siting of a repository in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, E.; Ciallella, N.; Matar, J.; Perucca, J.C.

    1984-02-01

    The first step in the selection of suitable geological formation for disposal of highly radioactive waste in Argentina was to analyse all the country's known occurrences of granite rock, on the basis of bibliographic material. For each occurrence, a determination was made of its petrographic and structural characteristics, the dimensions and specifications of the rock bodies, the seismic and hydrogeological characteristics of the region, its mining and oil-bearing potential, and the demographic, agricultural, cattle-breeding and industrial features of the areas under study. In this way, it was possible to identify something like 200 granite occurrences. In the second stage the following elimination criteria having been applied: (a) bodies located within seismic zones or areas in which mining or oil-drilling operations are carried on; (b) petrographic characteristics of rock indicating significant alterations, such as an advanced state of erosion or decomposition; and (c) bodies located in areas whose hydrogeological characteristics are known to be unfavourable. As a further selection criterion, account was taken of certain unfavourable characteristics from the point of view of the construction and operation of the storage facility. Sites within zones of dense population, tourism or difficult access were considered to be unfavourable. As a result of this second stage, seven formations were identified. A third stage, based on a survey of the preselected granite bodies led to the identificaton of the massifs of La Esperanza and Chasico in Rio Negro province and the Calcatapul and Medio ranges in Chubut province as the most suitable sites for continuing the detailed studies

  18. Long term effects on potential repository sites: climatic and geomorphological changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddon, M.B.; Worsley, P.

    1985-05-01

    A study of the effects of climatic variability on the geomorphological processes operating on the landscape are important in the study of radioactive waste repository sites. The effects of glacial erosion and deposition are fundamental to an examination of repository safety, particularly in North Britain. Rates of climatic shift need to be examined. Predictive simulation models, based on a knowledge of past climatic events, for future global climates are proposed. (UK)

  19. Geological status of NWTS repository siting activities in the paradox basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, N.A.; Conwell, F.R.

    1981-01-01

    Emplacement of waste packages in mined geological repositories is one method being evaluated for isolating high-level nuclear wastes. Granite, dome salt, tuff, basalt and bedded salt are among the rock types being investigated. Described in this paper is the status of geological activities in the Paradox Basin of Utah and Colorado, one region being explored as a part of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program to site a geological repository in bedded salt

  20. Assessing the economic and fiscal effects of repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, R.A.; Leistritz, F.L.; Halstead, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    The development of high-level nuclear waste repositories can be expected to produce a substantial stimulus to the local economy, but the magnitude and speed of this stimulus may pose planning problems for nearby communities. The chapter is divided into two major sections: 1) a review of the major economic and fiscal effects likely to occur, and 2) a discussion of the methods and techniques which can be used to estimate the magnitude, timing, and distribution of such effects. The six categories of effects described are those on employment patterns and characteristics, income, local trade and service firms, community price structure changes, other basic economic sectors, and public sector costs and revenues

  1. Alternative methods of salt disposal at the seven salt sites for a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This study discusses the various alternative salt management techniques for the disposal of excess mined salt at seven potentially acceptable nuclear waste repository sites: Deaf Smith and Swisher Counties, Texas; Richton and Cypress Creek Domes, Mississippi; Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; and Davis and Lavender Canyons, Utah. Because the repository development involves the underground excavation of corridors and waste emplacement rooms, in either bedded or domed salt formations, excess salt will be mined and must be disposed of offsite. The salt disposal alternatives examined for all the sites include commercial use, ocean disposal, deep well injection, landfill disposal, and underground mine disposal. These alternatives (and other site-specific disposal methods) are reviewed, using estimated amounts of excavated, backfilled, and excess salt. Methods of transporting the excess salt are discussed, along with possible impacts of each disposal method and potential regulatory requirements. A preferred method of disposal is recommended for each potentially acceptable repository site. 14 refs., 5 tabs

  2. Some geochemical considerations for a potential repository site in tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdal, B.R.; Bish, D.L.; Crowe, B.M.; Daniels, W.R.; Ogard, A.E.; Rundberg, R.S.; Vaniman, D.T.; Wolfsberg, K.

    1982-01-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations, which is evaluating potential locations for a high-level waste repository at the Nevada Test Site and environs, is currently focusing its investigations on tuff, principally in Yucca Mountain, as a host rock. This paper discusses some of the geochemical investigations. Particular emphasis is placed on definition of some basic elements and necessary technical approaches for the geochemistry data acquisition and modeling program. Some site-specific tuff geochemical information that is important for site selection and repository performance will be identified and the current status of knowledge will then be discussed

  3. Siting regions for deep geological repositories. Nagra’s proposals for stage 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This brochure published by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) discusses the selection of sites for deep geological repositories for nuclear wastes in Switzerland. The procedure proposed for the selection process is explained. The four sites for possible repositories of high-level radioactive waste as well as for low and intermediate-level wastes are described and rated with respect to the various safety factors involved. The reasons for the long-term safety measures proposed and the geological barriers involved are discussed. The four proposals for depository sites are looked at in more detail. The paper is well illustrated with several diagrams and tables

  4. The general situation of clay site for high-level waste geological disposal repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Changxuan; Liu Xiaodong; Liu Pinghui

    2008-01-01

    Host medium is vitally important for safety of high-level radiaoactive waste (HLW) geological disposal. Clay, as host media of geological repository of HLW, has received greater attention for its inherent advantages. This paper summarizes IAEA and OECD/NEA's some safety guides on site selection and briefly introduces the process of the site selection, their studies and the characteristics of the clay formations in Switz-erland, France and Belgian. Based on these analyses, some suggestions are made to China's HLW repository clay site selection. (authors)

  5. Management of construction safety at RR site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, B.C.; Khatsuriya, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Construction industries are one of the most hazardous industries and hence, promotion of safety remains one of the greatest challenges facing construction industry today. According to ILO estimates: Each year at least 60,000 fatal accidents occur on construction sites around the world or one fatal accident every ten minutes. One in six fatal accidents at work occurs on a construction site. In industrialized countries, as many as 25-40 per cent of work related deaths occur on construction sites, even though the sector employs only 6-10 per cent of the workforce. The number of fatalities occurring from construction work in India is also quite disturbing. Though, the fall of person from height and through openings were the major causes for fatal /serious accidents, the risk of fatal accident involving material handling equipment, either during handling or its maintenance is also significantly high due to use of large number of material handling equipments during construction work. (author)

  6. Development of site selection process for an LILW repository in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, N.; Kralj, M.; Mele, I.; Veselic, M.

    2005-01-01

    The activities regarding the LILW repository site selection in Slovenia are planned to meet the requirements of the Act on Ionising Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, especially the requirement that the site for a repository should be selected by 2008 and the repository should be in operation by 2013. In November 2004, the official administrative procedure for the siting of the repository started with the first spatial public conference on spatial planning procedure. It was carried out by the Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning and ARAO. Immediately after the conference the Program for the preparation of the detailed plan of national importance for the LILW repository was accepted by the Ministry. At the beginning of December 2004, ARAO invited all Slovenian local communities to participate in the site selection process and volunteer a site or area in their local community for further investigation. At the beginning of April 2005 the first phase of the bidding process was concluded. ARAO received applications from eight local communities. A pre-feasibility study to define three of the most promising locations was conducted because only three locations are foreseen by the Program for the preparation of the detailed plan of national importance. Methodologies were prepared for assessment of different parameters of technical, financial, environmental and spatial suitability as well as public acceptability. Comparative, preferential and also exclusion criteria for the respective parameters were defined. The results of the cabinet and fieldwork research were compared and further assessed in order to obtain maximum three local communities with three potential sites in which the probability of siting the LILW repository seems to be the highest. Detailed plans of national importance will be prepared for these sites. (author)

  7. Siting regions for deep geological repositories. Why just here?; Standortgebiete fuer geologische Tiefenlager. Warum gerade hier?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieser, A

    2009-09-15

    This report helps to the popularization of the Nagra works accomplished for the management and disposal of the radioactive wastes in Switzerland. The programme for management and disposal of the radioactive wastes are extensively determined by regulations. Protection of mankind and environment is the primary objective. The basic storage process is considered as having been solved. The question addressed in the report is where the facility has to be built; the site selection procedure includes five steps: 1) according to their type the wastes have to be allocated to two different repositories: for low- and intermediate-level wastes (L/ILW), and for high-level and alpha-toxic wastes (HLW); 2) the safety concept for both repositories and the requirements on the geology have to be determined; 3) large suitable geological-tectonic zones must be found where repositories could be built; 4) in these geological zones a suitable host rock has to be identified; 5) the most important spatial geological conditions of the host rock (minimum depth with respect to surface erosion, maximum depth in terms of engineering requirements, lateral extent) have to be identified. Based on these criteria, three suitable siting regions for a HLW repository were found in the North of Switzerland. The preferred host rock is Opalinus clay because of its very low permeability; it is therefore an excellent barrier against nuclide transport. In the three proposed siting regions, Opalinus clay is present in sufficient volumes at a suitable depth. For a L/ILW repository six different possible siting regions were identified, five in Northern Switzerland and one in Central Switzerland. In the three siting regions found for a possible HLW repository, it would also be possible to built a combined repository for both HLW and L/ILW wastes.

  8. In-situ test programs related to design and construction of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) deep geologic repositories. Final report (Task 2), June 1981-November 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberds, W.; Bauhof, F.; Gonano, L.

    1983-03-01

    The media and sites considered include (1) basalt at Hanford, Washington; (2) tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site; (3) domal salt at specific Gulf Coast sites; (4) bedded salt at an unspecified site; and (5) granite at an unspecified site. A licensing perspective is outlined and a defensible rationale developed and utilized for the test selection process. This rationale essentially consists of: establishing the information needs for construction authorization; assessing the relevant capabilities of available tests; and matching the capabilities of specific tests to the perceived information needs. The information needs at any time consist of the additional information (if any) needed in order to predict satisfactory repository system performance with the required level of confidence, and thus are a function of: the significance of the repository engineered components and site characteristics to system performance; the currently available information, which may be supplemented with time; and the acceptable level of confidence in satisfactory performance for each licensing step. Determination of the acceptable levels of confidence and the significance of repository system components is outside the scope of this report. Suitable assumptions have thus been made regarding the development of information needs for construction authorization by the time of initial site submittals. Tests which are available and respond to the perceived media/site specific information needs, either by simulation or assessment of site characteristics, are identified and their capabilities assessed. Specific in situ tests are investigated and described in detail. Research and development which might be effective in improving test capabilities have been recommended

  9. Peculiarities of the High-Level Concrete-Encased Radwaste Repository Disposition at the Radwaste Disposal Site of the Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, V.G.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Gorodetsky, G.G.; Zverkov, Yu.A.; Ivanov, O.P.; Lemus, A.V.; Semenov, S.G.; Stepanov, V.E.; Chesnokov, A.V.; Shisha, A.D.

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents peculiarities of organization and performance of activities on disposition of the old repository that contained high-level waste and located at the radwaste disposal site of the Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute' in Moscow. The repository was constructed in the late 1950's. A large number of cases with high-level waste were placed in the repository along with low- and intermediate-level waste. When the repository was filled in 1973, the entire radwaste mass was encased in concrete matrix which caused difficulties with the radwaste extraction and made the work on the repository disposition highly hazardous in terms of radiation conditions. Based on results of the preliminary radiation survey of the repository, technologies and equipment to be used in disposition works were selected, and a decision on construction of external radiation shielding around the repository to maintain normal radiation conditions during these works was made. Specific features of the selected radiation shielding design constructed around the repository and of a technology used for the radwaste extraction from the repository are provided. According to the technology, conventional construction machines equipped with a hydraulic hammer or a clamshell were used for destruction of the concrete-encased radwaste mass and extraction of low-level waste. Intermediate- and high-level waste was extracted by remotely controlled robots operating inside the radiation shielding structure. Video cameras and a gamma imager were used for detection of high-level waste or fragments of such radwaste in the mass concrete being destroyed and for guiding remotely controlled robots. Peculiarities of rapid control of changes in radiation conditions in the working areas are presented. This control was performed using a gamma locator with on-line transmission of its data to a PC for their processing. With disposition of this not easily accessible repository, the stage of remediation of old

  10. Site specificity of biosphere parameter values in performance assessments of near-surface repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeevaert, Th.; Volckaert, G.; Vandecasleele

    1993-01-01

    The contribution is dealing with the performance assessment model for near surface repositories in Belgium. It consists of four submodels called: site, aquifer, biosphere and dose. For some characteristic radionuclides, results of the study are shown for a typical site, and differences in doses assessed with the generic approach discussed. Shortcomings are indicated

  11. Tunnel boring an alternative method in construction of spent fuel repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christersson, Jukka

    1984-05-01

    In projecting of the final disposal of nuclear waste in geological formations a great importance should be paid to the selection of the tunneling method. The environment of the chosen repository area should not be exposed to any but as minor disturbances as possible by the excavation method applied. This study approaches full face tunneling methods as an alternative to conventional drill-and-blast methods in the construction of spent fuel repository tunnels. According to experiences up till now it is obvious, that tunnelboring today is fully capable technically competing with conventional tunneling methods, even in the hardest granitic rocks. The most important advantages, it provides for the construction of repositories, are: The methods does not produce any damage in the surrounding rock. Possibility to use placement techniques, which do not require preparing of additive repository holes for the fuel elements. Saving in the use of expensive filling material. The fact, that tunnel boring in hard rock is an expensive alternative, is still valid. Constuction of straight lined tunnels in unfractured rocks by tunnel boring would cost about 30-40% more than by conventional methods. The lay out arrangement of bored tunnels still have a great influence on tunnel boring machine's economy. Due to this it would be round 40-70% more expensive method in the construction of spent fuel repositories. However intensive development w is being carried out to eliminate these limitations and to make machines more flexible. Future trends in tunnel boring look good at the moment. The number of sold units has been increasing and new applications have widen out during last ten years. Harder and more abrasive rocks can now be bored than ever before and the trend seems to continue. It also looks like the cost difference in the hardest rocks is firmly getting smaller and smaller all the time. (author)

  12. Repository design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, C M

    1982-01-01

    Various technical issues of radioactive waste design are addressed in this paper. Two approaches to repository design considered herein are: (1) design to minimize the disturbance of the hot rock; and (2) designs that intentionally modify the hot rock to insure better containment of the wastes. The latter designs range from construction of a highly impermeable barrier around a spherical cavern to creating a matrix of tunnels and boreholes to form a cage within which the hydraulic pressure is nearly constant. Examples of these design alternatives are described in some detail. It is concluded that proposed designs for repositories illustrate that performance criteria considered acceptable for such facilities can be met by appropriate site selection and repository engineering. With these technically feasible design concepts, it is also felt that socioeconomic and institutional issues can be better resolved. (BLM)

  13. Review of the sorption of radionuclides on the bedrock of Haestholmen and on construction and backfill materials of a final repository for reactor wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulmala, S.; Hakanen, M.

    1992-10-01

    Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) has plans to build a final repository for reactor wastes in the bedrock of the nuclear power plant site at Haestholmen, Loviisa. This report summarizes the sorption studies of radionuclides in Finnish bedrock performed at the Department of Radiochemistry, University of Helsinki. The values of mass distribution ratios, K d , and surface distribution ratios, K a ; of carbon, calsium, Zirconium, niobium, cobalt, nickel, strontium, cesium, uranium, plutonium, americium, thorium, chlorine, iodine and technetium are surveyed. Special attention is paid to the sorption data for construction and backfill materials of rector waste repository and the bedrock of Haestholmen. Safety assessment of a repository includes calculations of migration of the waste element in construction materials and backfill in the nearfield and in bedrock. Retardation by sorption of waste nuclides compared to groundwater flow is described by using distribution ratios between solid materials and water. (orig.)

  14. EBS modelling for the development of repository concepts tailored to siting environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, K.; Ueda, H.; Wakasugi, K.; Sakabe, Y.; Kitayama, K.; Umeki, H.; Takase, H.

    2007-01-01

    The Japanese siting approach for a HLW repository calls for volunteer host municipalities and thereby places particular emphasis on design flexibility. In particular, the repository concept needs to be tailored to the specific site characteristics. Starting from the H12 repository concept, NUMO has been examining a range of possible repository design options, including the EBS. In this paper. the requirements and strategy for the development of models for performance assessment and process understanding are discussed, taking into account the step-wise, iterative process of developing repository concepts. The areas requiring further development of models and databases in the long-term R and D programme have been identified as a 'wish list' that relates to the evaluation of a range of potential repository concepts, focusing on the near-field for the early stages of the development process. Among the issues on the list, NUMO has started the development of a flexible computer code for modelling three-dimensional mass transport to evaluate the impacts of various design options and components of the EBS. This tool has been applied to the analysis of the barrier effects of the tunnel plugs located in fractured rock. (authors)

  15. Fair rules for siting a high-level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterling, D.

    1992-01-01

    Geologic repositories are designed to resolve the ever-growing problem of high-level nuclear waste, but these facilities invite intense local opposition due to the perceived severity of the risks and the possibility of stigma effects. This analysis examines whether the perceived fairness of the siting process affects local residents' support for hosting a repository. In particular, a survey of 1,001 Nevada residents is used to test the hypothesis that an individual's willingness to accept a local repository will increase if he or she is convinced that this is the safest disposal option available. A logistic analysis indicates that beliefs regarding relative suitability have an independent effect on the acceptability of a local repository (i.e., Yucca Mountain). The article then considers the question of how to implement an optimizing strategy for siting facilities, comparing an idealized strategy against the original Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 and the Amendments Act of 1987. Although choosing the safest site seems as if it could enhance public acceptance of the repository program, there is currently little prospect of identifying the best option to the high-level waste problem and, as a results, little chance of gaining the public support that is necessary to promote a successful siting outcome. 81 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  16. NAGRA - Sites for geological repositories - Technical safety factors: Suggestions for stage 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive brochure published by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) examines the six sites for repositories for nuclear wastes in Switzerland which have been proposed in Stage 1 of the program concerning nuclear waste repositories. Three of these sites are proposed for both highly radioactive wastes as well as for low and medium-active wastes, the other three for low and medium-active wastes only. The evaluation of the sites is discussed. The sites are to be further evaluated in Stage 2 of the program. The work to be done in the further stages involved in the selection of the final site (or sites) is described. Along with definition of the regions where deep repositories could possibly be built, suggestions for the placing of the facilities required on the surface are discussed. Geological requirements on the repositories and safety-relevant characteristics of the various site options are discussed. The results of the assessments made are presented in tabular form. Maps and geological cross-sections of all the suggested areas are included

  17. Recharge-area nuclear waste repository in southeastern Sweden. Demonstration of hydrogeologic siting concepts and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provost, A.M.; Voss, C.I.

    2001-11-01

    Nuclear waste repositories located in regional ground-water recharge ('upstream') areas may provide the safety advantage that potentially released radionuclides would have long travel time and path length, and large path volume, within the bedrock before reaching the biosphere. Nuclear waste repositories located in ground-water discharge ('downstream') areas likely have much shorter travel time and path length and smaller path volume. Because most coastal areas are near the primary discharge areas for regional ground-water flow, coastal repositories may have a lower hydrogeologic safety margin than 'upstream' repositories located inland. Advantageous recharge-area sites may be located through careful use of regional three-dimensional, variable-density, ground-water modeling. Because of normal limitations of site-characterization programs in heterogeneous bedrock environments, the hydrogeologic structure and properties of the bedrock will generally remain unknown at the spatial scales required for the model analysis, and a number of alternative bedrock descriptions are equally likely. Model simulations need to be carried out for the full range of possible descriptions. The favorable sites are those that perform well for all of the modeled bedrock descriptions. Structural heterogeneities in the bedrock and local undulations in water-table topography, at a scale finer than considered by a given model, also may cause some locations in favored inland areas to have very short flow paths (of only hundreds of meters) and short travel times, compromising the long times and paths (of many kilometers) predicted by the analysis for these sites. However, in the absence of more detailed modeling, the favored upstream sites offer a greater chance of achieving long times and paths than do downstream discharge areas, where times and paths are expected to be short regardless of the level of detail included in the model. As an example of this siting approach, potential repository

  18. Efficient on-site construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Hvam, Lars

    2011-01-01

    selected market – optimising cost and value. Based on the platform, the company has managed to create a high-quality product at low cost. In fact, they have managed to reduce costs by more than 30 per cent, enabling the company to sell houses to people that normally would not be able to afford a house...... from the German platform such as: platform does not imply that “off-site manufacturing” is the most optimal production method, rather it is a matter of handling complexity; strong commitment and loyalty from the whole organization is needed; importance of having a specific customer focus (target...

  19. Design and construction issues associated with sealing of a repository in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, R.

    1991-01-01

    The isolation of radioactive wastes in geologic repositories requires that man-made penetrations such as shafts, tunnels and boreholes are adequately sealed. This paper presents the current design and construction issues for sealing a repository in salt and outlines some proposed solutions. The sealing components include shaft seals, tunnel seals, panel seals, and disposal room backfill. The performance requirements and construction constraints determine the types of materials selected and their necessary properties. The current issues of interest include: (1) selection of materials for rigid bulkheads used to promote recovery of the disturbed zone permeability; (2) the selection of bulkhead geometry to cutoff flow through more permeable zones, or zones where recovery of the backfill properties occurs more slowly or not at all; and (3) the interaction of fluids with hazardous wastes with brine and, subsequently, with seal materials that might affect seal material longevity. 19 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  20. The SocioEconomic analysis of repository siting (SEARS): Guide to data base preparation: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, R.R.; Murdock, S.H.; Leistritz, F.L.; Kiel, B.; Parpia, B.

    1984-11-01

    This guide describes the data bases in the SocioEconomic Analysis of Repository Siting (SEARS) modeling system. This model is a user-interactive, computerized model for projecting the economic, demographic, public service, and fiscal impacts of repository siting. This guide provides a description of the data bases, sources of data, data formats, and preprocessing programs for adapting and implementing the SEARS system and is seen as an essential reference for technical users of the model. It should be used in conjunction with reports describing the model's features and characteristics. 95 refs., 3 tabs

  1. Plans for characterization of the potential geologic repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, D.C.; Blanchard, M.B.; Voegele, M.D.; Younker, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Site investigations in the vicinity of the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have occurred for many years. Although information from previous site investigations was adequate to support preliminary evaluations by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in the Environmental Assessment and to develop conceptual repository and waste package designs, this information is insufficient to proceed to the advanced designs and performance assessments required for the license application to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Therefore, intensive site characterization is planned, as described in the December 1988 Site Characterization Plan (SCP). The data acquisition activities described in the SCP are focused on obtaining information to allow evaluations of the natural and engineered barriers considered potentially relevant to repository performance. The site data base must be adequate to allow predictions of the range of expected variation in geologic conditions over the next 10,000 years, as well as predictions of the probabilities for catastrophic geologic events that could affect repository performance. 4 refs., 4 figs

  2. Hydrologic investigations to evaluate a potential site for a nuclear-waste repository, Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site, is being evaluated by the U.S. Department of Energy for its suitability as a site for a mined geologic respository for high-level nuclear wastes. The repository facility would be constructed in densely welded tuffs in the unsaturated zone. In support of the evaluation, the U.S. Geological Survey is conducting hydrologic investigations of both the saturated and unsaturated zones, as well as paleohydrologic studies. Investigation in saturated-zone hydrology will help define one component of ground-water flow paths and travel times to the accessible environment. A two-dimensional, steady-state, finite-element model was developed to describe the regional hydrogeologic framework. The unsaturated zone is 450 to 700 meters thick at Yucca Mountain; precipitation averages about 150 millimeters per year. A conceptual hydrologic model of the unsaturated zone incorporates the following features: minimal net infiltration, variable distribution of flux, lateral flow, potential for perched-water zones, fracture and matrix flow, and flow along faults. The conceptual model is being tested primarily by specialized test drilling; plans also are being developed for in-situ testing in a proposed exploratory shaft. Quaternary climatic and hydrologic conditions are being evaluated to develop estimates of the hydrologic effects of potential climatic changes during the next 10,000 years. Evaluation approaches include analysis of plant macrofossils in packrat middens, evaluation of lake and playa sediments, infiltration tests, and modeling effects of potential increased recharge on the potentiometric surface

  3. Evaluation of Five Sedimentary Rocks Other Than Salt for Geologic Repository Siting Purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croff, A.G.; Lomenick, T.F.; Lowrie, R.S.; Stow, S.H.

    2003-11-15

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), in order to increase the diversity of rock types under consideration by the geologic disposal program, initiated the Sedimary ROck Program (SERP), whose immediate objectiv eis to evaluate five types of secimdnary rock - sandstone, chalk, carbonate rocks (limestone and dolostone), anhydrock, and shale - to determine the potential for siting a geologic repository. The evaluation of these five rock types, together with the ongoing salt studies, effectively results in the consideration of all types of relatively impermeable sedimentary rock for repository purposes. The results of this evaluation are expressed in terms of a ranking of the five rock types with respect to their potential to serve as a geologic repository host rock. This comparative evaluation was conducted on a non-site-specific basis, by use of generic information together with rock evaluation criteria (RECs) derived from the DOE siting guidelines for geologic repositories (CFR 1984). An information base relevant to rock evaluation using these RECs was developed in hydrology, geochemistry, rock characteristics (rock occurrences, thermal response, rock mechanics), natural resources, and rock dissolution. Evaluation against postclosure and preclosure RECs yielded a ranking of the five subject rocks with respect to their potential as repository host rocks. Shale was determined to be the most preferred of the five rock types, with sandstone a distant second, the carbonate rocks and anhydrock a more distant third, and chalk a relatively close fourth.

  4. Evaluation of Five Sedimentary Rocks Other Than Salt for Geologic Repository Siting Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croff, A.G.; Lomenick, T.F.; Lowrie, R.S.; Stow, S.H.

    2003-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), in order to increase the diversity of rock types under consideration by the geologic disposal program, initiated the Sedimary ROck Program (SERP), whose immediate objectiv eis to evaluate five types of secimdnary rock - sandstone, chalk, carbonate rocks (limestone and dolostone), anhydrock, and shale - to determine the potential for siting a geologic repository. The evaluation of these five rock types, together with the ongoing salt studies, effectively results in the consideration of all types of relatively impermeable sedimentary rock for repository purposes. The results of this evaluation are expressed in terms of a ranking of the five rock types with respect to their potential to serve as a geologic repository host rock. This comparative evaluation was conducted on a non-site-specific basis, by use of generic information together with rock evaluation criteria (RECs) derived from the DOE siting guidelines for geologic repositories (CFR 1984). An information base relevant to rock evaluation using these RECs was developed in hydrology, geochemistry, rock characteristics (rock occurrences, thermal response, rock mechanics), natural resources, and rock dissolution. Evaluation against postclosure and preclosure RECs yielded a ranking of the five subject rocks with respect to their potential as repository host rocks. Shale was determined to be the most preferred of the five rock types, with sandstone a distant second, the carbonate rocks and anhydrock a more distant third, and chalk a relatively close fourth.

  5. Conceptual model for regional radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site. Final draft, technical memorandum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, W.C.; Voorhees, M.L.; Prickett, T.A.

    1980-05-23

    This technical memorandum was prepared to: (1) describe a typical basalt radionuclide repository site, (2) describe geologic and hydrologic processes associated with regional radionuclide transport in basalts, (3) define the parameters required to model regional radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site, and (4) develop a ''conceptual model'' of radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site. In a general hydrological sense, basalts may be described as layered sequences of aquifers and aquitards. The Columbia River Basalt, centered near the semi-arid Pasco Basin, is considered by many to be typical basalt repository host rock. Detailed description of the flow system including flow velocities with high-low hydraulic conductivity sequences are not possible with existing data. However, according to theory, waste-transport routes are ultimately towards the Columbia River and the lengths of flow paths from the repository to the biosphere may be relatively short. There are many physical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear processes with associated parameters that together determine the possible pattern of radionuclide migration in basalts and surrounding formations. Brief process descriptions and associated parameter lists are provided. Emphasis has been placed on the use of the distribution coefficient in simulating ion exchange. The use of the distribution coefficient approach is limited because it takes into account only relatively fast mass transfer processes. In general, knowledge of hydrogeochemical processes is primitive.

  6. Conceptual model for regional radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site. Final draft, technical memorandum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, W.C.; Voorhees, M.L.; Prickett, T.A.

    1980-01-01

    This technical memorandum was prepared to: (1) describe a typical basalt radionuclide repository site, (2) describe geologic and hydrologic processes associated with regional radionuclide transport in basalts, (3) define the parameters required to model regional radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site, and (4) develop a ''conceptual model'' of radionuclide transport from a basalt repository site. In a general hydrological sense, basalts may be described as layered sequences of aquifers and aquitards. The Columbia River Basalt, centered near the semi-arid Pasco Basin, is considered by many to be typical basalt repository host rock. Detailed description of the flow system including flow velocities with high-low hydraulic conductivity sequences are not possible with existing data. However, according to theory, waste-transport routes are ultimately towards the Columbia River and the lengths of flow paths from the repository to the biosphere may be relatively short. There are many physical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear processes with associated parameters that together determine the possible pattern of radionuclide migration in basalts and surrounding formations. Brief process descriptions and associated parameter lists are provided. Emphasis has been placed on the use of the distribution coefficient in simulating ion exchange. The use of the distribution coefficient approach is limited because it takes into account only relatively fast mass transfer processes. In general, knowledge of hydrogeochemical processes is primitive

  7. Quality assurance during site construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dommke, J.; Jurgutat, H.

    1980-01-01

    During the time of planing and construction of a nuclear power plant, the following proceeding is approved: - the deliverer of a nuclear power plant provides the reports fixing the quality assurance program, it means that he is responsible to write the safety analysis report, the specifications for the erection of the components, the working manuals and specifications for testing (eg nondestr. testing) - the manufacturing of components or systems will be controlled by an own independent quality assurance group, provided that this group was checked by the quality assurance group of the applicant - the TUeV with its independent assessors will fix the requirements relating to quality assurance in its assessment. On this basis the examination of the applicants specifications, working manuals, testing specifications will be done. The efficiency of quality assurance at the manufacturer and at the applicant will be checked by the TUeV specialists by considering specifications of modifications, repairs or tolerances. A mean point of the quality assurance in Germany is the dynamic adjustment, of an action on the latest state of engineering or science. If there exists a change of rules or guidelines, the quality assurance requirements have to be fit on this state in so far as it is feasible from the technical point of view. (orig./RW)

  8. Geochemical site-selection criteria for HLW repositories in Europe and North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, David; Arthur, Randolph C.; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Shibata, Masahiro; Yui, Mikazu

    2000-01-01

    Geochemical as well as socio-economic issues associated with the selection of potential sites to host a high-level nuclear waste repository have received considerable attention in repository programs in Europe (Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the U.K.) and North America (Canada and the United States). The objective of the present study is to summarize this international experience with particular emphasis on geochemical properties that factor into the adopted site-selection strategies. Results indicate that the geochemical properties of a site play a subordinate role, at best, to other geotechnical properties in the international site-selection approaches. In countries where geochemical properties are acknowledged in the site-selection approach, requirements are stated qualitatively and tend to focus on associated impacts on the stability of the engineered barrier system and on radionuclide transport. Site geochemical properties that are likely to control the long-term stability of geochemical conditions and radionuclide migration behavior are unspecified, however. This non-prescriptive approach may be reasonable for purposes of screening among potential sites, but a better understanding of site properties that are most important in controlling the long-term geochemical evolution of the site over a range of possible scenarios would enable the potential sites to be ranked in terms of their suitability to host a repository. (author)

  9. Societal and Political Issues of Site Selection Process Development for the LILW Repository in Slovenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polic, Marko; KoS, Drago [Univ. of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Zeleznik, Nadja [ARAO, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2006-09-15

    The siting of the radioactive waste repository, even the low and intermediate level radioactivity waste (LILW), presents a great problem in almost every country that produces these materials. Attempts to locate a disposal facility in Slovenia have until now proven unsuccessful. After the failure of the first 'technocratic' approach it became evident that the main problem was not a technical one, but socio-psychological, namely the public acceptability of any radioactive waste disposal facility (RWD). In general people strongly oppose to any kind of such a facility in their vicinity and exhibit a 'Not in my Backyard' (NIMBY) attitude even if they are aware of its necessity. However there are slight signs of changes especially in argumentation supporting the public denial of LIL RWD. The main LILW producer in Slovenia is nuclear power plant in Krsko (NEK). The project for the construction of this plant did not include consideration of the LIL RWD while at that time plans for new NPP's in Yugoslavia with a centralized LILW repository were present. The search for possible locations of LILW repository started only after the beginning of its commercial operation in 1983. The general development of radioactive waste management (RWM) issue in Slovenia was similar to the development in other developed countries, while its details and context differ in smaller or greater degree due to different cultural, political, social and economic backgrounds. The RWM process was following the same general course: technological approach neglecting public issues - public reactance - move toward public involvement. All this was accompanied by the relevant public attitudes: neutrality - rejection - eventual conditional public acceptance. The procedure to find a LILW repository is proposed and established, but the processes leading to final solution are going on without being completely foreseen yet. The general underlying view is connected to the fear of

  10. Societal and Political Issues of Site Selection Process Development for the LILW Repository in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polic, Marko; KoS, Drago; Zeleznik, Nadja

    2006-01-01

    The siting of the radioactive waste repository, even the low and intermediate level radioactivity waste (LILW), presents a great problem in almost every country that produces these materials. Attempts to locate a disposal facility in Slovenia have until now proven unsuccessful. After the failure of the first 'technocratic' approach it became evident that the main problem was not a technical one, but socio-psychological, namely the public acceptability of any radioactive waste disposal facility (RWD). In general people strongly oppose to any kind of such a facility in their vicinity and exhibit a 'Not in my Backyard' (NIMBY) attitude even if they are aware of its necessity. However there are slight signs of changes especially in argumentation supporting the public denial of LIL RWD. The main LILW producer in Slovenia is nuclear power plant in Krsko (NEK). The project for the construction of this plant did not include consideration of the LIL RWD while at that time plans for new NPP's in Yugoslavia with a centralized LILW repository were present. The search for possible locations of LILW repository started only after the beginning of its commercial operation in 1983. The general development of radioactive waste management (RWM) issue in Slovenia was similar to the development in other developed countries, while its details and context differ in smaller or greater degree due to different cultural, political, social and economic backgrounds. The RWM process was following the same general course: technological approach neglecting public issues - public reactance - move toward public involvement. All this was accompanied by the relevant public attitudes: neutrality - rejection - eventual conditional public acceptance. The procedure to find a LILW repository is proposed and established, but the processes leading to final solution are going on without being completely foreseen yet. The general underlying view is connected to the fear of radioactivity and general negative

  11. Hydrological performance assessment on siting the high level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Liu Shufen; Wang Ju; Wang Zhiming; Su Rui; Lv Chuanhe; Zong Zihua

    2007-01-01

    Based on the research experiences in China and some developed countries in the world, the processes and methods on hydrological performance assessment for the siting of high radioactive repository are discussed in this paper. The methods and contents of hydrological performance assessment are discussed respectively for region, area and site hydrological investigation stages. At the same time, the hydrological performance assessment of the potential site for high level radioactive waste in China is introduced. (authors)

  12. Presentation of safety after closure of the repository for spent nuclear fuel. Main report of the project SR-Site. Part I; Redovisning av saekerhet efter foerslutning av slutfoervaret foer anvaent kaernbraensle. Huvudrapport fraan projekt SR-Site. Del I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of the safety assessment SR-Site is to investigate whether a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel by KBS-3 type can be constructed at Forsmark in Oesthammar in Sweden. The location of the Forsmark has been selected based on results of several surveys from surface conditions at depth in Forsmark and in Laxemar in Oskarshamn. The choice of location is not justified in SR-Site Report, but in other attachments to SKB's permit applications. SR-Site Report is an important part of SKB's permit applications to construct and operate a repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in Oesthammar. The purpose of the report in the applications is to show that a repository at Forsmark is safe after closure

  13. Presentation of safety after closure of the repository for spent nuclear fuel. Main report of the project SR-Site. Part II; Redovisning av saekerhet efter foerslutning av slutfoervaret foer anvaent kaernbraensle. Huvudrapport fraan projekt SR-Site. Del II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of the safety assessment SR-Site is to investigate whether a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel by KBS-3 type can be constructed at Forsmark in Oesthammar in Sweden. The location of the Forsmark has been selected based on results of several surveys from surface conditions at depth in Forsmark and in Laxemar in Oskarshamn. The choice of location is not justified in SR-Site Report, but in other attachments to SKB's permit applications. SR-Site Report is an important part of SKB's permit applications to construct and operate a repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in Oesthammar. The purpose of the report in the applications is to show that a repository at Forsmark is safe after closure

  14. Presentation of safety after closure of the repository for spent nuclear fuel. Main report of the project SR-Site. Part III; Redovisning av saekerhet efter foerslutning av slutfoervaret foer anvaent kaernbraensle. Huvudrapport fraan projekt SR-Site. Del III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of the safety assessment SR-Site is to investigate whether a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel by KBS-3 type can be constructed at Forsmark in Oesthammar in Sweden. The location of the Forsmark has been selected based on results of several surveys from surface conditions at depth in Forsmark and in Laxemar in Oskarshamn. The choice of location is not justified in SR-Site Report, but in other attachments to SKB's permit applications. SR-Site Report is an important part of SKB's permit applications to construct and operate a repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in Oesthammar. The purpose of the report in the applications is to show that a repository at Forsmark is safe after closure

  15. Site investigations for repositories for solid radioactive wastes in deep continental geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report reviews the earth-science investigations and associated scientific studies that may be needed to select a repository site and confirm that its characteristics are such that it will provide a safe confinement for solidified high-level and alpha-bearing and certain other solid radioactive wastes. Site investigations, as used in this report, cover earth sciences and associated safety analyses. Other site-investigation activities are identified but not otherwise considered here. The repositories under consideration are those consisting of mined cavities in deep continental rocks for accepting wastes in the solid and packaged form. The term deep as used in this report is used solely to emphasize the distinction between the repositories discussed in this report and those for shallow-ground disposal. In general, depths under consideration here are greater than 200 metres. The term continental refers to those geological formations that occur either beneath present-day land masses and adjoining islands or beneath the shallow seas. One of the objectives of site investigations is to collect the site-specific data necessary for the different evaluations, such as modelling required to assess the long-term safety of an underground repository

  16. Site investigations for repositories for solid radioactive wastes in deep continental geological formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This report reviews the earth-science investigations and associated scientific studies that may be needed to select a repository site and confirm that its characteristics are such that it will provide a safe confinement for solidified high-level and alpha-bearing and certain other solid radioactive wastes. Site investigations, as used in this report, cover earth sciences and associated safety analyses. Other site-investigation activities are identified but not otherwise considered here. The repositories under consideration are those consisting of mined cavities in deep continental rocks for accepting wastes in the solid and packaged form. The term deep as used in this report is used solely to emphasize the distinction between the repositories discussed in this report and those for shallow-ground disposal. In general, depths under consideration here are greater than 200 metres. The term continental refers to those geological formations that occur either beneath present-day land masses and adjoining islands or beneath the shallow seas. One of the objectives of site investigations is to collect the site-specific data necessary for the different evaluations, such as modelling required to assess the long-term safety of an underground repository.

  17. Site selection - location of the repository for spent nuclear fuel; Platsval - lokalisering av slutfoervaret foer anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    This document describes the localization work and SKB's choice of site for the repository. Furthermore, SKB's basis and rationale for the decisions taken during the work are reported. The document is Appendix PV of applications under the Nuclear Activities Act and the Environmental Code to both build and operate an encapsulation plant adjacent to the central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel in Oskarshamn, and to construct and operate a disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in Oesthammar municipality

  18. The Swedish approach to siting of a deep geological repository and interaction with the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thegerstroem, C.

    1993-01-01

    The planned process for siting of a deep geological repository for encapsulated spent nuclear fuel in Sweden was presented in the 1992 SKB R and D programme. A first phase of the repository operation will be limited to disposal of a small amount of encapsulated spent nuclear fuel (approximately 800 tons). This phase will be followed by an evaluation of experiences as well as alternative options before deciding if, when and how to proceed with disposal of the remaining amounts of spent fuel. During the first phase it will be possible to retrieve the waste. Siting is planned to be done in stages. The field studies and safety assessments performed strongly indicate that it is possible to find geological suitable sites within many regions of Sweden. The potential for fulfilling safety requirements will be a crucial factor in site-selection. Local interest in, and attitude to a repository siting will play an important role in the siting process. It is important that an atmosphere of trust and openness can be established. Extensive geological site characterization work will be carried out at the sites selected and studies of other technical, social, economical or political matters will be equally important. Public communication and local participation will form an essential part of the siting programme from the outset. 3 refs., 3 figs

  19. Radioactive waste disposal programme and siting regions for geological deep repositories. Executive summary. November 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    There are radioactive wastes in Switzerland. Since many decades they are produced by the operation of the five nuclear power plants, by medicine, industry and research. Important steps towards the disposal of these wastes are already realized; the corresponding activities are practised. This particularly concerns handling and packaging of the radioactive wastes, their characterization and inventory, as well as the interim storage and the inferred transportations. Preparatory works in the field of scientific research on deep geological repositories have allowed to acquire high level of technical and scientific expertise in that domain. The feasibility of building long-term safe geological repositories in Switzerland was demonstrated for all types of radioactive wastes; the demonstration was accepted by the Federal Council. There is enough knowledge to propose geological siting regions for further works. The financial funds already accumulated guaranty the financing of the dismantling of the power plants as well as building deep geological repositories for the radioactive wastes. The regulations already exist and the organisational arrangements necessary for the fruitful continuation of the works already done have been taken. The programme of the disposal of radioactive wastes also describes the next stages towards the timely realization of the deep repositories as well as the level of the financial needs. The programme is updated every five years, checked by the regulatory bodies and accepted by the Federal Council who reports to the parliament. The process of choosing a site, which will be completed in the next years, is detailed in the conceptual part of the programme for deep geological repositories. The NAGRA proposals are based exclusively on technical and scientific considerations; the global evaluation taking into account also political considerations has to be performed by the authorities and the Federal Council. The programme states that at the beginning of

  20. VerSi - A Methodology for a Comparison of Potential Repository Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hund, Wilhelm

    2010-09-01

    In the year 2000 the moratorium on the exploration of the Gorleben salt dome as a potential repository for all kinds of radioactive waste became effective as a result of the consensus agreement between the Federal Government and the utilities about phasing out nuclear energy in Germany. All exploration activities were interrupted for at maximum ten years to clarify conceptual and safety relevant questions. A new set of safety requirements for the final disposal of heat-generating radioactive waste in deep geological formations was established in July 2009 by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU). As the BMU intended to carry out a comparison of potential repository sites it was necessary to initiate the development of a methodology for the identification of the site with the highest level of safety. A comparison of different repository sites requires a tool ensuring most confident and objective criteria for the comparison, whereas up to present long-term safety analyses were focused on confirming the suitability of sites by meeting the protection objectives by the measures of dose and risk. Within the 2006 established project VerSi a methodology for comparing different sites in different host rocks will be developed on the basis of long-term safety analyses taking into account geoscientific databases, inventory of radioactive waste, waste containers, corresponding disposal concepts and the feasibility of appropriate backfilling and closure concepts. The development of the method is aiming at providing measures other than dose and risk for the evaluation of the level of safety. For testing the tools a HLW-repository hosted in a salt dome (Gorleben) will be compared with a generic HLW-repository in consolidated clay as a host rock. As until now in Germany no clay stone site has been investigated for hosting a HLW repository, the required data are transferred from international research projects and repository concepts

  1. Classification of methodologies in use for national repository siting programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Countries which possess nuclear power and/or weapons programs have already, or will in the near future, faced the problems associated with siting, developing and operating waste management and disposal facilities. Whereas management and conditioning facilities are generally seen as having a finite life, and have usually been co-located with an existing nuclear power plant, disposal facilities, for whatever category of waste, have consistently generated intense public debate, because of their unique long-term nature. Examination of siting programs around the world shows a wide range in degree of success. It is obvious that there has been a steady evolution from centralized, directed siting methods towards those in which public participation has become increasingly important. Many countries have begun to adopt a process of volunteer-siting, in which local communities or jurisdictions invite facility proponents to examine the potential suitability of their locale. Varying degrees of incentive, mostly financial, are offered in many cases

  2. Ambient air monitoring to support HLW repository site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fransioli, P.M.; Dixon, W.R.

    1993-01-01

    Site characterization at the Yucca Mountain site includes an ambient air quality and meteorological monitoring program to provide information for environmental and site characterization issues. The program is designed to provide data for four basic purposes: Atmospheric dispersion calculations to estimate impacts of possible airborne releases of radiological material; Engineering design and extreme weather event characterization; Local climate studies for environmental impact analyses and climate characterization; and, Air quality permits required for site characterization work. The program is compiling a database that will provide the basis for analyses and reporting related to the purposes of the program. Except for reporting particulate matter and limited meteorological data to the State of Nevada for an air quality permit condition, the data have yet to be formally analyzed and reported

  3. Disruption scenarios for a nuclear-waste repository on the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, R.L.; Bingham, F.W.; Barr, G.E.

    1981-01-01

    Scenarios are being constructed for the release of radioactive maerial from hypothetical repositories in different types of rock at NTS. Deductive event trees are constructed; each path through an event tree is a scenario. The complete set of NTS event trees comprises about 340 scenarios, not counting the multiple paths through the subtrees made by expanding complex events. Each of these scenarios is being analyzed for 10 different types of rocks

  4. Site investigations for repositories for solid radioactive wastes in shallow ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report provides an overview and technical guidelines for investigations on a national level for the selection and confirmation of a repository site that will provide adequately safe performance for disposal of solid radioactive wastes that are low- or intermediate-level and short-lived. It also provides basic information on technical activities to be undertaken and on techniques that are available for such investigations in the various steps in selecting suitable sites. The report supplements the information given in Shallow Ground Disposal of Radioactive Wastes: A Guidebook, IAEA Safety Series No. 53 (1981). This report focuses mainly on different aspects of earth sciences and the various investigative techniques relative to earth sciences that may be necessary for site investigations. Some major related studies in other fields are discussed briefly. It is assumed that no previous investigations have been undertaken, and the report proceeds through area site selection to the stage when the site is confirmed as suitable for a waste repository

  5. Site investigations for repositories for solid radioactive wastes in shallow ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This report provides an overview and technical guidelines for investigations on a national level for the selection and confirmation of a repository site that will provide adequately safe performance for disposal of solid radioactive wastes that are low- or intermediate-level and short-lived. It also provides basic information on technical activities to be undertaken and on techniques that are available for such investigations in the various steps in selecting suitable sites. The report supplements the information given in Shallow Ground Disposal of Radioactive Wastes: A Guidebook, IAEA Safety Series No. 53 (1981). This report focuses mainly on different aspects of earth sciences and the various investigative techniques relative to earth sciences that may be necessary for site investigations. Some major related studies in other fields are discussed briefly. It is assumed that no previous investigations have been undertaken, and the report proceeds through area site selection to the stage when the site is confirmed as suitable for a waste repository.

  6. Proposals of geological sites for L/ILW and HLW repositories. Geological background. Text volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    On April 2008, the Swiss Federal Council approved the conceptual part of the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Repositories. The Plan sets out the details of the site selection procedure for geological repositories for low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) and high-level waste (HLW). It specifies that selection of geological siting regions and sites for repositories in Switzerland will be conducted in three stages, the first one (the subject of this report) being the definition of geological siting regions within which the repository projects will be elaborated in more detail in the later stages of the Sectoral Plan. The geoscientific background is based on the one hand on an evaluation of the geological investigations previously carried out by Nagra on deep geological disposal of HLW and L/ILW in Switzerland (investigation programmes in the crystalline basement and Opalinus Clay in Northern Switzerland, investigations of L/ILW sites in the Alps, research in rock laboratories in crystalline rock and clay); on the other hand, new geoscientific studies have also been carried out in connection with the site selection process. Formulation of the siting proposals is conducted in five steps: A) In a first step, the waste inventory is allocated to the L/ILW and HLW repositories; B) The second step involves defining the barrier and safety concepts for the two repositories. With a view to evaluating the geological siting possibilities, quantitative and qualitative guidelines and requirements on the geology are derived on the basis of these concepts. These relate to the time period to be considered, the space requirements for the repository, the properties of the host rock (depth, thickness, lateral extent, hydraulic conductivity), long-term stability, reliability of geological findings and engineering suitability; C) In the third step, the large-scale geological-tectonic situation is assessed and large-scale areas that remain under consideration are defined. For the L

  7. Politics and technology in repository siting: military versus commercial nuclear wastes at WIPP 1972-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    During the 1970s, attempts by the federal government to develop a comprehensive system for disposing of nuclear wastes in geologic repositories were plagued by two related political problems; (1) whether or not military and commercial wastes should be buried together in the same repository, and (2) how to define the host state's role in the repository siting mechanism. This article explains why these two problems were connected by showing how they proved to be of decisive importance in the development of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project in Carlsbad, New Mexico. Although WIPP was initially conceived as a wholly military facility, The Department of Energy triggered a three-year dispute over the project's scope by proposing in 1978 to include commercial wastes in the repository. The key issue in the dispute concerned the political legitimacy of decision-making mechanisms for repository siting, which depend upon the extent to which they both adequately represent the interests of affected groups and meet an indistinct technical/political criterion of acceptable safety. DOE's ill-fated proposal to mix military and commercial disposal at WIPP demonstrated that the two rely on somewhat different conditions for their legitimacy. The agency overlapped the legitimate authorities of the federal and state governments and gave itself the hopeless task of negotiating a new boundary between them. 50 references, 3 figures

  8. Quality assurance during site construction. Pt. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, N.

    1980-01-01

    Scope of 'Site Construction concerning Electrical Equipment' (Installation, erection, commissioning, operation): tasks and organization of Siemens-Field Services Division; organization on site; receiving, incoming inspection and storage of material; installation, erection; (drawings, instructions, documents / execution of installation / personnel qualification). Non conformance and corrective actions; quality records; internal audits. (orig.)

  9. Proceedings of the second international workshop on design and construction of final repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, G R

    1995-11-01

    Many international radioactive waste disposal programs are in the design and construction phases for underground laboratories and repositories. To provide a forum for discussion Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) in 1992 initiated an international workshop series in which the organizations considering disposal in hard crystalline rock could meet to discuss issues relevant to The Design and Construction of Final Repositories. The first workshop with the theme `Excavation through water conducting major fracture zones` was hosted by SKB in Saestaholm, Sweden on 1993 March 30 to 31 and the workshop proceedings are SKB Technical Report 94-06. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited hosted the second workshop with the theme `Factors influencing repository design and layout` in Winnipeg, Canada on 1994 February 15 to 17. Thirty-eight people from organizations in eight countries and representative of the European Community participated in the Workshop. This report is the summary of the second workshop. The discussions at the Workshop were recorded and reproduced in the summary. Some editorial license was used to provide the text that follows. The participants were given the opportunity to comment on the text prior to publication. Unfortunately some individual speakers could not be identified on the recording of the Workshop discussions and are labelled `unidentified` in the text. (author).

  10. Proceedings of the second international workshop on design and construction of final repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, G.R.

    1995-11-01

    Many international radioactive waste disposal programs are in the design and construction phases for underground laboratories and repositories. To provide a forum for discussion Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (SKB) in 1992 initiated an international workshop series in which the organizations considering disposal in hard crystalline rock could meet to discuss issues relevant to The Design and Construction of Final Repositories. The first workshop with the theme 'Excavation through water conducting major fracture zones' was hosted by SKB in Saestaholm, Sweden on 1993 March 30 to 31 and the workshop proceedings are SKB Technical Report 94-06. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited hosted the second workshop with the theme 'Factors influencing repository design and layout' in Winnipeg, Canada on 1994 February 15 to 17. Thirty-eight people from organizations in eight countries and representative of the European Community participated in the Workshop. This report is the summary of the second workshop. The discussions at the Workshop were recorded and reproduced in the summary. Some editorial license was used to provide the text that follows. The participants were given the opportunity to comment on the text prior to publication. Unfortunately some individual speakers could not be identified on the recording of the Workshop discussions and are labelled 'unidentified' in the text. (author)

  11. To trace the water movements in the sites of nuclear waste repositories by chlorine-36

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zhanxue

    1995-01-01

    Chlorine-36 tracing of the water movements in the potential high-level radioactive waste disposal repository sites has been briefly reviewed. The application of this method to the tracing of precipitation infiltration into the unsaturated zone and the water movement in the saturated zone, to the dating of groundwater and the study of solute migration rates have been discussed

  12. Experiences of risk in connection with site selection for a repository for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biel, A.; Dahlstrand, U.

    1991-03-01

    Describes an investigation of the experiences of risks the the Swedish inhabitants have in connection with site selection for a repository for radioactive waste. The attitudes show a rather complicated picture. It is influenced by such factors as: sex, education and distance to the facility. (KAE)

  13. Prospective safety performance evaluation on construction sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianguo; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Limao; Skibniewski, Miroslaw J; Wang, Yanhong

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a systematic Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) based approach for Prospective Safety Performance Evaluation (PSPE) on construction sites, with causal relationships and interactions between enablers and the goals of PSPE taken into account. According to a sample of 450 valid questionnaire surveys from 30 Chinese construction enterprises, a SEM model with 26 items included for PSPE in the context of Chinese construction industry is established and then verified through the goodness-of-fit test. Three typical types of construction enterprises, namely the state-owned enterprise, private enterprise and Sino-foreign joint venture, are selected as samples to measure the level of safety performance given the enterprise scale, ownership and business strategy are different. Results provide a full understanding of safety performance practice in the construction industry, and indicate that the level of overall safety performance situation on working sites is rated at least a level of III (Fair) or above. This phenomenon can be explained that the construction industry has gradually matured with the norms, and construction enterprises should improve the level of safety performance as not to be eliminated from the government-led construction industry. The differences existing in the safety performance practice regarding different construction enterprise categories are compared and analyzed according to evaluation results. This research provides insights into cause-effect relationships among safety performance factors and goals, which, in turn, can facilitate the improvement of high safety performance in the construction industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Research procedure and criteria for analysis and choice of variants for construction of national radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vachev, B.

    1993-01-01

    General principles, overlying objectives and basic radioactive waste management strategy future priorities are considered. The research procedure is based on system approach and analysis, decision making theory, basic objectives and principles of the national repository construction. Main criteria and some basic notions (like radioactive wastes environment and radioactive wastes barriers - input and output) are introduced. Six environment elements are identified: surroundings and natural environment, economic, scientific and technical-technological, socio-psychological, legal and institutional-political. Flow charts of the hierarchical structure of research procedure, decision making levels and direct and back feeds are presented and a scenario analysis is proposed as one of the tools for reflection of uncertainty. The hierarchical structure of the high level waste repository construction scenarios and variants tree (8 levels) is defined. The methodology and methods of analysis, screening and choice of variants is considered. A 7-group system of criteria and constrains for analysis, screening and choice of variants is formulated. One implementation of the proposed methodology and procedure is the technological choice for radioactive waste conditioning and solving of a preliminary site selection problem. 4 figs., 25 refs. (author)

  15. Operations Management on The Construction Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian

    2004-01-01

    this as a refreshing renewal and improvement of practical operations management at the site. However this paper will present a first step of development of a new approach to operations management at the building site, which at the same time builds on, and criticize lean construction for missing the point...... of the knowledge economy. This endeavour is carried out in two ways. First by a reading of the operations management literature. Juxtaposing this with lean construction extentions and the critique developed by other scholars. And also drawing on human resource management approaches. Second through a series......” scheme. In both directions it is revealed that the human resource and knowledge element of building processes is largely left untouched by lean construction methods. It is suggested to introduce at least two more dimensions of operations management at the site than the ones offered in lean construction...

  16. Concept document of the repository-based software engineering program: A constructive appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    A constructive appraisal of the Concept Document of the Repository-Based Software Engineering Program is provided. The Concept Document is designed to provide an overview of the Repository-Based Software Engineering (RBSE) Program. The Document should be brief and provide the context for reading subsequent requirements and product specifications. That is, all requirements to be developed should be traceable to the Concept Document. Applied Expertise's analysis of the Document was directed toward assuring that: (1) the Executive Summary provides a clear, concise, and comprehensive overview of the Concept (rewrite as necessary); (2) the sections of the Document make best use of the NASA 'Data Item Description' for concept documents; (3) the information contained in the Document provides a foundation for subsequent requirements; and (4) the document adequately: identifies the problem being addressed; articulates RBSE's specific role; specifies the unique aspects of the program; and identifies the nature and extent of the program's users.

  17. High-level radioactive waste repositories site selection plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castanon, A.; Recreo, F.

    1985-01-01

    A general vision of the high level nuclear waste (HLNW) and/or nuclear spent fuel facilities site selection processes is given, according to the main international nuclear safety regulatory organisms quidelines and the experience from those countries which have reached a larger development of their national nuclear programs. (author)

  18. Studies on Labour Safety in Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kanchana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction industry has accomplished extensive growth worldwide particularly in past few decades. For a construction project to be successful, safety of the structures as well as that of the personnel is of utmost importance. The safety issues are to be considered right from the design stage till the completion and handing over of the structure. Construction industry employs skilled and unskilled labourers subject to construction site accidents and health risks. A proper coordination between contractors, clients, and workforce is needed for safe work conditions which are very much lacking in Indian construction companies. Though labour safety laws are available, the numerous accidents taking place at construction sites are continuing. Management commitment towards health and safety of the workers is also lagging. A detailed literature study was carried out to understand the causes of accidents, preventive measures, and development of safe work environment. This paper presents the results of a questionnaire survey, which was distributed among various categories of construction workers in Kerala region. The paper examines and discusses in detail the total working hours, work shifts, nativity of the workers, number of accidents, and type of injuries taking place in small and large construction sites.

  19. Studies on Labour Safety in Construction Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchana, S.; Sivaprakash, P.; Joseph, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Construction industry has accomplished extensive growth worldwide particularly in past few decades. For a construction project to be successful, safety of the structures as well as that of the personnel is of utmost importance. The safety issues are to be considered right from the design stage till the completion and handing over of the structure. Construction industry employs skilled and unskilled labourers subject to construction site accidents and health risks. A proper coordination between contractors, clients, and workforce is needed for safe work conditions which are very much lacking in Indian construction companies. Though labour safety laws are available, the numerous accidents taking place at construction sites are continuing. Management commitment towards health and safety of the workers is also lagging. A detailed literature study was carried out to understand the causes of accidents, preventive measures, and development of safe work environment. This paper presents the results of a questionnaire survey, which was distributed among various categories of construction workers in Kerala region. The paper examines and discusses in detail the total working hours, work shifts, nativity of the workers, number of accidents, and type of injuries taking place in small and large construction sites. PMID:26839916

  20. Normal evolution of a spent fuel repository at the candidate sites in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grawford, M.B.; Wilmot, R.D.

    1998-12-01

    The Finnish disposal concept for spent nuclear fuel envisages burial of the fuel in a repository excavated at a depth of around 500 m in crystalline bedrock. Since 1983, a programme has been underway in Finland to select a potential site for such a repository. The programme is now in the final stages of selecting one site for further detailed characterisation from a list of four candidate sites at Kivetty, Romuvaara, Olkiluoto, and Haestholmen. Each stage of the site selection process has been supported by a major performance assessment (PA) exercise. The aim of this report is to describe the normal evolution of a repository system at the four candidate Finnish sites as input to development of the next PA, known as TILA-99. The report summarises the disposal concept and the present-day characteristics of each candidate site, and considers the most likely future changes in both the natural environment and the engineered components of the disposal system. The description concentrates on the key features, events and processes (FEPs) controlling behaviour and evolution of the disposal system. It is assumed that all the canisters are intact following emplacement and repository closure. FEPs that occur but which do not significantly affect system behaviour and evolution are only briefly described. FEPs with a low probability of occurrence are mentioned as appropriate. The report provides a map to the key Finnish reports and other work that underlies and supports the description of normal evolution. Differences between the four candidate sites in terms of their expected normal evolution are summarised. None of the differences are sufficient to prevent each site from behaving as a 'normal' site, the evolution of which is summarised over time in the final section of the report. (author)

  1. Normal evolution of a spent fuel repository at the candidate sites in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grawford, M.B.; Wilmot, R.D. [Galson Sciences Limited, Rutland (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-01

    The Finnish disposal concept for spent nuclear fuel envisages burial of the fuel in a repository excavated at a depth of around 500 m in crystalline bedrock. Since 1983, a programme has been underway in Finland to select a potential site for such a repository. The programme is now in the final stages of selecting one site for further detailed characterisation from a list of four candidate sites at Kivetty, Romuvaara, Olkiluoto, and Haestholmen. Each stage of the site selection process has been supported by a major performance assessment (PA) exercise. The aim of this report is to describe the normal evolution of a repository system at the four candidate Finnish sites as input to development of the next PA, known as TILA-99. The report summarises the disposal concept and the present-day characteristics of each candidate site, and considers the most likely future changes in both the natural environment and the engineered components of the disposal system. The description concentrates on the key features, events and processes (FEPs) controlling behaviour and evolution of the disposal system. It is assumed that all the canisters are intact following emplacement and repository closure. FEPs that occur but which do not significantly affect system behaviour and evolution are only briefly described. FEPs with a low probability of occurrence are mentioned as appropriate. The report provides a map to the key Finnish reports and other work that underlies and supports the description of normal evolution. Differences between the four candidate sites in terms of their expected normal evolution are summarised. None of the differences are sufficient to prevent each site from behaving as a `normal` site, the evolution of which is summarised over time in the final section of the report. (author) 155 refs.

  2. Decision-Making Risks Concerning the Construction of the Goiania Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.; Rozental, J.J.; Tranjan Filho, A.

    2001-01-01

    As it is well known, an accident with a teletherapy source made of 137 CsCl with an initial activity of 59 TBq occurred in Goiania, in September of 1987. This paper will discuss the decision-making process, and the struggle that followed the decision to build the final repository for the remnants of the Goiania accident. The Goiania final repository was built as planned. The two subsurface structures under the grassy artificial hills hold the overall volume of the remnants of the Goiania accident. The near hill holds 5x10 3 m3 of stabilized wastes without radioactivity, or with very low radioactivity. The far hill holds the remaining 6.5x10 3 m 3 of stabilized wastes with low and medium radioactivity. The central part of each subsurface hill has been shielded by wastes with less and less radioactivity. The overall fenced area occupies 1.85x10 5 m 2 . The external radiation levels are similar to the surrounding background, and much lower than those found in the Brazilian areas of high natural radioactivity. The site is permanently monitored by independent institutions, including Brazilian universities, and national and international organizations. As it was mentioned earlier, the final repository was build to last for at least 400 years. Although the initial decision to adopt a too conservative decontamination criterion in the case of the Goiania accident was bound to produce excessive amount of waste; such decision proved, retrospectively, not to be bad because the excess low radioactive waste produced was used as extra shielding material in final repository. The technical decision-maker should not abandon risk estimates, but should be aware that credibility is the main basis to achieve acceptability of a decision by the general public. Risk perception should be regarded as only a first step towards what may be called knowledge, or comprehension of risk estimates, but risk perception by the general public is still an open issue. The problem of a fixed, or near

  3. Decision-Making Risks Concerning the Construction of the Goiania Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschoa, A.S. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rozental, J.J. [Ministry of Environment (Israel); Tranjan Filho, A. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    As it is well known, an accident with a teletherapy source made of {sup 137}CsCl with an initial activity of 59 TBq occurred in Goiania, in September of 1987. This paper will discuss the decision-making process, and the struggle that followed the decision to build the final repository for the remnants of the Goiania accident. The Goiania final repository was built as planned. The two subsurface structures under the grassy artificial hills hold the overall volume of the remnants of the Goiania accident. The near hill holds 5x10{sup 3} m3 of stabilized wastes without radioactivity, or with very low radioactivity. The far hill holds the remaining 6.5x10{sup 3} m{sup 3} of stabilized wastes with low and medium radioactivity. The central part of each subsurface hill has been shielded by wastes with less and less radioactivity. The overall fenced area occupies 1.85x10{sup 5} m{sup 2}. The external radiation levels are similar to the surrounding background, and much lower than those found in the Brazilian areas of high natural radioactivity. The site is permanently monitored by independent institutions, including Brazilian universities, and national and international organizations. As it was mentioned earlier, the final repository was build to last for at least 400 years. Although the initial decision to adopt a too conservative decontamination criterion in the case of the Goiania accident was bound to produce excessive amount of waste; such decision proved, retrospectively, not to be bad because the excess low radioactive waste produced was used as extra shielding material in final repository. The technical decision-maker should not abandon risk estimates, but should be aware that credibility is the main basis to achieve acceptability of a decision by the general public. Risk perception should be regarded as only a first step towards what may be called knowledge, or comprehension of risk estimates, but risk perception by the general public is still an open issue. The

  4. The SocioEconomic Analysis of Repository Siting (SEARS): Technical description: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    Socioeconomic impacts must be assessed both for the near term and for the future. One means of addressing the need for the assessment of such impacts has been through the development of the computerized socioeconomic assessment model called the SocioEconomic Analysis of Repository Siting (SEARS) model. The SEARS model was developed for the Battelle Project Management Division. It was refined and adapted from state-of-the-art computerized projection models and thoroughly validated and is now available for use in projecting the likely socioeconomic impacts of a repository facility. This Technical Description is one of six major products that describe the SEARS modeling system. 61 refs., 11 figs., 9 tabs

  5. Long term effects on potential repository sites: occurrence and diagenesis of anhydrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bath, A.H.; George, I.A.; Milodowski, A.E.; Darling, W.G.

    1985-10-01

    The report deals with the long-term behaviour of anhydrite as a potential host rock for deep disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The principal long-term effect on the integrity of such a repository is the possibility of penetration of groundwater and consequent transformation to gypsum. Therefore, in order to assess the chydrological and geochemical processes of hydration in detail, mineralogical and geochemical analyses have been carried out on anhydrite samples in a drillcore taken near Darlington, United Kingdom. The results are discussed in terms of the long-term integrity of anhydrite as a repository site. (U.K.)

  6. Data base for site specific migration analysis of radioactive elements in repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadermann, J

    1982-01-01

    Migration analysis is of considerable importance in long-term safety aspects of radioactive waste repositories. The present work gives the data base for a selected part of a comprehensive geosphere transport calculation. We restrict ourselves to a critical evaluation of parameters pertinent to the migration analysis of the /sup 245/Cm chain. This includes the important nuclide /sup 237/Np. With these we are able to perform a site specific calculation for repositories planned in deep geologic formations in Switzerland. It is shown that the granitic basement induces strong time delays in nuclide migration. In contrast to that, the overlaying sedimentary layers cause primarily a dilution of the radionuclide concentrations.

  7. What requirements does the KBS-3 repository make on the host rock? Geoscientific suitability indicators and criteria for siting and site evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan; Stroem, Anders; Svemar, Christer; Almen, Karl-Erik; Ericsson, Lars O.

    2000-04-01

    such that large stability problems may arise around tunnels or deposition holes within the deposition area. The groundwater at repository level may not contain dissolved oxygen. The total salinity in the groundwater must be less than 100 g/l at repository level. In addition to the above requirements, there are a large number of preferences, i.e. conditions that are desirable and should be taken into account when positioning the repository in the rock: Since it can be difficult to predict how different rocks and minerals will be used in the future, it is preferable to site the deep repository in commonly occurring rock types. Moderate density (fracture surface area per volume) of local minor fracture zones is preferable, along with moderate density of fractures. It is preferable that the strength and deformation properties of the intact rock be normal for Swedish bedrock, since experience has shown it is possible to carry out rock works with good results in such bedrock. It is preferable that the coefficient of thermal expansion have normal values for Swedish bedrock and that it not differ markedly between the rock types in the repository area. The rock should have a higher thermal conductivity than 2.5 W/(m,K). Areas with a high potential for geothermal energy extraction should be avoided. The undisturbed temperature at repository depth should be less than 25 deg C. It is an advantage if a large part of the rock mass in the deposition zone has a hydraulic conductivity that is less than 10 -8 m/s. Fracture zones that need to be passed during construction should have such low permeability that they can be passed without problems, which means the zones should have a transmissivity that is lower than 10 -5 m 2 /s and are furthermore not problematical from a construction-related viewpoint. It is an advantage if the local hydraulic gradient is lower than 1% at repository level, but lower values do not provide any additional advantage. Undisturbed groundwater at repository

  8. MRS system study for the repository: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinagra, T.A.; Harig, R.

    1990-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), has initiated a waste management system study to identify the impacts of the presence or absence of a monitored retrievable storage facility (hereinafter referred to as ''MRS'') on system costs and program schedules. To support this study, life-cycle cost estimates and construction schedules have been prepared for the surface and underground facilities and operations of a geologic nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Nine different operating scenarios (cases) have been identified by OCRWM for inclusion in this study. For each case, the following items are determined: the repository design and construction costs, operating costs, closure and decommissioning costs, required staffing, construction schedules, uncertainties associated with the costs and schedules, and shipping cask and disposal container throughputs. 6 refs., 83 figs., 57 tabs

  9. MRS system study for the repository: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinagra, T.A.; Harig, R.

    1990-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), has initiated a waste management system study to identify the impacts of the presence or absence of a monitored retrievable storage facility (hereinafter referred to as ''MRS'') on system costs and program schedules. To support this study, life-cycle cost estimates and construction schedules have been prepared for the surface and underground facilities and operations geologic nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Nine different operating scenarios (cases) have been identified by OCRWM for inclusion in this study. For each case, the following items are determined: the repository design and construction costs, operating costs, closure and decommissioning costs, required staffing, construction schedules, uncertainties associated with the costs and schedules, and shipping cask and disposal container throughputs. This document contains A-D

  10. Effects of resource activities upon repository siting and waste containment with reference to bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, J.; Rowe, J.

    1980-02-01

    The primary consideration for the suitability of a nuclear waste repository site is the overall ability of the repository to safely contain radioactive waste. This report is a discussion of the past, present, and future effects of resource activities on waste containment. Past and present resource activities which provide release pathways (i.e., leaky boreholes, adjacent mines) will receive initial evaluation during the early stages of any repository site study. However, other resource activities which may have subtle effects on containment (e.g., long-term pumping causing increased groundwater gradients, invasion of saline water causing lower retardation) and all potential future resource activities must also be considered during the site evaluation process. Resource activities will affect both the siting and the designing of repositories. Ideally, sites should be located in areas of low resource activity and low potential for future activity, and repository design should seek to eliminate or minimize the adverse effects of any resource activity. Buffer zones should be created to provide areas in which resource activities that might adversely affect containment can be restricted or curtailed. This could mean removing large areas of land from resource development. The impact of these frozen assets should be assessed in terms of their economic value and of their effect upon resource reserves. This step could require a major effort in data acquisition and analysis followed by extensive numerical modeling of regional fluid flow and mass transport. Numerical models should be used to assess the effects of resource activity upon containment and should include the cumulative effects of different resource activities. Analysis by other methods is probably not possible except for relatively simple cases

  11. Projected environmental impacts of radioactive material transportation to the first US repository site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhauser, K.S.; Cashwell, J.W.; Reardon, P.C.; Ostmeyer, R.M.; McNair, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the relative national environmental impacts of transporting nuclear wastes to each of the nine candidate repository sites in the United States. Several of the potential sites are closely clustered and, for the purpose of distance and routing calculations, are treated as a single location. These are: Cypress Creek Dome and Richton Dome in Mississippi (Gulf Interior Region), Deaf Smith County and Swisher County sites in Texas (Permian Basin), and Davis Canyon and Lavender Canyon site in Utah (Paradox Basin). The remaining sites are: Vacherie Dome, Louisiana; Yucca Mountain, Nevada; and Hanford Reservation, Washington. For compatibility with both the repository system authorized by the NWPA and with the MRS option, two separate scenarios were analyzed. In belief, they are (1) shipment of spent fuel and high-level wastes (HLW) directly from waste generators to a repository (Reference Case) and (2) shipment of spent fuel to a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility and then to a repository. Between 17 and 38 truck accident fatalities, between 1.4 and 7.7 rail accident fatalities, and between 0.22 and 12 radiological health effects can be expected to occur as a result of radioactive material transportation during the 26-year operating period of the first repository. During the same period in the United States, about 65,000 total deaths from truck accidents and about 32,000 total deaths from rail accidents would occur; also an estimated 58,300 cancer fatalities are predicted to occur in the United States during a 26-year period from exposure to background radiation alone (not including medical and other manmade sources). The risks reported here are upper limits and are small by comparison with the ''natural background'' of risks of the same type. 3 refs., 6 tabs

  12. Development of local partnership for siting of LILW repository in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kralj, Metka; Zeleznik, Nadja

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Slovenia has only temporary storage facilities for radioactive waste. According to the legislation, a permanent LILW repository site should be authorized by 2008, and the repository has to acquire the operating licence by 2013. In 2006, ARAO, the general public and three municipalities established local partnerships in order to increase public acceptability of the LILW repository. Civil initiative groups opposed to the siting appeared in all three local communities. In one case they forced the municipality to withdraw, in one case they changed the siting location, and in one case they were integrated to local partnership. In the municipality of Krsko, the program of local partnership was publicly discussed. There is an NPP in Krsko, so the local partnership also demanded to discuss the power plant issues. Thematic committees were established that worked separately. They also discussed the issues of the spatial plan for the repository. In the municipality of Brezice, a steering committee was established to promote local partnership activities and organization of thematic committees. There was only one active thematic committee, but many activities for the general public were organised. In the municipality of Sevnica, the local partnership was soon cancelled. (authors)

  13. Design principle of TVO's final repository and preliminary adaptation to site specific conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salo, J-P.; Reikkola, R.

    1995-01-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) is responsible for the management of spent fuel produced by the Olkiluoto power plant. TVO's current programme of spent fuel management is based on the guidelines and time schedule set by the Finnish Government. TVO has studied a final disposal concept in which the spent fuel bundles are encapsulated in copper canisters and emplaced in Finnish bedrock. According to the plan the final repository for spent fuel will be in operation by 2020. TVO's updated technical plans for the disposal of spent fuel together with a performance analysis (TVO-92) were submitted to the authorities in 1992. The paper describes the design principle of TVO's final repository and preliminary adaptation of the repository to site specific conditions. (author). 10 refs., 5 figs

  14. Construction experience at the Canonsburg UMTRA site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiers, G.R.; Farnes, L.L.; Wathen, T.R.

    1985-01-01

    Construction of on-site stabilization for over 225,000 cubic yards of abandoned uranium mill tailings in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, began in October 1983, and is scheduled to be completed in December 1985. This paper describes selected construction experience through October 1984. The following selected events and construction items are discussed in this paper: 1. Construction and operation of a 36,000-square foot, fabric-lined sedimentation basin, including difficulties associated with installation of the liner; 2. Assembly and start-up of the contaminated water treatment plant; 3. Construction of the encapsulation cell test fills, to confirm the performance specification governing the compaction; 4. Excavation, relocation, and placement of contaminated materials, including moisture control and density testing of the radioactive materials; 5. Construction difficulties, including disposition of local leachate from the abandoned industrial complex and an increase in the volume of contaminated material to be encapsulated

  15. Framework for detailed studies on the construction and operation of repositories for spent nuclear fuel; Ramprogram foer detaljundersoekningar vid uppfoerande och drift av slutfoervar foer anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-15

    This report presents a programme for the detailed investigations planned to be applied during construction and operation of the repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark. The report is part of SKB's application according to the Nuclear Activities Act. The detailed investigations shall provide relevant data on and site-descriptive models for the bedrock, soil deposits and eco-system of the site in order to facilitate a step-wise design and construction of the final repository. This shall be implemented in a manner that all demands on long-term safety are fulfilled, including accurate documentation of the construction work, and so that assessments of the environmental impact of the repository can be made. For the operational phase, the detailed investigations should also provide support to the deposition process with related decisions, thereby enabling fulfilment of the design premises for the siting and construction of deposition tunnels and deposition holes, as well as for deposition of canisters, and for the subsequent backfilling and closure of the repository. The Observational Method will be applied during the construction of the repository. This method entails establishing in advance acceptable limits of behaviour regarding selected geoscientific parameters and preparing a plan with measures to keep the outcome within these limits. Predictions of expected rock properties are established for each tunnel section. The outcome after excavation is compared with the acceptable range of outcomes. Information from detailed characterization will be of essential importance for application of the Observational Method and for adapting the repository to the prevailing rock properties. SKB has for the past several decades developed methods for site characterisation, applying both above- and underground investigation techniques. Experiences from this work, put into practice during the site investigations, has resulted in a solid knowledge and understanding of the

  16. Siting the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository: Social impacts for Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olshansky, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    The siting of a high-level nuclear waste repository in the United States has been an issue of great controversy, particulary for the states under consideration. In addition to concerns expressed about the geological stability of the proposed sites, numerous social issues have been raised by the general public--most of which have been addressed by the draft environmental impact statements. Among the social impacts raised by the Department of Engery and the general public, those receiving the greatest attention were the potential influence of the repository on local economics, tourism, and the health status of the local residents. The major issues of interest in the present study include 1) the effects of respondent knowledge of nuclear waste disposal issues on opinions of health effects and tourism, particularly as they are affected by visitation patterns, and 2) the effects of occupation and education (in particular) on knowledge of nuclear waste disposal issues and opinions on technical and non-technical aspects of siting the repository. Preliminary results indicate that only about 40 percent of the respondents have visited the national parks in southeastern Utah, but over 70 percent feel they are informed about the issues associated with siting the repository. Over 60 percent of the respondents were very concerned about the possible negative effect the repository could have on jobs, tourism, health effects, and environmental quality. Cross-tabulations indicate that the respondents self rating on knowledge of nuclear disposal issues has a statistically significant influence on responses to socioeconomic issues, yet the same self rating scale is significantly influenced by the frequency with which respondents have visited the national parks in southeastern Utah

  17. SR 97 - Waste, repository design and sites. Background report to SR 97 SKB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    SR 97 is a comprehensive analysis of long-term safety of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The repository is assumed to be designed according to the KBS-3 method. Assessments are performed in SR 97 for three fictitious sites: Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg. One premise is that data used for assessment of the fictitious sites are to be taken from sites that have previously been investigated. The spent nuclear fuel is enclosed in copper canisters with an insert of cast iron. The canisters are emplaced in bored holes in the floor of the deposition tunnels. Around each canister, bentonite blocks are stacked which, after absorbing water and swelling, will isolate the canister from groundwater, hold the canister in place and retard transport of radionuclides from the canister to the surrounding rock. The spent nuclear fuel will emit heat for a long time, due to the decay heat. The maximum permissible temperature on the canister surface has been chosen at 100 deg C. The spacing between the deposition holes and between the deposition tunnels is adjusted site-specifically to meet this requirement. The thermal properties of the rock and the buffer material are of importance for how closely the deposition holes and tunnels can be spaced. After deposition, the deposition tunnels are backfilled with a mixture of bentonite and crushed rock. SR 97 examines above all the consequences of various scenarios and the handling of various types of uncertainties. The different repository sites illustrate normal properties for Swedish bedrock which are of importance for safety. To facilitate the work, the repositories on the three sites are configured as similarly as possible, which means for example that they are located at roughly the same depth and are fitted into the bedrock in a relatively similar fashion. Apart from the siting of a repository for spent nuclear fuel, the site may need to house a separate repository for other long-lived waste. This possibility has been considered in

  18. SR 97 - Waste, repository design and sites. Background report to SR 97 SKB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-10-01

    SR 97 is a comprehensive analysis of long-term safety of a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The repository is assumed to be designed according to the KBS-3 method. Assessments are performed in SR 97 for three fictitious sites: Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg. One premise is that data used for assessment of the fictitious sites are to be taken from sites that have previously been investigated. The spent nuclear fuel is enclosed in copper canisters with an insert of cast iron. The canisters are emplaced in bored holes in the floor of the deposition tunnels. Around each canister, bentonite blocks are stacked which, after absorbing water and swelling, will isolate the canister from groundwater, hold the canister in place and retard transport of radionuclides from the canister to the surrounding rock. The spent nuclear fuel will emit heat fora long time, due to the decay heat. The maximum permissible temperature on the canister surface has been chosen at 100 deg C. The spacing between the deposition holes and between the deposition tunnels is adjusted site-specifically to meet this requirement. The thermal properties of the rock and the buffer material are of importance for how closely the deposition holes and tunnels can be spaced. After deposition, the deposition tunnels are backfilled with a mixture of bentonite and crushed rock. SR 97 examines above all the consequences of various scenarios and the handling of various types of uncertainties. The different repository sites illustrate normal properties for Swedish bedrock which are of importance for safety. To facilitate the work, the repositories on the three sites are configured as similarly as possible, which means for example that they are located at roughly the same depth and are fitted into the bedrock in a relatively similar fashion. Apart from the siting of a repository for spent nuclear fuel, the site may need to house a separate repository for other long-lived waste. This possibility has been considered in

  19. Why is variability important for performance assessment and what are its consequences for site characterisation and repository design?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dverstorp, B.; Smith, P.A.; Zuidema, P.

    1998-01-01

    The importance of spatial variability is discussed in terms of its consequences for site characterisation and for repository design and safety. Variability is described in terms of various scales of discrete structural features and a pragmatic classification is proposed according to whether the features are: feasibility-determining (i.e. features within which repository construction and operation is not practical and which preclude long-term safety); layout-determining (i.e. features which, if avoided, would enhance long-term safety); safety-determining features (i.e. features which cannot be shown to be avoidable and which strongly influence the calculated long-term safety of the repository system). The significance with respect to the geosphere-transport barrier of small-scale pore structure within the various classes of feature is also discussed. The practical problems of characterising variability and modelling its effects on radionuclide transport are described. Key factors affecting groundwater flow and radionuclide transport are identified, models that incorporate spatial variability are described and the estimation of appropriate parameters for these models is discussed. (author)

  20. Geological criteria for site selection of an LILW radioactive waste repository in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurelio, Mario; Taguibao, Kristine Joy; Vargas, Edmundo; Palattao, Maria Visitacion; Reyes, Rolando; Nohay, Carl; Singayan, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    In the selection of sites for disposal facilities involving low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommendations require that 'the region in which the site is located shall be such that significant tectonic and surface processes are not expected to occur with an intensity that would compromise the required isolation capability of the repository'. Evaluating the appropriateness of a site therefore requires a deep understanding of the geological and tectonic setting of the area. The Philippines sits in a tectonically active region frequented by earthquakes and volcanic activity. Its highly variable morphology coupled with its location along the typhoon corridor in the west Pacific region subjects the country to surface processes often manifested in the form of landslides. The Philippine LILW near surface repository project site is located on the north eastern sector of the Island of Luzon in northern Philippines. This island is surrounded by active subduction trenches; to the east by the East Luzon Trough and to the west by the Manila Trench. The island is also traversed by several branches of the Philippine Fault System. The Philippine LILW repository project is located more than 100 km away from any of these major active fault systems. In the near field, the project site is located less than 10 km from a minor fault (Dummon River Fault) and more than 40 km away from a volcanic edifice (Mt. Caguas). This paper presents an analysis of the potential hazards that these active tectonic features may pose to the project site. The assessment of such geologic hazards is imperative in the characterization of the site and a crucial input in the design and safety assessment of the repository. (authors)

  1. Application of GIS in siting disposal repository for high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Xia; Wang Ju; Huang Shutao

    2010-01-01

    High level radioactive waste geo-disposal is directly related to environment protection and Sustainable Utilization of nuclear energy. To ensure both success and long-term safe disposal of the high level-radioactive waste, finding suitable sites is an important step in the research. Meanwhile, siting and evaluation the geo-disposal repository for high level-radioactive waste need a wide range of relevant information, including geology and geophysical surveys data, geochemistry data and other geoscience data in the field. At the same time, some of the data has its spatial property. Geographic information system (GIS) have a role to play in all geographic and spatial aspects of the development and management of the siting disposal repository. GIS has greatly enhanced our ability to store, analyze and communicate accounts of the information. This study was conducted to compare the more suitable sites for the repository using GIS -based on the data which belongs to the preselected area in BeiShan, Gansu Province, China. First, the data of the pre-selected site is captured by GIS and stored in the geoscience database. Then, according to the relevant guide line in the field, the analysis models based on GIS are build. There are some thematic layers of the sites character grouped into two basic type, namely social factors(town, traffic and nuclear plant) and natural factors (water, land and animals and plants).In the paper, a series of GIS models was developed to compare the pre-selected areas in order to make optimal decision. This study shows that with appropriate and enough information GIS used in modeling is a powerful tool for site selection for disposal repository. (authors)

  2. Geological criteria for site selection of an LILW radioactive waste repository in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurelio, Mario; Taguibao, Kristine Joy [National Institute of Geological Sciences, University of the Philippines, Quezon City (Philippines); Vargas, Edmundo; Palattao, Maria Visitacion; Reyes, Rolando; Nohay, Carl; Singayan, Alfonso [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Department of Science and Technology, Quezon City (Philippines)

    2013-07-01

    In the selection of sites for disposal facilities involving low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommendations require that 'the region in which the site is located shall be such that significant tectonic and surface processes are not expected to occur with an intensity that would compromise the required isolation capability of the repository'. Evaluating the appropriateness of a site therefore requires a deep understanding of the geological and tectonic setting of the area. The Philippines sits in a tectonically active region frequented by earthquakes and volcanic activity. Its highly variable morphology coupled with its location along the typhoon corridor in the west Pacific region subjects the country to surface processes often manifested in the form of landslides. The Philippine LILW near surface repository project site is located on the north eastern sector of the Island of Luzon in northern Philippines. This island is surrounded by active subduction trenches; to the east by the East Luzon Trough and to the west by the Manila Trench. The island is also traversed by several branches of the Philippine Fault System. The Philippine LILW repository project is located more than 100 km away from any of these major active fault systems. In the near field, the project site is located less than 10 km from a minor fault (Dummon River Fault) and more than 40 km away from a volcanic edifice (Mt. Caguas). This paper presents an analysis of the potential hazards that these active tectonic features may pose to the project site. The assessment of such geologic hazards is imperative in the characterization of the site and a crucial input in the design and safety assessment of the repository. (authors)

  3. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems: REFERENCE SITE INITIAL ASSESSMENT FOR A SALT DOME REPOSITORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwell, M. A.; Brandstetter, A.; Benson, G. L.; Raymond, J. R.; Brandley, D. J.; Serne, R. J.; Soldat, J. K.; Cole, C. R.; Deutsch, W. J.; Gupta, S. K.; Harwell, C. C.; Napier, B. A.; Reisenauer, A. E.; Prater, L. S.; Simmons, C. S.; Strenge, D. L.; Washburn, J. F.; Zellmer, J. T.

    1982-06-01

    As a methodology demonstration for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program conducted an initial reference site analysis of the long-term effectiveness of a salt dome repository. The Hainesville Salt Dome in Texas was chosen to be representative of the Gulf Coast interior salt domes; however, the Hainesville Site has been eliminated as a possible nuclear waste repository site. The data used for this exercise are not adequate for an actual assessment, nor have all the parametric analyses been made that would adequately characterize the response of the geosystem surrounding the repository. Additionally, because this was the first exercise of the complete AEGIS and WASTE Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) methodology, this report provides the initial opportunity for the methodology, specifically applied to a site, to be reviewed by the community outside the AEGIS. The scenario evaluation, as a part of the methodology demonstration, involved consideration of a large variety of potentially disruptive phenomena, which alone or in concert could lead to a breach in a salt dome repository and to a subsequent transport of the radionuclides to the environment. Without waste- and repository-induced effects, no plausible natural geologic events or processes which would compromise the repository integrity could be envisioned over the one-million-year time frame after closure. Near-field (waste- and repository-induced) effects were excluded from consideration in this analysis, but they can be added in future analyses when that methodology development is more complete. The potential for consequential human intrusion into salt domes within a million-year time frame led to the consideration of a solution mining intrusion scenario. The AEGIS staff developed a specific human intrusion scenario at 100 years and 1000 years post-closure, which is one of a whole suite of possible scenarios. This scenario

  4. Site selection of radioactive waste repository in the Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saler, A.

    1992-01-01

    The radioactive waste repository site-selection procedure in Croatia is divided into two stages: the first, related to the exclusionary screening of the national territory and comparison of potential areas in order to identify preferred sites, acceptable for inclusion into the Regional Plan; and the second, comprising all necessary field investigations as well as additional site-characterization tasks planned to be worked out at a preferred sites. Several potential areas, representing an intermediate goal of the first stage, are defined till now. (author) [hr

  5. Potential site selection for radioactive waste repository using GIS (Study area: Negeri Sembilan) - Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che Kamaruddin; Faizal Azrin Abdul Razalim; Mohd Abdul Wahab Yusof; Nik Marzukee Nik Ibrahim; Nazran Harun; Muhammad Fathi Sujan; Karuppiah, T.; Surip, N.; Malik, N.N.A.; Che Musa, R.

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose in this paper is to create the Geographic Information System (GIS) based analysis on the potential site area for near-surface radioactive waste repository in the state of Negeri Sembilan. There are several parameters should be considered related to the safety assessment in selecting the potential site. These parameters such as land-use, urban area, soil, rainfall, lithology, lineament, geomorphology, landslide potential, slope, elevation, hydrogeology and protected land need to be considered before choosing the site. In this phase, we only consider ten parameters for determining the potential suitable site. (author)

  6. Estimated transportation routes to a candidate salt repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.

    1987-10-01

    This report presents a preliminary analysis of possible highway and rail transportation routes within Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico for shipments of spent fuel to the candidate repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Two cases are examined for highway shipments. The initial case analyzes shipments following the Department of Transportation's HM-164 regulations for shipment of spent fuel. The second case analyzes normal commercial routes. Three rail cases are also examined. Each case analyzes potential routes that would be used based for different access spurs into the repository site. Two appendices are included which examine additional scenarios generated by restricting routes from passing through various metropolitan areas. The major finding is that most shipments to the Deaf Smith site will pass through Amarillo, Texas. There are few, if any, feasible alternative routes which would significantly reduce the amount of traffic passing through Amarillo

  7. Site suitability criteria for solidified high level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.A.; Holdsworth, T.; Isherwood, D.; Towse, D.F.; Dayem, N.L.

    1979-01-01

    The NRC is developing a framework of regulations, criteria, and standards. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory provides broad technical support to the NRC for developing this regulatory framework, part of which involves site suitability criteria for solidified high-level wastes (SHLW). Both the regulatory framework and the technical base on which it rests have evolved in time. This document is the second report of the technical support project. It was issued as a draft working paper for a programmatic review held at LLL from August 16 to 18, 1977. It was printed and distributed solely as a briefing document on preliminary methodology and initial findings for the purpose of critical review by those in attendance. These briefing documents are being reprinted now in their original formats as UCID-series reports for the sake of the historical record. Analysis results have evolved as both the models and data base have changed. As a result, the methodology, models, and data base in this document are severely outmoded

  8. Screening methodology for site selection of a nuclear waste repository in shale formations in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoth, P.; Krull, P.; Wirth, H.

    2004-01-01

    The radioactive waste disposal policy in the Federal Republic of Germany is based on the principle that all types of radioactive waste must be disposed of in deep geological formations. Because of the favourable properties of rock salt and the existence of thick rock salt formations in Germany, so far most of the research in the field of radioactive waste disposal sites was focused on the study of the use of rock salt. In addition, German research organisations have also conducted generic research and development projects in alternative geological formations (Wanner and Brauer, 2001), but a comprehensive evaluation of their utilisation has been only done for parts of the crystalline rocks in Germany. Research projects on argillaceous rocks started relatively late, so that German experience is mainly connected to German research work with the corresponding European Underground Research Laboratories and the exploration of the former Konrad iron mine as a potential repository site for radioactive waste with negligible heat generation. The German Federal Government has signed in 2001 an agreement with national utility companies to end electricity generation by nuclear power. This decision affected the entire German radioactive waste isolation strategy and especially the repository projects. The utility companies agreed upon standstill of exploration at the Gorleben site and the Federal Ministry for the Environment tries to establish a new comprehensive procedure for the selection of a repository site, built upon well-founded criteria incorporating public participation. Step 3 of the planning includes the examination of further sites in Germany and the comparison with existing sites and concepts. Under these circumstances, argillaceous rock (clay and shale) formations are now a special area of interest in Germany and the development of a screening methodology was required for the evaluation of shales as host and barrier rocks for nuclear waste repositories. (author)

  9. Quality assurance during site construction. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.

    1980-01-01

    The first part of the lecture deals with the Quality Assurance system on the construction site in general. Basic site-related problems during contract implementation and the QA system requirements resulting from them are presented. The compilation of these requirements in a QA program and its inclusion in the site manual in written form are explained. Site organization, personnel qualification and procedures are referred to. Whereas the first part shows what is to be done, the second part shows how it can be put into practice on the site. All the essential points for the assurance of quality are addressed. They include, e.g., review of documents, incoming goods control, in-process surveillance, store controls, identification of components and systems, dealing with changes and deviations, documentation control and audits. By means of examples taken form practice the necessity of a well-functioning QA system, and the importance of quality-assuring measures on the site are pointed out. (orig.)

  10. The Finnish Experience with the Construction of Onkalo. Licensing of a repository for nuclear waste in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avolahti, Jaana

    2014-01-01

    Pursuant to the Nuclear Energy Act (990/1987), a license holder whose operations result, or have resulted, in the generation of nuclear waste must perform all measures included in the management of nuclear waste and preparation thereof and bear all the costs of nuclear waste management. Under law, spent nuclear fuel is regarded as nuclear waste. According to the amendment made to the Nuclear Energy Act in 1994, nuclear waste generated in Finland must be handled, stored and permanently disposed of in Finland. Nuclear waste generated elsewhere may not be handled, stored and permanently disposed of in Finland. The Finnish nuclear legislation defines spent fuel as nuclear waste and requires that it has to be disposed of in the Finnish bedrock. Over 30 years of systematic R and D has been carried out to develop the repository concept, site selection, technologies, safety assessment and the regulatory approach. Activities are based on the Finnish Government's long term strategies since 1983. The stepwise development and future plans for disposal are presented in Table 1. The licensing procedure for a disposal facility has several steps that are similar to all nuclear facilities in Finland and are defined in Nuclear Energy Act (990/1987) and Decree (161/1988). These licensing steps are: - Decision in Principle (DiP); - Construction License; - Operational License. An Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) shall be conducted prior to the first authorization step of a major nuclear waste facility. The EIA procedure for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel from three units of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant and two units of the Loviisa nuclear power plant was carried out in 1998-1999 and extended to one more unit at Olkiluoto in 2008- 2009. Pursuant to the Nuclear Energy Act, before making the DiP the Government shall ascertain whether the municipality planned as the location of the nuclear facility is in favour of the facility, and ensure that no facts indicating a

  11. Siting of repositories for high level nuclear waste geological and institutional issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahagen, H.

    1993-01-01

    Two studies have been conducted in Sweden under contract from SKN-National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel. The responsibilities of SKN has been transferred to SKI as of July 1, 1992. The first study is related to a compilation of experience and lessons learned from siting of nuclear waste repositories and other controversial facilities in seven countries. The second study is aimed at compiling examples of the state of knowledge related to the regional geological information with relevance to siting of a repository in Sweden. This paper is drawing the general combined conclusions from both these studies. The first study reviewed programs for siting of nuclear and hazardous waste disposal facilities in Canada, Finland, France, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom and USA. The main topics reviewed are related to a/ The use of technical screening, b/ Legal framework and local veto, c/ Public involvement, d/ Interim storage and schedule flexibility, e/ Sequential vs. parallel characterization. The second study focused on the regional geological information available for Sweden and if this information allows for a ''grouping'' of tectonic regions in Sweden with significant differences in history and characteristics. Factors studied as potentially important for siting are bedrock properties, mineralizations, ground water conditions and available volume for a repository. The experience gained from these studies is aimed to be used as background information in the review of the program conducted for the Swedish nuclear utilities by SKB. SKB will according to current plans initiate siting for a repository for spent nuclear fuel in Sweden during 1993. (author). 2 refs

  12. Nuclear waste repository siting and locational conflict analysis: A contextual approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murauskas, G.T.

    1989-01-01

    This study develops and evaluates an alternative framework that is based on contextual variables. The premise is that differences in attitudes and perceptions regarding the local siting of nuclear wastes and differences in attitudes regarding siting decision-making procedures are influenced by local political, economic, and cultural variables. This framework articulates the nature of conflict in terms of the incongruence between the use-value individuals ascribe to their present situation and the anticipated exchange-value individuals associate with the local siting of a nuclear waste repository. In order to evaluate this conceptual framework a survey was conducted of residents in four communities representing distinct societal contexts: Richton, Mississippi; Peterborough, New Hampshire; Richland, Washington; and Antigo/Waupaca, Wisconsin. Data analyses indicate substantial differences in economic expectations associated with the local siting of a high-level nuclear waste repository and in perception regarding the impacts such a repository might have on the environment, local agriculture, personal health and safety, and the quality of life

  13. Scenarios constructed for nominal flow in the presence of a repository at Yucca Mountain and vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, G.E.; Hunter, R.L.; Dunn, E.; Flint, A.

    1995-03-01

    Scenario development for the system performance assessment of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project defines a scenario as a well-posed problem connecting an initiating event with radionuclide release to the accessible environment by a logical and physically possible combination or sequence of features, events, and processes. Drawing on the advice and assistance of the Project's principal investigators (PIs), a collection of release scenarios initiated by the nominal ground-water flow occurring in the vicinity of the potential Yucca Mountain high-level-waste repository is developed and described in pictorial form. This collection of scenarios is intended to provide a framework to assist PIs in recognizing essential field and calculational analyses, to assist performance assessment in providing guidance to site characterization, and to continue the effort to exhaustively identify all features, events, and processes important to releases. It represents a step in the iterative process of identifying what details of the potential site are important for safe disposal. 67 refs

  14. A preliminary analysis of the risk of transporting nuclear waste to potential candidate commercial repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    In accordance with the provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, environmental assessments for potential candidate sites are required to provide a basis for selection of the first site for disposal of commercial radioactive waste in deep geologic repositories. A preliminary analysis of the impacts of transportation for each of the five potential sites will be described. Transportation was assumed to be entirely by truck or entirely by rail in order to obtain bounding impacts. This paper presents both radiological and nonradiological risks for the once-through fuel cycle

  15. Canada's Deep Geological Repository for Used Nuclear Fuel - Geo-scientific Site Evaluation Process - 13117

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blyth, Alec; Ben Belfadhel, Mahrez; Hirschorn, Sarah; Hamilton, Duncan; McKelvie, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management (APM), the approach selected by the Government of Canada for long-term management of used nuclear fuel generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. The ultimate objective of APM is the centralized containment and isolation of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository in a suitable rock formation at a depth of approximately 500 meters (m) (1,640 feet [ft]). In May 2010, the NWMO published a nine-step site selection process that serves as the road map to decision-making on the location for the deep geological repository. The safety and appropriateness of any potential site will be assessed against a number of factors, both technical and social in nature. The selected site will be one that can be demonstrated to be able to safely contain and isolate used nuclear fuel, protecting humans and the environment over the very long term. The geo-scientific suitability of potential candidate sites will be assessed in a stepwise manner following a progressive and thorough site evaluation process that addresses a series of geo-scientific factors revolving around five safety functions. The geo-scientific site evaluation process includes: Initial Screenings; Preliminary Assessments; and Detailed Site Evaluations. As of November 2012, 22 communities have entered the site selection process (three in northern Saskatchewan and 18 in northwestern and southwestern Ontario). (authors)

  16. A radioactive waste repository for Australia: methods for choosing the right site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This study has developed and used an open and objective approach to site selection. A geographic information system was used to assemble continental-scale information. The information was classified according to suitability criteria and processed to show how the most suitable areas for locating Australia's radioactive waste repository can be identified. The test results show that different regions are identified when different selection criteria are used. The results in this discussion paper are indicative only and are intended to provide a focus for more detailed studies at regional and local levels following public comment on the criteria and methodology. The methodology for identifying a suitable site for a national repository for radioactive wastes will be re-applied with more detailed information to areas identified in this study and on the basis of public comments. 6 figs

  17. Rhode Island crystalline repository siting project: Technical progress report, Calendar year 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vild, B.

    1987-01-01

    A Nuclear Waste Fund established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 provides financial support to affected states to participate in the high-level radioactive waste repository siting program of the US Department of Energy. In Rhode Island, that function was performed by a multidisciplinary Project Review Team consisting of staff from three State agencies. Members of the Review Team attended several meetings in 1986 to discuss mutual concerns with Federal, State and Tribal officials. Comments were developed on DOE's Draft Area Recommendation Report. Members of the Review Team also testified at a public hearing in Providence on the Draft ARR, and developed and distributed a public information booklet. In May, Secretary of Energy John Herrington announced the suspension of the crystalline repository siting program. The remainder of the year was spent monitoring litigation challenging that decision and pending legislation. Administrative phase-down of the program was essentially complete by the close of the calendar year

  18. Method for screening the Nevada Test Site and contiguous areas for nuclear waste repository locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinnock, S.; Fernandez, J.A.; Neal, J.T.; Stephens, H.P.; Hartway, B.L.; Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., NM)

    1982-01-01

    This paper outlines the general concepts of a technical method for systematic screening of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada, for potentially suitable nuclear waste repository locations. After a general discussion of the organization and the purpose of the current screening activity, the paper addresses the steps of the screening method. These steps include: hierarchically organizing technical objectives for repository performance (an objectives tree); identifying and mapping pertinent physical characteristics of a site and its setting (physical attributes); relating the physical conditions to the objectives (favorability curves); identifying alternative locations and numerically evaluating their relative merits; investigating the effects of subjective judgments on the evaluations (sensitivity analyses); documenting the assumptions, logic, and results of the method. 19 references, 10 figures

  19. The interpretation of remote sensing image on the stability of fault zone at HLW repository site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Linqing; Yu Yunxiang

    1994-01-01

    It is attempted to interpret the buried fault at the preselected HLW repository site in western Gansu province with a remote sensing image. The authors discuss the features of neotectonism of Shule River buried fault zone and its two sides in light of the remote sensing image, geomorphology, stream pattern, type and thickness difference of Quaternary sediments, and structural basin, etc.. The stability of Shule River fault zone is mainly dominated by the neotectonic movement pattern and strength of its two sides. Although there exist normal and differential vertical movements along it, their strengths are small. Therefore, this is a weakly-active passive fault zone. The east Beishan area north to Shule River fault zone is weakliest active and is considered as the target for further pre-selection for HLW repository site

  20. Feasibility study for siting of a deep repository within the Storuman municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    It is SKB's task to gather a broad body of information for the siting of a deep repository for Sweden's spent nuclear fuel and other long-lived radioactive waste. The criteria presented by SKB serve as guidelines for the siting studies. Overviews of siting factors are compiled in general siting studies of all or parts of Sweden. Feasibility studies examine the siting prospects in potentially suitable and interested municipalities. SKB plans to carry out feasibility studies in five to ten municipalities in different parts of the country. General studies and feasibility studies are primarily based on existing material. The feasibility study in Storuman is the first to be conducted. It began during the second half of 1993 with the conclusion of an agreement between the municipality and SKB. SKB has been in charge of the execution of the feasibility study. SKB has been responsible for the summary provided in a status report published in June 1994, as well as for the conclusions and evaluations in this final report. Altogether about 30 reports have been published within the framework of the feasibility study. The purpose of the various studies have been to describe, in as much detail as possible, the prospects for siting a deep repository in the municipality of Storuman, and to shed light on the possible positive and negative consequences of such a siting. The feasibility study has led to a discussion within the municipality and the region concerning the siting of a deep repository. In SKB's opinion, this gives all those concerned ample opportunity to become acquainted with the issues and to assert their interests and present their viewpoints at an early stage. 55 refs

  1. Feasibility study for siting of a deep repository within the Storuman municipality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    It is SKB`s task to gather a broad body of information for the siting of a deep repository for Sweden`s spent nuclear fuel and other long-lived radioactive waste. The criteria presented by SKB serve as guidelines for the siting studies. Overviews of siting factors are compiled in general siting studies of all or parts of Sweden. Feasibility studies examine the siting prospects in potentially suitable and interested municipalities. SKB plans to carry out feasibility studies in five to ten municipalities in different parts of the country. General studies and feasibility studies are primarily based on existing material. The feasibility study in Storuman is the first to be conducted. It began during the second half of 1993 with the conclusion of an agreement between the municipality and SKB. SKB has been in charge of the execution of the feasibility study. SKB has been responsible for the summary provided in a status report published in June 1994, as well as for the conclusions and evaluations in this final report. Altogether about 30 reports have been published within the framework of the feasibility study. The purpose of the various studies have been to describe, in as much detail as possible, the prospects for siting a deep repository in the municipality of Storuman, and to shed light on the possible positive and negative consequences of such a siting. The feasibility study has led to a discussion within the municipality and the region concerning the siting of a deep repository. In SKB`s opinion, this gives all those concerned ample opportunity to become acquainted with the issues and to assert their interests and present their viewpoints at an early stage. 55 refs.

  2. Cost estimate of the Yucca Mountain repository based on the site characterization plan conceptual design: Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruer, E.R.; Fowler, M.E.; Rocha, G.A.

    1987-06-01

    This report of the life-cycle costs of a mined repository in tuff is based on the site characterization conceptual design and contains estimates of two methods of waste emplacement - vertical and horizontal. The life cycle of the repository progresses from design and construction to emplacement operations that last 25 years. When emplacement has ended, a caretaker period begins and continues until 50 years from emplacement of the first waste. The life of the repository concludes with closure and decommissioning, which includes backfilling and sealing the repository, decontaminating and razing the surface facilities, restoring the land to as near its original condition as possible, and marking the site. The estimates, developed for each phase of the life cycle of the repository, are based on January 1986 constant (unescalated) dollars and include an allowance for contingency. This report mainly comprises explanations of design and operating assumptions, estimating methods, exclusions, definition of cost accounts, calculating procedures, data sources, staffing and other qualifying remarks. Cost estimates are approximations of value and should not be construed as exact. The cost and staffing detail provided in this estimate is commensurate with the detail in the conceptual design

  3. Salt Repository Project site study plan for seismographic monitoring: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This site study plan describes the seismographic monitoring activities to be conducted during the early stages of Site Characterization at the Deaf Smith County site, Texas. The field programs has been designed to provide data useful in addressing information/data needs resulting from Federal/State/local regulatory requirements and repository program requirements. Sixteen new and three relocated seismographic stations will be added to the now existing network of 13 stations for a total of 32 stations in the network. The areal extent is being expanded and selected regions covered more densely to provide more accurate monitoring and location of microearthquakes. More sophisticated instruments are being used at selected locations to allow for more detailed analysis. A few seismographs are being installed at depth to provide a limited 3-D monitoring network in the area of the repository. The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Networks specify the schedule under which the program will operate. The Technique Field Services Contractor (TFSC) is responsible for conducting the field program. Data will be handled and reported in accordance with established SRP procedures. A quality assurance program will be utilized to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that appropriate documentation is maintained. 32 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Analysis of the portfolio of sites to characterize for selecting a nuclear repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeney, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has selected three sites, from five nominated, to characterize for a nuclear repository to permanently dispose of nuclear waste. This decision was made without the benefit of an analysis of this portfolio problem. This paper analyzes different portfolios of three sites for simultaneous characterization and strategies for sequential characterization. Characterization of each site, which involves significant subsurface excavation, is now estimated to cost $1 billion. Mainly because of the high characterization costs, sequential characterization strategies are identified which are the equivalent of $1.7-2.0 billion less expensive than the selected DOE simultaneous characterization of the three sites. If three sites are simultaneously characterized, one portfolio is estimated to be the equivalent of $100-400 million better than the selected DOE portfolio. Because of these potential savings and several other complicating factors that may influence the relative desirability of characterization strategies, a thorough analysis of characterization strategies that addresses the likelihood of finding disqualifying conditions during site characterization, uncertainties, and dependencies in forecast site repository costs, preclosure and postclosure health and safety impacts, potential delays of both sequential and simultaneous characterization strategies, and the environmental, socioeconomic, and health and safety impacts of characterization activities is recommended

  5. Activities on the site during construction phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fickel, O.F.

    1977-01-01

    A survey is given of the work done on the site from site-opening till turn over of the plant to the client. After a short introduction to time schedules, manpower on site, site facilities and civil work and constructions, the commissioning and trial operation phase is discussed in detail. This phase begins with finishing the assembly of individual systems and components and ends with the trial operation and the acceptance measurement. During this period the subsystems are started-up in a useful sequence, first from cold, then from hot conditions and are finally operated as a total with nuclear energy. The single steps are: a) commissioning of indivudal systems; b) hot functional test 1 (without fuels) c) baseline inspection at the reactor pressure vessel; d) hot functional test 2 (with fuels); e) preparation for first criticality; f) postcriticality test program; g) trial operation: h) acceptance measurement. (HP) [de

  6. Site selection for Canada's national repository for used nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Belfadhel, M.; Watts, B.; Facella, J., E-mail: mbenbelfadhel@nwmo.ca [Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    In 2007, the Government of Canada selected Adaptive Phased Management as Canada's plan for the long-term management of Canada's used nuclear fuel. The approach provides for containment and isolation of the material in a deep geological repository at a safe site with an informed and willing host. The Nuclear Waste Management Organization is tasked through federal legislation with selecting the site and developing and managing all aspects of the plan. In May 2010, the organization published and initiated the site selection process that serves as a road map for decision making on the location for the deep geological repository. It continues to lead the site selection process for the repository and an associated Centre of Expertise. The screening process is advancing and, from an initial starting point of 22 communities expressing interest in learning about the project; as of September 2015, 9 communities are the focus of more detailed technical and community well-being studies. Preliminary Assessments, the third step in the 9-step site selection process are underway in these communities. The Assessments involve preliminary technical and social desktop and field assessments, engagement activities within and beyond each interested community, and involvement of Indigenous peoples and nearby municipalities in the planning and conduct of the work. This paper provides an update on the advancement of the site selection process. It describes the nature of the technical and social studies being conducted at this phase of work, including the progressively more detailed field studies that are the focus of technical work at the current stage, the approach to engagement and collaboration with communities to direct these studies, and the work underway to ensure the framework used for this assessment and engagement includes the range of priorities and perspectives of First Nations and Metis peoples and communities in the broader area. (author)

  7. Dealing with the current permissibility application for constructing a spent fuel DGR in Sweden. SKB's license applications for a spent fuel repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Olle

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear power utilities in Sweden were in 1976 obliged to demonstrate a safe method for final disposal of spent fuel in order to start operation of new reactors. This initiated a comprehensive research, development and demonstration programme and the development of the KBS-method for final disposal. A new Nuclear Activities Act in 1984 gave the reactor owners full technical and financial responsibility for the waste. They gave in turn SKB the responsibility for all nuclear waste management. Reprocessing was no longer required and direct disposal of the spent fuel has, since then, been the main alternative. Alternative methods for final disposal have been evaluated and compared to the KBS-3-method but it has remained the preferred alternative. A comprehensive research, development and demonstration programme to strengthen the scientific basis and to refine the KBS-3-method has been operated by SKB since then. The site selection process for the final repository for spent nuclear fuel was initiated in 1992. The work included general siting studies at the national and the municipal level and in 2002, SKB initiated site investigations for siting of a final repository on two sites: the Simpevarp and Laxemar areas and the Forsmark area. At the same time, the work on preparing license applications to construct and operate an encapsulation plant and a final repository for spent fuel was started. In June 2009, SKB announced Forsmark as the selected site for the final repository. This paper reviews the applicable legislation and describes the license application, the licensing review and the preparations for implementation

  8. Site selection process for radioactive waste repository (radioactive facility) in Cuba as a fundamental safety criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vital, Jose Luis Peralta; Castillo, Reinaldo Gil; Chales Suarez, Gustavo; Rodriguez Reyes, Aymee

    1999-01-01

    The paper show the process of search carried out for the selection of the safest site in the National territory, in order to sitting the Facility (Repository) that will disposal the low and intermediate level radioactive wastes, as well as the possible Storage Facility for nuclear spent Fuel (radioactive wastes of high activity). We summarize the obtained Methodology and the Criterions of exclusion adopted for the development of the Process of site selection, as well as the current condition of the researches that will permit the obtaining of the nominative objectives. (author)

  9. Technology needs for selecting and evaluating high-level waste repository sites in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    This report describes properties and processes that govern the performance of the geological barrier in a nuclear waste isolation system in crystalline rock and the state-of-the-art in the understanding of these properties and processes. Areas and topics that require further research and development as well as technology needs for investigating and selecting repository sites are presented. Experiences from the Swedish site selection program are discussed, and a general investigation strategy is presented for an area characterization phase of an exploratory program in crystalline rocks. 255 refs., 65 figs., 10 tabs

  10. Concentration ratios to great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) at Olkiluoto repository site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangasniemi, Ville; Ikonen, Ari T.K. [Environmental Research and Assessment EnviroCase, Ltd., Hallituskatu 1 D 4, 28100 Pori (Finland); Haavisto, Fiia [FM Meri and Erae Oy, Seijaistentie 133a, 21230 Lemu (Finland); Salmi, Juhani A. [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Itaeinen Pitkaekatu 3, 20520 Turku (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    Olkiluoto Island on the western coast of Finland has been selected as a repository site for spent nuclear fuel disposal. The great cormorant was a common species in the Finnish coastal area and possibly also a resource for human uses before the decline of the cormorant population in the 18. century. During the last decade, the great cormorant has become again a relevant part of food web in the Bothnian Sea coastal area. Due to the regulatory requirements, the biosphere assessment demonstrating the long-term safety of the repository is developed into more and more site specific. As the adequate literature data on common waterfowl is sparse or in some cases lacking, samples of adult cormorants, eggs and guano together with water and fish samples were collected from the Olkiluoto coastal area. This contribution will present concentration ratios of stable element based on these samples with focus on the elements of a high relevance to the biosphere assessment of the Olkiluoto spent fuel repository together with discussion on the role of food (fish) versus the application of the water-to-bird concentration ratio. (authors)

  11. The recharge area concept: A strategy for siting nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, G.; Toth, J.

    2000-01-01

    The Recharge Area Concept is the proposition that in Canadian-Shield type natural environments recharge areas of regional groundwater flow systems are superior for high-level nuclear waste repositories to other types of groundwater flow regimes, especially to areas of groundwater discharge. This conclusion is reached from an analysis of basinal groundwater flow models. The calculations were made for a two-dimensional flank of a fully saturated topographic basin, 20 km long and 4 km deep, in which groundwater is driven by gravity. Variants of hydraulic-conductivity distributions were considered: 1) homogeneous; 2) stratified; and 3) stratified-faulted. The faults attitudes were changed by steps from vertical to horizontal for different variants. The model is assumed conceptually to represent the crystalline-rock environment of the Canadian Shield. The hydrogeologic performances of hypothetical repositories placed 500 m deep in the recharge and discharge areas were characterized by thirteen parameters. The principal advantages of recharge- over discharge-area locations are: 1) longer travel paths and return-flow times from repository to surface; 2) robustness of predicted values of performance parameters; 3) field-verifiability of favourable hydrogeologic conditions (amounting to an implicit validation of the calculated minimum values of return-flow times); 4) site acceptance based on quantifiable and observable flow-controlling parameters; and 5) simple logistics and favourable economics of site selection and screening. As a by-product of modeling, it is demonstrated that the presence of old water is not an indication of stagnancy. (author)

  12. Framework for evaluating the utility of incentive systems for radioactive waste repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, S.A.; Soderstrom, E.J.; Sorensen, J.; Peelle, E.; Reed, J.H.; Bjornstad, D.J.; Copenhaver, E.D.

    1982-01-01

    The importance of social and institutional issues in siting radioactive waste repositories has been recognized in recent years. Within this set of issues, the siting of repositories over the objections of members of potential host communities is viewed as especially problematic. Incentives to potential host communities have been suggested as a means of increasing local support for and offsetting local opposition to such facilities. Incentives are classified according to their function as mitigation, compensation or reward. Our analysis of results of a 1980 survey (conducted by John Kelly, Complex Systems Group, University of New Hampshire) of 420 rural Wisconsin residents indicates that incentives may achieve the purpose of increasing support for and decreasing opposition to accepting a repository. Criteria for evaluating the utility of incentives are identified. They respond to four basic questions: (1) What is absolutely necessary. (2) Will the incentive work. (3) Can the incentive be understood. and (4) What are the consequences of implementing the incentive. It is suggested that meaningful evaluations of incentives can only be performed by members of potential host communities

  13. Evaluation of site-generated radioactive waste treatment and disposal methods for the Yucca Mountain repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, C.V.; Jardine, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    This study identifies the sources of radioactive wastes that may be generated at the proposed high-level waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, NV, estimates the waste quantities and characteristics, compares technologies available for waste treatment and disposal, and develops recommended concepts for site-generated waste treatment and disposal. The scope of this study is limited to operations during the emplacement phase, in which 70,000 MTU of high-level waste will be received and emplaced at the proposed repository. The evaluations consider all radioactive wastes generated during normal operations in surface and underground facilities. Wastes generated as a result of accidents are not addressed; accidents that could result in large quantities of radioactive waste are expected to occur very infrequently and temporary, portable systems could be used for any necessary cleanup. The results of this study can be used to develop more definitive plans for managing the site-generated wastes and as a basis for the design of associated facilities at the proposed repository

  14. Repository for spent nuclear fuel. Preliminary construction description - layout D Oskarshamn the Simpevarp area; Slutfoervar foer anvaent kaernbraensle. Preliminaer anlaeggningsbeskrivning - layout D. Oskarshamn, delomraade Simpevarp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    This report presents the preliminary design of a repository located in the Simpevarp area. The description has been disposed so as to deal primarily with the site dependent layouts for the above- and underground constructions. The report is disposed as follows: c1 gives the background and some basic information. Chapter 2 presents the demands and necessary conditions that take precedence when adapting the plant to the local conditions, construction, operation and closure. Chapter 3 is a general description of the area, its infrastructure and the specific sites that have been studied. Chapter 4-5 describe the design of the plant for the two chosen sites. Chapter 6 gives a review of data for the plant, and Chapter 7 'References' is the last part of the main document. The appendices A-I give brief information on the general, non-site specific, parts of the plant, e.g. buildings, life cycle, system, operation and organization.

  15. What requirements does the KBS-3 repository make on the host rock? Geoscientific suitability indicators and criteria for siting and site evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [Golder Grundteknik AB (Sweden); Stroem, Anders; Svemar, Christer [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Almen, Karl-Erik [KEA Geo-Konsult AB, Naessjoe (Sweden); Ericsson, Lars O. [Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    initial stresses may not be such that large stability problems may arise around tunnels or deposition holes within the deposition area. The groundwater at repository level may not contain dissolved oxygen. The total salinity in the groundwater must be less than 100 g/l at repository level. In addition to the above requirements, there are a large number of preferences, i.e. conditions that are desirable and should be taken into account when positioning the repository in the rock: Since it can be difficult to predict how different rocks and minerals will be used in the future, it is preferable to site the deep repository in commonly occurring rock types. Moderate density (fracture surface area per volume) of local minor fracture zones is preferable, along with moderate density of fractures. It is preferable that the strength and deformation properties of the intact rock be normal for Swedish bedrock, since experience has shown it is possible to carry out rock works with good results in such bedrock. It is preferable that the coefficient of thermal expansion have normal values for Swedish bedrock and that it not differ markedly between the rock types in the repository area. The rock should have a higher thermal conductivity than 2.5 W/(m,K). Areas with a high potential for geothermal energy extraction should be avoided. The undisturbed temperature at repository depth should be less than 25 deg C. It is an advantage if a large part of the rock mass in the deposition zone has a hydraulic conductivity that is less than 10{sup -8} m/s. Fracture zones that need to be passed during construction should have such low permeability that they can be passed without problems, which means the zones should have a transmissivity that is lower than 10{sup -5} m{sup 2} /s and are furthermore not problematical from a construction-related viewpoint. It is an advantage if the local hydraulic gradient is lower than 1% at repository level, but lower values do not provide any additional advantage

  16. PHWR safety: design, siting and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, V.K.

    2002-01-01

    In all activities associated with NPPs viz. siting, design, construction, commissioning and operation, safety is given overriding importance. The safety design principles of PHWRs are based on defence-in-depth approach, physical and functional separation between process and safety systems and also among various safety systems, redundancy to meet single failure criteria and postulation of a number of design basis events for which the plant must be designed. Apart from engineered safety systems, PHWRs have inherent characteristics which contribute to safety. In siting of a NPP, it is required to ensure that the given site does not pose undue radiological hazard to public and the environment both during normal operation as well as during and following an accident condition. For this purpose, all site related external events, both natural and man induced, are assessed for their effect on the plant and are considered as part of the design basis. Possible radiological impact of the NPP on environment and surrounding population is assessed and ensured to be within acceptable limits. During construction phase, it is essential that the NPP be built in accordance with design intent and with required quality of workmanship to ensure that the NPP will remain safe during all states of operation. This is achieved through careful execution and QA activities encompassing all aspects of component fabrication at manufacturer works, civil construction, site erection, assembly, and commissioning. Future trends in nuclear safety will continue to be based on existing principles which have proved to be sound. These will be further strengthened by features such as increasing use of passive means of performing safety functions and a more explicit treatment of severe accidents. (author)

  17. Workshops for state review of site suitability criteria for high-level radioactive waste repositories: analysis and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    The responses from various discussion groups on site suitability criteria for high-level radioactive waste repositories are presented. The consensus, principal concern, and minority opinion on each issue are given. The visual aids used in the workshop are included

  18. Problems of geologic survey of high level radioactive waste repositories illustrated on the testing site in the Melechov Massif

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlcoch, B.

    1997-01-01

    Major attention is paid to problems associated with the geologic maps of the prospective repository site, which lies within the Bohemian Massif. Structural geology, survey through boreholes, and primary database are also discussed briefly. (P.A.)

  19. Technical, normative and social aspects of the site selection process for radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branco, Otavio E.A.; Rodrigues, Paulo C.H.; Carvalho Filho, Carlos A.; Cota, Stela D.S.; Ferreira, Vinicius V.M.; Peres, Sueli S.; Hiromoto, Goro

    2009-01-01

    In force since 2001, the Federal Law 10.308 states, in article 37, that the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN should start studies for the implementation of a final radioactive waste repository, 'in the shortest timeframe technically feasible'. Nevertheless, not only technical aspects have to be taken into account to accomplish with this schedule, but, also factors of political, economic and social nature. In this paper, the importance and impact of public acceptance aspects are discussed, as well as the methodology of site selection for radioactive wastes repositories, and proposals to accommodate the emanated criteria from the existing legislation. Additionally, practical results from the international experience in the implementation of such deposits are presented. (author)

  20. Draft environmental impact statement. High-level waste repository site suitability criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of HLWRSSC is to present guidelines which will help in the development of safe waste management schemes. Current regulations require solidification of all high-level waste within 5 years of their generation and transfer to a Federal waste repository within 10 years. Development of the proposed HLWRSSC is part of the overall NRC program to close the ''back end'' of the commercial LWR fuel cycle. In this document, the need for the HLWRSSC is reviewed, and the national energy policy, the need for electrical energy, and the nuclear fuel cycle are discussed. Considerations for HLWRSSC are presented, including the nature of the repository, important site-related factors, and radiological risk assessment methodology. Radiological and nonradiological environment impacts associated with the HLWRSSC are defined. Alternatives to the criteria are presented, and the cost-benefit-risk evaluation is reviewed

  1. Geophysical survey aimed at selecting the radioactive waste repository site (Czech republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Dostál

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available G IMPULS Praha has been executing a set of geophysical measurements for the Radioactive Waste Repository Authority of the Czech Republic from 2001 (the work continues to be carried out. The measurements are aimed at studying the behaviour of the rock massif, focusing on the Excavation Damaged or Disturbed Zone (EDZ and on selecting an appropriate area for the radioactive material repository site. The geophysical studies use a complex of methods as follows: Airborne geophysical measurement (regional studies, Seismic measurement (detailed studies, G.P.R. (detailed studies, Resistivity tomography (detailed studies, Geoelectric measurement and magnetic survey (stray earth currents. The paper informs about first results and conclusions. The airborne work was executed as a part of the complex study of „GEOBARIERA“ the group and the geophysical measurements of EDZ were executed in co-operation with the Czech Geological Survey.

  2. Data base for a site-specific migration analysis radioactive elements out of a waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadermann, J

    1981-11-01

    Migration analysis is of considerable importance in long-term safety analysis of radioactive waste repositories. In a first step our plans are to calculate transport of radionuclides using data - as far as possible - for an undisturbed hydrogeology. Thereby a reference case is defined. In a later step, possible events and processes can be considered leading to a deviation from the reference case. The present work gives the data base for a selected part of a comprehensive geosphere transport calculation. We restrict ourselves to a critical evaluation of parameters pertinent to the migration analysis of the /sup 245/Cm chain. This includes the important nuclide /sup 237/Np. For the first time we are able to perform a site specific calculation for repositories planned in deep geologic formations in Switzerland. The well-known fact that the data basis is extremely sparse is pointed out once more and concretized in detail.

  3. Development of rail access to the proposed repository site at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standish, P.N.; Seidler, P.E.; Andrews, W.B.; Shearin, G.

    1991-01-01

    In accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendment Act of 1987, Yucca Mountain was designated as the initial site to be investigated as a potential repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Yucca Mountain site is an undeveloped area located on the southwestern edge of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), about 100 miles northwest of Las Vegas. The site currently lacks rail service or an existing right-of-way. If the Yucca Mountain site is found suitable for the repository, rail service is considered desirable by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) program because of the potential of rail transportation to reduce (1) costs and (2) number of shipments, relative to highway transportation. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a study to determine (1) that there are alignments for a potential rail line from existing mainline railroads to Yucca Mountain and (2) that these are consistent with present rail design standards and are acceptable relative to environmental and land access considerations

  4. FFSM, Long-Term Nuclear Waste Repository Site Simulation by Monte-Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadlock, L.R.; Hellstrom, D.I.; Mikulis, M.J.B.; Little, A.D.; Golis, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: FFSM (Far Field State Model) predicts the approximate geologic and climatic state of a site for a nuclear waste repository over relatively long periods of time. The purpose of FFSM is to represent quantitatively certain events and processes that could alter the effectiveness of one or more natural barriers in a waste isolation system. The barriers treated by the model are primarily components of the geologic environment surrounding the repository, although biosphere components (e.g. climate parameters) that could affect the impact of radionuclide releases are also considered. These components are treated outside the realm of wastes or repository-induced effects, which is indicated by use of the term f ar field . The model treats both natural and man-induced changes in these barriers within a probabilistic framework, and it accounts for cumulative and interactive effects of multiple phenomena. 2 - Method of solution: Fifteen submodels are included in FFSM to account for phenomena that may be of importance individually or in combination in evaluating sites for repositories. These submodels include: undetected features, climate, worldwide glaciation, local glaciation, folding, salt dispersion, magmatic events, faulting, biosphere state, regional deformation, geomorphic processes, dissolution fronts, localized dissolution (breccia pipes), solution mining, and drilling. FFSM can be used in both a deterministic mode, to evaluate interactions or to calculate point values, and a probabilistic mode, to make statistical estimates of future changes. In the probabilistic mode, Monte Carlo simulation is used to generate output probabilities, based on user-supplied input, largely in the form of probability density functions for variable or uncertain parameters

  5. Preliminary assessment of nuclear waste transportation cost and risk for operation of the first repository at candidate sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.W.; McSweeney, T.I.; Varadarajan, R.V.; Wilmot, E.L.; Cashwell, J.W.; Joy, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    To support the selection of the first commercial nuclear waste repository site in 1987, environmental analyses of five candidate site locations are currently being performed. The five locations are in the Gulf Interior Region, the Permian Basin, the Paradox Basin, Yucca Mountain and the Hanford reservation. Costs and operational risks associated with the transportation of nuclear wastes to a single repository located in these regions have been calculated for a life-cycle of 26 years

  6. Preliminary post-closure safety assessment of repository concepts for low level radioactive waste at the Bruce Site, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, R.H.; Penfold, J.S.S.; Egan, M.J.; Leung, H.

    2005-01-01

    The preliminary post-closure safety assessment of permanent repository concepts for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Ontario Power Generation (OPG) Bruce Site is described. The study considered the disposal of both short and long-lived LLW. Four geotechnically feasible repository concepts were considered (two near-surface and two deep repositories). An approach consistent with best international practice was used to provide a reasoned and comprehensive analysis of post-closure impacts of the repository concepts. The results demonstrated that the deep repository concepts in shale and in limestone, and the surface repository concept on sand should meet radiological protection criteria. For the surface repository concept on glacial till, it appears that increased engineering such as grouting of waste and voids should be considered to meet the relevant dose constraint. Should the project to develop a permanent repository for LLW proceed, it is expected that this preliminary safety assessment would need to be updated to take account of future site-specific investigations and design updates. (author)

  7. The influence of introduced micro-organisms on corrosion of repository construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The work described in this report forms part of a wider project on the role of geomicrobiology in radioactive waste containment. This has established the presence of microbes in relevant geological formations including several groups of significance to waste containment. Microbial groups demonstrated have included those which could influence deterioration of repository structural materials, eg. sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB). This report describes work carried out to assess this role. More specifically the objectives of this phase of the project are: identification of suitable microbial isolates; to ascertain the growth characteristics of the isolates; to develop and construct experimental cells for use in corrosion rate tests; and to conduct preliminary short term experiments in static conditions designed to assess corrosion rates of mild steel in an ideal growth environment for SRB. Using information gained from these experiments to initiate long term corrosion experiments of steel in an SRB inoculated bentonite simulating near-field conditions in a backfill/canister system. (author)

  8. Ecosystem characterization strategy at a repository site - Olkiluoto as a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pere, Tuomas [Posiva Oy, Olkiluoto, 27160 Eurajoki (Finland); Kangasniemi, Ville [Environmental Research and Assessment EnviroCase, Ltd., Hallituskatu 1 D 4, 28100 Pori (Finland); Lahdenperae, Anne-Maj [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Laulukuja 4, 00420 Helsinki (Finland); Aro, Lasse [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kaironiementie 15, 39700 Parkano (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    Posiva Oy is constructing an underground research facility ONKALO in Olkiluoto, located in the municipality of Eurajoki, Finland. This is part of the plan for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel produced by Posiva's owners: Teollisuuden Voima Oyj and Fortum Power and Heat Oyj. Posiva has applied for construction license for an underground repository, which is planned to start its operation around the year 2020. The final disposal of high-level radioactive waste poses questions of long-term safety and possible processes of radionuclide release in the EBS (Engineered Barrier System) and the geosphere are also modelled as well as possible transport routes in the bedrock. Posiva has also established a monitoring program for the environment and is also conducting modelling of the surface environment and biosphere in Olkiluoto and the surrounding reference area. These serve the purpose of both, site description and modelling of the transport and accumulation of possible radionuclide releases in the surface environment and biosphere. The process of modelling used by Posiva requires the division of the surface environment and biosphere into several categories. In Posiva's classification, ecosystems are divided to two categories: terrestrial and aquatic with terrestrial divided to forests and agricultural areas. These categories are further divided to ecosystem types which include: lake, river, forest, cropland and sea (with coastal sea as a separate type). These types are even further divided to 14 ecosystem sub-types and behind these sub-types, a total of 24 biotopes exist. Soil and sediment types are also classified to 7 classes. The methodology behind the selection of these biotopes and their connection to the modelling of radionuclide transport in the surface environment is further described in the text. Some of the ecosystem types and biotopes are absent in present-day Olkiluoto area, which necessitates the use of reference targets, such as lakes, rivers

  9. Effects of post-disposal gas generation in a repository for spent fuel, high-level waste and long-lived intermediate level waste sited in opalinus clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.; Marschall, P.; Zuidema, P.; Gribi, P.

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive report issued by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste NAGRA takes a look at post-disposal gas generation in a repository for spent fuel and highly radioactive wastes in Opalinus clay strata. This study provides a comprehensive treatment of the issue of gas generation in a repository for spent fuel (SF), vitrified high-level waste (HLW) and long-lived intermediate-level waste (ILW), sited in the Opalinus clay of the Zuercher Weinland in northern Switzerland. The issue of how gas generation in and transport from waste repositories may influence disposal system performance has been under study for many years, both at Nagra and internationally. The report consists of three main parts: (i) A synthesis of basic information on the host rock and on details of repository construction; (ii) A discussion on gas transport characteristics of the engineered barrier system and the geosphere; (iii) A discussion on the effects of gas on system performance, based on the available information on gas generation, gas transport properties and gas pathways provided in the previous parts of the report. Simplified model calculations based on a mass balance approach for the gas generated within the repository are presented and discussed

  10. Topic I: Induced changes in hydrology at low-level radioactive waste repository sites: A section in Safe disposal of radionuclides in low-level radioactive-waste repository sites; Low-level radioactive-waste disposal workshop, U.S. Geological Survey, July 11-16, 1987, Big Bear Lake, Calif., Proceedings (Circular 1036)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudic, David E.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; Bedinger, Marion S.; Stevens, Peter R.

    1990-01-01

    Engineering practices, including the excavation of trenches, placement of waste, nature of waste forms, backfilling procedures and materials, and trench-cover construction and materials at low-level radioactive-waste repository sites greatly affect the geohydrology of the sites. Engineering practices are dominant factors in eventual stability and isolation of the waste. The papers presented relating to Topic I were discussions of the hydrogeologic setting at existing low-level radioactive-waste repository sites and changes in the hydrology induced by site operations. Papers summarizing detailed studies presented at this workshop include those at sites near Sheffield, Ill.; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tenn.; West Valley, N.Y.; Maxey Flats, Ky.; Barnwell, S.C.; and Beatty, Nev. 

  11. SKI's engagement in the process for siting a spent nuclear fuel repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paeivioe Jonsson, Josefin; Westerlind, Magnus [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-09-15

    preferred location for the encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel was in the municipality of Oskarshamn (in connection to the central interim storage for spent nuclear fuel, CLAB). This led the municipality to initiate a forum for consultations between the municipality, County Administration Board, SKI and SSI (the so-called MKB-Forum in Kalmar County). They emphasised that active regulators, with clear roles and positions, were a prerequisite for the municipality's involvement in the siting process. In 1996 a feasibility study for a repository was launched by SKB and was included in the MKB-Forum's work. SKI's RandD in the field of nuclear waste management aims at maintaining and developing the competence needed for independent assessments of safety. In recent years the research also includes risk communication and decision-making processes. The co-ordination of EIA and decision making processes according to different acts, in particular the Act on Nuclear Activities and the Environmental Code is one big challenge for all actors involved in process for siting a repository for spent nuclear fuel. Many actors will be involved in the parallel licensing process and it requires good planning and good cooperation. The application for construction of an encapsulation plant will be submitted already in 2006 (addressing mainly technical basis and operational safety), but will be updated in 2008 (e.g. coverage of long-term safety for the sealed waste canisters produced in the plant). These applications must be approved according to the Environmental Code and the Act of Nuclear Activities before construction licenses can be given. A final decision from the Swedish Government will most probably address the whole concept of disposal, simultaneously covering both facilities. With an estimated period covering at least two years for technical review by SKI, SSI and the Swedish Environmental Court (for approval according to Environmental Code) and at least one year for

  12. Review of institutional and socioeconomic issues for radioactive waste repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copenhaver, E.D.; Carnes, S.A.; Soderstrom, E.J.; Sorensen, J.H.; Peelle, E.; Bjornstad, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    In recent years, the importance of social and institutional issues in the siting of radioactive waste management repositories has been recognized. This study deals with the possibility of using incentives to assist in siting repositories and outlines some of their uses, limitations, and preconditions. Limited survey data and other studies indicate that incentives may help encourage people to formulate positive positions on radioactive waste repositories. In an overall siting strategy, incentives are just one part of a structured process involving the creation of a mutually acceptable set of arrangements that make certain guarantees and confer certain benefits in exchange for the acceptance of the proposed facility. Because the range of needs to be fulfilled is varied, a package of incentives is likely to be more acceptable than any one single incentive. The purpose of incentives is to encourage local approval by minimizing and redressing costs and providing missing benefits. Most previous discussions of incentives have emphasized mitigation mechanisms only. This paper also identifies compensation, incentives, and criteria by which compensation or an incentive system can be evaluated. The study provides the means by which incentives can be identified, assessed, negotiated, and implemented by affected parties and attempts to show where incentives fit into an overall siting strategy by developing a classification scheme and an analytical framework that capture: (1) the preconditions that must exist before any incentive system can be considered; (2) the objective features of an incentive; such as adequacy and ease of administration; (3) community perceptions of an incentive, such as interpretability and relevance; and (4) the consequences of implementing an incentive, such as distributional effects and conflict and consensus. 38 references, 1 figure, 2 tables

  13. Conceptualization of a hypothetical high-level nuclear waste repository site in unsaturated, fractured tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, A.M.; Olague, N.E.; Gallegos, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is developing a performance assessment methodology for the analysis of long-term disposal and isolation of high-level nuclear wastes (HLW) in alternative geologic media. As part of this exercise, SNL created a conceptualization of ground-water flow and radionuclide transport in the far field of a hypothetical HLW repository site located in unsaturated, fractured tuff formations. This study provides a foundation for the development of conceptual mathematical, and numerical models to be used in this performance assessment methodology. This conceptualization is site specific in terms of geometry, the regional ground-water flow system, stratigraphy, and structure in that these are based on information from Yucca Mountain located on the Nevada Test Site. However, in terms of processes in unsaturated, fractured, porous media, the model is generic. This report also provides a review and evaluation of previously proposed conceptual models of unsaturated and saturated flow and solute transport. This report provides a qualitative description of a hypothetical HLW repository site in fractured tuff. However, evaluation of the current knowledge of flow and transport at Yucca Mountain does not yield a single conceptual model. Instead, multiple conceptual models are possible given the existing information

  14. Conceptualization of a hypothetical high-level nuclear waste repository site in unsaturated, fractured tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, A.M.; Olague, N.E.; Gallegos, D.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)

    1991-01-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is developing a performance assessment methodology for the analysis of long-term disposal and isolation of high-level nuclear wastes (HLW) in alternative geologic media. As part of this exercise, SNL created a conceptualization of ground-water flow and radionuclide transport in the far field of a hypothetical HLW repository site located in unsaturated, fractured tuff formations. This study provides a foundation for the development of conceptual mathematical, and numerical models to be used in this performance assessment methodology. This conceptualization is site specific in terms of geometry, the regional ground-water flow system, stratigraphy, and structure in that these are based on information from Yucca Mountain located on the Nevada Test Site. However, in terms of processes in unsaturated, fractured, porous media, the model is generic. This report also provides a review and evaluation of previously proposed conceptual models of unsaturated and saturated flow and solute transport. This report provides a qualitative description of a hypothetical HLW repository site in fractured tuff. However, evaluation of the current knowledge of flow and transport at Yucca Mountain does not yield a single conceptual model. Instead, multiple conceptual models are possible given the existing information.

  15. Role of mine ventilation in site selection for a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPherson, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    The application of mine ventilation practice and theory to the measurement of groundwater flow for the purpose of the selection of sites for underground storage of nuclear spent fuel is described. The discipline of mine ventilation has an important part to play not only in the design and operation of an underground nuclear waste repository but also during the early stages of potential site characterization. One of the most vital factors in the selection of a suitable site is the rate at which groundwater can flow through the native rock. The effects of repository heat on groundwater migration are highlighted and a description of a major experiment in an underground test site is included. Detailed monitoring of airflow and its psychrometric properties enabled quantification of very low rates of water seepage into an isolated heading. The results indicated the relationship between permeability of a fractured rock and temperature. The transient phenomena that govern evaporation of water from fissured rock surfaces in the test chamber are also examined. (author)

  16. Geotechnical conditions of Bulgaria and site selection for radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliev, I.; Tacheva, E.

    1993-01-01

    A comparative study of the complex structure of the Bulgarian lands and the engineering geological criteria for site selection of national repositories for high level radwastes is made. A detailed description of the following geotechnical conditions of Bulgaria's territory is given: genetic, lithological and engineering-geological types of rocks; physico-mechanical parameters of the most widespread rocky and semi-rocky engineering geological types; fissuring of the rocks; rock massifs; geodynamic processes. The number of promising variants for repositories have been classified according to the structure of the rock massif and the engineering-geological properties of the layers which are promising for the purpose. The following sites are investigated: 1) sites in one-type homogeneous rock massifs of high strength and elasticity; 2) sites of various type massifs with a promising layer of rocks with medium strength and elasticity; 3) sites in various type massifs with a promising layer of plastic rocks of low strength. It is concluded that the complexity of the geotechnical and other conditions in the territory of Bulgaria would predetermine the deficiency of the list of the properties required for the selected sites. The building up of engineering defence will be needed to offset that deficiency and their problems will be resolved after the specific site have been chosen. Geotechnical elements should be likewise envisaged within the general pattern of the monitoring needed. The designing, installing and putting into operation of the monitoring systems should be accomplished as early as the stage of the detailed investigation of the site selected. 19 refs., 2 suppls. (author)

  17. Experiences from risk communication in the siting of a geological repository for high level waste in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thegerstroem, C.; Engstroem, S. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    SKB is planning in the year 2001 to designate two siting alternatives for further site characterisation. The work in the municipalities of Oesthammar, Nykoeping, Oskarshamn and Tierp is taking place in an atmosphere of constructive discussions. There is a growing feeling in Sweden among broad categories of the public that the nuclear waste exists and should be taken care of by our generation, without many of these people ever getting positive to the use of nuclear energy. While the NIMBY syndrome might still have a good grip on some, there has never been a more constructive debate about the nuclear waste than now, even though there still is a lot of work to do. Siting a geological repository for high level waste puts our democratic system under hard tests. The decision making process is about openness, skills in interacting with the public, respect of people's fears and concerns and at last but not the least independent, competent and visible participation by other stakeholders (politicians locally and nationally, regulatory bodies etc). Good skills in risk communication are important ingredients that might facilitate SKB's task as a developer. Far more important however, is the trust we might get from past and present record of handling the waste and from the way we work and behave in the feasibility studies in the municipalities where SKB is involved.

  18. Experiences from risk communication in the siting of a geological repository for high level waste in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thegerstroem, C.; Engstroem, S.

    1999-01-01

    SKB is planning in the year 2001 to designate two siting alternatives for further site characterisation. The work in the municipalities of Oesthammar, Nykoeping, Oskarshamn and Tierp is taking place in an atmosphere of constructive discussions. There is a growing feeling in Sweden among broad categories of the public that the nuclear waste exists and should be taken care of by our generation, without many of these people ever getting positive to the use of nuclear energy. While the NIMBY syndrome might still have a good grip on some, there has never been a more constructive debate about the nuclear waste than now, even though there still is a lot of work to do. Siting a geological repository for high level waste puts our democratic system under hard tests. The decision making process is about openness, skills in interacting with the public, respect of people's fears and concerns and at last but not the least independent, competent and visible participation by other stakeholders (politicians locally and nationally, regulatory bodies etc). Good skills in risk communication are important ingredients that might facilitate SKB's task as a developer. Far more important however, is the trust we might get from past and present record of handling the waste and from the way we work and behave in the feasibility studies in the municipalities where SKB is involved

  19. Public opposition to the siting of the high-level nuclear waste repository: The importance of trust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pijawka, K.D.; Mushkatel, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines several dimensions of public opposition to the proposed siting of the high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. In order to provide a context for the public's views of the repository in metropolitan Clark County, both governmental studies of the repository siting process are analyzed, as well as elements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. This analysis suggests that one potentially key component of the public's opposition to the siting, as well as their perceptions of risk of the facility, may be the result of a lack of trust in the Department of Energy. Empirical analysis of survey data collected in Nevada in 1988 confirms the strong relationship between political trust and repository risk perceptions

  20. The Site Selected. The Local Decision-Making Regarding the Siting of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Repository in Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojo, Matti

    2006-01-01

    In May 1999 Posiva, the company responsible for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland, suggested that the Finnish Government considers only Olkiluoto in Eurajoki in its application of a decision in principle to be a final disposal site. In January 2000 the municipal council of Eurajoki made a positive statement on the decision in principle. The Government made the decision in principle in Dec 2000, and the Parliament ratified the decision in May 2001. The paper is focused on the decision making of Eurajoki municipality regarding the siting of the spent nuclear fuel repository. The paper shows how the interaction between the representatives of the candidate municipality and the nuclear energy industry was the crucial factor in the decision-making. Eurajoki serves as an example, in where the parties reached an agreement of the compensations for the final disposal repository. The negotiations between the Eurajoki municipality and the nuclear energy industry in reaching a positive decision are analysed from the beginning of the 1980s. The main emphasis is however on the years 1996-99, when the nuclear energy industry negotiated with the municipality on the compensation for the final disposal repository. The loss of income was an important reason why some of the councillors of Eurajoki were interested in having the final disposal repository in Olkiluoto. The industry's problem on the other hand was to safeguard the final disposal site. From the TVO's angle Olkiluoto was a potential final disposal site for example for its limited need for transport and for the existing infrastructure. The company used the financial benefits of the project as its trump card. The attitude of Eurajoki municipality to the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel turned positive with the Olkiluoto vision in December 1998, when still five years earlier the municipal council was prepared to act and prevent the final disposal. The future image presented by the municipality now matched

  1. The Site Selected. The Local Decision-Making Regarding the Siting of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Repository in Olkiluoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojo, Matti [Univ. of Tampere (Finland). Dept. of Political Science and International Relations

    2006-09-15

    In May 1999 Posiva, the company responsible for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland, suggested that the Finnish Government considers only Olkiluoto in Eurajoki in its application of a decision in principle to be a final disposal site. In January 2000 the municipal council of Eurajoki made a positive statement on the decision in principle. The Government made the decision in principle in Dec 2000, and the Parliament ratified the decision in May 2001. The paper is focused on the decision making of Eurajoki municipality regarding the siting of the spent nuclear fuel repository. The paper shows how the interaction between the representatives of the candidate municipality and the nuclear energy industry was the crucial factor in the decision-making. Eurajoki serves as an example, in where the parties reached an agreement of the compensations for the final disposal repository. The negotiations between the Eurajoki municipality and the nuclear energy industry in reaching a positive decision are analysed from the beginning of the 1980s. The main emphasis is however on the years 1996-99, when the nuclear energy industry negotiated with the municipality on the compensation for the final disposal repository. The loss of income was an important reason why some of the councillors of Eurajoki were interested in having the final disposal repository in Olkiluoto. The industry's problem on the other hand was to safeguard the final disposal site. From the TVO's angle Olkiluoto was a potential final disposal site for example for its limited need for transport and for the existing infrastructure. The company used the financial benefits of the project as its trump card. The attitude of Eurajoki municipality to the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel turned positive with the Olkiluoto vision in December 1998, when still five years earlier the municipal council was prepared to act and prevent the final disposal. The future image presented by the municipality

  2. Attitudes and opposition in siting a high level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeberg, L.; Viklund, M.; Truedsson, J.

    1998-09-01

    In Sweden, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) handles all issues concerning nuclear waste, including the siting process, in which the final outcome is intended to be a repository for high level nuclear waste placed deep down in bedrock. The main objective of the siting process is to find a host community fulfilling two important conditions: the safety demands have been met and agreements with the municipality can be accomplished. Only in such municipalities, so-called feasibility studies will be conducted. After conducting general studies in the whole country, SKB, in October 1992, sent letters with information about the intended feasibility studies to all Swedish municipalities. As a result, feasibility studies are or have been considered - and in some cases also been conducted - in eleven Swedish municipalities up until 1998. These are the municipalities where the attitudes and opposition towards a feasibility study, and possibly a final repository, are studied. The discussion can be divided into three main parts: Management of the siting process; Inherent 'chaotic' processes and/or factors and risk perception. It is argued that two important problems could have been avoided at least partly: The citizens in many municipalities were uncertain of the relationship between a feasibility study and a final repository, and in many municipalities the citizens were afraid that the Government could overrule the municipal veto. Because of these fears, a common argument among the opponents of a feasibility study was: 'to be sure of not receiving a final repository, we say no to a feasibility study'. Some inherent factors, more or less prevalent in the municipalities as well as in society in general, may also partly explain the outcome of the siting process. The municipalities in which the debate has been heated, and where public support has been more difficult to reach, share some common characteristics. Esp. in the municipalities in the north of

  3. Attitudes and opposition in siting a high level nuclear waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, L.; Viklund, M.; Truedsson, J

    1998-09-01

    In Sweden, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) handles all issues concerning nuclear waste, including the siting process, in which the final outcome is intended to be a repository for high level nuclear waste placed deep down in bedrock. The main objective of the siting process is to find a host community fulfilling two important conditions: the safety demands have been met and agreements with the municipality can be accomplished. Only in such municipalities, so-called feasibility studies will be conducted. After conducting general studies in the whole country, SKB, in October 1992, sent letters with information about the intended feasibility studies to all Swedish municipalities. As a result, feasibility studies are or have been considered - and in some cases also been conducted - in eleven Swedish municipalities up until 1998. These are the municipalities where the attitudes and opposition towards a feasibility study, and possibly a final repository, are studied. The discussion can be divided into three main parts: Management of the siting process; Inherent `chaotic` processes and/or factors and risk perception. It is argued that two important problems could have been avoided at least partly: The citizens in many municipalities were uncertain of the relationship between a feasibility study and a final repository, and in many municipalities the citizens were afraid that the Government could overrule the municipal veto. Because of these fears, a common argument among the opponents of a feasibility study was: `to be sure of not receiving a final repository, we say no to a feasibility study`. Some inherent factors, more or less prevalent in the municipalities as well as in society in general, may also partly explain the outcome of the siting process. The municipalities in which the debate has been heated, and where public support has been more difficult to reach, share some common characteristics. Esp. in the municipalities in the north of

  4. Workshops for state review of site suitability criteria for high-level radioactive waste repositories: analysis and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the views and recommendations of invited State officials and legislators participating in a workshop concerned with preliminary site suitability criteria for high level radioactive waste repositories. The workshops were open to the public and were conducted by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) during September 1977 in three regional locations across the United States. This contractor report is the second of two reports and consolidates the discussion by State officials on the role of a State in siting a repository, NRC's waste management program, the transportation of high level wastes, the number and location of repositories and concerns with the socio-economic impacts of siting a repository in a community. The recommendations to the NRC can be categorized into four areas. These were: (1) general recommendations, (2) procedural recommendations, (3) recommendations for improving communications, and (4) specific recommendations on the preliminary siting criteria. The recommendations emphasized the need for early State involvement in the siting process, the need for an impacted State to assess repository operations, the need for early solution of waste transportation concerns, and the requirement that any repository developed insure the protection of the public health and safety as its most important characteristic. Other participant recommendations are included in the body of the report

  5. Development of the web-based site investigation flow diagram in repository development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Shuichi; Yoshimura, Kimitaka; Ohuchi, Jin; Tsuboya, Takao; Ando, Kenichi

    2005-01-01

    In siting a repository for high level radioactive wastes (HLW), it is essential for consensus building intelligibly and visually present why and how the area is selected as a suitable site. However 'information asymmetry' exists especially between society and an implementation body because various types of investigation, analysis and assessment are implemented in site characterization on the basis of a wide variety of advanced science and technology. Communication between experts (e.g. surveyors and modelers) is also important for efficient and reliable site investigation/ characterization. The Web-based Site Investigation Flow Diagram (SIFD) has been developed as a tool for information sharing among stake holders and society-jointed decision making. To test applicability of the SIFD, virtual site characterization ('dry run') is performed using the existing site investigation data. It is concluded that the web-based SIFD enhance traceability and transparency of the site investigation/ characterization, and therefore it would be a powerful communication tool among experts for efficient and reliable site investigation/characterization and among stake holders for consensus building

  6. Canada's deep geological repository for used nuclear fuel - site selection process update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facella, J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, the Government of Canada selected Adaptive Phased Management as Canada's plan for the long-term management of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a deep geological repository, located in an informed and willing host. The process of site selection is an important milestone in this program. The NWMO describes its approach to working collaboratively with communities which expressed interest in exploring the project, as well as Aboriginal communities in the area and other surrounding communities. The project is designed to be implemented through a long-term partnership involving the interested community, Aboriginal communities and surrounding communities working with the NWMO. (author)

  7. Mineral formation on metallic copper in a 'future repository site environment'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amcoff, Oe.; Holenyi, K.

    1996-04-01

    Since reducing conditions are expected much effort has been concentrated on Cu-sulfides and CuFe-sulfides. However, oxidizing conditions are also discussed. A list of copper minerals are included. It is concluded that mineral formation and mineral transitions on the copper canister surface will be governed by kinetics and metastabilities rather than by stability relations. The sulfides formed are less likely to form a passivating layer, and the rate of sulfide growth will probably be governed by the rate of transport of reacting species to the canister surface. A series of tests are recommended, in an environment resembling the initial repository site conditions. 82 refs, 8 figs

  8. Mineral formation on metallic copper in a `future repository site environment`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amcoff, Oe; Holenyi, K

    1996-04-01

    Since reducing conditions are expected much effort has been concentrated on Cu-sulfides and CuFe-sulfides. However, oxidizing conditions are also discussed. A list of copper minerals are included. It is concluded that mineral formation and mineral transitions on the copper canister surface will be governed by kinetics and metastabilities rather than by stability relations. The sulfides formed are less likely to form a passivating layer, and the rate of sulfide growth will probably be governed by the rate of transport of reacting species to the canister surface. A series of tests are recommended, in an environment resembling the initial repository site conditions. 82 refs, 8 figs.

  9. Salt Repository Project site study plan for background environmental radioactivity: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The Site Study Plan for Background Environmental Radioactivity describes a field program consisting of an initial radiological survey and a radiological sampling program. The field program includes measurement of direct radiation and collection and analysis of background radioactivity samples of air, precipitation, soil, water, milk, pasture grass, food crops, meat, poultry, game, and eggs. The plan describes for each study the need for the study, the study design, data management, and use, schedule of proposed activities, and quality assurance requirements. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Project Requirements Document. 43 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs

  10. Local negotiation on compensation siting of the spent nuclear fuel repository in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojo, Matti

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to analyse the local negotiation process between the Municipality of Eurajoki and the nuclear power company Teollisuuden Voima (TVO) and the nuclear waste management company Posiva Oy. The aim of the negotiations was to find an acceptable form of compensation for siting a spent nuclear fuel repository in Olkiluoto, Finland. The paper includes background information on the siting process in Finland, the local political setting in the Municipality of Eurajoki and a description of the negotiation process. The analysis of the negotiations on compensation is important for better understanding the progress of the Finnish siting process. The paper describes the picture of the contest to host the spent nuclear fuel repository. It also provides more information on the relationship between the Municipality of Eurajoki and the power company TVO. The negotiations on compensation and the roles of various players in the negotiations have not been studied in detail because the minutes of the Vuojoki liaison group were not available before the decision of the Supreme Administrative Court in May 2006. (author)

  11. Preliminary constitutive properties for salt and nonsalt rocks from four potential repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeifle, T.W.; Mellegard, K.D.; Senseny, P.E.

    1983-07-01

    Results are presented from laboratory strength and creep tests performed on salt and nonsalt specimens from the Richton Dome in Mississippi, the Vacherie Dome in Louisiana, the Permian Basin in Texas, and the Paradox Basin in Utah. The constititive properties obtained for salt are the elastic moduli and the failure envelope at 24 0 C and parameter values for the exponential-time creep law. Some additional data are presented to indicate how the elastic moduli and strength change with temperature. The nonsalt constitutive properties reported are the elastic moduli, the unconfined compressive strength and the tensile strength at 24 0 C. The properties given in this report will be used in subsequent numerical simulations that will provide information to assist in the screening and selection of site locations for a nuclear waste repository and to assist in the repository design at the selected site. The matrix of tests performed is the minimum effort required to obtain these constitutive properties. The preliminary values obtained will be supplemented by additional testing for sites that are selected for further investigation

  12. Evaluation of kriging techniques for high level radioactive waste repository site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doctor, P.G.

    1979-01-01

    Kriging is a statistical method for estimating functions that describe spatially distributed phenomena such as groundwater elevation and depth to basalt. It produces a contour model of the geologic formation of a potential site with an associated measure of uncertainty, and it can be used to optimize the selection of additional sampling locations. Kriging was applied to water potential data and top-of-basalt elevations from the Hanford site; the computer code BLUEPACK was used to perform the computations. The water potential contours were in close agreement with a hand-drawn contour map which is used as a standard. It is concluded that kriging can be a useful tool for geologic waste repository site characterization

  13. Use of geostatistics in high level radioactive waste repository site characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doctor, P G [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (USA)

    1980-09-01

    In evaluating and characterizing sites that are candidates for use as repositories for high-level radioactive waste, there is an increasing need to estimate the uncertainty in hydrogeologic data and in the quantities calculated from them. This paper discusses the use of geostatistical techniques to estimate hydrogeologic surfaces, such as the top of a basalt formation, and to provide a measure of the uncertainty in that estimate. Maps of the uncertainty estimate, called the kriging error, can be used to evaluate where new data should be taken to affect the greatest reduction in uncertainty in the estimated surface. The methods are illustrated on a set of site-characterization data; the top-of-basalt elevations at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington.

  14. An evaluation of environmental effects of the DOE HLW repository siting and characterization program at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winsor, M.F.; Ulland, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents highlights of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Project Office (NWPO) environmental investigations in progress on the environmental effects of past and proposed activities of the Department of Energy (DOE) at the Yucca Mountain repository. The environmental investigations refer to those studies specifically related to resource evaluation, impact assessment and mitigation planning for the repository program; it is defined to exclude consideration of technical suitability determinations, socioeconomics and transportation. This paper addresses the question of what are the disturbances created by past and proposed DOE activities related to repository siting and characterization at Yucca Mountain. It discusses considerations in linking disturbance to the potential for significant adverse environmental impacts

  15. Proposal for geological site selection for L/ILW and HLW repositories. Statement of requirements, procedure and results. Technical report 08-03

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-10-01

    Important steps in the process of managing radioactive wastes have already been implemented in Switzerland. These include the handing and packaging of the waste, waste characterisation and documentation of waste inventories and interim storage along with associated transport. In terms of preparing for deep geological disposal, the necessary scientific and technical work is well advanced and the feasibility of constructing geological repositories that provide the required long-term safety has been successfully demonstrated for all waste types arising in Switzerland. Sufficient knowledge is available to allow the next steps in the selection of repository sites to be defined. The legal framework is also in place and organisational measures have been provided that will allow the tasks to be performed in the coming years to be implemented efficiently. The selection of geological siting regions and sites for repositories in Switzerland will be conducted in three stages. Stage 1 ends with the definition of geological siting regions within which the repository projects will be elaborated in more detail in stages 2 and 3. This report documents and justifies the siting proposals prepared by Nagra for the repositories for low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) and high-level waste (HLW). Formulation of these proposals is conducted in five steps: 1) The waste inventory, which includes reserves for future developments, is allocated to the L/ILW and HLW repositories; 2) Based on this waste allocation, the second step involves defining the barrier and safety concepts for the two repositories. With a view to evaluating the geological siting possibilities, quantitative and qualitative guidelines and requirements on the geology are derived on the basis of these concepts. These relate to the time period to be considered, the space requirements for the repository, the properties of the host rock (depth, thickness, lateral extent, hydraulic conductivity), long-term stability

  16. Long term radiological effects on plants and animals of a deep geological repository. SR-Site Biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torudd, Jesper [Facilia AB (Sweden)

    2010-12-15

    organisms, a set of Average Organisms were constructed in order to reduce data gaps, simply by compiling data from related species. Functional key species and economically important species are well represented in the site data. However, red-listed (threatened) species have not been studied, since activity concentrations were, for obvious reasons, unavailable. Instead, dose rates for red-listed species were calculated by using data from similar not red-listed species or Reference Organisms. The data on radionuclide release used in the evaluation emanate from a scenario with canister corrosion and advective conditions, called 'the central corrosion case' in SR-Site. In the ERICA Tool, a screening dose-rate value of 10 muGy h-1 is applied. Calculated dose rates that are below this value are thought to result in a minimal risk of damage to the individual or population through reduced reproduction capacity or increased mortality. In the study, dose rates were calculated for all organisms or organisms groups and none of them exceeded the screening dose-rate value. Calculated dose rates were also below the lowest band of 'derived consideration levels' that has been proposed by ICRP. In addition, background dose rates to organisms were calculated in order to evaluate whether the total dose rates from natural background radiation and the assumed future release combined would yield values above the screening dose rate. Many of the background dose-rate calculations were based on limited data (the activity concentrations were often below the detection limit). All combined dose rates remained below the screening level of 10 muGy h-1. This study gives no reason to assume that any of the species would be harmfully affected by the increased radiation exposure caused by a possible future release from the planned repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark

  17. Long term radiological effects on plants and animals of a deep geological repository. SR-Site Biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torudd, Jesper (Facilia AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    organisms, a set of Average Organisms were constructed in order to reduce data gaps, simply by compiling data from related species. Functional key species and economically important species are well represented in the site data. However, red-listed (threatened) species have not been studied, since activity concentrations were, for obvious reasons, unavailable. Instead, dose rates for red-listed species were calculated by using data from similar not red-listed species or Reference Organisms. The data on radionuclide release used in the evaluation emanate from a scenario with canister corrosion and advective conditions, called 'the central corrosion case' in SR-Site. In the ERICA Tool, a screening dose-rate value of 10 muGy h-1 is applied. Calculated dose rates that are below this value are thought to result in a minimal risk of damage to the individual or population through reduced reproduction capacity or increased mortality. In the study, dose rates were calculated for all organisms or organisms groups and none of them exceeded the screening dose-rate value. Calculated dose rates were also below the lowest band of 'derived consideration levels' that has been proposed by ICRP. In addition, background dose rates to organisms were calculated in order to evaluate whether the total dose rates from natural background radiation and the assumed future release combined would yield values above the screening dose rate. Many of the background dose-rate calculations were based on limited data (the activity concentrations were often below the detection limit). All combined dose rates remained below the screening level of 10 muGy h-1. This study gives no reason to assume that any of the species would be harmfully affected by the increased radiation exposure caused by a possible future release from the planned repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark

  18. Long term radiological effects on plants and animals of a deep geological repository. SR-Site Biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torudd, Jesper

    2010-12-01

    organisms, a set of Average Organisms were constructed in order to reduce data gaps, simply by compiling data from related species. Functional key species and economically important species are well represented in the site data. However, red-listed (threatened) species have not been studied, since activity concentrations were, for obvious reasons, unavailable. Instead, dose rates for red-listed species were calculated by using data from similar not red-listed species or Reference Organisms. The data on radionuclide release used in the evaluation emanate from a scenario with canister corrosion and advective conditions, called 'the central corrosion case' in SR-Site. In the ERICA Tool, a screening dose-rate value of 10 μGy h -1 is applied. Calculated dose rates that are below this value are thought to result in a minimal risk of damage to the individual or population through reduced reproduction capacity or increased mortality. In the study, dose rates were calculated for all organisms or organisms groups and none of them exceeded the screening dose-rate value. Calculated dose rates were also below the lowest band of 'derived consideration levels' that has been proposed by ICRP. In addition, background dose rates to organisms were calculated in order to evaluate whether the total dose rates from natural background radiation and the assumed future release combined would yield values above the screening dose rate. Many of the background dose-rate calculations were based on limited data (the activity concentrations were often below the detection limit). All combined dose rates remained below the screening level of 10 μGy h -1 . This study gives no reason to assume that any of the species would be harmfully affected by the increased radiation exposure caused by a possible future release from the planned repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark

  19. Iterative performance assessments as a regulatory tool for evaluating repository safety: How experiences from SKI Project-90 were used in formulating the new performance assessment project SITE-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI, regulatory research program has to prepare for the process of licensing a repository for spent nuclear fuel, by building up the necessary knowledge and review capacity. SKIs main strategy for meeting this demand is to develop an independent performance assessment capability. SKIs first own performance assessment project, Project-90, was completed in 1991 and is now followed by a new project, SITE-94. SITE-94 is based on conclusions reached within Project-90. An independent review of Project-90, carried out by a NEA team of experts, has also contributed to the formation of the project. Another important reason for the project is that the implementing organization in Sweden, SKB, has proposed to submit an application to start detailed investigation of a repository candidate site around 1997. SITE-94 is a performance assessment of a hypothetical repository at a real site. The main objective of the project is to determine how site specific data should be assimilated into the performance assessment process, and to evaluate how uncertainties inherent in site characterization will influence performance assessment results. This will be addressed by exploring multiple interpretations, conceptual models, and parameters consistent with the site data. The site evaluation will strive for consistency between geological, hydrological, rock mechanical, and geochemical descriptions. Other important elements of SITE-94 are the development of a practical and defensible methodology for defining, constructing and analyzing scenarios, the development of approaches for treatment of uncertainties, evaluation of canister integrity, and the development and application of an appropriate quality assurance plan for performance assessments

  20. Sectoral Plan 'Deep Geological Disposal', Stage 2. Proposed site areas for the surface facilities of the deep geological repositories as well as for their access infrastructure. Annexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    In line with the provisions of the nuclear energy legislation, the sites for deep geological disposal of Swiss radioactive waste are selected in a three-stage Sectoral Plan process (Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Disposal). The disposal sites are specified in Stage 3 of the selection process with the granting of a general licence in accordance with the Nuclear Energy Act. The first stage of the process was completed on 30 th November 2011, with the decision of the Federal Council to incorporate the six geological siting regions proposed by the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) into the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Disposal, for further evaluation in Stage 2. The decision also specifies the planning perimeters within which the surface facilities and shaft locations for the repositories will be constructed. In the second stage of the process, at least two geological siting regions each will be specified for the repository for low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) and for the high-level waste (HLW) repository and these will undergo detailed geological investigation in Stage 3. For each of these potential siting regions, at least one location for the surface facility and a corridor for the access infrastructure will also be specified. NAGRA is responsible, at the beginning of Stage 2, for submitting proposals for potential locations for the surface facilities and their access infrastructure to the Federal Office of Energy (SFOE); these are then considered by the regional participation bodies in the siting regions. The general report and the present annexes volume document these proposals. In Stage 2, under the lead of the SFOE, socio-economic-ecological studies will also be carried out to investigate the impact of a repository project on the environment, economy and society. The present reports also contain the input data to be provided by NAGRA for the generic (site-independent) part of these impact studies. A meaningful

  1. First Workshop on Design and Construction of Deep Repositories - Theme: Excavation through water-conducting major fracture zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeckblom, G.; Svemar, C.

    1994-01-01

    Final disposal of high-level nuclear waste has not yet been carried out in any country today. The concepts under development are all based on geological repositories, i.e., disposal at a sufficient depth below the surface to provide stable mechanical, hydrological and chemical conditions during the period the waste needs to be isolated from man. In the cases where crystalline bedrock is considered the proposed repository depths vary between 300-1000 m. The construction, operation and sealing of a deep geological repository must meet various criteria that in many respects are more detailed and more demanding than usual in underground construction projects today. The work shall be done so that occupational safety is ensured. The work also shall conform to whatever restrictions are necessary for ensuring pre-closure operational safety and post-closure long-term safety. March 1993 SKB arranged a two-day international workshop to discuss design and construction of repositories. Close to 40 participants from eight countries shared experiences regarding passage of major water-conducting fracture zones and other matters. This report summarizes the contributions to the workshop

  2. Development of the methodology on priority of element-specific biosphere parameters for geological disposal applicable to any proposed repository site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tomoko; Ohi, Takao; Suzuki, Yuji

    2009-01-01

    It is difficult to acquire all of biosphere parameters for geological disposal at the repository site because several hundreds of the parameters have to be dealt with in one calculation case of the biosphere assessment. Before site-specific activities, it is important to develop the data acquisition methodology of biosphere parameters applicable to any proposed repository site. The methodology for identification of the priority of the parameters was developed for the effective data acquisition of biosphere parameters at the site. First of all, flow diagram was constructed to evaluate the availability of the existing generic biosphere dataset. It was found to be effective for the data acquisition at the site to focus on the element-specific parameters with the existing dataset. Secondly, the priority of the data acquisition was identified for element-specific parameters at the site, with considering the variation of dose rate by combining the significant element-specific parameters. The availability of the existing generic biosphere dataset and the priority on data acquisition were identified for the element-specific parameters of key radionuclides in the safety assessment of geological disposal that should be acquired at the site. This priority list would be useful for effective data acquisition at the site. (author)

  3. Turbidity monitoring equipment and methodology evaluation at MDOT construction sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    State Study 261 is a continuation of State study 225, "Turbidity Monitoring at Select : MDOT Construction Sites", which was successful in establishing baseline stream data : at several active construction sites. State Study 261 focused on the equipme...

  4. Canada's deep geological repository for used nuclear fuel - the geoscientific site evaluation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belfadhel, M.B.; Blyth, A.; Desroches, A.; Hirschorn, S.; Mckelvie, J.; Sanchez-Rico Castejon, M.; Parmenter, A.; Urrutia-Bustos, A.; Vorauer, A., E-mail: mbenbelfadhel@nwmo.ca [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management (APM), the approach selected by the Government of Canada for the long-term management of used nuclear fuel generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. The ultimate objective of APM is the centralized containment and isolation of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository in a suitable crystalline or sedimentary rock formation. In May 2010, the NWMO initiated a nine-step site selection process to find an informed and willing community to host the project. This paper describes the approach, methods and criteria being used to assess the geoscientific suitability of communities currently involved in the site selection process. The social, cultural and economic aspects of the assessment are discussed in a companion paper. (author)

  5. Salt repository project site study plan for water resources: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    The Site Study Plan for Water Resources describes a field program consisting of surface-water and ground-water characterization. The surface-water studies will determine the drainage basin characteristics (i.e., topography, soils, land use), hydrometeorology, runoff to streams and playas, and surface-water quality (i.e., offsite pollution sources in playa lakes and in streams). The environmental ground-water studies will focus on ground-water quality characterization. The site study plan describes for each study the need for the study, study design, data management and use, schedule of proposed activities, and quality assurance. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Projects Requirements Document. 78 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  6. Use of safety analysis to site comfirmation procedure in case of hard rock repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltonen, E.K.

    1984-02-01

    The role of safety analysis in a confirmation procedure of a candidate disposal site of radioactive wastes is discussed. Items dealt with include principle reasons and practical goals of the use of safety analysis, methodology of safety analysis and assessment, as well as usefulness and adequacy of the present safety analysis. Safety analysis is a tool, which enables one to estimate quantitatively the possible radiological impacts from the disposal. The results can be compared with the criteria and the suitability conclusions drawn. Because of its systems analytical nature safety analysis is an effective method to reveal, what are the most important factors of the disposal system and the most critical site characteristics inside the lumped parameters often provided by the experimental site investigation methods. Furthermore it gives information on the accuracy needs of different site properties. This can be utilized to judge whether the quality and quantity of the measurements for the characterization are sufficient as well as to guide the further site investigations. A more practical discussion regarding the applicability of the use of safety analysis is presented by an example concerning the assessment of a Finnish candidate site for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste repository. (author)

  7. ILK statement on the recommendations by the working group on procedures for the selection of repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    The Working Group on Procedures for the Selection of Repository Sites (AkEnd) had been appointed by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment (BMU) to develop procedures and criteria for the search for, and selection of, a repository site for all kinds of radioactive waste in deep geologic formations in Germany. ILK in principle welcomes the attempt on the part of AkEnd to develop a systematic procedure. On the other hand, ILK considers the two constraints imposed by BMU inappropriate: AkEnd was not to take into account the two existing sites of Konrad and Gorleben and, instead, work from a so-called white map of Germany. ILK recommends to perform a comprehensive safety analysis of Gorleben and define a selection procedure including the facts about Gorleben and, in addition, to commission the Konrad repository as soon as possible. The one-repository concept established as a precondition by BMU greatly restricts the selection procedure. There are no technical or scientific reasons for such concept. ILK recommends to plan for separate repositories, which would also correspond to international practice. The geoscientific criteria proposed by AkEnd should be examined and revised. With respect to the site selection procedure proposed, ILK feels that procedure is unable to define a targeted approach. Great importance must be attributed to public participation. The final site selection must be made under the responsibility of the government or the parliament. (orig.) [de

  8. A method of identifying social structures in siting regions for deep geological repositories in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brander, Simone

    2010-09-01

    Acceptance is a key element in the site selection process for deep geological repositories for high-level and low and intermediate-level radioactive waste in Switzerland. Participation requirements such as comprehensive negotiation issues and adequate resources have thus been defined by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). In 2008, on the basis of technical criteria Nagra (National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste) proposed several potential areas for deep geological repositories. The number of potential areas will be narrowed down within the next few years. All municipalities within the planning perimeter (the area in which surface facilities can be realised) are affected and form the siting region. In order to ensure that the local population have their say in the forthcoming discussions, regional participation bodies including all municipalities within a siting region are being set up by the SFOE. Regional participation ensures that local interests, needs and values are taken into account in the site selection process. Assembling the regional participation bodies is therefore of great importance. Before such bodies can be formed, however, the various interests, needs and values have to be identified, and special attention has to be paid to long-term interests of future generations, as well as to non-organised and under-represented interests. According to the concept of proportional representation, the interests, needs and values that are identified and weighted by the local population are to be represented in the regional participation procedure. The aim of this study is to share a method of mapping existing social structures in a defined geographical area. This involves a combination of an analysis of socio-economic statistical data and qualitative and quantitative social research methods

  9. Progress in evaluation of radionuclide geochemical information developed by DOE high-level nuclear waste repository site projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; O'Kelley, G.D.; Case, F.I.; Land, J.F.

    1989-08-01

    Information that is being developed by projects within the Department of Energy (DOE) pertinent to the potential geochemical behavior of radionuclides at candidate sites for a high-level radioactive waste repository is being evaluated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). During this report period, all experiments were conducted with tuff from the proposed high-level nuclear waste site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The principal emphasis in this report period was on column studies of migration of uranium and technetium in water from well J-13 at the Yucca Mountain site. Columns 1 cm in diameter and about 5 cm long were constructed and carefully packed with ground tuff. The characteristics of the columns were tested by determination of elution curves of tritium and TcO 4 - . Elution peaks obtained in past studies with uranium were asymmetrical and the shapes were often complex, observations that suggested irreversibilities in the sorption reaction. To try to understand these observations, the effects of flow rate and temperature on uranium migration were studied in detail. Sorption ratios calculated from the elution peaks became larger as the flow rate decreased and as the temperature increased. These observations support the conclusion that the sorption of uranium is kinetically hindered. To confirm this, batch sorption ratio experiments were completed for uranium as a function of time for a variety of conditions

  10. Qualified public involvement in the decision making process of siting a waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Danielle Monegalha; Almeida, Ivan Pedro Salati de

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to identify the most important characteristics required for the qualification of local communities for participating in the process of defining a specific site for a radioactive waste repository. It also compares the strategies used by Hungary, United Kingdom and Belgium to stimulate the public participation in the decision-making process of building and operating a radioactive waste repository, considering both the stepwise process and the spontaneous candidacy. Two main aspects are discussed as prerequisites to constitute a qualified public. The first aspect is how well the person or entity can be considered an effective representative of the community affected by the repository. This means the conditions the representative has to speak on behalf of the community and participate in the decision making process as its voice. The second characteristic is the level and quality of the information that the community and its representatives must have to participate actively in the decision-making process and what can be done to improve this status. Referring to the strategy to public involvement, this paper discusses the importance of transparency in the process, aiming the credibility of the entrepreneur as the first pace to gaining the confidence of the public affected by the project. Implementing an open dialog and listening to the needs and claims of the population are the first steps to being accepted as a true partner of the community. Preliminary discussions and explanations are important to introduce the subject and to reduce beliefs of false threats in the affected community. The constitution of a local committee is suggested, to act as a legal and formal channel to facilitate the partnership between local community, neighbors and the entrepreneur in order to achieve a positive result in the whole process. (author)

  11. Status of siting studies for a near surface repository site for radioactive wastes in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdezco, E.M.; Palattao, M.V.B.; Marcelo, E.A.; Caseria, E.S.; Venida, L.L.; Cruz, J.M. dela

    2002-01-01

    The Philippines, through the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), decided to conduct a study on siting a low level radioactive waste disposal facility. The infrastructure set up for this purpose, the radioactive waste disposal concept, the overall siting process, the methodology applied and preliminary results obtained are described in this paper. (author)

  12. SKI SITE-94. Deep Repository Performance Assessment Project Volume I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The function of SITE-94 is to provide the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) with the capacity and supporting knowledge needed for reviewing the Swedish nuclear industry`s R and D programs and for reviewing license applications, as stipulated in Swedish legislation. The report is structured as a Performance Assessment exercise needed for input to decisions regarding repository safety, but the SITE-94 is not a safety assessment or a model for future assessments to be undertaken by the prospective licensee. The specific project objectives of SITE-94 comprise site evaluation, performance assessment methodology, canister integrity and radionuclide release and transport calculations. The report gives a detailed description of the many inter-related studies undertaken as part of the research project. As a general conclusion it is noted that the SITE-94 project has significantly advanced SKI`s capability of reviewing performance assessments and has led to the development of a tool-kit for carrying out assessment calculations, both in terms of numerical and scoping analyses. The study has highlighted a number of key issues for safety assessment (and consequently for disposal system design): Canister performance; Derived parameters of geosphere retention properties; Spatial variability of groundwater flow and geochemistry of migration paths; Time dependency (more emphasis on transient, time-dependent processes); Buffer evolution over long time. 488 refs.

  13. SKI SITE-94. Deep Repository Performance Assessment Project Volume I and II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    The function of SITE-94 is to provide the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) with the capacity and supporting knowledge needed for reviewing the Swedish nuclear industry's R and D programs and for reviewing license applications, as stipulated in Swedish legislation. The report is structured as a Performance Assessment exercise needed for input to decisions regarding repository safety, but the SITE-94 is not a safety assessment or a model for future assessments to be undertaken by the prospective licensee. The specific project objectives of SITE-94 comprise site evaluation, performance assessment methodology, canister integrity and radionuclide release and transport calculations. The report gives a detailed description of the many inter-related studies undertaken as part of the research project. As a general conclusion it is noted that the SITE-94 project has significantly advanced SKI's capability of reviewing performance assessments and has led to the development of a tool-kit for carrying out assessment calculations, both in terms of numerical and scoping analyses. The study has highlighted a number of key issues for safety assessment (and consequently for disposal system design): Canister performance; Derived parameters of geosphere retention properties; Spatial variability of groundwater flow and geochemistry of migration paths; Time dependency (more emphasis on transient, time-dependent processes); Buffer evolution over long time. 488 refs

  14. Integral Public Activities as a Support to the Site Selection Process for LILW Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, N.; Kralj, M.

    2008-01-01

    The first site selection process for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) repository took place between 1990 and 1993 in Slovenia was stopped unsuccessfully with very strong public opposition at local level, followed by political withdrawal on national level. As one of the consequences ARAO started to develop new approach to the site selection based also on the findings from sociology, psychology and other human sciences. The recommendations on public involvement and transparency were so strong that ARAO started with first limited public relation (PR) activities which later grew to the PR process which supports all technical activities in ARAO. Presently the PR process covers communication, information and research activities and assures careful planning, prompt responds and involvement of the highest responsible persons at ARAO. Integral public relation activities are divided in several parts. Majority of activities support the on-going site selection process where activities are presently focused on functioning of local partnerships developed as a basic communication tool to involve as much citizens and public as possible on local level. Presently two local partnerships are working in Krsko and Brezice community with clear role to enhance public involvement according to Aarchus convention. Each of the partnerships is organized in a specific way adjusted to the local needs. Communication activities are organized also for different other projects and are preparing the necessary basis for the work with different groups of stake holders and in different situations. As a foundation very broad information material, such as books, leaflets, reports, magazines, video cassettes, CD and DVD on the radioactive waste management is prepared and used for different purposes. We also try to be proactive with web pages and have a well organized visitors' center. Improvement of public relation process is achieved through constant survey and feed-back information

  15. Conference report: 2012 Repository Symposium. Final storage in Germany. New start - ways and consequences of the site selection procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kettler, John

    2012-01-01

    The Aachen Institute for Nuclear Training invited participants to the 3-day '2012 Repository Symposium - Final Storage in Germany' held in Bonn. The subtitle of the event, 'New Start - Ways and Consequences of the Site Selection Procedure,' expressed the organizers' summary that the Repository Finding Act currently under discussion did not give rise to any expectation of a repository for high-level radioactive waste before 2080. The symposium was attended by more than 120 persons from Germany and abroad. They discussed the basic elements of the site selection procedure and its consequences on the basis of the draft so far known to the public. While extensive public participation is envisaged for the stage of finding a repository, this does not apply to the draft legislation in the same way. The legal determinations are negotiated in a small circle by the political parties and the state governments. Michael Sailer (Oeko-Institut e.V.) holds that agreement on a repository finding act is urgent. Prof. Dr. Bruno Thomauske (RWTH Aachen) arrives at the conclusion mentioned above, that no repository for high-level radioactive waste can start operation before 2080 on the basis of the Repository Finding Act. Dr. Bettina Keienburg, attorney at law, in her paper drew attention to the points of dispute in the draft legislation with regard to changes in competency of public authorities. The draft law indicated a clear shift of competency for finding a repository from the Federal Office for Radiation Protection to a federal agency yet to be set up. Prof. Dr. Christoph Moench outlined the deficiencies of the draft legislation in matters of refinancing and the polluter-pays principle. Among the tentative solutions discussed it was above all the Swedish model which was acclaimed most widely. (orig.)

  16. Sectoral Plan 'Deep Geological Disposal', Stage 2. Proposed site areas for the surface facilities of the deep geological repositories as well as for their access infrastructure. General report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    In line with the provisions of the nuclear energy legislation, the sites for deep geological disposal of Swiss radioactive waste are selected in a three-stage Sectoral Plan process (Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Disposal). The disposal sites are specified in Stage 3 of the selection process with the granting of a general licence in accordance with the Nuclear Energy Act. The first stage of the process was completed on 30 th November 2011, with the decision of the Federal Council to incorporate the six geological siting regions proposed by the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) into the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Disposal, for further evaluation in Stage 2. The decision also specifies the planning perimeters within which the surface facilities and shaft locations for the repositories will be constructed. In the second stage of the process, at least two geological siting regions each will be specified for the repository for low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) and for the high-level waste (HLW) repository and these will undergo detailed geological investigation in Stage 3. For each of these potential siting regions, at least one location for the surface facility and a corridor for the access infrastructure will also be specified. NAGRA is responsible, at the beginning of Stage 2, for submitting proposals for potential locations for the surface facilities and their access infrastructure to the Federal Office of Energy (SFOE); these are then considered by the regional participation bodies in the siting regions. The present report and its annexes volume document these proposals. In Stage 2, under the lead of the SFOE, socio-economic-ecological studies will also be carried out to investigate the impact of a repository project on the environment, economy and society. The present reports also contain the input data to be provided by NAGRA for the generic (site-independent) part of these impact studies. A meaningful discussion

  17. Detection of environmental change using hyperspectral remote sensing at Olkiluoto repository site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuominen, J.; Lipping, T.

    2011-03-01

    In this report methods related to hyperspectral monitoring of Olkiluoto repository site are described. A short introduction to environmental remote sensing is presented, followed by more detailed description of hyperspectral imaging and a review of applications of hyperspectral remote sensing presented in the literature. The trends of future hyperspectral imaging are discussed exploring the possibilities of long-wave infrared hyperspectral imaging. A detailed description of HYPE08 hyperspectral flight campaign at the Olkiluoto region in 2008 is presented. In addition, related pre-processing and atmospheric correction methods, necessary in monitoring use, and the quality control methods applied, are described. Various change detection methods presented in the literature are described, too. Finally, a system for hyperspectral monitoring is proposed. The system is based on continued hyperspectral airborne flight campaigns and precisely defined data processing procedure. (orig.)

  18. Site study plan for Playa investigations, Deaf Smith County, Texas: Salt Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This plan defines the purpose and objectives of the Playa Investigation Study, presents a plan of work to provide the information necessary to resolve issues, and discusses the rationale for test method selection. The required information will be obtained from existing well drilling records, describing and testing of soil and rock samples recovered from project test holes, geophysical well logs, seismic surveys, and shallow test pits excavated at ground surface. There have been numerous, often conflicting, theories presented to explain the origin(s) of the playas of the Texas High Plains. The primary purpose of this study is to establish if existing playas and playa alignments are related to deeper subsurface structure, such as faulting or salt dissolution, the potential for future playa development, and the significance of existing and/or future playas on siting a repository in Deaf Smith County, Texas. 11 refs

  19. Geologic nuclear waste repository site selection studies in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, T.H.; Conwell, F.R.

    1981-01-01

    During Phase I regional-level studies, a literature review was conducted to ascertain geologic characteristics pertinent to repository siting factors. On the basis of the regional screening results, four areas in southeastern Utah were selected as being suitable for more detailed study in Phase II: Elk Ridge and Gibson Dome, containing nearly horizontal bedded salt deposits; Salt Valley, containing a diapiric salt anticline; and Lisbon Valley, containing a non-diapiric salt anticline. During current Phase II area studies, the four study areas are being characterized in greater detail than in Phase I. Phase II will culminate in the identification of a potentially suitable location(s), if any, that will be recommended for study in still greater detail in a subsequent phase of work. 5 refs

  20. Ecosystem description of a drainage area - a strategy in biosphere descriptions during site investigations for a repository of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindborg, T.; Lofgren, A.

    2004-01-01

    During the next few years the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) performs site investigations at two sites in Sweden for a future repository of spent nuclear fuel. Novel methods based on systems and landscape ecology are developed to understand and model the radionuclide flow in the biosphere using site specific data for a safety assessment. This work describes the strategy for development of a descriptive ecosystem model for the surface ecosystem. The site description is needed to: a) perform a safety assessment that describes and analyzes different scenarios for radionuclide releases into the ecosystem and possible pathways for dispersal or accumulation radionuclides in the ecosystem, b) detect changes caused by the construction of a repository, c) establish a baseline for detecting long-term effects of the repository. The description adopts a site-specific approach focusing on the quantification of the properties that will constitute the descriptive model. The aim is also to present the methodology for determining the properties, to describe the development of the framework for the descriptive ecosystem models by integrating use of different properties, and finally, to present vital data from other site descriptive models such as those for geology or hydrogeology. The safety assessment will use an approach, among other methods, where transport and accumulation of radionuclides will be modelled by quantifying biogeochemical pathways of matter. The descriptive ecosystem model applied to the site was therefore built to describe and quantify processes affecting i.e. turnover of matter in a drainage area. The conclusions from applying this approach was that by have estimating the flow of matter the ecological and physical constrains on the system reduces the potential variations in outcome of future states of the ecosystem and thus also reduces the uncertainties in estimating radionuclide flow and consequences to humans and the environment. (author)

  1. Development of SKI's Regulatory Approach to the Siting of a Spent Nuclear Fuel Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerlind, Magnus

    2003-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1990s the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., SKB, is actively working with the siting of a spent nuclear fuel repository. Feasibility studies have been completed in a total of eight municipalities, and in December 2000 three municipalities (Oskarshamn, Tierp and Oesthammar) were proposed for further investigations. These site investigations include surface based site characterisation from deep bore holes but also further studies of infrastructure, land use, transportation etc. SKB's proposal was reviewed by SKI and about 60 other organisations, including municipalities, NGOs, government agencies etc. during the winter/spring 2000/2001. In June 2001 SKI reported the review findings to the Government. In parallel with SKI also the Swedish Council for Nuclear Waste (KASAM) reviewed SKB's proposal and reported to the Government. In its decision in November 2001 the Government supported SKB's proposal to continue with site investigations. Based on SKB's material, the reviews and the Government's decision the municipalities of Oesthammar and Oskarshamn have agreed to site investigations while Tierp have decided no to continue. The site investigations in Oesthammar and Oskarshamn started during 2002. The siting process has meant that several new actors have been engaged in nuclear waste management in general and disposal of spent nuclear fuel in particular. This has meant that 'old' actors, particularly SKB, the regulators (the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI, and the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, SSI) have had to evaluate, develop and clarify their roles and strategies for dialogue. This paper presents reflections on the impacts on some of SKI's regulatory activities

  2. Repository site data and information in bedded salt: Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tien, P.; Nimick, F.B.; Muller, A.B.; Davis, P.A.; Guzowski, R.V.; Duda, L.E.; Hunter, R.L.

    1983-11-01

    This report is a compilation of data from the literature on the Palo Duro Basin. The Palo Duro Basin is a structural basin, about 150 miles long and 80 miles wide, that is a part of the much larger Permian Basin. The US Department of Energy is investigating the Palo Duro Basin as a potentially suitable area for the site of a repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Sediments overlying the Precambrian basement range from about 5000 to about 11,000 ft in thickness and from Cambrian to Holocene in age. The strata in the Palo Duro Basin that are of primary interest to the Department of Energy are the bedded salts of the Permian San Andres Formation. The total thickness of the bedded salts is about 2000 ft. The geology of the Palo Duro Basin is well understood. A great deal of information exists on the properties of salt, although much of the available information was not collected in the Palo Duro Basin. Mineral resources are not currently being exploited from the center of the Palo Duro Basin at depth, although the possibility of exploration for and development of such resources can not be ruled out. The continued existence of salts of Permian age indicates a lack of any large amount of circulating ground water. The hydrology of the pre-Tertiary rocks, however, is currently too poorly understood to carry out detailed, site-specific hydrologic modeling with a high degree of confidence. In general, ground water flows from west to east in the Basin. There is little or no hydraulic connection between aquifers above and below the salt sequences. Potable water is pumped from the Ogallala aquifer. Most of the other aquifers yield only nonpotable water. More extensive hydrological data are needed for detailed future modeling in support of risk assessment for a possible repository for high-level waste in the Palo Duro Basin. 464 references

  3. Public involvement in the siting of contentious facilities; Lessons from the radioactive waste repository siting programmes in Canada and the United States, with special reference to the Swedish repository siting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, P.J.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the conclusion of a two-part programme, begun in 1994 with the overall aim of assisting in the development of an acceptable public participation strategy for use in Sweden for the siting of contentious facilities, with particular reference to the ongoing siting programme for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The first part of the work programme, a global review of siting practice, was reported as SSI Rapport 94-15, in November 1994. This recommended further detailed studies of at least two individual programmes, which have now been carried out in Canada and the United States, and are reported on here. They involved face to face meetings with many of the main stake holders in the two programmes and enabled valuable insight to be gained into the potential problems associated with increased public participation, as well as identifying good practice where it exists. The lessons learned have then been applied to the evolving repository siting process in Sweden. 35 refs

  4. Public involvement in the siting of contentious facilities; Lessons from the radioactive waste repository siting programmes in Canada and the United States, with special reference to the Swedish repository siting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, P J [Geosciences for Development and the Environment (United Kingdom)

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the conclusion of a two-part programme, begun in 1994 with the overall aim of assisting in the development of an acceptable public participation strategy for use in Sweden for the siting of contentious facilities, with particular reference to the ongoing siting programme for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel. The first part of the work programme, a global review of siting practice, was reported as SSI Rapport 94-15, in November 1994. This recommended further detailed studies of at least two individual programmes, which have now been carried out in Canada and the United States, and are reported on here. They involved face to face meetings with many of the main stake holders in the two programmes and enabled valuable insight to be gained into the potential problems associated with increased public participation, as well as identifying good practice where it exists. The lessons learned have then been applied to the evolving repository siting process in Sweden. 35 refs.

  5. Construction of quality-assured infant feeding process of care data repositories: definition and design (Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcí A-de-León-Chocano, Ricardo; Sáez, Carlos; Muñoz-Soler, Verónica; Garcí A-de-León-González, Ricardo; García-Gómez, Juan M

    2015-12-01

    This is the first paper of a series of two regarding the construction of data quality (DQ) assured repositories for the reuse of information on infant feeding from birth until two years old. This first paper justifies the need for such repositories and describes the design of a process to construct them from Electronic Health Records (EHR). As a result, Part 1 proposes a computational process to obtain quality-assured datasets represented by a canonical structure extracted from raw data from multiple EHR. For this, 13 steps were defined to ensure the harmonization, standardization, completion, de-duplication, and consistency of the dataset content. Moreover, the quality of the input and output data for each of these steps is controlled according to eight DQ dimensions: predictive value, correctness, duplication, consistency, completeness, contextualization, temporal-stability and spatial-stability. The second paper of the series will describe the application of this computational process to construct the first quality-assured repository for the reuse of information on infant feeding in the perinatal period aimed at the monitoring of clinical activities and research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessing the potentialities of integrated modelling during early phases of siting and design of a geological repository: the REGIME exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genty, A.; Certes, C.; Serres, C.; Besnus, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire IRSN, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Fischer-Appelt, K.; Baltes, B.; Rohlig, J. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany)

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the safety assessment exercise 'REGIME' (Repository Evaluation performed by GRS and IRSN through a Modelling Exercise) performed jointly by GRS and IRSN. The main objective of the project is to test the ability of integrated modelling to contribute to site selection and repository conception in the context of high-level radioactive waste disposal. The project is divided in two parts. Phase 1 consisted in studying different flow patterns in a given geological context. The selected hydrogeological contexts and three site locations potentially favourable for hosting a repository are described. Phase 2, under progress, aims at evaluating the rote of limitation of releases played by the different components of the disposal system taking into account possible dysfunctions. The main issues to be addressed in phase 2, the modelling outline and the scenarios to be studied are presented. (authors)

  7. Evaluation and modelling of a potential repository site - Olkiluoto case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksa, P.; Ahokas, H.; Loefman, J.; Pitkaenen, P.; Paulamaeki, S.; Snellman, M.

    1998-01-01

    The observations, interpretations and estimates resulting from site investigations were developed into conceptual bedrock model of the Olkiluoto area. Model development has been an interdisciplinary process and three major iterations have occurred. Geochemical sampling and a programme of electromagnetic and electrical soundings were carried out and interpreted to model occurrences of groundwater types. The parametrisation and modifications needed between geological models and ground-water flow simulation model is discussed. The latest groundwater flow modelling effort comprises the transient flow analysis taking into account the effects of density variations, the repository, post-glacial land uplift and global sea level rise. The main flow modeling result quantities (the amount, direction, velocity and routes as well as concentration of water) are used for evaluation of the investigation sites and of the preconditions for safe final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Integration of hydrological and hydrogeochemical methods and studies has provided the primary method for investigating the evolution. Testing of flow models with hydro-geochemical information is considered to improve the hydrogeological understanding of a site and increases confidence in conceptual hydrogeological models. Bedrock model allows also comparisons to be made between its time-varying versions. The evolution of fracture frequency, fracture zone structures and hydraulic conductivity has been studied. A prediction-outcome comparison was made in selected boreholes and showed that the rock type was the easiest parameter to predict

  8. Repository operational criteria analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hageman, J.P.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of the ''Repository Operational Criteria (ROC) Feasibility Studies'' (or ROC task) was to conduct comprehensive and integrated analyses of repository design, construction, and operations criteria in 10 CFR Part 60 regulations, considering the interfaces and impacts of any potential changes to those regulations. The study addresses regulatory criteria related to the preclosure aspects of the geologic repository. The study task developed regulatory concepts or potential repository operational criteria (PROC) based on analysis of a repository's safety functions and other regulations for similar facilities. These regulatory concepts or PROC were used as a basis to assess the sufficiency and adequacy of the current criteria in 10 CFR Part 60. Where the regulatory concepts were same as current operational criteria, these criteria were referenced. The operations criteria referenced or the PROC developed are given in this report. Detailed analyses used to develop the regulatory concepts and any necessary PROC for those regulations that may require a minor change are also presented. The results of the ROC task showed a need for further analysis and possible major rule change related to the design bases of a geologic repository operations area, siting, and radiological emergency planning

  9. Radioactive waste repository of Cesium of Abadia de Goias. Construction and design; Repositorio de rejeitos radioativos de cesio - Abadia de Goias. Concepcao e projeto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranjan Filho, Alfredo [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Alves, Antonio Sergio de Martin; Santos, Cicero Durval Pacifici dos; Passos, Erivaldo Mario dos; Coutinho, Fernando Paulo Millen [NUCLEN Engenharia e Servicos S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The main criteria, the methodology, the solutions and parameters that were utilized in the design of the Intermediate and Low Level Radioactive Waste Repository of Abadia de Goias are shortly described. The various design steps are analysed from the preparation of the Safety Analysis Report to the detailing engineering tasks. The safety analysis for the constructed repository had the goal of verifying the magnitude of radioecological impacts corresponding to idealized activity release scenarios, allowing also the possible effects of human intrusion in the repository. These safety studies are intrinsically connected to computer calculations envisaged to simulate the long term performance of the repository. (author) 18 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. 29 CFR 1926.752 - Site layout, site-specific erection plan and construction sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Site layout, site-specific erection plan and construction... Steel Erection § 1926.752 Site layout, site-specific erection plan and construction sequence. (a... strength or sufficient strength to support the loads imposed during steel erection. (c) Site layout. The...

  11. Report of the Peer Review Panel on the early site suitability evaluation of the Potential Repository Site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Yucca mountain Site Characterization Project Office (YMPO) assigned Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), the Technical and Management Support Services (T&MSS) contractor to the YmPo, the task of conducting an Early Site Suitability Evaluation (ESSE) of the Yucca mountain site as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. First, the assignment called for the development of a method to evaluate a single site against the DOE General Guidelines for Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories, 10 CFR Part 960. Then, using this method, an evaluation team, the ESSE Core Team, of senior YMP scientists, engineers, and technical experts, evaluated new information obtained about the site since publication of the final Environmental Assessment (DOE, 1986) to determine if new suitability/unsuitability findings could be recommended. Finally, the Core Team identified further information and analyses needed to make final determinations for each of the guidelines. As part of the task, an independent peer review of the ESSE report has been conducted. Expertise was solicited that covered the entire spectrum of siting guidelines in 10 CFR Part 960 in order to provide a complete, in-depth critical review of the data evaluated and cited in the ESSE report, the methods used to evaluate the data, and the conclusions and recommendations offered by the report. Fourteen nationally recognized technical experts (Table 2) served on the Peer Review Panel. The comments from the Panel and the responses prepared by the ESSE Core Team, documented on formal Comment Response Forms, constitute the body of this document.

  12. Review of a site developer's geo-scientific data and site-characterisation information to support repository certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peake, R.T.; Byrum, C.; Ghose, S.

    2007-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico is a first-of-a-kind deep geologic facility for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste from weapons production in the United States. In 1993, Congress authorised the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop and implement WIPP-site-specific compliance criteria based on the general safety and environmental standards in EPA's high-level and transuranic radioactive waste regulations [1]. EPA published its site-specific regulations [2] in 1996 and certified WIPP to open in 1998. This regulatory framework set the stage for balancing diverse input data, provided a structure for document development, provided a mechanism for interaction between EPA and the Department of Energy (DOE), and provided a guide to support our review of WIPP's safety assessment. EPA's involvement continues during WIPP's operational phase. Confidence in repository site geo-scientific data enhances the regulator's ability to make a credible and defensible certification (licensing) decision and to communicate the basis for the decision to the public. Lack of confidence in the data can lead to lack of credibility about site suitability. Clear regulations and specific quality standards can enhance the quality of site-characterisation documentation and assist the regulator in its approval process of the site. In EPA's regulations, documentation is required on numerous issues, and EPA supplemented this with guidance. High-quality documentation is essential, especially for EPA. In the certification process for WIPP, the documentation in the record and our written interpretation of the record was what was used in legal proceedings that followed EPA's certification of WIPP. EPA and DOE had frequent and generally open communication. During formal regulatory proceedings, all communication had to be documented. Some decisions were made at the staff level, but major decisions were typically addressed and resolved through correspondence

  13. BIM for Construction Site Logistics Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Whitlock

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging Building Information Modelling (BIM has been hailed as a revolutionary technology and information management process that facilitates collaboration and more efficient design and construction processes through innovative 3D modelling software, open access to information and multidisciplinary integration. The deadline of compliance to BIM level 2 on all public sector centrally procured construction projects has expired leaving many construction firms anxious to adopt BIM. Most common documented applications of BIM have been in the areas of architectural and structural design, quantity surveying, construction project management, and sustainability with very limited peer-reviewed studies on construction logistics management. The aim of this study is to investigate how BIM can be applied to construction logistics management. This study adopts a desk-top approach, with articles sources from renowned scientific databases such as ScienceDirect, Google Scholar and Emerald. The study culminated in the identification of benefits and barriers of adopting BIM for construction logistics management. Given only a desk-top approach has been used, the recommendation for future study is to build on this to conduct an empirical study using both qualitative and quantitative data. This will provide an in-depth understanding of the use of BIM for construction logistics management and open opportunities for further research.

  14. Construction Site Workers’ Awareness on Using Safety Equipment: Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ulang N. Md; Salim N. S.; Baharum F.; Agus Salim N.A.

    2014-01-01

    Construction sector is an important sector and contributed significantly to national development. However, this sector poses higher risk to accident. This is due to fact that construction site can be considered as a dangerous zone to workers and to the public. Due to the variety of cases occurs on site, the contractor will usually have to pay the cost related to accidents in the form of higher insurance premium. Despite various measures, accidents still occur at construction sites. Personal P...

  15. Construction of a nasopharyngeal carcinoma 2D/MS repository with Open Source XML database--Xindice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Li, Maoyu; Xiao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Pengfei; Li, Jianling; Chen, Zhuchu

    2006-01-11

    Many proteomics initiatives require integration of all information with uniformcriteria from collection of samples and data display to publication of experimental results. The integration and exchanging of these data of different formats and structure imposes a great challenge to us. The XML technology presents a promise in handling this task due to its simplicity and flexibility. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the most common cancers in southern China and Southeast Asia, which has marked geographic and racial differences in incidence. Although there are some cancer proteome databases now, there is still no NPC proteome database. The raw NPC proteome experiment data were captured into one XML document with Human Proteome Markup Language (HUP-ML) editor and imported into native XML database Xindice. The 2D/MS repository of NPC proteome was constructed with Apache, PHP and Xindice to provide access to the database via Internet. On our website, two methods, keyword query and click query, were provided at the same time to access the entries of the NPC proteome database. Our 2D/MS repository can be used to share the raw NPC proteomics data that are generated from gel-based proteomics experiments. The database, as well as the PHP source codes for constructing users' own proteome repository, can be accessed at http://www.xyproteomics.org/.

  16. Construction of a nasopharyngeal carcinoma 2D/MS repository with Open Source XML Database – Xindice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jianling

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many proteomics initiatives require integration of all information with uniformcriteria from collection of samples and data display to publication of experimental results. The integration and exchanging of these data of different formats and structure imposes a great challenge to us. The XML technology presents a promise in handling this task due to its simplicity and flexibility. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is one of the most common cancers in southern China and Southeast Asia, which has marked geographic and racial differences in incidence. Although there are some cancer proteome databases now, there is still no NPC proteome database. Results The raw NPC proteome experiment data were captured into one XML document with Human Proteome Markup Language (HUP-ML editor and imported into native XML database Xindice. The 2D/MS repository of NPC proteome was constructed with Apache, PHP and Xindice to provide access to the database via Internet. On our website, two methods, keyword query and click query, were provided at the same time to access the entries of the NPC proteome database. Conclusion Our 2D/MS repository can be used to share the raw NPC proteomics data that are generated from gel-based proteomics experiments. The database, as well as the PHP source codes for constructing users' own proteome repository, can be accessed at http://www.xyproteomics.org/.

  17. Ground-water travel time calculations for the potential nuclear repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younker, J.L.; Wilson, W.E.; Sinnock, S.

    1986-01-01

    In support of the US Department of Energy Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project, ground-water travel times were calculated for flow paths in both the saturated and unsaturated zones at Yucca Mountain, a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository in southern Nevada. The calculations were made through a combined effort by Science Applications International Corporation, Sandia National Laboratories, and the US Geological Survey. Travel times in the unsaturated zone were estimated by dividing the flow path length by the ground-water velocity, where velocities were obtained by dividing the vertical flux by the effective porosity of the rock types along assumed vertical flow paths. Saturated zone velocities were obtained by dividing the product of the bulk hydraulic conductivity and hydraulic gradient by the effective porosity. Total travel time over an EPA-established 5-km flow path was then calculated to be the sum of the travel times in the two parts of the flow path. Estimates of ground water fluxes and travel times are critical for evaluating the favorability of the Yucca Mountain site because they provide the basis for estimating the potential for radionuclides to reach the accessible environment within certain time limits

  18. High level waste repository site suitability criteria. Environmental impact statement methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The approach (methodology) which has been developed for the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) is described. A suggested outline is presented for the High Level Waste Repository Site Suitability Criteria EIS together with a detailed description of the approach to be used in preparing the EIS. In addition, a methodology is presented by which the necessary cost/benefit/risk comparisons of alternative sets of site suitability criteria can be made. The TERA environmental research data bank, a computerized data bank which contained information on current and historical licensing activities for power plants was modified to include information on generic or programmatic EIS related issues. The content of the modified data bank was utilized to develop the EIS outline presented in this report. The report recommends that a modified matrix evaluation approach be used to make the cost/benefit/risk comparisons. The suggested matrix is designed to facilitate between criteria comparative analyses of economic, environmental, sociological and radiological risk factors. The quantitative compositing of dollar cost and benefits, environmental and sociological impacts, and radiological risks is to be performed using a semi-analytical, semi-visual procedure based on the concept of ''decision surfaces.''

  19. Site specific statutory compliance planning for the salt repository project at the Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Requirements, strategy, and status: Revision 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    This document and the requirements and actions it presents are addressed to the Deaf Smith County Site, Texas. The proposed actions upon which the plan is based are those described in Chapters 4 and 5 of the final EA for the site. Similarly, the environmental and health and safety requirements covered in the plan are those identified in the EA as being potentially applicable to the salt repository project at the Deaf Smith site. 12 figs., 8 tabs

  20. Mineral formation on metallic copper in a `Future repository site environment`: Textural considerations based on natural analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amcoff, Oe. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Inst. of Earth Sciences

    1998-01-01

    Copper mineral formation in the Swedish `repository site environment` is discussed. Special attention is given to ore mineral textures (=the spatial relation among minerals), with examples given from nature. It is concluded: By analogy with observations from natural occurrences, an initial coating of Cu-oxide on the canister surface (because of entrapped air during construction) will probably not hinder a later sulphidation process. Early formation of Cu-sulphides on the canister surface may be accompanied by formation of CuFe-sulphides. The latter phase(s) may form through replacement of the Cu-sulphides or, alternatively, by means of reaction between dissolved copper and fine-grained iron sulphide (pyrite) in the surrounding bentonite. Should for some reason the bentonite barrier fail and the conditions become strongly oxidizing, we can expect crustifications and rhythmic growths of Cu(II)-phases, like malachite (Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3}). A presence of Fe{sup 2} in the clay minerals making up the bentonite might prove to have an adverse effect on the canister stability, since, in this case, the bentonite might be expected to act as a sink for dissolved copper. The mode of mineral growth along the copper - bentonite interface remains an open question.

  1. Numerical modeling of ground-water flow systems in the vicinity of the reference repository location, Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.; Beyeler, W.; Logsdon, M.; Coleman, N.; Brinster, K.

    1989-04-01

    This report documents south-central Washington State's Pasco Basin ground-water modeling studies. This work was done to support the NRC's review of hydrogeologic studies under the Department of Energy's (DOE) Basalt Waste Isolation Project. The report provides a brief overview of the geology, hydrology, and hydrochemistry of the Pasco Basin as a basis for the evaluation of previous conceptual and numerical ground-water flow models of the region. Numerical models were developed to test new conceptual models of the site and to provide a means of evaluating the Department of Energy's performance assessments and proposed hydrologic testing. Regional ground-water flow modeling of an area larger than the Pasco Basin revealed that current concepts on the existence and behavior of a hydrologic barrier west of the proposed repository location are inconsistent with available data. This modeling also demonstrated that the measured pattern of hydraulic heads cannot be produced with a model that (1) has uniform layer properties over the entire domain; (2) has zones of large conductivity associated with anticlinal structures; or (3) includes recharge from the industrial disposal ponds. Adequate representation of the measured hydraulic heads was obtained with a model that contained regions of larger hydraulic conductivity that corresponded to the presence of sedimentary interbeds. In addition, a detailed model of a region smaller than the Pasco Basin was constructed to provide the NRC staff with the ability to analyze proposed Department of Energy hydrologic tests. 62 refs., 145 figs., 18 tabs

  2. Mineral formation on metallic copper in a 'Future repository site environment': Textural considerations based on natural analogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amcoff, Oe.

    1998-01-01

    Copper mineral formation in the Swedish 'repository site environment' is discussed. Special attention is given to ore mineral textures (=the spatial relation among minerals), with examples given from nature. It is concluded: By analogy with observations from natural occurrences, an initial coating of Cu-oxide on the canister surface (because of entrapped air during construction) will probably not hinder a later sulphidation process. Early formation of Cu-sulphides on the canister surface may be accompanied by formation of CuFe-sulphides. The latter phase(s) may form through replacement of the Cu-sulphides or, alternatively, by means of reaction between dissolved copper and fine-grained iron sulphide (pyrite) in the surrounding bentonite. Should for some reason the bentonite barrier fail and the conditions become strongly oxidizing, we can expect crustifications and rhythmic growths of Cu(II)-phases, like malachite (Cu 2 (OH) 2 CO 3 ). A presence of Fe 2 in the clay minerals making up the bentonite might prove to have an adverse effect on the canister stability, since, in this case, the bentonite might be expected to act as a sink for dissolved copper. The mode of mineral growth along the copper - bentonite interface remains an open question

  3. Construction plant requirements for nuclear sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatum, C.B.; Harris, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Planning and developing the temporary construction plant facilities for a nuclear project is equivalent to providing utility services for a small city. Provision of adequate facilities is an important factor in the productivity of both the manual and non-manual work force. This paper summarizes construction facility requirements for a two unit (1300 MWe each) nuclear project. Civil, mechanical and electrical facilities are described, including design, installation and operation. Assignment of responsibility for specific work tasks regarding the construction plant is also discussed. In presenting this data, the authors seek to transfer experience and assist in the provision of adequate facilities on future projects

  4. Site selection factors for repositories of solid high-level and alpha-bearing wastes in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide guidelines for the selection and evaluation of suitable areas and sites for the disposal of solid high-level and alpha-bearing wastes into geological formations. This report is also intended to provide summary information on many types of geological formations underlying the land masses that might be considered as well as guidance on the geological and hydrological factors that should be investigated to demonstrate the suitability of the formations. In addition, other factors that should be considered in selecting a site for a radioactive waste repository are discussed briefly. The information, as presented, was developed to the extent of current technology for application to the evaluation of deep (greater than about 300 metres below ground level) geological formations in the selection of suitable areas for the disposal of solid or solidified high-level and alpha-bearing wastes. The extreme complexity of many geological environments and of the rock features that govern the presence and circulation of groundwater does not make it feasible to derive strict criteria for the selection of a site for a radioactive waste repository in a geological formation. Each potential repository location must be evaluated according to its own unique geological and hydrological setting. Therefore, only general guidance is offered, and this is done through discussion of the many factors that need to be considered in order to obtain the necessary assurances that the radionuclides will be confined in the geological repository over the required period of time

  5. Site selection factors for repositories of solid high-level and alpha-bearing wastes in geological formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide guidelines for the selection and evaluation of suitable areas and sites for the disposal of solid high-level and alpha-bearing wastes into geological formations. This report is also intended to provide summary information on many types of geological formations underlying the land masses that might be considered as well as guidance on the geological and hydrological factors that should be investigated to demonstrate the suitability of the formations. In addition, other factors that should be considered in selecting a site for a radioactive waste repository are discussed briefly. The information, as presented, was developed to the extent of current technology for application to the evaluation of deep (greater than about 300 meters below ground level) geological formations in the selection of suitable areas for the disposal of solid or solidified high-level and alpha-bearing wastes. The extreme complexity of many geological environments and of the rock features that govern the presence and circulation of groundwater does not make it feasible to derive strict criteria for the selection of a site for a radioactive waste repository in a geological formation. Each potential repository location must be evaluated according to its own unique geological and hydrological setting. Therefore, only general guidance is offered, and this is done through discussion of the many factors that need to be considered in order to obtain the necessary assurances that the radionuclides will be confined in the geological repository over the required period of time.

  6. Evaluation Of Groundwater Pathways And Travel Times From The Nevada Test Site To The Potential Yucca Mountain Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.F. Pohlman; J. Zhu; M. Ye; J. Chapman; C. Russell; D.S. Shafer

    2006-01-01

    Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada, has been recommended as a deep geological repository for the disposal of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. If YM is licensed as a repository by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, it will be important to identify the potential for radionuclides to migrate from underground nuclear testing areas located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to the hydraulically downgradient repository area to ensure that monitoring does not incorrectly attribute repository failure to radionuclides originating from other sources. In this study, we use the Death Valley Regional Flow System (DVRFS) model developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate potential groundwater migration pathways and associated travel times from the NTS to the proposed YM repository area. Using results from the calibrated DVRFS model and the particle tracking post-processing package MODPATH, we modeled three-dimensional groundwater advective pathways in the NTS and YM region. Our study focuses on evaluating the potential for groundwater pathways between the NTS and YM withdrawal area and whether travel times for advective flow along these pathways coincide with the prospective monitoring timeframe at the proposed repository. We include uncertainty in effective porosity, as this is a critical variable in the determination of time for radionuclides to travel from the NTS region to the YM withdrawal area. Uncertainty in porosity is quantified through evaluation of existing site data and expert judgment and is incorporated in the model through Monte Carlo simulation. Since porosity information is limited for this region, the uncertainty is quite large and this is reflected in the results as a large range in simulated groundwater travel times

  7. Introduction to the second international workshop on the design and construction of final repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    Canadian repository design studies are reviewed. Two conceptual designs are described. The first is a single-level spent-fuel repository using the in-floor borehole emplacement configuration. The disposal container for 72 bundles is made of titanium. The depth will probably be 1000 m. Maximum temperature must not exceed 100 deg C. The near-surface extension zone must not exceed 100 m in depth. The cost for disposal of 10.1 million bundles over 89 years is estimated to be about C$13 billion. The second concept, a single level spent-fuel repository using the in-room emplacement configuration, may be more suitable for the stress conditions that may be encountered in the plutonic rocks of the Canadian shield at a depth greater than 500 m. In this case, the container is made of copper, and the capacity of the repository will be determined by maintaining the emplacement area at about 2 km square, and the required container to container and room to room spacing to satisfy the temperature criterion. A concrete floor will be provided.The buffer material will be formed in pre-compacted blocks. 10 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  8. Suggestions on selection of clay site as a key alternative of underground repository for HLW geological disposal in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hualing; Fu Bingjun; Fan Xianhua; Chen Shi; Sun Donghui

    2006-01-01

    Site selection for the underground repository is a vital problem with respect to the HLW geological disposal. Over the past decades, we have been focusing our attention on granite as a priority in China. However, there are some problems have to be discussed on this matter. In this paper, both experiences gained and lessons learned in the international community regarding the site selection are described. And then, after analyzing a lot of some key factors affecting the site selection, some comments and suggestions on selection of clay site as a key alternative before final decision making in China are presented. (authors)

  9. Site independent considerations on safety and protection of the groundwater - Basis for the fundamental evaluation of the licence granting for the surface buildings of a geological repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-08-01

    This report explains how the protection of man and the environment can be assured for the surface facility of a deep geological repository. The report is intended primarily for the federal authorities, but also provides important information for the siting Cantons and siting regions. Nagra has also prepared an easily understandable brochure on the topic for the general public. The report was prepared at the request of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), with the aim of allowing the responsible federal authorities to evaluate, in a general manner, the aspects of safety and groundwater protection during the construction and operation of the surface facility of a geological repository, and the ability of the facility to fulfill the licensing requirements. The information is based on preliminary design concepts. The report presents the main features of a surface facility (design, activities), taking into account the waste to be emplaced in the repository and the potential conditions at the site. It is not a formal safety report for a facility at a real site within the context of licensing procedures as specified in the nuclear energy legislation. In line with the different legal and regulatory requirements, the following aspects are the subject of a qualitative analysis for the surface facility: (i) Nuclear safety and radiological protection during operation; (ii) Safety with respect to conventional (non-nuclear) accidents during operation and (iii) Protection of the groundwater during the construction and operational phases. The analysis highlights the fundamental requirements relating to the design of the surface facility, the operating procedures and the waste to be emplaced that have to be implemented in order to ensure the safety and protection of the groundwater. The influence of site-specific features and factors on the safety of the surface facility and on a possible impact on groundwater is also considered. To summarise, the report reaches the

  10. Regional groundwater chemical characteristics of Aqishan pre-selected site for high level radioactive waste repository and its hydrogeological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Dong Jiannan; Liu Shufen; Zhou Zhichao

    2014-01-01

    Aqishan area located in Xinjiang Uygur Automonous Region is one of the main preselected site of disposal repository for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in our country. Groundwater chemical feature is one of the most important consideration factors in the siting and site evaluation for high-level radioactive waste repository, From 2012 to 2013, the regional field hydrogeochemical investigation was carried out in study area and more than 30 groundwater samples were collected. According to the measurement data, the groundwater chemical features for different subareas are discussed in the paper. Furthermore, the location of discharge area of groundwater in Aqishan area was estimated according to the chemical features of different subareas. (authors)

  11. Use of petrophysical data for siting of deep geological repository of radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, Liliana; Shestopalov, Vyacheslav

    2017-11-01

    The paper is devoted to analyzing the petrophysical properties and petrographical characteristics of Volyn region with the view to choosing the least permeable and so the most suitable geological formation for the radioactive waste disposal. On a basis of the petrophysical estimations of the granitoids properties the argumentation of permeability has been developed for the petrotypes of Volyn region. Also method of classification of the petrotypes with their relative rate of suitability for radioactive waste disposal was developed. As a result of studying the perspectives were shown of the zhytomyr and korosten types of the granitoids as host rock for the radioactive waste disposal. According to the results of investigations performed by Swedish researchers a comparative analysis of rocks based on the age of formation, composition, structural features and some petrophysical properties of granitoids as host rocks for repository of radioactive waste was performed. Detail comparison the data of the granitoids of the Forsmark site in Sweden and the data of the granitoids of the Volyn megablock can be one of the next steps in researching the host rocks for the development of the RW disposal system in Ukraine.

  12. Use of petrophysical data for siting of deep geological repository of radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrenko Liliana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to analyzing the petrophysical properties and petrographical characteristics of Volyn region with the view to choosing the least permeable and so the most suitable geological formation for the radioactive waste disposal. On a basis of the petrophysical estimations of the granitoids properties the argumentation of permeability has been developed for the petrotypes of Volyn region. Also method of classification of the petrotypes with their relative rate of suitability for radioactive waste disposal was developed. As a result of studying the perspectives were shown of the zhytomyr and korosten types of the granitoids as host rock for the radioactive waste disposal. According to the results of investigations performed by Swedish researchers a comparative analysis of rocks based on the age of formation, composition, structural features and some petrophysical properties of granitoids as host rocks for repository of radioactive waste was performed. Detail comparison the data of the granitoids of the Forsmark site in Sweden and the data of the granitoids of the Volyn megablock can be one of the next steps in researching the host rocks for the development of the RW disposal system in Ukraine.

  13. Nuclear Waste Risk Perceptions and Attitudes in Siting a Final Repository for Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoeberg, Lennart [Stockholm School of Economics (Sweden). Center for Risk Research

    2006-09-15

    The paper does the following: Describes the time trends between 2001 and 2005 in terms of policy intention, perceived risk, trust and attitude Analyzes the relationships between policy attitude - the major dependent variable - and the explanatory variables of perceived risk, trust and attitude. Determines whether policy attitude variation across time, municipalities and genders can be accounted for by variation in perceived risk, trust and attitude. Random samples of 2000 persons living in Oesthammar and Oskarshamn were approached with a mailed questionnaire in 2005 (as was done in 2005). After two reminders, 888 had returned filled out questionnaires, yielding a total response rate of 50 percent, taking into account that some persons had moved without giving a forwarding address to the post office, and that some were unable to answer due to illness or old age. (1). There was a substantially more positive attitude to a local SNF repository in 2005 than in 2001, after an intervening period of phase 2 site investigation. This was true for men and women, both municipalities and with all the response measures analyzed. Men were more positive than women, and had developed more strongly in the positive direction than women had. The attitude in Oskarshamn was somewhat more positive than in Oesthammar. (2). Policy intention was well accounted for by the explanatory variables used here, close to 64 percent of the variance. The most important explanatory variables were epistemic trust, attitude to the repository and social trust, in that order. The differences among these three variables were small with regard to explanatory power. (3) Variation in policy attitude across time, municipalities and gender was reduced in an analysis of covariance with risk, trust and attitude as controlling factors. Hence, these factors explain a large fraction of the variation in policy attitude as observed here. Yet, the time trend was not fully explained and gender variability remained to

  14. Nuclear Waste Risk Perceptions and Attitudes in Siting a Final Repository for Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeberg, Lennart

    2006-01-01

    The paper does the following: Describes the time trends between 2001 and 2005 in terms of policy intention, perceived risk, trust and attitude Analyzes the relationships between policy attitude - the major dependent variable - and the explanatory variables of perceived risk, trust and attitude. Determines whether policy attitude variation across time, municipalities and genders can be accounted for by variation in perceived risk, trust and attitude. Random samples of 2000 persons living in Oesthammar and Oskarshamn were approached with a mailed questionnaire in 2005 (as was done in 2005). After two reminders, 888 had returned filled out questionnaires, yielding a total response rate of 50 percent, taking into account that some persons had moved without giving a forwarding address to the post office, and that some were unable to answer due to illness or old age. (1). There was a substantially more positive attitude to a local SNF repository in 2005 than in 2001, after an intervening period of phase 2 site investigation. This was true for men and women, both municipalities and with all the response measures analyzed. Men were more positive than women, and had developed more strongly in the positive direction than women had. The attitude in Oskarshamn was somewhat more positive than in Oesthammar. (2). Policy intention was well accounted for by the explanatory variables used here, close to 64 percent of the variance. The most important explanatory variables were epistemic trust, attitude to the repository and social trust, in that order. The differences among these three variables were small with regard to explanatory power. (3) Variation in policy attitude across time, municipalities and gender was reduced in an analysis of covariance with risk, trust and attitude as controlling factors. Hence, these factors explain a large fraction of the variation in policy attitude as observed here. Yet, the time trend was not fully explained and gender variability remained to

  15. Distribution coefficients of different soil types at Olkiluoto repository site and its surroundings, southwestern Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahdenperae, Anne-Maj [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Laulukuja 4, FI-00420 Helsinki (Finland); Ikonen, Ari T.K. [Environmental Research and Assessment EnviroCase, Ltd., Hallituskatu 1 D 4, 28100 Pori (Finland)

    2014-07-01

    In Finland, the Olkiluoto Island on the western coast has been selected as a repository site for the spent nuclear fuel. Due to shallow sea areas around the island, the post-glacial crustal rebound (around 6 mm/y) is changing the landscape significantly; during the next thousands of years new soil types are emerging, the present bays will narrow and form future lakes and mires assumedly similar to those farther inland at present. The effects of terrain development are important in long-term safety assessments for the repository, especially in the biosphere assessments addressing radiation exposure of people and biota in scenarios of radionuclide releases. 'In situ' distribution coefficients, K{sub d} values are used to indicate the relevant mobility of radionuclides of concern from nuclear waste. These radionuclides have very long half-lives and long interaction times with soils, ranging from centuries to millennia. By measuring the desorption K{sub d} values of the indigenous stable elements (Ag, Cl, Cs, I, Mo, Nb, Ni, Se and Sr) from field moist samples are a valid description of slow retention processes. The 'in situ' K{sub d} desorption values are calculated for humus, peat and different mineral soil samples taken from the Olkiluoto Island and the Reference Area used as an analogue of the future terrain. The solids are extracted alternatively by HNO{sub 3}-HF and NH{sub 4}Ac (pH 4.5). The K{sub d} values are highly dependent on environmental factors, including but not limited to pH, soil type, soil horizon, soil body, texture, element chemical form, organic matter, carbon content and biological activity. This is discussed in the contribution; e.g., for several elements pH and K{sub d} values correlate - the finer the soil or sediment, the higher the K{sub d} values - and humus and peat samples have a clear correlation with the organic matter and carbon contents. The contribution also compares the 'in situ' K{sub d} values to

  16. Building trust with the public in site selection of radioactive waste repository in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerskov Klika, Mirjana; Schaller, Antun

    1995-01-01

    It should be emphasised that the Republic of Croatia ought to find a solution to dispose not only radioactive waste generated on its own territory, i.e. waste derived from diverse medical, industrial and scientific nuclear applications which does not exceed some 70 cubic metres: in total. It is also obliged to find acceptable solutions for disposal of a half of total radioactive waste accumulating in the Krsko NPP which is situated in Slovenia, but is a joint venture facility of both countries, Slovenia and Croatia. Therefore, one of essential duties of the APO - Hazardous Waste Management Agency is just performance of these activities in Croatia. The site selection process of low- and intermediate radioactive waste disposal in Croatia started in 1988. The site selection process itself is organized in two stages: (1) site survey stage; and 2) site evaluation stage. The first stage, being currently in progress, is related to all activities directed to inclusion of preferred sites into the Regional Plan of Croatia, whilst the second stage includes a necessary on-field investigations at few preferred sites and identification of the most suitable one, i.e. the final repository site. Eight potential areas containing even 42 potential sites have been determined so far. Promotion of several preferred sites is expected to be done until July 1995. Official announcement of preferred sites will be followed by public debate on their acceptance at a level of political-territorial organization, including local communities. The people working in APO - Hazardous Waste Management Agency have been aware of considerable public resistance to most of activities the Agency is dealing with since the very beginning of its operation. Consequently, permanent education and honest information to the public have been taken as the Agency's high priority tasks. Namely, if the public is treated as a competent participant in decision making process then it gets obvious that publicity of work is

  17. Air pollutant emission rates for sources at the Davis Canyon Repository site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    This document summarizes the air-quality source terms used for the Davis Canyon, Utah environmental assessment report and explains their derivation. The engineering data supporting these source terms appear as appendixes to the report and include summary equipment lists for the repository (December, 1984) and detailed equipment lists for the exploratory shaft (June and July, 1985). Although substantial work has been performed in establishing the current repository design, a greater effort will be required for the final design. Consequently, the repository emission rates presented here should be considered as preliminary estimates. Another set of air pollutant emission rates will be calculated after design data are more firmly established. 19 refs., 18 tabs

  18. Air pollutant emission rates for sources at the Deaf Smith County repository site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-11-01

    This document summarizes the air-quality source terms used for the Deaf Smith County, Texas environmental assessment report and explains their derivation. The engineering data supporting these source terms appear as appendixes to this report and include summary equipment lists for the repository and detailed equipment lists for the exploratory shaft. Although substantial work has been performed in establishing the current repository design, a greater effort will be required for the final design. Consequently, the repository emission rates presented here should be considered as preliminary estimates. Another set of air pollution emission rates will be calculated after design data are more firmly established. 18 refs., 15 tabs

  19. Studies for site preparation for ITER construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardeau, A.; Blanc, F.; Cardettini, J.D.; Mandine, J.R.; Guerin, R.; Patisson, L.; Bergegere, P.; Santagiustina, A.; Garin, P.

    2004-01-01

    The implantation of a nuclear facility such as ITER (about 20 buildings on 40 ha) requires many preparatory studies, particularly with respect to: Underground characteristics; Topography, layout; Deforestation, excavations; Networks, fences and roads; Impact of seismic hazard on design. This paper presents the main results of these studies, carried out within the European ITER Site Studies framework. A dedicated paper in the conference deals with the transport studies. To choose the site for ITER implantation, detailed geological, hydrogeological and geophysical investigations have been carried out. Taking into account the meteorological data (particularly the main wind direction), topography, access, electrical supply, fluids needs and constraints (gravity systems), buildings and roads have been implemented. (authors)

  20. Construction and Operation of a Deep Geological Spent Fuel Repository in Sweden; Some Regulatory Aspects and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedberg, Bengt

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of a deep geological spent fuel disposal concept in Sweden poses challenges on both implementer and regulator in many aspects. One such challenge is the application of the regulatory framework in a different situation compared to conventional process type nuclear facilities. A specific challenge in this regard is how to understand and address constraints from post-closure safety related to the construction and operation of the repository. The maybe most challenging aspect, however, is the unusually long time frame, i.e. many generations, for realization of the project. This paper addresses some of these challenges from a regulatory perspective. (authors)

  1. Management of construction safety at KKNPP site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khare, P.K.

    2016-01-01

    Construction is considered as one of the most hazardous activities owing to the number of accidents and injuries. At KKNPP, management of industrial safety has been envisaged since the preliminary stage of construction planning, including design aspects. The governing principles of safety management are evolved from the Factories Act, 1948, the Atomic Energy(Factories) Rules, 1996, AERB safety guidelines on Control of works (2011) and Corporate HSE policy of NPCIL (2014). Numerous risk assessment and hazard control measures are adopted consistently to ensure a safe work environment during the construction, which includes Job Hazard Analysis, work permit through Computerized Maintenance Management System, safety procedures, exclusive safety training facility for the contractor's workmen, safety motivational measures, safety surveillance and reporting through Safety Related Deficiencies Management System. Assessment of efficacy of safety management system is continuously done through safety audits and observations are being circulated and discussed in committee meetings. Fire safety is also being taken care of since inception of project work. Well-equipped fire station with trained fire fighters was made available since the beginning as per AERB safety standard on fire protection system for Nuclear facilities. Fire prevention measures specific to the work are implemented during all activities. (author)

  2. Transparency and Public Involvement in Siting a Nuclear Waste Repository in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennartz, Hans-Albert; Mussel, Christine [WIBERA/PWIBERA/PriceWaterhouseCoopers Deutsche Rev., Hannover (Germany); Nies, Alexander [Federal Ministry for the Environment, Bonn (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The 1998 election of the Federal Parliament led to a significant reorientation of German energy policy. In June 2000, the Federal Government (FG) has achieved an agreement with the utility companies in which they respect the decision of the FG to put an orderly end to nuclear power generation by prohibiting the erection of new, and limiting the operational period of existing power plants. The agreement also contains cornerstones of a new radioactive waste management policy: New interim storage facilities will be built at reactor sites in order to minimise transports to the existing central interim storage facilities at Ahaus and Gorleben; The utilities will use all acceptable contractual possibilities with their international partners to end reprocessing as soon as possible. By mid 2005 at the latest, spent fuel management in Germany will be limited to direct disposal; The exploration of the salt dome at Gorleben will be interrupted for at least three, and at most ten years, to clarify conceptual and safety questions. Correspondingly, the FG has initiated an amendment of the atomic energy act and the development of a new plan for radioactive waste management. In the field of radioactive waste disposal, the Federal Government pursues two new objectives: For the disposal of all kinds and amounts of radioactive waste, one single repository in deep geologic formations shall be erected around 2030; The suitability of further sites in different host formations shall be examined. Feasibility and consequences of the first objective have still to be carefully examined in detail. Development of a new disposal concept and final decisions on both the existing disposal projects as well as on new potential sites are therefore an ambitious challenge for the coming years. The second objective brings up a key question which several leading countries presently attempt to successfully address: how to select sites which are both suitable for safe disposal and accepted in the public

  3. Transparency and Public Involvement in Siting a Nuclear Waste Repository in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennartz, Hans-Albert; Mussel, Christine; Nies, Alexander

    2001-01-01

    The 1998 election of the Federal Parliament led to a significant reorientation of German energy policy. In June 2000, the Federal Government (FG) has achieved an agreement with the utility companies in which they respect the decision of the FG to put an orderly end to nuclear power generation by prohibiting the erection of new, and limiting the operational period of existing power plants. The agreement also contains cornerstones of a new radioactive waste management policy: New interim storage facilities will be built at reactor sites in order to minimise transports to the existing central interim storage facilities at Ahaus and Gorleben; The utilities will use all acceptable contractual possibilities with their international partners to end reprocessing as soon as possible. By mid 2005 at the latest, spent fuel management in Germany will be limited to direct disposal; The exploration of the salt dome at Gorleben will be interrupted for at least three, and at most ten years, to clarify conceptual and safety questions. Correspondingly, the FG has initiated an amendment of the atomic energy act and the development of a new plan for radioactive waste management. In the field of radioactive waste disposal, the Federal Government pursues two new objectives: For the disposal of all kinds and amounts of radioactive waste, one single repository in deep geologic formations shall be erected around 2030; The suitability of further sites in different host formations shall be examined. Feasibility and consequences of the first objective have still to be carefully examined in detail. Development of a new disposal concept and final decisions on both the existing disposal projects as well as on new potential sites are therefore an ambitious challenge for the coming years. The second objective brings up a key question which several leading countries presently attempt to successfully address: how to select sites which are both suitable for safe disposal and accepted in the public

  4. Quality assurance during site construction. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potrz, R.; Dilling, H.

    1980-01-01

    Quality control during the assembly of an pressure water reactor containment: 1.) Fundamental principles of the quality control: short explanation to the specification and job instruction. 2.) Quality control during the assembly: welding control, non destructive material test. 3.) Quality deviations: explanation of an repair-plan. 4.) Documentation: join together the workshop- and site documentation. (orig.)

  5. Pre-construction geologic section along the cross drift through the potential high-level radioactive waste repository, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, C.J.; Day, W.C.; Sweetkind, D.S.; Juan, C.S.; Drake, R.M. II

    1998-01-01

    As part of the Site Characterization effort for the US Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Project, tunnels excavated by tunnel boring machines provide access to the volume of rock that is under consideration for possible underground storage of high-level nuclear waste beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The Exploratory Studies Facility, a 7.8-km-long, 7.6-m-diameter tunnel, has been excavated, and a 2.8-km-long, 5-m-diameter Cross Drift will be excavated in 1998 as part of the geologic, hydrologic and geotechnical evaluation of the potential repository. The southwest-trending Cross Drift branches off of the north ramp of the horseshoe-shaped Exploratory Studies Facility. This report summarizes an interpretive geologic section that was prepared for the Yucca Mountain Project as a tool for use in the design and construction of the Cross Drift

  6. Workshop material for state review of USNRC site suitability criteria for high-level radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-08-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is developing criteria on which to judge whether a proposed site for a geologic repository is suitable for disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. To aid in its analysis and assessment, NRC is planning three early independent reviews of the site suitability criteria development effort: a peer review by experts outside of NRC; a review by the National Academy of Sciences; and a review by State officials. This document has been prepared to aid workshop participants in understanding the Preliminary Site Suitability Criteria and to prepare them to contribute to an evaluation of those criteria

  7. Canada's Deep Geological Repository for Used Nuclear Fuel - Geo-scientific Site Evaluation Process - 13117

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blyth, Alec; Ben Belfadhel, Mahrez; Hirschorn, Sarah; Hamilton, Duncan; McKelvie, Jennifer [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, 22 St. Clair Avenue East, Toronto, Ontario M4T 2S3 (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management (APM), the approach selected by the Government of Canada for long-term management of used nuclear fuel generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. The ultimate objective of APM is the centralized containment and isolation of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository in a suitable rock formation at a depth of approximately 500 meters (m) (1,640 feet [ft]). In May 2010, the NWMO published a nine-step site selection process that serves as the road map to decision-making on the location for the deep geological repository. The safety and appropriateness of any potential site will be assessed against a number of factors, both technical and social in nature. The selected site will be one that can be demonstrated to be able to safely contain and isolate used nuclear fuel, protecting humans and the environment over the very long term. The geo-scientific suitability of potential candidate sites will be assessed in a stepwise manner following a progressive and thorough site evaluation process that addresses a series of geo-scientific factors revolving around five safety functions. The geo-scientific site evaluation process includes: Initial Screenings; Preliminary Assessments; and Detailed Site Evaluations. As of November 2012, 22 communities have entered the site selection process (three in northern Saskatchewan and 18 in northwestern and southwestern Ontario). (authors)

  8. Canada's deep geological repository for used nuclear fuel - update on the site evaluation process and interweaving of aboriginal traditional knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, B.; Belfadhel, M.B.; Facella, J.

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management (APM), the approach selected by the Government of Canada for the long-term management of used nuclear fuel generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. The ultimate objective of APM is the centralized containment and isolation of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository (DGR) in a suitable crystalline or sedimentary rock formation. In May 2010, the NWMO initiated a nine-step site selection process to seek an informed and willing community to host Canada's deep geological repository. As of April 2015, twenty-two communities expressed interest in learning more about the project. This paper provides an update on the site evaluation process and describes the approach, methods and criteria used in the assessments, focusing on geological and community well-being studies. Engagement and field activities to interweave Aboriginal Traditional Knowledge with western science are also discussed. (author)

  9. The procedure of alternative site selection within the report of the study group on the radioactive waste final repository selection process (AKEnd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, M.

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the results of the report of the study group on the radioactive waste final repository selection process with respect to the alternative site selection procedure. Key points of the report are the long-term safety, the alternativity of sites and the concept of one repository. The critique on this report is focussed on the topics site selection and licensing procedures, civil participation, the factor time and the question of cost

  10. Process for selecting a site for Canada's deep geological repository for used nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facella, J.; Belfadhel, M.B.

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management, the approach selected by the Government of Canada for long-term management of used nuclear fuel waste generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. The ultimate objective of Adaptive Phased Management is the centralized containment and isolation of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository in a suitable crystalline or sedimentary rock formation at a depth of about 500m. The repository will consist of a series of access and service shafts and a series of tunnels leading to placement rooms where used fuel will be placed and sealed in competent rock using a multi-barrier system which includes long lived specially designed containers, sealing materials such as bentonite and the rock itself. The used fuel will be monitored throughout all phases of implementation and will also remain retrievable for an extended period of time. In May 2010, the NWMO published the site selection process that serves as the road map to decision-making on the location for the deep geological repository. NWMO initiated the process with a first stage that invites communities to learn more about the project and the site selection process. NWMO is actively building awareness of the project and, on request of communities, is delivering briefings, supporting community capacity building and undertaking high-level screenings of site suitability. The paper provides a brief description of: Adaptive Phased Management including the deep geological repository which is its ultimate goal, and the design of the site selection process, and importantly the approach to assessing the suitability of sites from both a social and technical perspective. The paper will outline how NWMO sought to develop a socially-acceptable site selection process as a firm foundation for future decisions on siting. Through a two-year collaborative process, NWMO sought to understand the expectations of

  11. Studies relating to human intrusion into a repository. Report pertaining to work package 11. Preliminary safety case of the Gorleben site (VSG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuth, Thomas; Buhmann, Dieter; Fischer-Appelt, Klaus; Moenig, Joerg; Ruebel, Andre; Wolf, Jens [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany); Bollingerfehr, Wilhelm; Filbert, Wolfgang [DBE Technology GmbH, Peine (Germany); Charlier, Frank [international nuclear safety engineering gmbh (nse), Aachen (Germany); Baltes, Bruno

    2014-10-15

    The question of the long-term safety of a repository system is inseparably linked with the intensive technical examination of the possible future evolution of the site and the repository system e. g. as a result of climatic, geologic, waste-related and repository-related processes. Here, the possible evolutions to be considered are those that have the potential to have a negative impact on the intended, furthest-possible, immediate, and lasting isolation of the radioactive waste in a defined area around the underground workings of the repository mine in salt rock, which is referred to as the containment-providing rock zone (CPRZ).

  12. The SocioEconomic Analysis of Repository Siting (SEARS): Technical Documentation: Volume 1, Description of code and files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiel, B.; Parpia, B.; Murdock, S.; Hamm, R.; Fannin, D.; Ransom-Nelson, W.; Leistritz, F.L.

    1985-05-01

    The SEARS Model is a comprehensive, highly flexible, user-oriented system for projecting economic, demographic, public service and fiscal impacts of a high-level nuclear waste repository siting. Both baseline and project-related impact projections may be performed for regions, counties, municipalities, and school districts. It is an interactive APL model requiring comprehensive data bases and parameters to generate the outputs desired. 75 refs., 24 figs., 14 tabs

  13. Site selection for deep geologic repositories - Consequences for society, economy and environment; was kommt auf die regionen zu? Auswirkungen geologischer tiefenlager auf gesellschaft, wirtschaft und lebensraum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    In a few years, Switzerland will make the decision regarding site selection for geological underground repositories for the storage of radioactive wastes. Besides the safety issue, many citizens are interested in how such a repository will affect environment, economy and society in the selected site's region. This brochure summarizes the results of many studies on the socio-economic impacts of nuclear waste repositories. Radioactive wastes must be stored in such a way that mankind and environment are safely protected for a long period of time. How this goal may be achieved, is already known: geologic deep repositories warrant long-term safety. For the oncoming years in Switzerland the question is where the repository will be built. The search for an appropriate site for a repository in the proposed regions will launch discussions. Within the participative framework the regions may bring their requests. The demonstration of the safety of potential repository sites has the highest priority in the selection process. In the third procedural step additional rock investigations will be made. The socio-economic studies and the experience with existing plants show that radioactive waste management plants can be built and operated in good agreement with environmental requirements. The radioactive wastes in a deep underground repository are stored many hundred meters below the Earth's surface. There, they are isolated from our vital space. Technical barriers and the surrounding dense rock confinement prevent the release of radioactive materials into the environment. A deep repository has positive consequences for the regional economy. It increases trade and value creation and creates work places. The socio-economic impacts practically extend over one century, but strongly vary with time; they are the largest during the building period. High life quality and a positive population development in the selected site region are compatible with a deep repository. A fair

  14. Methods for assessing the socioeconomic impacts of large-scale resource developments: implications for nuclear repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdock, S.H.; Leistritz, F.L.

    1983-03-01

    An overview of the major methods presently available for assessing the socioeconomic impacts of large-scale resource developments and includes discussion of the implications and applications of such methods for nuclear-waste-repository siting are provided. The report: (1) summarizes conceptual approaches underlying, and methodological alternatives for, the conduct of impact assessments in each substantive area, and then enumerates advantages and disadvantages of each alternative; (2) describes factors related to the impact-assessment process, impact events, and the characteristics of rural areas that affect the magnitude and distribution of impacts and the assessment of impacts in each area; (3) provides a detailed review of those methodologies actually used in impact assessment for each area, describes advantages and problems encountered in the use of each method, and identifies the frequency of use and the general level of acceptance of each technique; and (4) summarizes the implications of each area of projection for the repository-siting process, the applicability of the methods for each area to the special and standard features of repositories, and makes general recommendations concerning specific methods and procedures that should be incorporated in assessments for siting areas

  15. In-situ test programs related to design and construction of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) deep geologic repositories. Appendices. Final report (Task 2), June 1981-November 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberds, W.; Bauhof, F.; Gonano, L.

    1983-03-01

    The media and sites considered include: (1) basalt at Hanford, Washington; (2) tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site; (3) domal salt at specific Gulf Coast sites; (4) bedded salt at an unspecified site; and (5) granite at an unspecified site. A licensing perspective is outlined and a defensible rationale developed and utilized for the test selection process. This rationale essentially consists of: establishing the information needs for construction authorization; assessing the relevant capabilities of available tests; and matching the capabilities of specific tests to the perceived information needs. The information needs at any time consist of the additional information (if any) needed in order to predict satisfactory repository system performance with the required level of confidence, and thus are a function of: the significance of the repository engineered components and site characteristics to system performance; the currently available information, which may be supplemented with time; and the acceptable level of confidence in satisfactory performance for each licensing step. Determination of the acceptable levels of confidence and the significance of repository system components is outside the scope of this report. Suitable assumptions have thus been made regarding the development of information needs for construction authorization by the time of initial site characterization reports submittals. Tests which are available and respond to the perceived media/site specific information needs, either by simulation or assessment of site characteristics, are identified and their capabilities assessed. Specific in situ tests are investigated and described in detail. Research and development which might be effective in improving tests capabilities have been recommended

  16. Quantifying Construction Site Sediment Discharge Risk and Treatment Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, L.; Beighley, R. E.

    2006-12-01

    Dealing with soil erosion and sediment transport can be a significant challenge during the construction process due to the potentially large spatial and temporal extent and conditions of bare soils. Best Management Practices (BMP) are commonly used to eliminate or reduce offsite discharge of sediment. However, few efforts have investigated the time varying risk of sediment discharge from construction sites, which often have dynamic soil conditions and the potential for less than optimal BMP installations. The goal of this research is to improve the design, implementation and effectiveness of sediment and erosion control at construction sites using site specific, temporal distributions of sediment discharge risk. Sediment risk is determined from individual factors leading to sediment expert, such as rainfall frequency, the adequacy of BMP installations, and the extent and duration of bare soil conditions. This research specifically focuses on quantifying: (a) the effectiveness of temporary sediment and control erosion control BMPs in preventing, containing, and/or treating construction site sediment discharge at varying levels of "proper" installation, and (b) sediment discharge potential from construction sites during different phases of construction, (ex., disturbed earth operations). BMPs are evaluated at selected construction sites in southern California and at the Soil Erosion Research Laboratory (SERL) in the Civil and Environmental Engineering department at San Diego State University. SERL experiments are performed on a 3-m by 10-m tilting soil bed with soil depths up to 1 meter, slopes ranging from 0 to 50 percent, and rainfall rates up to 150 mm/hr (6 in/hr). BMP performance is assessed based on experiments where BMPs are installed per manufacture specifications, potential less than optimal installations, and no treatment conditions. Soil conditions are also varied to represent site conditions during different phases of construction (i.e., loose lifts

  17. Repository exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentz, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses exploration objectives and requirements for a nuclear repository in the U.S.A. The importance of designing the exploration program to meet the system performance objectives is emphasized and some examples of the extent of exploration required before the License Application for Construction Authorization is granted are also discussed

  18. DECISION SUPPORT CONCEPT TO MANAGEMENT OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS - PROBLEM OF CONSTRUCTION SITE SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikša Jajac

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present Decision Support Concept (DSC for management of construction projects. Focus of our research is in application of multicritera methods (MCM to decision making in planning phase of construction projects (related to the problem of construction sites selection. The problem is identified as a significant one from many different aspects such as economic aspect, civil engineering aspect, etc. what indicates the necessity for evaluation of multiple sites by several different criteria. Therefore, DSC for construction site selection based on PROMETHEE method is designed. In order to define the appropriate criteria, their weights and preference functions for the concept, three groups of stakeholders are involved (investors, construction experts and experts for real estate market in its design. AHP method has been used for determination of criteria weights. The model has been tested on the problem of site selection for construction of residential-commercial building in four largest cities in Croatia.

  19. Safety leadership: application in construction site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    The extant safety literature suggests that managerial Safety Leadership is vital to the success and maintenance of a behavioral safety process. The current paper explores the role of Managerial Safety Leadership behaviors in the success of a behavioral safety intervention in the Middle-East with 47,000 workers from multiple nationalities employed by fourteen sub-contractors and one main contractor. A quasi-experimental repeating ABABAB, within groups design was used. Measurement focused on managerial Safety Leadership and employee safety behaviors as well as Corrective Actions. Data was collected over 104 weeks. During this time, results show safety behavior improved by 30 percentage points from an average of 65% during baseline to an average of 95%. The site achieved 121 million man-hours free of lost-time injuries on the longest run. Stepwise multiple regression analyses indicated 86% of the variation in employee safety behavior was associated with senior, middle and front-line manager's Safety Leadership behaviors and the Corrective Action Rate. Approximately 38% of the variation in the Total Recordable Incident Rate (TRIR) was associated with the Observation rate, Corrective Action Rate and Observers Records of managerial safety leaders (Visible Ongoing Support). The results strongly suggest manager's Safety Leadership influences the success of Behavioral Safety processes.

  20. Survey dataset on occupational hazards on construction sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patience F. Tunji-Olayeni

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The construction site provides an unfriendly working conditions, exposing workers to one of the harshest environments at a workplace. In this dataset, a structured questionnaire was design directed to thirty-five (35 craftsmen selected through a purposive sampling technique on various construction sites in one of the most populous cities in sub-Saharan Africa. The set of descriptive statistics is presented with tables, stacked bar chats and pie charts. Common occupational health conditions affecting the cardiovascular, respiratory and musculoskeletal systems of craftsmen on construction sites were identified. The effects of occupational health hazards on craftsmen and on construction project performance can be determined when the data is analyzed. Moreover, contractors’ commitment to occupational health and safety (OHS can be obtained from the analysis of the survey data. Keywords: Accidents, Construction industry, Craftsmen, Health, Occupational hazards

  1. Pattern of accidents in building construction sites in Obio Akpor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Building construction workers are engaged in a dangerous job, exposing them ... The leading cause building site accidents include falls from unsafe working ... Data collected in Excel spread sheet were analyzed and presented in ...

  2. Compliance status summaries for federal and state statutory directives that apply to the Salt Repository Project at the Deaf Smith County Site, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    This document contains statutory summaries, checklists of compliance requirements, status summaries, and lists of information needs for the environmental and health and safety statutory directives at Federal and State levels that apply to the Salt Repository Project at the Deaf Smith County Site, Texas. Statutes that apply in general to any repository project but not specifically to the Deaf Smith are not included. The information herein supplements the Salt Repository Project Statutory Compliance Plan and the Salt Repository Project Permitting Management Plan by providing lengthy details on statutory directives, compliance requirements, information needs, and the overall status of the environmental and health and safety compliance program for the Salt Repository Project at the Deaf Smith County Site, Texas

  3. Site selection of a deep repository of HLRW in relation to geological conditions of Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacik, M.; Kovacikova, M.; Madaras, J.; Vandlikova, M.

    1996-01-01

    All countries which use nuclear energy to generate electricity face the problem of high level radioactive waste (HLRW) and spent fuel. Until 1987, this problem was addressed in Czechoslovakia by transferring the material to the former USSR. After the political changes in Central and Eastern Europe in 1989 and the division of Czechoslovakia into two states in 1993, Slovakia independently faced the complex problem of creating its own deep repository. Although Slovakia has begun to solve the problem of HLRW and spent fuel only recently, it can take advantage of the theoretical and practical knowledge of other countries in this field. The geological aspects of the setting of the deep repository of HLRW have been studied within the project R epositories of radioactive and hazardous wastes in geological environment. The assessment of the Slovak Republic for creating a repository of HLRW was based on the application of internationally determined and applied criteria

  4. Further development of public participation in the site-selection and approval process of a final repository in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Regine; Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate [OeEo-Institute e.V., Inst. for Applied Ecology, Darmstadt (Germany); Arens, Georg [Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS), Salzgitter (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    This paper reflects the first findings of a current research project funded by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection and conducted by an interdisciplinary working group of the OEko-Institute. One focus of this project is the systematic analysis of past and existing participatory processes in different nuclear and non-nuclear projects. On the basis of this analysis and a literature review a specific concept for public participation in the site-selection and approval process of a repository for high radioactive waste (HAW repository) in Germany will be derived. The concept shall foster transparency and acceptance. The working group of the OEko-Institute combines long standing research experience and an intimate knowledge of radioactive waste management including political, technical, management and social problems of final disposal on the one hand. On the other hand members play an active role in stakeholder processes of different non-nuclear projects as well as experience with a wide range of participative measures and their impact. This allows an approach which integrates the specific features of radioactive waste disposal with a wider perspective on the demands and opportunities of stakeholder processes. The procedure of site selection for a HAW repository in Germany still has to be specified. The procedure introduced by the 'Committee on a Site Selection Procedure for Repository Sites' (Arbeitskreis Auswahlverfahren Endlagerstandorte - AkEnd) has not been adopted. The Committee had suggested installing a negotiation group to discuss the AkEnd proposals in the so called 'Phase II'. This suggestion could not be followed because not all relevant stakeholders were willing to participate. An internal draft for a federal law implementing main elements of the AkEnd findings was developed by the Ministry for Environment in 2005, but has never been brought to the cabinet. Due to the change of Government in Germany, the next steps still are

  5. Further development of public participation in the site-selection and approval process of a final repository in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, Regine; Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate; Arens, Georg

    2006-01-01

    This paper reflects the first findings of a current research project funded by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection and conducted by an interdisciplinary working group of the OEko-Institute. One focus of this project is the systematic analysis of past and existing participatory processes in different nuclear and non-nuclear projects. On the basis of this analysis and a literature review a specific concept for public participation in the site-selection and approval process of a repository for high radioactive waste (HAW repository) in Germany will be derived. The concept shall foster transparency and acceptance. The working group of the OEko-Institute combines long standing research experience and an intimate knowledge of radioactive waste management including political, technical, management and social problems of final disposal on the one hand. On the other hand members play an active role in stakeholder processes of different non-nuclear projects as well as experience with a wide range of participative measures and their impact. This allows an approach which integrates the specific features of radioactive waste disposal with a wider perspective on the demands and opportunities of stakeholder processes. The procedure of site selection for a HAW repository in Germany still has to be specified. The procedure introduced by the 'Committee on a Site Selection Procedure for Repository Sites' (Arbeitskreis Auswahlverfahren Endlagerstandorte - AkEnd) has not been adopted. The Committee had suggested installing a negotiation group to discuss the AkEnd proposals in the so called 'Phase II'. This suggestion could not be followed because not all relevant stakeholders were willing to participate. An internal draft for a federal law implementing main elements of the AkEnd findings was developed by the Ministry for Environment in 2005, but has never been brought to the cabinet. Due to the change of Government in Germany, the next steps still are under consideration

  6. Integrated account of method, site selection and programme prior to the site investigation phase[Planning for a Swedish repository for spent nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    In order to dispose of the spent nuclear fuel in a safe manner, SKB plans to site a deep repository and an encapsulation plant with associated canister fabrication and transportation system. After an integrated evaluation of feasibility studies and other material, SKB will proceed with investigations of the rock and studies regarding establishment of the deep disposal system in the municipality of Oskarshamn or in Northern Uppland. The plans also include further study of the prospects for a deep repository in the municipality of Nykoeping. In the municipality of Oskarshamn, SKB plans further studies of a siting of the deep repository at Simpevarp. There SKB wants to initiate site investigations with test drilling. For the encapsulation plant, SKB wants to continue studying a siting at CLAB. In Northern Uppland, SKB plans to study two siting alternatives for the deep repository. One is Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar, where SKB wants to initiate a site investigation with test drilling. The other is Tierp north of Skutskaer, where SKB intends to start test drilling in an area north of Tierp. First, however, a suitable drilling area with possible transport solutions needs to be defined. This alternative requires the participation of the municipalities of both Tierp and Aelvkarleby. A siting of the encapsulation plant in Northern Uppland will also be studied. For the municipality of Nykoeping, SKB plans to conduct a new safety assessment for the Fjaellveden area, based on data from previous investigations as well as additional studies of how a deep repository could be arranged. SKB will thereby gather data from yet another geographic and geological region beyond those that are prioritized. No test drilling is planned in Nykoeping. The goal of the site investigation phase is to obtain all permits needed to build the planned facilities. It will take an estimated 7 - 8 years to assemble the requisite supporting material, carry out consultations, compile siting

  7. Site characterization for hybrid system construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldana, R.; Miranda, U.; Medrano, M. C. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The basic reason to use alternative systems for electricity generation, in most cases, is the lack of electricity services, such as isolated rural communities which are located far away from the electric distribution line, and the cost of its extension is too expensive, while decentralized power systems can be an economic and appropriate solution to providing these services. Up to now there are several technological options for rural electrification using PV modules, wind plants, water-power plants, anaerobic digesters, or a combination of some of them, according to the availability of energetic resources. The applications include centralized or decentralized systems, autonomous or hybrid systems, isolated or interconnected to the electric line, etc. A particular hybrid system design can be done considering two general aspects, first it is necessary to know the electric consumption that will be supplied, taking into account present and future necessities and how local energetic resources are present in a selected site. Finally, also it is necessary to carry out an economic analysis to determine the cost of kilowatt-hour generated using local energetic resources and compare it with the cost of electricity produced by conventional power systems. [Espanol] La razon principal para el uso de sistemas alternativos de generacion de electricidad, en la mayoria de los casos, es la falta de servicios de electricidad, tal como en las comunidades rurales aisladas localizadas lejos de linea de distribucion electrica, donde el costo de su extension es demasiado caro, mientras que los sistemas descentralizados de energia pueden ser una solucion economica y adecuada para proporcionar estos servicios. Hasta ahora existen varias opciones tecnologicas para la electrificacion rural usando modulos fotovoltaicos, aerogeneradores, plantas hidroelectricas, digestores anaerobicos o una combinacion de algunos de ellos, de acuerdo con la disponibilidad de los recursos energeticos. Las

  8. Site characterization for hybrid system construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldana, R; Miranda, U; Medrano, M C [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The basic reason to use alternative systems for electricity generation, in most cases, is the lack of electricity services, such as isolated rural communities which are located far away from the electric distribution line, and the cost of its extension is too expensive, while decentralized power systems can be an economic and appropriate solution to providing these services. Up to now there are several technological options for rural electrification using PV modules, wind plants, water-power plants, anaerobic digesters, or a combination of some of them, according to the availability of energetic resources. The applications include centralized or decentralized systems, autonomous or hybrid systems, isolated or interconnected to the electric line, etc. A particular hybrid system design can be done considering two general aspects, first it is necessary to know the electric consumption that will be supplied, taking into account present and future necessities and how local energetic resources are present in a selected site. Finally, also it is necessary to carry out an economic analysis to determine the cost of kilowatt-hour generated using local energetic resources and compare it with the cost of electricity produced by conventional power systems. [Espanol] La razon principal para el uso de sistemas alternativos de generacion de electricidad, en la mayoria de los casos, es la falta de servicios de electricidad, tal como en las comunidades rurales aisladas localizadas lejos de linea de distribucion electrica, donde el costo de su extension es demasiado caro, mientras que los sistemas descentralizados de energia pueden ser una solucion economica y adecuada para proporcionar estos servicios. Hasta ahora existen varias opciones tecnologicas para la electrificacion rural usando modulos fotovoltaicos, aerogeneradores, plantas hidroelectricas, digestores anaerobicos o una combinacion de algunos de ellos, de acuerdo con la disponibilidad de los recursos energeticos. Las

  9. Sites and projects for the disposal of radioactive waste and repositories in Russia and other states of the former USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, L.; Herzog, C.

    2000-01-01

    The nuclear industry in Russia and other states of the former USSR contents the whole nuclear fuel cycle - Uranium mining, fuel element production, nuclear power and research reactors, nuclear powered ships and reprocessing of nuclear fuel. High amounts of radioactive waste are already disposed at the sites of these industrial centers and further radioactive waste is arising in production, reprocessing and decommissioning processes. Spent fuel elements are reprocessed or stored onsite. Solid and liquid wastes are disposed near surface at the sites of nuclear power plants, radiochemical plants, 'Radon'- and other sites. High volumes of high-, medium- and low-level liquid waste with high radioactivity has been injected into deep geologic formations at the sites of radiochemical plants. In Russia perspective all spent fuel elements shall be reprocessed and dry storage facilities are planned for long term storage until reprocessing. Repositories for solid waste are foreseen in deep geological formations (e.g. salt, granite) at several sites. (author)

  10. A Strategy for Describing the Biosphere at Candidate Sites for Repositories of Nuclear Waste: Linking Ecosystem and Landscape Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindborg, Tobias; Loefgren, Anders; Soederbaeck, Bjoern; Kautsky, Ulrik; Lindborg, Regina; Bradshaw, Clare

    2006-01-01

    To provide information necessary for a license application for a deep repository for spent nuclear fuel, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. has started site investigations at two sites in Sweden. In this paper, we present a strategy to integrate site-specific ecosystem data into spatially explicit models needed for safety assessment studies and the environmental impact assessment. The site-specific description of ecosystems is developed by building discipline-specific models from primary data and by identifying interactions and stocks and flows of matter among functional units at the sites. The conceptual model is a helpful initial tool for defining properties needed to quantify system processes, which may reveal new interfaces between disciplines, providing a variety of new opportunities to enhance the understanding of the linkages between ecosystem characteristics and the functional properties of landscapes. This type of integrated ecosystem-landscape characterization model has an important role in forming the implementation of a safety assessment for a deep repository

  11. Analysis on the use of engineered barriers for geologic isolation of spent fuel in a reference salt site repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloninger, M.O.; Cole, C.R.; Washburn, J.F.

    1980-12-01

    A perspective on the potential durability and effectiveness requirements for the waste form, container and other engineered barriers for geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel has been developed. This perspective is based on calculated potential doses to individuals who may be exposed to radioactivity released from a repository via a groundwater transport pathway. These potential dose commitments were calculated with an integrated geosphere transport and bioshpere transport model. A sensitivity analysis was accomplished by varying four important system parameters, namely the waste radionuclide release rate from the repository, the delay prior to groundwater contact with the waste (leach initiation), aquifer flow velocity and flow path length. The nuclide retarding capacity of the geologic media, a major determinant of the isolation effectiveness, was not varied as a parameter but was held constant for a particular reference site. This analysis is limited to looking only at engineered barriers whose net effect is either to delay groundwater contact with the waste form or to limit the rate of release of radionuclides into the groundwater once contact has occurred. The analysis considers only leach incident scenarios, including a water well intrusion into the groundwater near a repository, but does not consider other human intrusion events or catastrophic events. The analysis has so far been applied to a reference salt site repository system and conclusions are presented.Basically, in nearly all cases, the regional geology is the most effective barrier to release of radionuclides to the biosphere; however, for long-lived isotopes of carbon, technetium and iodine, which were poorly sorbed on the geologic media, the geology is not very effective once a leach incident is initiated

  12. Effects of organizational complexity and resources on construction site risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forteza, Francisco J; Carretero-Gómez, Jose M; Sesé, Albert

    2017-09-01

    Our research is aimed at studying the relationship between risk level and organizational complexity and resources on constructions sites. Our general hypothesis is that site complexity increases risk, whereas more resources of the structure decrease risk. A Structural Equation Model (SEM) approach was adopted to validate our theoretical model. To develop our study, 957 building sites in Spain were visited and assessed in 2003-2009. All needed data were obtained using a specific tool developed by the authors to assess site risk, structure and resources (Construction Sites Risk Assessment Tool, or CONSRAT). This tool operationalizes the variables to fit our model, specifically, via a site risk index (SRI) and 10 organizational variables. Our random sample is composed largely of small building sites with general high levels of risk, moderate complexity, and low resources on site. The model obtained adequate fit, and results showed empirical evidence that the factors of complexity and resources can be considered predictors of site risk level. Consequently, these results can help companies, managers of construction and regulators to identify which organizational aspects should be improved to prevent risks on sites and consequently accidents. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Association of actinides with microorganisms and clay: Implications for radionuclide migration from waste-repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuki, T.; Francis, A.; Kozai, N.; Sakamoto, F.; Ozaki, T.; Nankawa, T.; Suzuki, Y.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a series of basic studies on the microbial accumulation of actinides to elucidate their migration behavior around backfill materials used in the geological disposal of radioactive wastes. We explored the interactions of U(VI) and Pu(VI) with Bacillus subtilis, kaolinite clay, and within a mixture of the two, directly analyzing their association with the bacterium in the mixture by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The accumulation of U by the mixture rose as the numbers of B. subtilis cells increased. Treating the kaolinite with potassium acetate (CH 3 COOK) removed approximately 80% of the associated uranium while only 65% was removed in the presence of B. subtilis. TEM-EDS analysis confirmed that most of the U taken from solution was associated with B. subtilis. XANES analyses revealed that the oxidation state of uranium associated with B. subtilis, kaolinite, and with the mixture containing both was U(VI). The amount of Pu sorbed by B. subtilis increased with time, but did not reach equilibrium in 48 h; in kaolinite alone, equilibrium was attained within 8 h. After 48 h, the oxidation state of Pu in the solutions exposed to B. subtilis and to the mixture had changed to Pu(V), whereas the oxidation state of the Pu associated with both was Pu(IV). In contrast, there was no change in the oxidation state of Pu in the solution nor on kaolinite after exposure to Pu(VI). SEM-EDS analysis indicated that most of the Pu in the mixture was associated with the bacteria. These results suggest that U(VI) and Pu(VI) preferentially are sorbed to bacterial cells in the presence of kaolinite clay, and that the mechanism of accumulation of U and Pu differs. U(VI) is sorbed directly to the bacterial cells, whereas Pu(VI) first is reduced to Pu(V) and then to Pu(IV), and the latter is associated with the cells. These results have important implications on the migrations of radionuclides around the repository sites of

  14. Mapping site-based construction workers’ motivation: Expectancy theory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Ghoddousi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to apply a recently proposed model of motivation based on expectancy theory to site-based workers in the construction context and confirm the validity of this model for the construction industry. The study drew upon data from 194 site-based construction workers in Iran to test the proposed model of motivation. To this end, the structural equation modelling (SEM approach based on the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA technique was deployed. The study reveals that the proposed model of expectancy theory incorporating five indicators (i.e. intrinsic instrumentality, extrinsic instrumentality, intrinsic valence, extrinsic valence and expectancy is able to map the process of construction workers’ motivation. Nonetheless, the findings posit that intrinsic indicators could be more effective than extrinsic ones. This proffers the necessity of construction managers placing further focus on intrinsic motivators to motivate workers. 

  15. Mapping site-based construction workers’ motivation: Expectancy theory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Ghoddousi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to apply a recently proposed model of motivation based on expectancy theory to site-based workers in the construction context and confirm the validity of this model for the construction industry. The study drew upon data from 194 site-based construction workers in Iran to test the proposed model of motivation. To this end, the structural equation modelling (SEM approach based on the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA technique was deployed. The study reveals that the proposed model of expectancy theory incorporating five indicators (i.e. intrinsic instrumentality, extrinsic instrumentality, intrinsic valence, extrinsic valence and expectancy is able to map the process of construction workers’ motivation. Nonetheless, the findings posit that intrinsic indicators could be more effective than extrinsic ones. This proffers the necessity of construction managers placing further focus on intrinsic motivators to motivate workers.

  16. Estimating and coping with public response to radioactive waste repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    The siting and construction of a radioactive waste disposal operation is likely to be controversial in the communities being considered, and at the state and national levels as well. Public response can be conceptualized at two levels: individual, and group or organizational. At the individual level, public response is the behavior of people motivated by their attitudes, knowledge, and perceptions of radioactive waste and its hazards and risks. On the group or organizational level, public response is the organized activity of individuals. Organizations provide the ability to pool resources and talents, set up a division of labor, hire experts, develop a skilled leadership, take legal action, and so on. A broad range of organizations is possible: ad hoc, existing community groups with an added purpose, nationally-recognized organizations, or government offices and agencies. Two cases of response to radioactive waste disposal sites illustrate these sources and kinds of response and lead to indicators to estimate the nature and level of response. Finally, drawing from the theoretical discussion of the sources and levels of public response, on the estimation techniques, and on the examples, specific coping strategies are developed. These strategies take different forms, based on the nature and level of response (either supporting or opposing) to the proposed siting, and the past experience of the community members with similar projects, with other federal requirements, and with citizens' action groups, as well as sources and accuracy of information individuals and groups have. However, all strategies are based on a policy of honesty and straight-forwardness, with a sincere effort on the part of site evaluators and decision-makers to be attentive and responsive to the public's concerns. 10 references

  17. Accident Causal Factors on the Building Construction Sites: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opeyemi Samuel Williams

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The concerns for cost, quality and timely delivery of projects have been in existence from time immemorial, whereas the passion for these should be extended to safe execution of site works by the construction participants, as safety of life is very paramount. However, high level of commitment that is essential for the safe execution of site works has become a taboo. Hence, a plethora of accidents takes place on the site ranging from falls from height, contact with working tools, vehicle-related, slip and trip, collapse, exposure to harmful substances, to lifting and handling object accidents. It is pertinent to know that, responsibility for accidents on site cuts across all project participants (clients, consultants, contractors, workers, as well as the construction site environment. Recognition of the construction participants and site environmental factors as agents of accident is the focus of this research. Through extensive review of literature, a copious number of factors were identified and subsequently grouped under five factors as client-related, consultant-related, contractor-related, construction workers-related, and construction site-related. However, there has been a dearth of research in the grouping of accident contributing factors. The identification and understanding of these factors will go a long way in mitigating construction accidents, coupled with proven measures taken in positively addressing them. Efforts to prevent these causative factors include inter alia elimination of hazards from design, effective safety management, adequate planning of activities and employment of seasoned professionals by the client. The contractors are to embark on staff safety auditing, set up safety committees, conduct regular training for staff, use innovative technology, uphold housekeeping and report accident occurrence, while strict adherence to safety regulations must be adopted by all construction operatives.

  18. SKI's and SSI's experiences from their participation in the siting of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerlind, M.; Hedberg, B.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarises some experiences gained by the SKI and SSI during the ongoing process for siting a final repository for spent nuclear fuel. The focus is on activities in the municipalities involved in the siting process. In order to give the proper context some basic elements in the legislation, which are important for public participation and confidence in the siting process, are outlined. The importance of clearly defined responsibilities and early participation of the regulators in the siting process are emphasised. It should be pointed out that this paper is not a comprehensive review of the Swedish situation but only contains a few selected issues and personal remarks from the authors. Thus, the views and opinions do not necessarily coincide with those of SKI and SSI. (authors)

  19. Scenarios constructed for the effects of tectonic processes on the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, G.E.; Borns, D.J.; Fridrich, C.

    1996-10-01

    A comprehensive collection of scenarios is presented that connect initiating tectonic events with radionuclide releases by logical and physically possible combinations or sequences of features, events and processes. The initiating tectonic events include both discrete faulting and distributed rock deformation developed through the repository and adjacent to it, as well as earthquake-induced ground motion and changes in tectonic stress at the site. The effects of these tectonic events include impacts on the engineered-barrier system, such as container rupture and failure of repository tunnels. These effects also include a wide range of hydrologic effects such as changes in pathways and flow rates in the unsaturated and saturated zones, changes in the water-table configuration, and in the development of perched-water systems. These scenarios are intended go guide performance-assessment analyses and to assist principal investigators in how essential field, laboratory, and calculational studies are used. This suite of scenarios will help ensure that all important aspects of the system disturbance related to a tectonic scenario are captured in numerical analyses. It also provides a record of all options considered by project analysts to provide documentation required for licensing agreement. The final portion of this report discusses issues remaining to be addressed with respect to tectonic activity. 105 refs

  20. Nucleic acid constructs containing orthogonal site selective recombinases (OSSRs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, Joshua M.; Anderson, J. Christopher; Dueber, John E.

    2017-08-29

    The present invention provides for a recombinant nucleic acid comprising a nucleotide sequence comprising a plurality of constructs, wherein each construct independently comprises a nucleotide sequence of interest flanked by a pair of recombinase recognition sequences. Each pair of recombinase recognition sequences is recognized by a distinct recombinase. Optionally, each construct can, independently, further comprise one or more genes encoding a recombinase capable of recognizing the pair of recombinase recognition sequences of the construct. The recombinase can be an orthogonal (non-cross reacting), site-selective recombinase (OSSR).

  1. National survey of crystalline rocks and recommendations of regions to be explored for high-level radioactive waste repository sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smedes, H.W.

    1983-04-01

    A reconnaissance of the geological literature on large regions of exposed crystalline rocks in the United States provides the basis for evaluating if any of those regions warrant further exploration toward identifying potential sites for development of a high-level radioactive waste repository. The reconnaissance does not serve as a detailed evaluation of regions or of any smaller subunits within the regions. Site performance criteria were selected and applied insofar as a national data base exists, and guidelines were adopted that relate the data to those criteria. The criteria include consideration of size, vertical movements, faulting, earthquakes, seismically induced ground motion, Quaternary volcanic rocks, mineral deposits, high-temperature convective ground-water systems, hydraulic gradients, and erosion. Brief summaries of each major region of exposed crystalline rock, and national maps of relevant data provided the means for applying the guidelines and for recommending regions for further study. It is concluded that there is a reasonable likelihood that geologically suitable repository sites exist in each of the major regions of crystalline rocks. The recommendation is made that further studies first be conducted of the Lake Superior, Northern Appalachian and Adirondack, and the Southern Appalachian Regions. It is believed that those regions could be explored more effectively and suitable sites probably could be found, characterized, verified, and licensed more readily there than in the other regions

  2. Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; proposed general guidelines for recommendation of sites for nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    In accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (Pub. L. 97-425), hereinafter referred to as the Act, the Department of Energy is proposing general guidelines for the recommendation of sites for repositories for disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in geologic formations. These guidelines are based on the criteria that the Department has used in its National Waste Terminal Storage program, the criteria proposed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the environmental standards proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency. These guidelines establish the performance requirements for a geologic repository system, specify how the Department will implement its site-selection program, and define the technical qualifications that candidate sites must meet in the various steps of the site-selection process mandated by the Act. After considering comments from the public; consulting with the Council on Environmental Quality, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Director of the Geological Survey, and interested Governors; and obtaining NRC concurrence, the Department will issue these guidelines in final form as a new Part 960 to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 960)

  3. Development of an Integrated Natural Barrier Database System for Site Evaluation of a Deep Geologic Repository in Korea - 13527

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Haeryong; Lee, Eunyong; Jeong, YiYeong; Lee, Jeong-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Korea Radioactive-waste Management Corporation (KRMC) established in 2009 has started a new project to collect information on long-term stability of deep geological environments on the Korean Peninsula. The information has been built up in the integrated natural barrier database system available on web (www.deepgeodisposal.kr). The database system also includes socially and economically important information, such as land use, mining area, natural conservation area, population density, and industrial complex, because some of this information is used as exclusionary criteria during the site selection process for a deep geological repository for safe and secure containment and isolation of spent nuclear fuel and other long-lived radioactive waste in Korea. Although the official site selection process has not been started yet in Korea, current integrated natural barrier database system and socio-economic database is believed that the database system will be effectively utilized to narrow down the number of sites where future investigation is most promising in the site selection process for a deep geological repository and to enhance public acceptance by providing readily-available relevant scientific information on deep geological environments in Korea. (authors)

  4. National survey of crystalline rocks and recommendations of regions to be explored for high-level radioactive waste repository sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedes, H.W.

    1983-04-01

    A reconnaissance of the geological literature on large regions of exposed crystalline rocks in the United States provides the basis for evaluating if any of those regions warrant further exploration toward identifying potential sites for development of a high-level radioactive waste repository. The reconnaissance does not serve as a detailed evaluation of regions or of any smaller subunits within the regions. Site performance criteria were selected and applied insofar as a national data base exists, and guidelines were adopted that relate the data to those criteria. The criteria include consideration of size, vertical movements, faulting, earthquakes, seismically induced ground motion, Quaternary volcanic rocks, mineral deposits, high-temperature convective ground-water systems, hydraulic gradients, and erosion. Brief summaries of each major region of exposed crystalline rock, and national maps of relevant data provided the means for applying the guidelines and for recommending regions for further study. It is concluded that there is a reasonable likelihood that geologically suitable repository sites exist in each of the major regions of crystalline rocks. The recommendation is made that further studies first be conducted of the Lake Superior, Northern Appalachian and Adirondack, and the Southern Appalachian Regions. It is believed that those regions could be explored more effectively and suitable sites probably could be found, characterized, verified, and licensed more readily there than in the other regions.

  5. Implementation of hearings in the Swedish process for siting a spent nuclear fuel repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerlind, Magnus; Wiklund, Aasa

    2001-01-01

    treat all types of questions with equal, non-judgmental interest; Working groups to formulate questions gave the participants time for reflection and discussions without dominance by e.g. the implementer or the authorities. It is likely that many participants appreciated the possibility to be anonymous and channel questions through the moderators; Well defined scope of the hearings developed in dialogue with the municipalities; It was clear that the authorities were the owners of the hearings and that the outcome would be included in their review of SKB's programme; The early involvement of the municipalities in the planning process was essential since the hearings were held in the areas proposed for site investigations. In the further development of hearings in the Swedish nuclear waste programme a number of issues will have to be considered. The now completed hearings were essentially based on the public's questions and concerns. In the future it may be considered to also arrange hearings on an 'expert level'. It should however be kept in mind that the municipalities are experts on local conditions and must be involved since the immediate impact of a repository is local. It could also be advantageous to have hearings in two phases. The first phase should then be focussed on the implementer, e.g. on material submitted to the authorities for review. In this phase the authorities should present criteria for the review. Following this hearing the authorities should review the implementers material and present a preliminary review report. The second phase of hearings should then focus on the authorities' review report and possible supplementing submissions from the implementer. It is believed that this could be particular relevant in situations where important municipal decisions are to be made. Another and perhaps the most challenging issue, which is not unique to nuclear waste management, is how to involve the public and concerned citizens in hearings and decision making

  6. Heat propagation in and around the deep repository. Thermal calculations applied to three hypothetical sites: Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageskog, L.; Jansson, Patrik

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate the modelling of the thermal process in and around the deep repository for spent fuel. The model was developed in the general finite element program ANSYS and applied to the three hypothetical sites Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg included in the SR 97 analyse system. The canister emplacement in the repository was analysed based on certain criteria regarding the temperature on the canister surface. This was done with consideration to natural deviations in various thermal parameters as well as to the risk of a gap opening up between the canister surface and the bentonite buffer. The consequence of the latter was analysed separately as part of the study. The heat load in the model was applied stepwise, following an assumed time schedule for the actual deposition work. The calculations were extended to 1,000 years after the commencement of the deposition work. The outcome of the calculation is presented as coloured prints of isotherms in and around the repository at certain time intervals

  7. Preliminary thermal/thermomechanical analyses of the Site Characterization Plan's Conceptual Design for a repository containing horizontally emplaced waste packages at the Deaf Smith County site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghantous, N.Y.; Raines, G.E.

    1987-10-01

    This report presents thermal/thermomechanical analyses of the Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design for horizontal package emplacement at the Deaf Smith County site, Texas. The repository was divided into three geometric regions. Then two-dimensional finite-element models were set up to approximate the three-dimensional nature of each region. Thermal and quasistatic thermomechanical finite-element analyses were performed to evaluate the thermal/thermomechanical responses of the three regions. The exponential-time creep law was used to represent the creep behavior of salt rock. The repository design was evaluated by comparing the thermal/thermomechanical responses obtained for the three regions with interim performance constraints. The preliminary results show that all the performance constraints are met except for those of the waste package. The following factors were considered in interpreting these results: (1) the qualitative description of the analytical responses; (2) the limitations of the analyses; and (3) either the conclusions based on overall evaluation of limitations and analytical results or the conclusions based on the fact that the repository design may be evaluated only after further analyses. Furthermore, a parametric analysis was performed to estimate the effect of material parameters on the predicted thermal/thermomechanical response. 23 refs., 34 figs., 9 tabs

  8. The procedure of alternative site selection within the report of the study group on the radioactive waste final repository selection process (AKEnd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nies, A.

    2005-01-01

    The study group on the selection procedures of radioactive waste final repository sites has presented the report in December 2002. The author dicusses the consequences of this report with respect to the site selection focussing on two topics: the serach for the best possible site and the prevention of prejudices

  9. Feasibility study for siting of a deep repository within the Malaa municipality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Factors of importance for localizing a deep nuclear waste repository at Malaa in northern Sweden are analyzed in this study. The geologic structures of the area have been reviewed, using mostly data from published studies. Existing infrastructure and necessary improvements are discussed, as well as land use, environment, employment and other social effects. (This report is almost identical to the report NEI-SE--222, referred to in INIS 27:12 (AN: 27-040802)). 47 refs, 41 figs, 8 tabs.

  10. Feasibility study for siting of a deep repository within the Malaa municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    Factors of importance for localizing a deep nuclear waste repository at Malaa in northern Sweden are analyzed in this study. The geologic structures of the area have been reviewed, using mostly data from published studies. Existing infrastructure and necessary improvements are discussed, as well as land use, environment, employment and other social effects. (This report is almost identical to the report NEI-SE--222, referred to in INIS 27:12 (AN: 27-040802))

  11. Modelling of the near-field chemistry of the SMA repository at the Wellenberg site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neall, F.B.

    1994-09-01

    Of the materials which make up the L/ILW repository for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes, around 95 weight percent consists of concrete, around 4% of steel and around 1% of high molecular weight organic waste components. In this report, models are used to evaluate the long-term stability of concrete, steel and high molecular weight organic components under repository conditions. The results of this study will then form the basis for describing release of radionuclides from the disposal caverns, and particularly the sorption of nuclides on concrete. In the disposal caverns, concrete is exposed to a range of processes which affect its stability. External processes include the leaching of hydrated cement by percolating groundwater, while internal processes include dissolution of repository components in cement porewater which can then react with the concrete. Of greatest significance in this respect are the high molecular weight organic waste components which degrade to organic acids in the disposal environment and then react with the basic components of the concrete. The leaching of hydrated cement is described, using a mixing tank model, as a sequence of batch experiments in which the same cement block reacts repeatedly with fresh groundwater. The model is based on the work by Berner (1990) but has been extended to include other solid cement phases and can, in a simple way, take account of the degradation of high molecular weight organics and their reaction with hydrated cement. The mixing tank model shows that, given the low water fluxes that are expected for a L/ILW repository, concrete remains stable over geological time spans provided only small volumes of high molecular organics are present. If high concentrations of these materials ar present, the longevity of the concrete may be reduced. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  12. Mechanisation and automation technologies development in work at construction sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotka, A.; Pacewicz, K.

    2017-10-01

    Implementing construction work that creates buildings is a very complicated and laborious task and requires the use of various types of machines and equipment. For years there has been a desire for designers and technologists to introduce devices that replace people’s work on machine construction, automation and even robots. Technologies for building construction are still being developed and implemented to limit people’s hard work and improve work efficiency and quality in innovative architectonical and construction solutions. New opportunities for improving work on the construction site include computerisation of technological processes and construction management for projects and processes. The aim of the paper was to analyse the development of mechanisation, automation and computerisation of construction processes and selected building technologies, with special attention paid to 3D printing technology. The state of mechanisation of construction works in Poland and trends in its development in construction technologies are presented. These studies were conducted on the basis of the available literature and a survey of Polish construction companies.

  13. Process for selecting a site for Canada's deep geological repository for used nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facella, J.; Ben Belfadhel, M.; Patton, P.

    2012-01-01

    'Full Text:' The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management, the approach selected by the Government of Canada for long-term management of used nuclear fuel waste generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. The ultimate objective of Adaptive Phased Management is the centralized containment and isolation of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository in a suitable crystalline or sedimentary rock formation at a depth of about 500m. The repository will consist of a series of access and service shafts and a series of tunnels leading to placement rooms where used fuel will be placed and sealed in competent rock using a multi-barrier system which includes long lived specially designed containers, sealing materials such as bentonite and the rock itself. The used fuel will be monitored throughout all phases of implementation and will also remain retrievable for an extended period of time. In May 2010, the NWMO published the site selection process that serves as the road map to decision-making on the location for the deep geological repository. NWMO initiated the process with a first stage that invites communities to learn more about the project and the site selection process. NWMO is actively building awareness of the project and, on request of communities, is delivering briefings, supporting community capacity building and undertaking screenings of site suitability. This panel presentation provides a brief description of: Adaptive Phased Management including the deep geological repository which is its ultimate goal, and the design of the site selection process, and importantly the approach to assessing the suitability of sites from both a social and technical perspective. The panel presentation will be conducted in three parts: site selection process and engagement, Aboriginal engagement and Technical evaluations, followed by a discussion. The presentation will outline how NWMO sought

  14. Management of scientific and engineering data collected during site characterization of a potential high-level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newbury, C.M.; Heitland, G.W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the characterization of Yucca Mountain as a potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository encompasses many diverse investigations to determine the nature of the site. Laboratory and on-site investigations are being conducted of the geology, hydrology, mineralogy, paleoclimate, geotechnical properties, and past use of the area, to name a few. Effective use of the data from these investigations requires development of a system for the collection, storage, and dissemination of those scientific and engineering data needed to support model development, design, and performance assessment. The time and budgetary constraints associated with this project make sharing of technical data within the geoscience community absolutely critical to the successful solution of the complex scientific problem challenging us

  15. Construction Site Workers’ Awareness on Using Safety Equipment: Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulang N. Md

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction sector is an important sector and contributed significantly to national development. However, this sector poses higher risk to accident. This is due to fact that construction site can be considered as a dangerous zone to workers and to the public. Due to the variety of cases occurs on site, the contractor will usually have to pay the cost related to accidents in the form of higher insurance premium. Despite various measures, accidents still occur at construction sites. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE is one of the important means to protect the wearer from hazards in the workplace. Since this equipment is the last frontier of the wearer from worksite hazards, it is important to select it based on the job scope and the intended protection. Therefore, this study was formulated to find out the level of knowledge and awareness of construction workers on PPE usage. It was also important to know what make the workers would want or do not want to use the PPE. It was found in this study that the level of awareness and knowledge among workers on the proper use of PPE is moderate. Construction sites accident can be further be reduced with proper implementation of PPE voluntarily by all workers.

  16. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Excavation on Residential Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Forsythe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable research concerning the manifestation of greenhouse gases in the usage of buildings, little has been done concerning emissions arising from the construction process itself. This paper specifically examines emissions arising from cut and fill excavation on residential construction sites. Even though such excavation is often seen as being economical in terms of providing a flat base for concrete raft slab construction, the environmental consequences of this approach need to be considered more fully in terms of impact on the environment. This is particularly important when steeply sloping sites are involved and for different soil types. The paper undertakes a study that quantitatively assesses the cumulative greenhouse gas emissions caused by cut and fill excavation on 52 residential projects in Australia for a range of slope and soil types. The paper presents results from the study and concludes that greenhouse gas emissions increase as site slope increases; the building footprint area (as distinct from Gross Floor Area, exposes the need to reduce the area of the building to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; excavation of rock soils creates higher emissions than other soil types; and cut and fill excavation on steeply slope sites increase emissions. Potential alternative construction includes suspended floor construction systems which involve less excavation.

  17. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Excavation on Residential Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Forsythe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable research concerning the manifestation of greenhouse gases in the usage of buildings, little has been done concerning emissions arising from the construction process itself. This paper specifically examines emissions arising from cut and fill excavation on residential construction sites. Even though such excavation is often seen as being economical in terms of providing a flat base for concrete raft slab construction, the environmental consequences of this approach need to be considered more fully in terms of impact on the environment. This is particularly important when steeply sloping sites are involved and for different soil types. The paper undertakes a study that quantitatively assesses the cumulative greenhouse gas emissions caused by cut and fill excavation on 52 residential projects in Australia for a range of slope and soil types. The paper presents results from the study and concludes that greenhouse gas emissions increase as site slope increases; the building footprint area (as distinct from Gross Floor Area, exposes the need to reduce the area of the building to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; excavation of rock soils creates higher emissions than other soil types; and cut and fill excavation on steeply slope sites increase emissions. Potential alternative construction includes suspended floor construction systems which involve less excavation. 

  18. Coupling Legacy and Contemporary Deterministic Codes to Goldsim for Probabilistic Assessments of Potential Low-Level Waste Repository Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattie, P. D.; Knowlton, R. G.; Arnold, B. W.; Tien, N.; Kuo, M.

    2006-12-01

    project between Sandia National Laboratories and Taiwan's Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) for the preliminary assessment of several candidate low-level waste repository sites. Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE AC04 94AL85000.

  19. Event-based soil loss models for construction sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenouth, William R.; Gharabaghi, Bahram

    2015-05-01

    The elevated rates of soil erosion stemming from land clearing and grading activities during urban development, can result in excessive amounts of eroded sediments entering waterways and causing harm to the biota living therein. However, construction site event-based soil loss simulations - required for reliable design of erosion and sediment controls - are one of the most uncertain types of hydrologic models. This study presents models with improved degree of accuracy to advance the design of erosion and sediment controls for construction sites. The new models are developed using multiple linear regression (MLR) on event-based permutations of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and artificial neural networks (ANN). These models were developed using surface runoff monitoring datasets obtained from three sites - Greensborough, Cookstown, and Alcona - in Ontario and datasets mined from the literature for three additional sites - Treynor, Iowa, Coshocton, Ohio and Cordoba, Spain. The predictive MLR and ANN models can serve as both diagnostic and design tools for the effective sizing of erosion and sediment controls on active construction sites, and can be used for dynamic scenario forecasting when considering rapidly changing land use conditions during various phases of construction.

  20. A first look at roadheader construction and estimating techniques for site characterization at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neil, D.M.; Taylor, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site characterization program will be based on mechanical excavation techniques for the mined repository construction and development. Tunnel Boring Machines (TBM's), Mobile Miners (MM), Raiseborers (RB), Blind Hole Shaft Boring Machines (BHSB), and Roadheaders (RH) have been selected as the mechanical excavation machines most suited to mine the densely welded and non-welded tuffs of the Topopah Springs and Calico Hills members. Heavy duty RH in the 70 to 100 ton class with 300 Kw cutter motors have been evaluated and formulas developed to predict machine performance based on the rock physical properties and the results of Linear Cutting Machine (LCM) tests done at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) for Sandia National Labs. (SNL)

  1. Use of an analog site near Raymond, California, to develop equipment and methods for characterizing a potential high-level, nuclear waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umari, A.M.J.; Geldon, A.; Patterson, G.; Gemmell, J.; Earle, J.; Darnell, J.

    1994-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, currently is being investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey as a potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. Planned hydraulic-stress and tracer tests in fractured, tuffaceous rocks below the water table at Yucca Mountain will require work at depths in excess of 1,300 feet. To facilitate prototype testing of equipment and methods to be used in aquifer tests at Yucca Mountain, an analog site was selected in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada near Raymond, California. Two of nine 250- to 300-feet deep wells drilled into fractured, granitic rocks at the Raymond site have been instrumented with packers, pressure transducers, and other equipment that will be used at Yucca Mountain. Aquifer tests conducted at the Raymond site to date have demonstrated a need to modify some of the equipment and methods conceived for use at Yucca Mountain

  2. Causes of Fall Hazards in Construction Site Management

    OpenAIRE

    Liy, Chong Hui; Ibrahim, Siti Halipah; Affandi, Rohaida; Rosli, Nor Azalina; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Statistics from Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 has shown that the number of fatality in the construction industry is 5 times more than in other sectors. The total fatalities in construction are 796 in year 2013 and out of this 796, there were 294 fall fatalities. Hence, there is an urgent need to mitigate this problem. A study has been conducted to investigate the root causes of fall hazards in construction site. Therefore, this paper is intended to identify and highlights the types ...

  3. Effectiveness of Practicing Supply Chain Management in Construction Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamter S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction Supply chain management comprised of the network of organization involved in the different processes and activities which produce the material, components and services that come together to design, procurement and deliver a building. It also consists of different organizations involved in the construction process including client/owner, designer, contractor, subcontractor and suppliers. This paper shall present on the implementation of supply chain management in construction and the effectiveness of practicing SCM in construction site. A field study is done from the viewpoint of contractor and consultant then analysed by using average index methods and presented in a statistical analysis. From the analysis, it reveals that effectiveness of practicing the SCM give a lot of good performances and granted benefits to contractor. The statistical analysis produced first ranking effectiveness of SCM is can minimize waste of material and labor for construction project.

  4. Report of the Peer Review Panel on the early site suitability evaluation of the Potential Repository Site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Yucca mountain Site Characterization Project Office (YMPO) assigned Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), the Technical and Management Support Services (T ampersand MSS) contractor to the YmPo, the task of conducting an Early Site Suitability Evaluation (ESSE) of the Yucca mountain site as a potential site for a high-level radioactive waste repository. First, the assignment called for the development of a method to evaluate a single site against the DOE General Guidelines for Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories, 10 CFR Part 960. Then, using this method, an evaluation team, the ESSE Core Team, of senior YMP scientists, engineers, and technical experts, evaluated new information obtained about the site since publication of the final Environmental Assessment (DOE, 1986) to determine if new suitability/unsuitability findings could be recommended. Finally, the Core Team identified further information and analyses needed to make final determinations for each of the guidelines. As part of the task, an independent peer review of the ESSE report has been conducted. Expertise was solicited that covered the entire spectrum of siting guidelines in 10 CFR Part 960 in order to provide a complete, in-depth critical review of the data evaluated and cited in the ESSE report, the methods used to evaluate the data, and the conclusions and recommendations offered by the report. Fourteen nationally recognized technical experts (Table 2) served on the Peer Review Panel. The comments from the Panel and the responses prepared by the ESSE Core Team, documented on formal Comment Response Forms, constitute the body of this document

  5. Review of Underground Construction Methods and Opening Stability for Repositories in Clay/Shale Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report reviews the art and practice of excavating and constructing underground facilities in clay/shale media, as part of a multi-year evaluation of the technical feasibility of direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in dual-purpose canisters (DPCs). The purpose is to review worldwide examples of large-scale excavations in clay/shale media, the methods used for excavation and constructi on, and the costs. It is anticipated that this information will help to show the feasibility of construction for a deep geologic respository for (on the order of) 10,000 large, heavy, heat-generating waste packages. This report will refine the clay/shale disposal concept for DPC -based waste packages, in support of future studies that include cost estimation.

  6. A novel methodology to estimate the evolution of construction waste in construction sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Amnon; Baum, Hadassa

    2011-02-01

    This paper focuses on the accumulation of construction waste generated throughout the erection of new residential buildings. A special methodology was developed in order to provide a model that will predict the flow of construction waste. The amount of waste and its constituents, produced on 10 relatively large construction sites (7000-32,000 m(2) of built area) was monitored periodically for a limited time. A model that predicts the accumulation of construction waste was developed based on these field observations. According to the model, waste accumulates in an exponential manner, i.e. smaller amounts are generated during the early stages of construction and increasing amounts are generated towards the end of the project. The total amount of waste from these sites was estimated at 0.2m(3) per 1m(2) floor area. A good correlation was found between the model predictions and actual data from the field survey. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Design options for HLW repository operation technology. (4) Shotclay technique for seamless construction of EBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Ichizo; Fujisawa, Soh; Nakajima, Makoto; Toida, Masaru; Nakashima, Hitoshi; Asano, Hidekazu

    2011-01-01

    The shotclay method is construction method of the high density bentonite engineered barrier by spraying method. Using this method, the dry density of 1.6 Mg/m 3 , which was considered impossible with the spray method, is achieved. In this study, the applicability of the shotclay method to HLW bentonite-engineered barriers was confirmed experimentally. In the tests, an actual scale vertical-type HLW bentonite-engineered barrier was constructed. This was a bentonite-engineered barrier with a diameter of 2.22 m and a height of 3.13 m. The material used was bentonite with 30% silica sand, and water content was adjusted by mixing chilled bentonite with powdered ice before thawing. Work progress was 11.2 m 3 and the weight was 21.7 Mg. The dry density of the entire buffer was 1.62 Mg/m 3 , and construction time was approximately 8 hours per unit. After the formworks were removed, the core and block of the actual scale HLW bentonite-engineered barrier were sampled to confirm homogeneity. As a result, homogeneity was confirmed, and no gaps were observed between the formwork and the buffer material and between the simulated waste and the buffer material. The applicability to HLW of the shotclay method has been confirmed through this examination. (author)

  8. Preliminary site description Laxemar stage 2.1. Feedback for completion of the site investigation including input from safety assessment and repository engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-09-15

    The Laxemar subarea is the focus for the complete site investigations in the Simpevarp area. The south and southwestern parts of the subarea (the so-called 'focused area') have been designated for focused studies during the remainder of the site investigations. This area, some 5.3 square kilometres in size, is characterised on the surface by an arc shaped body of quartz monzodiorite gently dipping to the north, flanked in the north and south by Aevroe granite. The current report documents work conducted during stage 2.1 of the site-descriptive modelling of the Laxemar subarea. The primary objective of the work performed is to provide feedback to the site investigations at Laxemar to ensure that adequate and timely data and information are obtained during the remaining investigation stage. The work has been conducted in cooperation with the site investigation team at Laxemar and representatives from safety assessment and repository engineering. The principal aim of this joint effort has been to safeguard that adequate data are collected that resolve the remaining issues/uncertainties which are of importance for repository layout and long-term safety. The proposed additional works presented in this report should be regarded as recommended additions and/or modifications in relation to the CSI programme published early 2006. The overall conclusion of the discipline-wise review of critical issues is that the CSI programme overall satisfies the demands to resolve the remaining uncertainties. This is interpreted to be partly a result of the close interaction between the site modelling team, site investigation team and the repository engineering teams, which has been in operation since early 2005. In summary, the performed interpretations and modelling have overall confirmed the version 1.2 results. The exception being Hydrogeology where the new Laxemar 2.1 borehole data suggest more favourable conditions in the south and west parts of the focused area compared

  9. Preliminary site description Laxemar stage 2.1. Feedback for completion of the site investigation including input from safety assessment and repository engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-09-01

    The Laxemar subarea is the focus for the complete site investigations in the Simpevarp area. The south and southwestern parts of the subarea (the so-called 'focused area') have been designated for focused studies during the remainder of the site investigations. This area, some 5.3 square kilometres in size, is characterised on the surface by an arc shaped body of quartz monzodiorite gently dipping to the north, flanked in the north and south by Aevroe granite. The current report documents work conducted during stage 2.1 of the site-descriptive modelling of the Laxemar subarea. The primary objective of the work performed is to provide feedback to the site investigations at Laxemar to ensure that adequate and timely data and information are obtained during the remaining investigation stage. The work has been conducted in cooperation with the site investigation team at Laxemar and representatives from safety assessment and repository engineering. The principal aim of this joint effort has been to safeguard that adequate data are collected that resolve the remaining issues/uncertainties which are of importance for repository layout and long-term safety. The proposed additional works presented in this report should be regarded as recommended additions and/or modifications in relation to the CSI programme published early 2006. The overall conclusion of the discipline-wise review of critical issues is that the CSI programme overall satisfies the demands to resolve the remaining uncertainties. This is interpreted to be partly a result of the close interaction between the site modelling team, site investigation team and the repository engineering teams, which has been in operation since early 2005. In summary, the performed interpretations and modelling have overall confirmed the version 1.2 results. The exception being Hydrogeology where the new Laxemar 2.1 borehole data suggest more favourable conditions in the south and west parts of the focused area compared with the

  10. Microbiologically mediated processes in a repository sited in a clay host rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwyn, B.; Leupin, O. X.; Bagnoud, A.; Bernier-Latmani, R.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Because of their favourable retention properties for radionuclides, clay-rich sediments are being considered in Switzerland as host rocks for the geological disposal of high, intermediate- and low-level radioactive waste. Compacted bentonite is foreseen as backfill material in the high level waste repository whereas for intermediate- and low-level waste the near field will mainly consist of cementitious material. The evolution of both types of repositories, which includes re-saturation, heat generation (only high level waste), near field degradation, gas production and radionuclide release may be impacted by microbial activity and vice versa. In this respect questions arise such as: - Are microorganisms present in a repository and its host rock? - Under which condition are microorganisms active in and around a repository? - In which processes are microorganisms involved? Various in situ experiments in a wide range of geological environments have evidenced the presence of microorganisms. Whether the microorganisms found in these in situ experiments are indigenous or introduced by drilling or/and excavation activities is still controversial. However, recent findings suggest the presence of indigenous microorganisms in Opalinus Clay. To conclusively answer the question about the origin of microorganisms, an international investigation programme has been launched to probe rock samples from the Underground Rock Laboratory at Mont Terri. So far, no metabolic activity has been observed in undisturbed clay rocks. Such activity may have ceased during diagenetic compaction of the sediment as suggested by the pore water composition measured in the Callovian-Oxfordian clayey formation of Bure (France). For the safety case of a repository the origin of microorganisms is of minor importance compared to the understanding of the conditions under which they might be metabolically active. Pore size distribution and connectivity can

  11. Long term effects on potential repository sites: the alteration of the Lower Oxford Clay during weathering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milowdowski, A.E.; Bloodworth, A.J.; Wilmot, R.D.

    1985-09-01

    The report is one of a short series describing work carried out to investigate the long-term effects of various geological processes on the performance of both shallow and deep repositories for low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. This paper deals with the alteration as a result of weathering of the Lower Oxford Clay, a potential host rock for shallow disposal of wastes. A description of the Lower Oxford Clay is given, along with the weathering of argillaceous rocks. Investigations of the weathering at the Elstow Storage Depot are described, as well as the implications for radioactive waste disposal. (U.K.)

  12. How many geologic repositories will be needed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.J.; Halstead, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    DOE's postponement of site-specific work on the second repository program had rekindled debate over the number of geologic repositories needed for disposal of high level radioactive waste. The multiple repository approach grew out of the March, 1979 IRG report, which recommended co-disposal of civilian and defense HLW in a system of regional repositories. The multiple repository approach was adopted by DOE, and incorporated in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act passed by Congress in December, 1982. Since the late 1970's, the slower than anticipated growth of the nuclear power industry has substantially reduced earlier estimates of the amount of civilian spent fuel which will require geologic disposal. Reactors currently in operation (78.5 GWe) and reactors in the construction pipeline (28 GWe) are expected to discharge about 103,200 MTU of spent fuel by the year 2036, assuming no increase in fuel burnup rate. By the year 2020, defense high level radioactive wastes equivalent to as much as 27,000 MTU could require geologic disposal. Small amounts of high level waste from other sources will also require geologic disposal. Total disposal requirements appear to be less than 140,000 MTU. The five sites nominated for the first repository, as well as hypothetical sites in granite, the host rock under primary consideration for the second repository, all appear capable of accommodating up to 140,000 MTU

  13. Quality assurance during site construction of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides requirements and recommendations related to the establishment and implementation of a quality assurance programme for the site construction activities at nuclear power plants. These include activities such as fabricating, erecting, installing, handling, storing, cleaning, flushing, inspecting, testing, modifying, repairing, and maintaining

  14. ANAEROBIC COMPOST CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY - SITE ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Fall 1994, anaerobic compost wetlands in both upflow and downflow configurations were constructed adjacent to and received drainage from the Burleigh Tunnel, which forms part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund site. The systems were operated over a 3 year period. The e...

  15. ANAEROBIC COMPOST CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY - SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE

    Science.gov (United States)

    In fall 1994, anaerobic compost wetlands in both upflow and down flow configurations were constructed adjacent to and received drainage from the Burleigh tunnel, which forms part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund site. The systems were operated over a 3 year period. The ...

  16. Proposed genetic algorithms for construction site lay out

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mawdesley, Michael J.; Al-Jibouri, Saad H.S.

    2003-01-01

    The positioning of temporary facilities on a construction site is an area of research which has been recognised as important but which has received relatively little attention. In this paper, a genetic algorithm is proposed to solve the problem in which m facilities are to be positioned to n

  17. The situation on the site of closed Maisiagala repository. Modelling and measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazeika, J.; Baltrunas, D.; Butkus, D.; Duskesas, G.; Remeikis, V.

    2001-01-01

    The safety of RADON type RMI disposal facility was investigated by means of the computer modelling and by measurements of concentrations of radionuclides in the water samples taken from the control wells. The repository was built on the top of the sandy hill in 1963. The dimensions of the monolithic reinforced concrete vault are 5 m x 15 m x 3 m, the thickness of the sidewalls is about 0.25 m and the thickness of the bottom is about 0.2 m. The sidewalls are covered from inside and outside with cement and sodium aluminate coatings 0.02 m thick. From outside they were also covered with two layers of hot bitumen. The bottom of the vault is covered with bitumen and two layers of rubberoid. During the exploitation time the vault was filled with radioactive waste (in a chaotic way and sources were buried together with their biological shielding). In the course of burial radioactive waste was constantly interlaid with concrete. When the disposal facility was closed in 1988 only three fifths of its volume was filled; the total activity of 3 H, 239 Pu and Pu-Be neutron sources was 4.18 10 15 Bq, 2.4 10 11 Bq, and 12.5 10 9 n/s, respectively (according the documentation). Empty two fifths of the vault was filled with concrete, then with sand, then with the concrete (0.01 m), hot bitumen and the 0.05 m asphalt layers. Monolithic concrete that was covered with bitumen and 0.05 m thick layer of asphalt closed the vault. Sand layer the thickness of which was not less than 1.2 m formed the cap. Four wells - one on each side - near the repository and four wells in the anticipated direction of ground water flow were drilled with the purpose to control the radiological situation around the repository. The volume activity of 3 H in the wells was measured with the liquid scintillator detector Tri-Carb. The highest volume activity was found in the same nearest well in all years with the exception of the year 2000. The activity of other radionuclides was measured with the Canberra

  18. Can multi-criteria analysis models support the site selection for a repository for heat-generating waste?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutberlet, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The decision for or against a potential site for a nuclear waste repository is highly complex and requires decision-makers to consider multiple assessment criteria. The complexity of each site and its characteristics, and the differing opinions among members of the public and advocacy groups mean t hat conflicts of interest are likely to arise. In this paper, the author suggests that multi-criteria analysis models could be used to provide methodological support during the selection process. The models can map these types of decision situations and suggest coherent solutions with relatively little formal effort. They allow users to compare different opt ions simultaneously and ensure that t heir decision-making Is conscious rather than arbitrary.

  19. Workshops for state review of site suitability criteria for high-level radioactive waste repositories. Discussion Group reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    The NRC Waste Management Program and the Office of State Programs held three regional workshops to solicit ideas from State executives and legislators on the siting and licensing procedures for high level waste repositories and to solicit comments on the NRC preliminary site suitability criteria. The workshops were held in Denver, Colorado; New Orleans, Louisiana; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania during the period 19-30 September 1977. The reports from these workshops are contained herein. The workshops were attended by 170 invited State executives and legislators from 46 states. In addition, there were over 80 observers from diverse backgrounds including the general public, government, industry, professional consultants and university faculty. The workshops were announced in the Federal Register on September 1, 1977

  20. Development of a methodology for post closure radiological risk analysis of underground waste repositories. Illustrative assessment of the Harwell site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gralewski, Z.A.; Kane, P.; Nicholls, D.B.

    1987-06-01

    A probabilistic risk analysis (pra) is demonstrated for a number of ground water mediated release scenarios at the Harwell Site for a hypothetical repository at a depth of about 150 metres. This is the second stage of development of an overall risk assessment methodology. A procedure for carrying out multi-scenario assessment using available probabilistic risk assessment (pra) models is presented and a general methodology for combining risk contributions is outlined. Appropriate levels of model complexity in pra are discussed. Modelling requirements for the treatment of multiple simultaneous pathways and of site evolution are outlined. Further developments of pra systems are required to increase the realism of both the models and their mode of application, and hence to improve estimates of risk. (author)

  1. Evaluation of possible host rocks for China's high level radioactive waste repository and the progress in site characterization at the Beishan potential site in NW China's Gansu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju; Jin Yuanxin; Chen Zhangru; Chen Weiming; Wang Wenguang

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of possible host rocks for China's high level radioactive waste repository is summarized in this paper. The distribution and characteristics of granite, tuff, clay stone, salt and loess in China are described, while maps showing the distribution of host rocks are presented. Because of the wide distribution, large scale, good heat conductivity and suitable mechanical properties, granite is considered as the most potential host rock. Some granite bodies distributed in NW China, SW China, South China and Inner Mongolia have been selected as potential areas. Detailed site characterization at Beishan area, Gansu Province NW China is in progress

  2. Project ANSICHT. Final repository concept and backfilling and sealing concept for the final repository site model SUeD; Projekt ANSICHT. Endlagerkonzept sowie Verfuell- und Verschlusskonzept fuer das Endlagerstandortmodell SUeD. Technischer Bericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobmann, Michael; Lommerzheim, Andree

    2015-08-03

    In the frame of ANSICHT the methodology for the demonstration of safe enclosure for high-level heat generating radioactive wastes is described. The report is based on the safety requirements for final repository concepts and shows a first backfilling and sealing concept that was developed for the final repository site model SUeD. The final repository model SUeD is based on a horizontal line storage concept, the Gorleben (VSG) and ERATO container concept and the mine layout were adopted and adapted to the given conditions. The backfill and sealing concept includes migration barriers, line closures and shaft closures in the frame of a redundant and diverse enclosure system. For all technical and geotechnical barrier components the long-term functional requirements were defined. The backfilling concept of underground cavities considers the variety of possible cavities in the line and infrastructure areas.

  3. Site investigations and conceptual design for the repository in the nuclear 'Entsorgungszentrum' of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roethemeyer, H.

    1980-01-01

    Site investigations are planned to enable the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt and the other institutions involved to scrutinize the suitability of the Gorleben site and its salt dome as the nuclear 'Entsorgungszentrum' repository, and to provide all data necessary for detailed site-specific planning and safe building and operation of the repository. The investigations include deep drillings and an extensive hydrogeological programme for exploring the general structure of the salt dome and its environment. The latter programme started on 17 April 1979. The Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (Federal Geological Survey) is in charge of the geoscientific side of the investigations. For the site-independent conceptual design the following requirements have been laid down: (1) for safety reasons retrievability is not to be considered; (2) standard mining techniques and the special experience gained at the Asse salt mine should be utilized as much as possible; (3) two shafts should be sufficient for the mine, for all transport and the ventilation system; (4) different forms of waste in terms of waste type and container shall be disposed of in different storage areas; (5) ventilated sections must permit the shutting off of each storage area from the rest of the mine; (6) the mining method of retreat working should be applied in order to explore the whole disposal area prior to the beginning of disposal, to enable an optimal fit of the mine to the structure of the salt dome, and to move away from the heat generated by heat-producing waste; (7) the mine works shall have a lateral safety distance to the cap rock of 200 m and a vertical safety zone of 300 m beneath the salt level. (8) all disposal areas shall be on one level; (9) salt and waste shall be transported in different drifts, mainly in a one-way system. (author)

  4. The alternative site selection procedure as covered in the report by the Repository Site Selection Procedures Working Group; Das Verfahren der alternativen Standortsuche im Bericht des Arbeitskreises Auswahlverfahren Endlagerstandorte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, M. [Jena Univ. (Germany). Juristische Fakultaet

    2005-01-01

    The 2002 Act on the Regulated Termination of the Use of Nuclear Power for Industrial Electricity Generation declared Germany's opting out of the peaceful uses of nuclear power. The problem of the permanent management of radioactive residues is becoming more and more important also in the light of that political decision. At the present time, there are no repositories offering the waste management capacities required. Such facilities need to be created. At the present stage, eligible repository sites are the Konrad mine, a former iron ore mine near Salzgitter, and the Gorleben salt dome. While the fate of the Konrad mine as a repository for waste generating negligible amounts of heat continues to be uncertain, despite a plan approval decision of June 2002, the Gorleben repository is still in the planning phase, at present in a dormant state, so to speak. The federal government expressed doubt about the suitability of the Gorleben site. Against this backdrop, the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety in February 1999 established AkEnd, the Working Group on Repository Site Selection Procedures. The Group was charged with developing, based on sound scientific criteria, a transparent site selection procedure in order to facilitate the search for repository sites. The Working Group presented its final report in December 2002 after approximately four years of work. The Group's proposals about alternative site selection procedures are explained in detail and, above all, reviewed critically. (orig.)

  5. Review of Draft Crystalline Repository Project reports [sited on Indian reservation]: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorson, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Council was concerned about the possible emplacement of a nuclear waste repository in the crystalline rocks of Eastern Connecticut and Rhode Island. The Tribe was especially concerned with the hydrological problems because the Tribe's lands occur in an area with all of the complications cited above, including one of the highest concentrations of large brittle-fractures in southern New England. We questioned whether the intermediate and(or) regional groundwater systems might intersect the Cedar Swamp - a major groundwater discharge point at the junction of the Mesozoic brittle fractures and the Honey Hill Thrust. If the Cedar Swamp intersected the regional groundwater flow system, and if the groundwater flows were substantial (i.e., 5% of total flow during dry periods), the regional contribution to the surface discharge might possibly be measurable from surface data. 4 refs., 12 figs

  6. Siting high-level nuclear waste repositories: A progress report for Rhode Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frohlich, R.K.; Vild, B.F.

    1986-03-01

    In this booklet, we will not try to argue the pros and cons of nuclear power or weapons production. We will focus instead on the issue of nuclear waste disposal. With the passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982, the US Congress and the President charged federal and state regulators with the responsibility of settling that issue by the end of this century - with extensive public involvement. This booklet, now in its second printing, is designed to explain the nature of ''high-level'' nuclear waste, the essential criteria for its safe and permanent disposal, and Rhode Island's participation in the federal repository program. It has been funded from a USDOE grant derived from a utility-financed Nuclear Waste Fund established under the NWPA. 17 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Genetic algorithm optimization for dynamic construction site layout planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farmakis Panagiotis M.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic construction site layout planning (DCSLP problem refers to the efficient placement and relocation of temporary construction facilities within a dynamically changing construction site environment considering the characteristics of facilities and work interrelationships, the shape and topography of the construction site, and the time-varying project needs. A multi-objective dynamic optimization model is developed for this problem that considers construction and relocation costs of facilities, transportation costs of resources moving from one facility to another or to workplaces, as well as safety and environmental considerations resulting from facilities’ operations and interconnections. The latter considerations are taken into account in the form of preferences or constraints regarding the proximity or remoteness of particular facilities to other facilities or work areas. The analysis of multiple project phases and the dynamic facility relocation from phase to phase highly increases the problem size, which, even in its static form, falls within the NP (for Nondeterministic Polynomial time- hard class of combinatorial optimization problems. For this reason, a genetic algorithm has been implemented for the solution due to its capability to robustly search within a large solution space. Several case studies and operational scenarios have been implemented through the Palisade’s Evolver software for model testing and evaluation. The results indi­cate satisfactory model response to time-varying input data in terms of solution quality and computation time. The model can provide decision support to site managers, allowing them to examine alternative scenarios and fine-tune optimal solutions according to their experience by introducing desirable preferences or constraints in the decision process.

  8. Insights into Architects’ Future Roles in Off-Site Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianing Luo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Today’s construction industry is overflowing with new ideas about its future. Off-Site Manufacture and Construction (OSCM is at the heart of the modern construction industry. Much has been written about the state and context of OSCM in different countries regarding its perceived benefits and barriers to implementation. Off-site production (OSP plays an important role in improving fragmented construction processes. Although most OSP research targets the attitudes and practices of OSP adoption, there is limited understanding of the philosophical issues underpinning OSP-related architecture. The roles of the architects’ personal philosophies are neglected and this hampers their implementation of OSCM (which has had a largely technical focus. This paper explores the traditional thinking patterns of architects in China and predicts possible future roles for them. It then conceptualizes an “architectural work” mode and a “building product” mode of design and construction and identifies the shortcomings of architects in an OSCM environment. The arguments made are based on practitioners’ perceptions and the first author’s practical experiences of leading several real-life projects in recent years. The findings reveal the implications and significance of the transformation from an “architectural work” mode to a “building product” mode. We foresee a study approach that focuses on the order and rules for OSCM, resulting in architects’ existing mindsets being changed to thinking patterns and design methodologies better suited to OSCM.

  9. CONSIDERATIONS ON SOILS ISOLATIVE PROPERTIES FOR SITING OF A NEW NEAR-SURFACE RADIOACTIVE WASTE REPOSITORY IN POLAND IN THE LIGHT OF THE LONG TERM SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Skrzeczkowska

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a brief description of the occurrence of favorable isolative conditions for new surface radioactive waste repository in Poland. Selected soils may be used as a natural bottom layer or engineering barrier in multi-barrier system of RW repository. Currently, there is no regulation establishing standards for the bottom isolation, and the only quantifiable parameter with regard to water permeability is given for the repository objects, which in their case has to be lower than 10-9 m/s. For the purposes of this paper, treating on providing suitable bottom isolation for the new repository, this parameter has been transferred onto the consideration for soils suitability with a statement that it shall not be lower than the one given for the infrastructure. Submitted information should be taken into consideration by updating the information for the siting process according to IAEA Safety Standards.

  10. A geotechnical evaluation of potentially acceptable sites for a high-level nuclear waste repository near the Red Lake Indian Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The scope and work which served as the basis for this report included the following major activities; (1) A review and summary of the screening methodologies utilized by DOE for the selection of proposed nuclear waste repository sites, including a description of the inherent weakness in those methodologies. (2) A description of the geologic and hydrologic features of the rock bodies selected by DOE and an identification of those features which could result in hazardous conditions as a result of the location of a high-level nuclear waste repository. (3) An assessment of potential environmental impacts of the repository and discussion of endanged species in the proposed repository project areas. This report is organized in three major sections in relationship to the scope of work. A list of references is also included at the end of this report. 37 refs., 2 figs

  11. Methods for definition of reference conditions for a repository sit