WorldWideScience

Sample records for reporting systematic reviews

  1. Side effects are incompletely reported among systematic reviews in gastroenterology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahady, Suzanne E; Schlub, Timothy; Bero, Lisa; Moher, David; Tovey, David; George, Jacob; Craig, Jonathan C

    2015-02-01

    Systematic reviews are an integral component of evidence-based health care. However, little is known on how well they report the potential harms of interventions. We assessed the reporting of harms in recently published systematic reviews of interventions relevant to clinical gastroenterology. We identified all systematic reviews of randomized trials of gastroenterology interventions published from 2008 to 2012 in highly cited gastroenterology and general medical journals. We adapted the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials guidelines for harms and assessed qualitative and quantitative parameters of harms reporting. Regression analyses determined predictors of more comprehensive harms reporting. In total, 78 systematic reviews were identified, with 72 published in gastroenterology journals and six in general medical journals. Overall, one in three systematic reviews (26/78, 33%) did not refer to harms of the intervention anywhere in the article. Less than half of the studies included adverse events as an outcome measure, and data on absolute rates of adverse events were only provided in 28%. Most (65%) did not include any figures or tables on adverse event; however, all included these on efficacy outcomes (mean, 3 and range, 1-7). Regression analyses indicated that the use of reporting guidelines was significantly associated with better harms reporting (P = 0.04). The reporting of harms in gastroenterology systematic reviews is largely inadequate and highly asymmetrical compared with the reporting of benefits. We suggest that review authors routinely assess both efficacy and harms outcomes of an intervention and that reporting guidelines specifically targeting harms reporting be developed. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reporting and Handling Missing Outcome Data in Mental Health: A Systematic Review of Cochrane Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spineli, Loukia M.; Pandis, Nikolaos; Salanti, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the study was to provide empirical evidence about the reporting of methodology to address missing outcome data and the acknowledgement of their impact in Cochrane systematic reviews in the mental health field. Methods: Systematic reviews published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews after January 1, 2009 by…

  3. Recommendations for reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of diagnostic test accuracy: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGrath, Trevor A.; Alabousi, Mostafa; Skidmore, Becky; Korevaar, Daniël A.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Moher, David; Thombs, Brett; McInnes, Matthew D. F.

    2017-01-01

    This study is to perform a systematic review of existing guidance on quality of reporting and methodology for systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) in order to compile a list of potential items that might be included in a reporting guideline for such reviews: Preferred Reporting Items

  4. Brief Report: Systematic Review of Rett Syndrome in Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichow, Brian; George-Puskar, Annie; Lutz, Tara; Smith, Isaac C.; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2015-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurogenetic disorder in which a period of typical development is followed by loss of previously acquired skills. Once thought to occur exclusively in females, increasing numbers of male cases of RTT have been reported. This systematic review included 36 articles describing 57 cases of RTT in males. Mutations of the MECP2…

  5. Systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Palle; Chauhan, Usha; Greveson, Kay

    2017-01-01

    of evidence is needed and the aim of this article was to systematically review the evidence of IBD advice lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A broad systematic literature search was performed to identify relevant studies addressing the effect of advice lines. The process of selection of the retrieved studies...... was undertaken in two phases. In phase one, all abstracts were review by two independent reviewers. In phase two, the full text of all included studies were independently reviewed by two reviewers. The included studies underwent quality assessment and data synthesis. RESULTS: Ten published studies and 10...... congress abstracts were included in the review. The studies were heterogeneous both in scientific quality and in the focus of the study. No rigorous evidence was found to support that advice lines improve disease activity in IBD and correspondingly no studies reported worsening in disease activity. Advice...

  6. A review of the reporting of web searching to identify studies for Cochrane systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Simon

    2018-03-01

    The literature searches that are used to identify studies for inclusion in a systematic review should be comprehensively reported. This ensures that the literature searches are transparent and reproducible, which is important for assessing the strengths and weaknesses of a systematic review and re-running the literature searches when conducting an update review. Web searching using search engines and the websites of topically relevant organisations is sometimes used as a supplementary literature search method. Previous research has shown that the reporting of web searching in systematic reviews often lacks important details and is thus not transparent or reproducible. Useful details to report about web searching include the name of the search engine or website, the URL, the date searched, the search strategy, and the number of results. This study reviews the reporting of web searching to identify studies for Cochrane systematic reviews published in the 6-month period August 2016 to January 2017 (n = 423). Of these reviews, 61 reviews reported using web searching using a search engine or website as a literature search method. In the majority of reviews, the reporting of web searching was found to lack essential detail for ensuring transparency and reproducibility, such as the search terms. Recommendations are made on how to improve the reporting of web searching in Cochrane systematic reviews. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. A systematic review of the quality of conduct and reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in paediatric surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Stephen Cullis

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate quality of conduct and reporting of published systematic reviews and meta-analyses in paediatric surgery. We also aimed to identify characteristics predictive of review quality.Systematic reviews summarise evidence by combining sources, but are potentially prone to bias. To counter this, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA was published to aid in reporting. Similarly, the Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR measurement tool was designed to appraise methodology. The paediatric surgical literature has seen an increasing number of reviews over the past decade, but quality has not been evaluated.Adhering to PRISMA guidelines, we performed a systematic review with a priori design to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of interventions in paediatric surgery. From 01/2010 to 06/2016, we searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Web of Science, Google Scholar, reference lists and journals. Two reviewers independently selected studies and extracted data. We assessed conduct and reporting using AMSTAR and PRISMA. Scores were calculated as the sum of reported items. We also extracted author, journal and article characteristics, and used them in exploratory analysis to determine which variables predict quality.112 articles fulfilled eligibility criteria (53 systematic reviews; 59 meta-analyses. Overall, 68% AMSTAR and 56.8% PRISMA items were reported adequately. Poorest scores were identified with regards a priori design, inclusion of structured summaries, including the grey literature, citing excluded articles and evaluating bias. 13 reviews were pre-registered and 6 in PRISMA-endorsing journals. The following predicted quality in univariate analysis:, word count, Cochrane review, journal h-index, impact factor, journal endorses PRISMA, PRISMA adherence suggested in author guidance, article mentions PRISMA

  8. The Reporting Quality of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in Industrial and Organizational Psychology: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalken, Naomi; Rietbergen, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this systematic review was to examine the reporting quality of the method section of quantitative systematic reviews and meta-analyses from 2009 to 2016 in the field of industrial and organizational psychology with the help of the Meta-Analysis Reporting Standards (MARS), and to update previous research, such as the study of Aytug et al. (2012) and Dieckmann et al. (2009). Methods: A systematic search for quantitative systematic reviews and meta-analyses was conducted in the top 10 journals in the field of industrial and organizational psychology between January 2009 and April 2016. Data were extracted on study characteristics and items of the method section of MARS. A cross-classified multilevel model was analyzed, to test whether publication year and journal impact factor (JIF) were associated with the reporting quality scores of articles. Results: Compliance with MARS in the method section was generally inadequate in the random sample of 120 articles. Variation existed in the reporting of items. There were no significant effects of publication year and journal impact factor (JIF) on the reporting quality scores of articles. Conclusions: The reporting quality in the method section of systematic reviews and meta-analyses was still insufficient, therefore we recommend researchers to improve the reporting in their articles by using reporting standards like MARS.

  9. Reporting and methodologic quality of Cochrane Neonatal review group systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Faleh Khalid

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cochrane Neonatal Review Group (CNRG has achieved a lot with limited resources in producing high quality systematic reviews to assist clinicians in evidence-based decision-making. A formal assessment of published CNRG systematic reviews has not been undertaken; we sought to provide a comprehensive assessment of the quality of systematic reviews (both methodologic and reporting quality published in CNRG. Methods We selected a random sample of published CNRG systematic reviews. Items of the QUOROM statement were utilized to assess quality of reporting, while items and total scores of the Oxman-Guyatt Overview Quality Assessment Questionnaire (OQAQ were used to assess methodologic quality. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed quality. A Student t-test was used to compare quality scores pre- and post-publication of the QUOROM statement. Results Sixty-one systematic reviews were assessed. Overall, the included reviews had good quality with minor flaws based on OQAQ total scores (mean, 4.5 [0.9]; 95% CI, 4.27–4.77. However, room for improvement was noted in some areas, such as the title, abstract reporting, a priori plan for heterogeneity assessment and how to handle heterogeneity in case it exists, and assessment of publication bias. In addition, reporting of agreement among reviewers, documentation of trials flow, and discussion of possible biases were addressed in the review process. Reviews published post the QUOROM statement had a significantly higher quality scores. Conclusion The systematic reviews published in the CNRG are generally of good quality with minor flaws. However, efforts should be made to improve the quality of reports. Readers must continue to assess the quality of published reports on an individual basis prior to implementing the recommendations.

  10. Systematic overview finds variation in approaches to investigating and reporting on sources of heterogeneity in systematic reviews of diagnostic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naaktgeboren, Christiana A.; van Enst, Wynanda A.; Ochodo, Eleanor A.; de Groot, Joris A. H.; Hooft, Lotty; Leeflang, Mariska M.; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Moons, Karel G. M.; Reitsma, Johannes B.

    2014-01-01

    To examine how authors explore and report on sources of heterogeneity in systematic reviews of diagnostic accuracy studies. A cohort of systematic reviews of diagnostic tests was systematically identified. Data were extracted on whether an exploration of the sources of heterogeneity was undertaken,

  11. [Diphenhydramine addiction and detoxification. A systematic review and case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Sebastian; Bschor, Tom

    2013-07-01

    In many countries diphenhydramine (DPH) is commonly available over the counter, frequently used, and generally regarded as a harmless drug. It is used as a sedative, antiallergic or antiemetic substance. We present a systematic review of literature search in Pubmed from 1972 to 2012 describing DPH addiction. The literature search in reveals that the addictive potential of DPH can be regarded as proved, based on cases series, eight case reports, a pharmacological overview, one uncontrolled, and one randomized, placebo controlled study. In addition we report a case of an abstinent alcoholic patient treated in our department for DPH-dependency. Especially when treating patients with a history of addiction, physicians should consider and check the possibility of a DPH dependency. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Reporting clinical outcomes of breast reconstruction: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, S; Brigic, A; Whiting, P F; Cawthorn, S J; Avery, K N L; Donovan, J L; Blazeby, J M

    2011-01-05

    Breast reconstruction after mastectomy for cancer requires accurate evaluation to inform evidence-based participatory decision making, but the standards of outcome reporting after breast reconstruction have not previously been considered. We used extensive searches to identify articles reporting surgical outcomes of breast reconstruction. We extracted data using published criteria for complication reporting modified to reflect reconstructive practice. Study designs included randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, and case series. The Cochrane Risk of Bias tool was used to critically appraise all study designs. Other criteria used to assess the studies were selection and funding bias, statistical power calculations, and institutional review board approval. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to compare the breadth and frequency of study outcomes, and χ² tests were used to compare the number of studies in each group reporting each of the published criteria. All statistical tests were two-sided. Surgical complications following breast reconstruction in 42,146 women were evaluated in 134 studies. These included 11 (8.2%) randomized trials, 74 (55.2%) cohort studies, and 49 (36.6%) case series. Fifty-three percent of studies demonstrated a disparity between methods and results in the numbers of complications reported. Complications were defined by 87 (64.9%) studies and graded by 78 (58.2%). Details such as the duration of follow-up and risk factors for adverse outcomes were omitted from 47 (35.1%) and 58 (43.3%) studies, respectively. Overall, the studies defined fewer than 20% of the complications they reported, and the definitions were largely inconsistent. The results of this systematic review suggest that outcome reporting in breast reconstruction is inconsistent and lacks methodological rigor. The development of a standardized core outcome set is recommended to improve outcome reporting in breast reconstruction.

  13. Summarizing systematic reviews: methodological development, conduct and reporting of an umbrella review approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aromataris, Edoardo; Fernandez, Ritin; Godfrey, Christina M; Holly, Cheryl; Khalil, Hanan; Tungpunkom, Patraporn

    2015-09-01

    help assess risk of bias in systematic reviews and meta-analyses was also developed and tested. Relevant details to extract from included reviews and how to best present the findings of both quantitative and qualitative systematic reviews in a reader friendly format are provided. Umbrella reviews provide a ready means for decision makers in healthcare to gain a clear understanding of a broad topic area. The umbrella review methodology described here is the first to consider reviews that report other than quantitative evidence derived from randomized controlled trials. The methodology includes an easy to use and informative summary of evidence table to readily provide decision makers with the available, highest level of evidence relevant to the question posed.

  14. Postpartum electroconvulsive therapy: a systematic review and case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressier, Florence; Rotenberg, Samuel; Cazas, Odile; Hardy, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum depression can have devastating consequences on the mother and child. Prompt treatment is challenging. Whereas electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered to be an effective treatment modality in severe depression and brings about rapid clinical improvement, little is known about ECT during the postpartum period. We systematically reviewed the literature on the use of ECT during the postpartum period using PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge and PsycINFO databases until September 2014, using the search terms "electroconvulsive therapy" or "ECT" and "postpartum". Then, we described the successful treatment with ECT and the joint mother-baby hospitalization of a woman with severe depression. Eight case reports and 8 studies were identified. All of the studies reported that ECT is effective in the postpartum period. It is well tolerated, provides a fast response and allows for breastfeeding. In addition, our case report showed the benefits of the hospitalization of the mother-baby unit. Combined ECT and joint mother-baby hospitalization could be a valuable treatment by targeting both the mother-infant relationship and the maternal depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Interventions to treat premature ejaculation: a systematic review short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Katy; Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Dickinson, Kath; Cantrell, Anna

    2015-03-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is commonly defined as ejaculation with minimal sexual stimulation before, on or shortly after penetration and before the person wishes it. PE can be either lifelong and present since first sexual experiences (primary), or acquired (secondary), beginning later (Godpodinoff ML. Premature ejaculation: clinical subgroups and etiology. J Sex Marital Ther 1989;15:130-4). Treatments include behavioural and pharmacological interventions. To systematically review evidence for clinical effectiveness of behavioural, topical and systemic treatments for PE. The following databases were searched from inception to 6 August 2013 for published and unpublished research evidence: MEDLINE; EMBASE; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; The Cochrane Library including the Cochrane Systematic Reviews Database, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects and the Health Technology Assessment database; ISI Web of Science, including Science Citation Index, and the Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science. The US Food and Drug Administration website and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) website were also searched. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in adult men with PE were eligible (or non-RCTs in the absence of RCTs). RCT data were extrapolated from review articles when available. The primary outcome was intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT). Data were meta-analysed when possible. Other outcomes included sexual satisfaction, control over ejaculation, relationship satisfaction, self-esteem, quality of life, treatment acceptability and adverse events (AEs). A total of 103 studies (102 RCTs, 65 from reviews) were included. RCTs were available for all interventions except yoga. The following interventions demonstrated significant improvements (p < 0.05) in arithmetic mean difference in IELT compared with placebo: topical anaesthetics - eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics (EMLA(®), Astra

  16. Systematic review of case reports of antiphospholipid syndrome following infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wahab, N; Lopez-Olivo, M A; Pinto-Patarroyo, G P; Suarez-Almazor, M E

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of case reports documenting the development of antiphospholipid syndrome or antiphospholipid syndrome-related features after an infection. We searched Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, PubMed ePubs, and The Cochrane Library - CENTRAL through March 2015 without restrictions. Studies reporting cases of antiphospholipid syndrome or antiphospholipid syndrome-related features following an infection were included. Two hundred and fifty-nine publications met inclusion criteria, reporting on 293 cases. Three different groups of patients were identified; group 1 included patients who fulfilled the criteria for definitive antiphospholipid syndrome (24.6%), group 2 included patients who developed transient antiphospholipid antibodies with thromboembolic phenomena (43.7%), and group 3 included patients who developed transient antiphospholipid antibodies without thromboembolic events (31.7%). The most common preceding infection was viral (55.6%). In cases that developed thromboembolic events Human immunodeficiency and Hepatitis C viruses were the most frequently reported. Parvovirus B19 was the most common in cases that developed antibodies without thromboembolic events. Hematological manifestations and peripheral thrombosis were the most common clinical manifestations. Positive anticardiolipin antibodies were the most frequent antibodies reported, primarily coexisting IgG and IgM isotypes. Few patients in groups 1 and 2 had persistent antiphospholipid antibodies for more than 6 months. Outcome was variable with some cases reporting persistent antiphospholipid syndrome features and others achieving complete resolution of clinical events. Development of antiphospholipid antibodies with all traditional manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome were observed after variety of infections, most frequently after chronic viral infections with Human immunodeficiency and Hepatitis C. The causal relationship between infection

  17. Systematic reviews of anesthesiologic interventions reported as statistically significant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imberger, Georgina; Gluud, Christian; Boylan, John

    2015-01-01

    statistically significant meta-analyses of anesthesiologic interventions, we used TSA to estimate power and imprecision in the context of sparse data and repeated updates. METHODS: We conducted a search to identify all systematic reviews with meta-analyses that investigated an intervention that may......: From 11,870 titles, we found 682 systematic reviews that investigated anesthesiologic interventions. In the 50 sampled meta-analyses, the median number of trials included was 8 (interquartile range [IQR], 5-14), the median number of participants was 964 (IQR, 523-1736), and the median number...

  18. Compliance of systematic reviews in veterinary journals with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) literature search reporting guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Lorraine C

    2017-07-01

    Complete, accurate reporting of systematic reviews facilitates assessment of how well reviews have been conducted. The primary objective of this study was to examine compliance of systematic reviews in veterinary journals with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines for literature search reporting and to examine the completeness, bias, and reproducibility of the searches in these reviews from what was reported. The second objective was to examine reporting of the credentials and contributions of those involved in the search process. A sample of systematic reviews or meta-analyses published in veterinary journals between 2011 and 2015 was obtained by searching PubMed. Reporting in the full text of each review was checked against certain PRISMA checklist items. Over one-third of reviews (37%) did not search the CAB Abstracts database, and 9% of reviews searched only 1 database. Over two-thirds of reviews (65%) did not report any search for grey literature or stated that they excluded grey literature. The majority of reviews (95%) did not report a reproducible search strategy. Most reviews had significant deficiencies in reporting the search process that raise questions about how these searches were conducted and ultimately cast serious doubts on the validity and reliability of reviews based on a potentially biased and incomplete body of literature. These deficiencies also highlight the need for veterinary journal editors and publishers to be more rigorous in requiring adherence to PRISMA guidelines and to encourage veterinary researchers to include librarians or information specialists on systematic review teams to improve the quality and reporting of searches.

  19. Systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enggaard, Helle

    Title: Systematic review a method to promote nursing students skills in Evidence Based Practice Background: Department of nursing educate students to practice Evidence Based Practice (EBP), where clinical decisions is based on the best available evidence, patient preference, clinical experience...... and resources available. In order to incorporate evidence in clinical decisions, nursing students need to learn how to transfer knowledge in order to utilize evidence in clinical decisions. The method of systematic review can be one approach to achieve this in nursing education. Method: As an associate lecturer...... I have taken a Comprehensive Systematic Review Training course provide by Center of Clinical Guidelines in Denmark and Jonna Briggs Institute (JBI) and practice in developing a systematic review on how patients with ischemic heart disease experiences peer support. This insight and experience...

  20. Urinothorax: Case report and systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Casallas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinothorax, the presence of urine in the pleural space, is a rare cause of pleural effusion, usually associated with obstructive uropathy, or urinary trauma. We present the case of a 3 year-old boy and a systematic review of the literature of the 44 cases encountered. After resection of a Wilm's tumour in the right kidney our patient presented acute respiratory distress associated with radiographically confirmed pleural effusion. With the initial diagnosis of pneumonia or malignant pleural effusion, a closed thoracotomy was performed. The liquid obtained suggested urine, which was confirmed by the laboratory. Cystoscopy with retrograde pyelography detected a fistula on the posterior wall of the right kidney. The report of cases worldwide is low, probably due to its low incidence but also to underdiagnosis. Respiratory symptoms are not always present and urological symptoms usually predominate. Diagnosis requires a high degree of clinical suspicion and is confirmed by the main biochemical marker: The ratio >1 .0 pleural fluid creatinine and creatinine serum.

  1. Agreement between reported use of interventions for liver diseases and research evidence in Cochrane systematic reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kürstein, Pia; Gluud, Lise L; Willemann, Marlene

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluates the agreement between reported use of interventions for patients with liver diseases and research evidence in Cochrane systematic reviews.......This study evaluates the agreement between reported use of interventions for patients with liver diseases and research evidence in Cochrane systematic reviews....

  2. Systematic review adherence to methodological or reporting quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pussegoda, Kusala; Turner, Lucy; Garritty, Chantelle

    2017-01-01

    /1741) provided a rationale for the review and less than 6% (102/1741) provided protocol information. For reports using QUOROM, only 9% (40/449) of SRs provided a trial flow diagram. However, 90% (402/449) described the explicit clinical problem and review rationale in the introduction section. Of reports using...

  3. Reporting of Systematic Reviews of Micronutrients and Health: A Critical Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Context: Systematic review is a valuable tool for evaluating nutrition-related research and formulating nutrition recommendation. Lack of standardized criteria for generating these reviews has restricted their potential utility. Objective: To evaluate the characteristics and reporting quality of pub...

  4. Do self- reported intentions predict clinicians' behaviour: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickinson Heather O

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the systematic uptake of clinical research findings into routine clinical practice. Several interventions have been shown to be effective in changing health care professionals' behaviour, but heterogeneity within interventions, targeted behaviours, and study settings make generalisation difficult. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the 'active ingredients' in professional behaviour change strategies. Theories of human behaviour that feature an individual's "intention" to do something as the most immediate predictor of their behaviour have proved to be useful in non-clinical populations. As clinical practice is a form of human behaviour such theories may offer a basis for developing a scientific rationale for the choice of intervention to use in the implementation of new practice. The aim of this review was to explore the relationship between intention and behaviour in clinicians and how this compares to the intention-behaviour relationship in studies of non-clinicians. Methods We searched: PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Science/Social science citation index, Current contents (social & behavioural med/clinical med, ISI conference proceedings, and Index to Theses. The reference lists of all included papers were checked manually. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they had: examined a clinical behaviour within a clinical context, included measures of both intention and behaviour, measured behaviour after intention, and explored this relationship quantitatively. All titles and abstracts retrieved by electronic searching were screened independently by two reviewers, with disagreements resolved by discussion. Discussion Ten studies were found that examined the relationship between intention and clinical behaviours in 1623 health professionals. The proportion of variance in behaviour explained by

  5. Selective reporting bias of harm outcomes within studies: findings from a cohort of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Pooja; Loke, Yoon K; Gamble, Carrol; Altman, Douglas G; Williamson, Paula R; Kirkham, Jamie J

    2014-11-21

    To determine the extent and nature of selective non-reporting of harm outcomes in clinical studies that were eligible for inclusion in a cohort of systematic reviews. Cohort study of systematic reviews from two databases. Outcome reporting bias in trials for harm outcomes (ORBIT II) in systematic reviews from the Cochrane Library and a separate cohort of systematic reviews of adverse events. 92 systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials and non-randomised studies published in the Cochrane Library between issue 9, 2012 and issue 2, 2013 (Cochrane cohort) and 230 systematic reviews published between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2011 in other publications, synthesising data on harm outcomes (adverse event cohort). A 13 point classification system for missing outcome data on harm was developed and applied to the studies. 86% (79/92) of reviews in the Cochrane cohort did not include full data from the main harm outcome of interest of each review for all of the eligible studies included within that review; 76% (173/230) for the adverse event cohort. Overall, the single primary harm outcome was inadequately reported in 76% (705/931) of the studies included in the 92 reviews from the Cochrane cohort and not reported in 47% (4159/8837) of the 230 reviews in the adverse event cohort. In a sample of primary studies not reporting on the single primary harm outcome in the review, scrutiny of the study publication revealed that outcome reporting bias was suspected in nearly two thirds (63%, 248/393). The number of reviews suspected of outcome reporting bias as a result of missing or partially reported harm related outcomes from at least one eligible study is high. The declaration of important harms and the quality of the reporting of harm outcomes must be improved in both primary studies and systematic reviews. © Saini et al 2014.

  6. Systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lødrup, Anders Bergh; Reimer, Christina; Bytzer, Peter

    2013-01-01

    in getting off acid-suppressive medication and partly explain the increase in long-term use of PPI. A number of studies addressing this issue have been published recently. The authors aimed to systematically review the existing evidence of clinically relevant symptoms caused by acid rebound following PPI...

  7. Systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Troels Dreier; Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm; Palshof, Jesper Andreas

    2016-01-01

    to earlier diagnosis and improved survival. Method: In this paper, we describe the incidence as well as characteristics associated with BM based on a systematic review of the current literature, following the PRISMA guidelines. Results: We show that the incidence of BM in CRC patients ranges from 0.6 to 3...

  8. Systematic review automation technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews, a cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, are not produced quickly enough to support clinical practice. The cost of production, availability of the requisite expertise and timeliness are often quoted as major contributors for the delay. This detailed survey of the state of the art of information systems designed to support or automate individual tasks in the systematic review, and in particular systematic reviews of randomized controlled clinical trials, reveals trends that see the convergence of several parallel research projects. We surveyed literature describing informatics systems that support or automate the processes of systematic review or each of the tasks of the systematic review. Several projects focus on automating, simplifying and/or streamlining specific tasks of the systematic review. Some tasks are already fully automated while others are still largely manual. In this review, we describe each task and the effect that its automation would have on the entire systematic review process, summarize the existing information system support for each task, and highlight where further research is needed for realizing automation for the task. Integration of the systems that automate systematic review tasks may lead to a revised systematic review workflow. We envisage the optimized workflow will lead to system in which each systematic review is described as a computer program that automatically retrieves relevant trials, appraises them, extracts and synthesizes data, evaluates the risk of bias, performs meta-analysis calculations, and produces a report in real time. PMID:25005128

  9. Diprosopus: Systematic review and report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidondo, María Paz; Groisman, Boris; Tardivo, Agostina; Tomasoni, Fabián; Tejeiro, Verónica; Camacho, Inés; Vilas, Mariana; Liascovich, Rosa; Barbero, Pablo

    2016-12-01

    Diprosopus is a subtype of symmetric conjoined twins with one head, facial duplication and a single trunk. Diprosopus is a very rare congenital anomaly. This is a systematic review of published cases and the presentation of two new cases born in Argentina. We estimated the prevalence of conjoined twins and diprosopus using data from the National Network of Congenital Anomalies of Argentina (RENAC). The prevalence of conjoined twins in RENAC was 19 per 1,000,000 births (95% confidence interval, 12-29). Diprosopus prevalence was 2 per 1,000,000 births (95% confidence interval, 0.2-6.8). In the systematic review, we identified 31 diprosopus cases. The facial structures more frequently duplicated were nose and eyes. Most frequent associated anomalies were: anencephaly, duplication of cerebral hemispheres, craniorachischisis, oral clefts, spinal abnormalities, congenital heart defects, diaphragmatic hernia, thoracic and/or abdominal visceral laterality anomalies. One of the RENAC cases and three cases from the literature had another discordant nonmalformed twin. The conjoined twins prevalence was similar to other studies. The prevalence of diprosopus was higher. The etiology is still unknown. The presence of visceral laterality anomalies may indicate the link between diprosopus and the alteration or duplication of the primitive node in the perigastrulation period (12-15 days postfertilization). Pregnancies of more than two embryos may be a risk factor for diprosopus. Given the low prevalence of this defect, it would be useful to perform studies involving several surveillance systems and international consortiums. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:993-1007, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Methodology used in studies reporting chronic kidney disease prevalence: a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brück, Katharina; Jager, Kitty J.; Dounousi, Evangelia; Kainz, Alexander; Nitsch, Dorothea; Ärnlöv, Johan; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Browne, Gemma; Capuano, Vincenzo; Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Ferrieres, Jean; Gambaro, Giovanni; Guessous, Idris; Hallan, Stein; Kastarinen, Mika; Navis, Gerjan; Gonzalez, Alfonso Otero; Palmieri, Luigi; Romundstad, Solfrid; Spoto, Belinda; Stengel, Benedicte; Tomson, Charles; Tripepi, Giovanni; Völzke, Henry; Wiȩcek, Andrzej; Gansevoort, Ron; Schöttker, Ben; Wanner, Christoph; Vinhas, Jose; Zoccali, Carmine; van Biesen, Wim; Stel, Vianda S.; Jousilahti, Pekka; Helmer, Catherine; Metzger, Marie; Ruidavets, Jean Bernard; Bongard, Vanina; Koenig, Wolfgang; Denkinger, Michael D.; Brenner, Hermann; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Nauck, Matthias; Stracke, Sylvia; Perry, Ivan; Eustace, Joseph; Lupo, Antonio; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Palleschi, Simonetta; Lamaida, Norman; Capuano, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Many publications report the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general population. Comparisons across studies are hampered as CKD prevalence estimations are influenced by study population characteristics and laboratory methods. For this systematic review, two researchers

  11. Methodology used in studies reporting chronic kidney disease prevalence : a systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruck, Katharina; Jager, Kitty J.; Dounousi, Evangelia; Kainz, Alexander; Nitsch, Dorothea; Arnlov, Johan; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Browne, Gemma; Capuano, Vincenzo; Ferraro, Pietro Manuel; Ferrieres, Jean; Gambaro, Giovanni; Guessous, Idris; Hallan, Stein; Kastarinen, Mika; Navis, Gerjan; Otero Gonzalez, Alfonso; Palmieri, Luigi; Romundstad, Solfrid; Spoto, Belinda; Stengel, Benedicte; Tomson, Charles; Tripepi, Giovanni; Voelzke, Henry; Wiecek, Andrzej; Gansevoort, Ron; Schoettker, Ben; Wanner, Christoph; Vinhas, Jose; Zoccali, Carmine; Van Biesen, Wim; Stel, Vianda S.

    Background. Many publications report the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general population. Comparisons across studies are hampered as CKD prevalence estimations are influenced by study population characteristics and laboratory methods. Methods. For this systematic review, two

  12. Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P 2015 statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Estarli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Systematic reviews should build on a protocol that describes the rationale, hypothesis, and planned methods of the review; few reviews report whether a protocol exists. Detailed, well-described protocols can facilitate the understanding and appraisal of the review methods, as well as the detection of modifications to methods and selective reporting in completed reviews. We describe the development of a reporting guideline, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses for Protocols 2015 (PRISMA-P 2015. PRISMA-P consists of a 17-item checklist intended to facilitate the preparation and reporting of a robust protocol for the systematic review. Funders and those commissioning reviews might consider mandating the use of the checklist to facilitate the submission of relevant protocol information in funding applications. Similarly, peer reviewers and editors can use the guidance to gauge the completeness and transparency of a systematic review protocol submitted for publication in a journal or other medium. Translation with permission of the authors. The original authors have not revised and verified the Spanish translation, and they do not necessarily endorse it.

  13. Systematic reviews of diagnostic tests in endocrinology: an audit of methods, reporting, and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer-Bonilla, Gabriela; Singh Ospina, Naykky; Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Rene; Brito, Juan P; Iñiguez-Ariza, Nicole; Tamhane, Shrikant; Erwin, Patricia J; Murad, M Hassan; Montori, Victor M

    2017-07-01

    Systematic reviews provide clinicians and policymakers estimates of diagnostic test accuracy and their usefulness in clinical practice. We identified all available systematic reviews of diagnosis in endocrinology, summarized the diagnostic accuracy of the tests included, and assessed the credibility and clinical usefulness of the methods and reporting. We searched Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL from inception to December 2015 for systematic reviews and meta-analyses reporting accuracy measures of diagnostic tests in endocrinology. Experienced reviewers independently screened for eligible studies and collected data. We summarized the results, methods, and reporting of the reviews. We performed subgroup analyses to categorize diagnostic tests as most useful based on their accuracy. We identified 84 systematic reviews; half of the tests included were classified as helpful when positive, one-fourth as helpful when negative. Most authors adequately reported how studies were identified and selected and how their trustworthiness (risk of bias) was judged. Only one in three reviews, however, reported an overall judgment about trustworthiness and one in five reported using adequate meta-analytic methods. One in four reported contacting authors for further information and about half included only patients with diagnostic uncertainty. Up to half of the diagnostic endocrine tests in which the likelihood ratio was calculated or provided are likely to be helpful in practice when positive as are one-quarter when negative. Most diagnostic systematic reviews in endocrine lack methodological rigor, protection against bias, and offer limited credibility. Substantial efforts, therefore, seem necessary to improve the quality of diagnostic systematic reviews in endocrinology.

  14. The Use of Systematic Reviews and Reporting Guidelines to Advance the Implementation of the 3Rs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avey, Marc T; Fenwick, Nicole; Griffin, Gilly

    2015-01-01

    In 1959, Russell and Burch published The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, which included concrete advice on factors that they considered would govern progress in the implementation of these principles (enunciated as the 3Rs [Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement in animal-based studies]). One challenge to the implementation of the 3Rs was identified as information retrieval. Here, we further explore this challenge—the need for ‘research on research’—and the role that systematic reviews and reporting guidelines can play in implementation of the 3Rs. First, we examine the 2-fold nature of the challenge of information retrieval: 1) the identification of relevant publications spread throughout a large population of nonrelevant publications and 2) the incomplete reporting of relevant details within those publications. Second, we evaluate how systematic reviews and reporting guidelines can be used generally to address this challenge. Third, we assess the explicit reporting of the 3Rs in a cohort of preclinical animal systematic reviews. Our results show that Reduction methods are the most commonly reported by authors of systematic reviews but that, in general, reporting on how findings relate to the 3Rs is limited at best. Although systematic reviews are excellent tools for resolving the challenge of information retrieval, their utility for making progress in implementation of the 3Rs may be limited unless authors improve their reporting of these principles. PMID:25836961

  15. Patient Satisfaction Reporting After Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlenberg, Cynthia A; Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Schairer, William W; Steinhaus, Michael E; Cross, Michael B

    2017-05-01

    This review evaluated the quality of patient satisfaction reporting after total hip arthroplasty. The initial search of the MEDLINE database yielded 755 studies. Twenty-four met the inclusion criteria. Most studies provided level III or IV evidence (n=15, 62.5%). The most common method used to assess satisfaction was the 10-point visual analog scale (7 studies, 29.2%), followed by an ordinal satisfaction scale (6 studies, 25.0%). The quality of evidence was poor, and the methods used to assess satisfaction were not standardized. Further research is needed to define the factors that affect patient satisfaction after total hip arthroplasty and how satisfaction is best measured. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(3):e400-e404.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Impact of librarians on reporting of the literature searching component of pediatric systematic reviews*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meert, Deborah; Torabi, Nazi; Costella, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective A critical element in conducting a systematic review is the identification of studies. To date, very little empirical evidence has been reported on whether the presence of a librarian or information professional can contribute to the quality of the final product. The goal of this study was to compare the reporting rigor of the literature searching component of systematic reviews with and without the help of a librarian. Method Systematic reviews published from 2002 to 2011 in the twenty highest impact factor pediatrics journals were collected from MEDLINE. Corresponding authors were contacted via an email survey to determine if a librarian was involved, the role that the librarian played, and functions that the librarian performed. The reviews were scored independently by two reviewers using a fifteen-item checklist. Results There were 186 reviews that met the inclusion criteria, and 44% of the authors indicated the involvement of a librarian in conducting the systematic review. With the presence of a librarian as coauthor or team member, the mean checklist score was 8.40, compared to 6.61 (plibrarian. Conclusions Findings indicate that having a librarian as a coauthor or team member correlates with a higher score in the literature searching component of systematic reviews. PMID:27822147

  17. Reporting Quality of Search Methods in Systematic Reviews of HIV Behavioral Interventions (2000–2010): Are the Searches Clearly Explained, Systematic and Reproducible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Mary M.; DeLuca, Julia B.; Crepaz, Nicole; Lyles, Cynthia M.

    2018-01-01

    Systematic reviews are an essential tool for researchers, prevention providers and policy makers who want to remain current with the evidence in the field. Systematic review must adhere to strict standards, as the results can provide a more objective appraisal of evidence for making scientific decisions than traditional narrative reviews. An integral component of a systematic review is the development and execution of a comprehensive systematic search to collect available and relevant information. A number of reporting guidelines have been developed to ensure quality publications of systematic reviews. These guidelines provide the essential elements to include in the review process and report in the final publication for complete transparency. We identified the common elements of reporting guidelines and examined the reporting quality of search methods in HIV behavioral intervention literature. Consistent with the findings from previous evaluations of reporting search methods of systematic reviews in other fields, our review shows a lack of full and transparent reporting within systematic reviews even though a plethora of guidelines exist. This review underscores the need for promoting the completeness of and adherence to transparent systematic search reporting within systematic reviews. PMID:26052651

  18. Quality of reporting in oncology studies: A systematic analysis of literature reviews and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoirard, Romain; Bourmaud, Aurélie; Oriol, Mathieu; Tinquaut, Fabien; Méry, Benoîte; Langrand-Escure, Julien; Vallard, Alexis; Fournel, Pierre; Magné, Nicolas; Chauvin, Franck

    2017-04-01

    The present review gives an overview of systematic reviews published in peer reviewed Journals analysing quality of reporting in oncology studies. PUBMED and Cochrane library were searched to identify systematic reviews assessing quality of reporting for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies (OBS). Recommendations and primary endpoints used to assess the quality of reporting were described. Intrinsic quality of reporting was analyzed using an Overall Quality Score for literature Reviews (OQSR). Main evaluation themes were overall quality of reporting (20/58) and reporting of Health-Related Quality Of Life (HRQOL) in RCTs (7/58). Reporting recommendations used were not detailed in 56.9% of reviews. Insufficient reporting for the methodological description (randomization, blinding details, and allocation concealment) and the rationale for using specific measure of HRQOL were highlighted. OQSR was significantly higher for reviews published between 2010 and 2014 (after the PRISMA Publication), as compared to those published between 1996-2009 (median OQSR 10 (10-11) versus median OQSR 9 (6-10) respectively, p=0.0053). Intrinsic quality of reporting is satisfactory and has been improved in the last years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Revisiting cruciate paralysis: A case report and systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Hopkins

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Numerous cases of trauma associated cruciate paralysis have been reported in the literature; however, there remains a strong need for further study of the condition. While certain risk factors can be elicited from currently reported studies, insignificant data exist to make any sound conclusion concerning whether surgical intervention is always the best method of treatment.

  20. Reporting Multiple Individual Injuries in Studies of Team Ball Sports: A Systematic Review of Current Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Fortington, Lauren V; van der Worp, Henk; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Finch, Caroline F

    2017-01-01

    Background To identify and prioritise targets for injury prevention efforts, injury incidence studies are widely reported. The accuracy and consistency in calculation and reporting of injury incidence is crucial. Many individuals experience more than one injury but multiple injuries are not consistently reported in sport injury incidence studies. Objective The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate current practice of how multiple injuries within individuals have been defined and repor...

  1. Recurring intracranial malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor: case report and systematic review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Munckhof, Pepijn; Germans, Menno R.; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Y. N.; Oldenburger, Foppe; Troost, Dirk; Vandertop, W. Peter

    2011-01-01

    To report the clinical presentation and management of an intracranial frontoparietal malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) and its recurrence in a 6-year-old girl, along with a systematic review of the literature. A previously healthy 6-year-old girl presented with severe signs of

  2. Do authors report surgical expertise in open spine surgery related randomized controlled trials? A systematic review on quality of reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oldenrijk, Jakob; van Berkel, Youri; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; Bhandari, Mohit; Poolman, Rudolf W.

    2013-01-01

    A systematic review of published trials in orthopedic spine literature. To determine the quality of reporting in open spine surgery randomized controlled trials (RCTs) between 2005 and 2010 with special focus on the reporting of surgical skill or expertise. In technically demanding procedures such

  3. Hematology journals do not sufficiently adhere to reporting guidelines: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayant, C; Smith, C; Sims, M; Vassar, M

    2017-04-01

    Essentials Reporting guidelines and trial/review registration aim to limit bias in research. We systematically reviewed hematology journals to examine the use of these policies. Forty-eight percent of journals made no use of these policies. Improving the use of reporting guidelines will improve research for all stakeholders. Background Reporting guidelines and trial/review registration policies have been instituted in order to minimize bias and improve research practices. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the policies of hematology journals concerning reporting guideline adoption and trial/review registration. Methods We performed a web-based data abstraction from the Instructions for Authors of 67 hematology journals catalogued in the Expanded Science Citation Index of the 2014 Journal Citation Reports to identify whether each journal required, recommended or made no mention of the following reporting guidelines: EQUATOR, ICMJE, CONSORT, MOOSE, QUOROM, PRISMA, STARD, STROBE, ARRIVE and CARE. We also extracted whether journals required or recommended trial or systematic review registration. We e-mailed editors three times to determine which types of studies their journal accepts. Results Forty-eight per cent (32/67) of hematology journals do not adhere to any reporting guidelines. For responding journals, the QUOROM statement, MOOSE, CARE and PROSPERO were the least often mentioned, whereas the ICMJE guidelines, CONSORT statement and general trial registration were most often mentioned. Discussion Reporting guidelines are infrequently required or recommended by hematology journals. Furthermore, few require clinical trial or systematic review database registration. A higher rate of adherence to reporting guidelines can prevent bias from entering the literature. Participation from all stakeholders, including authors and journal editors, to improve reporting guideline and policy practices is required. © 2017 International Society on Thrombosis

  4. The value of patient reporting to the pharmacovigilance system: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inácio, Pedro; Cavaco, Afonso; Airaksinen, Marja

    2017-02-01

    Current trends in pharmacovigilance systems are veering towards patient involvement in spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The aim of the current systematic review was to identify what is known and what remains unknown with respect to patient reporting to pharmacovigilance systems. A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, CINAHL, Journals@Ovid and the Cochrane Library. Studies were included if they contained: (i) reviews about patient reporting; (ii) evaluation of patient reports to national or supranational pharmacovigilance authorities; (iii) a comparison between patient and healthcare professional (HCP) reports submitted to pharmacovigilance authorities; and (iv) surveys of patient experiences, opinions and awareness about reporting ADRs. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed according to principles of Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE). A total of thirty four studies were included. Five of the studies were reviews (two of which systematic reviews), fourteen retrospective observational studies, nine surveys and six applied mixed research methods. Patient reporting has the advantages of bringing novel information about ADRs. It provides a more detailed description of ADRs, and reports about different drugs and system organ classes when compared with HCP reporting. In addition, patients describe the severity and impact of ADRs on daily life, complementing information derived from HCPs. Patient reporting is relatively rare in most countries. Patient reporting adds new information, and perspective about ADRs in a way otherwise unavailable. This can contribute to better decision-making processes in regulatory activities. The present review identified gaps in knowledge that should be addressed to improve our understanding of the full potential and drawbacks of patient reporting. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  5. A systematic review of comparisons between protocols or registrations and full reports in primary biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowei Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective study protocols and registrations can play a significant role in reducing incomplete or selective reporting of primary biomedical research, because they are pre-specified blueprints which are available for the evaluation of, and comparison with, full reports. However, inconsistencies between protocols or registrations and full reports have been frequently documented. In this systematic review, which forms part of our series on the state of reporting of primary biomedical, we aimed to survey the existing evidence of inconsistencies between protocols or registrations (i.e., what was planned to be done and/or what was actually done and full reports (i.e., what was reported in the literature; this was based on findings from systematic reviews and surveys in the literature. Methods Electronic databases, including CINAHL, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and EMBASE, were searched to identify eligible surveys and systematic reviews. Our primary outcome was the level of inconsistency (expressed as a percentage, with higher percentages indicating greater inconsistency between protocols or registration and full reports. We summarized the findings from the included systematic reviews and surveys qualitatively. Results There were 37 studies (33 surveys and 4 systematic reviews included in our analyses. Most studies (n = 36 compared protocols or registrations with full reports in clinical trials, while a single survey focused on primary studies of clinical trials and observational research. High inconsistency levels were found in outcome reporting (ranging from 14% to 100%, subgroup reporting (from 12% to 100%, statistical analyses (from 9% to 47%, and other measure comparisons. Some factors, such as outcomes with significant results, sponsorship, type of outcome and disease speciality were reported to be significantly related to inconsistent reporting. Conclusions We found that inconsistent reporting between protocols or

  6. Systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momsen, Anne-Mette Hedeager; Hald, Kathrine; Nielsen, Claus Vinther

    2017-01-01

    REVIEW OBJECTIVE/QUESTION: The objective of this review is to identify the effectiveness of expanded cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in patients diagnosed with coronary heart disease (CHD). Specifically, the review question is: What is the effectiveness of expanded CR compared to standard CR in adult...

  7. Epidemiology, methodological and reporting characteristics of systematic reviews of nursing interventions published in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chunhu; Zhu, Lin; Wang, Xue; Qin, Chunxia; Xu, Qi; Tian, Jinhui

    2014-12-01

    The importance of systematic reviews (SRs) of nursing interventions' impact on practice makes their methodological quality and reporting characteristics especially important as it directly influence their utility for clinicians, patients and policy makers.The study aims to assess the methodological quality and reporting characteristics of SRs of nursing interventions in Chinese nursing journals. Three Chinese databases were searched for SRs of nursing interventions from inception to October 2011. The assessment of multiple systematic reviews (AMSTAR) and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses (PRISMA) statements were used to assess methodological quality and reporting characteristics. Seventy-four SRs were included. The proportion of SRs complying with AMSTAR checklist items ranged from 0% to 82.4%. No SRs reported an 'a priori' design or conflict of interest. Only four items were found to be reported in more than 50% of the SRs: a list of included and excluded studies, the scientific quality of included studies, the appropriate use of methods to combine findings, and formulating conclusions appropriately. The majority of SRs of nursing interventions in China had major methodological and reporting flaws that limited their value to guide decisions. Chinese authors and journals should adopt and keep up with the AMSTAR and PRISMA statements to improve the quality of SRs in this field. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Hip Joint Osteochondroma: Systematic Review of the Literature and Report of Three Further Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim M. Makhdom

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to systematically review the literature with regards to surgical treatment of patients with hip joint osteochondromas, and to report our surgical management of three paediatric patients who had femoral neck or acetabular osteochondromas in association with acetabular dysplasia. We performed a systematic review using PubMed and Embase databases for all studies that reported surgical treatments for patients with peritrochanteric or acetabular osteochondroma with or without acetabular dysplasia. We also retrospectively reviewed three patients who were diagnosed with a hip osteochondroma in association with actetabular dysplasia. These patients were known to have hereditary multiple exostoses (HME. The systematic review revealed 21 studies that met our inclusion criteria. All studies were case reports and retrospective in nature and failed to conclude a uniform treatment plan. The three reported cases illustrate successful excision of hip osteochondromas and treatment of acetabular dysplasia. Early excision of hip osteochondromas might prevent acetabular dysplasia in HME patients. Routine radiographic pelvic survey at the time of diagnosis of HME is recommended for early detection of hip osteochondromas and acetabular dysplasia in these children.

  9. Are validated patient-reported outcomes used on children in pediatric otolaryngology? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kevin; Piraquive, Jacquelyn; Troiano, Chelsea A; Sulibhavi, Anita; Grundfast, Kenneth M; Levi, Jessica R

    2018-02-01

    Review the pediatric otolaryngology literature to 1) identify studies in which children completed patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures and 2) appraise the psychometric quality and validity of these PROs as they apply to pediatrics. In October 2016, a systematic review was performed by two reviewers on PubMed/MEDLINE and EMBASE for all otolaryngology-related studies that utilized PROs in children. Inclusion criteria included articles that required children (ageotolaryngology and some studies utilized PROs that were not validated or not validated for use in this age group. Future efforts to design and validate more instruments may be warranted. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Reported Radiation Overexposure Accidents Worldwide, 1980-2013: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coeytaux, Karen; Bey, Eric; Christensen, Doran; Glassman, Erik S.; Murdock, Becky; Doucet, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    Background Radiation overexposure accidents are rare but can have severe long-term health consequences. Although underreporting can be an issue, some extensive literature reviews of reported radiation overexposures have been performed and constitute a sound basis for conclusions on general trends. Building further on this work, we performed a systematic review that completes previous reviews and provides new information on characteristics and trends of reported radiation accidents. Methods We searched publications and reports from MEDLINE, EMBASE, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the International Radiation Protection Association, the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site radiation accident registry over 1980-2013. We retrieved the reported overexposure cases, systematically extracted selected information, and performed a descriptive analysis. Results 297 out of 5189 publications and reports and 194 records from the REAC/TS registry met our eligibility criteria. From these, 634 reported radiation accidents were retrieved, involving 2390 overexposed people, of whom 190 died from their overexposure. The number of reported cases has decreased for all types of radiation use, but the medical one. 64% of retrieved overexposure cases occurred with the use of radiation therapy and fluoroscopy. Additionally, the types of reported accidents differed significantly across regions. Conclusions This review provides an updated and broader view of reported radiation overexposures. It suggests an overall decline in reported radiation overexposures over 1980-2013. The greatest share of reported overexposures occurred in the medical fields using radiation therapy and fluoroscopy; this larger number of reported overexposures accidents indicates the potential need for enhanced quality assurance programs. Our data also highlights

  11. Boards of directors, audit committees and financial reporting quality. A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Skorulska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of financial reporting quality is a problematic task because financial reporting is difficult to observe and measure. The aim of the article is to present the methods of financial reporting quality meas-urement and a systematic review of literature on the effects of corporate governance reforms on the qualityof financial reporting. The main research questions are: (1 what are the possibilities of measuring financial reporting for research purposes, (2 which of the methods of measuring the quality of financial reporting are used in research on corporate governance, and (3 which variables used in measuring corporate gov-ernance factors affect financial reporting quality? To answer these questions, a critical analysis of literature and a systematic review of research results using meta-analysis was made. For selecting the best articles a three-step collection strategy was used, which resulted in a database of 38 publications. The review has shown that for measuring the quality of financial reporting researchers most frequently use models based on measurement of risk management, and the most common independent variables describing corporate governance are: the size of the audit committee, presence of independent directors on the supervisory board, dual role of CEO, proportion of independent directors in the audit committee, size of the supervisory board, proportion of accounting experts in the audit committee, and frequency of audit committee meetings

  12. Systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, H; Kirkeskov, L; Hanskov, Dorte Jessing Agerby

    2017-01-01

    . Conclusions: This review suggests that COPD occurs more often among construction workers than among workers who are not exposed to construction dust. It is not possible to draw any conclusions on specific subgroups as most studies analysed construction workers as one united group. In addition, no potential...

  13. Systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, John Thomas; Berg, Kasper Drimer; Lippert, Solvej

    2016-01-01

    trials have challenged this dogma. The aim of this study was to evaluate how endocrine therapy (ET) affects survival in different clinical settings of PCa. Materials and methods A review of published phase II, III and IV studies evaluating the effect of ET on survival was performed. Results In localized...

  14. The effects of implementing synoptic pathology reporting in cancer diagnosis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluijter, Caro E; van Lonkhuijzen, Luc R C W; van Slooten, Henk-Jan; Nagtegaal, Iris D; Overbeek, Lucy I H

    2016-06-01

    Pathology reporting is evolving from a traditional narrative report to a more structured synoptic report. Narrative reporting can cause misinterpretation due to lack of information and structure. In this systematic review, we evaluate the impact of synoptic reporting on completeness of pathology reports and quality of pathology evaluation for solid tumours. Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane databases were systematically searched to identify studies describing the effect of synoptic reporting implementation on completeness of reporting and quality of pathology evaluation of solid malignant tumours. Thirty-three studies met the inclusion criteria. All studies, except one, reported an increased overall completeness of pathology reports after introduction of synoptic reporting (SR). Most frequently studied cancers were breast (n = 9) and colorectal cancer (n = 16). For breast cancer, narrative reports adequately described 'tumour type' and 'nodal status'. Synoptic reporting resulted in improved description of 'resection margins', 'DCIS size', 'location' and 'presence of calcifications'. For colorectal cancer, narrative reports adequately reported 'tumour type', 'invasion depth', 'lymph node counts' and 'nodal status'. Synoptic reporting resulted in increased reporting of 'circumferential margin', 'resection margin', 'perineural invasion' and 'lymphovascular invasion'. In addition, increased numbers of reported lymph nodes were found in synoptic reports. Narrative reports of other cancer types described the traditional parameters adequately, whereas for 'resection margins' and '(lympho)vascular/perineural invasion', implementation of synoptic reporting was necessary. Synoptic reporting results in improved reporting of clinical relevant data. Demonstration of clinical impact of this improved method of pathology reporting is required for successful introduction and implementation in daily pathology practice.

  15. Association between prospective registration and overall reporting and methodological quality of systematic reviews: a meta-epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Long; Tian, Jin-Hui; Li, Ya-Nan; Pan, Jia-Xue; Li, Ge; Wei, Dang; Xing, Xin; Pan, Bei; Chen, Yao-Long; Song, Fu-Jian; Yang, Ke-Hu

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in main characteristics, reporting and methodological quality between prospectively registered and nonregistered systematic reviews. PubMed was searched to identify systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials published in 2015 in English. After title and abstract screening, potentially relevant reviews were divided into three groups: registered non-Cochrane reviews, Cochrane reviews, and nonregistered reviews. For each group, random number tables were generated in Microsoft Excel, and the first 50 eligible studies from each group were randomly selected. Data of interest from systematic reviews were extracted. Regression analyses were conducted to explore the association between total Revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Review (R-AMSTAR) or Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) scores and the selected characteristics of systematic reviews. The conducting and reporting of literature search in registered reviews were superior to nonregistered reviews. Differences in 9 of the 11 R-AMSTAR items were statistically significant between registered and nonregistered reviews. The total R-AMSTAR score of registered reviews was higher than nonregistered reviews [mean difference (MD) = 4.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.70, 5.94]. Sensitivity analysis by excluding the registration-related item presented similar result (MD = 4.34, 95% CI: 3.28, 5.40). Total PRISMA scores of registered reviews were significantly higher than nonregistered reviews (all reviews: MD = 1.47, 95% CI: 0.64-2.30; non-Cochrane reviews: MD = 1.49, 95% CI: 0.56-2.42). However, the difference in the total PRISMA score was no longer statistically significant after excluding the item related to registration (item 5). Regression analyses showed similar results. Prospective registration may at least indirectly improve the overall methodological quality of systematic reviews, although its impact

  16. Reporting of sources of funding in systematic reviews in periodontology and implant dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggion, C M; Atieh, M; Zanicotti, D G

    2014-02-01

    Industry-supported clinical trials may present better outcomes than those supported by other sources. The aim of this paper was to assess whether systematic reviews (SRs) published in periodontology and implant dentistry report and discuss the influence of funding sources on study results. Two reviewers conducted a comprehensive search in PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews independently and in duplicate to identify SRs published up to 11 November 2012. Speciality dental journals and the reference lists of included SRs were also scrutinised. Information on the reporting and discussion of funding sources of primary studies included in the SRs was extracted independently and in duplicate. Any disagreement regarding SR selection or data extraction was discussed until consensus was achieved. Of 146 SRs included in the assessment, only 45 (31%) reported the funding sources of primary studies. Fourteen (10%) SRs discussed the potential influence of funding sources on study results, that is, sponsorship bias. Funding sources are inadequately reported and discussed in SRs in periodontology and implant dentistry. Assessment, reporting, and critical appraisal of potential sponsorship bias of meta-analytic estimates are paramount to provide proper guidance for clinical treatments.

  17. Identifying approaches for assessing methodological and reporting quality of systematic reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pussegoda, Kusala; Turner, Lucy; Garritty, Chantelle

    2017-01-01

    there are potential gaps in research best-practice guidance materials. The aims of this study are to identify reports assessing the methodological quality (MQ) and/or reporting quality (RQ) of a cohort of SRs and to assess their number, general characteristics, and approaches to 'quality' assessment over time......BACKGROUND: The methodological quality and completeness of reporting of the systematic reviews (SRs) is fundamental to optimal implementation of evidence-based health care and the reduction of research waste. Methods exist to appraise SRs yet little is known about how they are used in SRs or where...... or reporting guidelines used as proxy to assess RQ were used in 80% (61/76) of identified reports. These included two reporting guidelines (PRISMA and QUOROM) and five quality assessment tools (AMSTAR, R-AMSTAR, OQAQ, Mulrow, Sacks) and GRADE criteria. The remaining 24% (18/76) of reports developed their own...

  18. The quality of reports of medical and public health research from Palestinian institutions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarqouni, Loai; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen Me; Elessi, Khamis; Obeidallah, Mohammad; Bjertness, Espen; Chalmers, Iain

    2017-06-09

    Over the past decade, there has been an increase in reports of health research from Palestine, but no assessment of their quality. We have assessed the quality of reports of Palestinian health research and factors associated with it. This is a systematic review. We searched Medline and Scopus for reports of original research relevant to human health or healthcare authored by researchers affiliated with Palestinian institutions and published between January 2000 and August 2015 inclusive. We used international guidelines to assess report quality, classifying as adequate those with ≥50% of items completely addressed. Of 2383 reports identified, 497 met our inclusion criteria. Just over half (264; 55%) of these were published after 2010. 354 (71%) of first authors were affiliated with Palestinian institutions; 261 (53%) reports had coauthors from outside Palestine. The majority of the reports in our study were inadequately reported (342; 69%), and none had adequately reported all items. Of 439 observational studies, 11 (2.5%) reports provided adequate descriptions of eligibility criteria and selection procedures; 35 (8%) reported efforts to address potential sources of bias; 50 (11.4%) reported the basis for the study sample size; and funding sources were mentioned in 74 reports (17%). Higher reporting quality was associated with international affiliation of the first author (prevalence ratio (PR) 1.6 (95% CI 1.2 to 2.1)), international collaboration (PR 2.9 (95% CI 1.7 to 5.0)), international funding (PR 1.9 (95% CI1.5 to 2.5)), publication after 2005 (PR 3.9 (95% CI 1.8 to 8.5)) and four or more coauthors (PR 1.5 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.1)). Although the quality of reports of Palestinian research has improved in recent years, it remains well below an acceptable standard. International reporting guidelines should be used to guide research design and improve the quality of reports of research. The systematic review protocol was registered in the International Prospective

  19. Measurement properties of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMS) in Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Andrew; Liles, Clive; Rushton, Alison; Kyte, Derek G

    2014-12-01

    This systematic review investigated the measurement properties of disease-specific patient-reported outcome measures used in Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome. Two independent reviewers conducted a systematic search of key databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINHAL+ and the Cochrane Library from inception to August 2013) to identify relevant studies. A third reviewer mediated in the event of disagreement. Methodological quality was evaluated using the validated COSMIN (Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments) tool. Data synthesis across studies determined the level of evidence for each patient-reported outcome measure. The search strategy returned 2177 citations. Following the eligibility review phase, seven studies, evaluating twelve different patient-reported outcome measures, met inclusion criteria. A 'moderate' level of evidence supported the structural validity of several measures: the Flandry Questionnaire, Anterior Knee Pain Scale, Functional Index Questionnaire, Eng and Pierrynowski Questionnaire and Visual Analogue Scales for 'usual' and 'worst' pain. In addition, there was a 'Limited' level of evidence supporting the test-retest reliability and validity (cross-cultural, hypothesis testing) of the Persian version of the Anterior Knee Pain Scale. Other measurement properties were evaluated with poor methodological quality, and many properties were not evaluated in any of the included papers. Current disease-specific outcome measures for Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome require further investigation. Future studies should evaluate all important measurement properties, utilising an appropriate framework such as COSMIN to guide study design, to facilitate optimal methodological quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A methodological systematic review of what's wrong with meta-ethnography reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Emma F; Ring, Nicola; Thomas, Rebecca; Noyes, Jane; Maxwell, Margaret; Jepson, Ruth

    2014-11-19

    Syntheses of qualitative studies can inform health policy, services and our understanding of patient experience. Meta-ethnography is a systematic seven-phase interpretive qualitative synthesis approach well-suited to producing new theories and conceptual models. However, there are concerns about the quality of meta-ethnography reporting, particularly the analysis and synthesis processes. Our aim was to investigate the application and reporting of methods in recent meta-ethnography journal papers, focusing on the analysis and synthesis process and output. Methodological systematic review of health-related meta-ethnography journal papers published from 2012-2013. We searched six electronic databases, Google Scholar and Zetoc for papers using key terms including 'meta-ethnography.' Two authors independently screened papers by title and abstract with 100% agreement. We identified 32 relevant papers. Three authors independently extracted data and all authors analysed the application and reporting of methods using content analysis. Meta-ethnography was applied in diverse ways, sometimes inappropriately. In 13% of papers the approach did not suit the research aim. In 66% of papers reviewers did not follow the principles of meta-ethnography. The analytical and synthesis processes were poorly reported overall. In only 31% of papers reviewers clearly described how they analysed conceptual data from primary studies (phase 5, 'translation' of studies) and in only one paper (3%) reviewers explicitly described how they conducted the analytic synthesis process (phase 6). In 38% of papers we could not ascertain if reviewers had achieved any new interpretation of primary studies. In over 30% of papers seminal methodological texts which could have informed methods were not cited. We believe this is the first in-depth methodological systematic review of meta-ethnography conduct and reporting. Meta-ethnography is an evolving approach. Current reporting of methods, analysis and

  1. Measurement properties of patient reported outcome measures for spondyloarthritis: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Png, Kelly; Kwan, Yu Heng; Leung, Ying Ying; Phang, Jie Kie; Lau, Jia Qi; Lim, Ka Keat; Chew, Eng Hui; Low, Lian Leng; Tan, Chuen Seng; Thumboo, Julian; Fong, Warren; Østbye, Truls

    2018-03-21

    This systematic review aimed to identify studies investigating measurement properties of patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) for spondyloarthritis (SpA), and to evaluate their methodological quality and level of evidence relating to the measurement properties of PROMs. This systematic review was guided by the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA). Articles published before 30 June 2017 were retrieved from PubMed ® , Embase ® , and PsychINFO ® (Ovid). Methodological quality and level of evidence were evaluated according to recommendations from the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN). We identified 60 unique PROMs from 125 studies in 39 countries. Twenty-one PROMs were validated for two or more SpA subtypes. The literature examined hypothesis testing (82.4%) most frequently followed by reliability (60.0%). A percentage of 77.7% and 42.7% of studies that assessed PROMs for hypothesis testing and reliability, respectively had "fair" or better methodological quality. Among the PROMs identified, 41.7% were studied in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) only and 23.3% were studied in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) only. The more extensively assessed PROMs included the ankylosing spondylitis quality of life (ASQoL) and bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI) for ankylosing spondylitis, and the psoriatic arthritis quality of life questionnaire (VITACORA-19) for psoriatic arthritis. This study identified 60 unique PROMs through a systematic review and synthesized evidence of the measurement properties of the PROMs. There is a lack of validation of PROMs for use across SpA subtypes. Future studies may consider validating PROMs for use across different SpA subtypes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The PRISMA extension statement for reporting of systematic reviews incorporating network meta-analyses of health care interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutton, Brian; Salanti, Georgia; Caldwell, Deborah M

    2015-01-01

    The PRISMA statement is a reporting guideline designed to improve the completeness of reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Authors have used this guideline worldwide to prepare their reviews for publication. In the past, these reports typically compared 2 treatment alternatives. Wit...

  3. Reporting Multiple Individual Injuries in Studies of Team Ball Sports: A Systematic Review of Current Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortington, Lauren V; van der Worp, Henk; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Finch, Caroline F

    2017-06-01

    To identify and prioritise targets for injury prevention efforts, injury incidence studies are widely reported. The accuracy and consistency in calculation and reporting of injury incidence is crucial. Many individuals experience more than one injury but multiple injuries are not consistently reported in sport injury incidence studies. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate current practice of how multiple injuries within individuals have been defined and reported in prospective, long-term, injury studies in team ball sports. A systematic search of three online databases for articles published before 2016. Publications were included if (1) they collected prospective data on musculoskeletal injuries in individual participants; (2) the study duration was >1 consecutive calendar year/season; and (3) individuals were the unit of analysis. Key study features were summarised, including definitions of injury, how multiple individual injuries were reported and results relating to multiple injuries. Of the 71 publications included, half did not specifically indicate multiple individual injuries; those that did were largely limited to reporting recurrent injuries. Eight studies reported the number/proportion of athletes with more than one injury, and 11 studies presented the mean/number of injuries per athlete. Despite it being relatively common to collect data on individuals across more than one season, the reporting of multiple injuries within individuals is much more limited. Ultimately, better addressing of multiple injuries will improve the accuracy of injury incidence studies and enable more precise targeting and monitoring of the effectiveness of preventive interventions.

  4. Protocol for the systematic review of the reporting of transoral robotic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Barry G; Blencowe, Natalie S; Howes, Noah; Cousins, Sian; Avery, Kerry N L; Gormley, Alexander; Radford, Phil; Elliott, Daisy; Byrne, Benjamin; Wilson, Nicholas; Hinchliffe, Robert; Blazeby, Jane M

    2018-01-23

    Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has been adopted in some parts of the world as an innovative approach to the resection of oropharyngeal tumours. The development, details and outcomes of early-to-later phase evaluation of this technique and the quality of evidence to support its adoption into practice have hitherto not been summarised. The aim of this review is to identify and summarise the early and later phase studies of, and evidence for, TORS and to understand how early phase studies report intervention development, governance procedures and selection and reporting of outcomes to optimise methods for using the Idea, Development, Exploration, Assessment, Long-term follow-up (IDEAL) framework for surgical innovation that informs evidence-based practice. The protocol has been written in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols checklist. Electronic searches in OVID SP versions of Medline and EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from the start of indexing to 30 April 2017 will identify studies reporting TORS. At least two independent researchers will identify studies for inclusion. Two researchers will extract data from each paper. Studies will be categorised into IDEAL stages of study design from 'pre-IDEAL' to randomised controlled trials (stage 3). Data will be collected about the (1) novel intervention and criteria for modification, (2) governance arrangements and patient information provision, (3) outcome domains selected and reported and (4) quality of study design, conduct and reporting. Descriptive statistics and a narrative synthesis will be presented. The results of this systematic review will be presented at relevant conferences. The methods will be used to inform future reviews exploring other novel surgical innovations. The findings will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. This study does not require ethical approval. © Article

  5. Intranasal tissue necrosis associated with opioid abuse: Case report and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Danielle A; Wise, Sarah K; DelGaudio, John M; Chowdhury, Naweed I; Levy, Joshua M

    2017-12-27

    Opioid abuse is a common disorder affecting over 2 million Americans. Intranasal tissue necrosis is a previously described sequela of nasal opioid inhalation, with a similar presentation to invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS). The goal of this case report and systematic review is to evaluate the evidence supporting this uncommon disease, with qualitative analysis of the presentation, management and treatment outcomes. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines were utilized to identify English-language studies reporting intranasal mucosal injury associated with prescription opioid abuse. Primary outcomes included clinical presentation, treatment strategies, and outcomes. Systematic review identified 61 patients for qualitative analysis. Common clinical features include facial pain without a history of chronic sinusitis or known immunodeficiency. Diagnostic nasal endoscopy revealed superficial debris with underlying tissue necrosis, consistent with a preliminary diagnosis of IFRS. Characteristic pathologic findings include mucosal ulceration with an overlying acellular substrate, often with polarizable material. Fungal colonization is often reported, with several accounts of angiocentric invasion in immunocompetent patients. Complete symptom resolution is expected following surgical debridement with cessation of intranasal opioid inhalation, with 89% of identified patients experiencing a complete resolution of disease. Intranasal opioid abuse is a prevalent condition associated with chronic pain and tissue necrosis that is clinically concerning for invasive fungal disease. Whereas IFRS must be excluded, even in patients without known immunodeficiency, complete resolution of symptoms can be expected following surgical debridement with cessation of opioid abuse. Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Lean management in health care: definition, concepts, methodology and effects reported (systematic review protocol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Adegboyega K; Rotter, Thomas; Kinsman, Leigh; Sari, Nazmi; Harrison, Liz; Jeffery, Cathy; Kutz, Mareike; Khan, Mohammad F; Flynn, Rachel

    2014-09-19

    Lean is a set of operating philosophies and methods that help create a maximum value for patients by reducing waste and waits. It emphasizes the consideration of the customer's needs, employee involvement and continuous improvement. Research on the application and implementation of lean principles in health care has been limited. This is a protocol for a systematic review, following the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) methodology. The review aims to document, catalogue and synthesize the existing literature on the effects of lean implementation in health care settings especially the potential effects on professional practice and health care outcomes. We have developed a Medline keyword search strategy, and this focused strategy will be translated into other databases. All search strategies will be provided in the review. The method proposed by the Cochrane EPOC group regarding randomized study designs, non-randomised controlled trials controlled before and after studies and interrupted time series will be followed. In addition, we will also include cohort, case-control studies, and relevant non-comparative publications such as case reports. We will categorize and analyse the review findings according to the study design employed, the study quality (low- versus high-quality studies) and the reported types of implementation in the primary studies. We will present the results of studies in a tabular form. Overall, the systematic review aims to identify, assess and synthesize the evidence to underpin the implementation of lean activities in health care settings as defined in this protocol. As a result, the review will provide an evidence base for the effectiveness of lean and implementation methodologies reported in health care. PROSPERO CRD42014008853.

  7. Attitudes and perceived barriers influencing incident reporting by nurses and their correlation with reported incidents: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Wing Mei; Koh, Serena Siew Lin; Chow, Yeow Leng

    Clinical incident reporting is an integral feature of risk management system in the healthcare sector. By reporting clinical incidents, nurses allow for learning from errors, identification of error patterns and development of error preventive strategies. The need to understand attitudes to reporting, perceived barriers and incident reporting patterns by nurses are the core highlights of this review. INCLUSION CRITERIA: This review considered descriptive quantitative studies that examined nurses' attitudes or perceived barriers towards incident reporting.The participants in this review were nurses working in acute care settings or step-down care settings. Studies that included non-nursing healthcare personnel were excluded.This review considered studies which examined nurses' attitudes towards incident reporting, perceived barriers and incident reporting practices.The outcomes of interest were the attitudes that nurses have towards incident reporting, perceived barriers and the types of reported incidents in correlation with nurses' attitudes and barriers. A three-step search strategy was utilised in this review. An initial limited search of CINAHL and MEDLINE was undertaken. Search strategies were then developed using identified keywords and index terms. Lastly, the reference lists of all identified articles were examined. All searches were limited to studies published in English, between 1991 and 2010. The studies were independently assessed by two reviewers using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklist for Descriptive/ Case Series studies. The reviewers extracted data independently from included studies using the Joanna Briggs Institute Data Extraction Form for Descriptive/ Case Series studies. Due to the descriptive nature of the study designs, statistical pooling was not possible. Therefore, the findings of this systematic review are presented in a narrative summary. Fifty-five papers were identified from the searches based on their titles and

  8. Full Spectrum of Reported Symptoms of Bilateral Vestibulopathy Needs Further Investigation—A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Lucieer

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo systematically review the symptoms reported by patients with bilateral vestibulopathy (BV in clinical studies and case reports. This would serve as the first step in establishing a validated patient-reported outcome measures (PROM for BV.MethodsA search on symptoms reported by patients with BV was performed in PubMed, and all publications covering these symptoms were included. Exclusion criteria comprised reviews and insufficient details about the frequency of occurrence of symptoms.Results1,442 articles were retrieved. 88 studies were included (41 clinical studies, 47 case reports. In consensus, 68 descriptions of symptoms were classified into 6 common and generic symptoms. Frequency of symptoms in clinical studies and case reports were reviewed, respectively; imbalance (91 and 86%, chronic dizziness (58 and 62%, oscillopsia (50 and 70%, and recurrent vertigo (33 and 67%. BV could be accompanied by hearing loss (33 and 43% and tinnitus (15 and 36%. 15 clinical studies and 10 case reports reported symptoms beyond vestibular and hearing deficits such as limited social activities, depression, concentration, and memory impairment and reduced quality of life in general.ConclusionThe literature on BV symptomatology mainly focuses on classic symptoms such as imbalance and oscillopsia, while only few report additional symptoms such as cognitive memory impairment and performing dual tasks. In fact, none of the reviewed clinical studies and case reports provided a comprehensive overview of BV symptoms. To develop a validated PROM, qualitative research using semi-structured and unstructured interviews is needed to explore the full spectrum of BV symptoms.

  9. A systematic review of measurement properties of patient reported outcome measures in psoriatic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Pil; Klokker, Louise; Orbai, Ana Maria

    2018-01-01

    Background: An updated psoriatic arthritis (PsA) core outcome set (COS) for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was endorsed at the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) meeting in 2016. Objectives: To synthesize the evidence on measurement properties of patient reported outcome measures...... (PROMs) for PsA and thereby contribute to development of a PsA core outcome measurement set (COMS) as described by the OMERACT Filter 2.0. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO on Jan 1, 2017 to identify full-text articles with an aim of assessing...... the measurement properties of PROMs in PsA. Two independent reviewers rated the quality of studies using the COnsensus based standards for the Selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist, and performed a qualitative evidence synthesis. Results: Fifty-five studies were included in the systematic...

  10. Systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnard, K. D.; Lloyd, C. E.; Skinner, T. C.

    2007-01-01

    mixed results, with one study reporting quality of life benefits and one reporting no evidence of quality of life benefits. Conclusions: There is conflicting evidence reported in the various studies on the quality of life benefits of CSII in Type 1 diabetes. Existing research is flawed, making......Aim: To review systematically the published literature addressing whether continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) provides any quality of life benefits to people with Type 1 diabetes. Methods: Electronic databases and published references were searched and a consultation with two...

  11. Interformat reliability of digital psychiatric self-report questionnaires: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsson, Sven; Maathz, Pernilla; Hursti, Timo

    2014-12-03

    Research on Internet-based interventions typically use digital versions of pen and paper self-report symptom scales. However, adaptation into the digital format could affect the psychometric properties of established self-report scales. Several studies have investigated differences between digital and pen and paper versions of instruments, but no systematic review of the results has yet been done. This review aims to assess the interformat reliability of self-report symptom scales used in digital or online psychotherapy research. Three databases (MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO) were systematically reviewed for studies investigating the reliability between digital and pen and paper versions of psychiatric symptom scales. From a total of 1504 publications, 33 were included in the review, and interformat reliability of 40 different symptom scales was assessed. Significant differences in mean total scores between formats were found in 10 of 62 analyses. These differences were found in just a few studies, which indicates that the results were due to study effects and sample effects rather than unreliable instruments. The interformat reliability ranged from r=.35 to r=.99; however, the majority of instruments showed a strong correlation between format scores. The quality of the included studies varied, and several studies had insufficient power to detect small differences between formats. When digital versions of self-report symptom scales are compared to pen and paper versions, most scales show high interformat reliability. This supports the reliability of results obtained in psychotherapy research on the Internet and the comparability of the results to traditional psychotherapy research. There are, however, some instruments that consistently show low interformat reliability, suggesting that these conclusions cannot be generalized to all questionnaires. Most studies had at least some methodological issues with insufficient statistical power being the most common issue

  12. Are physical activity studies in Hispanics meeting reporting guidelines for continuous monitoring technology? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layne, Charles S; Parker, Nathan H; Soltero, Erica G; Rosales Chavez, José; O'Connor, Daniel P; Gallagher, Martina R; Lee, Rebecca E

    2015-09-18

    Continuous monitoring technologies such as accelerometers and pedometers are the gold standard for physical activity (PA) measurement. However, inconsistencies in use, analysis, and reporting limit the understanding of dose-response relationships involving PA and the ability to make comparisons across studies and population subgroups. These issues are particularly detrimental to the study of PA across different ethnicities with different PA habits. This systematic review examined the inclusion of published guidelines involving data collection, processing, and reporting among articles using accelerometers or pedometers in Hispanic or Latino populations. English (PubMed; EbscoHost) and Spanish (SCIELO; Biblioteca Virtual en Salud) articles published between 2000 and 2013 using accelerometers or pedometers to measure PA among Hispanics or Latinos were identified through systematic literature searches. Of the 253 abstracts which were initially reviewed, 57 met eligibility criteria (44 accelerometer, 13 pedometer). Articles were coded and reviewed to evaluate compliance with recommended guidelines (N = 20), and the percentage of accelerometer and pedometer articles following each guideline were computed and reported. On average, 57.1 % of accelerometer and 62.2 % of pedometer articles reported each recommended guideline for data collection. Device manufacturer and model were reported most frequently, and provision of instructions for device wear in Spanish was reported least frequently. On average, 29.6 % of accelerometer articles reported each guideline for data processing. Definitions of an acceptable day for inclusion in analyses were reported most frequently, and definitions of an acceptable hour for inclusion in analyses were reported least frequently. On average, 18.8 % of accelerometer and 85.7 % of pedometer articles included each guideline for data reporting. Accelerometer articles most frequently included average number of valid days and least frequently

  13. Reporting non-adherence in cluster randomised trials: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbla, Schadrac C; DiazOrdaz, Karla

    2018-06-01

    Treatment non-adherence in randomised trials refers to situations where some participants do not receive their allocated treatment as intended. For cluster randomised trials, where the unit of randomisation is a group of participants, non-adherence may occur at the cluster or individual level. When non-adherence occurs, randomisation no longer guarantees that the relationship between treatment receipt and outcome is unconfounded, and the power to detect the treatment effects in intention-to-treat analysis may be reduced. Thus, recording adherence and estimating the causal treatment effect adequately are of interest for clinical trials. To assess the extent of reporting of non-adherence issues in published cluster trials and to establish which methods are currently being used for addressing non-adherence, if any, and whether clustering is accounted for in these. We systematically reviewed 132 cluster trials published in English in 2011 previously identified through a search in PubMed. One-hundred and twenty three cluster trials were included in this systematic review. Non-adherence was reported in 56 cluster trials. Among these, 19 reported a treatment efficacy estimate: per protocol in 15 and as treated in 4. No study discussed the assumptions made by these methods, their plausibility or the sensitivity of the results to deviations from these assumptions. The year of publication of the cluster trials included in this review (2011) could be considered a limitation of this study; however, no new guidelines regarding the reporting and the handling of non-adherence for cluster trials have been published since. In addition, a single reviewer undertook the data extraction. To mitigate this, a second reviewer conducted a validation of the extraction process on 15 randomly selected reports. Agreement was satisfactory (93%). Despite the recommendations of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials statement extension to cluster randomised trials, treatment adherence is

  14. Patient-reported physical activity questionnaires: A systematic review of content and format

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Many patients with chronic illness are limited in their physical activities. This systematic review evaluates the content and format of patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires that measure physical activity in elderly and chronically ill populations. Methods Questionnaires were identified by a systematic literature search of electronic databases (Medline, Embase, PsychINFO & CINAHL), hand searches (reference sections and PROQOLID database) and expert input. A qualitative analysis was conducted to assess the content and format of the questionnaires and a Venn diagram was produced to illustrate this. Each stage of the review process was conducted by at least two independent reviewers. Results 104 questionnaires fulfilled our criteria. From these, 182 physical activity domains and 1965 items were extracted. Initial qualitative analysis of the domains found 11 categories. Further synthesis of the domains found 4 broad categories: 'physical activity related to general activities and mobility', 'physical activity related to activities of daily living', 'physical activity related to work, social or leisure time activities', and '(disease-specific) symptoms related to physical activity'. The Venn diagram showed that no questionnaires covered all 4 categories and that the '(disease-specific) symptoms related to physical activity' category was often not combined with the other categories. Conclusions A large number of questionnaires with a broad range of physical activity content were identified. Although the content could be broadly organised, there was no consensus on the content and format of physical activity PRO questionnaires in elderly and chronically ill populations. Nevertheless, this systematic review will help investigators to select a physical activity PRO questionnaire that best serves their research question and context. PMID:22414164

  15. Support for reporting guidelines in surgical journals needs improvement: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Riaz A; Barai, Ishani; Rajmohan, Shivanchan; Lee, Seon; Anwar, Mohammed O; Fowler, Alexander J; Orgill, Dennis P; Altman, Douglas G

    2017-09-01

    Evidence-based medicine works best if the evidence is reported well. Past studies have shown reporting quality to be lacking in the field of surgery. Reporting guidelines are an important tool for authors to optimize the reporting of their research. The objective of this study was to analyse the frequency and strength of recommendation for such reporting guidelines within surgical journals. A systematic review of the 198 journals within the Journal Citation Report 2014 (surgery category) published by Thomson Reuters was undertaken. The online guide for authors for each journal was screened by two independent groups and results compared. Data regarding the presence and strength of recommendation to use reporting guidelines was extracted. 193 journals were included (as five appeared twice having changed their name). These had a median impact factor of 1.526 (range 0.047-8.327), with a median of 145 articles published per journal (range 29-659), with 34,036 articles published in total over the two-year window 2012-2013. The majority (62%) of surgical journals made no mention of reporting guidelines within their guidelines for authors. Of the 73 (38%) that did mention them, only 14% (10/73) required the use of all relevant reporting guidelines. The most frequently mentioned reporting guideline was CONSORT (46 journals). The mention of reporting guidelines within the guide for authors of surgical journals needs improvement. Authors, reviewers and editors should work to ensure that research is reported in line with the relevant reporting guidelines. Journals should consider hard-wiring adherence to them. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Systematic Review of Reporting Tools Applicable to Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes: Step 1 in Developing Programme Reporting Standards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kågesten

    Full Text Available Complete and accurate reporting of programme preparation, implementation and evaluation processes in the field of sexual and reproductive health (SRH is essential to understand the impact of SRH programmes, as well as to guide their replication and scale-up.To provide an overview of existing reporting tools and identify core items used in programme reporting with a focus on programme preparation, implementation and evaluation processes.A systematic review was completed for the period 2000-2014. Reporting guidelines, checklists and tools, irrespective of study design, applicable for reporting on programmes targeting SRH outcomes, were included. Two independent reviewers screened the title and abstract of all records. Full texts were assessed in duplicate, followed by data extraction on the focus, content area, year of publication, validation and description of reporting items. Data was synthesized using an iterative thematic approach, where items related to programme preparation, implementation and evaluation in each tool were extracted and aggregated into a consolidated list.Out of the 3,656 records screened for title and abstracts, full texts were retrieved for 182 articles, out of which 108 were excluded. Seventy-four full text articles corresponding to 45 reporting tools were retained for synthesis. The majority of tools were developed for reporting on intervention research (n = 15, randomized controlled trials (n = 8 and systematic reviews (n = 7. We identified a total of 50 reporting items, across three main domains and corresponding sub-domains: programme preparation (objective/focus, design, piloting; programme implementation (content, timing/duration/location, providers/staff, participants, delivery, implementation outcomes, and programme evaluation (process evaluation, implementation barriers/facilitators, outcome/impact evaluation.Over the past decade a wide range of tools have been developed to improve the reporting of health research

  17. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in contact sports: a systematic review of all reported pathological cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph C Maroon

    Full Text Available Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE is a neurodegenerative disease associated with head trauma. Although initially believed to affect only boxers, the at-risk population has expanded to encompass a much wider demographic, including American football players, hockey players, wrestlers, and military veterans. This expansion has garnered considerable media attention and public concern for the potential neurodegenerative effects of head trauma. The main aim of this systematic review is to give a complete overview of the common findings and risk factors for CTE as well as the status quo regarding the incidence and prevalence of CTE. This systematic review was performed using PubMed and MEDLINE and includes all neuropathologically confirmed cases of CTE in the medical literature to date, from the first published case in 1954 to August 1, 2013 (n = 153. The demographics, including the primary source of mTBI (mild Traumatic Brain Injury, age and cause of death, ApoE genotype, and history of substance abuse, when listed, were obtained from each case report. The demographics of American football players found to have CTE are also presented separately in order to highlight the most prevalent group of CTE cases reported in recent years. These 153 case reports of CTE represent the largest collection to date. We found that a history of mTBI was the only risk factor consistently associated with CTE. In addition, we found no relationships between CTE and age of death or abnormal ApoE allele. Suicide and the presence of premorbid dementia was not strongly associated with CTE. We conclude that the incidence of CTE remains unknown due to the lack of large, longitudinal studies. Furthermore, the neuropathological and clinical findings related to CTE overlap with many common neurodegenerative diseases. Our review reveals significant limitations of the current CTE case reporting and questions the widespread existence of CTE in contact sports.

  18. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in contact sports: a systematic review of all reported pathological cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroon, Joseph C; Winkelman, Robert; Bost, Jeffrey; Amos, Austin; Mathyssek, Christina; Miele, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with head trauma. Although initially believed to affect only boxers, the at-risk population has expanded to encompass a much wider demographic, including American football players, hockey players, wrestlers, and military veterans. This expansion has garnered considerable media attention and public concern for the potential neurodegenerative effects of head trauma. The main aim of this systematic review is to give a complete overview of the common findings and risk factors for CTE as well as the status quo regarding the incidence and prevalence of CTE. This systematic review was performed using PubMed and MEDLINE and includes all neuropathologically confirmed cases of CTE in the medical literature to date, from the first published case in 1954 to August 1, 2013 (n = 153). The demographics, including the primary source of mTBI (mild Traumatic Brain Injury), age and cause of death, ApoE genotype, and history of substance abuse, when listed, were obtained from each case report. The demographics of American football players found to have CTE are also presented separately in order to highlight the most prevalent group of CTE cases reported in recent years. These 153 case reports of CTE represent the largest collection to date. We found that a history of mTBI was the only risk factor consistently associated with CTE. In addition, we found no relationships between CTE and age of death or abnormal ApoE allele. Suicide and the presence of premorbid dementia was not strongly associated with CTE. We conclude that the incidence of CTE remains unknown due to the lack of large, longitudinal studies. Furthermore, the neuropathological and clinical findings related to CTE overlap with many common neurodegenerative diseases. Our review reveals significant limitations of the current CTE case reporting and questions the widespread existence of CTE in contact sports.

  19. Implementation and reporting of causal mediation analysis in 2015: a systematic review in epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shao-Hsien; Ulbricht, Christine M; Chrysanthopoulou, Stavroula A; Lapane, Kate L

    2016-07-20

    Causal mediation analysis is often used to understand the impact of variables along the causal pathway of an occurrence relation. How well studies apply and report the elements of causal mediation analysis remains unknown. We systematically reviewed epidemiological studies published in 2015 that employed causal mediation analysis to estimate direct and indirect effects of observed associations between an exposure on an outcome. We identified potential epidemiological studies through conducting a citation search within Web of Science and a keyword search within PubMed. Two reviewers independently screened studies for eligibility. For eligible studies, one reviewer performed data extraction, and a senior epidemiologist confirmed the extracted information. Empirical application and methodological details of the technique were extracted and summarized. Thirteen studies were eligible for data extraction. While the majority of studies reported and identified the effects of measures, most studies lacked sufficient details on the extent to which identifiability assumptions were satisfied. Although most studies addressed issues of unmeasured confounders either from empirical approaches or sensitivity analyses, the majority did not examine the potential bias arising from the measurement error of the mediator. Some studies allowed for exposure-mediator interaction and only a few presented results from models both with and without interactions. Power calculations were scarce. Reporting of causal mediation analysis is varied and suboptimal. Given that the application of causal mediation analysis will likely continue to increase, developing standards of reporting of causal mediation analysis in epidemiological research would be prudent.

  20. Quality of reporting randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in diabetes in Iran; a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohari, Faeze; Baradaran, Hamid Reza; Tabatabaee, Morteza; Anijidani, Shabnam; Mohammadpour Touserkani, Fatemeh; Atlasi, Rasha; Razmgir, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    To determine the quality of randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) reports in diabetes research in Iran. Systematized review. We included RCTs conducted on diabetes mellitus in Iran. Animal studies, educational interventions, and non-randomized trials were excluded. We excluded duplicated publications reporting the same groups of participants and intervention. Two independent reviewers identify all eligible articles specifically designed data extraction form. We searched through international databases; Scopus, ProQuest, EBSCO, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, PubMed; and national databases (In Persian language) such as Magiran, Scientific Information Database (SID) and IranMedex from January 1995 to January of 2013 Two investigators assessed the quality of reporting by CONSORT 2010 (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) checklist statemen.t,. Discrepancies were resolved by third reviewer consulting. One hundred and eight five (185) studies were included and appraised. Half of them (55.7 %) were published in Iranian journals. Most (89.7 %) were parallel RCTs, and being performed on type2 diabetic patients (77.8 %). Less than half of the CONSORT items (43.2 %) were reported in studies, totally. The reporting of randomization and blinding were poor. A few studies 15.1 % mentioned the method of random sequence generation and strategy of allocation concealment. And only 34.8 % of trials report how blinding was applied. The findings of this study show that the quality of RCTs conducted in Iran in diabetes research seems suboptimal and the reporting is also incomplete however an increasing trend of improvement can be seen over time. Therefore, it is suggested Iranian researchers pay much more attention to design and methodological quality in conducting and reporting of diabetes RCTs.

  1. Patient-Reported Outcome questionnaires for hip arthroscopy: a systematic review of the psychometric evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Hip arthroscopies are often used in the treatment of intra-articular hip injuries. Patient-reported outcomes (PRO) are an important parameter in evaluating treatment. It is unclear which PRO questionnaires are specifically available for hip arthroscopy patients. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate which PRO questionnaires are valid and reliable in the evaluation of patients undergoing hip arthroscopy. Methods A search was conducted in Pubmed, Medline, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, Pedro, EMBASE and Web of Science from 1931 to October 2010. Studies assessing the quality of PRO questionnaires in the evaluation of patients undergoing hip arthroscopy were included. The quality of the questionnaires was evaluated by the psychometric properties of the outcome measures. The quality of the articles investigating the questionnaires was assessed by the COSMIN list. Results Five articles identified three questionnaires; the Modified Harris Hip Score (MHHS), the Nonarthritic Hip Score (NAHS) and the Hip Outcome Score (HOS). The NAHS scored best on the content validity, whereas the HOS scored best on agreement, internal consistency, reliability and responsiveness. The quality of the articles describing the HOS scored highest. The NAHS is the best quality questionnaire. The articles describing the HOS are the best quality articles. Conclusions This systematic review shows that there is no conclusive evidence for the use of a single patient-reported outcome questionnaire in the evaluation of patients undergoing hip arthroscopy. Based on available psychometric evidence we recommend using a combination of the NAHS and the HOS for patients undergoing hip arthroscopy. PMID:21619610

  2. Outcomes Definitions and Statistical Tests in Oncology Studies: A Systematic Review of the Reporting Consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoirard, Romain; Duplay, Vianney; Oriol, Mathieu; Tinquaut, Fabien; Chauvin, Franck; Magne, Nicolas; Bourmaud, Aurelie

    2016-01-01

    Quality of reporting for Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) in oncology was analyzed in several systematic reviews, but, in this setting, there is paucity of data for the outcomes definitions and consistency of reporting for statistical tests in RCTs and Observational Studies (OBS). The objective of this review was to describe those two reporting aspects, for OBS and RCTs in oncology. From a list of 19 medical journals, three were retained for analysis, after a random selection: British Medical Journal (BMJ), Annals of Oncology (AoO) and British Journal of Cancer (BJC). All original articles published between March 2009 and March 2014 were screened. Only studies whose main outcome was accompanied by a corresponding statistical test were included in the analysis. Studies based on censored data were excluded. Primary outcome was to assess quality of reporting for description of primary outcome measure in RCTs and of variables of interest in OBS. A logistic regression was performed to identify covariates of studies potentially associated with concordance of tests between Methods and Results parts. 826 studies were included in the review, and 698 were OBS. Variables were described in Methods section for all OBS studies and primary endpoint was clearly detailed in Methods section for 109 RCTs (85.2%). 295 OBS (42.2%) and 43 RCTs (33.6%) had perfect agreement for reported statistical test between Methods and Results parts. In multivariable analysis, variable "number of included patients in study" was associated with test consistency: aOR (adjusted Odds Ratio) for third group compared to first group was equal to: aOR Grp3 = 0.52 [0.31-0.89] (P value = 0.009). Variables in OBS and primary endpoint in RCTs are reported and described with a high frequency. However, statistical tests consistency between methods and Results sections of OBS is not always noted. Therefore, we encourage authors and peer reviewers to verify consistency of statistical tests in oncology studies.

  3. Systematic Review of Studies Reporting Positive Surgical Margins After Bladder Neck Sparing Radical Prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellangino, Mariangela; Verrill, Clare; Leslie, Tom; Bell, Richard W; Hamdy, Freddie C; Lamb, Alastair D

    2017-11-07

    Bladder neck preservation (BNP) during radical prostatectomy (RP) has been proposed as a method to improve early recovery of urinary continence after radical prostatectomy. However, there is concern over a possible increase in the risk of positive surgical margins and prostate cancer recurrence rate. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis reported improved early recovery and overall long-term urinary continence without compromising oncologic control. The aim of our study was to perform a critical review of the literature to assess the impact on bladder neck and base margins after bladder neck sparing radical prostatectomy. We carried out a systematic review of the literature using Pubmed, Scopus and Cochrane library databases in May 2017 using medical subject headings and free-text protocol according to PRISMA guidelines. We used the following search terms: bladder neck preservation, prostate cancer, radical prostatectomy and surgical margins. Studies focusing on positive surgical margins (PSM) in bladder neck sparing RP pertinent to the objective of this review were included. Overall, we found 15 relevant studies reporting overall and site-specific positive surgical margins rate after bladder neck sparing radical prostatectomy. This included two RCTs, seven prospective comparative studies, two retrospective comparative studies and four case series. All studies were published between 1993 and 2015 with sample sizes ranging between 50 and 1067. Surgical approaches included open, laparoscopic and robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. The overall and base-specific PSM rates ranged between 7-36% and 0-16.3%, respectively. Mean base PSM was 4.9% in those patients where bladder neck sparing was performed, but only 1.85% in those without sparing. Bladder neck preservation during radical prostatectomy may increase base-positive margins. Further studies are needed to better investigate the impact of this technique on oncological outcomes. A future paradigm could

  4. Traumatic Buccal Fat Pad Herniation in Young Children: A Systematic Review and Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seon-Yeong; Alfafara, Angenine; Kim, Jin-Woo; Kim, Sun-Jong

    2017-09-01

    Traumatic herniation of a buccal fat pad, predominantly seen in young children, is a rare condition. Because of its rarity and clinical features that resemble tumors, clinicians are faced with challenges at the initial diagnosis. This report describes a case of buccal fat pad herniation with excellent long-term prognosis after surgical relocation and conservative treatment and presents a systematic review of the literature on its management. Through a PubMed search, 811 articles were initially identified. Case series, case reports, technical notes, case and review reports, and retrospective case series were included. After screening and manual review, the sample was narrowed to 35 reports (41 patients) based on eligibility criteria. Articles were included if the standard criteria for traumatic intraoral herniation of buccal fat pad were met. Patients' ages ranged from 4 months to 12 years, with no specific gender predilection. Management consisted of excision (82.9%), relocation (14.6%), and observation (2.4%). Follow-up ranged from 1 week to 4 months. No reports presented a follow-up longer than 4 months; hence, data on long-term prognosis were not reported. For the present case report, a 19-month-old boy diagnosed with traumatic buccal fat pad herniation was successfully treated with surgical relocation and antibiotic support. Twelve-month follow-up showed no esthetic or functional disturbance or recurrence. Traumatic herniation of the buccal fat pad requires special attention at the initial diagnosis. Considering its clinical importance in young children and few studies have reported long-term postresection follow-up, surgical relocation can be regarded as an excellent and more conservative treatment option. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Systematic Reviews in Sports Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSilvestro, Kevin J; Tjoumakaris, Fotios P; Maltenfort, Mitchell G; Spindler, Kurt P; Freedman, Kevin B

    2016-02-01

    The number of systematic reviews published in the orthopaedic literature has increased, and these reviews can help guide clinical decision making. However, the quality of these reviews can affect the reader's ability to use the data to arrive at accurate conclusions and make clinical decisions. To evaluate the methodological and reporting quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in the sports medicine literature to determine whether such reviews should be used to guide treatment decisions. The hypothesis was that many systematic reviews in the orthopaedic sports medicine literature may not follow the appropriate reporting guidelines or methodological criteria recommended for systematic reviews. Systematic review. All clinical sports medicine systematic reviews and meta-analyses from 2009 to 2013 published in The American Journal of Sports Medicine (AJSM), The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (JBJS), Arthroscopy, Sports Health, and Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy (KSSTA) were reviewed and evaluated for level of evidence according to the guidelines from the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, for reporting quality according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement, and for methodological quality according to the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool. Analysis was performed by year and journal of publication, and the levels of evidence included in the systematic reviews were also analyzed. A total of 200 systematic reviews and meta-analyses were identified over the study period. Of these, 53% included evidence levels 4 and 5 in their analyses, with just 32% including evidence levels 1 and 2 only. There were significant differences in the proportion of articles with high levels of evidence (P Systematic reviews and meta-analyses in orthopaedics sports medicine literature relied on evidence levels 4 and 5 in 53% of studies over the 5-year study period. Overall, PRISMA and

  6. Adverse effects of aromatherapy: a systematic review of case reports and case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadzki, Paul; Alotaibi, Amani; Ernst, Edzard

    2012-01-01

    This systematic review was aimed at critically evaluating the evidence regarding the adverse effects associated with aromatherapy. Five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant case reports and case series. Forty two primary reports met our inclusion criteria. In total, 71 patients experienced adverse effects of aromatherapy. Adverse effects ranged from mild to severe and included one fatality. The most common adverse effect was dermatitis. Lavender, peppermint, tea tree oil and ylang-ylang were the most common essential oils responsible for adverse effects. Aromatherapy has the potential to cause adverse effects some of which are serious. Their frequency remains unknown. Lack of sufficiently convincing evidence regarding the effectiveness of aromatherapy combined with its potential to cause adverse effects questions the usefulness of this modality in any condition.

  7. "Anatomic" anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a systematic review of surgical techniques and reporting of surgical data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eck, Carola F.; Schreiber, Verena M.; Mejia, Hector A.; Samuelsson, Kristian; van Dijk, C. Niek; Karlsson, Jon; Fu, Freddie H.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate studies published on anatomic double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. METHODS: A systematic electronic search was performed by use of the Medline and Embase databases. Studies that were published from January 1995 to

  8. A systematic review of genetic skeletal disorders reported in Chinese biomedical journals between 1978 and 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Yazhou

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Little information is available on the prevalence, geographic distribution and mutation spectrum of genetic skeletal disorders (GSDs in China. This study systematically reviewed GSDs as defined in “Nosology and Classification of genetic skeletal disorders (2010 version” using Chinese biomedical literature published over the past 34 years from 1978 to 2012. In total, 16,099 GSDs have been reported. The most frequently reported disorders were Marfan syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, fibrous dysplasia, mucopolysaccharidosis, multiple cartilaginous exostoses, neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1, osteopetrosis, achondroplasia, enchondromatosis (Ollier, and osteopoikilosis, accounting for 76.5% (12,312 cases of the total cases. Five groups (group 8, 12, 14, 18, 21 defined by “Nosology and Classification of genetic skeletal disorders” have not been reported in the Chinese biomedical literature. Gene mutation testing was performed in only a minor portion of the 16,099 cases of GSDs (187 cases, 1.16%. In total, 37 genes for 41 different GSDs were reported in Chinese biomedical literature, including 43 novel mutations. This review revealed a significant imbalance in rare disease identification in terms of geographic regions and hospital levels, suggesting the need to create a national multi-level network to meet the specific challenge of care for rare diseases in China.

  9. Quality of reporting of randomized controlled trials of pharmacologic treatment of bipolar disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strech, Daniel; Soltmann, Bettina; Weikert, Beate; Bauer, Michael; Pfennig, Andrea

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to assess (1) the quality of reporting of randomized controlled trials of pharmacologic treatment of bipolar disorder, (2) the potential improvement in quality of reporting over time, and (3) differences in quality of reporting between journals that endorse or do not endorse the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals developed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. A systematic literature search was done to identify all randomized controlled trials published between 2000 and 2008 relevant to the pharmacologic treatment of bipolar disorder. The search strategy of the published National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guideline for management of bipolar disorders was used and adapted. All included and excluded clinical trials mentioned in the guideline and published from 2000 onward were reviewed for eligibility. For an update search from July 2004 through December 2008, an adapted search strategy was used in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Ovid, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Titles and abstracts were scanned for relevance, and full texts were ordered in case of uncertainty to maximize sensitivity. Reference lists of retrieved systematic reviews were checked. All full texts were checked for eligibility. Only relevant randomized controlled trials published between 2000 and 2008 were included. Abstracts, randomized controlled trials published before 2000, nonrandomized clinical studies, pooled analyses, editorials, reviews, case reports, observational studies, and unpublished reports were excluded. A checklist based on the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement was used to assess quality of reporting of all included studies. A total of 105 randomized controlled trials were included in the analysis. Of the 72 applicable checklist items, 42% were generally reported adequately and 25% inadequately. Reporting was especially poor for

  10. Patient-reported outcomes in European spondyloarthritis patients: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torre-Alonso JC

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Juan Carlos Torre-Alonso,1 Rubén Queiro,2 Marta Comellas,3 Luís Lizán,3,4 Carles Blanch5 1Rheumatology Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Oviedo, Hospital Monte Naranco, Oviedo, Spain; 2Rheumatology Division, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias (HUCA, Oviedo, Spain; 3Outcomes 10, Castellón de la Plana, Spain; 4Medicine Department, Jaime I University, Castellón de la Plana, Spain; 5Health Economics & Market Access, Novartis Pharmaceuticals, Barcelona, Spain Objective: This review aims to summarize the current literature on patient-reported outcomes (PROs in spondyloarthritis (SpA. Patients and methods: We performed a systematic literature review to identify studies (original articles and narrative and systematic reviews regarding PROs (health-related quality of life [HRQoL], satisfaction, preferences, adherence/compliance, and persistence in SpA patients published in the European Union through December 2016. International databases (Medline/PubMed, Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus were searched using keywords in English. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine criteria. Results: A total of 26 publications met the inclusion criteria. Generally, studies indicated that SpA has a negative impact on patients’ HRQoL. In patients with ankylosing spondylitis, physical domains were more affected than emotional ones, whereas for psoriatic arthritis, both physical and psychological factors were strongly affected by the disease. Data indicated that biological agents (BAs greatly contributed to improvement in HRQoL in both ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis patients. Findings on compliance with BAs were heterogeneous. However, persistence rates exceeded 50% irrespective of the BA administered. Results on preferences indicated that most SpA patients prefer being involved in decisions regarding their treatment and that

  11. Barriers to reporting medication errors and near misses among nurses: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrbnjak, Dominika; Denieffe, Suzanne; O'Gorman, Claire; Pajnkihar, Majda

    2016-11-01

    To explore barriers to nurses' reporting of medication errors and near misses in hospital settings. Systematic review. Medline, CINAHL, PubMed and Cochrane Library in addition to Google and Google Scholar and reference lists of relevant studies published in English between January 1981 and April 2015 were searched for relevant qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods empirical studies or unpublished PhD theses. Papers with a primary focus on barriers to reporting medication errors and near misses in nursing were included. The titles and abstracts of the search results were assessed for eligibility and relevance by one of the authors. After retrieval of the full texts, two of the authors independently made decisions concerning the final inclusion and these were validated by the third reviewer. Three authors independently assessed methodological quality of studies. Relevant data were extracted and findings were synthesised using thematic synthesis. From 4038 identified records, 38 studies were included in the synthesis. Findings suggest that organizational barriers such as culture, the reporting system and management behaviour in addition to personal and professional barriers such as fear, accountability and characteristics of nurses are barriers to reporting medication errors. To overcome reported barriers it is necessary to develop a non-blaming, non-punitive and non-fearful learning culture at unit and organizational level. Anonymous, effective, uncomplicated and efficient reporting systems and supportive management behaviour that provides open feedback to nurses is needed. Nurses are accountable for patients' safety, so they need to be educated and skilled in error management. Lack of research into barriers to reporting of near misses' and low awareness of reporting suggests the need for further research and development of educational and management approaches to overcome these barriers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence and reporting of recruitment, randomisation and treatment errors in clinical trials: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelland, Lisa N; Kahan, Brennan C; Dent, Elsa; Lee, Katherine J; Voysey, Merryn; Forbes, Andrew B; Cook, Jonathan A

    2018-06-01

    Background/aims In clinical trials, it is not unusual for errors to occur during the process of recruiting, randomising and providing treatment to participants. For example, an ineligible participant may inadvertently be randomised, a participant may be randomised in the incorrect stratum, a participant may be randomised multiple times when only a single randomisation is permitted or the incorrect treatment may inadvertently be issued to a participant at randomisation. Such errors have the potential to introduce bias into treatment effect estimates and affect the validity of the trial, yet there is little motivation for researchers to report these errors and it is unclear how often they occur. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of recruitment, randomisation and treatment errors and review current approaches for reporting these errors in trials published in leading medical journals. Methods We conducted a systematic review of individually randomised, phase III, randomised controlled trials published in New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association, Annals of Internal Medicine and British Medical Journal from January to March 2015. The number and type of recruitment, randomisation and treatment errors that were reported and how they were handled were recorded. The corresponding authors were contacted for a random sample of trials included in the review and asked to provide details on unreported errors that occurred during their trial. Results We identified 241 potentially eligible articles, of which 82 met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. These trials involved a median of 24 centres and 650 participants, and 87% involved two treatment arms. Recruitment, randomisation or treatment errors were reported in 32 in 82 trials (39%) that had a median of eight errors. The most commonly reported error was ineligible participants inadvertently being randomised. No mention of recruitment, randomisation

  13. Non-suicidal reasons for self-harm: A systematic review of self-reported accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Amanda J; Brennan, Cathy A; House, Allan O

    2016-02-01

    Self-harm is a major public health problem yet current healthcare provision is widely regarded as inadequate. One of the barriers to effective healthcare is the lack of a clear understanding of the functions self-harm may serve for the individual. The aim of this review is to identify first-hand accounts of the reasons for self-harm from the individual's perspective. A systematic review of the literature reporting first-hand accounts of the reasons for self-harm other than intent to die. A thematic analysis and 'best fit' framework synthesis was undertaken to classify the responses. The most widely researched non-suicidal reasons for self-harm were dealing with distress and exerting interpersonal influence. However, many first-hand accounts included reasons such as self-validation, and self-harm to achieve a personal sense of mastery, which suggests individuals thought there were positive or adaptive functions of the act not based only on its social effects. Associations with different sub-population characteristics or with the method of harm were not available from most studies included in the analysis. Our review identified a number of themes that are relatively neglected in discussions about self-harm, which we summarised as self-harm as a positiveexperience and defining the self. These self-reported "positive" reasons may be important in understanding and responding especially to repeated acts of self-harm. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The reporting of study and population characteristics in degenerative cervical myelopathy: A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M Davies

    Full Text Available Degenerative cervical myelopathy [DCM] is a disabling and increasingly prevalent condition. Variable reporting in interventional trials of study design and sample characteristics limits the interpretation of pooled outcomes. This is pertinent in DCM where baseline characteristics are known to influence outcome. The present study aims to assess the reporting of the study design and baseline characteristics in DCM as the premise for the development of a standardised reporting set.A systematic review of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, registered with PROSPERO (CRD42015025497 was conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Full text articles in English, with >50 patients (prospective or >200 patients (retrospective, reporting outcomes of DCM were deemed to be eligible.A total of 108 studies involving 23,876 patients, conducted world-wide, were identified. 33 (31% specified a clear primary objective. Study populations often included radiculopathy (51, 47% but excluded patients who had undergone previous surgery (42, 39%. Diagnositic criteria for myelopathy were often uncertain; MRI assessment was specified in only 67 (62% of studies. Patient comorbidities were referenced by 37 (34% studies. Symptom duration was reported by 46 (43% studies. Multivariate analysis was used to control for baseline characteristics in 33 (31% of studies.The reporting of study design and sample characteristics is variable. The development of a consensus minimum dataset for (CODE-DCM will facilitate future research synthesis in the future.

  15. A systematic review of sexual concerns reported by gynecological cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott-Anderson, Kristen; Kwekkeboom, Kristine L

    2012-03-01

    To identify physical, psychological and social sexual concerns reported by gynecological (GYN) cancer survivors. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using CINAHL, PubMed and PsycInfo databases. Reference lists from articles provided additional relevant literature. Only research articles from peer-reviewed journals were included. A total of 37 articles were located; 34 explored women's sexual concerns following gynecological cancer diagnosis and treatment and 3 tested interventions for sexual concerns in women with gynecological cancer. Sexual concerns were identified across all dimensions of sexuality. Common concerns in the physical dimension were dyspareunia, changes in the vagina, and decreased sexual activity. In the psychological dimension, common concerns were decreased libido, alterations in body image, and anxiety related to sexual performance. And in the social dimension, common concerns were difficulty maintaining previous sexual roles, emotional distancing from the partner, and perceived change in the partner's level of sexual interest. Of the three psychoeducational intervention studies, two reported improvements in physical aspects of sexual function, and one reported improved knowledge, but without resolution of sexual concerns. Gynecological cancer survivors experience a broad range of sexual concerns after diagnosis and treatment, but the majority of studies emphasized physical aspects of sexuality, and may not adequately represent women's psychological and social sexual concerns. Health care providers should remain mindful of psychological and social sexual concerns when caring for gynecologic cancer survivors. Future research should systematically evaluate the full range of sexual concerns in large, representative samples of GYN cancer survivors and develop and test interventions to address those concerns. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Applying the Analytic Hierarchy Process in healthcare research: A systematic literature review and evaluation of reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Katharina; Aumann, Ines; Hollander, Ines; Damm, Kathrin; von der Schulenburg, J-Matthias Graf

    2015-12-24

    The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), developed by Saaty in the late 1970s, is one of the methods for multi-criteria decision making. The AHP disaggregates a complex decision problem into different hierarchical levels. The weight for each criterion and alternative are judged in pairwise comparisons and priorities are calculated by the Eigenvector method. The slowly increasing application of the AHP was the motivation for this study to explore the current state of its methodology in the healthcare context. A systematic literature review was conducted by searching the Pubmed and Web of Science databases for articles with the following keywords in their titles or abstracts: "Analytic Hierarchy Process," "Analytical Hierarchy Process," "multi-criteria decision analysis," "multiple criteria decision," "stated preference," and "pairwise comparison." In addition, we developed reporting criteria to indicate whether the authors reported important aspects and evaluated the resulting studies' reporting. The systematic review resulted in 121 articles. The number of studies applying AHP has increased since 2005. Most studies were from Asia (almost 30%), followed by the US (25.6%). On average, the studies used 19.64 criteria throughout their hierarchical levels. Furthermore, we restricted a detailed analysis to those articles published within the last 5 years (n = 69). The mean of participants in these studies were 109, whereas we identified major differences in how the surveys were conducted. The evaluation of reporting showed that the mean of reported elements was about 6.75 out of 10. Thus, 12 out of 69 studies reported less than half of the criteria. The AHP has been applied inconsistently in healthcare research. A minority of studies described all the relevant aspects. Thus, the statements in this review may be biased, as they are restricted to the information available in the papers. Hence, further research is required to discover who should be interviewed and how, how

  17. A Systematic Review of Cost-Effectiveness Studies Reporting Cost-per-DALY Averted.

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    Peter J Neumann

    Full Text Available Calculating the cost per disability-adjusted life years (DALYs averted associated with interventions is an increasing popular means of assessing the cost-effectiveness of strategies to improve population health. However, there has been no systematic attempt to characterize the literature and its evolution.We conducted a systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies reporting cost-per-DALY averted from 2000 through 2015. We developed the Global Health Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (GHCEA Registry, a repository of English-language cost-per-DALY averted studies indexed in PubMed. To identify candidate studies, we searched PubMed for articles with titles or abstracts containing the phrases "disability-adjusted" or "DALY". Two reviewers with training in health economics independently reviewed each article selected in our abstract review, gathering information using a standardized data collection form. We summarized descriptive characteristics on study methodology: e.g., intervention type, country of study, study funder, study perspective, along with methodological and reporting practices over two time periods: 2000-2009 and 2010-2015. We analyzed the types of costs included in analyses, the study quality on a scale from 1 (low to 7 (high, and examined the correlation between diseases researched and the burden of disease in different world regions.We identified 479 cost-per-DALY averted studies published from 2000 through 2015. Studies from Sub-Saharan Africa comprised the largest portion of published studies. The disease areas most commonly studied were communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders (67%, followed by non-communicable diseases (28%. A high proportion of studies evaluated primary prevention strategies (59%. Pharmaceutical interventions were commonly assessed (32% followed by immunizations (28%. Adherence to good practices for conducting and reporting cost-effectiveness analysis varied considerably. Studies mainly included

  18. Dextromethorphan, chlorphenamine and serotonin toxicity: case report and systematic literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, Andrew A; Chuang, Ryan; Bodmer, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this review was to describe a patient with serotonin toxicity after an overdose of dextromethorphan and chlorphenamine and to perform a systematic literature review exploring whether dextromethorphan and chlorphenamine may be equally contributory in the development of serotonin toxicity in overdose. A Medline literature review was undertaken to identify cases of serotonin toxicity due to dextromethorphan and/or chlorphenamine. Case reports were included if they included information on the ingested dose or plasma concentrations of dextromethorphan and/or chlorphenamine, information about co-ingestions and detailed clinical information to evaluate for serotonin toxicity. Cases were reviewed by two toxicologists and serotonin toxicity, defined by the Hunter criteria, was diagnosed when appropriate. The literature was then reviewed to evaluate whether chlorphenamine may be a serotonergic agent. One hundred and fifty-five articles of dextromethorphan or chlorphenamine poisoning were identified. There were 23 case reports of dextromethorphan, of which 18 were excluded for lack of serotonin toxicity. No cases were identified in which serotonin toxicity could be solely attributed to chlorphenamine. This left six cases of dextrometorphane and/or chlorphenamine overdose, including our own, in which serotonin toxicity could be diagnosed based on the presented clinical information. In three of the six eligible cases dextromethorphan and chlorphenamine were the only overdosed drugs. There is substantial evidence from the literature that chlorphenamine is a similarly potent serotonin re-uptake inhibitor when compared with dextrometorphan. Chlorphenamine is a serotonergic medication and combinations of chlorphenamine and dextromethorphan may be dangerous in overdose due to an increased risk of serotonin toxicity. PMID:21175434

  19. Disinfection of human skin allografts in tissue banking: a systematic review report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, C; Callum, J; Mohr, J; Duong, A; Garibaldi, A; Simunovic, N; Ayeni, O R

    2016-12-01

    The use of skin allografts to temporarily replace lost or damaged skin is practiced worldwide. Naturally occurring contamination can be present on skin or can be introduced at recovery or during processing. This contamination can pose a threat to allograft recipients. Bacterial culture and disinfection of allografts are mandated, but the specific practices and methodologies are not dictated by standards. A systematic review of literature from three databases found 12 research articles that evaluated bioburden reduction processes of skin grafts. The use of broad spectrum antibiotics and antifungal agents was the most frequently identified disinfection method reported demonstrating reductions in contamination rates. It was determined that the greatest reduction in the skin allograft contamination rates utilized 0.1 % peracetic acid or 25 kGy of gamma irradiation at lower temperatures.

  20. Audit report and systematic review of orolingual angioedema in post-acute stroke thrombolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekoubou, Alain; Philippeau, Frédéric; Derex, Laurent; Olaru, Angel; Gouttard, Michel; Vieillart, Anne; Kengne, Andre Pascal

    2014-07-01

    Post-intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA) orolingual angioedema (PIROLA), including the life-threatening form, is an underappreciated complication of ischaemic stroke treatment. We present an audit report and a systematic review of published observational studies on PIROLA occurrence in acute ischaemic stroke patients. Clinical files of patients treated in the stroke unit of Bourg-en-Bresse General Hospital (France) from January 2010 to December 2012 were reviewed, and MEDLINE (inception to May 2013) were searched and bibliographies/citations of retrieved articles examined for evidence of PIROLA. Of the 129 acute ischaemic stroke patients treated at Bourg-en-Bresse between 2010 and 2012, four patients, all receiving angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), developed a PIROLA (cumulative incidence rate: 32‰). The complication started within an hour of receiving r-tPA and integrally resolved within 3-24 hours, with antihistamines/steroid treatment in two patients. The systematic review identified 27 studies, totalising with ours, over 9050 acute ischaemic stroke patients from 12 countries, among whom 100 (cumulative incidence rate: 17‰; 95% confidence intervals: 8-26), developed a PIROLA within 6-240 minutes of receiving r-tPA, 0-100% of them occurring among patients on ACEI. The complication was contralateral to the stroke location in 47% cases, ipsilateral in 14%, and bilateral in 39%; and resolved within 24 hours with treatment in 90%. No related death was recorded. About 17‰ acute ischaemic stroke patients receiving r-tPA develop PIROLA, occurring essentially among those on concomitant ACEI. PIROLA occurrence should be actively monitored, particularly within the first few hours as some may require urgent lifesaving procedures.

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of radiographer reporting of computed tomography colonography examinations: A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meertens, R.; Brealey, S.; Nightingale, J.; McCoubrie, P.

    2013-01-01

    Computed tomography colonography (CTC) is the primary radiological test for the detection of colorectal tumours and precancerous polyps. Radiographer reporting of CTC examinations could help to improve the provision of this expanding service. We undertook a systematic review to assess the accuracy with which radiographers can provide formal written reports on intraluminal disease entities of CTC examinations compared to a reference standard. Data sources searched included online databases, peer-reviewed journals, grey literature, and reference and citation tracking. Eligible studies were assessed for bias, and data were extracted on study characteristics. Pooled estimates of sensitivities and specificities and chi-square tests of heterogeneity were calculated. Eight studies were eligible for inclusion with some risk to bias. Pooled estimates from three studies showed per patient sensitivity and specificity of reporting radiographers was 76% (95% CI: 70–80%) and 74% (95% CI: (67–80%), respectively. From seven studies, per lesion sensitivity for the detection of lesions >5 and >10 mm was 68% (95% CI: 65–71%) and 75% (95% CI: 72–79%) respectively. Pooled sensitivity for detection of lesions >5 mm in studies for which radiographers reported 50 or less training cases was 57% (95% CI: 52–61%) and more than 50 cases was 78% (95% CI: 74–81%). The current evidence does not support radiographers in a role involving the single formal written reporting of CTC examinations. Radiographers' performance, however, did appear to improve significantly with the number read. Therefore, when provided with adequate training and experience, there may be a potential role for radiographers in the reporting of CTC examinations

  2. Quality of reporting in oncology phase II trials: A 5-year assessment through systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langrand-Escure, Julien; Rivoirard, Romain; Oriol, Mathieu; Tinquaut, Fabien; Rancoule, Chloé; Chauvin, Frank; Magné, Nicolas; Bourmaud, Aurélie

    2017-01-01

    Phase II clinical trials are a cornerstone of the development in experimental treatments They work as a "filter" for phase III trials confirmation. Surprisingly the attrition ratio in Phase III trials in oncology is significantly higher than in any other medical specialty. This suggests phase II trials in oncology fail to achieve their goal. Objective The present study aims at estimating the quality of reporting in published oncology phase II clinical trials. A literature review was conducted among all phase II and phase II/III clinical trials published during a 5-year period (2010-2015). All articles electronically published by three randomly-selected oncology journals with Impact-Factors>4 were included: Journal of Clinical Oncology, Annals of Oncology and British Journal of Cancer. Quality of reporting was assessed using the Key Methodological Score. 557 articles were included. 315 trials were single-arm studies (56.6%), 193 (34.6%) were randomized and 49 (8.8%) were non-randomized multiple-arm studies. The Methodological Score was equal to 0 (lowest level), 1, 2, 3 (highest level) respectively for 22 (3.9%), 119 (21.4%), 270 (48.5%) and 146 (26.2%) articles. The primary end point is almost systematically reported (90.5%), while sample size calculation is missing in 66% of the articles. 3 variables were independently associated with reporting of a high standard: presence of statistical design (p-value <0.001), multicenter trial (p-value = 0.012), per-protocol analysis (p-value <0.001). Screening was mainly performed by a sole author. The Key Methodological Score was based on only 3 items, making grey zones difficult to translate. This literature review highlights the existence of gaps concerning the quality of reporting. It therefore raised the question of the suitability of the methodology as well as the quality of these trials, reporting being incomplete in the corresponding articles.

  3. Psychometric properties of carer-reported outcome measures in palliative care: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Charlotte TJ; Boulton, Mary; Adams, Astrid; Wee, Bee; Peters, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Background: Informal carers face many challenges in caring for patients with palliative care needs. Selecting suitable valid and reliable outcome measures to determine the impact of caring and carers’ outcomes is a common problem. Aim: To identify outcome measures used for informal carers looking after patients with palliative care needs, and to evaluate the measures’ psychometric properties. Design: A systematic review was conducted. The studies identified were evaluated by independent reviewers (C.T.J.M., M.B., M.P.). Data regarding study characteristics and psychometric properties of the measures were extracted and evaluated. Good psychometric properties indicate a high-quality measure. Data sources: The search was conducted, unrestricted to publication year, in the following electronic databases: Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Social Sciences Citation Index and Sociological Abstracts. Results: Our systematic search revealed 4505 potential relevant studies, of which 112 studies met the inclusion criteria using 38 carer measures for informal carers of patients with palliative care needs. Psychometric properties were reported in only 46% (n = 52) of the studies, in relation to 24 measures. Where psychometric data were reported, the focus was mainly on internal consistency (n = 45, 87%), construct validity (n = 27, 52%) and/or reliability (n = 14, 27%). Of these, 24 measures, only four (17%) had been formally validated in informal carers in palliative care. Conclusion: A broad range of outcome measures have been used for informal carers of patients with palliative care needs. Little formal psychometric testing has been undertaken. Furthermore, development and refinement of measures in this field is required. PMID:26407683

  4. Parent report measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontoppidan, Maiken; Niss, Nete K; Pejtersen, Jan H; Julian, Megan M; Væver, Mette S

    2017-04-01

    Identifying young children at risk for socio-emotional developmental problems at an early stage, to prevent serious problems later in life, is crucial. Therefore, we need high quality measures to identify those children at risk for social-emotional problems who require further evaluation and intervention. To systematically identify parent report measures of infant and toddler (0-24 months) social-emotional development for use in primary care settings. We conducted a systematic review applying a narrative synthesis approach. We searched Medline, PsychInfo, Embase and SocIndex for articles published from 2008 through September 2015 to identify parent-report measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development. Data on the characteristics of the measures, including psychometric data, were collected. Based on 3310 screened articles, we located 242 measures that were screened for eligibility. In all 18 measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development were included. Ten of the measures were developed specifically for measuring social-emotional development, and eight were measures including subscales of social-emotional development. The measures varied with respect to, e.g. the time of publication, number of items, age span, cost and amount of psychometric data available. Several measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development have been developed within the last decade. The majority of psychometric data are available through manuals, not peer-reviewed journals. Although all measures show acceptable reliability, the most comprehensive and psychometrically sound measures are the Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional-2, Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment, Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment and Child Behaviour Checklist 1½-5. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Methods of blinding in reports of randomized controlled trials assessing pharmacologic treatments: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Boutron

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blinding is a cornerstone of therapeutic evaluation because lack of blinding can bias treatment effect estimates. An inventory of the blinding methods would help trialists conduct high-quality clinical trials and readers appraise the quality of results of published trials. We aimed to systematically classify and describe methods to establish and maintain blinding of patients and health care providers and methods to obtain blinding of outcome assessors in randomized controlled trials of pharmacologic treatments. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We undertook a systematic review of all reports of randomized controlled trials assessing pharmacologic treatments with blinding published in 2004 in high impact-factor journals from Medline and the Cochrane Methodology Register. We used a standardized data collection form to extract data. The blinding methods were classified according to whether they primarily (1 established blinding of patients or health care providers, (2 maintained the blinding of patients or health care providers, and (3 obtained blinding of assessors of the main outcomes. We identified 819 articles, with 472 (58% describing the method of blinding. Methods to establish blinding of patients and/or health care providers concerned mainly treatments provided in identical form, specific methods to mask some characteristics of the treatments (e.g., added flavor or opaque coverage, or use of double dummy procedures or simulation of an injection. Methods to avoid unblinding of patients and/or health care providers involved use of active placebo, centralized assessment of side effects, patients informed only in part about the potential side effects of each treatment, centralized adapted dosage, or provision of sham results of complementary investigations. The methods reported for blinding outcome assessors mainly relied on a centralized assessment of complementary investigations, clinical examination (i.e., use of video, audiotape, or

  6. Comparing the reported burn conditions for different severity burns in porcine models: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Christine J; Cuttle, Leila

    2017-12-01

    There are many porcine burn models that create burns using different materials (e.g. metal, water) and different burn conditions (e.g. temperature and duration of exposure). This review aims to determine whether a pooled analysis of these studies can provide insight into the burn materials and conditions required to create burns of a specific severity. A systematic review of 42 porcine burn studies describing the depth of burn injury with histological evaluation is presented. Inclusion criteria included thermal burns, burns created with a novel method or material, histological evaluation within 7 days post-burn and method for depth of injury assessment specified. Conditions causing deep dermal scald burns compared to contact burns of equivalent severity were disparate, with lower temperatures and shorter durations reported for scald burns (83°C for 14 seconds) compared to contact burns (111°C for 23 seconds). A valuable archive of the different mechanisms and materials used for porcine burn models is presented to aid design and optimisation of future models. Significantly, this review demonstrates the effect of the mechanism of injury on burn severity and that caution is recommended when burn conditions established by porcine contact burn models are used by regulators to guide scald burn prevention strategies. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Epidemiology and Reporting Characteristics of Systematic Reviews of Biomedical Research: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Page

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Systematic reviews (SRs can help decision makers interpret the deluge of published biomedical literature. However, a SR may be of limited use if the methods used to conduct the SR are flawed, and reporting of the SR is incomplete. To our knowledge, since 2004 there has been no cross-sectional study of the prevalence, focus, and completeness of reporting of SRs across different specialties. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the epidemiological and reporting characteristics of a more recent cross-section of SRs.We searched MEDLINE to identify potentially eligible SRs indexed during the month of February 2014. Citations were screened using prespecified eligibility criteria. Epidemiological and reporting characteristics of a random sample of 300 SRs were extracted by one reviewer, with a 10% sample extracted in duplicate. We compared characteristics of Cochrane versus non-Cochrane reviews, and the 2014 sample of SRs versus a 2004 sample of SRs. We identified 682 SRs, suggesting that more than 8,000 SRs are being indexed in MEDLINE annually, corresponding to a 3-fold increase over the last decade. The majority of SRs addressed a therapeutic question and were conducted by authors based in China, the UK, or the US; they included a median of 15 studies involving 2,072 participants. Meta-analysis was performed in 63% of SRs, mostly using standard pairwise methods. Study risk of bias/quality assessment was performed in 70% of SRs but was rarely incorporated into the analysis (16%. Few SRs (7% searched sources of unpublished data, and the risk of publication bias was considered in less than half of SRs. Reporting quality was highly variable; at least a third of SRs did not report use of a SR protocol, eligibility criteria relating to publication status, years of coverage of the search, a full Boolean search logic for at least one database, methods for data extraction, methods for study risk of bias assessment, a primary outcome, an

  8. Atlanto-Occipital Rotatory Dislocation: A Case Report and Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Luis A; Mundis, Greg M; Cuevas-Solórzano, Abel

    2018-02-01

    Atlanto-occipital rotatory dislocation (AORD) has rarely been reported in the literature; for this reason, the clinicoradiologic characteristics of this injury are not well described. We describe the case of a 67-year-old man who sustained a cervical spine trauma. He reported only neck pain and was neurologically intact. A computed tomography scan showed a rotatory displacement of the atlanto-occipital joints associated with a widened condylar-C1 interval; in addition, magnetic resonance imaging showed injuries to the stabilizing ligaments of this area. A systematic literature review was also performed to identify previous cases of patients with AORD. The patient was treated with craniocervical fixation from occipital to C1, achieving a good outcome. The literature review yielded 9 cases of patients with AORD. Compared with patients with atlanto-occipital dislocation, patients with rotatory dislocations have a less severe degree of displacement of the atlanto-occipital joints and better clinical outcome. Compared with previously classified atlanto-occipital dislocations, AORD is an independent and unique variation. AORD presents with different biomechanical, clinicoradiologic, and prognostic characteristics and represents an important addition to the spectrum of atlanto-occipital dislocation injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Liver Damage Associated with Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.: A Systematic Review of Case Reports and Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Lei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To summarize the characteristics and analysis of relevant factors and to give references for prevention and further study of liver damage associated with Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (HSW, we provide a systematic review of case reports and case series about liver damage associated with HSW. Methods. An extensive search of 6 medical databases was performed up to June 2014. Case reports and case series involving liver damage associated with HSW were included. Results. This review covers a total of 450 cases in 76 articles. HSW types included raw and processed HSW decoction pieces and many Chinese patent medicines that contain HSW. Symptoms of liver damage occur mostly a month or so after taking the medicine, mainly including jaundice, fatigue, anorexia, and yellow or tawny urine. Of the 450 patients, two cases who received liver transplantation and seven who died, the remaining 441 cases recovered or had liver function improvement after discontinuing HSW products and conservative care. Conclusion. HSW causes liver toxicity and may cause liver damage in different degrees and even lead to death; most of them are much related to long-term and overdose of drugs. Liver damage associated with HSW is reversible, and, after active treatment, the majority can be cured. People should be alert to liver damage when taking HSW preparations.

  10. Weight Bias: A Systematic Review of Characteristics and Psychometric Properties of Self-Report Questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Emilie; Alberga, Angela; Russell-Mathew, Shelly; McLaren, Lindsay; von Ranson, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    People living with overweight and obesity often experience weight-based stigmatization. Investigations of the prevalence and correlates of weight bias and evaluation of weight bias reduction interventions depend upon psychometrically-sound measurement. Our paper is the first to comprehensively evaluate the psychometric properties, use of people-first language within items, and suitability for use with various populations of available self-report measures of weight bias. We searched five electronic databases to identify English-language self-report questionnaires of weight bias. We rated each questionnaire's psychometric properties based on initial validation reports and subsequent use, and examined item language. Our systematic review identified 40 original self-report questionnaires. Most questionnaires were brief, demonstrated adequate internal consistency, and tapped key cognitive and affective dimensions of weight bias such as stereotypes and blaming. Current psychometric evidence is incomplete for many questionnaires, particularly with regard to the properties of test-retest reliability, sensitivity to change as well as discriminant and structural validity. Most questionnaires were developed prior to debate surrounding terminology preferences, and do not employ people-first language in the items administered to participants. We provide information and recommendations for clinicians and researchers in selecting psychometrically sound measures of weight bias for various purposes and populations, and discuss future directions to improve measurement of this construct. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  11. Determinants of hepatotoxicity after repeated supratherapeutic paracetamol ingestion: systematic review of reported cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheampong, Paul; Thomas, Simon H L

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the role of reported daily dose, age and other risk factors, and to assess the value of quantifying serum transaminase activity and paracetamol (acetaminophen) concentration at initial assessment for identifying patients at risk of hepatotoxicity following repeated supratherapeutic paracetamol ingestion (RSPI). Systematic literature review with collation and analysis of individual-level data from reported cases of RSPI associated with liver damage. In 199 cases meeting the selection criteria, severe liver damage (ALT/AST ≥1000 IU l(-1) , liver failure or death) was reported in 186 (93%) cases including 77/78 (99%) children aged ≤6 years. Liver failure occurred in 127 (64%) cases; of these 49 (39%) died. Maximum ingested daily paracetamol doses were above UK recommendations in 143 (72%) patients. US-Australasian thresholds for repeated supratherapeutic ingestions requiring intervention were not met in 71 (36%) cases; of these 35 (49%) developed liver failure and 10 (14%) died. No cases developing liver damage had paracetamol concentration Paracetamol concentrations <20 mg l(-1) with normal serum ALT/AST activity on initial assessment suggests a low risk of subsequent liver damage. These findings are, however, limited by low patient numbers, publication bias and the accuracy of the histories in reported cases. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. Systematic review: methodological flaws in racial/ethnic reporting for gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, M R; Kia, L; O'Dwyer, L C; Stern, E; Taft, T H; Keefer, L

    2018-03-01

    Health care disparities affecting the care of multiple disease groups are of growing concern internationally. Research guidelines, governmental institutions, and scientific journals have attempted to minimize disparities through policies regarding the collection and reporting of racial/ethnic data. One area where shortcomings remain is in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This systematic review, which adheres to the PRISMA statement, focuses on characterizing existing methodological weaknesses in research focusing on studies regarding the assessment, prevalence, treatment, and outcomes of GERD patients. Search terms included GERD and typical symptoms of GERD in ethnic groups or minorities. We reviewed 62 articles. The majority of studies did not report the race/ethnicity of all participants, and among those who did, very few followed accepted guidelines. While there were diverse participants, there was also diversity in the manner in which groups were labeled, making comparisons difficult. There appeared to be a disparity with respect to countries reporting race/ethnicity, with certain countries more likely to report this variable. Samples overwhelmingly consisted of the study country's majority population. The majority of studies justified the use of race/ethnicity as a study variable and investigated conceptually related factors such as socioeconomic status and environment. Yet, many studies wrote as if race/ethnicity reflected biological differences. Despite recommendations, it appears that GERD researchers around the world struggle with the appropriate and standard way to include, collect, report, and discuss race/ethnicity. Recommendations on ways to address these issues are included with the goal of preventing and identifying health care disparities.

  13. Life after endometrial cancer: A systematic review of patient-reported outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shisler, Robert; Sinnott, Jennifer A; Wang, Vivian; Hebert, Courtney; Salani, Ritu; Felix, Ashley S

    2018-02-01

    Women with endometrial cancer (EC) are the second largest population of female cancer survivors in the United States. However, the outcomes of EC survivors, from the patient perspective, are not well-understood. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) following an EC diagnosis. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, CINAHL, and reference lists to identify published observational studies that examined PROs among women with EC. Reviewers independently reviewed eligible full-text study articles and conducted data extraction. We qualitatively summarized included articles according to exposures [e.g. body mass index (BMI), treatment, etc.] or specific PROs (e.g. sexual function). Of 1722 unique studies, 102 full-text articles were reviewed, of which a total of 27 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The most commonly used PRO questionnaires were the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) (n=9), Short Form 36 Questionnaire (SF-36, n=8), the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G, n=5), and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI, n=4). Obesity was associated with lower quality of life (QOL) and physical functioning. Treatment type affected several outcomes. Laparoscopy generally resulted in better QOL outcomes than laparotomy. Likewise, vaginal brachytherapy was associated with better outcomes compared to external beam radiation. Sexual function outcomes were dependent on age, time since diagnosis, and having consulted a physician before engaging in sexual activities. In addition, a physical activity intervention was associated with improved sexual interest but not sexual function. Our review provides insight into the experience of EC survivors from the patient perspective. Factors that contribute to QOL, such as pain, fatigue, emotional and social functioning, should be monitored following an EC diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc

  14. Bladder Cancer in HIV-infected Adults: An Emerging Issue? Case-Reports and Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Chawki

    Full Text Available Non-AIDS-related malignancies now represent a frequent cause of death among HIV-infected patients. Albeit bladder cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide, it has been rarely reported among HIV-infected patients. We wished to assess the prevalence and characteristics of bladder cancer in HIV-infected patients.We conducted a single center retrospective study from 1998 to 2013 in a university hospital in Paris. Cases of bladder cancer among HIV-infected patients were identified using the electronic records of the hospital database and of the HIV-infected cohort. Patient characteristics and outcomes were retrieved from patients charts. A systematic review of published cases of bladder cancers in patients with HIV-infection was also performed.During the study period we identified 15 HIV-infected patients (0.2% of the cohort with a bladder cancer. Patients were mostly men (73% and smokers (67%, with a median age of 56 years at cancer diagnosis. Bladder cancer was diagnosed a median of 14 years after HIV-infection. Most patients were on ART (86% with median current and nadir CD4 cell counts of 506 and 195 cells/mm3, respectively. Haematuria (73% was the most frequent presenting symptom and HPV-associated lesions were seen in 6/10 (60% patients. Histopathology showed transitional cell carcinoma in 80% and a high proportion of tumors with muscle invasion (47% and high histologic grade (73%. One-year survival rate was 74.6%. The systematic review identified 13 additional cases of urothelial bladder cancers which shared similar features.Bladder cancers in HIV-infected patients remain rare but may occur in relatively young patients with a low nadir CD4 cell count, have aggressive pathological features and can be fatal.

  15. Psychiatric presentations heralding Hashimoto's encephalopathy: A systematic review and analysis of cases reported in literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Menon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE may often present initially with psychiatric symptoms. These presentations are often variable in clinical aspects, and there has been no systematic analysis of the numerous psychiatric presentations heralding an eventual diagnosis of HE which will guide clinicians to make a correct diagnosis of HE. This systematic review was done to analyze the demographic characteristics, symptom typology, and clinical and treatment variables associated with such forerunner presentations. Electronic databases such as PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify potential case reports that described initial psychiatric presentations of HE in English language peer-reviewed journals. The generated articles were evaluated and relevant data were extracted using a structured tool. We identified a total of forty articles that described 46 cases. More than half of the total samples (54.4% were above the age of 50 years at presentation. The most common psychiatric diagnosis heralding HE was acute psychosis (26.1% followed by depressive disorders (23.9%. Dementia (10.9% and schizophrenia (2.2% were uncommon presentations. Antithyroid peroxidase antibodies were elevated in all patients but not antithyroglobulin antibodies. Preexisting hypothyroidism was absent in majority of cases (60.9%. Steroid doses initiated were 500–1000 mg of intravenous methylprednisolone for majority (52.1% of patients while oral steroid maintenance was required for a significant minority (39.1%. Psychiatric manifestations of HE may be heterogeneous and require a high index of clinical suspicion, especially in older adults. A range of clinical and treatment variables may assist clinicians in making a faster diagnosis and instituting prompt and effective management.

  16. A systematic review of stated preference studies reporting public preferences for healthcare priority setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitty, Jennifer A; Lancsar, Emily; Rixon, Kylie; Golenko, Xanthe; Ratcliffe, Julie

    2014-01-01

    There is current interest in incorporating weights based on public preferences for health and healthcare into priority-setting decisions. The aim of this systematic review was to explore the extent to which public preferences and trade-offs for priority-setting criteria have been quantified, and to describe the study contexts and preference elicitation methods employed. A systematic review was performed in April 2013 to identify empirical studies eliciting the stated preferences of the public for the provision of healthcare in a priority-setting context. Studies are described in terms of (i) the stated preference approaches used, (ii) the priority-setting levels and contexts, and (iii) the criteria identified as important and their relative importance. Thirty-nine studies applying 40 elicitation methods reported in 41 papers met the inclusion criteria. The discrete choice experiment method was most commonly applied (n = 18, 45.0 %), but other approaches, including contingent valuation and the person trade-off, were also used. Studies prioritised health systems (n = 4, 10.2 %), policies/programmes/services/interventions (n = 16, 41.0 %), or patient groups (n = 19, 48.7 %). Studies generally confirmed the importance of a wide range of process, non-health and patient-related characteristics in priority setting in selected contexts, alongside health outcomes. However, inconsistencies were observed for the relative importance of some prioritisation criteria, suggesting context and/or elicitation approach matter. Overall, findings suggest caution in directly incorporating public preferences as weights for priority setting unless the methods used to elicit the weights can be shown to be appropriate and robust in the priority-setting context.

  17. Reporting of financial and non-financial conflicts of interest by authors of systematic reviews: a methodological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakoum, Maram B; Anouti, Sirine; Al-Gibbawi, Mounir; Abou-Jaoude, Elias A; Hasbani, Divina Justina; Lopes, Luciane Cruz; Agarwal, Arnav; Guyatt, Gordon; Akl, Elie A

    2016-08-10

    Conflicts of interest may bias the findings of systematic reviews. The objective of this methodological survey was to assess the frequency and different types of conflicts of interest that authors of Cochrane and non-Cochrane systematic reviews report. We searched for systematic reviews using the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Ovid MEDLINE (limited to the 119 Core Clinical Journals and the year 2015). We defined a conflict of interest disclosure as the reporting of whether a conflict of interest exists or not, and used a framework to classify conflicts of interest into individual (financial, professional and intellectual) and institutional (financial and advocatory) conflicts of interest. We conducted descriptive and regression analyses. Of the 200 systematic reviews, 194 (97%) reported authors' conflicts of interest disclosures, typically in the main document, and in a few cases either online (2%) or on request (5%). Of the 194 Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews, 49% and 33%, respectively, had at least one author reporting any type of conflict of interest (p=0.023). Institutional conflicts of interest were less frequently reported than individual conflicts of interest, and Cochrane reviews were more likely to report individual intellectual conflicts of interest compared with non-Cochrane reviews (19% and 5%, respectively, p=0.004). Regression analyses showed a positive association between reporting of conflicts of interest (at least one type of conflict of interest, individual financial conflict of interest, institutional financial conflict of interest) and journal impact factor and between reporting individual financial conflicts of interest and pharmacological versus non-pharmacological intervention. Although close to half of the published systematic reviews report that authors (typically many) have conflicts of interest, more than half report that they do not. Authors reported individual conflicts of interest more frequently than institutional and

  18. [Report quality evaluation of systematic review or Meta-analysis published in China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Yu, Dan-Dan; Cui, De-Hua; Liao, Xing; Guo, Hua

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the report quality of intervention-related systematic reviews or Meta-analysis published in China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica, we searched CNKI and China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica webpages to collect intervention-related systematic reviews or Meta-analysis since the first issue of the magazine. A total of 40 systematic reviews or Meta-analysis reports were included, including one network Meta-analysis. According to the PRISMA statement published in 2009, the report quality of the systematic reviews or Meta-analysis was evaluated. According to the results, 3 had the low quality, 30 had the medium quality, and 7 had the high quality. The average score for all of items was 30 points (21-30.5 points for the medium quality). The 17 high-quality (31-40 points) report items were title, rationale, objectives, information sources, study selection, data collection process, data items, risk of bias in individual studies, summary measures, risk of bias across studies, study selection, study characteristics, risk of bias within studies, results of individual studies, synthesis of results, risk of bias across studies and funding; the 4 medium-quality (21-30.5 points) reporting items were eligibility criteria, search, limitations and conclusions; and the 6 low-quality (Materia Medica is medium, and it is necessary to improve the quality standard of the report. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  19. Pornography Addiction in Adults: A Systematic Review of Definitions and Reported Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Athena; Dawson, David L; das Nair, Roshan

    2016-05-01

    Self-perceived pornography addiction (SPPA) has increasingly emerged as a concept in research and popular culture, and commentators warn of the reported negative impact that it has. Despite this, "pornography or porn addiction" is not a formally recognized disorder and there is disagreement among researchers regarding its definition or even its existence. Therefore, how SPPA is operationalized often varies, and this is likely to influence the conclusions made about the impact of SPPA. This review aimed to examine what the supposed impact of SPPA is, and how the concept is operationalized. A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative peer-reviewed journal articles was conducted. The following databases were searched up to November 2015: CINAHL (2001-2015), Embase (1974-2015), Medline (1946-2015), PsychARTICLES (1980), and PsychInfo (1806-2015). Terms used were porn*, sexually explicit material, SEM, erotic*, nonparaphilic, cyberpornography, addict*, problematic, excess*, compul*, impul*, impact, effec*, behav*, and cause. An asterisk after a term means that all terms that begin with that root were included in the search. A review of the the current literature pertaining to SPPA and its reported impact. We found that SPPA is most frequently operationalized as excessive pornography use and negative consequences. As a result, researchers tended to focus on the frequency of pornography use and related impact as determinants of SPPA. SPPA is reported to affect users and their partners in similar ways, such as increased feelings of isolation and relationship breakdowns. However, we found some methodologic limitations of the primary studies, which limit the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn. Limitations include the lack of representative samples and inadequate measurements of SPPA and its impact. There still exist a debate regarding the definition and etiology of SPPA as distinct from self-perceived sex addiction. As such, the research landscape is

  20. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of individual participant data: the PRISMA-IPD Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Lesley A; Clarke, Mike; Rovers, Maroeska; Riley, Richard D; Simmonds, Mark; Stewart, Gavin; Tierney, Jayne F

    2015-04-28

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of individual participant data (IPD) aim to collect, check, and reanalyze individual-level data from all studies addressing a particular research question and are therefore considered a gold standard approach to evidence synthesis. They are likely to be used with increasing frequency as current initiatives to share clinical trial data gain momentum and may be particularly important in reviewing controversial therapeutic areas. To develop PRISMA-IPD as a stand-alone extension to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) Statement, tailored to the specific requirements of reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of IPD. Although developed primarily for reviews of randomized trials, many items will apply in other contexts, including reviews of diagnosis and prognosis. Development of PRISMA-IPD followed the EQUATOR Network framework guidance and used the existing standard PRISMA Statement as a starting point to draft additional relevant material. A web-based survey informed discussion at an international workshop that included researchers, clinicians, methodologists experienced in conducting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of IPD, and journal editors. The statement was drafted and iterative refinements were made by the project, advisory, and development groups. The PRISMA-IPD Development Group reached agreement on the PRISMA-IPD checklist and flow diagram by consensus. Compared with standard PRISMA, the PRISMA-IPD checklist includes 3 new items that address (1) methods of checking the integrity of the IPD (such as pattern of randomization, data consistency, baseline imbalance, and missing data), (2) reporting any important issues that emerge, and (3) exploring variation (such as whether certain types of individual benefit more from the intervention than others). A further additional item was created by reorganization of standard PRISMA items relating to interpreting results. Wording

  1. Patient-Reported Outcome Measures in Dysphagia: A Systematic Review of Instrument Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dhyanesh A.; Sharda, Rohit; Hovis, Kristen L.; Nichols, Erin E.; Sathe, Nila; Penson, David F.; Feurer, Irene D.; McPheeters, Melissa L.; Vaezi, Michael F.; Francis, David O.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures are commonly used to capture patient experience with dysphagia and to evaluate treatment effectiveness. Inappropriate application can lead to distorted results in clinical studies. A systematic review of the literature on dysphagia-related PRO measures was performed to 1) identify all currently available measures and 2) to evaluate each for the presence of important measurement properties that would affect their applicability. Design MEDLINE via the PubMed interface, the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and the Health and Psychosocial Instrument database were searched using relevant vocabulary terms and key terms related to PRO measures and dysphagia. Three independent investigators performed abstract and full text reviews. Each study meeting criteria was evaluated using an 18-item checklist developed a priori that assessed multiple domains: 1) conceptual model, 2) content validity, 3) reliability, 4) construct validity, 6) scoring and interpretation, and 7) burden and presentation. Results Of 4950 abstracts reviewed, a total of 34 dysphagia-related PRO measures (publication year 1987 – 2014) met criteria for extraction and analysis. Several PRO measures were of high quality (MADS for achalasia, SWAL-QOL and SSQ for oropharyngeal dysphagia, PROMIS-GI for general dysphagia, EORTC-QLQ-OG25 for esophageal cancer, ROMP-swallowing for Parkinson’s disease, DSQ-EoE for eosinophilic esophagitis, and SOAL for total laryngectomy-related dysphagia). In all, 17 met at least one criterion per domain. Thematic deficiencies in current measures were evident including: 1) direct patient involvement in content development, 2) empirically justified dimensionality, 3) demonstrable responsiveness to change, 4) plan for interpreting missing responses, and 5) literacy level assessment. Conclusion This is the first comprehensive systematic review assessing developmental properties of all available dysphagia

  2. Patient-reported outcome measures in dysphagia: a systematic review of instrument development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, D A; Sharda, R; Hovis, K L; Nichols, E E; Sathe, N; Penson, D F; Feurer, I D; McPheeters, M L; Vaezi, M F; Francis, David O

    2017-05-01

    Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures are commonly used to capture patient experience with dysphagia and to evaluate treatment effectiveness. Inappropriate application can lead to distorted results in clinical studies. A systematic review of the literature on dysphagia-related PRO measures was performed to (1) identify all currently available measures and (2) to evaluate each for the presence of important measurement properties that would affect their applicability. MEDLINE via the PubMed interface, the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and the Health and Psychosocial Instrument database were searched using relevant vocabulary terms and key terms related to PRO measures and dysphagia. Three independent investigators performed abstract and full text reviews. Each study meeting criteria was evaluated using an 18-item checklist developed a priori that assessed multiple domains: (1) conceptual model, (2) content validity, (3) reliability, (4) construct validity, (6) scoring and interpretation, and (7) burden and presentation. Of 4950 abstracts reviewed, a total of 34 dysphagia-related PRO measures (publication year 1987-2014) met criteria for extraction and analysis. Several PRO measures were of high quality (MADS for achalasia, SWAL-QOL and SSQ for oropharyngeal dysphagia, PROMIS-GI for general dysphagia, EORTC-QLQ-OG25 for esophageal cancer, ROMP-swallowing for Parkinson's Disease, DSQ-EoE for eosinophilic esophagitis, and SOAL for total laryngectomy-related dysphagia). In all, 17 met at least one criterion per domain. Thematic deficiencies in current measures were evident including: (1) direct patient involvement in content development, (2) empirically justified dimensionality, (3) demonstrable responsiveness to change, (4) plan for interpreting missing responses, and (5) literacy level assessment. This is the first comprehensive systematic review assessing developmental properties of all available dysphagia-related PRO measures. We

  3. Reporting of symptoms in randomized controlled trials of atopic eczema treatments: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbens, L A A; Chalmers, J R; Rogers, N K; Nankervis, H; Spuls, P I

    2016-10-01

    'Symptoms' is a core outcome domain for atopic eczema (AE) trials, agreed by consensus as part of the Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) initiative. To standardize and validate the core domain symptoms and symptom instruments for AE trials the HOME roadmap is followed. Its first step is to establish if and how symptoms have been measured in published AE treatment trials. Therefore the Global Resource for Eczema Trials database was used to collect all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of treatments for AE between January 2000 and April 2014. Study selection and data extraction were performed by three reviewers independently. We identified the use of symptoms in 295 of 378 trials (78%). Symptoms as a primary end point were applied by 147 RCTs (50%). Seventeen different symptoms were measured, but mostly itch and sleep loss. Symptoms were assessed by only 37% of trials by a stand-alone symptom measurement. Overall 63% of RCTs used a composite instrument, and 30 different instruments were identified. The Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index was the most commonly applied, but only 23% of RCTs reported the SCORAD symptom score separately. This systematic review demonstrates that symptoms, most frequently itch and sleep loss, are commonly reported in AE treatment trials, but are measured using many different instruments. Often symptoms are evaluated as part of a composite instrument, and currently it is not possible to extract symptoms-only data from most published studies. Future trials should report symptom scores to permit meta-analysis of the core outcomes. © 2016 The Authors. British Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Association of Dermatologists.

  4. Telerheumatology: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, John A; Ferucci, Elizabeth D; Glover, Janis; Fraenkel, Liana

    2017-10-01

    To identify and summarize the published and gray literature on the use of telemedicine for the diagnosis and management of inflammatory and/or autoimmune rheumatic disease. We performed a registered systematic search (CRD42015025382) for studies using MEDLINE (1946 to July 2015), Embase (1974 to July 2015), Web of Science (1900 to July 2015), and Scopus (1946 to July 2015) databases. We included studies that demonstrated the use of telemedicine for diagnosis and/or management of inflammatory/autoimmune rheumatic disease. Following data extraction, we performed a descriptive analysis. Our literature search identified 1,468 potentially eligible studies. Of these studies, 20 were ultimately included in this review. Studies varied significantly in publication type, quality of evidence, and the reporting of methods. Most demonstrated a high risk of bias. Rheumatoid arthritis was the most commonly studied rheumatic disease (42% of patients). Studies demonstrated conflicting results regarding the effectiveness of telemedicine (18 found it effective, 1 found it effective but possibly harmful, and 1 found it ineffective). A limited number of studies included some component of a cost analysis (n = 6; 16% of patients); all of these found telemedicine to be cost-effective. Studies identified by this systematic review generally found telemedicine to be effective for the diagnosis and management of autoimmune/inflammatory rheumatic disease; however, there is limited evidence to support this conclusion. Further studies are needed to determine the best uses of telemedicine for the diagnosis and management of these conditions. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  5. Race matters: a systematic review of racial/ethnic disparity in Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology reported outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellons, Melissa F; Fujimoto, Victor Y; Baker, Valerie L; Barrington, Debbie S; Broomfield, Diana; Catherino, William H; Richard-Davis, Gloria; Ryan, Mary; Thornton, Kim; Armstrong, Alicia Y

    2012-08-01

    To systematically review the reporting of race/ethnicity in Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART) Clinic Outcome Reporting System (CORS) publications. Systematic review using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) methodology of literature published in PubMed on race/ethnicity that includes data from SART CORS. Not applicable. Not applicable. In vitro fertilization cycles reported to SART. Any outcomes reported in SART CORS. Seven publications were identified that assessed racial/ethnic disparities in IVF outcomes using SART data. All reported a racial/ethnic disparity. However, more than 35% of cycles were excluded from analysis because of missing race/ethnicity data. Review of current publications of SART data suggests significant racial/ethnic disparities in IVF outcomes. However, the potential for selection bias limits confidence in these findings, given that fewer than 65% of SART reported cycles include race/ethnicity. Our understanding of how race/ethnicity influences ART outcome could be greatly improved if information on race/ethnicity was available for all reported cycles. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  6. Screening for oropharyngeal dysphagia in older adults: A systematic review of self-reported questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães Junior, Hipólito V; Pernambuco, Leandro de Araújo; Lima, Kenio C; Ferreira, Maria Angela F

    2018-04-03

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a swallowing disorder with signs and symptoms which may be present in older adults, but they are rarely noticed as a health concern by older people. The earliest possible identification of this clinical condition is needed by self-reported population-based screening questionnaire, which are valid and reliable for preventing risks to nutritional status, increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this systematic review was to identify self-reported screening questionnaires for oropharyngeal dysphagia in older adults to evaluate their methodological quality for population-based studies. An extensive search of electronic databases (PubMed (MEDLINE), Ovid MEDLINE(R), Scopus, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science (WOS), PsycINFO (APA), Lilacs and Scielo) was conducted in the period from April to May 2017 using previously established search strategies by the two evaluators. The methodological quality and the psychometric properties of the included studies were evaluated by the COSMIN (Consensus based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments) checklist and the quality criteria of Terwee and colleagues, respectively. The analysed information was extracted from three articles which had conducted studies on the prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia by self-reported screening questionnaires, showing poor methodological quality and flaws in the methodological description to demonstrate its psychometric properties. This study did not find any self-reported screening questionnaires for oropharyngeal dysphagia with suitable methodological quality and appropriate evidence in its psychometric properties for elders. Therefore, the self-reported questionnaires within the diagnostic proposal require greater details in its process for obtaining valid and reliable evidence. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Reporting of pediatric palliative care: A systematic review and quantitative analysis of research publications in palliative care journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil P Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: The overall reporting rate for pediatric palliative care articles in palliative care journals was very low and there were no randomized clinical trials and systematic reviews found. The study findings indicate a lack of adequate evidence base for pediatric palliative care.

  8. Patient-Reported Measures of Hearing Loss and Tinnitus in Pediatric Cancer and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Daniel; Rosenberg, Abby R.; Johnston, Donna; Knight, Kristin; Caperon, Lizzie; Uleryk, Elizabeth; Frazier, A. Lindsay; Sung, Lillian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We identified studies that described use of any patient-reported outcome scale for hearing loss or tinnitus among children and adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) recipients. Method: In this systematic review, we performed electronic searches of OvidSP MEDLINE, EMBASE, and…

  9. Time relevance, citation of reporting guidelines, and breadth of literature search in systematic reviews in orthodontics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos; Pandis, Nikolaos; Ren, Yijin

    Introduction: As the importance of systematic review (SR) conclusions relies upon the scientific rigor of methods and the currency of evidence, we aimed to investigate the currency of orthodontic SRs using as proxy the time from the initial search to publication. Additionally, SR information

  10. External validation of multivariable prediction models: a systematic review of methodological conduct and reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Before considering whether to use a multivariable (diagnostic or prognostic) prediction model, it is essential that its performance be evaluated in data that were not used to develop the model (referred to as external validation). We critically appraised the methodological conduct and reporting of external validation studies of multivariable prediction models. Methods We conducted a systematic review of articles describing some form of external validation of one or more multivariable prediction models indexed in PubMed core clinical journals published in 2010. Study data were extracted in duplicate on design, sample size, handling of missing data, reference to the original study developing the prediction models and predictive performance measures. Results 11,826 articles were identified and 78 were included for full review, which described the evaluation of 120 prediction models. in participant data that were not used to develop the model. Thirty-three articles described both the development of a prediction model and an evaluation of its performance on a separate dataset, and 45 articles described only the evaluation of an existing published prediction model on another dataset. Fifty-seven percent of the prediction models were presented and evaluated as simplified scoring systems. Sixteen percent of articles failed to report the number of outcome events in the validation datasets. Fifty-four percent of studies made no explicit mention of missing data. Sixty-seven percent did not report evaluating model calibration whilst most studies evaluated model discrimination. It was often unclear whether the reported performance measures were for the full regression model or for the simplified models. Conclusions The vast majority of studies describing some form of external validation of a multivariable prediction model were poorly reported with key details frequently not presented. The validation studies were characterised by poor design, inappropriate handling

  11. [Dutch-language patient-reported outcome measures for foot and ankle injuries; a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weel, Hanneke; Zwiers, Ruben; Sierevelt, Inger N; Haverkamp, Daniel; van Dijk, C Niek; Kerkhoffs, Gino M M J

    2015-01-01

    To investigate which valid and reliable patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are available for foot and ankle disorders in the Dutch population, and which of these is the most suitable for uniform use. Systematic review. PubMed, Embase and Google Scholar were systematically searched for relevant articles; subsequently two researchers screened first the title and the abstract, and then the full article within a selection of these articles. Studies that described a validation process for foot- and ankle-PROMs in a Dutch population were included. Data on measurement characteristics and translation procedure were extracted, and methodological quality of the studies was assessed using the COSMIN checklist. ('COSMIN' stands for 'Consensus-based standards for the selection of health status measurement instruments'.) Two general foot- and ankle-PROMs in the Dutch language were validated: the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) and the Foot and Ankle Ability Measurement (FAAM); two foot-PROMs: the Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index (MFPDI) and the 5-point Foot Function Index (FFI-5pt) were also validated. There were also two disorder-specific PROMs available in Dutch: the Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A) for Achilles tendinopathies and the Foot Impact Scale for Rheumatoid Arthritis (FIS-RA) for rheumatoid arthritis patients. The FAOS and the FFI-5pt showed the strongest evidence for having good measurement characteristics. Currently, we regard the FAOS as the most appropriate foot- and ankle-PROM for general foot and ankle problems. Further studies of higher methodological quality are, however, required to draw firmer conclusions.

  12. Hand hygiene-related clinical trials reported since 2010: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, L; O'Connell, N H; Dunne, C P

    2016-04-01

    Considerable emphasis is currently placed on reducing healthcare-associated infection through improving hand hygiene compliance among healthcare professionals. There is also increasing discussion in the lay media of perceived poor hand hygiene compliance among healthcare staff. Our aim was to report the outcomes of a systematic search for peer-reviewed, published studies - especially clinical trials - that focused on hand hygiene compliance among healthcare professionals. Literature published between December 2009, after publication of the World Health Organization (WHO) hand hygiene guidelines, and February 2014, which was indexed in PubMed and CINAHL on the topic of hand hygiene compliance, was searched. Following examination of relevance and methodology of the 57 publications initially retrieved, 16 clinical trials were finally included in the review. The majority of studies were conducted in the USA and Europe. The intensive care unit emerged as the predominant focus of studies followed by facilities for care of the elderly. The category of healthcare worker most often the focus of the research was the nurse, followed by the healthcare assistant and the doctor. The unit of analysis reported for hand hygiene compliance was 'hand hygiene opportunity'; four studies adopted the 'my five moments for hand hygiene' framework, as set out in the WHO guidelines, whereas other papers focused on unique multimodal strategies of varying design. We concluded that adopting a multimodal approach to hand hygiene improvement intervention strategies, whether guided by the WHO framework or by another tested multimodal framework, results in moderate improvements in hand hygiene compliance. Copyright © 2015 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Method and reporting quality in health professions education research: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A; Levinson, Anthony J; Garside, Sarah

    2011-03-01

    Studies evaluating reporting quality in health professions education (HPE) research have demonstrated deficiencies, but none have used comprehensive reporting standards. Additionally, the relationship between study methods and effect size (ES) in HPE research is unknown. This review aimed to evaluate, in a sample of experimental studies of Internet-based instruction, the quality of reporting, the relationship between reporting and methodological quality, and associations between ES and study methods. We conducted a systematic search of databases including MEDLINE, Scopus, CINAHL, EMBASE and ERIC, for articles published during 1990-2008. Studies (in any language) quantifying the effect of Internet-based instruction in HPE compared with no intervention or other instruction were included. Working independently and in duplicate, we coded reporting quality using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement, and coded study methods using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (m-NOS), the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI), and the Best Evidence in Medical Education (BEME) global scale. For reporting quality, articles scored a mean±standard deviation (SD) of 51±25% of STROBE elements for the Introduction, 58±20% for the Methods, 50±18% for the Results and 41±26% for the Discussion sections. We found positive associations (all pquality and MERSQI (ρ=0.64), m-NOS (ρ=0.57) and BEME (ρ=0.58) scores. We explored associations between study methods and knowledge ES by subtracting each study's ES from the pooled ES for studies using that method and comparing these differences between subgroups. Effect sizes in single-group pretest/post-test studies differed from the pooled estimate more than ESs in two-group studies (p=0.013). No difference was found between other study methods (yes/no: representative sample, comparison group from same community, randomised, allocation concealed, participants blinded

  14. The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liberati, Alessandro; Altman, Douglas G; Tetzlaff, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are essential to summarize evidence relating to efficacy and safety of health care interventions accurately and reliably. The clarity and transparency of these reports, however, is not optimal. Poor reporting of systematic reviews diminishes their value...... to clinicians, policy makers, and other users. Since the development of the QUOROM (QUality Of Reporting Of Meta-analysis) Statement--a reporting guideline published in 1999--there have been several conceptual, methodological, and practical advances regarding the conduct and reporting of systematic reviews...... and meta-analyses. Also, reviews of published systematic reviews have found that key information about these studies is often poorly reported. Realizing these issues, an international group that included experienced authors and methodologists developed PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic...

  15. Taking the long view: a systematic review reporting long-term perspectives on child unintentional injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytton, Julie A; Towner, Elizabeth M L; Powell, Jane; Pilkington, Paul A; Gray, Selena

    2012-10-01

    The relative significance of child injury as a cause of preventable death has increased as mortality from infectious diseases has declined. Unintentional child injuries are now a major cause of death and disability across the world with the greatest burden falling on those who are most disadvantaged. A review of long-term data on child injury mortality was conducted to explore trends and inequalities and consider how data were used to inform policy, practice and research. The authors systematically collated and quality appraised data from publications and documents reporting unintentional child injury mortality over periods of 20 years or more. A critical narrative synthesis explored trends by country income group, injury type, age, gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic group. 31 studies meeting the inclusion criteria were identified of which 30 were included in the synthesis. Only six were from middle income countries and none were from low income countries. An overall trend in falling child injury mortality masked rising road traffic injury deaths, evidence of increasing vulnerability of adolescents and widening disparities within countries when analysed by ethnic group and socioeconomic status. Child injury mortality trend data from high and middle income countries has illustrated inequalities within generally falling trends. There is scope for greater use of existing trend data to inform policy and practice. Similar evidence from low income countries where the burden of injury is greatest is needed.

  16. What are validated self-report adherence scales really measuring?: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi-My-Uyen; La Caze, Adam; Cottrell, Neil

    2014-03-01

    Medication non-adherence is a significant health problem. There are numerous methods for measuring adherence, but no single method performs well on all criteria. The purpose of this systematic review is to (i) identify self-report medication adherence scales that have been correlated with comparison measures of medication-taking behaviour, (ii) assess how these scales measure adherence and (iii) explore how these adherence scales have been validated. Cinahl and PubMed databases were used to search articles written in English on the development or validation of medication adherence scales dating to August 2012. The search terms used were medication adherence, medication non-adherence, medication compliance and names of each scale. Data such as barriers identified and validation comparison measures were extracted and compared. Sixty articles were included in the review, which consisted of 43 adherence scales. Adherence scales include items that either elicit information regarding the patient's medication-taking behaviour and/or attempts to identify barriers to good medication-taking behaviour or beliefs associated with adherence. The validation strategies employed depended on whether the focus of the scale was to measure medication-taking behaviour or identify barriers or beliefs. Supporting patients to be adherent requires information on their medication-taking behaviour, barriers to adherence and beliefs about medicines. Adherence scales have the potential to explore these aspects of adherence, but currently there has been a greater focus on measuring medication-taking behaviour. Selecting the 'right' adherence scale(s) requires consideration of what needs to be measured and how (and in whom) the scale has been validated. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. A systematic review of nurses' inter-shift handoff reports in acute care hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletick, Eilleen B; Holly, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    An inter-shift nursing handoff report is the exchange of patient care information for evidence-based nursing and midwifery from one nurse to another, and is a universal procedure used in hospitals to promote continuity of care. The objective of this review was to appraise and synthesize the best available qualitative evidence pertaining to the nursing handoff report at the time of shift change and make recommendations that can enhance the transfer of information between and among nurses, and by extension, improve patient care. The review considered qualitative studies that drew on the experiences of nurses at the time of inter-shift nursing handoff in acute care hospitals, and included designs such as phenomenology, grounded theory, narrative analysis, action research, ethnographic or cultural studies. The search strategy sought to find both published and unpublished research papers. An initial search of the Joanna Briggs Institute for Evidence-Based Nursing and Midwifery, the Cochrane Library, and PubMed's Clinical Inquiry/Find Systematic Review database was conducted. Following this, an extensive three stage search was conducted using PubMed, CINAHL, HealthStar, ScienceDirect, Dissertation Abstracts International, DARE, PsycINFO, BioMedCentral, TRIP, Pre-CINAHL, PsycARTICLES, Psychology and Behavioural Sciences Collection, ISI Current Contents, Science.gov, Web of Science/Web of Knowledge, Scirus.com website. Included was a hand search of reference lists of identified papers to capture all pertinent material as well as a search of relevant world wide websites and search engines, such as Google Scholar and the Virginia Henderson Library of Sigma Theta Tau International. Each paper was assessed independently, by two reviewers for methodological quality prior to inclusion in the review using the critical appraisal instrument QARI (Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument) developed by the Joanna Briggs Institute for Evidence Based Nursing and Midwifery. A total

  18. Terminology and reporting criteria for radiofrequency ablation of tumors in the scientific literature: Systematic review of compliance with reporting standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Tae Wook; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Lee, Min Woo; Kim, Young Sun; Choi, Dongil; Lim, Hyo Keun

    2014-01-01

    To perform a systematic review of compliance with standardized terminology and reporting criteria for radiofrequency (RF) tumor ablation, proposed by the International Working Group on Image-Guided Tumor Ablation in 2003, in the published reports. Literature search in the PubMed database was performed using index keywords, PubMed limit system, and eligibility criteria. The entire content of each article was reviewed to assess the terminology used for procedure terms, imaging findings, therapeutic efficacy, follow-up, and complications. Accuracy of the terminology and the use of alternative terms instead of standard terminology were analyzed. In addition, disparities in accuracy of terminology in articles according to the medical specialty and the type of radiology journal were evaluated. Among the articles (n = 308) included in this study, the accuracy of the terms 'procedure or session', 'treatment', 'index tumor', 'ablation zone', 'technical success', 'primary technique effectiveness rate', 'secondary technique effectiveness rate', 'local tumor progression', 'major complication', and 'minor complication' was 97% (298/307), 97% (291/300), 8% (25/307), 65% (103/159), 55% (52/94), 33% (42/129), 94% (17/18), 45% (88/195), 99% (79/80), and 100% (77/77), respectively. The overall accuracy of each term showed a tendency to improve over the years. The most commonly used alternative terms for 'technical success' and 'local tumor progression' were 'complete ablation' and 'local (tumor) recurrence', respectively. The accuracy of terminology in articles published in radiology journals was significantly greater than that of terminology in articles published in non-radiology journals, especially in Radiology and The Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology. The proposal for standardization of terminology and reporting criteria for RF tumor ablation has been gaining support according to the recently published scientific reports, especially in the field of radiology

  19. Terminology and reporting criteria for radiofrequency ablation of tumors in the scientific literature: systematic review of compliance with reporting standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae Wook; Rhim, Hyunchul; Lee, Min Woo; Kim, Young-sun; Choi, Dongil; Lim, Hyo Keun

    2014-01-01

    To perform a systematic review of compliance with standardized terminology and reporting criteria for radiofrequency (RF) tumor ablation, proposed by the International Working Group on Image-Guided Tumor Ablation in 2003, in the published reports. Literature search in the PubMed database was performed using index keywords, PubMed limit system, and eligibility criteria. The entire content of each article was reviewed to assess the terminology used for procedure terms, imaging findings, therapeutic efficacy, follow-up, and complications. Accuracy of the terminology and the use of alternative terms instead of standard terminology were analyzed. In addition, disparities in accuracy of terminology in articles according to the medical specialty and the type of radiology journal were evaluated. Among the articles (n = 308) included in this study, the accuracy of the terms 'procedure or session', 'treatment', 'index tumor', 'ablation zone', 'technical success', 'primary technique effectiveness rate', 'secondary technique effectiveness rate', 'local tumor progression', 'major complication', and 'minor complication' was 97% (298/307), 97% (291/300), 8% (25/307), 65% (103/159), 55% (52/94), 33% (42/129), 94% (17/18), 45% (88/195), 99% (79/80), and 100% (77/77), respectively. The overall accuracy of each term showed a tendency to improve over the years. The most commonly used alternative terms for 'technical success' and 'local tumor progression' were 'complete ablation' and 'local (tumor) recurrence', respectively. The accuracy of terminology in articles published in radiology journals was significantly greater than that of terminology in articles published in non-radiology journals, especially in Radiology and The Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology. The proposal for standardization of terminology and reporting criteria for RF tumor ablation has been gaining support according to the recently published scientific reports, especially in the field of radiology

  20. Knowledge is not power for patients: A systematic review and thematic synthesis of patient-reported barriers and facilitators to shared decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joseph-Williams, N.; Elwyn, G.; Edwards, A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To systematically review patient-reported barriers and facilitators to shared decision making (SDM) and develop a taxonomy of patient-reported barriers. METHODS: Systematic review and thematic synthesis. Study findings/results for each included paper were extracted verbatim and entered

  1. Financial conflicts of interest and reporting bias regarding the association between sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Schulze, Matthias B; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A

    2013-12-01

    Industry sponsors' financial interests might bias the conclusions of scientific research. We examined whether financial industry funding or the disclosure of potential conflicts of interest influenced the results of published systematic reviews (SRs) conducted in the field of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and weight gain or obesity. We conducted a search of the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Scopus databases to identify published SRs from the inception of the databases to August 31, 2013, on the association between SSB consumption and weight gain or obesity. SR conclusions were independently classified by two researchers into two groups: those that found a positive association and those that did not. These two reviewers were blinded with respect to the stated source of funding and the disclosure of conflicts of interest. We identified 17 SRs (with 18 conclusions). In six of the SRs a financial conflict of interest with some food industry was disclosed. Among those reviews without any reported conflict of interest, 83.3% of the conclusions (10/12) were that SSB consumption could be a potential risk factor for weight gain. In contrast, the same percentage of conclusions, 83.3% (5/6), of those SRs disclosing some financial conflict of interest with the food industry were that the scientific evidence was insufficient to support a positive association between SSB consumption and weight gain or obesity. Those reviews with conflicts of interest were five times more likely to present a conclusion of no positive association than those without them (relative risk: 5.0, 95% CI: 1.3-19.3). An important limitation of this study is the impossibility of ruling out the existence of publication bias among those studies not declaring any conflict of interest. However, the best large randomized trials also support a direct association between SSB consumption and weight gain or obesity. Financial conflicts of interest may bias conclusions from SRs on SSB consumption and weight gain

  2. Quality of Design, Analysis and Reporting of Software Engineering Experiments:A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    By Kampenes, Vigdis

    2007-01-01

    Background: Like any research discipline, software engineering research must be of a certain quality to be valuable. High quality research in software engineering ensures that knowledge is accumulated and helpful advice is given to the industry. One way of assessing research quality is to conduct systematic reviews of the published research literature. Objective: The purpose of this work was to assess the quality of published experiments in software engineering with respect to the validit...

  3. Impact of the International Continence Society (ICS) report on the standardisation of terminology in nocturia on the quality of reports on nocturia and nocturnal polyuria : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeester, Ilse; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Steffens, Martijn G.; Bosch, J. L. H. Ruud; Drake, Marcus J.; Weiss, Jeffrey P.; Blanker, Marco H.

    Objective To systematically review and evaluate the impact of the International Continence Society (ICS)-2002 report on standardisation of terminology in nocturia, on publications reporting on nocturia and nocturnal polyuria (NP). In 2002, the ICS defined NP as a Nocturnal Polyuria Index (nocturnal

  4. Measurement properties of self-report physical activity assessment tools in stroke: a protocol for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Júlia Caetano; Aguiar, Larissa Tavares; Nadeau, Sylvie; Scianni, Aline Alvim; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci Fuscaldi; Faria, Christina Danielli Coelho de Morais

    2017-02-13

    Self-report physical activity assessment tools are commonly used for the evaluation of physical activity levels in individuals with stroke. A great variety of these tools have been developed and widely used in recent years, which justify the need to examine their measurement properties and clinical utility. Therefore, the main objectives of this systematic review are to examine the measurement properties and clinical utility of self-report measures of physical activity and discuss the strengths and limitations of the identified tools. A systematic review of studies that investigated the measurement properties and/or clinical utility of self-report physical activity assessment tools in stroke will be conducted. Electronic searches will be performed in five databases: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) (PubMed), Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), followed by hand searches of the reference lists of the included studies. Two independent reviewers will screen all retrieve titles, abstracts, and full texts, according to the inclusion criteria and will also extract the data. A third reviewer will be referred to solve any disagreement. A descriptive summary of the included studies will contain the design, participants, as well as the characteristics, measurement properties, and clinical utility of the self-report tools. The methodological quality of the studies will be evaluated using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist and the clinical utility of the identified tools will be assessed considering predefined criteria. This systematic review will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. This systematic review will provide an extensive review of the measurement

  5. Measurement properties of self-report physical activity assessment tools in stroke: a protocol for a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Júlia Caetano; Aguiar, Larissa Tavares; Nadeau, Sylvie; Scianni, Aline Alvim; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci Fuscaldi; Faria, Christina Danielli Coelho de Morais

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Self-report physical activity assessment tools are commonly used for the evaluation of physical activity levels in individuals with stroke. A great variety of these tools have been developed and widely used in recent years, which justify the need to examine their measurement properties and clinical utility. Therefore, the main objectives of this systematic review are to examine the measurement properties and clinical utility of self-report measures of physical activity and discuss the strengths and limitations of the identified tools. Methods and analysis A systematic review of studies that investigated the measurement properties and/or clinical utility of self-report physical activity assessment tools in stroke will be conducted. Electronic searches will be performed in five databases: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) (PubMed), Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), followed by hand searches of the reference lists of the included studies. Two independent reviewers will screen all retrieve titles, abstracts, and full texts, according to the inclusion criteria and will also extract the data. A third reviewer will be referred to solve any disagreement. A descriptive summary of the included studies will contain the design, participants, as well as the characteristics, measurement properties, and clinical utility of the self-report tools. The methodological quality of the studies will be evaluated using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist and the clinical utility of the identified tools will be assessed considering predefined criteria. This systematic review will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Discussion This systematic review will

  6. The measurement of disability in the elderly: a systematic review of self-reported questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Ding, Xiang; Dong, Birong

    2014-02-01

    To analyze the contents and formats of general self-reported questionnaires on disability that are designed for and/or are widely applied in the elderly population to depict a complete picture of this field and help researchers to choose proper tools more efficiently. A broad systematic literature search was performed in September 2013 and included the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and PROQOLID. The publication language was limited to English and Chinese. Two review authors independently performed the study selection and data extraction. All of the included instruments were extracted and classified using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health framework. Of 5569 articles retrieved from the searches and 156 articles retrieved from the pearling, 22 studies (including 24 questionnaires) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. From these, 42 different domains and 458 items were extracted. The most frequently used questionnaire was the Barthel Index followed by the Lawton and Brody Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale and the Katz Index of Activities of Daily Living, respectively. The contents and formats of the questionnaires varied considerably. Activities and participation were the most commonly assessed dimensions. In addition, the Activities of Daily Living, mobility and the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale were the most common domains assessed among the included questionnaires. Among the 24 included questionnaires, the most frequently used questionnaires were the Barthel Index, Lawton and Brody Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale, and Katz Index of Activities of Daily Living. The content and format of the questionnaires varied considerably, but none of the questionnaires covered all essential dimensions of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health framework. Copyright © 2014 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  7. The impact of patient-reported outcome measures in clinical practice for pain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Michelle M; Lewith, George; Newell, David; Field, Jonathan; Bishop, Felicity L

    2017-02-01

    Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) have increasingly been incorporated into clinical practice. Research suggests that PROMs could be viewed as active components of complex interventions and may affect the process and outcome of care. This systematic review examines PROMs in the context of treatment for non-malignant pain. An electronic search on: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, Cochrane Library and Web of Science identified relevant papers (February 2015). The inclusion criteria were: focused on implementing PROMs into clinical practice, adults, and primary data studies. Critical interpretive synthesis was used to synthesise qualitative and quantitative findings into a theoretical argument. Thirteen eligible studies were identified. Synthesis suggested that PROMs may be included in the initial consultation to assess patients and for shared decision-making regarding patient care. During the course of treatment, PROMs can be used to track progress, evaluate treatment, and change the course of care; using PROMs may also influence the therapeutic relationship. Post-treatment, using PROMs might directly influence other outcomes such as pain and patient satisfaction. However, although studies have investigated these areas, evidence is weak and inconclusive. Due to the poor quality, lack of generalisability and heterogeneity of these studies, it is not possible to provide a comprehensive understanding of how PROMs may impact clinical treatment of non-malignant pain. The literature suggests that PROMs enable pain assessment, decision-making, the therapeutic relationship, evaluation of treatment and may influence outcomes. Further research is needed to provide better evidence as to whether PROMs do indeed have any effects on these domains.

  8. Convergent and sequential synthesis designs: implications for conducting and reporting systematic reviews of qualitative and quantitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Quan Nha; Pluye, Pierre; Bujold, Mathieu; Wassef, Maggy

    2017-03-23

    Systematic reviews of qualitative and quantitative evidence can provide a rich understanding of complex phenomena. This type of review is increasingly popular, has been used to provide a landscape of existing knowledge, and addresses the types of questions not usually covered in reviews relying solely on either quantitative or qualitative evidence. Although several typologies of synthesis designs have been developed, none have been tested on a large sample of reviews. The aim of this review of reviews was to identify and develop a typology of synthesis designs and methods that have been used and to propose strategies for synthesizing qualitative and quantitative evidence. A review of systematic reviews combining qualitative and quantitative evidence was performed. Six databases were searched from inception to December 2014. Reviews were included if they were systematic reviews combining qualitative and quantitative evidence. The included reviews were analyzed according to three concepts of synthesis processes: (a) synthesis methods, (b) sequence of data synthesis, and (c) integration of data and synthesis results. A total of 459 reviews were included. The analysis of this literature highlighted a lack of transparency in reporting how evidence was synthesized and a lack of consistency in the terminology used. Two main types of synthesis designs were identified: convergent and sequential synthesis designs. Within the convergent synthesis design, three subtypes were found: (a) data-based convergent synthesis design, where qualitative and quantitative evidence is analyzed together using the same synthesis method, (b) results-based convergent synthesis design, where qualitative and quantitative evidence is analyzed separately using different synthesis methods and results of both syntheses are integrated during a final synthesis, and (c) parallel-results convergent synthesis design consisting of independent syntheses of qualitative and quantitative evidence and an

  9. Swaddling: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sleuwen, Bregje E.; Engelberts, Adèle C.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.; Kuis, Wietse; Schulpen, Tom W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Swaddling was an almost universal child-care practice before the 18th century. It is still tradition in certain parts of the Middle East and is gaining popularity in the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Netherlands to curb excessive crying. We have systematically reviewed all articles on

  10. Swaddling : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sleuwen, Bregje E.; Engelberts, Adele C.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; Kuis, Wietse; Schulpen, Tom W. J.; L'Hoir, Monique P.

    2007-01-01

    Swaddling was an almost universal child-care practice before the 18th century. It is still tradition in certain parts of the Middle East and is gaining popularity in the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Netherlands to curb excessive crying. We have systematically reviewed all articles on

  11. The Impact of Participation in Online Cancer Communities on Patient Reported Outcomes: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eenbergen, Mies C; van de Poll-Franse, Lonneke V; Heine, Peter; Mols, Floortje

    2017-09-28

    In recent years, the question of how patients' participating in online communities affects various patient reported outcomes (PROs) has been investigated in several ways. This study aimed to systematically review all relevant literature identified using key search terms, with regard to, first, changes in PROs for cancer patients who participate in online communities and, second, the characteristics of patients who report such effects. A computerized search of the literature via PubMed (MEDLINE), PsycINFO (5 and 4 stars), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ScienceDirect was performed. Last search was conducted in June 2017. Studies with the following terms were included: (cancer patient) and (support group or health communities) and (online or Internet). A total of 21 studies were included and independently assessed by 2 investigators using an 11-item quality checklist. The methodological quality of the selected studies varied: 12 were of high quality, eight were of adequate quality, and only one was of low quality. Most of the respondents were women (about 80%), most with breast cancer; their mean age was 50 years. The patients who were active in online support groups were mostly younger and more highly educated than the nonusers. The investigated PROs included general well-being (ie, mood and health), anxiety, depression, quality of life, posttraumatic growth, and cancer-related concerns. Only marginal effects-that is, PRO improvements-were found; in most cases they were insignificant, and in some cases they were contradictory. The main shortcoming of this kind of study is the lack of methodological instruments for reliable measurements. Furthermore, some patients who participate in online communities or interact with peers via Internet do not expect to measure changes in their PROs. If cancer survivors want to meet other survivors and share information or get support, online communities can be a trustworthy and reliable platform to facilitate

  12. Tracheal Chondrosarcoma: Systematic Review of Tumor Characteristics, Diagnosis, and Treatment Outcomes with Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Kutzner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To our knowledge this is the first systematic review of tracheal chondrosarcoma treatment outcomes. Management insights are thoroughly discussed. Men constitute 93.8% of cases, and most of these occur in the distal trachea. The most common symptom, dyspnea, occurs in virtually all patients. Extratracheal extension had occurred in 78.6% of patients. Definitive treatment with tracheal resection showed no recurrences in 10 patients with mean follow-up of 3.1 years. Adjuvant radiotherapy may be utilized for improving local control when open complete resection cannot be performed, but only after endoscopic excision of gross tumor.

  13. Terminology and reporting criteria for radiofrequency ablation of tumors in the scientific literature: Systematic review of compliance with reporting standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Tae Wook; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Lee, Min Woo; Kim, Young Sun; Choi, Dongil; Lim, Hyo Keun [Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    To perform a systematic review of compliance with standardized terminology and reporting criteria for radiofrequency (RF) tumor ablation, proposed by the International Working Group on Image-Guided Tumor Ablation in 2003, in the published reports. Literature search in the PubMed database was performed using index keywords, PubMed limit system, and eligibility criteria. The entire content of each article was reviewed to assess the terminology used for procedure terms, imaging findings, therapeutic efficacy, follow-up, and complications. Accuracy of the terminology and the use of alternative terms instead of standard terminology were analyzed. In addition, disparities in accuracy of terminology in articles according to the medical specialty and the type of radiology journal were evaluated. Among the articles (n = 308) included in this study, the accuracy of the terms 'procedure or session', 'treatment', 'index tumor', 'ablation zone', 'technical success', 'primary technique effectiveness rate', 'secondary technique effectiveness rate', 'local tumor progression', 'major complication', and 'minor complication' was 97% (298/307), 97% (291/300), 8% (25/307), 65% (103/159), 55% (52/94), 33% (42/129), 94% (17/18), 45% (88/195), 99% (79/80), and 100% (77/77), respectively. The overall accuracy of each term showed a tendency to improve over the years. The most commonly used alternative terms for 'technical success' and 'local tumor progression' were 'complete ablation' and 'local (tumor) recurrence', respectively. The accuracy of terminology in articles published in radiology journals was significantly greater than that of terminology in articles published in non-radiology journals, especially in Radiology and The Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology. The proposal for standardization of terminology and reporting criteria for

  14. Quality of systematic reviews in pediatric oncology - A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lundh, Andreas; Knijnenburg, Sebastiaan L.; Jørgensen, Anders W.; van Dalen, Elvira C.; Kremer, Leontien C. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: To ensure evidence-based decision making in pediatric oncology systematic reviews are necessary. The objective of our study was to evaluate the methodological quality of all currently existing systematic reviews in pediatric oncology. Methods: We identified eligible systematic reviews

  15. Dexmedetomidine as a procedural sedative for percutaneous tracheotomy: case report and systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrott, Jerrold L; Co, Michelle T; Reynolds, Steven C; Gunning, Derek J R

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the successful use of dexmedetomidine as the primary procedural sedative for a percutaneous tracheotomy procedure and to systematically present the supporting literature. Materials and Methods. A Case report of our experience and systematic literature search. PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar were searched without restriction using the key words dexmedetomidine, percutaneous tracheotomy, and tracheotomy procedure. All relevant published references were retrieved irrespective of their methodological quality. Results. In total, only 3 relevant references were found. These include one small placebo controlled randomized trial and 2 case reports. The randomized, placebo controlled trial enrolled patients already sedated on midazolam and included 64 total patients. The 2 other case reports both described the use of dexmedetomidine as the primary procedural sedative. All of the cases reported the successful completion of the percutaneous tracheotomy without any major complication, but none reported the subjective patient experience. Conclusion. Based on the available published literature and our experience, we suggest that dexmedetomidine be considered for use as the primary procedural sedative for percutaneous tracheotomy procedure. Dexmedetomidine's ability to provide adequate sedation and amnesia, without blunting the respiratory drive and protective reflexes of the patient, may make it an optimal agent in specific cases.

  16. Dexmedetomidine as a Procedural Sedative for Percutaneous Tracheotomy: Case Report and Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerrold L. Perrott

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe the successful use of dexmedetomidine as the primary procedural sedative for a percutaneous tracheotomy procedure and to systematically present the supporting literature. Materials and Methods. A Case report of our experience and systematic literature search. PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar were searched without restriction using the key words dexmedetomidine, percutaneous tracheotomy, and tracheotomy procedure. All relevant published references were retrieved irrespective of their methodological quality. Results. In total, only 3 relevant references were found. These include one small placebo controlled randomized trial and 2 case reports. The randomized, placebo controlled trial enrolled patients already sedated on midazolam and included 64 total patients. The 2 other case reports both described the use of dexmedetomidine as the primary procedural sedative. All of the cases reported the successful completion of the percutaneous tracheotomy without any major complication, but none reported the subjective patient experience. Conclusion. Based on the available published literature and our experience, we suggest that dexmedetomidine be considered for use as the primary procedural sedative for percutaneous tracheotomy procedure. Dexmedetomidine’s ability to provide adequate sedation and amnesia, without blunting the respiratory drive and protective reflexes of the patient, may make it an optimal agent in specific cases.

  17. Reporting Quality of Search Methods in Systematic Reviews of HIV Behavioral Interventions (2000-2010): Are the Searches Clearly Explained, Systematic and Reproducible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Mary M.; DeLuca, Julia B.; Crepaz, Nicole; Lyles, Cynthia M.

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews are an essential tool for researchers, prevention providers and policy makers who want to remain current with the evidence in the field. Systematic review must adhere to strict standards, as the results can provide a more objective appraisal of evidence for making scientific decisions than traditional narrative reviews. An…

  18. Can patients report patient safety incidents in a hospital setting? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jane K; Armitage, Gerry

    2012-08-01

    Patients are increasingly being thought of as central to patient safety. A small but growing body of work suggests that patients may have a role in reporting patient safety problems within a hospital setting. This review considers this disparate body of work, aiming to establish a collective view on hospital-based patient reporting. This review asks: (a) What can patients report? (b) In what settings can they report? (c) At what times have patients been asked to report? (d) How have patients been asked to report? 5 databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, (Kings Fund) HMIC and PsycINFO) were searched for published literature on patient reporting of patient safety 'problems' (a number of search terms were utilised) within a hospital setting. In addition, reference lists of all included papers were checked for relevant literature. 13 papers were included within this review. All included papers were quality assessed using a framework for comparing both qualitative and quantitative designs, and reviewed in line with the study objectives. Patients are clearly in a position to report on patient safety, but included papers varied considerably in focus, design and analysis, with all papers lacking a theoretical underpinning. In all papers, reports were actively solicited from patients, with no evidence currently supporting spontaneous reporting. The impact of timing upon accuracy of information has yet to be established, and many vulnerable patients are not currently being included in patient reporting studies, potentially introducing bias and underestimating the scale of patient reporting. The future of patient reporting may well be as part of an 'error detection jigsaw' used alongside other methods as part of a quality improvement toolkit.

  19. PATIENT-REPORTED OUTCOMES IN RARE LYSOSOMAL STORAGE DISEASES: KEY INFORMANT INTERVIEWS AND A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW PROTOCOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Patricia A; Mulla, Sohail M; Adams-Webber, Thomasin; Sivji, Yasmin; Guyatt, Gordon H; Johnston, Bradley C

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the use, challenges and opportunities associated with using patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in studies with patients with rare lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs), we conducted interviews with researchers and health technology assessment (HTA) experts, and developed the methods for a systematic review of the literature. The purpose of the review is to identify the psychometrically sound generic and disease-specific PROs used in studies with patients with five LSDs of interest: Fabry, Gaucher (Type I), Niemann-Pick (Type B) and Pompe diseases, and mucopolysaccharidosis (Types I and II). Researchers and HTA experts who responded to an email invitation participated in a telephone interview. We used qualitative content analysis to analyze the anonymized transcripts. We conducted a comprehensive literature search for studies that used PROs to investigate burden of disease or to assess the impact of interventions across the five LSDs of interest. Interviews with seven researchers and six HTA experts representing eight countries revealed five themes. These were: (i) the importance of using psychometrically sound PROs in studies with rare diseases, (ii) the paucity of disease-specific PROs, (iii) the importance of having PRO data for economic analyses, (iv) practical and psychometric limitations of existing PROs, and (v) suggestions for new PROs. The systematic review has been completed. The interviews highlight current challenges and opportunities experienced by researchers and HTA experts involved in work with rare LSDs. The ongoing systematic review will highlight the experience, opportunities, and limitations of PROs in LSDs and provide suggestions for future research.

  20. Evaluating test-retest reliability in patient-reported outcome measures for older people: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myung Sook; Kang, Kyung Ja; Jang, Sun Joo; Lee, Joo Yun; Chang, Sun Ju

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the components of test-retest reliability including time interval, sample size, and statistical methods used in patient-reported outcome measures in older people and to provide suggestions on the methodology for calculating test-retest reliability for patient-reported outcomes in older people. This was a systematic literature review. MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched from January 1, 2000 to August 10, 2017 by an information specialist. This systematic review was guided by both the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist and the guideline for systematic review published by the National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency in Korea. The methodological quality was assessed by the Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments checklist box B. Ninety-five out of 12,641 studies were selected for the analysis. The median time interval for test-retest reliability was 14days, and the ratio of sample size for test-retest reliability to the number of items in each measure ranged from 1:1 to 1:4. The most frequently used statistical methods for continuous scores was intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Among the 63 studies that used ICCs, 21 studies presented models for ICC calculations and 30 studies reported 95% confidence intervals of the ICCs. Additional analyses using 17 studies that reported a strong ICC (>0.09) showed that the mean time interval was 12.88days and the mean ratio of the number of items to sample size was 1:5.37. When researchers plan to assess the test-retest reliability of patient-reported outcome measures for older people, they need to consider an adequate time interval of approximately 13days and the sample size of about 5 times the number of items. Particularly, statistical methods should not only be selected based on the types of scores of the patient-reported outcome measures, but should also be described clearly in

  1. Pioglitazone utilization, efficacy & safety in Indian type 2 diabetic patients: A systematic review & comparison with European Medicines Agency Assessment Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Sarayu A; Kshirsagar, Nilima A

    2016-11-01

    With pioglitazone ban and subsequent revoking in India along with varying regulatory decisions in other countries, it was decided to carry out a systematic review on its safety, efficacy and drug utilization in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in India and compare with the data from the European Medicines Agency Assessment Report (EMA-AR). Systematic review was performed as per the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, searching Medline/PubMed, Google Scholar and Science Direct databases using 'pioglitazone AND India AND human' and 'pioglitazone AND India AND human AND patient' and compared with EMA-AR. Spontaneous reports in World Health Organization VigiBase from India were compared with VigiBase data from other countries. Sixty six publications, 26 (efficacy), 32 (drug utilization) and eight (safety), were retrieved. In India, pioglitazone was used at 15-30 mg/day mostly with metformin and sulphonylurea, being prescribed to 26.7 and 8.4 per cent patients in north and south, respectively. The efficacy in clinical trials (CTs) was similar to those in EMA-AR. Incidence of bladder cancer in pioglitazone exposed and non-exposed patients was not significantly different in an Indian retrospective cohort study. There were two cases and a series of eight cases of bladder cancer published but none reported in VigiBase. In India, probably due to lower dose, lower background incidence of bladder cancer and smaller sample size in epidemiological studies, association of bladder cancer with pioglitazone was not found to be significant. Reporting of CTs and adverse drug reactions to Clinical Trials Registry of India and Pharmacovigilance Programme of India, respectively, along with compliance studies with warning given in package insert and epidemiological studies with larger sample size are needed.

  2. Bronchoscopic resection of endobronchial inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor: A case report and systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Ray

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMT is a rare tumour affecting the tracheo-bronchial tree in the adult population. The clinical presentation of this tumour is diverse and diagnosis can be definitively clinched by histopathological examination. Treatment of this tumour usually requires surgical resection with bronchoscopic resection being described in few cases. We describe a 32 year old male presenting with hemoptysis who was diagnosed to have IMT. Resection of the tumour was done with the help of rigid bronchoscopy. Post-resection, hemoptysis stopped and no recurrence of tumour was noted on subsequent follow-up. We also present a systematic review of literature of all the cases of tracheo-bronchial IMT treated with bronchoscopic resection and conclude it to be a useful alternative to surgery in such cases.

  3. Quality of Reporting of Randomized Clinical Trials in Tai Chi Interventions—A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Yi Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the reporting quality of published randomized clinical trials (RCTs in the Tai Chi literature following the publication of the CONSORT guidelines in 2001. Data Sources. The OVID MEDLINE and PUBMED databases. Review Methods. To survey the general characteristics of Tai Chi RCTs in the literature, we included any report if (i it was an original report of the trial; (ii its design was RCT; (iii one of the treatments being tested was Tai Chi; and (iv it was in English. In addition, we assessed the reporting quality of RCTs that were published between 2002 and 2007, using a modified CONSORT checklist of 40 items. The adequate description of Tai Chi interventions in these trials was examined against a 10-item checklist adapted from previous reviews. Results. The search yielded 31 Tai Chi RCTs published from 2002 to 2007 and only 11 for 1992–2001. Among trials published during 2002–2007, the most adequately reported criteria were related to background, participant eligibility and interpretation of the study results. Nonetheless, the most poorly reported items were associated with randomization allocation concealment, implementation of randomization and the definitions of period of recruitment and follow-up. In addition, only 23% of RCTs provided adequate details of Tai Chi intervention used in the trials. Conclusion. The findings in this review indicated that the reporting quality of Tai Chi intervention trials is sub-optimal. Substantial improvement is required to meet the CONSORT guidelines and allow assessment of the quality of evidence. We believe that not only investigators, but also journal editors, reviewers and funding agencies need to follow the CONSORT guidelines to improve the standards of research and strengthen the evidence base for Tai Chi and for complementary and alternative medicine.

  4. An overview of systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kathy A; Weeks, Susan Mace

    2014-12-01

    Systematic review is an invaluable tool for the practicing clinician. A well-designed systematic review represents the latest and most complete information available on a particular topic or intervention. This article highlights the key elements of systematic review, what it is and is not, and provides an overview of several reputable organizations supporting the methodological development and conduct of systematic review. Important aspects for evaluating the quality of a systematic review are also included. Copyright © 2014 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reporting of various methodological and statistical parameters in negative studies published in prominent Indian Medical Journals: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charan, J; Saxena, D

    2014-01-01

    Biased negative studies not only reflect poor research effort but also have an impact on 'patient care' as they prevent further research with similar objectives, leading to potential research areas remaining unexplored. Hence, published 'negative studies' should be methodologically strong. All parameters that may help a reader to judge validity of results and conclusions should be reported in published negative studies. There is a paucity of data on reporting of statistical and methodological parameters in negative studies published in Indian Medical Journals. The present systematic review was designed with an aim to critically evaluate negative studies published in prominent Indian Medical Journals for reporting of statistical and methodological parameters. Systematic review. All negative studies published in 15 Science Citation Indexed (SCI) medical journals published from India were included in present study. Investigators involved in the study evaluated all negative studies for the reporting of various parameters. Primary endpoints were reporting of "power" and "confidence interval." Power was reported in 11.8% studies. Confidence interval was reported in 15.7% studies. Majority of parameters like sample size calculation (13.2%), type of sampling method (50.8%), name of statistical tests (49.1%), adjustment of multiple endpoints (1%), post hoc power calculation (2.1%) were reported poorly. Frequency of reporting was more in clinical trials as compared to other study designs and in journals having impact factor more than 1 as compared to journals having impact factor less than 1. Negative studies published in prominent Indian medical journals do not report statistical and methodological parameters adequately and this may create problems in the critical appraisal of findings reported in these journals by its readers.

  6. TAxonomy of Self-reported Sedentary behaviour Tools (TASST) framework for development, comparison and evaluation of self-report tools: content analysis and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall, P M; Coulter, E H; Fitzsimons, C F; Skelton, D A; Chastin, Sfm

    2017-04-08

    Sedentary behaviour (SB) has distinct deleterious health outcomes, yet there is no consensus on best practice for measurement. This study aimed to identify the optimal self-report tool for population surveillance of SB, using a systematic framework. A framework, TAxonomy of Self-reported Sedentary behaviour Tools (TASST), consisting of four domains (type of assessment, recall period, temporal unit and assessment period), was developed based on a systematic inventory of existing tools. The inventory was achieved through a systematic review of studies reporting SB and tracing back to the original description. A systematic review of the accuracy and sensitivity to change of these tools was then mapped against TASST domains. Systematic searches were conducted via EBSCO, reference lists and expert opinion. The inventory included tools measuring SB in adults that could be self-completed at one sitting, and excluded tools measuring SB in specific populations or contexts. The systematic review included studies reporting on the accuracy against an objective measure of SB and/or sensitivity to change of a tool in the inventory. The systematic review initially identified 32 distinct tools (141 questions), which were used to develop the TASST framework. Twenty-two studies evaluated accuracy and/or sensitivity to change representing only eight taxa. Assessing SB as a sum of behaviours and using a previous day recall were the most promising features of existing tools. Accuracy was poor for all existing tools, with underestimation and overestimation of SB. There was a lack of evidence about sensitivity to change. Despite the limited evidence, mapping existing SB tools onto the TASST framework has enabled informed recommendations to be made about the most promising features for a surveillance tool, identified aspects on which future research and development of SB surveillance tools should focus. International prospective register of systematic reviews (PROPSPERO)/CRD42014009851

  7. Guidance on Conducting and REporting DElphi Studies (CREDES) in palliative care: Recommendations based on a methodological systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jünger, Saskia; Payne, Sheila A; Brine, Jenny; Radbruch, Lukas; Brearley, Sarah G

    2017-09-01

    The Delphi technique is widely used for the development of guidance in palliative care, having impact on decisions with relevance for patient care. To systematically examine the application of the Delphi technique for the development of best practice guidelines in palliative care. A methodological systematic review was undertaken using the databases PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, Academic Search Complete and EMBASE. Original articles (English language) were included when reporting on empirical studies that had used the Delphi technique to develop guidance for good clinical practice in palliative care. Data extraction included a quality appraisal on the rigour in conduct of the studies and the quality of reporting. A total of 30 empirical studies (1997-2015) were considered for full-text analysis. Considerable differences were identified regarding the rigour of the design and the reporting of essential process and outcome parameters. Furthermore, discrepancies regarding the use of terms for describing the method were observed, for example, concerning the understanding of a 'round' or a 'modified Delphi study'. Substantial variation was found concerning the quality of the study conduct and the transparency of reporting of Delphi studies used for the development of best practice guidance in palliative care. Since credibility of the resulting recommendations depends on the rigorous use of the Delphi technique, there is a need for consistency and quality both in the conduct and reporting of studies. To allow a critical appraisal of the methodology and the resulting guidance, a reporting standard for Conducting and REporting of DElphi Studies (CREDES) is proposed.

  8. How to write a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Joshua D; Quatman, Carmen E; Manring, M M; Siston, Robert A; Flanigan, David C

    2014-11-01

    The role of evidence-based medicine in sports medicine and orthopaedic surgery is rapidly growing. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are also proliferating in the medical literature. To provide the outline necessary for a practitioner to properly understand and/or conduct a systematic review for publication in a sports medicine journal. Review. The steps of a successful systematic review include the following: identification of an unanswered answerable question; explicit definitions of the investigation's participant(s), intervention(s), comparison(s), and outcome(s); utilization of PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) guidelines and PROSPERO registration; thorough systematic data extraction; and appropriate grading of the evidence and strength of the recommendations. An outline to understand and conduct a systematic review is provided, and the difference between meta-analyses and systematic reviews is described. The steps necessary to perform a systematic review are fully explained, including the study purpose, search methodology, data extraction, reporting of results, identification of bias, and reporting of the study's main findings. Systematic reviews or meta-analyses critically appraise and formally synthesize the best existing evidence to provide a statement of conclusion that answers specific clinical questions. Readers and reviewers, however, must recognize that the quality and strength of recommendations in a review are only as strong as the quality of studies that it analyzes. Thus, great care must be used in the interpretation of bias and extrapolation of the review's findings to translation to clinical practice. Without advanced education on the topic, the reader may follow the steps discussed herein to perform a systematic review. © 2013 The Author(s).

  9. Inadequacy of ethical conduct and reporting of stepped wedge cluster randomized trials: Results from a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taljaard, Monica; Hemming, Karla; Shah, Lena; Giraudeau, Bruno; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Weijer, Charles

    2017-08-01

    Background/aims The use of the stepped wedge cluster randomized design is rapidly increasing. This design is commonly used to evaluate health policy and service delivery interventions. Stepped wedge cluster randomized trials have unique characteristics that complicate their ethical interpretation. The 2012 Ottawa Statement provides comprehensive guidance on the ethical design and conduct of cluster randomized trials, and the 2010 CONSORT extension for cluster randomized trials provides guidelines for reporting. Our aims were to assess the adequacy of the ethical conduct and reporting of stepped wedge trials to date, focusing on research ethics review and informed consent. Methods We conducted a systematic review of stepped wedge cluster randomized trials in health research published up to 2014 in English language journals. We extracted details of study intervention and data collection procedures, as well as reporting of research ethics review and informed consent. Two reviewers independently extracted data from each trial; discrepancies were resolved through discussion. We identified the presence of any research participants at the cluster level and the individual level. We assessed ethical conduct by tabulating reporting of research ethics review and informed consent against the presence of research participants. Results Of 32 identified stepped wedge trials, only 24 (75%) reported review by a research ethics committee, and only 16 (50%) reported informed consent from any research participants-yet, all trials included research participants at some level. In the subgroup of 20 trials with research participants at cluster level, only 4 (20%) reported informed consent from such participants; in 26 trials with individual-level research participants, only 15 (58%) reported their informed consent. Interventions (regardless of whether targeting cluster- or individual-level participants) were delivered at the group level in more than two-thirds of trials; nine trials (28

  10. Psychosocial concerns reported by Syrian refugees living in Jordan: systematic review of unpublished needs assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Ruth; Steel, Zachary; Abo-Hilal, Mohammad; Hassan, Abdul Halim; Lawsin, Catalina

    2016-08-01

    Humanitarian organisations supporting Syrian refugees in Jordan have conducted needs assessments to direct resources appropriately. To present a model of psychosocial concerns reported by Syrian refugees and a peer review of research practices. Academic and grey literature databases, the United Nations Syria Regional Response website, key humanitarian organisation websites and Google were searched for needs assessments with Syrian refugees in Jordan between February 2011 and June 2015. Information directly reporting the views of Syrian refugees regarding psychosocial needs was extracted and a qualitative synthesis was conducted. Respondents reported that psychological distress was exacerbated by both environmental (financial, housing, employment) and psychosocial outcomes (loss of role and social support, inactivity), which are themselves stressors. Need for improvement in research methodology, participatory engagement and ethical reporting was evident. Participatory engagement strategies might help to address identified psychosocial outcomes. More rigorous qualitative methods are required to ensure accuracy of findings. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  11. A systematic review of patient-reported outcome measures in paediatric otolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J; Powell, S; Robson, A

    2018-01-01

    Recently, there has been increased emphasis on the development and application of patient-reported outcome measures. This drive to assess the impact of illness or interventions, from the patient's perspective, has resulted in a greater number of available questionnaires. The importance of selecting an appropriate patient-reported outcome measure is specifically emphasised in the paediatric population. The literature on patient-reported outcome measures used in paediatric otolaryngology was reviewed. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using the databases Medline, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PsycInfo, using the terms: 'health assessment questionnaire', 'structured questionnaire', 'questionnaire', 'patient reported outcome measures', 'PROM', 'quality of life' or 'survey', and 'children' or 'otolaryngology'. The search was limited to English-language articles published between 1996 and 2016. The search yielded 656 articles, of which 63 were considered relevant. This included general paediatric patient-reported outcome measures applied to otolaryngology, and paediatric otolaryngology disease-specific patient-reported outcome measures. A large collection of patient-reported outcome measures are described in the paediatric otolaryngology literature. Greater standardisation of the patient-reported outcome measures used in paediatric otolaryngology would assist in pooling of data and increase the validation of tools used.

  12. Comparison of search strategies in systematic reviews of adverse effects to other systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golder, Su; Loke, Yoon K; Zorzela, Liliane

    2014-06-01

    Research indicates that the methods used to identify data for systematic reviews of adverse effects may need to differ from other systematic reviews. To compare search methods in systematic reviews of adverse effects with other reviews. The search methodologies in 849 systematic reviews of adverse effects were compared with other reviews. Poor reporting of search strategies is apparent in both systematic reviews of adverse effects and other types of systematic reviews. Systematic reviews of adverse effects are less likely to restrict their searches to MEDLINE or include only randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The use of other databases is largely dependent on the topic area and the year the review was conducted, with more databases searched in more recent reviews. Adverse effects search terms are used by 72% of reviews and despite recommendations only two reviews report using floating subheadings. The poor reporting of search strategies in systematic reviews is universal, as is the dominance of searching MEDLINE. However, reviews of adverse effects are more likely to include a range of study designs (not just RCTs) and search beyond MEDLINE. © 2014 Crown Copyright.

  13. Screening for Syphilis: Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, Amy G; Pappas, Miranda; Daeges, Monica; Nelson, Heidi D

    2016-06-07

    Screening for syphilis infection is currently recommended for high-risk individuals, including those with previous syphilis infection, an infected sexual partner, HIV infection, or more than 4 sex partners in the preceding year. To update a 2004 systematic review of studies of syphilis screening effectiveness, test accuracy, and screening harms in nonpregnant adults and adolescents. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews through October 2015 and Ovid MEDLINE (January 2004 to October 2015), with updated search through March 2016. English-language trials and observational studies of screening effectiveness, test accuracy, and screening harms in nonpregnant adults and adolescents. One investigator abstracted data, a second checked data for accuracy, and 2 investigators independently assessed study quality using predefined criteria. Transmission of disease, including HIV; complications of syphilis; diagnostic accuracy; and harms of screening. No evidence was identified regarding the effectiveness of screening on clinical outcomes or the effectiveness of risk assessment instruments; the harms of screening; or the effectiveness of screening in average-risk, nonpregnant adolescents or adults or high-risk individuals other than men who have sex with men (MSM) or men who are HIV positive. Four non-US studies indicated higher rates of syphilis detection with screening every 3 months vs 6 or 12 months for early syphilis in HIV-positive men or MSM. For example, there was an increased proportion of asymptomatic, higher-risk MSM in Australia (n = 6789 consultations) receiving a diagnosis of early syphilis when tested every 3 months vs annually (53% vs 16%, P = .001), but no difference among low-risk MSM. Treponemal and nontreponemal tests were accurate in asymptomatic individuals (sensitivity >85%, specificity >91%) in 3 studies but required confirmatory testing. Reverse sequence testing with an initial automated

  14. Existing reporting guidelines for clinical trials are not completely relevant for implantable medical devices: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motte, Anne-France; Diallo, Stéphanie; van den Brink, Hélène; Châteauvieux, Constance; Serrano, Carole; Naud, Carole; Steelandt, Julie; Alsac, Jean-Marc; Aubry, Pierre; Cour, Florence; Pellerin, Olivier; Pineau, Judith; Prognon, Patrice; Borget, Isabelle; Bonan, Brigitte; Martelli, Nicolas

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine relevant items for reporting clinical trials on implantable medical devices (IMDs) and to identify reporting guidelines which include these items. A panel of experts identified the most relevant items for evaluating IMDs from an initial list based on reference papers. We then conducted a systematic review of articles indexed in MEDLINE. We retrieved reporting guidelines from the EQUATOR network's library for health research reporting. Finally, we screened these reporting guidelines to find those using our set of reporting items. Seven relevant reporting items were selected that related to four topics: randomization, learning curve, surgical setting, and device information. A total of 348 reporting guidelines were identified, among which 26 met our inclusion criteria. However, none of the 26 reporting guidelines presented all seven items together. The most frequently reported item was timing of randomization (65%). On the contrary, device information and learning curve effects were poorly specified. To our knowledge, this study is the first to identify specific items related to IMDs in reporting guidelines for clinical trials. We have shown that no existing reporting guideline is totally suitable for these devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Librarian co-authors correlated with higher quality reported search strategies in general internal medicine systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rethlefsen, Melissa L; Farrell, Ann M; Osterhaus Trzasko, Leah C; Brigham, Tara J

    2015-06-01

    To determine whether librarian and information specialist authorship was associated with better reported systematic review (SR) search quality. SRs from high-impact general internal medicine journals were reviewed for search quality characteristics and reporting quality by independent reviewers using three instruments, including a checklist of Institute of Medicine Recommended Standards for the Search Process and a scored modification of the Peer Review of Electronic Search Strategies instrument. The level of librarian and information specialist participation was significantly associated with search reproducibility from reported search strategies (Χ(2) = 23.5; P Librarian co-authored SRs had significantly higher odds of meeting 8 of 13 analyzed search standards than those with no librarian participation and six more than those with mentioned librarian participation. One-way ANOVA showed that differences in total search quality scores between all three groups were statistically significant (F2,267 = 10.1233; P librarian or information specialist co-authors are correlated with significantly higher quality reported search strategies. To minimize bias in SRs, authors and editors could encourage librarian engagement in SRs including authorship as a potential way to help improve documentation of the search strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A systematic review of patient-reported measures of burden of treatment in three chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eton DT

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available David T Eton,1 Tarig A Elraiyah,2 Kathleen J Yost,3 Jennifer L Ridgeway,1 Anna Johnson,2 Jason S Egginton,1 Rebecca J Mullan,4 Mohammad Hassan Murad,2 Patricia J Erwin,2 Victor M Montori1,2 1Division of Heath Care Policy and Research, Department of Health Sciences Research, 2Knowledge and Evaluation Research Unit, 3Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 4University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, USA Background: Burden of treatment refers to the workload of health care and its impact on patient functioning and well-being. There are a number of patient-reported measures that assess burden of treatment in single diseases or in specific treatment contexts. A review of such measures could help identify content for a general measure of treatment burden that could be used with patients dealing with multiple chronic conditions. We reviewed the content and psychometric properties of patient-reported measures that assess aspects of treatment burden in three chronic diseases, ie, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and heart failure. Methods: We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid PsycINFO, and EBSCO CINAHL through November 2011. Abstracts were independently reviewed by two people, with disagreements adjudicated by a third person. Retrieved articles were reviewed to confirm relevance, with patient-reported measures scrutinized to determine consistency with the definition of burden of treatment. Descriptive information and psychometric properties were extracted. Results: A total of 5686 abstracts were identified from the database searches. After abstract review, 359 full-text articles were retrieved, of which 76 met our inclusion criteria. An additional 22 articles were identified from the references of included articles. From the 98 studies, 57 patient-reported measures of treatment burden (full measures or components within measures were identified. Most were multi-item scales

  17. Self-Reported Empathy in Adult Women with Autism Spectrum Disorders - A Systematic Mini Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Francien M; Groen, Yvonne; Becke, Miriam; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    There is limited research on Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in females. Although the empathy construct has been examined thoroughly in autism, little attention has been paid to empathy in adult women with this condition or to gender differences within the disorder. Self-reported empathy in adult women with ASD was examined and compared to that of typically developed men and women as well as to men with this condition. Online databases were searched for articles investigating self-reported empathy among adult women with ASD. Only six studies comparing women to men were identified. All studies found women with an ASD to report lower levels of empathy than typically developed women, and typically developed men, but similar levels to men with this condition. The self-reported empathic ability of women diagnosed with ASD resembles that of their male counterparts most closely; they show a hypermasculinisation in empathy. This is particularly surprising considering the large gender difference in empathy in the general population. One of the limitations of this review is that the current diagnostic criteria for ASD are oriented towards male-specific behaviour and fail to integrate gender specific characteristics. Hence, women diagnosed with ASD are likely to be at the male end of the continuum. The suggested hypermasculinisation of women on the spectrum, as evident from this review, may therefore be exaggerated due to a selection bias.

  18. Implementing patient-reported outcome measures in palliative care clinical practice: a systematic review of facilitators and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Bárbara; Harding, Richard; Higginson, Irene J

    2014-02-01

    Many patient-reported outcome measures have been developed in the past two decades, playing an increasingly important role in palliative care. However, their routine use in practice has been slow and difficult to implement. To systematically identify facilitators and barriers to the implementation of patient-reported outcome measures in different palliative care settings for routine practice, and to generate evidence-based recommendations, to inform the implementation process in clinical practice. Systematic literature review and narrative synthesis. Medline, PsycInfo, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Embase and British Nursing Index were systematically searched from 1985. Hand searching of reference lists for all included articles and relevant review articles was performed. A total of 3863 articles were screened. Of these, 31 articles met the inclusion criteria. First, data were integrated in the main themes: facilitators, barriers and lessons learned. Second, each main theme was grouped into either five or six categories. Finally, recommendations for implementation on outcome measures at management, health-care professional and patient levels were generated for three different points in time: preparation, implementation and assessment/improvement. Successful implementation of patient-reported outcome measures should be tailored by identifying and addressing potential barriers according to setting. Having a coordinator throughout the implementation process seems to be key. Ongoing cognitive and emotional processes of each individual should be taken into consideration during changes. The educational component prior to the implementation is crucial. This could promote ownership and correct use of the measure by clinicians, potentially improving practice and the quality of care provided through patient-reported outcome measure data use in clinical decision-making.

  19. The impact of HTA reports on health policy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardus, Ansgar; Dintsios, Charalabos-Markos

    2005-11-02

    The objective of health technology assessment (HTA) is to support decision-making in the health sector by assessing health technologies systematically under medical, economic, social, and ethical aspects. The present study aims at identifying ways of enabling the impact of HTA on decision-making processes in the German health sector. The authors formulate three research questions: (1) Can methods be identified that allow a valid assessment of the impact of HTA reports on the decision-making processes? (2) Has been shown an impact of HTA reports on decision-making processes in the health sector? (3) Which are the factors responsible for a high or a low impact of HTA? The authors include studies that present a methodology to assess the impact of HTA, that investigate the impact of HTA on decision-making processes, or study the factors that might enhance or hinder the impact of HTA. Medical and social science electronic databases, lists of publications and projects of the European, North American, Canadian, and Australian HTA agencies, as well as the bibliography of the identified articles and documents are looked through. The writers do a handsearch of the International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care and contact 64 HTA agencies by a letter, requesting information on investigations that might not have been published. Abstracts from about 5,000 articles are read. 57 articles are ordered as full-text, 43 are finally included and 14 excluded. (1) In eight studies interviews with decision-makers are used to elicit the information, in three studies document analysis is employed, and in six surveys the results rely only on the observations and interpretations of the authors. One study analyses service data and in nine examinations more than one of the methods listed above are employed. Only in two studies pre-defined indicators were used and only in one clinical trial a prospective design is chosen. (2) In nine studies the impact of a population of HTA

  20. The impact of HTA reports on health policy: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhardus, Ansgar

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: The objective of health technology assessment (HTA is to support decision-making in the health sector by assessing health technologies systematically under medical, economic, social, and ethical aspects. The present study aims at identifying ways of enabling the impact of HTA on decision-making processes in the German health sector. The authors formulate three research questions: (1 Can methods be identified that allow a valid assessment of the impact of HTA reports on the decision-making processes? (2 Has been shown an impact of HTA reports on decision-making processes in the health sector? (3 Which are the factors responsible for a high or a low impact of HTA? Methods: The authors include studies that present a methodology to assess the impact of HTA, that investigate the impact of HTA on decision-making processes, or study the factors that might enhance or hinder the impact of HTA. Medical and social science electronic databases, lists of publications and projects of the European, North American, Canadian, and Australian HTA agencies, as well as the bibliography of the identified articles and documents are looked through. The writers do a handsearch of the International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care and contact 64 HTA agencies by a letter, requesting information on investigations that might not have been published. Results: Abstracts from about 5,000 articles are read. 57 articles are ordered as full-text, 43 are finally included and 14 excluded. (1 In eight studies interviews with decision-makers are used to elicit the information, in three studies document analysis is employed, and in six surveys the results rely only on the observations and interpretations of the authors. One study analyses service data and in nine examinations more than one of the methods listed above are employed. Only in two studies pre-defined indicators were used and only in one clinical trial a prospective design is chosen. (2 In

  1. Acute, Nontraumatic Spontaneous Spinal Subdural Hematoma: A Case Report and Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Taylor J.

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous spinal subdural hematoma (sSDH) is a rare condition outright. Moreover, cases that occur spontaneously in the absence of an identifiable etiology are considerably less common and remain poorly understood. Here, we present the case of a 43-year-old man with spontaneous sSDH presenting with acute onset low back pain and paraplegia. Urgent magnetic resonance imaging identified a dorsal SDH from T8 to T11 with compression of the spinal cord. Emergent T8–T10 laminectomies with intradural exploration and hematoma evacuation were performed. However, despite prompt identification and appropriate action, the patient's recovery was modest and significant disability remained at discharge. This unique and unusual case demonstrates that spontaneous sSDH requires prompt surgical treatment to minimize associated morbidity and supports the association between the presence of severe neurological deficits upon initial presentation with less favorable outcomes. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of spontaneous sSDH of unknown etiology, which demonstrates that emergent surgical intervention is indicated for patients presenting with severe neurological deficits and the presence of these deficits is predictive of poor neurological outcome. Furthermore, conservative management should be considered in patients presenting with mild neurological deficits as spontaneous resolution followed by favorable neurological outcomes is often observed in these patients. PMID:29441210

  2. Systematic review on the primary and secondary reporting of the prevalence of ghostwriting in the medical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretton, Serina

    2014-07-14

    Ghostwriting of industry-sponsored articles is unethical and is perceived to be common practice. To systematically review how evidence for the prevalence of ghostwriting is reported in the medical literature. MEDLINE via PubMed 1966+, EMBASE 1966+, The Cochrane Library 1988+, Medical Writing 1998+, The American Medical Writers Association (AMWA) Journal 1986+, Council of Science Editors Annual Meetings 2007+, and the Peer Review Congress 1994+ were searched electronically (23 May 2013) using the search terms ghostwrit*, ghostauthor*, ghost AND writ*, ghost AND author*. All publication types were considered; only publications reporting a numerical estimate of possible ghostwriting prevalence were included. Two independent reviewers screened the publications; discrepancies were resolved by consensus. Data to be collected included a numerical estimate of the prevalence of possible ghostwriting (primary outcome measure), definitions of ghostwriting reported, source of the reported prevalence, publication type and year, study design and sample population. Of the 848 publications retrieved and screened for eligibility, 48 reported numerical estimates for the prevalence of possible ghostwriting. Sixteen primary publications reported findings from cross-sectional surveys or descriptive analyses of published articles; 32 secondary publications cited published or unpublished evidence. Estimates on the prevalence of possible ghostwriting in primary and secondary publications varied markedly. Primary estimates were not suitable for meta-analysis because of the various definitions of ghostwriting used, study designs and types of populations or samples. Secondary estimates were not always reported or cited correctly or appropriately. Evidence for the prevalence of ghostwriting in the medical literature is limited and can be outdated, misleading or mistaken. Researchers should not inflate estimates using non-standard definitions of ghostwriting nor conflate ghostwriting with

  3. Systematic review on the primary and secondary reporting of the prevalence of ghostwriting in the medical literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretton, Serina

    2014-01-01

    Background Ghostwriting of industry-sponsored articles is unethical and is perceived to be common practice. Objective To systematically review how evidence for the prevalence of ghostwriting is reported in the medical literature. Data sources MEDLINE via PubMed 1966+, EMBASE 1966+, The Cochrane Library 1988+, Medical Writing 1998+, The American Medical Writers Association (AMWA) Journal 1986+, Council of Science Editors Annual Meetings 2007+, and the Peer Review Congress 1994+ were searched electronically (23 May 2013) using the search terms ghostwrit*, ghostauthor*, ghost AND writ*, ghost AND author*. Eligibility criteria All publication types were considered; only publications reporting a numerical estimate of possible ghostwriting prevalence were included. Data extraction Two independent reviewers screened the publications; discrepancies were resolved by consensus. Data to be collected included a numerical estimate of the prevalence of possible ghostwriting (primary outcome measure), definitions of ghostwriting reported, source of the reported prevalence, publication type and year, study design and sample population. Results Of the 848 publications retrieved and screened for eligibility, 48 reported numerical estimates for the prevalence of possible ghostwriting. Sixteen primary publications reported findings from cross-sectional surveys or descriptive analyses of published articles; 32 secondary publications cited published or unpublished evidence. Estimates on the prevalence of possible ghostwriting in primary and secondary publications varied markedly. Primary estimates were not suitable for meta-analysis because of the various definitions of ghostwriting used, study designs and types of populations or samples. Secondary estimates were not always reported or cited correctly or appropriately. Conclusions Evidence for the prevalence of ghostwriting in the medical literature is limited and can be outdated, misleading or mistaken. Researchers should not inflate

  4. Systematic review of self-reported prognosis in adults after mild traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassidy, John David; Cancelliere, Carol; Carroll, Linda J

    2014-01-01

    accepted and form our evidence base of prognostic studies. Of these, 23 addressed self-reported outcomes in adults, including 2 of the 3 original ICoMP research studies. These studies show that common postconcussion symptoms are not specific to MTBI/concussion and occur after other injuries as well. Poor...... recovery after MTBI is associated with poorer premorbid mental and physical health status and with more injury-related stress. Most recover over 1 year, but persistent symptoms are more likely in those with more acute symptoms and more emotional stress. CONCLUSIONS: Common subjective symptoms after MTBI......OBJECTIVE: To update the mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) prognosis review published by the World Health Organization Task Force in 2004. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase, CINAHL, and SPORTDiscus were searched from 2001 to 2012. We included published, peer-reviewed studies with more than...

  5. Reporting quality of music intervention research in healthcare: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Sheri L; Hanson-Abromeit, Deanna; May, Lindsey; Hernandez-Ruiz, Eugenia; Allison, Megan; Beloat, Alyssa; Daugherty, Sarah; Kurtz, Rebecca; Ott, Alyssa; Oyedele, Oladele Oladimeji; Polasik, Shelbi; Rager, Allison; Rifkin, Jamie; Wolf, Emily

    2018-06-01

    Concomitant with the growth of music intervention research, are concerns about inadequate intervention reporting and inconsistent terminology, which limits validity, replicability, and clinical application of findings. Examine reporting quality of music intervention research, in chronic and acute medical settings, using the Checklist for Reporting Music-based Interventions. In addition, describe patient populations and primary outcomes, intervention content and corresponding interventionist qualifications, and terminology. Searching MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, HealthSTAR, and PsycINFO we identified articles meeting inclusion/exclusion criteria for a five-year period (2010-2015) and extracted relevant data. Coded material included reporting quality across seven areas (theory, content, delivery schedule, interventionist qualifications, treatment fidelity, setting, unit of delivery), author/journal information, patient population/outcomes, and terminology. Of 860 articles, 187 met review criteria (128 experimental; 59 quasi-experimental), with 121 publishing journals, and authors from 31 countries. Overall reporting quality was poor with <50% providing information for four of the seven checklist components (theory, interventionist qualifications, treatment fidelity, setting). Intervention content reporting was also poor with <50% providing information about the music used, decibel levels/volume controls, or materials. Credentialed music therapists and registered nurses delivered most interventions, with clear differences in content and delivery. Terminology was varied and inconsistent. Problems with reporting quality impedes meaningful interpretation and cross-study comparisons. Inconsistent and misapplied terminology also create barriers to interprofessional communication and translation of findings to patient care. Improved reporting quality and creation of shared language will advance scientific rigor and clinical relevance of music intervention research. Copyright

  6. Making stillbirths visible: a systematic review of globally reported causes of stillbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinebrant, H E; Leisher, S H; Coory, M; Henry, S; Wojcieszek, A M; Gardener, G; Lourie, R; Ellwood, D; Teoh, Z; Allanson, E; Blencowe, H; Draper, E S; Erwich, J J; Frøen, J F; Gardosi, J; Gold, K; Gordijn, S; Gordon, A; Heazell, Aep; Khong, T Y; Korteweg, F; Lawn, J E; McClure, E M; Oats, J; Pattinson, R; Pettersson, K; Siassakos, D; Silver, R M; Smith, Gcs; Tunçalp, Ö; Flenady, V

    2018-01-01

    Stillbirth is a global health problem. The World Health Organization (WHO) application of the International Classification of Diseases for perinatal mortality (ICD-PM) aims to improve data on stillbirth to enable prevention. To identify globally reported causes of stillbirth, classification systems, and alignment with the ICD-PM. We searched CINAHL, EMBASE, Medline, Global Health, and Pubmed from 2009 to 2016. Reports of stillbirth causes in unselective cohorts. Pooled estimates of causes were derived for country representative reports. Systems and causes were assessed for alignment with the ICD-PM. Data are presented by income setting (low, middle, and high income countries; LIC, MIC, HIC). Eighty-five reports from 50 countries (489 089 stillbirths) were included. The most frequent categories were Unexplained, Antepartum haemorrhage, and Other (all settings); Infection and Hypoxic peripartum (LIC), and Placental (MIC, HIC). Overall report quality was low. Only one classification system fully aligned with ICD-PM. All stillbirth causes mapped to ICD-PM. In a subset from HIC, mapping obscured major causes. There is a paucity of quality information on causes of stillbirth globally. Improving investigation of stillbirths and standardisation of audit and classification is urgently needed and should be achievable in all well-resourced settings. Implementation of the WHO Perinatal Mortality Audit and Review guide is needed, particularly across high burden settings. HR, SH, SHL, and AW were supported by an NHMRC-CRE grant (APP1116640). VF was funded by an NHMRC-CDF (APP1123611). Urgent need to improve data on causes of stillbirths across all settings to meet global targets. Background and methods Nearly three million babies are stillborn every year. These deaths have deep and long-lasting effects on parents, healthcare providers, and the society. One of the major challenges to preventing stillbirths is the lack of information about why they happen. In this study, we

  7. Gynecomastia: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerlund, Anders; Lewin, Richard; Rufolo, Guglielmo; Elander, Anna; Santanelli di Pompeo, Fabio; Selvaggi, Gennaro

    2015-01-01

    Gynecomastia is a common medical problem presenting in nearly a third of the male population. Treatment for gynecomastia can be either pharmacological or surgical. Patients with gynecomastia often experience affected quality-of-life. The aim of this systematic review was to analyze the quality of evidence of the current literature in relation to different treatment modalities and Quality-of-Life in patients with gynecomastia. A systematic search of the literature was performed in PubMed, Medline, Scopus, The Cochrane Library, and SveMed+ in accordance with the PRISMA statement. All searches were undertaken between September-November 2014. The PICOS (patients, intervention, comparator, outcomes, and study design) approach was used to specify inclusion criteria. Methodological quality was graded according to MINORS. Quality of evidence was rated according to GRADE. Data from the included studies were extracted based on study characteristics, participants specifics, type of intervention/treatment, and type of outcome measures into data extraction forms. A total of 134 abstracts were identified in the literature search. Seventeen studies met inclusion criteria, 14 concerning treatment and three concerning Quality-of-Life. All studies were non-randomised with a high risk of bias and very low quality of evidence according to GRADE. Several different surgical methods have been described with good results, minimal scars, and various levels of complications. Traditional surgical excision of glandular tissue combined with liposuction provides most consistent results and a low rate of complications. Pubertal gynecomastia may safely be managed by pharmacological anti-oestrogen treatment.

  8. Iridology: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, E

    1999-02-01

    Iridologists claim to be able to diagnose medical conditions through abnormalities of pigmentation in the iris. This technique is popular in many countries. Therefore it is relevant to ask whether it is valid. To systematically review all interpretable tests of the validity of iridology as a diagnostic tool. DATA SOURCE AND EXTRACTION: Three independent literature searches were performed to identify all blinded tests. Data were extracted in a predefined, standardized fashion. Four case control studies were found. The majority of these investigations suggests that iridology is not a valid diagnostic method. The validity of iridology as a diagnostic tool is not supported by scientific evaluations. Patients and therapists should be discouraged from using this method.

  9. A systematic review and development of a classification framework for factors associated with missing patient-reported outcome data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Michael J; Mercieca-Bebber, Rebecca; King, Madeleine; Calvert, Melanie; Richardson, Harriet; Brundage, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Missing patient-reported outcome data can lead to biased results, to loss of power to detect between-treatment differences, and to research waste. Awareness of factors may help researchers reduce missing patient-reported outcome data through study design and trial processes. The aim was to construct a Classification Framework of factors associated with missing patient-reported outcome data in the context of comparative studies. The first step in this process was informed by a systematic review. Two databases (MEDLINE and CINAHL) were searched from inception to March 2015 for English articles. Inclusion criteria were (a) relevant to patient-reported outcomes, (b) discussed missing data or compliance in prospective medical studies, and (c) examined predictors or causes of missing data, including reasons identified in actual trial datasets and reported on cover sheets. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts. Discrepancies were discussed with the research team prior to finalizing the list of eligible papers. In completing the systematic review, four particular challenges to synthesizing the extracted information were identified. To address these challenges, operational principles were established by consensus to guide the development of the Classification Framework. A total of 6027 records were screened. In all, 100 papers were eligible and included in the review. Of these, 57% focused on cancer, 23% did not specify disease, and 20% reported for patients with a variety of non-cancer conditions. In total, 40% of the papers offered a descriptive analysis of possible factors associated with missing data, but some papers used other methods. In total, 663 excerpts of text (units), each describing a factor associated with missing patient-reported outcome data, were extracted verbatim. Redundant units were identified and sequestered. Similar units were grouped, and an iterative process of consensus among the investigators was used to reduce these units to a

  10. Patient-Reported Outcome Measures for Use in Clinical Trials and Clinical Practice in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Marin J; Huibregtse, Roxanne; Masclee, Ad A M; Jonkers, Daisy M A E; Pierik, Marie J

    2018-05-01

    Mucosal inflammation must be carefully monitored to improve the long-term outcomes of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are used increasingly to monitor disease activity in clinical practice and as endpoints in clinical trials. We performed a systematic review to provide an overview of the available PROMs on IBD activity and to evaluate their diagnostic value. A systematic search of the PubMed, Medline, Cochrane library, and Embase databases using defined keywords, identified 973 articles. These were screened by 2 independent reviewers, and 37 articles on development or validation of PROMs to assess IBD activity were identified for further analysis. Based on the recommendations of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the following measurement properties were evaluated: content, construct, and criterion validity; reliability; and responsiveness to change. In addition, data on ease of use in clinical practice were collected. Seventeen articles presenting 20 different PROMs were included the final analysis, although none met all the FDA-recommended criteria. Only 2 PROMs (patient-reported Harvey Bradshaw Index and Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index scores) reported patient involvement during its development. Only 6 PROMs (patient-reported global assessment, patient assessment of disease activity, mobile health index for Crohn's disease, mobile health index for ulcerative colitis, patient-reported outcome derived from the Mayo score, and the 6-point Mayo score) were validated as markers of IBD activity, using findings from endoscopy as the reference standard; these PROMs identified patients with mucosal inflammation with area under the curve values of 0.63-0.82. The mobile health index for CD and UC scores had the best measurement properties for use in clinical practice and in clinical trials. In a systematic review, we identified more than 20 PROMS that have been developed and tested for their ability to

  11. A systematic review and economic evaluation of exercise referral schemes in primary care: a short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Fiona; Holmes, Mike; Everson-Hock, Emma; Davis, Sarah; Buckley Woods, Helen; Anokye, Nana; Tappenden, Paul; Kaltenthaler, Eva

    2015-07-01

    , Moxham T, Fox KR, et al. The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of exercise referral schemes: a systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technol Assess 2011;15(44)] to give a total of eight studies with 5190 participants. The proportion of individuals achieving 90-150 minutes of at least moderate-intensity activity per week at 6-12 months' follow-up was greater for ERSs than usual care (relative risk 1.12; 95% confidence interval 1.04 to 1.20). Older patients and those referred for CHD risk factors appeared to be more likely than others to increase their levels of physical activity. Qualitative evidence suggests that interventions enabling the development of social support networks are beneficial in promoting uptake and adherence. Exercise referral gained 0.003 quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) at an additional cost of £225 per person. The estimated mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) in the probabilistic sensitivity analysis was £76,276. In the univariate sensitivity analysis the results were very sensitive (ICERs ranged from  £100,000) to changes in the effect of ERSs on physical activity uptake and the duration of the protective effects and the direct health-related quality-of-life gains attributable to physical activity. Exercise referral schemes result in a small improvement in the number of people who increase their levels of physical activity. The cost-effectiveness analysis indicates that the ICER for ERSs compared with usual care is around £76,000 per QALY, although the cost-effectiveness of ERSs is subject to considerable uncertainty. This study is registered as PROSPERO CRD42013005200. National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme.

  12. Comparative effectiveness studies examining patient-reported outcomes among children with cleft lip and/or palate: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Kavitha; Vercler, Christian J; Warschausky, Seth A; MacEachern, Mark P; Buchman, Steven R; Waljee, Jennifer F

    2015-01-01

    Health care policy makers are increasingly encouraging comparative effectiveness research. Little is known regarding comparative studies among children with cleft lip and/or palate. Cleft lip and/or palate profoundly influences self-perception and social functioning, and patient-reported outcomes provide a unique perspective on the success of reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature regarding patient-reported outcomes among patients with cleft lip and/or palate. The authors reviewed articles from MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycInfo that examined the use of patient-reported outcome instruments for cleft lip and/or palate. Studies of patients with cleft lip and/or palate across any age that described the use of patient-completed measures in patient and control populations were included. A research librarian confirmed the search, and two independent, blinded reviewers performed full-text review. The authors identified 1979 articles and selected 30 for inclusion. Forty-two different assessment tools were used to analyze factors such as self-esteem, behavior, and social support. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was most commonly used (n = 7), followed by the Childhood Experience Questionnaire (n = 5), and the Satisfaction with Appearance survey (n = 4). Barriers to analysis included lack of standardization of survey administration, effect of publication bias, and variations in patient populations between individual studies. Comparative studies of patient-reported outcomes among patients with cleft lip and/or palate are infrequent. Many instruments exist to measure patient-reported outcomes in this population, but no specific standard exists. Identifying efficient and targeted forms of instrument selection and administration will enhance comparative studies among children with cleft lip and/or palate. Diagnostic, III.

  13. Splenic rupture in infectious mononucleosis: A systematic review of published case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, A; Williams, R; Hilton, M

    2016-03-01

    Infectious mononucleosis (IM) is a common viral illness that predominantly causes sore throat, fever and cervical lymphadenopathy in adolescents and young adults. Although usually a benign, self-limiting disease, it is associated with a small risk of splenic rupture, which can be life-threatening. It is common practice therefore to advise avoiding vigorous physical activity for at least 4-6 weeks, however this is not based on controlled trials or national guidelines. We reviewed published case reports of splenic rupture occurring in the context of IM in an attempt to ascertain common factors that may predict who is at risk. A search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was performed for case reports or series published between 1984 and 2014. In total, 52 articles or abstracts reported 85 cases. Data was extracted and compiled into a Microsoft Excel(®) spreadsheet. The average patient age was 22 years, the majority (70%) being male. The average time between onset of IM symptoms and splenic rupture was 14 days, with a range up to 8 weeks. There was a preceding history of trauma reported in only 14%. Abdominal pain was the commonest presenting complaint of splenic rupture, being present in 88%. 32% were successfully managed non-operatively, whereas 67% underwent splenectomy. Overall mortality was 9%. From our data, it appears that men under 30 within 4 weeks of symptom onset are at highest risk of splenic rupture, therefore particular vigilance in this group is required. As cases have occurred up to 8 weeks after the onset of illness, we would recommend avoidance of sports, heavy lifting and vigorous activity for 8 weeks. Should the patient wish to return to high risk activities prior to this, an USS should be performed to ensure resolution of splenomegaly. The majority of cases reviewed had no preceding trauma, although previous studies have suggested this may be so minor as to go unnoticed by the patient. It is therefore prudent to warn patients about the symptoms of

  14. Definitions and methods of measuring and reporting on injurious falls in randomised controlled fall prevention trials: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwenk Michael

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The standardisation of the assessment methodology and case definition represents a major precondition for the comparison of study results and the conduction of meta-analyses. International guidelines provide recommendations for the standardisation of falls methodology; however, injurious falls have not been targeted. The aim of the present article was to review systematically the range of case definitions and methods used to measure and report on injurious falls in randomised controlled trials (RCTs on fall prevention. Methods An electronic literature search of selected comprehensive databases was performed to identify injurious falls definitions in published trials. Inclusion criteria were: RCTs on falls prevention published in English, study population ≥ 65 years, definition of injurious falls as a study endpoint by using the terms "injuries" and "falls". Results The search yielded 2089 articles, 2048 were excluded according to defined inclusion criteria. Forty-one articles were included. The systematic analysis of the methodology applied in RCTs disclosed substantial variations in the definition and methods used to measure and document injurious falls. The limited standardisation hampered comparability of study results. Our results also highlight that studies which used a similar, standardised definition of injurious falls showed comparable outcomes. Conclusions No standard for defining, measuring, and documenting injurious falls could be identified among published RCTs. A standardised injurious falls definition enhances the comparability of study results as demonstrated by a subgroup of RCTs used a similar definition. Recommendations for standardising the methodology are given in the present review.

  15. Ballroom dancing as physical activity for patients with cancer: a systematic review and report of a pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Ivonne; Schmidt, Thorsten; Wozniak, Tobias; Kubin, Thomas; Ruetters, Dana; Huebner, Jutta

    2018-04-01

    Physical activity has positive effects on cancer patients. Dancing addresses diverse bio-psycho-social aspects. Our aim was to assess the evidence on ballroom dancing and to develop the setting for a pilot project. We performed a systematic review, extracted the data and designed a pilot training based on standard curricula. We included cancer patients during or after therapy. Training duration was 90 min with one regular pause and individual pauses as needed. We retrieved two systematic reviews and six controlled studies. Types of dancing varied. Only one study used ballroom dancing. Dance training might improve well-being, physical fitness, fatigue and coping during and after therapy. Yet, evidence is scarce and data to derive the effect size are lacking; 27 patients and their partners took part in the pilot training. Patients and partners needed more time to learn the steps than is planned in regular ballroom classes. Participants were very satisfied with the adaptation of the training to their physical strength and estimated the training in a sheltered group. No side effects occurred. In spite of a high rate of participants reporting fatigue, 90 min of physical activity with only a few minutes of rest were manageable for all participants. Ballroom dancing may offer benefits for patients with respect to quality of life. Cancer patients prefer sheltered training setting and curricula of regular ballroom classes must be adapted for cancer patients. Strict curricula might reduce motivation and adherence and exclude patients with lower or variable fitness.

  16. The quality of reporting methods and results of cost-effectiveness analyses in Spain: a methodological systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalá-López, Ferrán; Ridao, Manuel; Alonso-Arroyo, Adolfo; García-Altés, Anna; Cameron, Chris; González-Bermejo, Diana; Aleixandre-Benavent, Rafael; Bernal-Delgado, Enrique; Peiró, Salvador; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael; Hutton, Brian

    2016-01-07

    Cost-effectiveness analysis has been recognized as an important tool to determine the efficiency of healthcare interventions and services. There is a need for evaluating the reporting of methods and results of cost-effectiveness analyses and establishing their validity. We describe and examine reporting characteristics of methods and results of cost-effectiveness analyses conducted in Spain during more than two decades. A methodological systematic review was conducted with the information obtained through an updated literature review in PubMed and complementary databases (e.g. Scopus, ISI Web of Science, National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) and Health Technology Assessment (HTA) databases from Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD), Índice Médico Español (IME) Índice Bibliográfico Español en Ciencias de la Salud (IBECS)). We identified cost-effectiveness analyses conducted in Spain that used quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) as outcome measures (period 1989-December 2014). Two reviewers independently extracted the data from each paper. The data were analysed descriptively. In total, 223 studies were included. Very few studies (10; 4.5 %) reported working from a protocol. Most studies (200; 89.7 %) were simulation models and included a median of 1000 patients. Only 105 (47.1 %) studies presented an adequate description of the characteristics of the target population. Most study interventions were categorized as therapeutic (189; 84.8 %) and nearly half (111; 49.8 %) considered an active alternative as the comparator. Effectiveness of data was derived from a single study in 87 (39.0 %) reports, and only few (40; 17.9 %) used evidence synthesis-based estimates. Few studies (42; 18.8 %) reported a full description of methods for QALY calculation. The majority of the studies (147; 65.9 %) reported that the study intervention produced "more costs and more QALYs" than the comparator. Most studies (200; 89.7 %) reported favourable

  17. Patient-Reported Barriers to Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zara Shubber

    2016-11-01

    service-related barriers, including distance to clinic (adults 17.5%, 95% CI 13.0%-21.9% and stock outs (adults 16.1%, 95% CI 11.7%-20.4%, were also frequently reported. Limitations of this review relate to the fact that included studies differed in approaches to assessing adherence barriers and included variable durations of follow up. Studies that report self-reported adherence will likely underestimate the frequency of non-adherence. For children, barriers were mainly reported by caregivers, which may not correspond to the most important barriers faced by children.Patients on ART face multiple barriers to adherence, and no single intervention will be sufficient to ensure that high levels of adherence to treatment and virological suppression are sustained. For maximum efficacy, health providers should consider a more triaged approach that first identifies patients at risk of poor adherence and then seeks to establish the support that is needed to overcome the most important barriers to adherence.

  18. Patient-reported outcome instruments that evaluate adherence behaviours in adults with asthma: A systematic review of measurement properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Myriam; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Pérez, Norma; Moisan, Jocelyne

    2018-04-30

    To systematically identify the measurement properties of patient-reported outcome instruments (PROs) that evaluate adherence to inhaled maintenance medication in adults with asthma. We conducted a systematic review of six databases. Two reviewers independently included studies on the measurement properties of PROs that evaluated adherence in asthmatic participants aged ≥18 years. Based on the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN), the reviewers (1) extracted data on internal consistency, reliability, measurement error, content validity, structural validity, hypotheses testing, cross-cultural validity, criterion validity, and responsiveness; (2) assessed the methodological quality of the included studies; (3) assessed the quality of the measurement properties (positive or negative); and (4) summarised the level of evidence (limited, moderate, or strong). We screened 6,068 records and included 15 studies (14 PROs). No studies evaluated measurement error or responsiveness. Based on methodological and measurement property quality assessments, we found limited positive evidence of: (a) internal consistency of the Adherence Questionnaire, Refined Medication Adherence Reason Scale (MAR-Scale), Medication Adherence Report Scale for Asthma (MARS-A), and Test of the Adherence to Inhalers (TAI); (b) reliability of the TAI; and (c) structural validity of the Adherence Questionnaire, MAR-Scale, MARS-A, and TAI. We also found limited negative evidence of: (d) hypotheses testing of Adherence Questionnaire; (e) reliability of the MARS-A; and (f) criterion validity of the MARS-A and TAI. Our results highlighted the need to conduct further high-quality studies that will positively evaluate the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the available PROs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimizing literature search in systematic reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Thomas; Lund, Hans; Juhl, Carsten Bogh

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: When conducting systematic reviews, it is essential to perform a comprehensive literature search to identify all published studies relevant to the specific research question. The Cochrane Collaborations Methodological Expectations of Cochrane Intervention Reviews (MECIR) guidelines...... of musculoskeletal disorders. METHODS: Data sources were systematic reviews published by the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Review Group, including at least five RCTs, reporting a search history, searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and adding reference- and hand-searching. Additional databases were deemed eligible...... if they indexed RCTs, were in English and used in more than three of the systematic reviews. Relative recall was calculated as the number of studies identified by the literature search divided by the number of eligible studies i.e. included studies in the individual systematic reviews. Finally, cumulative median...

  20. Quality of Reporting and Adherence to ARRIVE Guidelines in Animal Studies for Chagas Disease Preclinical Drug Research: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulin, Julián Ernesto Nicolás; Rocco, Daniela Marisa; García-Bournissen, Facundo

    2015-11-01

    Publication of accurate and detailed descriptions of methods in research articles involving animals is essential for health scientists to accurately interpret published data, evaluate results and replicate findings. Inadequate reporting of key aspects of experimental design may reduce the impact of studies and could act as a barrier to translation of research findings. Reporting of animal use must be as comprehensive as possible in order to take advantage of every study and every animal used. Animal models are essential to understanding and assessing new chemotherapy candidates for Chagas disease pathology, a widespread parasitic disease with few treatment options currently available. A systematic review was carried out to compare ARRIVE guidelines recommendations with information provided in publications of preclinical studies for new anti-Trypanosoma cruzi compounds. A total of 83 publications were reviewed. Before ARRIVE guidelines, 69% of publications failed to report any macroenvironment information, compared to 57% after ARRIVE publication. Similar proportions were observed when evaluating reporting of microenvironmental information (56% vs. 61%). Also, before ARRIVE guidelines publication, only 13% of papers described animal gender, only 18% specified microbiological status and 13% reported randomized treatment assignment, among other essential information missing or incomplete. Unfortunately, publication of ARRIVE guidelines did not seem to enhance reporting quality, compared to papers appeared before ARRIVE publication. Our results suggest that there is a strong need for the scientific community to improve animal use description, animal models employed, transparent reporting and experiment design to facilitate its transfer and application to the affected human population. Full compliance with ARRIVE guidelines, or similar animal research reporting guidelines, would be an excellent start in this direction.

  1. Quality of Reporting and Adherence to ARRIVE Guidelines in Animal Studies for Chagas Disease Preclinical Drug Research: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Ernesto Nicolás Gulin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Publication of accurate and detailed descriptions of methods in research articles involving animals is essential for health scientists to accurately interpret published data, evaluate results and replicate findings. Inadequate reporting of key aspects of experimental design may reduce the impact of studies and could act as a barrier to translation of research findings. Reporting of animal use must be as comprehensive as possible in order to take advantage of every study and every animal used. Animal models are essential to understanding and assessing new chemotherapy candidates for Chagas disease pathology, a widespread parasitic disease with few treatment options currently available. A systematic review was carried out to compare ARRIVE guidelines recommendations with information provided in publications of preclinical studies for new anti-Trypanosoma cruzi compounds. A total of 83 publications were reviewed. Before ARRIVE guidelines, 69% of publications failed to report any macroenvironment information, compared to 57% after ARRIVE publication. Similar proportions were observed when evaluating reporting of microenvironmental information (56% vs. 61%. Also, before ARRIVE guidelines publication, only 13% of papers described animal gender, only 18% specified microbiological status and 13% reported randomized treatment assignment, among other essential information missing or incomplete. Unfortunately, publication of ARRIVE guidelines did not seem to enhance reporting quality, compared to papers appeared before ARRIVE publication. Our results suggest that there is a strong need for the scientific community to improve animal use description, animal models employed, transparent reporting and experiment design to facilitate its transfer and application to the affected human population. Full compliance with ARRIVE guidelines, or similar animal research reporting guidelines, would be an excellent start in this direction.

  2. Quality of reporting of randomised controlled trials of herbal interventions in ASEAN Plus Six Countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratoomsoot, Chayanin; Sruamsiri, Rosarin; Dilokthornsakul, Piyameth; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2015-01-01

    Many randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of herbal interventions have been conducted in the ASEAN Communities. Good quality reporting of RCTs is essential for assessing clinical significance. Given the importance ASEAN placed on herbal medicines, the reporting quality of RCTs of herbal interventions among the ASEAN Communities deserved a special attention. To systematically review the quality of reporting of RCTs of herbal interventions conducted in the ASEAN Plus Six Countries. Searches were performed using PubMed, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, and Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED), from inception through October 2013. These were limited to studies specific to humans and RCTs. Herbal species search terms were based on those listed in the National List of Essential Medicines [NLEM (Thailand, 2011)]. Studies conducted in the ASEAN Plus Six Countries, published in English were included. Seventy-one articles were identified. Thirty (42.25%) RCTs were from ASEAN Countries, whereas 41 RCTs (57.75%) were from Plus Six Group. Adherence to the recommended CONSORT checklist items for reporting of RCTs of herbal interventions among ASEAN Plus Six Countries ranged from 0% to 97.18%. Less than a quarter of the RCTs (18.31%) reported information on standardisation of the herbal products. However, the scope of our interventions of interest was limited to those developed from 20 herbal species listed in the NLEM of Thailand. The present study highlights the need to improve reporting quality of RCTs of herbal interventions across ASEAN Plus Six Communities.

  3. Do systematic reviews on pediatric topics need special methodological considerations?

    OpenAIRE

    Farid-Kapadia, Mufiza; Askie, Lisa; Hartling, Lisa; Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Despina; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Soll, Roger; Moher, David; Offringa, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews are key tools to enable decision making by healthcare providers and policymakers. Despite the availability of the evidence based Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA-2009 and PRISMA-P 2015) statements that were developed to improve the transparency and quality of reporting of systematic reviews, uncertainty on how to deal with pediatric-specific methodological challenges of systematic reviews impairs decision-making in child ...

  4. Evaluation of the quality of the reporting of phase II clinical trials in oncology: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoirard, Romain; Langrand-Escure, Julien; Oriol, Mathieu; Tinquaut, Fabien; Chauvin, Franck; Rancoule, Chloé; Magné, Nicolas; Bourmaud, Aurélie

    2018-05-01

    To describe the current state of knowledge concerning the quality of reporting in phase II clinical trials in oncology and to describe the various methods published allowing this quality evaluation. databases including MEDLINE and COCHRANE were searched. Reviews and meta-analyses analyzing the quality of the reporting of phase II trials in oncology were included. Descriptive analysis of the results was performed. Thirteen publications were retained. Only 2 publications adopted a systematic approach of evaluation of the quality of reporting by overall scores. The Key Methodological Score (KMS), proposed by Grellety et al., gathering 3 items, seemed adapted for such an evaluation. A score of 3/3 was found in 16.1% of the 156 phase II trials analysed by this score. The other reviews used a qualitative analysis to evaluate the reporting, via an analysis of a single criterion, generally the statistical plan of the study. This item was considered as having been correctly reported in less than 50% of the analysed articles. The quality of reporting in phase II trials in oncology is a field that has been investigated very little (13 publications). When it is studied, the estimated level of quality is not satisfactory, whatever the method employed. The use of an overall score of evaluation is a path which should be pursued, in order to get reliable results. It also seems necessary to propose strong recommendations, which would create a consensus for the methodology and the reporting of these studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Systematic content evaluation and review of measurement properties of questionnaires for measuring self-reported fatigue among older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerton, Thorlene; Riphagen, Ingrid I; Nygård, Arnhild J; Thingstad, Pernille; Helbostad, Jorunn L

    2015-09-01

    The assessment of fatigue in older people requires simple and user-friendly questionnaires that capture the phenomenon, yet are free from items indistinguishable from other disorders and experiences. This study aimed to evaluate the content, and systematically review and rate the measurement properties of self-report questionnaires for measuring fatigue, in order to identify the most suitable questionnaires for older people. This study firstly involved identification of questionnaires that purport to measure self-reported fatigue, and evaluation of the content using a rating scale developed for the purpose from contemporary understanding of the construct. Secondly, for the questionnaires that had acceptable content, we identified studies reporting measurement properties and rated the methodological quality of those studies according to the COSMIN system. Finally, we extracted and synthesised the results of the studies to give an overall rating for each questionnaire for each measurement property. The protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42013005589). Of the 77 identified questionnaires, twelve were selected for review after content evaluation. Methodological quality varied, and there was a lack of information on measurement error and responsiveness. The PROMIS-Fatigue item bank and short forms perform the best. The FACIT-Fatigue scale, Parkinsons Fatigue Scale, Perform Questionnaire, and Uni-dimensional Fatigue Impact Scale also perform well and can be recommended. Minor modifications to improve performance are suggested. Further evaluation of unresolved measurement properties, particularly with samples including older people, is needed for all the recommended questionnaires.

  6. Recurrent Focal Myositis in Childhood: A Case Report and Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Gregorio P; Mazzoni, Marta B M; Gatti, Helga; Bertolozzi, Giuseppe; Fossali, Emilio F

    2017-06-01

    Recurrent focal myositis in adulthood has been documented in case reports and case series. Existing textbooks and reviews do not mention or mention only in passing this entity in childhood. We present a patient with recurrent focal myositis and summarize available clinical, laboratory, management, and outcome data on this entity in the pediatric ages. We describe a nine-year-old patient with recurrent myositis of the left biceps. The terms "myositis" and "relapsing" or "recurrent" or "recurrence" were searched using the United States National Library of Medicine and the Excerpta Medica Database. Pertinent secondary references were also screened. Another seven pediatric patients (five males and two females, median age ten years, interquartile range 7-14 years) with recurrent focal myositis were identified. In children, the calf was the most frequently involved muscle. Unlike adults, the myositis in children was usually painful. Episodes could be associated with normal or elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate and blood levels of C-reactive protein, creatine kinase, and aspartate aminotransferase. Abnormalities of the creatine kinase value did not seem to be associated with a higher risk of recurrences. Focal myositis has a favorable outcome in children. Recurrent focal myositis is rare and usually benign in childhood. More data are needed to improve the understanding of this condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A systematic review of patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) used in child and adolescent burn research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, C; Armstrong-James, L; White, P; Rumsey, N; Pleat, J; Harcourt, D

    2015-03-01

    Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) can identify important information about patient needs and therapeutic progress. The aim of this review was to identify the PROMs that are being used in child and adolescent burn care and to determine the quality of such scales. Computerised and manual bibliographic searches of Medline, Social Sciences Index, Cinahl, Psychinfo, Psycharticles, AMED, and HAPI, were used to identify English-language articles using English-language PROMs from January 2001 to March 2013. The psychometric quality of the PROMs was assessed. 23 studies met the entry criteria and identified 32 different PROMs (31 generic, 1 burns-specific). Overall, the psychometric quality of the PROMs was low; only two generic scales (the Perceived Stigmatisation Questionnaire and the Social Comfort Scale) and only one burns-specific scale (the Children Burn Outcomes Questionnaire for children aged 5-18) had psychometric evidence relevant to this population. The majority of PROMs did not have psychometric evidence for their use with child or adolescent burn patients. To appropriately identify the needs and treatment progress of child and adolescent burn patients, new burns-specific PROMs need to be developed and validated to reflect issues that are of importance to this population. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Period Prevalence and Reporting Rate of Needlestick Injuries to Nurses in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Satar; Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Zandian, Hamed; Fathi, Afshin; Nouri, Bijan

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to provide a precise estimate of the period prevalence of needlestick injuries (NSI) among nurses working in hospitals in Iran and the reporting rate of NSI to nurse managers. We searched both international (PubMed, Scopus and the Institute for Scientific Information) and Iranian (Scientific Information Database, Iranmedex and Magiran) scientific databases to find studies published from 2000 to 2016 of NSI among Iranian nurses. The following keywords in Persian and English were used: "needle-stick" or "needle stick" or "needlestick," with and without "injury" or "injuries," "prevalence" or "frequency," "nurses" or "nursing staff," and "Iran." In a sample of 21 articles with 6,480 participants, we estimated that the overall 1-year period prevalence of NSI was 44% (95% confidence interval [CI], 35-53%) among Iranian nurses. The overall 1-year period prevalence of reporting NSI to nurse managers was 42% (95% CI, 33-52%). In meta-regression analysis, sample size, mean age, years of experience, and gender ratio were not associated with prevalence of NSI or reporting rate. The year of data collection was positively associated with period prevalence of NSI (p managers. Results indicated a high NSI period prevalence and low NSI reporting rate among nurses in Iran. Thus, effective interventions are required in hospitals in Iran to reduce the prevalence and increase the reporting rate of NSI. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Sulfosalt systematics: a review. Report of the sulfosalt sub-committee of the IMA Commission on Ore Mineralogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moelo, Y.; Makovicky, E.; Mozgova, N.N.

    2008-01-01

    , Nomenclature and Classification (CNMNC-IMA). Part I presents generalities of sulfosalt definition and nomenclature. After an extended chemical definition of sulfosalts, attention is focused on "classic" sulfosalts with As3+, Sb3+, Bi3+ or Te4+ as cations, corresponding to the general formula (Me+, Me'(2+), etc......This report deals with a general reexamination of the systematics of sulfosalts. It represents an update of the activity of the Sulfosalt Sub-Committee within the Commission on Ore Mineralogy of the International Mineralogical Association, in connection with the Commission on New Minerals.......), [(Bi, Sb, As)(3+), Te4+](y) [(S, Se, Te)(2-)](z) (Me, Me': various metals). General aspects of their chemistry and classification principles are summarized, especially with regard to chemical substitutions and modular analysis of complex crystal structures. On this basis, Part II presents a review...

  10. Neuroradiologic characteristics of astroblastoma and systematic review of the literature: 2 new cases and 125 cases reported in 59 publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, Danielle A.; Lowe, Lisa H.; Shao, Lei; Acosta, Natasha R.

    2016-01-01

    Astroblastoma is a rare tumor of uncertain origin most commonly presenting in the cerebrum of children and young adults. The literature contains only case reports and small series regarding its radiologic features. This systematic review is the largest study of imaging findings of astroblastoma to date and serves to identify features that might differentiate it from other neoplasms. This study describes the imaging features of astroblastoma based on a systematic review of the literature and two new cases. We conducted a PubMed and Google Scholar database search that identified 59 publications containing 125 cases of pathology-confirmed astroblastoma, and we also added two new cases from our own institution. Data collected include patient age, gender, tumor location, morphology, calcifications and calvarial changes. We recorded findings on CT, MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), MR spectroscopy, positron emission tomography (PET) and catheter angiography. Age at diagnosis ranged 0-70 years (mean 18 years; median 14 years). Female-to-male ratio was 8:1. Of 127 cases, 66 reported CT, 78 reported MRI and 47 reported both findings. Not all authors reported all features, but the tumor features reported included supratentorial in 96% (122/127), superficial in 72% (48/67), well-demarcated in 96% (79/82), mixed cystic-solid in 93% (79/85), and enhancing in 99% (78/79). On CT, 84% (26/31) of astroblastomas were hyperattenuated, 73% (27/37) had calcifications and 7 cases reported adjacent calvarial erosion. Astroblastomas were hypointense on T1-W in 58% (26/45) and on T2-W in 50% (23/46) of MRI sequences. Peritumoral edema was present in 80% (40/50) of cases but was typically described as slight. Six cases included DWI findings, with 100% showing restricted diffusion. On MR spectroscopy, 100% (5/5) showed nonspecific tumor spectra with elevated choline and decreased N-acetylaspartate (NAA). PET revealed nonspecific reduced uptake of [F-18] 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ( 18 F

  11. Aromatherapy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, B; Ernst, E

    2000-01-01

    Aromatherapy is becoming increasingly popular; however there are few clear indications for its use. To systematically review the literature on aromatherapy in order to discover whether any clinical indication may be recommended for its use, computerised literature searches were performed to retrieve all randomised controlled trials of aromatherapy from the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, British Nursing Index, CISCOM, and AMED. The methodological quality of the trials was assessed using the Jadad score. All trials were evaluated independently by both authors and data were extracted in a pre-defined, standardised fashion. Twelve trials were located: six of them had no independent replication; six related to the relaxing effects of aromatherapy combined with massage. These studies suggest that aromatherapy massage has a mild, transient anxiolytic effect. Based on a critical assessment of the six studies relating to relaxation, the effects of aromatherapy are probably not strong enough for it to be considered for the treatment of anxiety. The hypothesis that it is effective for any other indication is not supported by the findings of rigorous clinical trials. PMID:10962794

  12. A Systematic Review of Measurement Properties of Patient-Reported Outcome Measures Used in Patients Undergoing Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnier, Joel J; Mullins, Megan; Huang, Hsiaomin; Marinac-Dabic, Danica; Ghambaryan, Anna; Eloff, Benjamin; Mirza, Faisal; Bayona, Manuel

    2017-05-01

    While clinical research on total knee arthroplasty (TKA) outcomes is prevalent in the literature, studies often have poor methodological and reporting quality. A high-quality patient-reported outcome instrument is reliable, valid, and responsive. Many studies evaluate these properties, but none have done so with a systematic and accepted method. The objectives of this study were to identify patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) for TKA, and to critically appraise, compare, and summarize their psychometric properties using accepted methods. MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus were systematically searched for articles with the following inclusion criteria: publication before December 2014, English language, non-generic PRO, and evaluation in the TKA population. Methodological quality and evidence of psychometric properties were assessed with the COnsensus-based standards for the selection of health Status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist and criteria for psychometric evidence proposed by the COSMIN group and Terwee et al. One-hundred fifteen studies on 32 PROMs were included in this review. Only the Work, Osteoarthritis or joint-Replacement Questionnaire, the Oxford Knee Score, and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index had 4 or more properties with positive evidence. Most TKA PROMs have limited evidence for their psychometric properties. Although not all the properties were studied, the Work, Osteoarthritis or joint-Replacement Questionnaire, with the highest overall ratings, could be a useful PROM for evaluating patients undergoing TKA. The methods and reporting of this literature can improve by following accepted guidelines. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. How to improve the validity of sexual behaviour reporting: systematic review of questionnaire delivery modes in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhaug, Lisa F; Sherr, Lorraine; Cowan, Frances M

    2010-03-01

    To systematically review comparative research from developing countries on the effects of questionnaire delivery mode. We searched Medline, EMbase and PsychINFO and ISSTDR conference proceedings. Randomized control trials and quasi-experimental studies were included if they compared two or more questionnaire delivery modes, were conducted in a developing country, reported on sexual behaviours and occurred after 1980. A total of 28 articles reporting on 26 studies met the inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity of reported trial outcomes between studies made it inappropriate to combine trial outcomes. Eighteen studies compared audio computer-assisted survey instruments (ACASI) or its derivatives [personal digital assistant (PDA) or computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI)] against another self-administered questionnaires, face-to-face interviews or random response technique. Despite wide variation in geography and populations sampled, there was strong evidence that computer-assisted interviews lowered item-response rates and raised rates of reporting sensitive behaviours. ACASI also improved data entry quality. A wide range of sexual behaviours were reported including vaginal, oral, anal and/or forced sex, age of sexual debut, condom use at first and/or last sex. Validation of self-reports using biomarkers was rare. These data reaffirm that questionnaire delivery modes do affect self-reported sexual behaviours and that use of ACASI can significantly reduce reporting bias. Its acceptability and feasibility in developing country settings should encourage researchers to consider its use when conducting sexual health research. Triangulation of self-reported data using biomarkers is recommended. Standardizing sexual behaviour measures would allow for meta-analysis.

  14. Quality of reporting and of methodology of studies on interventions for trophic ulcers in leprosy: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forsetlund L

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the process of conducting a systematic review on interventions for skin lesions due to neuritis in leprosy, we assessed several primary papers with respect to the quality of reporting and methods used in the studies. Awareness of what constitutes weak points in previously conducted studies may be used to improve the planning, conducting and reporting of future clinical trials. Aims: To assess the quality of reporting and of methodology in studies of interventions for skin lesions due to neuritis in leprosy. Methods: Items of importance for preventing selection bias, detection bias, attrition bias and performance bias were among items assessed. The items for assessing methodological quality were used as a basis for making the checklist to assess the quality of reporting. Results: Out of the 854 references that we inspected eight studies were included on the basis of the inclusion criteria. The interventions tested were dressings, topical agents and footwear and in all studies healing of ulcers was the main outcome measure. Reporting of both, methods and results suffered from underreporting and disorganization. The most under-reported items were concealment of allocation, blinding of patients and outcome assessors, intention to treat and validation of outcomes. Conclusion: There is an apparent need to improve the methodological quality as well as the quality of reporting of trials in leprosy ulcer treatment. The most important threat in existing studies is the threat of selection bias. For the reporting of future studies, journals could promote and encourage the use of the CONSORT statement checklist by expecting and requiring that authors adhere to it in their reporting.

  15. Validity, Reliability And Responsiveness Of Patient-Reported Outcome Questionnaires When Assessing Hip And Groin Disability: A Systematic Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Roos, Ewa; Bartels, Else Marie

    2010-01-01

    disability based on a systematic review of evidence of validity, reliability and responsiveness of these instruments. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycINFO, SportsDiscus and Web of Science were all searched up to January 2009. Two reviewers independently...

  16. Bad splits in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy: systematic review and meta-analysis of reported risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenen, S A; van Wijk, A J; Becking, A G

    2016-08-01

    An unfavourable and unanticipated pattern of the bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) is generally referred to as a 'bad split'. Patient factors predictive of a bad split reported in the literature are controversial. Suggested risk factors are reviewed in this article. A systematic review was undertaken, yielding a total of 30 studies published between 1971 and 2015 reporting the incidence of bad split and patient age, and/or surgical technique employed, and/or the presence of third molars. These included 22 retrospective cohort studies, six prospective cohort studies, one matched-pair analysis, and one case series. Spearman's rank correlation showed a statistically significant but weak correlation between increasing average age and increasing occurrence of bad splits in 18 studies (ρ=0.229; Pbad split among the different splitting techniques. A meta-analysis pooling the effect sizes of seven cohort studies showed no significant difference in the incidence of bad split between cohorts of patients with third molars present and concomitantly removed during surgery, and patients in whom third molars were removed at least 6 months preoperatively (odds ratio 1.16, 95% confidence interval 0.73-1.85, Z=0.64, P=0.52). In summary, there is no robust evidence to date to show that any risk factor influences the incidence of bad split. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Prosthetic rehabilitation of oral submucous fibrosis patients: A systematic review of published case reports and case series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankargouda Patil

    Full Text Available Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF is an insidious chronic condition characterized by restricted mouth opening. Prosthetic rehabilitation is challenging for OSF patients as obtaining a good impression requires adequate mouth opening. The aim of the present review is to systematically present the data from case reports published in the English-language literature.A comprehensive search of the literature databases (PubMed, Medline, SCOPUS, Web of Science and Google Scholar along with the references of published articles on prosthetic rehabilitation in OSF patients published to date was conducted. Keywords included a combination of 'Oral submucous fibrosis', 'prosthesis', 'dentures' and/or 'restricted mouth opening'. Citations from selected references and bibliographic linkages taken from similar cases were included in this review. The inclusion criteria selected for case reports on prosthetic rehabilitation in OSF patients, and cases of restricted mouth opening due to causes other than OSF were excluded from the study.A total of 21 cases were identified and analysed from 17 papers published in the English-language literature. Of these, 9 cases employed the sectional denture technique, 4 cases emphasized the need-based treatment approach in which conventional methods were modified, and 4 cases used mouth exercising devices. Finally, 1 case each involved, flexible denture, oral screen prosthesis, oral stents, surgery in conjunction with dentures.Prosthetic rehabilitation in OSF patients is a multifaceted approach and should be patient specific, although sectional dentures have achieved the best results.

  18. Prosthetic rehabilitation of oral submucous fibrosis patients: A systematic review of published case reports and case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Shankargouda; Sarode, Sachin Chakradhar; Sarode, Gargi S; Bhandi, Shilpa; Awan, Kamran Habib; Ferrari, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is an insidious chronic condition characterized by restricted mouth opening. Prosthetic rehabilitation is challenging for OSF patients as obtaining a good impression requires adequate mouth opening. The aim of the present review is to systematically present the data from case reports published in the English-language literature. A comprehensive search of the literature databases (PubMed, Medline, SCOPUS, Web of Science and Google Scholar) along with the references of published articles on prosthetic rehabilitation in OSF patients published to date was conducted. Keywords included a combination of 'Oral submucous fibrosis', 'prosthesis', 'dentures' and/or 'restricted mouth opening'. Citations from selected references and bibliographic linkages taken from similar cases were included in this review. The inclusion criteria selected for case reports on prosthetic rehabilitation in OSF patients, and cases of restricted mouth opening due to causes other than OSF were excluded from the study. A total of 21 cases were identified and analysed from 17 papers published in the English-language literature. Of these, 9 cases employed the sectional denture technique, 4 cases emphasized the need-based treatment approach in which conventional methods were modified, and 4 cases used mouth exercising devices. Finally, 1 case each involved, flexible denture, oral screen prosthesis, oral stents, surgery in conjunction with dentures. Prosthetic rehabilitation in OSF patients is a multifaceted approach and should be patient specific, although sectional dentures have achieved the best results.

  19. Preferred Reporting Items for a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Diagnostic Test Accuracy Studies: The PRISMA-DTA Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Matthew D F; Moher, David; Thombs, Brett D; McGrath, Trevor A; Bossuyt, Patrick M; Clifford, Tammy; Cohen, Jérémie F; Deeks, Jonathan J; Gatsonis, Constantine; Hooft, Lotty; Hunt, Harriet A; Hyde, Christopher J; Korevaar, Daniël A; Leeflang, Mariska M G; Macaskill, Petra; Reitsma, Johannes B; Rodin, Rachel; Rutjes, Anne W S; Salameh, Jean-Paul; Stevens, Adrienne; Takwoingi, Yemisi; Tonelli, Marcello; Weeks, Laura; Whiting, Penny; Willis, Brian H

    2018-01-23

    Systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy synthesize data from primary diagnostic studies that have evaluated the accuracy of 1 or more index tests against a reference standard, provide estimates of test performance, allow comparisons of the accuracy of different tests, and facilitate the identification of sources of variability in test accuracy. To develop the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) diagnostic test accuracy guideline as a stand-alone extension of the PRISMA statement. Modifications to the PRISMA statement reflect the specific requirements for reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of diagnostic test accuracy studies and the abstracts for these reviews. Established standards from the Enhancing the Quality and Transparency of Health Research (EQUATOR) Network were followed for the development of the guideline. The original PRISMA statement was used as a framework on which to modify and add items. A group of 24 multidisciplinary experts used a systematic review of articles on existing reporting guidelines and methods, a 3-round Delphi process, a consensus meeting, pilot testing, and iterative refinement to develop the PRISMA diagnostic test accuracy guideline. The final version of the PRISMA diagnostic test accuracy guideline checklist was approved by the group. The systematic review (produced 64 items) and the Delphi process (provided feedback on 7 proposed items; 1 item was later split into 2 items) identified 71 potentially relevant items for consideration. The Delphi process reduced these to 60 items that were discussed at the consensus meeting. Following the meeting, pilot testing and iterative feedback were used to generate the 27-item PRISMA diagnostic test accuracy checklist. To reflect specific or optimal contemporary systematic review methods for diagnostic test accuracy, 8 of the 27 original PRISMA items were left unchanged, 17 were modified, 2 were added, and 2 were omitted. The 27-item

  20. Stroke and cannabis use in patients with no cardiovascular risk factors: a systematic review of case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Ochoa, S A

    2017-12-22

    Cannabis and its synthetic analogues are currently the most widely consumed illicit substances worldwide. Multiple alterations have been linked to its use, including cerebrovascular disease (CVD) or stroke, whose association with the substance has been based mainly on the hypothesis of transient vasoconstriction, which explains a large proportion of the cases reported. However, epidemiological studies have not performed an individual analysis of patients without other cardiovascular risk factors, which may limit the estimation of the risk of stroke associated with cannabis use alone. A systematic literature review was conducted through Medline, EBSCOhost, EMBASE, Lilacs, and Scielo to gather case reports published before 13 May 2016 presenting patients with a diagnosis of CVD or transient ischaemic attack, a history of cannabinoid use, and no other cardiovascular risk factors. Key words such as stroke, cerebrovascular disease, cannabis, and marijuana, among others, were used. A total of 18 case reports were selected from the 566 references found. There is a wide variety of reports of stroke associated with cannabis use in patients with no other risk factors. Noteworthy findings were presentation at young age and a strong temporal association, which place cannabis use as a potential risk factor for this population in line with the epidemiological and pathophysiological studies in this area. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) for assessing perceived listening effort in hearing loss: protocol for a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Frances L; Boisvert, Isabelle; McMahon, Catherine M; Hutchings, Hayley A

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In the UK, it is estimated that a disabling hearing loss (HL) affects 1 in 6 people. HL has functional, economic and social-emotional consequences for affected individuals. Intervention for HL focuses on improving access to the auditory signal using hearing aids or cochlear implants. However, even if sounds are audible and speech is understood, individuals with HL often report increased effort when listening. Listening effort (LE) may be measured using self-reported measures such as patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). PROMs are validated questionnaires completed by patients to measure their perceptions of their own functional status and well-being. When selecting a PROM for use in research or clinical practice, it is necessary to appraise the evidence of a PROM’s acceptability to patients, validity, responsiveness and reliability. Methods and analysis A systematic review of studies evaluating the measurement properties of PROMs available to measure LE in HL will be undertaken. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO and Web of Science will be searched electronically. Reference lists of included studies, key journals and the grey literature will be hand-searched to identify further studies for inclusion. Two reviewers will independently complete title, abstract and full-text screening to determine study eligibility. Data on the characteristics of each study and each PROM will be extracted. Methodological quality of the included studies will be appraised using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments, the quality of included PROMs appraised and the credibility of the evidence assessed. A narrative synthesis will summarise extracted data. Ethics and dissemination Ethical permission is not required, as this study uses data from published research. Dissemination will be through publication in peer-reviewed journals, conference presentations and the lead author’s doctoral dissertation. Findings may inform the

  2. A systematic review of measurement properties of patient reported outcome measures in psoriatic arthritis: A GRAPPA-OMERACT initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Højgaard, Pil; Klokker, Louise; Orbai, Ana-Maria; Holmsted, Kim; Bartels, Else M; Leung, Ying Ying; Goel, Niti; de Wit, Maarten; Gladman, Dafna D; Mease, Philip; Dreyer, Lene; Kristensen, Lars E; FitzGerald, Oliver; Tillett, William; Gossec, Laure; Helliwell, Philip; Strand, Vibeke; Ogdie, Alexis; Terwee, Caroline B; Christensen, Robin

    2018-04-01

    An updated psoriatic arthritis (PsA) core outcome set (COS) for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was endorsed at the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) meeting in 2016. To synthesize the evidence on measurement properties of patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) for PsA and thereby contribute to development of a PsA core outcome measurement set (COMS) as described by the OMERACT Filter 2.0. A systematic literature search was performed in EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO on Jan 1, 2017 to identify full-text articles with an aim of assessing the measurement properties of PROMs in PsA. Two independent reviewers rated the quality of studies using the COnsensus based standards for the Selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist, and performed a qualitative evidence synthesis. Fifty-five studies were included in the systematic review. Forty-four instruments and a total of 89 scales were analyzed. PROMs measuring COS domains with at least fair quality evidence for good validity and reliability (and no evidence for poor properties) included the Stockerau Activity Score for PsA (German), Psoriasis Symptom Inventory, visual analogue scale for Patient Global, 36 Item Short Form Health Survey Physical Function subscale, Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index, PsA Impact of Disease questionnaire, PsA Quality of Life questionnaire, VITACORA-19, Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Fatigue scale and Social Role Participation Questionnaire. At least one PROM with some evidence for aspects of validity and reliability was available for six of the eight mandatory domains of the PsA COS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A comparison of direct versus self-report measures for assessing physical activity in adults: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardt Jill

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate assessment is required to assess current and changing physical activity levels, and to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions designed to increase activity levels. This study systematically reviewed the literature to determine the extent of agreement between subjectively (self-report e.g. questionnaire, diary and objectively (directly measured; e.g. accelerometry, doubly labeled water assessed physical activity in adults. Methods Eight electronic databases were searched to identify observational and experimental studies of adult populations. Searching identified 4,463 potential articles. Initial screening found that 293 examined the relationship between self-reported and directly measured physical activity and met the eligibility criteria. Data abstraction was completed for 187 articles, which described comparable data and/or comparisons, while 76 articles lacked comparable data or comparisons, and a further 30 did not meet the review's eligibility requirements. A risk of bias assessment was conducted for all articles from which data was abstracted. Results Correlations between self-report and direct measures were generally low-to-moderate and ranged from -0.71 to 0.96. No clear pattern emerged for the mean differences between self-report and direct measures of physical activity. Trends differed by measure of physical activity employed, level of physical activity measured, and the gender of participants. Results of the risk of bias assessment indicated that 38% of the studies had lower quality scores. Conclusion The findings suggest that the measurement method may have a significant impact on the observed levels of physical activity. Self-report measures of physical activity were both higher and lower than directly measured levels of physical activity, which poses a problem for both reliance on self-report measures and for attempts to correct for self-report – direct measure differences. This review reveals

  4. Systematic Review Workshop (August 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal for this workshop is to receive scientific input regarding approaches for different steps within a systematic review, such as evaluating individual studies, synthesizing evidence within a particular discipline, etc.

  5. Systematic review of measurement properties of self-reported instruments for evaluating self-care in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarese, Maria; Lommi, Marzia; De Marinis, Maria Grazia

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were as follows: to identify instruments developed to assess self-care in healthy adults; to determine the theory on which they were based; their validity and reliability properties and to synthesize the evidence on their measurement properties. Many instruments have been developed to assess self-care in many different populations and conditions. Clinicians and researchers should select the most appropriate self-care instrument based on the knowledge of their measurement properties. Systematic review of measurement instruments according to the protocol recommended by the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) panel. PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Scopus and CINAHL databases were searched from inception to December 2015. Studies testing measurement properties of self-report instruments assessing self-care in healthy adults, published in the English language and in peer review journals were selected. Two reviewers independently appraised the methodological quality of the studies with the COSMIN checklist and the quality of results using specific quality criteria. Twenty-six articles were included in the review testing the measurement properties of nine instruments. Seven instruments were based on Orem's Self-care theory. Not all the measurement properties were evaluated for the identified instruments. No self-care instrument showed strong evidence supporting the evaluated measurement properties. Despite the development of several instruments to assess self-care in the adult population, no instrument can be fully recommended to clinical nurses and researchers. Further studies of high methodological quality are needed to confirm the measurement properties of these instruments. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Papillomaviruses: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pinheiro Araldi

    Full Text Available Abstract In the last decades, a group of viruses has received great attention due to its relationship with cancer development and its wide distribution throughout the vertebrates: the papillomaviruses. In this article, we aim to review some of the most relevant reports concerning the use of bovines as an experimental model for studies related to papillomaviruses. Moreover, the obtained data contributes to the development of strategies against the clinical consequences of bovine papillomaviruses (BPV that have led to drastic hazards to the herds. To overcome the problem, the vaccines that we have been developing involve recombinant DNA technology, aiming at prophylactic and therapeutic procedures. It is important to point out that these strategies can be used as models for innovative procedures against HPV, as this virus is the main causal agent of cervical cancer, the second most fatal cancer in women.

  7. "Assessing the methodological quality of systematic reviews in radiation oncology: A systematic review".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Haroon; Muhammed, Taaha; Yu, Jennifer; Taguchi, Kelsi; Samargandi, Osama A; Howard, A Fuchsia; Lo, Andrea C; Olson, Robert; Goddard, Karen

    2017-10-01

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the methodological quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in Radiation Oncology. A systematic literature search was conducted for all eligible systematic reviews and meta-analyses in Radiation Oncology from 1966 to 2015. Methodological characteristics were abstracted from all works that satisfied the inclusion criteria and quality was assessed using the critical appraisal tool, AMSTAR. Regression analyses were performed to determine factors associated with a higher score of quality. Following exclusion based on a priori criteria, 410 studies (157 systematic reviews and 253 meta-analyses) satisfied the inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses were found to be of fair to good quality while systematic reviews were found to be of less than fair quality. Factors associated with higher scores of quality in the multivariable analysis were including primary studies consisting of randomized control trials, performing a meta-analysis, and applying a recommended guideline related to establishing a systematic review protocol and/or reporting. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses may introduce a high risk of bias if applied to inform decision-making based on AMSTAR. We recommend that decision-makers in Radiation Oncology scrutinize the methodological quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses prior to assessing their utility to inform evidence-based medicine and researchers adhere to methodological standards outlined in validated guidelines when embarking on a systematic review. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reporting Multiple Individual Injuries in Studies of Team Ball Sports : A Systematic Review of Current Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortington, Lauren V; van der Worp, Henk; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Finch, Caroline F

    Background To identify and prioritise targets for injury prevention efforts, injury incidence studies are widely reported. The accuracy and consistency in calculation and reporting of injury incidence is crucial. Many individuals experience more than one injury but multiple injuries are not

  9. Evidence of selective reporting bias in hematology journals: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayant, Cole; Scheckel, Caleb; Hicks, Chandler; Nissen, Timothy; Leduc, Linda; Som, Mousumi; Vassar, Matt

    2017-01-01

    Selective reporting bias occurs when chance or selective outcome reporting rather than the intervention contributes to group differences. The prevailing concern about selective reporting bias is the possibility of results being modified towards specific conclusions. In this study, we evaluate randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in hematology journals, a group in which selective outcome reporting has not yet been explored. Our primary goal was to examine discrepancies between the reported primary and secondary outcomes in registered and published RCTs concerning hematological malignancies reported in hematology journals with a high impact factor. The secondary goals were to address whether outcome reporting discrepancies favored statistically significant outcomes, whether a pattern existed between the funding source and likelihood of outcome reporting bias, and whether temporal trends were present in outcome reporting bias. For trials with major outcome discrepancies, we contacted trialists to determine reasons for these discrepancies. Trials published between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2015 in Blood; British Journal of Haematology; American Journal of Hematology; Leukemia; and Haematologica were included. Of 499 RCTs screened, 109 RCTs were included. Our analysis revealed 118 major discrepancies and 629 total discrepancies. Among the 118 discrepancies, 30 (25.4%) primary outcomes were demoted, 47 (39.8%) primary outcomes were omitted, and 30 (25.4%) primary outcomes were added. Three (2.5%) secondary outcomes were upgraded to a primary outcome. The timing of assessment for a primary outcome changed eight (6.8%) times. Thirty-one major discrepancies were published with a P-value and twenty-five (80.6%) favored statistical significance. A majority of authors whom we contacted cited a pre-planned subgroup analysis as a reason for outcome changes. Our results suggest that outcome changes occur frequently in hematology trials. Because RCTs ultimately

  10. The quality of systematic reviews about interventions for refractive error can be improved: a review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo-Wilson, Evan; Ng, Sueko Matsumura; Chuck, Roy S; Li, Tianjing

    2017-09-05

    Systematic reviews should inform American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) Preferred Practice Pattern® (PPP) guidelines. The quality of systematic reviews related to the forthcoming Preferred Practice Pattern® guideline (PPP) Refractive Errors & Refractive Surgery is unknown. We sought to identify reliable systematic reviews to assist the AAO Refractive Errors & Refractive Surgery PPP. Systematic reviews were eligible if they evaluated the effectiveness or safety of interventions included in the 2012 PPP Refractive Errors & Refractive Surgery. To identify potentially eligible systematic reviews, we searched the Cochrane Eyes and Vision United States Satellite database of systematic reviews. Two authors identified eligible reviews and abstracted information about the characteristics and quality of the reviews independently using the Systematic Review Data Repository. We classified systematic reviews as "reliable" when they (1) defined criteria for the selection of studies, (2) conducted comprehensive literature searches for eligible studies, (3) assessed the methodological quality (risk of bias) of the included studies, (4) used appropriate methods for meta-analyses (which we assessed only when meta-analyses were reported), (5) presented conclusions that were supported by the evidence provided in the review. We identified 124 systematic reviews related to refractive error; 39 met our eligibility criteria, of which we classified 11 to be reliable. Systematic reviews classified as unreliable did not define the criteria for selecting studies (5; 13%), did not assess methodological rigor (10; 26%), did not conduct comprehensive searches (17; 44%), or used inappropriate quantitative methods (3; 8%). The 11 reliable reviews were published between 2002 and 2016. They included 0 to 23 studies (median = 9) and analyzed 0 to 4696 participants (median = 666). Seven reliable reviews (64%) assessed surgical interventions. Most systematic reviews of interventions for

  11. Quality appraisal of generic self-reported instruments measuring health-related productivity changes: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Health impairments can result in disability and changed work productivity imposing considerable costs for the employee, employer and society as a whole. A large number of instruments exist to measure health-related productivity changes; however their methodological quality remains unclear. This systematic review critically appraised the measurement properties in generic self-reported instruments that measure health-related productivity changes to recommend appropriate instruments for use in occupational and economic health practice. Methods PubMed, PsycINFO, Econlit and Embase were systematically searched for studies whereof: (i) instruments measured health-related productivity changes; (ii) the aim was to evaluate instrument measurement properties; (iii) instruments were generic; (iv) ratings were self-reported; (v) full-texts were available. Next, methodological quality appraisal was based on COSMIN elements: (i) internal consistency; (ii) reliability; (iii) measurement error; (iv) content validity; (v) structural validity; (vi) hypotheses testing; (vii) cross-cultural validity; (viii) criterion validity; and (ix) responsiveness. Recommendations are based on evidence syntheses. Results This review included 25 articles assessing the reliability, validity and responsiveness of 15 different generic self-reported instruments measuring health-related productivity changes. Most studies evaluated criterion validity, none evaluated cross-cultural validity and information on measurement error is lacking. The Work Limitation Questionnaire (WLQ) was most frequently evaluated with moderate respectively strong positive evidence for content and structural validity and negative evidence for reliability, hypothesis testing and responsiveness. Less frequently evaluated, the Stanford Presenteeism Scale (SPS) showed strong positive evidence for internal consistency and structural validity, and moderate positive evidence for hypotheses testing and criterion validity. The

  12. Systematic review of reviews of risk factors for intracranial aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Systematic reviews of systematic reviews identify good quality reviews of earlier studies of medical conditions. This article describes a systematic review of systematic reviews performed to investigate factors that might influence the risk of rupture of an intracranial aneurysm. It exemplifies the technique of this type of research and reports the finding of a specific study. The annual incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage resulting from the rupture of intracranial aneurysms is estimated to be nine per 100,000. A large proportion of people who have this bleed, will die or remain dependent on the care of others for some time. Reliable knowledge about the risks of subarachnoid haemorrhage in different populations will help in planning, screening and prevention strategies and in predicting the prognosis of individual patients. If the necessary data were available in the identified reviews, an estimate for the numerical relationship between a particular characteristic and the risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage was included in this report. The identification of eligible systematic reviews relied mainly on the two major bibliographic databases of the biomedical literature: PubMed and EMBASE. These were searched in 2006, using specially designed search strategies. Approximately 2,000 records were retrieved and each of these was checked carefully against the eligibility criteria for this systematic review. These criteria required that the report be a systematic review of studies assessing the risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage in patients known to have an unruptured intracranial aneurysm or of studies that had investigated the characteristics of people who experienced a subarachnoid haemorrhage without previously being known to have an unruptured aneurysm. Reports which included more than one systematic review were eligible and each of these reviews was potentially eligible. The quality of each systematic review was assessed. In this review, 16 separate reports were

  13. Cases of white piedra of the hair on the American continent: a case report and a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Soto, Max Carlos; Andagua-Castro, J; Quispe, Maria Antonieta; Aguilar-Ancori, Elsa G

    2018-06-11

    White piedra of the hair is a rare superficial fungal infection caused by several Trichosporon spp. 1 It typically manifests as white to light brown hard nodules, firmly attached to frontal, occipital, and parietal scalp hair. 1-9 The incidence of white piedra varies from country to country, and men and women of all ages are affected. 1 In Latin America, children and women appear to be the most affected with white piedra of the hair. 1-9 Given the variability of causative agents and the paucity of literature, very little is known about the geographical distribution of white piedra of the hair in American continent countries to help understand its epidemiology and aid in its diagnosis and treatment. In this report, we describe a case of white piedra of the hair in a Peruvian woman. We also conducted a systematic literature review of all case reports of white piedra on the American continent, with a view to determining the geographical distribution of the condition and identifying Trichosporon spp. commonly associated with this infection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM): A systematic review of patient reported factors and psychological predictors influencing choice and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Brittany; Butow, Phyllis; Jansen, Jesse; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Porter, David

    2016-08-01

    Conduct a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies exploring patient reported factors and psychological variables influencing the decision to have contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM), and satisfaction with CPM, in women with early stage breast cancer. Studies were identified via databases: Medline, CINAHL, Embase and PsycINFO. Data were extracted by one author and crosschecked by two additional authors for accuracy. The quality of included articles was assessed using standardised criteria by three authors. Of the 1346 unique citations identified, 17 were studies that met the inclusion criteria. Studies included were primarily cross-sectional and retrospective. No study utilised a theoretical framework to guide research and few studies considered psychological predictors of CPM. Fear of breast cancer was the most commonly cited reason for CPM, followed by cosmetic reasons such as desire for symmetry. Overall, women appeared satisfied with CPM, however, adverse/diminished body image, poor cosmetic result, complications, diminished sense of sexuality, emotional issues and perceived lack of education regarding alternative surveillance/CPM efficacy were cited as reasons for dissatisfaction. Current literature has begun to identify patient-reported reasons for CPM; however, the relative importance of different factors and how these factors relate to the process underlying the decision to have CPM are unknown. Of women who considered CPM, limited information is available regarding differences between those who proceed with or ultimately decline CPM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Using and reporting the Delphi method for selecting healthcare quality indicators: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulkedid, Rym; Abdoul, Hendy; Loustau, Marine; Sibony, Olivier; Alberti, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    Delphi technique is a structured process commonly used to developed healthcare quality indicators, but there is a little recommendation for researchers who wish to use it. This study aimed 1) to describe reporting of the Delphi method to develop quality indicators, 2) to discuss specific methodological skills for quality indicators selection 3) to give guidance about this practice. Three electronic data bases were searched over a 30 years period (1978-2009). All articles that used the Delphi method to select quality indicators were identified. A standardized data extraction form was developed. Four domains (questionnaire preparation, expert panel, progress of the survey and Delphi results) were assessed. Of 80 included studies, quality of reporting varied significantly between items (9% for year's number of experience of the experts to 98% for the type of Delphi used). Reporting of methodological aspects needed to evaluate the reliability of the survey was insufficient: only 39% (31/80) of studies reported response rates for all rounds, 60% (48/80) that feedback was given between rounds, 77% (62/80) the method used to achieve consensus and 57% (48/80) listed quality indicators selected at the end of the survey. A modified Delphi procedure was used in 49/78 (63%) with a physical meeting of the panel members, usually between Delphi rounds. Median number of panel members was 17(Q1:11; Q3:31). In 40/70 (57%) studies, the panel included multiple stakeholders, who were healthcare professionals in 95% (38/40) of cases. Among 75 studies describing criteria to select quality indicators, 28 (37%) used validity and 17(23%) feasibility. The use and reporting of the Delphi method for quality indicators selection need to be improved. We provide some guidance to the investigators to improve the using and reporting of the method in future surveys.

  16. Using and reporting the Delphi method for selecting healthcare quality indicators: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rym Boulkedid

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Delphi technique is a structured process commonly used to developed healthcare quality indicators, but there is a little recommendation for researchers who wish to use it. This study aimed 1 to describe reporting of the Delphi method to develop quality indicators, 2 to discuss specific methodological skills for quality indicators selection 3 to give guidance about this practice. METHODOLOGY AND MAIN FINDING: Three electronic data bases were searched over a 30 years period (1978-2009. All articles that used the Delphi method to select quality indicators were identified. A standardized data extraction form was developed. Four domains (questionnaire preparation, expert panel, progress of the survey and Delphi results were assessed. Of 80 included studies, quality of reporting varied significantly between items (9% for year's number of experience of the experts to 98% for the type of Delphi used. Reporting of methodological aspects needed to evaluate the reliability of the survey was insufficient: only 39% (31/80 of studies reported response rates for all rounds, 60% (48/80 that feedback was given between rounds, 77% (62/80 the method used to achieve consensus and 57% (48/80 listed quality indicators selected at the end of the survey. A modified Delphi procedure was used in 49/78 (63% with a physical meeting of the panel members, usually between Delphi rounds. Median number of panel members was 17(Q1:11; Q3:31. In 40/70 (57% studies, the panel included multiple stakeholders, who were healthcare professionals in 95% (38/40 of cases. Among 75 studies describing criteria to select quality indicators, 28 (37% used validity and 17(23% feasibility. CONCLUSION: The use and reporting of the Delphi method for quality indicators selection need to be improved. We provide some guidance to the investigators to improve the using and reporting of the method in future surveys.

  17. Recommendations for improving the quality of reporting clinical electrochemotherapy studies based on qualitative systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campana, LG; Clover, AJ; Valpione, S

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemotherapy is becoming a well-established treatment for malignancies of skin and non-skin origin and its use is widening across Europe. The technique was developed and optimized from solid experimental and clinical evidence. A consensus document is now warranted to formalize reporting re...... studies and to provide the recommendations for reporting clinical trials on electrochemotherapy....... results, which should strengthen evidence-based practice recommendations. This consensus should be derived from high quality clinical data collection, clinical expertise and summarizing patient feedback. The first step, which is addressed in this paper, aims to critically analyze the quality of published...

  18. Making stillbirths visible : A systematic review of globally reported causes of stillbirth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinebrant, H. E.; Leisher, S. H.; Coory, M.; Henry, S.; Wojcieszek, A. M.; Gardener, G.; Lourie, R.; Ellwood, D.; Teoh, Z.; Allanson, E.; Blencowe, H.; Draper, E. S.; Erwich, J. J.; Froen, J. F.; Gardosi, J.; Gold, K.; Gordijn, S.; Gordon, A.; Heazell, A. E. P.; Khong, T. Y.; Korteweg, F.; Lawn, J. E.; McClure, E. M.; Oats, J.; Pattinson, R.; Pettersson, K.; Siassakos, D.; Silver, R. M.; Smith, G. C. S.; Tuncalp, O. E.; Flenady, V.

    Background: Stillbirth is a global health problem. The World Health Organization (WHO) application of the International Classification of Diseases for perinatal mortality (ICD-PM) aims to improve data on stillbirth to enable prevention. Objectives: To identify globally reported causes of stillbirth,

  19. Reporting of covariate selection and balance assessment in propensity score analysis is suboptimal: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, M. Sanni|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/345709497; Groenwold, Rolf H.H.; Belitser, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304843865; Pestman, Wiebe R.; Hoes, Arno W.; Roes, Kit C.B.; Boer, Anthonius De|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075097346; Klungel, Olaf H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/181447649

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the current practice of propensity score (PS) analysis in the medical literature, particularly the assessment and reporting of balance on confounders. Study Design and Setting A PubMed search identified studies using PS methods from December 2011 through May 2012. For each

  20. Content Validity of Patient-Reported Outcome Instruments used with Pediatric Patients with Facial Differences: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickert, Natasha M; Wong Riff, Karen W Y; Mansour, Mark; Forrest, Christopher R; Goodacre, Timothy E E; Pusic, Andrea L; Klassen, Anne F

    2018-01-01

    Objective The aim of this systematic review was to identify patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments used in research with children/youth with conditions associated with facial differences to identify the health concepts measured. Design MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched from 2004 to 2016 to identify PRO instruments used in acne vulgaris, birthmarks, burns, ear anomalies, facial asymmetries, and facial paralysis patients. We performed a content analysis whereby the items were coded to identify concepts and categorized as positive or negative content or phrasing. Results A total of 7,835 articles were screened; 6 generic and 11 condition-specific PRO instruments were used in 96 publications. Condition-specific instruments were for acne (four), oral health (two), dermatology (one), facial asymmetries (two), microtia (one), and burns (one). The PRO instruments provided 554 items (295 generic; 259 condition specific) that were sorted into 4 domains, 11 subdomains, and 91 health concepts. The most common domain was psychological (n = 224 items). Of the identified items, 76% had negative content or phrasing (e.g., "Because of the way my face looks I wish I had never been born"). Given the small number of items measuring facial appearance (n = 19) and function (n = 22), the PRO instruments reviewed lacked content validity for patients whose condition impacted facial function and/or appearance. Conclusions Treatments can change facial appearance and function. This review draws attention to a problem with content validity in existing PRO instruments. Our team is now developing a new PRO instrument called FACE-Q Kids to address this problem.

  1. A primer on systematic reviews in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sebastian; de Vries, Rob B M; Stephens, Martin L; Beck, Nancy B; Dirven, Hubert A A M; Fowle, John R; Goodman, Julie E; Hartung, Thomas; Kimber, Ian; Lalu, Manoj M; Thayer, Kristina; Whaley, Paul; Wikoff, Daniele; Tsaioun, Katya

    2017-07-01

    Systematic reviews, pioneered in the clinical field, provide a transparent, methodologically rigorous and reproducible means of summarizing the available evidence on a precisely framed research question. Having matured to a well-established approach in many research fields, systematic reviews are receiving increasing attention as a potential tool for answering toxicological questions. In the larger framework of evidence-based toxicology, the advantages and obstacles of, as well as the approaches for, adapting and adopting systematic reviews to toxicology are still being explored. To provide the toxicology community with a starting point for conducting or understanding systematic reviews, we herein summarized available guidance documents from various fields of application. We have elaborated on the systematic review process by breaking it down into ten steps, starting with planning the project, framing the question, and writing and publishing the protocol, and concluding with interpretation and reporting. In addition, we have identified the specific methodological challenges of toxicological questions and have summarized how these can be addressed. Ultimately, this primer is intended to stimulate scientific discussions of the identified issues to fuel the development of toxicology-specific methodology and to encourage the application of systematic review methodology to toxicological issues.

  2. A systematic review of studies examining the relationship between reported racism and health and wellbeing for children and young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Naomi; Paradies, Yin; Trenerry, Brigid; Truong, Mandy; Karlsen, Saffron; Kelly, Yvonne

    2013-10-01

    Racial discrimination is increasingly recognised as a determinant of racial and ethnic health inequalities, with growing evidence of strong associations between racial discrimination and adult health outcomes. There is a growing body of literature that considers the effects of racial discrimination on child and youth health. The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic review of studies that examine relationships between reported racial discrimination and child and youth health. We describe the characteristics of 121 studies identified by a comprehensive search strategy, including definitions and measurements of racial discrimination and the nature of reported associations. Most studies were published in the last seven years, used cross-sectional designs and were conducted in the United States with young people aged 12-18 years. African American, Latino/a, and Asian populations were most frequently included in these studies. Of the 461 associations examined in these studies, mental health outcomes (e.g. depression, anxiety) were most commonly reported, with statistically significant associations with racial discrimination found in 76% of outcomes examined. Statistically significant associations were also found for over 50% of associations between racial discrimination and positive mental health (e.g. self esteem, resilience), behaviour problems, wellbeing, and pregnancy/birth outcomes. The field is currently limited by a lack of longitudinal studies, limited psychometrically validated exposure instruments and poor conceptualisation and definition of racial discrimination. There is also a need to investigate the complex and varying pathways by which reported racial discrimination affect child and youth health. Ensuring study quality in this field will allow future research to reveal the complex role that racial discrimination plays as a determinant of child and youth health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing harmful effects in systematic Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woolacott Nerys F

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Balanced decisions about health care interventions require reliable evidence on harms as well as benefits. Most systematic reviews focus on efficacy and randomised trials, for which the methodology is well established. Methods to systematically review harmful effects are less well developed and there are few sources of guidance for researchers. We present our own recent experience of conducting systematic reviews of harmful effects and make suggestions for future practice and further research. Methods We described and compared the methods used in three systematic reviews. Our evaluation focused on the review question, study designs and quality assessment. Results One review question focused on providing information on specific harmful effects to furnish an economic model, the other two addressed much broader questions. All three reviews included randomised and observational data, although each defined the inclusion criteria differently. Standard methods were used to assess study quality. Various practical problems were encountered in applying the study design inclusion criteria and assessing quality, mainly because of poor study design, inadequate reporting and the limitations of existing tools. All three reviews generated a large volume of work that did not yield much useful information for health care decision makers. The key areas for improvement we identified were focusing the review question and developing methods for quality assessment of studies of harmful effects. Conclusions Systematic reviews of harmful effects are more likely to yield information pertinent to clinical decision-making if they address a focused question. This will enable clear decisions to be made about the type of research to include in the review. The methodology for assessing the quality of harmful effects data in systematic reviews requires further development.

  4. The effect of journal impact factor, reporting conflicts, and reporting funding sources, on standardized effect sizes in back pain trials: a systematic review and meta-regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froud, Robert; Bjørkli, Tom; Bright, Philip; Rajendran, Dévan; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Underwood, Martin; Evans, David; Eldridge, Sandra

    2015-11-30

    Low back pain is a common and costly health complaint for which there are several moderately effective treatments. In some fields there is evidence that funder and financial conflicts are associated with trial outcomes. It is not clear whether effect sizes in back pain trials relate to journal impact factor, reporting conflicts of interest, or reporting funding. We performed a systematic review of English-language papers reporting randomised controlled trials of treatments for non-specific low back pain, published between 2006-2012. We modelled the relationship using 5-year journal impact factor, and categories of reported of conflicts of interest, and categories of reported funding (reported none and reported some, compared to not reporting these) using meta-regression, adjusting for sample size, and publication year. We also considered whether impact factor could be predicted by the direction of outcome, or trial sample size. We could abstract data to calculate effect size in 99 of 146 trials that met our inclusion criteria. Effect size is not associated with impact factor, reporting of funding source, or reporting of conflicts of interest. However, explicitly reporting 'no trial funding' is strongly associated with larger absolute values of effect size (adjusted β=1.02 (95 % CI 0.44 to 1.59), P=0.001). Impact factor increases by 0.008 (0.004 to 0.012) per unit increase in trial sample size (Psources of funding, and conflicts of interest reflects positively on research and publisher conduct in the field. Strong evidence of a large association between absolute magnitude of effect size and explicit reporting of 'no funding' suggests authors of unfunded trials are likely to report larger effect sizes, notwithstanding direction. This could relate in part to quality, resources, and/or how pragmatic a trial is.

  5. Suicidality and aggression during antidepressant treatment: systematic review and meta-analyses based on clinical study reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Tarang; Guski, Louise Schow; Freund, Nanna; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2016-01-27

    To study serious harms associated with selective serotonin and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors.Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Mortality and suicidality. Secondary outcomes were aggressive behaviour and akathisia. Clinical study reports for duloxetine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, and venlafaxine obtained from the European and UK drug regulators, and summary trial reports for duloxetine and fluoxetine from Eli Lilly's website. Double blind placebo controlled trials that contained any patient narratives or individual patient listings of harms. Two researchers extracted data independently; the outcomes were meta-analysed by Peto's exact method (fixed effect model). We included 70 trials (64,381 pages of clinical study reports) with 18,526 patients. These trials had limitations in the study design and discrepancies in reporting, which may have led to serious under-reporting of harms. For example, some outcomes appeared only in individual patient listings in appendices, which we had for only 32 trials, and we did not have case report forms for any of the trials. Differences in mortality (all deaths were in adults, odds ratio 1.28, 95% confidence interval 0.40 to 4.06), suicidality (1.21, 0.84 to 1.74), and akathisia (2.04, 0.93 to 4.48) were not significant, whereas patients taking antidepressants displayed more aggressive behaviour (1.93, 1.26 to 2.95). For adults, the odds ratios were 0.81 (0.51 to 1.28) for suicidality, 1.09 (0.55 to 2.14) for aggression, and 2.00 (0.79 to 5.04) for akathisia. The corresponding values for children and adolescents were 2.39 (1.31 to 4.33), 2.79 (1.62 to 4.81), and 2.15 (0.48 to 9.65). In the summary trial reports on Eli Lilly's website, almost all deaths were noted, but all suicidal ideation events were missing, and the information on the remaining outcomes was incomplete. Because of the shortcomings identified and having only partial access to appendices with no access to case report forms, the harms

  6. The difficulties of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, Martin J; Lindenmayer, David B

    2017-10-01

    The need for robust evidence to support conservation actions has driven the adoption of systematic approaches to research synthesis in ecology. However, applying systematic review to complex or open questions remains challenging, and this task is becoming more difficult as the quantity of scientific literature increases. We drew on the science of linguistics for guidance as to why the process of identifying and sorting information during systematic review remains so labor intensive, and to provide potential solutions. Several linguistic properties of peer-reviewed corpora-including nonrandom selection of review topics, small-world properties of semantic networks, and spatiotemporal variation in word meaning-greatly increase the effort needed to complete the systematic review process. Conversely, the resolution of these semantic complexities is a common motivation for narrative reviews, but this process is rarely enacted with the rigor applied during linguistic analysis. Therefore, linguistics provides a unifying framework for understanding some key challenges of systematic review and highlights 2 useful directions for future research. First, in cases where semantic complexity generates barriers to synthesis, ecologists should consider drawing on existing methods-such as natural language processing or the construction of research thesauri and ontologies-that provide tools for mapping and resolving that complexity. These tools could help individual researchers classify research material in a more robust manner and provide valuable guidance for future researchers on that topic. Second, a linguistic perspective highlights that scientific writing is a rich resource worthy of detailed study, an observation that can sometimes be lost during the search for data during systematic review or meta-analysis. For example, mapping semantic networks can reveal redundancy and complementarity among scientific concepts, leading to new insights and research questions. Consequently

  7. A systematic review of patient reported factors associated with uptake and completion of cardiovascular lifestyle behaviour change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Jenni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthy lifestyles are an important facet of cardiovascular risk management. Unfortunately many individuals fail to engage with lifestyle change programmes. There are many factors that patients report as influencing their decisions about initiating lifestyle change. This is challenging for health care professionals who may lack the skills and time to address a broad range of barriers to lifestyle behaviour. Guidance on which factors to focus on during lifestyle consultations may assist healthcare professionals to hone their skills and knowledge leading to more productive patient interactions with ultimately better uptake of lifestyle behaviour change support. The aim of our study was to clarify which influences reported by patients predict uptake and completion of formal lifestyle change programmes. Methods A systematic narrative review of quantitative observational studies reporting factors (influences associated with uptake and completion of lifestyle behaviour change programmes. Quantitative observational studies involving patients at high risk of cardiovascular events were identified through electronic searching and screened against pre-defined selection criteria. Factors were extracted and organised into an existing qualitative framework. Results 374 factors were extracted from 32 studies. Factors most consistently associated with uptake of lifestyle change related to support from family and friends, transport and other costs, and beliefs about the causes of illness and lifestyle change. Depression and anxiety also appear to influence uptake as well as completion. Many factors show inconsistent patterns with respect to uptake and completion of lifestyle change programmes. Conclusion There are a small number of factors that consistently appear to influence uptake and completion of cardiovascular lifestyle behaviour change. These factors could be considered during patient consultations to promote a tailored approach to

  8. Stakeholder involvement in systematic reviews: a protocol for a systematic review of methods, outcomes and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Alex; Campbell, Pauline; Struthers, Caroline; Synnot, Anneliese; Nunn, Jack; Hill, Sophie; Goodare, Heather; Watts, Chris; Morley, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Researchers are expected to actively involve stakeholders (including patients, the public, health professionals, and others) in their research. Although researchers increasingly recognise that this is good practice, there is limited practical guidance about how to involve stakeholders. Systematic reviews are a research method in which international literature is brought together, using carefully designed and rigorous methods to answer a specified question about healthcare. We want to investigate how researchers have involved stakeholders in systematic reviews, and how involvement has potentially affected the quality and impact of reviews. We plan to bring this information together by searching and reviewing the literature for reports of stakeholder involvement in systematic reviews. This paper describes in detail the methods that we plan to use to do this. After carrying out comprehensive searches for literature, we will: 1. Provide an overview of identified reports, describing key information such as types of stakeholders involved, and how. 2. Pick out reports of involvement which include detailed descriptions of how researchers involved people in a systematic review and summarise the methods they used. We will consider who was involved, how people were recruited, and how the involvement was organised and managed. 3. Bring together any reports which have explored the effect, or impact, of involving stakeholders in a systematic review. We will assess the quality of these reports, and summarise their findings. Once completed, our review will be used to produce training resources aimed at helping researchers to improve ways of involving stakeholders in systematic reviews. Background There is an expectation for stakeholders (including patients, the public, health professionals, and others) to be involved in research. Researchers are increasingly recognising that it is good practice to involve stakeholders in systematic reviews. There is currently a lack of evidence

  9. Neurofibroma involving obturator nerve mimicking an adnexal mass: a rare case report and PRISMA-driven systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Wei-Ting; Liu, Chia-Hao; Chen, Yi-Jen; Wu, Hua-Hsi; Chuang, Chi-Mu; Wang, Peng-Hui

    2018-02-09

    Pelvic masses are a common gynecologic problem, and majority of them are diagnosed as ovarian tumors finally. Sometimes, it is hard to distinguish the origin of these pelvic masses. The following case is a solitary neurofibroma arising from the right-side obturator nerve, which was impressed as a right-side ovarian tumor initially. We reported this case, and also performed a PRISMA-driven systematic review to summary the similar cases in the literature. This review includes image, molecular and pathological findings and outcome of neurofibroma. A 33-year-old woman with a regular menstrual period denied any symptoms or signs. During her physical check-up, image examination revealed a right-side heterogeneous pelvic mass; it was suggestive of a complex of right-side ovarian tumor. A provisional diagnosis of retroperitoneal pelvic mass, probably a benign ovarian tumor, was made. Excision of the right-side pelvic mass was performed. We sent the specimens for frozen pathology, which indicated neurofibroma and lipomatous tumor and that the possibility of liposarcoma cannot be excluded. A segment of the obturator nerve was attached to the tumor and was severed. A right-side obturator nerve tear during tumor excision was observed, and a neurosurgeon was consulted for obturator nerve grafting and repair. The patient complained of mild weakness and paresthesia affecting the right leg, and we consulted a rehabilitation doctor for neuron injury. The patient's recovery was uneventful, and she was discharged eight days after the drain was removed. Further rehabilitation treatment was arranged. A neurofibroma is an uncommon pelvic retroperitoneal tumor, and it can be misdiagnosed as an adnexal mass. To our knowledge, this is a rare case of a solitary neurofibroma arising from the obturator nerve. It usually does not have any neurological deficit. We present this case to demonstrate that pelvic neurofibroma can be mistaken for an adnexal mass. This fact should be borne in mind

  10. [Iridology: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Léia Fortes; Silva, Maria Júlia Paes

    2008-09-01

    This study is a literature review about Iridology/Irisdiagnose in the period from 1970 to 2005. The objective was to identify the worldwide scientific publications (articles) in this field and the opinions about the method. Twenty-five articles were found, four of them from Brazilian authors. About the category, 1 was literature review, 12 research studies and 12 updates, historical reviews or editorials. The countries that have contributed more with the studies were Brazil and Russia. Fifteen of those are in favor of the method and 10 are against it. In conclusion, it is necessary to develop more studies inside the methodological rigor, once Iridology brings hope to preventive medicine.

  11. Sleep-related violence and sexual behavior in sleep: a systematic review of medical-legal case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingravallo, Francesca; Poli, Francesca; Gilmore, Emma V; Pizza, Fabio; Vignatelli, Luca; Schenck, Carlos H; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2014-08-15

    To review systematically medical-legal cases of sleep-related violence (SRV) and sexual behavior in sleep (SBS). We searched Pubmed and PsychINFO (from 1980 to 2012) with pre-specified terms. We also searched reference lists of relevant articles. Case reports in which a sleep disorder was purported as the defense during a criminal trial and in which information about the forensic evaluation of the defendant was provided. Information about legal issues, defendant and victim characteristics, circumstantial factors, and forensic evaluation was extracted from each case. A qualitative-comparative assessment of cases was performed. Eighteen cases (9 SRV and 9 SBS) were included. The charge was murder or attempted murder in all SRV cases, while in SBS cases the charge ranged from sexual touching to rape. The defense was based on sleepwalking in 11 of 18 cases. The trial outcome was in favor of the defendant in 14 of 18 cases. Defendants were relatively young males in all cases. Victims were usually adult relatives of the defendants in SRV cases and unrelated young girls or adolescents in SBS cases. In most cases the criminal events occurred 1-2 hours after the defendant's sleep onset, and both proximity and other potential triggering factors were reported. The forensic evaluations widely differed from case to case. SRV and SBS medical-legal cases did not show apparent differences, except for the severity of the charges and the victim characteristics. An international multidisciplinary consensus for the forensic evaluation of SRV and SBS should be developed as an urgent priority.

  12. Reporting characteristics of cancer pain: A systematic review and quantitative analysis of research publications in palliative care journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil P Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A common disorder requiring symptom palliation in palliative and end-of-life care is cancer. Cancer pain is recognized as a global health burden. This paper sought to systematically examine the extent to which there is an adequate scientific research base on cancer pain and its reporting characteristics in the palliative care journal literature. Materials and Methods: Search conducted in MEDLINE and CINAHL sought to locate all studies published in 19 palliative/ hospice/ supportive/ end-of-life care journals from 2009 to 2010. The journals included were: American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care, BMC Palliative Care, Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care, End of Life Care Journal, European Journal of Palliative Care, Hospice Management Advisor, Indian Journal of Palliative Care, International Journal of Palliative Nursing, Internet Journal of Pain Symptom Control and Palliative Care, Journal of Pain and Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy, Journal of Palliative Care, Journal of Palliative Medicine, Journal of Social Work in End-of-life and Palliative Care, Journal of Supportive Oncology, Palliative Medicine, Palliative and Supportive Care, and Supportive Care in Cancer. Journal contents were searched to identify studies that included cancer pain in abstract. Results: During the years 2009 and 2010, of the selected 1,569 articles published in the journals reviewed, only 5.86% (92 articles were on cancer pain. Conclusion: While researchers in the field of palliative care have studied cancer pain, the total percentage for studies is still a low 5.86%. To move the field of palliative care forward so that appropriate guidelines for cancer pain management can be developed, it is critical that more research be reported upon which to base cancer pain therapy in an evidence-based palliative care model.

  13. Quality of systematic reviews in pediatric oncology--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh, Andreas; Knijnenburg, Sebastiaan L; Jørgensen, Anders W; van Dalen, Elvira C; Kremer, Leontien C M

    2009-12-01

    To ensure evidence-based decision making in pediatric oncology systematic reviews are necessary. The objective of our study was to evaluate the methodological quality of all currently existing systematic reviews in pediatric oncology. We identified eligible systematic reviews through a systematic search of the literature. Data on clinical and methodological characteristics of the included systematic reviews were extracted. The methodological quality of the included systematic reviews was assessed using the overview quality assessment questionnaire, a validated 10-item quality assessment tool. We compared the methodological quality of systematic reviews published in regular journals with that of Cochrane systematic reviews. We included 117 systematic reviews, 99 systematic reviews published in regular journals and 18 Cochrane systematic reviews. The average methodological quality of systematic reviews was low for all ten items, but the quality of Cochrane systematic reviews was significantly higher than systematic reviews published in regular journals. On a 1-7 scale, the median overall quality score for all systematic reviews was 2 (range 1-7), with a score of 1 (range 1-7) for systematic reviews in regular journals compared to 6 (range 3-7) in Cochrane systematic reviews (pmethodological flaws leading to a high risk of bias. While Cochrane systematic reviews were of higher methodological quality than systematic reviews in regular journals, some of them also had methodological problems. Therefore, the methodology of each individual systematic review should be scrutinized before accepting its results.

  14. Methodology in conducting a systematic review of systematic reviews of healthcare interventions

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smith, Valerie

    2011-02-03

    Abstract Background Hundreds of studies of maternity care interventions have been published, too many for most people involved in providing maternity care to identify and consider when making decisions. It became apparent that systematic reviews of individual studies were required to appraise, summarise and bring together existing studies in a single place. However, decision makers are increasingly faced by a plethora of such reviews and these are likely to be of variable quality and scope, with more than one review of important topics. Systematic reviews (or overviews) of reviews are a logical and appropriate next step, allowing the findings of separate reviews to be compared and contrasted, providing clinical decision makers with the evidence they need. Methods The methods used to identify and appraise published and unpublished reviews systematically, drawing on our experiences and good practice in the conduct and reporting of systematic reviews are described. The process of identifying and appraising all published reviews allows researchers to describe the quality of this evidence base, summarise and compare the review\\'s conclusions and discuss the strength of these conclusions. Results Methodological challenges and possible solutions are described within the context of (i) sources, (ii) study selection, (iii) quality assessment (i.e. the extent of searching undertaken for the reviews, description of study selection and inclusion criteria, comparability of included studies, assessment of publication bias and assessment of heterogeneity), (iv) presentation of results, and (v) implications for practice and research. Conclusion Conducting a systematic review of reviews highlights the usefulness of bringing together a summary of reviews in one place, where there is more than one review on an important topic. The methods described here should help clinicians to review and appraise published reviews systematically, and aid evidence-based clinical decision-making.

  15. Systematic Review of Errors in Inhaler Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchis, Joaquin; Gich, Ignasi; Pedersen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    in these outcomes over these 40 years and when partitioned into years 1 to 20 and years 21 to 40. Analyses were conducted in accordance with recommendations from Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses and Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology. Results Data...... A systematic search for articles reporting direct observation of inhaler technique by trained personnel covered the period from 1975 to 2014. Outcomes were the nature and frequencies of the three most common errors; the percentage of patients demonstrating correct, acceptable, or poor technique; and variations...

  16. Methodology of a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares-Espinós, E; Hernández, V; Domínguez-Escrig, J L; Fernández-Pello, S; Hevia, V; Mayor, J; Padilla-Fernández, B; Ribal, M J

    2018-05-03

    The objective of evidence-based medicine is to employ the best scientific information available to apply to clinical practice. Understanding and interpreting the scientific evidence involves understanding the available levels of evidence, where systematic reviews and meta-analyses of clinical trials are at the top of the levels-of-evidence pyramid. The review process should be well developed and planned to reduce biases and eliminate irrelevant and low-quality studies. The steps for implementing a systematic review include (i) correctly formulating the clinical question to answer (PICO), (ii) developing a protocol (inclusion and exclusion criteria), (iii) performing a detailed and broad literature search and (iv) screening the abstracts of the studies identified in the search and subsequently of the selected complete texts (PRISMA). Once the studies have been selected, we need to (v) extract the necessary data into a form designed in the protocol to summarise the included studies, (vi) assess the biases of each study, identifying the quality of the available evidence, and (vii) develop tables and text that synthesise the evidence. A systematic review involves a critical and reproducible summary of the results of the available publications on a particular topic or clinical question. To improve scientific writing, the methodology is shown in a structured manner to implement a systematic review. Copyright © 2018 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Adherence to HAART: a systematic review of developed and developing nation patient-reported barriers and facilitators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J Mills

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART medication is the greatest patient-enabled predictor of treatment success and mortality for those who have access to drugs. We systematically reviewed the literature to determine patient-reported barriers and facilitators to adhering to antiretroviral therapy.We examined both developed and developing nations. We searched the following databases: AMED (inception to June 2005, Campbell Collaboration (inception to June 2005, CinAhl (inception to June 2005, Cochrane Library (inception to June 2005, Embase (inception to June 2005, ERIC (inception to June 2005, MedLine (inception to June 2005, and NHS EED (inception to June 2005. We retrieved studies conducted in both developed and developing nation settings that examined barriers and facilitators addressing adherence. Both qualitative and quantitative studies were included. We independently, in duplicate, extracted data reported in qualitative studies addressing adherence. We then examined all quantitative studies addressing barriers and facilitators noted from the qualitative studies. In order to place the findings of the qualitative studies in a generalizable context, we meta-analyzed the surveys to determine a best estimate of the overall prevalence of issues. We included 37 qualitative studies and 47 studies using a quantitative methodology (surveys. Seventy-two studies (35 qualitative were conducted in developed nations, while the remaining 12 (two qualitative were conducted in developing nations. Important barriers reported in both economic settings included fear of disclosure, concomitant substance abuse, forgetfulness, suspicions of treatment, regimens that are too complicated, number of pills required, decreased quality of life, work and family responsibilities, falling asleep, and access to medication. Important facilitators reported by patients in developed nation settings included having a sense of self-worth, seeing positive

  18. Treatment of Childhood Obesity: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniford, Leanne J.; Breckon, Jeff D.; Copeland, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity trends have increased dramatically over the past three decade's. The purpose of this quantitative systematic review is to provide an update of the evidence, illustrating the efficacy of childhood obesity treatment, considering whether treatment fidelity has been measured and/or reported and whether this related to the treatment…

  19. Achalasia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfino, John E; Gawron, Andrew J

    2015-05-12

    Achalasia significantly affects patients' quality of life and can be difficult to diagnose and treat. To review the diagnosis and management of achalasia, with a focus on phenotypic classification pertinent to therapeutic outcomes. Literature review and MEDLINE search of articles from January 2004 to February 2015. A total of 93 articles were included in the final literature review addressing facets of achalasia epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes. Nine randomized controlled trials focusing on endoscopic or surgical therapy for achalasia were included (734 total patients). A diagnosis of achalasia should be considered when patients present with dysphagia, chest pain, and refractory reflux symptoms after an endoscopy does not reveal a mechanical obstruction or an inflammatory cause of esophageal symptoms. Manometry should be performed if achalasia is suspected. Randomized controlled trials support treatments focused on disrupting the lower esophageal sphincter with pneumatic dilation (70%-90% effective) or laparoscopic myotomy (88%-95% effective). Patients with achalasia have a variable prognosis after endoscopic or surgical myotomy based on subtypes, with type II (absent peristalsis with abnormal pan-esophageal high-pressure patterns) having a very favorable outcome (96%) and type I (absent peristalsis without abnormal pressure) having an intermediate prognosis (81%) that is inversely associated with the degree of esophageal dilatation. In contrast, type III (absent peristalsis with distal esophageal spastic contractions) is a spastic variant with less favorable outcomes (66%) after treatment of the lower esophageal sphincter. Achalasia should be considered when dysphagia is present and not explained by an obstruction or inflammatory process. Responses to treatment vary based on which achalasia subtype is present.

  20. Dhat syndrome: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udina, Marc; Foulon, Hubert; Valdés, Manuel; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Martín-Santos, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    Dhat syndrome is a widely recognized clinical condition often seen on the Indian subcontinent that is characterized by a preoccupation with semen loss in urine and other symptoms such as fatigue or depressed mood. Although it has been considered to be a culture-bound syndrome, it may also be regarded as a distinct manifestation of depression or another medical illness. The purpose of this paper was to carry out a systematic review on Dhat syndrome. A review of the literature published up until February 2012 was conducted using the key words [Dhat syndrome] or [semen-loss anxiety] or [semen-loss syndrome]. We included only original studies. The majority of studies reported patients from the Indian subcontinent. There was a high degree of heterogeneity among the studies. Dhat was a common condition in young people from certain cultures and origins. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were common, including fatigue, sleepiness, and sexual dysfunction. Good clinical engagement, social support, and sexual education were useful in some cases. Given the high rate of comorbid depressive symptoms, antidepressant has been used. In an increasingly globalized world, clinicians must be able to properly diagnose and treat patients from other cultures, who may report symptoms that are influenced by their beliefs, culture, or place of origin. Dhat may be a common manifestation of a depressive or anxiety disorder in certain cultures. Further research is needed to improve our understanding of this condition, to clarify its nosologic status, and to offer appropriate treatment to affected individuals. Copyright © 2013 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Systematic Review of Radiation Therapy Toxicity Reporting in Randomized Controlled Trials of Rectal Cancer: A Comparison of Patient-Reported Outcomes and Clinician Toxicity Reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, Alexandra, E-mail: a.gilbert@leeds.ac.uk [Leeds Institute of Cancer & Pathology, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Ziegler, Lucy; Martland, Maisie [Leeds Institute of Cancer & Pathology, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Davidson, Susan [The Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Efficace, Fabio [Italian Group for Adult Hematologic Diseases, Rome (Italy); Sebag-Montefiore, David; Velikova, Galina [Leeds Institute of Cancer & Pathology, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    The use of multimodal treatments for rectal cancer has improved cancer-related outcomes but makes monitoring toxicity challenging. Optimizing future radiation therapy regimens requires collection and publication of detailed toxicity data. This review evaluated the quality of toxicity information provided in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of radiation therapy in rectal cancer and focused on the difference between clinician-reported and patient-reported toxicity. Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched (January 1995-July 2013) for RCTs reporting late toxicity in patients treated with regimens including preoperative (chemo)radiation therapy. Data on toxicity measures and information on toxicity reported were extracted using Quantitative Analyses of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic recommendations. International Society for Quality of Life Research standards on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) were used to evaluate the quality of patient-reported toxicity. Twenty-one RCT publications met inclusion criteria out of 4144 articles screened. All PRO studies reported higher rates of toxicity symptoms than clinician-reported studies and reported on a wider range and milder symptoms. No clinician-reported study published data on sexual dysfunction. Of the clinician-reported studies, 55% grouped toxicity data related to an organ system together (eg “Bowel”), and 45% presented data only on more-severe (grade ≥3) toxicity. In comparison, all toxicity grades were reported in 79% of PRO publications, and all studies (100%) presented individual symptom toxicity data (eg bowel urgency). However, PRO reporting quality was variable. Only 43% of PRO studies presented baseline data, 28% did not use any psychometrically validated instruments, and only 29% of studies described statistical methods for managing missing data. Analysis of these trials highlights the lack of reporting standards for adverse events and reveals the differences between clinician and

  2. A low proportion of systematic reviews in physical therapy are registered: a survey of 150 published systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Crystian B; Elkins, Mark R; Lemes, Ítalo Ribeiro; de Oliveira Silva, Danilo; Briani, Ronaldo V; Monteiro, Henrique Luiz; Azevedo, Fábio Mícolis de; Pinto, Rafael Zambelli

    Systematic reviews provide the best evidence about the effectiveness of healthcare interventions. Although systematic reviews are conducted with explicit and transparent methods, discrepancies might occur between the protocol and the publication. To estimate the proportion of systematic reviews of physical therapy interventions that are registered, the methodological quality of (un)registered systematic reviews and the prevalence of outcome reporting bias in registered systematic reviews. A random sample of 150 systematic reviews published in 2015 indexed on the PEDro database. We included systematic reviews written in English, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish. A checklist for assessing the methodological quality of systematic reviews tool was used. Relative risk was calculated to explore the association between meta-analysis results and the changes in the outcomes. Twenty-nine (19%) systematic reviews were registered. Funding and publication in a journal with an impact factor higher than 5.0 were associated with registration. Registered systematic reviews demonstrated significantly higher methodological quality (median=8) than unregistered systematic reviews (median=5). Nine (31%) registered systematic reviews demonstrated discrepancies between protocol and publication with no evidence that such discrepancies were applied to favor the statistical significance of the intervention (RR=1.16; 95% CI: 0.63-2.12). A low proportion of systematic reviews in the physical therapy field are registered. The registered systematic reviews showed high methodological quality without evidence of outcome reporting bias. Further strategies should be implemented to encourage registration. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. A systematic review of systematic reviews on interventions for caregivers of people with chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corry, Margarita; While, Alison; Neenan, Kathleen; Smith, Valerie

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to support caregivers of people with selected chronic conditions. Informal caregivers provide millions of care hours each week contributing to significant healthcare savings. Despite much research evaluating a range of interventions for caregivers, their impact remains unclear. A systematic review of systematic reviews of interventions to support caregivers of people with selected chronic conditions. The electronic databases of PubMed, CINAHL, British Nursing Index, PsycINFO, Social Science Index (January 1990-May 2014) and The Cochrane Library (Issue 6, June 2014), were searched using Medical Subject Heading and index term combinations of the keywords caregiver, systematic review, intervention and named chronic conditions. Papers were included if they reported a systematic review of interventions for caregivers of people with chronic conditions. The methodological quality of the included reviews was independently assessed by two reviewers using R-AMSTAR. Data were independently extracted by two reviewers using a pre-designed data extraction form. Narrative synthesis of review findings was used to present the results. Eight systematic reviews were included. There was evidence that education and support programme interventions improved caregiver quality of life. Information-giving interventions improved caregiver knowledge for stroke caregivers. Education, support and information-giving interventions warrant further investigation across caregiver groups. A large-scale funded programme for caregiver research is required to ensure that studies are of high quality to inform service development across settings. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A systematic review of systematic reviews of homeopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, E

    2002-01-01

    Homeopathy remains one of the most controversial subjects in therapeutics. This article is an attempt to clarify its effectiveness based on recent systematic reviews. Electronic databases were searched for systematic reviews/meta-analysis on the subject. Seventeen articles fulfilled the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Six of them related to re-analyses of one landmark meta-analysis. Collectively they implied that the overall positive result of this meta-analysis is not supported by a critical analysis of the data. Eleven independent systematic reviews were located. Collectively they failed to provide strong evidence in favour of homeopathy. In particular, there was no condition which responds convincingly better to homeopathic treatment than to placebo or other control interventions. Similarly, there was no homeopathic remedy that was demonstrated to yield clinical effects that are convincingly different from placebo. It is concluded that the best clinical evidence for homeopathy available to date does not warrant positive recommendations for its use in clinical practice. PMID:12492603

  5. Using Multiple Types of Studies in Systematic Reviews of Health Care Interventions – A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinemann, Frank; Tushabe, Doreen Allen; Kleijnen, Jos

    2013-01-01

    Background A systematic review may evaluate different aspects of a health care intervention. To accommodate the evaluation of various research questions, the inclusion of more than one study design may be necessary. One aim of this study is to find and describe articles on methodological issues concerning the incorporation of multiple types of study designs in systematic reviews on health care interventions. Another aim is to evaluate methods studies that have assessed whether reported effects differ by study types. Methods and Findings We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cochrane Methodology Register on 31 March 2012 and identified 42 articles that reported on the integration of single or multiple study designs in systematic reviews. We summarized the contents of the articles qualitatively and assessed theoretical and empirical evidence. We found that many examples of reviews incorporating multiple types of studies exist and that every study design can serve a specific purpose. The clinical questions of a systematic review determine the types of design that are necessary or sufficient to provide the best possible answers. In a second independent search, we identified 49 studies, 31 systematic reviews and 18 trials that compared the effect sizes between randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials, which were statistically different in 35%, and not different in 53%. Twelve percent of studies reported both, different and non-different effect sizes. Conclusions Different study designs addressing the same question yielded varying results, with differences in about half of all examples. The risk of presenting uncertain results without knowing for sure the direction and magnitude of the effect holds true for both nonrandomized and randomized controlled trials. The integration of multiple study designs in systematic reviews is required if patients should be informed on the many facets of patient relevant issues of health care

  6. Quality of systematic reviews in pediatric oncology--a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundh, Andreas; Knijnenburg, Sebastiaan L; Jørgensen, Anders W

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To ensure evidence-based decision making in pediatric oncology systematic reviews are necessary. The objective of our study was to evaluate the methodological quality of all currently existing systematic reviews in pediatric oncology. METHODS: We identified eligible systematic reviews...... through a systematic search of the literature. Data on clinical and methodological characteristics of the included systematic reviews were extracted. The methodological quality of the included systematic reviews was assessed using the overview quality assessment questionnaire, a validated 10-item quality...... assessment tool. We compared the methodological quality of systematic reviews published in regular journals with that of Cochrane systematic reviews. RESULTS: We included 117 systematic reviews, 99 systematic reviews published in regular journals and 18 Cochrane systematic reviews. The average methodological...

  7. Uterine transplantation: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dani Ejzenberg

    Full Text Available Up to 15% of the reproductive population is infertile, and 3 to 5% of these cases are caused by uterine dysfunction. This abnormality generally leads women to consider surrogacy or adoption. Uterine transplantation, although still experimental, may be an option in these cases. This systematic review will outline the recommendations, surgical aspects, immunosuppressive drugs and reproductive aspects related to experimental uterine transplantation in women.

  8. Outcome reporting across randomised trials and observational studies evaluating treatments for Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Helen; Duffy, James M N; Umadia, Ogochukwu; Khalil, Asma

    2018-04-01

    Twin-Twin Transfusion syndrome is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Potential treatments require robust evaluation. The aim of this study was to evaluate outcome reporting across observational studies and randomised controlled trials assessing treatments for twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE and Medline were searched from inception to August 2016. Observational studies and randomised controlled trials reporting outcomes following a treatment for TTTS in monochorionic-diamniotic twin pregnancies and monochorionic-triamniotic or dichorionic-triamniotic triplet pregnancies were included. We systematically extracted and categorised outcome reporting. Six randomised trials and 94 observational studies, reporting data from 20,071 maternal participants and 3,199 children, were included. Six different treatments were evaluated. Included studies reported sixty-two different outcomes, including 10 fetal, 28 neonatal, 6 early childhood and 18 maternal outcomes. The outcomes were inconsistently reported across trials. For example, when considering offspring mortality, 31 studies (31%) reported live birth, 31 studies (31%) reported intrauterine death, 49 studies (49%) reported neonatal mortality, and 17 studies (17%) reported perinatal mortality. Four studies (4%) reported respiratory distress syndrome. Only 19 (19%) of studies were designed for long-term follow-up and 11 of these studies (11%) reported cerebral palsy. Most studies evaluating treatments for TTTS, have often neglected to report clinically important outcomes, especially neonatal morbidity outcomes. Most studies are not designed for long-term follow-up. The development of a core outcome set could help standardised outcome collection and reporting in Twin-Twin Transfusion syndrome studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Measurement properties of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) used in adult patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiyegbusi, Olalekan Lee; Kyte, Derek; Cockwell, Paul; Marshall, Tom; Keeley, Thomas; Gheorghe, Adrian; Calvert, Melanie

    2016-10-12

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with symptoms that can significantly reduce the quality of life (QoL) of patients. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) may facilitate the assessment of the impact of disease and treatment on the QoL, from a patient perspective. PROMs can be used in research and routine clinical practice. A systematic review of studies evaluating the measurement properties of PROMs in adults with CKD will be conducted. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL Plus will be systematically searched from inception. Hand searching of reference lists and citations of included studies will be carried out. 2 reviewers will independently screen the titles and abstracts of all the studies retrieved during the systematic search to determine their eligibility. The COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist will be used to appraise the methodological quality of the selected studies following the full-text review. Data on the study population, questionnaire characteristics and measurement properties will be extracted from the selected papers. Finally, a narrative synthesis of extracted data will be undertaken. Ethical permissions are not required for this study as data from published research articles will be used. Findings will be disseminated through publication in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at conferences. This systematic review will provide a comprehensive assessment of the measurement properties of PROMs currently available for use in adult patients with CKD and present evidence which may inform the selection of measures for use in research and clinical practice. CRD42016035554. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Self-management interventions for skin care in people with a spinal cord injury: part 2-a systematic review of use of theory and quality of intervention reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Justine S; Sullivan, Katrina J; Swaine, Jillian M; Aspinall, Arlene; Jaglal, Susan; Presseau, Justin; Wolfe, Dalton; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2018-05-25

    Systematic review. To examine use of theory and quality of reporting in skin care self-management interventions for people with SCI. International. The Theory Coding Scheme (TCS) and the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) checklist were applied by two independent researchers to 17 interventions identified in a systematic review of self-management interventions for skin care in people with SCI. Six (35%) of the 17 interventions reviewed were reported to have a theoretical basis. Theories used included three of the most commonly featured in health behavior research (the Health Belief Model, Social Cognitive Theory, and the Transtheoretical Model). In these six interventions, theory was used to design content but not to select participants or tailor strategies. None of the interventions were used to test theories in the SCI population, or to propose theoretical refinements. Reporting quality was found to vary by TIDieR item, with 6-100% of interventions including recommended information. Information on two intervention fidelity items was missing in 53 and 82% of descriptions. Use of theory and reporting quality in SCI self-management research remains suboptimal, potentially slowing down advancements in this area of research. Rehabilitation researchers should direct their efforts toward improving these practices to help build a science of SCI self-management that is cumulative and reproducible by clinicians, scientists, and policy makers. This work was funded through a postdoctoral fellowship awarded to the first author by the Rick Hansen Institute.

  11. Public reporting in health care: how do consumers use quality-of-care information? A systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, M.J.; Bosch, M.C.; Wollersheim, H.C.H.; Leatherman, S.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One of the underlying goals of public reporting is to encourage the consumer to select health care providers or health plans that offer comparatively better quality-of-care. OBJECTIVE: To review the weight consumers give to quality-of-care information in the process of choice, to

  12. Workplace physical activity interventions: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Dugdill, L; Brettle, A; Hulme, C; McCluskey, S; Long, AF

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to report a synopsis of a recent systematic review of the literature regarding the effectiveness of workplace physical activity interventions, commissioned by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). \\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – A search for English-language papers published between 1996 and 2007 was conducted using 12 relevant databases and associated grey literature. Search protocols and analysis regarding study quality as recommen...

  13. Educational attainment and obesity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A K; Rai, M; Rehkopf, D H; Abrams, B

    2013-12-01

    Although previous systematic reviews considered the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity, almost 200 peer-reviewed articles have been published since the last review on that topic, and this paper focuses specifically on education, which has different implications. The authors systematically review the peer-reviewed literature from around the world considering the association between educational attainment and obesity. Databases from public health and medicine, education, psychology, economics, and other social sciences were searched, and articles published in English, French, Portuguese and Spanish were included. This paper includes 289 articles that report on 410 populations in 91 countries. The relationship between educational attainment and obesity was modified by both gender and the country's economic development level: an inverse association was more common in studies of higher-income countries and a positive association was more common in lower-income countries, with stronger social patterning among women. Relatively few studies reported on lower-income countries, controlled for a comprehensive set of potential confounding variables and/or attempted to assess causality through the use of quasi-experimental designs. Future research should address these gaps to understand if the relationship between educational attainment and obesity may be causal, thus supporting education policy as a tool for obesity prevention. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  14. Systematic reviews identify important methodological flaws in stroke rehabilitation therapy primary studies: review of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaguida, Pasqualina; Oremus, Mark; Walker, Kathryn; Wishart, Laurie R; Siegel, Karen Lohmann; Raina, Parminder

    2012-04-01

    A "review of reviews" was undertaken to assess methodological issues in studies evaluating nondrug rehabilitation interventions in stroke patients. MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched from January 2000 to January 2008 within the stroke rehabilitation setting. Electronic searches were supplemented by reviews of reference lists and citations identified by experts. Eligible studies were systematic reviews; excluded citations were narrative reviews or reviews of reviews. Review characteristics and criteria for assessing methodological quality of primary studies within them were extracted. The search yielded 949 English-language citations. We included a final set of 38 systematic reviews. Cochrane reviews, which have a standardized methodology, were generally of higher methodological quality than non-Cochrane reviews. Most systematic reviews used standardized quality assessment criteria for primary studies, but not all were comprehensive. Reviews showed that primary studies had problems with randomization, allocation concealment, and blinding. Baseline comparability, adverse events, and co-intervention or contamination were not consistently assessed. Blinding of patients and providers was often not feasible and was not evaluated as a source of bias. The eligible systematic reviews identified important methodological flaws in the evaluated primary studies, suggesting the need for improvement of research methods and reporting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Disparities in epilepsy: Report of a systematic review by the North American Commission of the International League Against Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burneo, Jorge G.; Jette, Nathalie; Theodore, William; Begley, Charles; Parko, Karen; Thurman, David J.; Wiebe, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    Summary Purpose We undertook a systematic review of the evidence on disparities in epilepsy with a focus on North American data (Canada, United States, and the English-speaking Caribbean). Methods We identified and evaluated: access to and outcomes following medical and surgical treatment, disability, incidence and prevalence, and knowledge and attitudes. An exhaustive search (1965–2007) was done, including: (1) disparities by socioeconomic status (SES), race/ethnicity, age, or education of subgroups of the epilepsy population; or (2) disparities between people with epilepsy (PWE) and healthy people or with other chronic illnesses. Results From 1,455 citations, 278 eligible abstracts were identified and 44 articles were reviewed. Comparative research data were scarce in all areas. PWE have been shown to have lower education and employment status; among PWE, differences in access to surgery have been shown by racial/ethnic groups. Aboriginals, women, and children have been shown to differ in use of health resources. Poor compliance has been shown to be associated with lower SES, insufficient insurance, poor relationship with treating clinicians, and not having regular responsibilities. Discussion Comprehensive, comparative research on all aspects of disparities in epilepsy is needed to understand the causes of disparities and the development of any policies aimed at addressing health disparities and minimizing their impact. PMID:19732134

  16. Surgical interventions for gastric cancer: a review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Weiling; Tu, Jian; Huo, Zijun; Li, Yuhuang; Peng, Jintao; Qiu, Zhenwen; Luo, Dandong; Ke, Zunfu; Chen, Xinlin

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate methodological quality and the extent of concordance among meta-analysis and/or systematic reviews on surgical interventions for gastric cancer (GC). A comprehensive search of PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane library and the DARE database was conducted to identify the reviews comparing different surgical interventions for GC prior to April 2014. After applying included criteria, available data were summarized and appraised by the Oxman and Guyatt scale. Fifty six reviews were included. Forty five reviews (80.4%) were well conducted, with scores of adapted Oxman and Guyatt scale ≥ 14. The reviews differed in criteria for avoiding bias and assessing the validity of the primary studies. Many primary studies displayed major methodological flaws, such as randomization, allocation concealment, and dropouts and withdrawals. According to the concordance assessment, laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy (LAG) was superior to open gastrectomy, and laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy was superior to open distal gastrectomy in short-term outcomes. However, the concordance regarding other surgical interventions, such as D1 vs. D2 lymphadenectomy, and robotic gastrectomy vs. LAG were absent. Systematic reviews on surgical interventions for GC displayed relatively high methodological quality. The improvement of methodological quality and reporting was necessary for primary studies. The superiority of laparoscopic over open surgery was demonstrated. But concordance on other surgical interventions was rare, which needed more well-designed RCTs and systematic reviews.

  17. How can we improve the interpretation of systematic reviews?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straus Sharon E

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A study conducted by Lai and colleagues, published this week in BMC Medicine, suggests that more guidance might be required for interpreting systematic review (SR results. In the study by Lai and colleagues, positive (or favorable results were influential in changing participants' prior beliefs about the interventions presented in the systematic review. Other studies have examined the relationship between favorable systematic review results and the publication of systematic reviews. An international registry may decrease the number of unpublished systematic reviews and will hopefully decrease redundancy, increase transparency, and increase collaboration within the SR community. In addition, using guidance from the Preferred Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA: http://www.prisma-statement.org/ Statement and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE: http://www.gradeworkinggroup.org/ approach can also be used to improve the interpretation of systematic reviews. In this commentary, we highlight important methodological issues related to the conduct and reporting of systematic reviews and also present our own guidance on interpreting systematic reviews. Please see Research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/9/30/.

  18. Patient-reported outcome (PRO assessment in clinical trials: a systematic review of guidance for trial protocol writers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Calvert

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests there are inconsistencies in patient-reported outcome (PRO assessment and reporting in clinical trials, which may limit the use of these data to inform patient care. For trials with a PRO endpoint, routine inclusion of key PRO information in the protocol may help improve trial conduct and the reporting and appraisal of PRO results; however, it is currently unclear exactly what PRO-specific information should be included. The aim of this review was to summarize the current PRO-specific guidance for clinical trial protocol developers.We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINHAL and Cochrane Library databases (inception to February 2013 for PRO-specific guidance regarding trial protocol development. Further guidance documents were identified via Google, Google scholar, requests to members of the UK Clinical Research Collaboration registered clinical trials units and international experts. Two independent investigators undertook title/abstract screening, full text review and data extraction, with a third involved in the event of disagreement. 21,175 citations were screened and 54 met the inclusion criteria. Guidance documents were difficult to access: electronic database searches identified just 8 documents, with the remaining 46 sourced elsewhere (5 from citation tracking, 27 from hand searching, 7 from the grey literature review and 7 from experts. 162 unique PRO-specific protocol recommendations were extracted from included documents. A further 10 PRO recommendations were identified relating to supporting trial documentation. Only 5/162 (3% recommendations appeared in ≥50% of guidance documents reviewed, indicating a lack of consistency.PRO-specific protocol guidelines were difficult to access, lacked consistency and may be challenging to implement in practice. There is a need to develop easily accessible consensus-driven PRO protocol guidance. Guidance should be aimed at ensuring key PRO information is routinely included in

  19. Variations in reporting of outcomes in randomized trials on diet and physical activity in pregnancy: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogozińska, Ewelina; Marlin, Nadine; Yang, Fen; Dodd, Jodie M; Guelfi, Kym; Teede, Helena; Surita, Fernanda; Jensen, Dorte M; Geiker, Nina R W; Astrup, Arne; Yeo, SeonAe; Kinnunen, Tarja I; Stafne, Signe N; Cecatti, Jose G; Bogaerts, Annick; Hauner, Hans; Mol, Ben W; Scudeller, Tânia T; Vinter, Christina A; Renault, Kristina M; Devlieger, Roland; Thangaratinam, Shakila; Khan, Khalid S

    2017-07-01

    Trials on diet and physical activity in pregnancy report on various outcomes. We aimed to assess the variations in outcomes reported and their quality in trials on lifestyle interventions in pregnancy. We searched major databases without language restrictions for randomized controlled trials on diet and physical activity-based interventions in pregnancy up to March 2015. Two independent reviewers undertook study selection and data extraction. We estimated the percentage of papers reporting 'critically important' and 'important' outcomes. We defined the quality of reporting as a proportion using a six-item questionnaire. Regression analysis was used to identify factors affecting this quality. Sixty-six randomized controlled trials were published in 78 papers (66 main, 12 secondary). Gestational diabetes (57.6%, 38/66), preterm birth (48.5%, 32/66) and cesarian section (60.6%, 40/66), were the commonly reported 'critically important' outcomes. Gestational weight gain (84.5%, 56/66) and birth weight (87.9%, 58/66) were reported in most papers, although not considered critically important. The median quality of reporting was 0.60 (interquartile range 0.25, 0.83) for a maximum score of one. Study and journal characteristics did not affect quality. Many studies on lifestyle interventions in pregnancy do not report critically important outcomes, highlighting the need for core outcome set development. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  20. Primary neural leprosy: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Antonio Garbino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors proposed a systematic review on the current concepts of primary neural leprosy by consulting the following online databases: MEDLINE, Lilacs/SciELO, and Embase. Selected studies were classified based on the degree of recommendation and levels of scientific evidence according to the “Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine”. The following aspects were reviewed: cutaneous clinical and laboratorial investigations, i.e. skin clinical exam, smears, and biopsy, and Mitsuda's reaction; neurological investigation (anamnesis, electromyography and nerve biopsy; serological investigation and molecular testing, i.e. serological testing for the detection of the phenolic glycolipid 1 (PGL-I and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR; and treatment (classification criteria for the definition of specific treatment, steroid treatment, and cure criteria.

  1. Educational attainment and obesity: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Alison K.; Rai, Manisha; Rehkopf, David H.; Abrams, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background Although previous systematic reviews considered the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity, almost 200 peer-reviewed articles have been published since the last review on that topic, and this paper focuses specifically on education, which has different implications. Methods The authors systematically review the peer-reviewed literature from around the world considering the association between educational attainment and obesity. Databases from public health and medicine, education, psychology, economics, and other social sciences were searched, and articles published in English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish were included. Results This paper includes 289 articles that report on 410 populations in 91 countries. The relationship between educational attainment and obesity was modified by both gender and the country's economic development level: an inverse association was more common in studies of higher-income countries and a positive association was more common in lower-income countries, with stronger social patterning among women. Relatively few studies reported on lower-income countries, controlled for a comprehensive set of potential confounding variables, and/or attempted to assess causality through the use of quasi-experimental designs. Conclusions Future research should address these gaps to understand if the relationship between educational attainment and obesity may be causal, thus supporting education policy as a tool for obesity prevention. PMID:23889851

  2. Use of the hCONSORT criteria as a reporting standard for herbal interventions for common dermatoses: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, J; Routt, E; Kallis, P; Lev-Tov, H

    2018-04-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasing in Western countries, including in the area of dermatology. However, Western healthcare providers have not integrated CAM into regular practice owing to a lack of reliable data supporting its use. To encourage high-quality research related to the use of CAM and specifically herbal interventions, the CONsolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) extension criteria on reporting herbal interventions (hCONSORT) were published in 2006. To evaluate the adherence of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating herbal interventions for acne, atopic dermatitis (AD) and psoriasis to the hCONSORT criteria. A comprehensive search of the PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases was conducted. RCTs published between 2009 and 2014 assessing therapeutic outcomes of plant-based interventions for acne, AD or psoriasis were included. Investigators determined the number of unique hCONSORT criteria satisfied per report. anova was used to examine differences in scores by disease entity. The vast majority of reviewed studies reported reports based on language and lack of assessment of overall adherence to CONSORT criteria. Our data indicate lack of adherence to hCONSORT extension criteria. Adherence to hCONSORT guidelines should be encouraged in order to provide high-quality reporting of research on herbal interventions in dermatology. Doing so may ease the integration of CAM into conventional medical practice and provide actionable data to providers. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  3. Systematic Review Methodology in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Margaret; Smith, Calvin D.; Carbone, Angela; Slade, Susan; Baik, Chi; Hughes-Warrington, Marnie; Neumann, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Systematic review methodology can be distinguished from narrative reviews of the literature through its emphasis on transparent, structured and comprehensive approaches to searching the literature and its requirement for formal synthesis of research findings. There appears to be relatively little use of the systematic review methodology within the…

  4. Keeping our heads above water: A systematic review of fatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keeping our heads above water: A systematic review of fatal drowning in South Africa. ... identify gaps in the current knowledge base and priority intervention areas. ... A total of 13 published research articles and 27 reports obtained through a ...

  5. What is the optimal time point to assess patient-reported recovery after hip and knee replacement? A systematic review and analysis of routinely reported outcome data from the English patient-reported outcome measures programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, John Patrick; Bastaki, Hamad; Dawson, Jill

    2013-07-30

    It is unclear if there is a clinically important improvement in the six to 12-month recovery period after hip and knee replacement. This is an obvious gap in the evidence required by patients undergoing these procedures. It is also an issue for the English PROMs (Patient-Reported Outcome Measures) Programme which uses 6-month outcome data to compare the results of hospitals that perform hip and knee replacements. A systematic review of studies reporting the Oxford Hip Score (OHS) or Oxford Knee Score (OKS) at 12 months after surgery was performed. This was compared with six-month outcome data collected for 60, 160 patients within the English PROMs programme. A minimally important difference of one standard error of the measurement, equivalent to 2.7 for the OHS and 2.1 for the OKS, was adopted. Six studies reported OHS data for 10 different groups containing 8,308 patients in total. In eight groups the change scores reported were at least 2.7 points higher than the six-month change observed in the PROMs programme (20.2 points). Nine studies reported OKS data for 13 different groups containing 4,369 patients in total. In eight groups the change scores reported were at least 2.1 points higher than the six-month change observed in the PROMs programme (15.0 points). There is some evidence from this systematic review that clinically important improvement in the Oxford hip and knee scores occurs in the six to 12 month recovery period. This trend is more apparent for hip than knee replacement. Therefore we recommend that the English Department of Health study the impact on hospital comparisons of using 12- rather than six-month outcome data.

  6. Echocardiography in chronic liver disease: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Vitor Gomes; Markman Filho, Brivaldo

    2013-04-01

    Doppler echocardiography (Echo) is a non-invasive method of excellent accuracy to screen portopulmonary hypertension (PPH) and to assess intrapulmonary shunts (IPS) in chronic liver disease (CLD). In the past decade, Echo proved to play a fundamental role in the diagnosis of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy (CCM). To perform a systematic review of relevant articles on the subject 'Echo in CLD'. In November 2011, a systematic review was performed in the PubMed, LILACS and SciELO databases, and the characteristics of the studies selected were reported. The search based on descriptors and free terms obtained 204 articles (179 in Pubmed, 21 in LILACS, and 1 in SciELO). Of those 204 articles, 22 were selected for systematic review. A meta-analysis could not be performed because of the heterogeneity of the articles. Echo should be part of CLD stratification for screening PPH, IPS and CCM, because, most of the time, such complications are diagnosed only when patients are already waiting for a liver transplant.

  7. A systematic review of estrogens for recurrent urinary tract infections: third report of the hormones and urogenital therapy (HUT) committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardozo, L; Lose, G; McClish, D; Versi, E; de Koning Gans, H

    2001-01-01

    Our objective was to apply a meta-analysis to the available data to evaluate the effect of estrogen supplementation in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in postmenopausal women. The literature review incorporated articles based on a search of Excerpta Medica, Medline, Science Citation Index and a manual search of commonly read journals in the fields of urology, gynecology, gerontology and primary healthcare, from January 1969 to December 1998. The search was not limited to English-language publications. Inclusion criteria were peer-reviewed articles containing original data with a primary outcome of symptomatic urinary tract infections and an estrogen-treated group. Articles were categorized into randomized controlled trials, case-control studies and self-controlled series. Of the articles reviewed, five were randomized controlled trials, two were case-control studies and three were self-control series. Meta-analysis of data from 334 subjects revealed a significant benefit from estrogen over placebo (odds ratio = 2.51, 95% confidence interval = 1.48 4.25). The most convincing results were obtained using the vaginal route of administration. A variety of different estrogen preparations have been employed in the few published reports, making comparison of the data difficult. However, vaginal administration seems to be effective in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in postmenopausal women.

  8. Bilateral Postoperative Cyst after Maxillary Sinus Surgery: Report of a Case and Systematic Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris-Mark Niederquell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We present a case of a bilateral postoperative maxillary cyst (PMC and discuss this with a systemic review. Case Report and Literature Review. A 68-year-old female with pain and swelling on the right side of the face. MRI and CT showed a cystic tumors of the right and left maxillary sinus. Radical maxillary surgery via a Caldwell-Luc procedure had been performed 55 years ago and bilateral PMC was diagnosed. The PubMed database was searched for PMC within the last 30 years. Results. Together with the current case, we found 23 reports including 284 patients describing PMC. It was diagnosed at a mean time of 22 years after causal surgery at a mean age of 47 years. Initial symptoms were mostly pain with or without swelling. The main radiological sign was a unilocular radiolucency with a slight preference for the left side. Discussion. PMC is a long-term complication that can occur after maxillary sinus surgery and a second surgical approach is required in order to stop cystic expansion. Therefore, patients’ informed consent on this complication as well as a prolonged follow-up is recommended. Simple paranasal ultrasound or paranasal sinus plain radiography may lead to an earlier detection reducing interventional morbidity.

  9. Determinants of patient satisfaction: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batbaatar, Enkhjargal; Dorjdagva, Javkhlanbayar; Luvsannyam, Ariunbat; Savino, Matteo Mario; Amenta, Pietro

    2017-03-01

    A large number of studies have addressed the detection of patient satisfaction determinants, and the results are still inconclusive. Furthermore, it is known that contradicting evidence exists across patient satisfaction studies. This article is the second part of a two-part series of research with a goal to review a current conceptual framework of patient satisfaction for further operationalisation procedures. The aim of this work was to systematically identify and review evidence regarding determinants of patient satisfaction between 1980 and 2014, and to seek the reasons for contradicting results in relationships between determinants and patient satisfaction in the literature to design a further robust measurement system for patient satisfaction. This systematic review followed the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. The search was conducted in PubMed, CINAHL, and Scopus in October 2014. Studies published in full in peer reviewed journals between January 1980 and August 2014 and in the English language were included. We included 109 articles for the synthesis. We found several number of determinants of patient satisfaction investigated in a wide diversity of studies. However, study results were varied due to no globally accepted formulation of patient satisfaction and measurement system. Health care service quality indicators were the most influential determinants of patient satisfaction across the studies. Among them, health providers' interpersonal care quality was the essential determinant of patient satisfaction. Sociodemographic characteristics were the most varied in the review. The strength and directions of associations with patient satisfaction were found inconsistent. Therefore, person-related characteristics should be considered to be the potential determinants and confounders simultaneously. The selected studies were not able to show all potential characteristics which may have had

  10. Do research studies in the UK reporting child neurodevelopment adjust for the variability of assessors: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Rahila; Willatts, Peter; Williams, Fiona L R

    2016-02-01

    Neurodevelopment is a key outcome for many childhood trials and observational studies. Clinically important decisions may rest on finding relatively small differences in neurodevelopment between groups receiving complex and costly interventions. Our purpose was to determine whether studies which measure neurodevelopment report the numbers, training, and auditing of assessors and, for multiple assessor studies, whether the results were adjusted and if so by which method? Electronic searches were conducted using Medline, Embase, Cinahl, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library. A study was eligible if it reported neurodevelopmental outcome in children resident in the UK, less than or equal to 18 years and was published between 2000 and 2015. Trials and observational studies were included. Three hundred and seven full papers were reviewed: 52% of papers did not report the number of assessors used; 21% used a single assessor; and 27% used multiple assessors. Thirty-five per cent mentioned that assessors were trained in the use of the neurodevelopmental tool; 13% of assessors were audited; and only 1% of studies adjusted statistically for the number of assessors. At the very least, the quality of reporting the use of assessors in these research publications is poor, while at worst, the variability of assessors may mask the true relationship between an intervention/observation and neurodevelopmental outcome. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  11. Improving the uptake of systematic reviews: a systematic review of intervention effectiveness and relevance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wallace, John

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the barriers, facilitators and interventions that impact on systematic review uptake. The objective of this study was to identify how uptake of systematic reviews can be improved.

  12. Patient-Reported Outcomes for Quality of Life Assessment in Atrial Fibrillation: A Systematic Review of Measurement Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotecha, Dipak; Ahmed, Amar; Calvert, Melanie; Lencioni, Mauro; Terwee, Caroline B; Lane, Deirdre A

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation is a large and growing burden across all types of healthcare. Both incidence and prevalence are expected to double in the next 20 years, with huge impact on hospital admissions, costs and patient quality of life. Patient wellbeing determines the management strategy for atrial fibrillation, including the use of rhythm control therapy and the clinical success of heart rate control. Hence, evaluation of quality of life is an emerging and important part of the assessment of patients with atrial fibrillation. Although a number of questionnaires to assess quality of life in atrial fibrillation are available, a comprehensive overview of their measurement properties is lacking. We performed a systematic review of the measurement properties of atrial fibrillation-specific health-related quality of life questionnaires. Methodological quality was assessed using the Consensus based Standards for selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist, with measurement properties rated for quality against optimal criteria and levels of evidence. We screened 2,216 articles, of which eight articles describing five questionnaires were eligible for inclusion: Atrial Fibrillation 6 (AF6), Atrial Fibrillation Effect on QualiTy-of-Life (AFEQT), Atrial Fibrillation Quality of Life Questionnaire (AFQLQ), Atrial Fibrillation Quality of Life (AFQoL), and Quality of Life in Atrial Fibrillation (QLAF). Good reliability (internal consistency and test-retest reliability) was demonstrated for AF6, AFEQT, AFQLQ and AFQoL. Content, construct and criterion validity were positively rated only in AFEQT. Responsiveness was positively rated only in AFEQT, but with limited evidence. Overall, AFEQT showed strong positive evidence for 2 of 9 measurement properties, compared to one for AFQoL and none for the remaining questionnaires. Given the low ratings for many measurement properties, no single questionnaire can be recommended, although AFEQT performed strongest. Further

  13. A competency framework for librarians involved in systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Whitney A; Anderson, Patricia F; Ginier, Emily C; MacEachern, Mark P; Saylor, Kate M; Shipman, Barbara L; Smith, Judith E

    2017-07-01

    The project identified a set of core competencies for librarians who are involved in systematic reviews. A team of seven informationists with broad systematic review experience examined existing systematic review standards, conducted a literature search, and used their own expertise to identify core competencies and skills that are necessary to undertake various roles in systematic review projects. The team identified a total of six competencies for librarian involvement in systematic reviews: "Systematic review foundations," "Process management and communication," "Research methodology," "Comprehensive searching," "Data management," and "Reporting." Within each competency are the associated skills and knowledge pieces (indicators). Competence can be measured using an adaptation of Miller's Pyramid for Clinical Assessment, either through self-assessment or identification of formal assessment instruments. The Systematic Review Competencies Framework provides a standards-based, flexible way for librarians and organizations to identify areas of competence and areas in need of development to build capacity for systematic review integration. The framework can be used to identify or develop appropriate assessment tools and to target skill development opportunities.

  14. Systematic review of catatonia treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelzer ACM

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Anne CM Pelzer,1 Frank MMA van der Heijden,2 Erik den Boer3 1Department of Psychiatry, Reinier van Arkel, ‘s-Hertogenbosch, 2Department of Psychiatry, Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venlo, 3Department of Psychiatry, GGzE, Eindhoven, the Netherlands Objective: To investigate the evidence-based treatment of catatonia in adults. The secondary aim is to develop a treatment protocol. Materials and methods: A systematic review of published treatment articles (case series, cohort or randomized controlled studies which examined the effects of particular interventions for catatonia and/or catatonic symptoms in adult populations and used valid outcome measures was performed. The articles for this review were selected by searching the electronic databases of the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PSYCHINFO. Results: Thirty-one articles met the inclusion criteria. Lorazepam and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT proved to be the most investigated treatment interventions. The response percentages in Western studies varied between 66% and 100% for studies with lorazepam, while in Asian and Indian studies, they were 0% and 100%. For ECT, the response percentages are 59%–100%. There does not seem to be evidence for the use of antipsychotics in catatonic patients without any underlying psychotic disorder. Conclusion: Lorazepam and ECT are effective treatments for which clinical evidence is found in the literature. It is not possible to develop a treatment protocol because the evidence for catatonia management on the basis of the articles reviewed is limited. Stringent treatment studies on catatonia are warranted. Keywords: review, catatonia, therapeutics, electroconvulsive therapy, benzodiazepines, lorazepam, ECT

  15. Effectiveness of Pilates exercise in treating people with chronic low back pain: a systematic review of systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wells Cherie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic reviews provide clinical practice recommendations that are based on evaluation of primary evidence. When systematic reviews with the same aims have different conclusions, it is difficult to ascertain which review reported the most credible and robust findings. Methods This study examined five systematic reviews that have investigated the effectiveness of Pilates exercise in people with chronic low back pain. A four-stage process was used to interpret findings of the reviews. This process included comparison of research questions, included primary studies, and the level and quality of evidence of systematic reviews. Two independent reviewers assessed the level of evidence and the methodological quality of systematic reviews, using the National Health and Medical Research Council hierarchy of evidence, and the Revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews respectively. Any disagreements were resolved by a third researcher. Results A high level of consensus was achieved between the reviewers. Conflicting findings were reported by the five systematic reviews regarding the effectiveness of Pilates in reducing pain and disability in people with chronic low back pain. Authors of the systematic reviews included primary studies that did not match their questions in relation to treatment or population characteristics. A total of ten primary studies were identified across five systematic reviews. Only two of the primary studies were included in all of the reviews due to different inclusion criteria relating to publication date and status, definition of Pilates, and methodological quality. The level of evidence of reviews was low due to the methodological design of the primary studies. The methodological quality of reviews varied. Those which conducted a meta-analysis obtained higher scores. Conclusion There is inconclusive evidence that Pilates is effective in reducing pain and disability in people with chronic low back

  16. Effectiveness of Pilates exercise in treating people with chronic low back pain: a systematic review of systematic reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews provide clinical practice recommendations that are based on evaluation of primary evidence. When systematic reviews with the same aims have different conclusions, it is difficult to ascertain which review reported the most credible and robust findings. Methods This study examined five systematic reviews that have investigated the effectiveness of Pilates exercise in people with chronic low back pain. A four-stage process was used to interpret findings of the reviews. This process included comparison of research questions, included primary studies, and the level and quality of evidence of systematic reviews. Two independent reviewers assessed the level of evidence and the methodological quality of systematic reviews, using the National Health and Medical Research Council hierarchy of evidence, and the Revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews respectively. Any disagreements were resolved by a third researcher. Results A high level of consensus was achieved between the reviewers. Conflicting findings were reported by the five systematic reviews regarding the effectiveness of Pilates in reducing pain and disability in people with chronic low back pain. Authors of the systematic reviews included primary studies that did not match their questions in relation to treatment or population characteristics. A total of ten primary studies were identified across five systematic reviews. Only two of the primary studies were included in all of the reviews due to different inclusion criteria relating to publication date and status, definition of Pilates, and methodological quality. The level of evidence of reviews was low due to the methodological design of the primary studies. The methodological quality of reviews varied. Those which conducted a meta-analysis obtained higher scores. Conclusion There is inconclusive evidence that Pilates is effective in reducing pain and disability in people with chronic low back pain. This is due to the small

  17. Effectiveness of Pilates exercise in treating people with chronic low back pain: a systematic review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Cherie; Kolt, Gregory S; Marshall, Paul; Hill, Bridget; Bialocerkowski, Andrea

    2013-01-19

    Systematic reviews provide clinical practice recommendations that are based on evaluation of primary evidence. When systematic reviews with the same aims have different conclusions, it is difficult to ascertain which review reported the most credible and robust findings. This study examined five systematic reviews that have investigated the effectiveness of Pilates exercise in people with chronic low back pain. A four-stage process was used to interpret findings of the reviews. This process included comparison of research questions, included primary studies, and the level and quality of evidence of systematic reviews. Two independent reviewers assessed the level of evidence and the methodological quality of systematic reviews, using the National Health and Medical Research Council hierarchy of evidence, and the Revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews respectively. Any disagreements were resolved by a third researcher. A high level of consensus was achieved between the reviewers. Conflicting findings were reported by the five systematic reviews regarding the effectiveness of Pilates in reducing pain and disability in people with chronic low back pain. Authors of the systematic reviews included primary studies that did not match their questions in relation to treatment or population characteristics. A total of ten primary studies were identified across five systematic reviews. Only two of the primary studies were included in all of the reviews due to different inclusion criteria relating to publication date and status, definition of Pilates, and methodological quality. The level of evidence of reviews was low due to the methodological design of the primary studies. The methodological quality of reviews varied. Those which conducted a meta-analysis obtained higher scores. There is inconclusive evidence that Pilates is effective in reducing pain and disability in people with chronic low back pain. This is due to the small number and poor methodological

  18. Dissemination bias in systematic reviews of animal research: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina F Mueller

    Full Text Available Systematic reviews of preclinical studies, in vivo animal experiments in particular, can influence clinical research and thus even clinical care. Dissemination bias, selective dissemination of positive or significant results, is one of the major threats to validity in systematic reviews also in the realm of animal studies. We conducted a systematic review to determine the number of published systematic reviews of animal studies until present, to investigate their methodological features especially with respect to assessment of dissemination bias, and to investigate the citation of preclinical systematic reviews on clinical research.Eligible studies for this systematic review constitute systematic reviews that summarize in vivo animal experiments whose results could be interpreted as applicable to clinical care. We systematically searched Ovid Medline, Embase, ToxNet, and ScienceDirect from 1st January 2009 to 9th January 2013 for eligible systematic reviews without language restrictions. Furthermore we included articles from two previous systematic reviews by Peters et al. and Korevaar et al.The literature search and screening process resulted in 512 included full text articles. We found an increasing number of published preclinical systematic reviews over time. The methodological quality of preclinical systematic reviews was low. The majority of preclinical systematic reviews did not assess methodological quality of the included studies (71%, nor did they assess heterogeneity (81% or dissemination bias (87%. Statistics quantifying the importance of clinical research citing systematic reviews of animal studies showed that clinical studies referred to the preclinical research mainly to justify their study or a future study (76%.Preclinical systematic reviews may have an influence on clinical research but their methodological quality frequently remains low. Therefore, systematic reviews of animal research should be critically appraised before

  19. Tracheobronchial puncture-site nodular reaction (TPNR following endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA: Systematic review of case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan Madan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA is a minimally invasive and efficacious diagnostic modality for lung cancer staging and evaluation of undiagnosed mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Procedure-related complications are uncommon. We herein report an infrequently described phenomenon following EBUS-TBNA in which two patients developed nodular granulation tissue at the tracheobronchial puncture site. On systematic review, we found description of such phenomena by terminologies such as endobronchial inflammatory polyp, granuloma, and endobronchial mass. The endobronchial inflammatory polyp has been one of the most commonly used terminologies for these; but in most cases, the classical features of an inflammatory polyp are lacking. We propose the term, tracheobronchial puncture-site nodular reaction (TPNR with further classification into granulomatous and nongranulomatous subtypes, for standardized reporting of such reactions following transbronchial needle aspiration procedures. Knowledge of this entity and standardized nomenclature shall help in better characterization of the outcomes and risk factors for the occurrence of these reactions.

  20. How Are Health Research Priorities Set in Low and Middle Income Countries? A Systematic Review of Published Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Skye; Henderson, Klara J.; Kaldor, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Priority setting is increasingly recognised as essential for directing finite resources to support research that maximizes public health benefits and drives health equity. Priority setting processes have been undertaken in a number of low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings, using a variety of methods. We undertook a critical review of reports of these processes. Methods and Findings We searched electronic databases and online for peer reviewed and non-peer reviewed literature. We found 91 initiatives that met inclusion criteria. The majority took place at the global level (46%). For regional or national initiatives, most focused on Sub Saharan Africa (49%), followed by East Asia and Pacific (20%) and Latin America and the Caribbean (18%). A quarter of initiatives aimed to cover all areas of health research, with a further 20% covering communicable diseases. The most frequently used process was a conference or workshop to determine priorities (24%), followed by the Child Health and Nutrition Initiative (CHNRI) method (18%). The majority were initiated by an international organization or collaboration (46%). Researchers and government were the most frequently represented stakeholders. There was limited evidence of any implementation or follow-up strategies. Challenges in priority setting included engagement with stakeholders, data availability, and capacity constraints. Conclusions Health research priority setting (HRPS) has been undertaken in a variety of LMIC settings. While not consistently used, the application of established methods provides a means of identifying health research priorities in a repeatable and transparent manner. In the absence of published information on implementation or evaluation, it is not possible to assess what the impact and effectiveness of health research priority setting may have been. PMID:25275315

  1. Childhood depression: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima NNR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nádia Nara Rolim Lima,1 Vânia Barbosa do Nascimento,1 Sionara Melo Figueiredo de Carvalho,1 Luiz Carlos de Abreu,1,3 Modesto Leite Rolim Neto,2 Aline Quental Brasil,2 Francisco Telésforo Celestino Junior,2 Gislene Farias de Oliveira,2 Alberto Olavo Advíncula Reis3 1Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Departamento de Medicina. Universidade Federal do Ceará, UFC, Barbalha, Ceará, Brazil; 3Departamento de Saúde Materno Infantil, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: As an important public health issue, childhood depression deserves special attention, considering the serious and lasting consequences of the disease to child development. Taking this into consideration, the present study was based on the following question: what practical contributions to clinicians and researchers does the current literature on childhood depression have to offer? The objective of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of articles regarding childhood depression. To accomplish this purpose, a systematic review of articles on childhood depression, published from January 1, 2010 to November 24, 2012, on MEDLINE and SciELO databases was carried out. Search terms were “depression” (medical subject headings [MeSH], “child” (MeSH, and "childhood depression" (keyword. Of the 180 retrieved studies, 25 met the eligibility criteria. Retrieved studies covered a wide range of aspects regarding childhood depression, such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention and prognosis. Recent scientific literature regarding childhood depression converge to, directly or indirectly, highlight the negative impacts of depressive disorders to the children's quality of life. Unfortunately, the retrieved studies show that childhood depression commonly grows in a background of vulnerability and poverty, where individual and familiar needs

  2. Methodological quality of systematic reviews addressing femoroacetabular impingement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczuk, Marcin; Adamich, John; Simunovic, Nicole; Farrokhyar, Forough; Ayeni, Olufemi R

    2015-09-01

    As the body of literature on femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) continues to grow, clinicians turn to systematic reviews to remain current with the best available evidence. The quality of systematic reviews in the FAI literature is currently unknown. The goal of this study was to assess the quality of the reporting of systematic reviews addressing FAI over the last 11 years (2003-2014) and to identify the specific methodological shortcomings and strengths. A search of the electronic databases, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed, was performed to identify relevant systematic reviews. Methodological quality was assessed by two reviewers using the revised assessment of multiple systematic reviews (R-AMSTAR) scoring tool. An intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) was used to determine agreement between reviewers on R-AMSTAR quality scores. A total of 22 systematic reviews were assessed for methodological quality. The mean consensus R-AMSTAR score across all studies was 26.7 out of 40.0, indicating fair methodological quality. An ICC of 0.931, 95 % CI 0.843-0.971 indicated excellent agreement between reviewers during the scoring process. The systematic reviews addressing FAI are generally of fair methodological quality. Use of tools such as the R-AMSTAR score or PRISMA guidelines while designing future systematic reviews can assist in eliminating methodological shortcomings identified in this review. These shortcomings need to be kept in mind by clinicians when applying the current literature to their patient populations and making treatment decisions. Systematic reviews of highest methodological quality should be used by clinicians when possible to answer clinical questions.

  3. Association of study quality with completeness of reporting: have completeness of reporting and quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in major radiology journals changed since publication of the PRISMA statement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunis, Adam S; McInnes, Matthew D F; Hanna, Ramez; Esmail, Kaisra

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate whether completeness of reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses in major radiology journals has changed since publication of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement; a secondary objective is to evaluate whether completeness of reporting (ie, PRISMA) is associated with study quality (ie, Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews [AMSTAR]). Systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in major radiology journals between January 2007 and December 2011 were identified by searching MEDLINE with the modified Montori method. Studies were reviewed independently by two investigators and assessed for adherence to the AMSTAR and PRISMA checklists. The average results were analyzed to assess for change in mean score before and after PRISMA publication and to assess results over time; a Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to assess for any association between PRISMA and AMSTAR results. Included were 130 studies from 11 journals. Average PRISMA and AMSTAR results were 21.8 of 27 and 7.2 of 11, respectively. The average result was higher after publication of PRISMA, and PRISMA-reported items were 22.6 of 27 after publication of PRISMA versus 20.9 of 27 before publication of PRISMA; AMSTAR results were 7.7 of 11 after publication of PRISMA versus 6.7 of 11 before publication of PRISMA. There was a strong positive correlation (r = 0.86) between the PRISMA and AMSTAR results. There was high variability between journals. Radiology had the highest PRISMA reported items (24.7 of 27), and American Journal of Neuroradiology had the lowest (19.6 of 27). Two major areas for improvement include study protocol registration and assessment of risk of bias across studies (ie, publication bias). In major radiology journal studies, there was modest improvement in completeness of reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses, assessed by PRISMA, which was strongly associated with higher study

  4. The efficacy of reflexology: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-Yeh; Tsai, Pei-Shan; Lee, Pi-Hsia; Chang, Wen-Yin; Yang, Che-Ming

    2008-06-01

    This paper is a report of a systematic review to evaluate the efficacy of reflexology in any condition. Anecdotal evidence has shown potential benefits of reflexology in a variety of health conditions. However, the efficacy of reflexology has yet to be determined. Cochrane library, PubMed, MEDLINE, EBM review, ProQuest Medical Bundle and SCOPUS databases were searched using the following medical subject headings or key words: reflexology, foot reflexotherapy, reflexological treatment, foot massage and zone therapy. Chinese articles were searched through the Chinese electronic periodical services and Wangfane database. The publication date was limited from 1996 to 2007. Studies were selected if they were written in English or Chinese, used a controlled clinical trial design, used reflexology as a stand-alone modality, and reported such outcomes as symptoms relief, quality of life and patients' perceptions of reflexology. Study quality was reviewed based on the evidence rating system of the United States Preventive Services Task Force, and studies with the evidence rating of II-2 fair or above were included in this review. Among the five studies suitable for review, there was only one report of a statistically significant treatment effect. Among the 12 outcome variables examined, the treatment effect size for urinary symptoms was large, whereas the effect size for other conditions was negligible. There is no evidence for any specific effect of reflexology in any conditions, with the exception of urinary symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis. Routine provision of reflexology is therefore not recommended.

  5. Psychometric properties of parent and child reported sleep assessment tools in children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Manuel; Whittingham, Koa; Edwards, Priya; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2018-02-01

    To determine whether any parent and child report sleep measure tools have been validated in children aged 0-18 years with cerebral palsy (CP). A systematic search of five databases was performed up to June 2017. Studies were included if a sleep measure tool was used to evaluate sleep in children 0-18 years with CP based on international classifications of sleep. Sleep measures were assessed for psychometric data in children with CP. Only one paper which used the Schlaffragebogen für Kinder mit Neurologischen und Anderen Komplexen Erkrankungen (SNAKE) questionnaire met the study criteria. The four other measures frequently used in children with CP had no psychometric data available for their use in children with CP. The SNAKE questionnaire has been validated only in children with CP in Gross Motor Function Classification System level V. The Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children and the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire had the strongest psychometric properties in typically developing children, but has not yet been validated in children with CP. Current sleep measures being administered in typically developing children are also often used in children with CP, but have not been well validated in this group of children. There are no condition specific measures of sleep in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The Schlaffragebogen für Kinder mit Neurologischen und Anderen Komplexen Erkrankungen (SNAKE) questionnaire is validated for children with CP in Gross Motor Function Classification System level V. A framework to design a CP specific sleep questionnaire is provided. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  6. State of the evidence on acute asthma management in children: a critical appraisal of systematic reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boluyt, Nicole; van der Lee, Johanna H.; Moyer, Virginia A.; Brand, Paul L. P.; Offringa, Martin

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to evaluate clinical, methodologic, and reporting aspects of systematic reviews on the management of acute asthma in children. METHODS: We undertook a systematic review of systematic reviews on acute asthma management in children. We identified eligible reviews by searching

  7. Systematic review with meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roda, G; Narula, N; Pinotti, R

    2017-01-01

    and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies reporting on extension of ulcerative colitis to determine frequency of disease extension in patients with limited ulcerative colitis at diagnosis. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search to identify studies on disease extension of ulcerative colitis...... (UC) and predictors of disease progression. RESULTS: Overall, 41 studies were eligible for systematic review but only 30 for meta-analysis. The overall pooled frequency of UC extension was 22.8% with colonic extension being 17.8% at 5 years and 31% at 10 years. Extension was 17.8% (95% CI 11...... in patients from North America (37.8%) than from Europe (19.6%) (Pmeta-analysis, approximately one quarter of patients with limited UC extend over time with most extension occurring during the first 10 years. Rate of extension depends on age at diagnosis and geographic origin...

  8. Amitraz, an underrecognized poison: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahajal Dhooria

    2016-01-01

    Results: The original search yielded 239 articles, of which 52 articles described human cases. After following the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 32 studies describing 310 cases (151 females, 175 children of human poisoning with amitraz were included in this systematic review. The most commonly reported clinical features of amitraz poisoning were altered sensorium, miosis, hyperglycaemia, bradycardia, vomiting, respiratory failure, hypotension and hypothermia. Amitraz poisoning carried a good prognosis with only six reported deaths (case fatality rate, 1.9%. Nearly 20 and 11.9 per cent of the patients required mechanical ventilation and inotropic support, respectively. The role of decontamination methods, namely, gastric lavage and activated charcoal was unclear. Interpretation & conclusions: Our review shows that amitraz is an important agent for accidental or suicidal poisoning in both adults and children. It has a good prognosis with supportive management.

  9. Are methodological quality and completeness of reporting associated with citation-based measures of publication impact? A secondary analysis of a systematic review of dementia biomarker studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, Shona; Drozdowska, Bogna A; Hamilton, Michael; Noel-Storr, Anna H; McShane, Rupert; Quinn, Terry

    2018-03-22

    To determine whether methodological and reporting quality are associated with surrogate measures of publication impact in the field of dementia biomarker studies. We assessed dementia biomarker studies included in a previous systematic review in terms of methodological and reporting quality using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) and Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD), respectively. We extracted additional study and journal-related data from each publication to account for factors shown to be associated with impact in previous research. We explored associations between potential determinants and measures of publication impact in univariable and stepwise multivariable linear regression analyses. We aimed to collect data on four measures of publication impact: two traditional measures-average number of citations per year and 5-year impact factor of the publishing journal and two alternative measures-the Altmetric Attention Score and counts of electronic downloads. The systematic review included 142 studies. Due to limited data, Altmetric Attention Scores and electronic downloads were excluded from the analysis, leaving traditional metrics as the only analysed outcome measures. We found no relationship between QUADAS and traditional metrics. Citation rates were independently associated with 5-year journal impact factor (β=0.42; pcitation rates (β=0.45; pCitation rates and 5-year journal impact factor appear to measure different dimensions of impact. Citation rates were weakly associated with completeness of reporting, while neither traditional metric was related to methodological rigour. Our results suggest that high publication usage and journal outlet is not a guarantee of quality and readers should critically appraise all papers regardless of presumed impact. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted

  10. Is quality and completeness of reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in high impact radiology journals associated with citation rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pol, Christian B; McInnes, Matthew D F; Petrcich, William; Tunis, Adam S; Hanna, Ramez

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether study quality and completeness of reporting of systematic reviews (SR) and meta-analyses (MA) published in high impact factor (IF) radiology journals is associated with citation rates. All SR and MA published in English between Jan 2007-Dec 2011, in radiology journals with an IF >2.75, were identified on Ovid MEDLINE. The Assessing the Methodologic Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) checklist for study quality, and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist for study completeness, was applied to each SR & MA. Each SR & MA was then searched in Google Scholar to yield a citation rate. Spearman correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationship between AMSTAR and PRISMA results with citation rate. Multivariate analyses were performed to account for the effect of journal IF and journal 5-year IF on correlation with citation rate. Values were reported as medians with interquartile range (IQR) provided. 129 studies from 11 journals were included (50 SR and 79 MA). Median AMSTAR result was 8.0/11 (IQR: 5-9) and median PRISMA result was 23.0/27 (IQR: 21-25). The median citation rate for SR & MA was 0.73 citations/month post-publication (IQR: 0.40-1.17). There was a positive correlation between both AMSTAR and PRISMA results and SR & MA citation rate; ρ=0.323 (P=0.0002) and ρ=0.327 (P=0.0002) respectively. Positive correlation persisted for AMSTAR and PRISMA results after journal IF was partialed out; ρ=0.243 (P=0.006) and ρ=0.256 (P=0.004), and after journal 5-year IF was partialed out; ρ=0.235 (P=0.008) and ρ=0.243 (P=0.006) respectively. There is a positive correlation between the quality and the completeness of a reported SR or MA with citation rate which persists when adjusted for journal IF and journal 5-year IF.

  11. Reported estimates of adverse pregnancy outcomes among women with and without syphilis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiabi Qin

    Full Text Available To estimate probability of adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs among women with and without syphilis through a systematic review of published literatures.Chinese and English literatures were searched for studies assessing pregnancy outcomes in the presence of maternal syphilis through August 2013. The prevalence estimates were summarized and analyzed by meta-analysis. Fifty-four literatures involving 11398 syphilitic women and 43342 non-syphilitic women were included from 4187 records initially found. Among untreated mothers with syphilis, pooled estimates were 76.8% for all APOs, 36.0% for congenital syphilis, 23.2% for preterm, 23.4% for low birth weight, 26.4% for stillbirth or fetal loss, 14.9% for miscarriage and 16.2% for neonatal deaths. Among syphilitic mother receiving treatment only in the late trimester (>28 weeks, pooled estimates were 64.4% for APOs, 40.6% for congenital syphilis, 17.6% for preterm, 12.4% for low birth weight, and 21.3% for stillbirth or fetal loss. Among syphilitic mothers with high titers (≥1∶8, pooled estimates were 42.8% for all APOs, 25.8% for congenital syphilis, 15.1% for preterm, 9.4% for low birth weight, 14.6% for stillbirth or fetal loss and 16.0% for neonatal deaths. Among non-syphilitic mothers, the pooled estimates were 13.7% for all APOs, 7.2% for preterm birth, 4.5% for low birth weight, 3.7% for stillbirth or fetal loss, 2.3% for miscarriage and 2.0% for neonatal death. Begg's rank correlation test indicated little evidence of publication bias (P>0.10. Substantial heterogeneity was found across studies in the estimates of all adverse outcomes for both women with syphilis (I2 = 93.9%; P<0.0001 and women without syphilis (I2 = 94.8%; P<0.0001.Syphilis continues to be an important cause of substantial perinatal morbidity and mortality, which reminds that policy-makers charged with resource allocation that the elimination of mother-to-child transmission of syphilis is a public health priority.

  12. Reported Estimates of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes among Women with and without Syphilis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jiabi; Yang, Tubao; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Tan, Hongzhuan; Feng, Tiejian; Fu, Hanlin

    2014-01-01

    Background To estimate probability of adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) among women with and without syphilis through a systematic review of published literatures. Methodology/Principal Findings Chinese and English literatures were searched for studies assessing pregnancy outcomes in the presence of maternal syphilis through August 2013. The prevalence estimates were summarized and analyzed by meta-analysis. Fifty-four literatures involving 11398 syphilitic women and 43342 non-syphilitic women were included from 4187 records initially found. Among untreated mothers with syphilis, pooled estimates were 76.8% for all APOs, 36.0% for congenital syphilis, 23.2% for preterm, 23.4% for low birth weight, 26.4% for stillbirth or fetal loss, 14.9% for miscarriage and 16.2% for neonatal deaths. Among syphilitic mother receiving treatment only in the late trimester (>28 weeks), pooled estimates were 64.4% for APOs, 40.6% for congenital syphilis, 17.6% for preterm, 12.4% for low birth weight, and 21.3% for stillbirth or fetal loss. Among syphilitic mothers with high titers (≥1∶8), pooled estimates were 42.8% for all APOs, 25.8% for congenital syphilis, 15.1% for preterm, 9.4% for low birth weight, 14.6% for stillbirth or fetal loss and 16.0% for neonatal deaths. Among non-syphilitic mothers, the pooled estimates were 13.7% for all APOs, 7.2% for preterm birth, 4.5% for low birth weight, 3.7% for stillbirth or fetal loss, 2.3% for miscarriage and 2.0% for neonatal death. Begg's rank correlation test indicated little evidence of publication bias (P>0.10). Substantial heterogeneity was found across studies in the estimates of all adverse outcomes for both women with syphilis (I 2 = 93.9%; Psyphilis (I 2 = 94.8%; PSyphilis continues to be an important cause of substantial perinatal morbidity and mortality, which reminds that policy-makers charged with resource allocation that the elimination of mother-to-child transmission of syphilis is a public health priority. PMID

  13. Poor quality of external validity reporting limits generalizability of overweight and/or obesity lifestyle prevention interventions in young adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, S R; Juan, S J-H; McGeechan, K; Bauman, A; Allman-Farinelli, M

    2015-01-01

    Young adulthood is a high-risk life stage for weight gain. Evidence is needed to translate behavioural approaches into community practice to prevent weight gain in young adults. This systematic review assessed the effectiveness and reporting of external validity components in prevention interventions. The search was limited to randomized controlled trial (RCT) lifestyle interventions for the prevention of weight gain in young adults (18-35 years). Mean body weight and/or body mass index (BMI) change were the primary outcomes. External validity, quality assessment and risk of bias tools were applied to all studies. Twenty-one RCTs were identified through 14 major electronic databases. Over half of the studies were effective in the short term for significantly reducing body weight and/or BMI; however, few showed long-term maintenance. All studies lacked full reporting on external validity components. Description of the intervention components and participant attrition rates were reported by most studies. However, few studies reported the representativeness of participants, effectiveness of recruitment methods, process evaluation detail or costs. It is unclear from the information reported how to implement the interventions into community practice. Integrated reporting of intervention effectiveness and enhanced reporting of external validity components are needed for the translation and potential upscale of prevention strategies. © 2014 World Obesity.

  14. HIA Review Synthesis Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    A systematic review of health impact assessments (HIAs) from the U.S. was conducted to obtain a clear picture of how HIAs are being implemented nationally and to identify potential areas for improving the HIA community of practice.

  15. Systematic literature review of patient-reported outcome measures used in assessment and measurement of sleep disorders in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrow, Adam P; Yorke, Janelle; Khan, Naimat; Vestbo, Jørgen; Singh, Dave; Tyson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Sleep problems are common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but the validity of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) that measure sleep dysfunction has not been evaluated. We have reviewed the literature to identify disease-specific and non-disease-specific sleep PROMs that have been validated for use in COPD patients. The review also examined the psychometric properties of identified sleep outcome measures and extracted point and variability estimates of sleep instruments used in COPD studies. The online EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS databases for all years to May 2014 were used to source articles for the review. The review was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Criteria from the Medical Outcomes Trust Scientific Advisory Committee guidelines were used to evaluate the psychometric properties of all sleep PROMs identified. One COPD-specific and six non-COPD-specific sleep outcome measures were identified and 44 papers met the review selection criteria. We only identified one instrument, the COPD and Asthma Sleep Impact Scale, which was developed specifically for use in COPD populations. Ninety percent of the identified studies used one of two non-disease-specific sleep scales, ie, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and/or the Epworth Sleep Scale, although neither has been tested for reliability or validity in people with COPD. The results highlight a need for existing non-disease-specific instruments to be validated in COPD populations and also a need for new disease-specific measures to assess the impact of sleep problems in COPD.

  16. Topical report review status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    This report provides industry with procedures for submitting topical reports, guidance on how the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) processes and responds to topical report submittals, and an accounting, with review schedules, of all topical reports currently accepted for review schedules, of all topical reports currently accepted for review by the NRC. This report will be published annually. Each sponsoring organization with one or more topical reports accepted for review copies

  17. Methodological quality of systematic reviews on influenza vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remschmidt, Cornelius; Wichmann, Ole; Harder, Thomas

    2014-03-26

    There is a growing body of evidence on the risks and benefits of influenza vaccination in various target groups. Systematic reviews are of particular importance for policy decisions. However, their methodological quality can vary considerably. To investigate the methodological quality of systematic reviews on influenza vaccination (efficacy, effectiveness, safety) and to identify influencing factors. A systematic literature search on systematic reviews on influenza vaccination was performed, using MEDLINE, EMBASE and three additional databases (1990-2013). Review characteristics were extracted and the methodological quality of the reviews was evaluated using the assessment of multiple systematic reviews (AMSTAR) tool. U-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, chi-square test, and multivariable linear regression analysis were used to assess the influence of review characteristics on AMSTAR-score. Fourty-six systematic reviews fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Average methodological quality was high (median AMSTAR-score: 8), but variability was large (AMSTAR range: 0-11). Quality did not differ significantly according to vaccination target group. Cochrane reviews had higher methodological quality than non-Cochrane reviews (p=0.001). Detailed analysis showed that this was due to better study selection and data extraction, inclusion of unpublished studies, and better reporting of study characteristics (all p<0.05). In the adjusted analysis, no other factor, including industry sponsorship or journal impact factor had an influence on AMSTAR score. Systematic reviews on influenza vaccination showed large differences regarding their methodological quality. Reviews conducted by the Cochrane collaboration were of higher quality than others. When using systematic reviews to guide the development of vaccination recommendations, the methodological quality of a review in addition to its content should be considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Do evidence summaries increase policy-makers' use of evidence from systematic reviews: A systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkovic, Jennifer; Welch, Vivian; Tugwell, Peter

    2015-09-28

    Systematic reviews are important for decision-makers. They offer many potential benefits but are often written in technical language, are too long, and do not contain contextual details which makes them hard to use for decision-making. There are many organizations that develop and disseminate derivative products, such as evidence summaries, from systematic reviews for different populations or subsets of decision-makers. This systematic review will assess the effectiveness of systematic review summaries on increasing policymakers' use of systematic review evidence and to identify the components or features of these summaries that are most effective. We will include studies of policy-makers at all levels as well as health-system managers. We will include studies examining any type of "evidence summary," "policy brief," or other products derived from systematic reviews that present evidence in a summarized form. The primary outcomes are the following: (1) use of systematic review summaries decision-making (e.g., self-reported use of the evidence in policy-making, decision-making) and (2) policy-maker understanding, knowledge, and/or beliefs (e.g., changes in knowledge scores about the topic included in the summary). We will conduct a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomized controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after studies (CBA), and interrupted time series (ITS) studies. The results of this review will inform the development of future systematic review summaries to ensure that systematic review evidence is accessible to and used by policy-makers making health-related decisions.

  19. Patient-reported outcome measures for patients with meniscal tears: a systematic review of measurement properties and evaluation with the COSMIN checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Robert; Beard, David J; Price, Andrew J; Hopewell, Sally

    2017-01-01

    Objective Meniscal tears occur frequently in the population and the most common surgical treatment, arthroscopic partial meniscectomy, is performed in approximately two million cases worldwide each year. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarise and critically appraise the evidence for the use of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in patients with meniscal tears. Design A systematic review was undertaken. Data on reported measurement properties were extracted and the quality of the studies appraised according to Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments. Data sources A search of MEDLINE, Embase, AMED and PsycINFO, unlimited by language or publication date (last search 20 February 2017). Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Development and validation studies reporting the measurement properties of PROMs in patients with meniscal tears were included. Results 11 studies and 10 PROMs were included. The overall quality of studies was poor. For measurement of symptoms and functional status, there is only very limited evidence supporting the selection of either the Lysholm Knee Scale, International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form or the Dutch version of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score. For measuring health-related quality of life, only limited evidence supports the selection of the Western Ontario Meniscal Evaluation Tool (WOMET). Of all the PROMs evaluated, WOMET has the strongest evidence for content validity. Conclusion For patients with meniscal tears, there is poor quality and incomplete evidence regarding the validity of the currently available PROMs. Further research is required to ensure these PROMs truly reflect the symptoms, function and quality of life of patients with meniscal tears. PROSPERO registration number CRD42017056847. PMID:29030413

  20. Mentoring in academic medicine: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambunjak, Dario; Straus, Sharon E; Marusić, Ana

    2006-09-06

    Mentoring, as a partnership in personal and professional growth and development, is central to academic medicine, but it is challenged by increased clinical, administrative, research, and other educational demands on medical faculty. Therefore, evidence for the value of mentoring needs to be evaluated. To systematically review the evidence about the prevalence of mentorship and its relationship to career development. MEDLINE, Current Contents, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases from the earliest available date to May 2006. We identified all studies evaluating the effect of mentoring on career choices and academic advancement among medical students and physicians. Minimum inclusion criteria were a description of the study population and availability of extractable data. No restrictions were placed on study methods or language. The literature search identified 3640 citations. Review of abstracts led to retrieval of 142 full-text articles for assessment; 42 articles describing 39 studies were selected for review. Of these, 34 (87%) were cross-sectional self-report surveys with small sample size and response rates ranging from 5% to 99%. One case-control study nested in a survey used a comparison group that had not received mentoring, and 1 cohort study had a small sample size and a large loss to follow-up. Less than 50% of medical students and in some fields less than 20% of faculty members had a mentor. Women perceived that they had more difficulty finding mentors than their colleagues who are men. Mentorship was reported to have an important influence on personal development, career guidance, career choice, and research productivity, including publication and grant success. Mentoring is perceived as an important part of academic medicine, but the evidence to support this perception is not strong. Practical recommendations on mentoring in

  1. Can patient-reported measurements of pain be used to improve cancer pain management? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Rosalind; Burton, Christopher D; Bond, Christine M; de Bruin, Marijn; Murchie, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Cancer pain is a distressing and complex experience. It is feasible that the systematic collection and feedback of patient-reported outcome measurements (PROMs) relating to pain could enhance cancer pain management. We aimed to conduct a systematic review of interventions in which patient-reported pain data were collected and fed back to patients and/or professionals in order to improve cancer pain control. MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL databases were searched for randomised and non-randomised controlled trials in which patient-reported data were collected and fed back with the intention of improving pain management by adult patients or professionals. We conducted a narrative synthesis. We also conducted a meta-analysis of studies reporting pain intensity. 29 reports from 22 trials of 20 interventions were included. PROM measures were used to alert physicians to poorly controlled pain, to target pain education and to link treatment to management algorithms. Few interventions were underpinned by explicit behavioural theories. Interventions were inconsistently applied or infrequently led to changes in treatment. Narrative synthesis suggested that feedback of PROM data tended to increase discussions between patients and professionals about pain and/or symptoms overall. Meta-analysis of 12 studies showed a reduction in average pain intensity in intervention group participants compared with controls (mean difference=-0.59 (95% CI -0.87 to -0.30)). Interventions that assess and feedback cancer pain data to patients and/or professionals have so far led to modest reductions in cancer pain intensity. Suggestions are given to inform and enhance future PROM feedback interventions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Subgroup Analysis of Trials Is Rarely Easy (SATIRE: a study protocol for a systematic review to characterize the analysis, reporting, and claim of subgroup effects in randomized trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaga German

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subgroup analyses in randomized trials examine whether effects of interventions differ between subgroups of study populations according to characteristics of patients or interventions. However, findings from subgroup analyses may be misleading, potentially resulting in suboptimal clinical and health decision making. Few studies have investigated the reporting and conduct of subgroup analyses and a number of important questions remain unanswered. The objectives of this study are: 1 to describe the reporting of subgroup analyses and claims of subgroup effects in randomized controlled trials, 2 to assess study characteristics associated with reporting of subgroup analyses and with claims of subgroup effects, and 3 to examine the analysis, and interpretation of subgroup effects for each study's primary outcome. Methods We will conduct a systematic review of 464 randomized controlled human trials published in 2007 in the 118 Core Clinical Journals defined by the National Library of Medicine. We will randomly select journal articles, stratified in a 1:1 ratio by higher impact versus lower impact journals. According to 2007 ISI total citations, we consider the New England Journal of Medicine, JAMA, Lancet, Annals of Internal Medicine, and BMJ as higher impact journals. Teams of two reviewers will independently screen full texts of reports for eligibility, and abstract data, using standardized, pilot-tested extraction forms. We will conduct univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses to examine the association of pre-specified study characteristics with reporting of subgroup analyses and with claims of subgroup effects for the primary and any other outcomes. Discussion A clear understanding of subgroup analyses, as currently conducted and reported in published randomized controlled trials, will reveal both strengths and weaknesses of this practice. Our findings will contribute to a set of recommendations to optimize

  3. Occupational skin cancer: Systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Suellen Sena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Objective: To analyze the epidemiological profile, risk factors in the workplace environment and prevention methods for professionals at risk of skin cancer. Method: A systematic review of articles on occupational skin cancer, published in the Lilacs, Scielo, Medline and Cochrane Library from January 1st, 2008, to December 31st, 2013, was performed. The search included the following terms: “neoplasias cutâneas” (DeCS, “exposição ocupacional” (DeCS, “epidemiologia” (DeCS as well as the keyword “prevenção”, and their equivalents in English. Results: After analyzing the titles and summaries of articles, the search strategy resulted in 83 references, of which 22 articles met the eligibility criteria. Discussion: We found that sun exposure is the main occupational risk factor for skin cancer, causing outdoor workers to be the most vulnerable to developing occupational skin cancer. Professionals with low levels of education and European descent are at increased risk of developing this cancer. Conclusion: Outdoor workers are more vulnerable to developing occupational skin cancer, estimating that professionals with low level of education and European descent are at increased risk of developing this cancer. Therefore, companies need to invest more in the health of workers by providing protective equipment and thus preventing occupational skin cancer.

  4. Identifying Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Search Terminology: A Systematic Review of Health Systematic Reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph G L Lee

    Full Text Available Research on the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT populations can provide important information to address existing health inequalities. Finding existing research in LGBT health can prove challenging due to the plethora of terminology used. We sought to describe existing search strategies and to identify more comprehensive LGBT search terminology. We iteratively created a search string to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses about LGBT health and implemented it in Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases on May 28-29, 2015. We hand-searched the journal LGBT Health. Inclusion criteria were: systematic reviews and meta-analyses that addressed LGBT health, used systematic searching, and used independent coders for inclusion. The published search terminology in each record and search strings provided by authors on request were cross-referenced with our original search to identify additional terminology. Our search process identified 19 systematic reviews meeting inclusion criteria. The number of search terms used to identify LGBT-related records ranged from 1 to 31. From the included studies, we identified 46 new search terms related to LGBT health. We removed five search terms as inappropriate and added five search terms used in the field. The resulting search string included 82 terms. There is room to improve the quality of searching and reporting in LGBT health systematic reviews. Future work should attempt to enhance the positive predictive value of LGBT health searches. Our findings can assist LGBT health reviewers in capturing the diversity of LGBT terminology when searching.

  5. Do systematic reviews on pediatric topics need special methodological considerations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid-Kapadia, Mufiza; Askie, Lisa; Hartling, Lisa; Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Despina; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Soll, Roger; Moher, David; Offringa, Martin

    2017-03-06

    Systematic reviews are key tools to enable decision making by healthcare providers and policymakers. Despite the availability of the evidence based Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA-2009 and PRISMA-P 2015) statements that were developed to improve the transparency and quality of reporting of systematic reviews, uncertainty on how to deal with pediatric-specific methodological challenges of systematic reviews impairs decision-making in child health. In this paper, we identify methodological challenges specific to the design, conduct and reporting of pediatric systematic reviews, and propose a process to address these challenges. One fundamental decision at the outset of a systematic review is whether to focus on a pediatric population only, or to include both adult and pediatric populations. Both from the policy and patient care point of view, the appropriateness of interventions and comparators administered to pre-defined pediatric age subgroup is critical. Decisions need to be based on the biological plausibility of differences in treatment effects across the developmental trajectory in children. Synthesis of evidence from different trials is often impaired by the use of outcomes and measurement instruments that differ between trials and are neither relevant nor validated in the pediatric population. Other issues specific to pediatric systematic reviews include lack of pediatric-sensitive search strategies and inconsistent choices of pediatric age subgroups in meta-analyses. In addition to these methodological issues generic to all pediatric systematic reviews, special considerations are required for reviews of health care interventions' safety and efficacy in neonatology, global health, comparative effectiveness interventions and individual participant data meta-analyses. To date, there is no standard approach available to overcome this problem. We propose to develop a consensus-based checklist of essential items which

  6. Patient-Reported Outcomes After Radiation Therapy in Men With Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review of Prognostic Tool Accuracy and Validity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Callaghan, Michael E., E-mail: elspeth.raymond@health.sa.gov.au [South Australian Prostate Cancer Clinical Outcomes Collaborative (Australia); Freemasons Foundation Centre for Men' s Health, University of Adelaide (Australia); Urology Unit, Repatriation General Hospital, SA Health, Flinders Centre for Innovation in Cancer (Australia); Raymond, Elspeth [South Australian Prostate Cancer Clinical Outcomes Collaborative (Australia); Campbell, Jared M. [Joanna Briggs Institute, University of Adelaide (Australia); Vincent, Andrew D. [Freemasons Foundation Centre for Men' s Health, University of Adelaide (Australia); Beckmann, Kerri [South Australian Prostate Cancer Clinical Outcomes Collaborative (Australia); Centre for Population Health Research, University of South Australia (Australia); Roder, David [Centre for Population Health Research, University of South Australia (Australia); Evans, Sue; McNeil, John [Epidemiology and Preventative Medicine, Monash University (Australia); Millar, Jeremy [Radiation Oncology, Alfred Health (Australia); Zalcberg, John [Epidemiology and Preventative Medicine, Monash University (Australia); Borg, Martin [South Australian Prostate Cancer Clinical Outcomes Collaborative (Australia); Adelaide Radiotherapy Centre (Australia); Moretti, Kim [South Australian Prostate Cancer Clinical Outcomes Collaborative (Australia); Freemasons Foundation Centre for Men' s Health, University of Adelaide (Australia); Flinders Centre for Innovation in Cancer, Centre for Population Health Research, University of South Australia (Australia); Discipline of Surgery, University of Adelaide (Australia)

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: To identify, through a systematic review, all validated tools used for the prediction of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in patients being treated with radiation therapy for prostate cancer, and provide a comparative summary of accuracy and generalizability. Methods and Materials: PubMed and EMBASE were searched from July 2007. Title/abstract screening, full text review, and critical appraisal were undertaken by 2 reviewers, whereas data extraction was performed by a single reviewer. Eligible articles had to provide a summary measure of accuracy and undertake internal or external validation. Tools were recommended for clinical implementation if they had been externally validated and found to have accuracy ≥70%. Results: The search strategy identified 3839 potential studies, of which 236 progressed to full text review and 22 were included. From these studies, 50 tools predicted gastrointestinal/rectal symptoms, 29 tools predicted genitourinary symptoms, 4 tools predicted erectile dysfunction, and no tools predicted quality of life. For patients treated with external beam radiation therapy, 3 tools could be recommended for the prediction of rectal toxicity, gastrointestinal toxicity, and erectile dysfunction. For patients treated with brachytherapy, 2 tools could be recommended for the prediction of urinary retention and erectile dysfunction. Conclusions: A large number of tools for the prediction of PROMs in prostate cancer patients treated with radiation therapy have been developed. Only a small minority are accurate and have been shown to be generalizable through external validation. This review provides an accessible catalogue of tools that are ready for clinical implementation as well as which should be prioritized for validation.

  7. Chew and Spit (CHSP): a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouad, Phillip; Hay, Phillipa; Soh, Nerissa; Touyz, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review is an evaluation of the empirical literature relating to the disordered eating behaviour Chew and Spit (CHSP). Current theories postulate that CHSP is a symptom exhibited by individuals with recurrent binge eating and Bulimia Nervosa. The review aimed to identify and critically assess studies that have examined the distribution of CHSP behaviour, its relationship to eating disorders, its physical and psychosocial consequences and treatment. A systematic database search with broad inclusion criteria, dated to January 2016 was conducted. Data were extracted by two authors and papers appraised for quality using a modified Downs and Black Quality Index. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. All were of clinical samples and majority (n = 7) were of low quality. The pathological action of chewing food but not swallowing was reported more often in those with restrictive type eating disorders, such as Anorexia Nervosa, than binge eating type disorders. CHSP also was reported to be an indicator of overall severity of an eating disorder and to appear more often in younger individuals. No studies of treatment were found. Conclusions were limited due to the low quality and small numbers of studies based on clinical samples only. Further research is needed to address gaps in knowledge regarding the physiological, psychological, social, socioeconomic impact and treatment for those engaging in CHSP.

  8. The Emergence of Systematic Review in Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Martin L; Betts, Kellyn; Beck, Nancy B; Cogliano, Vincent; Dickersin, Kay; Fitzpatrick, Suzanne; Freeman, James; Gray, George; Hartung, Thomas; McPartland, Jennifer; Rooney, Andrew A; Scherer, Roberta W; Verloo, Didier; Hoffmann, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    The Evidence-based Toxicology Collaboration hosted a workshop on "The Emergence of Systematic Review and Related Evidence-based Approaches in Toxicology," on November 21, 2014 in Baltimore, Maryland. The workshop featured speakers from agencies and organizations applying systematic review approaches to questions in toxicology, speakers with experience in conducting systematic reviews in medicine and healthcare, and stakeholders in industry, government, academia, and non-governmental organizations. Based on the workshop presentations and discussion, here we address the state of systematic review methods in toxicology, historical antecedents in both medicine and toxicology, challenges to the translation of systematic review from medicine to toxicology, and thoughts on the way forward. We conclude with a recommendation that as various agencies and organizations adapt systematic review methods, they continue to work together to ensure that there is a harmonized process for how the basic elements of systematic review methods are applied in toxicology. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology.

  9. Gray literature: An important resource in systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez, Arsenio

    2017-08-01

    Systematic reviews aide the analysis and dissemination of evidence, using rigorous and transparent methods to generate empirically attained answers to focused research questions. Identifying all evidence relevant to the research questions is an essential component, and challenge, of systematic reviews. Gray literature, or evidence not published in commercial publications, can make important contributions to a systematic review. Gray literature can include academic papers, including theses and dissertations, research and committee reports, government reports, conference papers, and ongoing research, among others. It may provide data not found within commercially published literature, providing an important forum for disseminating studies with null or negative results that might not otherwise be disseminated. Gray literature may thusly reduce publication bias, increase reviews' comprehensiveness and timeliness, and foster a balanced picture of available evidence. Gray literature's diverse formats and audiences can present a significant challenge in a systematic search for evidence. However, the benefits of including gray literature may far outweigh the cost in time and resource needed to search for it, and it is important for it to be included in a systematic review or review of evidence. A carefully thought out gray literature search strategy may be an invaluable component of a systematic review. This narrative review provides guidance about the benefits of including gray literature in a systematic review, and sources for searching through gray literature. An illustrative example of a search for evidence within gray literature sources is presented to highlight the potential contributions of such a search to a systematic review. Benefits and challenges of gray literature search methods are discussed, and recommendations made. © 2017 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Grey literature: An important resource in systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez, Arsenio

    2017-12-21

    Systematic reviews aid the analysis and dissemination of evidence, using rigorous and transparent methods to generate empirically attained answers to focused research questions. Identifying all evidence relevant to the research questions is an essential component, and challenge, of systematic reviews. Grey literature, or evidence not published in commercial publications, can make important contributions to a systematic review. Grey literature can include academic papers, including theses and dissertations, research and committee reports, government reports, conference papers, and ongoing research, among others. It may provide data not found within commercially published literature, providing an important forum for disseminating studies with null or negative results that might not otherwise be disseminated. Grey literature may thusly reduce publication bias, increase reviews' comprehensiveness and timeliness and foster a balanced picture of available evidence. Grey literature's diverse formats and audiences can present a significant challenge in a systematic search for evidence. However, the benefits of including grey literature may far outweigh the cost in time and resource needed to search for it, and it is important for it to be included in a systematic review or review of evidence. A carefully thought out grey literature search strategy may be an invaluable component of a systematic review. This narrative review provides guidance about the benefits of including grey literature in a systematic review, and sources for searching through grey literature. An illustrative example of a search for evidence within grey literature sources is presented to highlight the potential contributions of such a search to a systematic review. Benefits and challenges of grey literature search methods are discussed, and recommendations made. © 2017 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Systematic Review of Self-Report Measures of Pain Intensity in 3- and 4-Year-Old Children: Bridging a Period of Rapid Cognitive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Baeyer, Carl L; Jaaniste, Tiina; Vo, Henry L T; Brunsdon, Georgie; Lao, Hsuan-Chih; Champion, G David

    2017-09-01

    Claims are made for the validity of some self-report pain scales for 3- and 4-year-old children, but little is known about their ability to use such tools. This systematic review identified self-report pain intensity measures used with 3- and/or 4- year-old participants (3-4yo) and considered their reliability and validity within this age span. The search protocol identified research articles that included 3-4yo, reported use of any pain scale, and included self-reported pain intensity ratings. A total of 1,590 articles were screened and 617 articles met inclusion criteria. Of the included studies, 98% aggregated self-report data for 3-4yo with data for older children, leading to overestimates of the reliability and validity of self-report in the younger age group. In the 14 studies that provided nonaggregated data for 3-4yo, there was no evidence for 3-year-old and weak evidence for 4-year-old children being able to use published self-report pain intensity tools in a valid or reliable way. Preschool-age children have been reported to do better with fewer than the 6 response options offered on published faces scales. Simplified tools are being developed for young children; however, more research is needed before these are adopted. Some self-report pain scales have been promoted for use with 3- and 4-year-old children, but this is on the basis of studies that aggregated data for younger and older children, resulting in overestimates of reliability and validity for the preschool-age children. Scales with fewer response options show promise, at least for 4-year-old children. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. a Systematic Review of Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonju Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial hyperekplexia, also called startle disease, is a rare neurological disorder characterized by excessive startle responses to noise or touch. It can be associated with serious injury from frequent falls, apnea spells, and aspiration pneumonia. Familial hyperekplexia has a heterogeneous genetic background with several identified causative genes; it demonstrates both dominant and recessive inheritance in the α1 subunit of the glycine receptor (GLRA1, the β subunit of the glycine receptor and the presynaptic sodium and chloride-dependent glycine transporter 2 genes. Clonazepam is an effective medical treatment for hyperekplexia. Here, we report genetically confirmed familial hyperekplexia patients presenting early adult cautious gait. Additionally, we review clinical features, mode of inheritance, ethnicity and the types and locations of mutations of previously reported hyperekplexia cases with a GLRA1 gene mutation.

  13. "Treat me with respect". A systematic review and thematic analysis of psychiatric patients' reported perceptions of the situations associated with the process of coercion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tingleff, E B; Bradley, S K; Gildberg, F A

    2017-01-01

    as moderating factors, in regard to the use of these coercive measures. Method: A systematic review and thematic analysis of 26 peer-reviewed studies was undertaken. Results: The analysis identified six themes and additional subthemes, where "interactions with professionals" and "communication" were predominant...

  14. Prevention of Internet addiction: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondráčková, Petra; Gabrhelík, Roman

    2016-12-01

    Background and aims Out of a large number of studies on Internet addiction, only a few have been published on the prevention of Internet addiction. The aim of this study is provide a systematic review of scientific articles regarding the prevention of Internet addiction and to identify the relevant topics published in this area of interest. Methods The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were adopted. The EBSCO, ProQuest Central, and PubMed databases were searched for texts published in English and Spanish between January 1995 and April 2016. A total of 179 original texts were obtained. After de-duplication and topic-relevance review, 108 texts were systematically classified and subjected to descriptive analysis and subsequent content analysis. Results The results of the content analysis yielded the following thematic areas: (a) target groups, (b) the improvement of specific skills, (c) program characteristics, and (d) environmental interventions. Discussion and conclusion Literature on the prevention of Internet addiction is scarce. There is an urgent need to introduce and implement new interventions for different at-risk populations, conduct well-designed research, and publish data on the effectiveness of these interventions. Developing prevention interventions should primarily target children and adolescents at risk of Internet addiction but also parents, teachers, peers, and others who are part of the formative environment of children and adolescents at risk of Internet addiction. Newly designed interventions focused on Internet addiction should be rigorously evaluated and the results published.

  15. Treatment of Cutaneous Pseudolymphoma: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Miguel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous pseudolymphoma (CPL is a reactive polyclonal T- or B-cell lymphoproliferative process. CPL may appear as localized or disseminated skin lesions. While most cases of CPL are idiopathic, they may also occur as a response to, for example, contact dermatitis, arthropod reactions, and bacterial infections. CPL can be classified based on its clinical features, but all variants have similar histopathological patterns of either predominantly B-cell infiltrates, T-cell infiltrates, or mixed T/B-cell infiltrates. The prognosis of CPL is good, but the underlying disease process should be taken into account. If an antigenic stimulus is identified, it should be removed. In patients with idiopathic CPL, a close follow-up control strategy should be adopted. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize all reported treatments for CPL. The review was based on articles from the PubMed database, using the query “skin pseudolymphoma treatment”, English and German, about “human” subjects, and published between 1990 and 2015 documenting adequate treatment and/or aetiology. Mainly individual case reports and small case series were found. Treatment options include topical and intralesional agents, systemic agents, and physical modalities. The final part of the review proposes a treatment algorithm for CPL according to each aetiology, based on the literature of the last 25 years. Future research should focus on randomized controlled trials and studies on long-term outcomes, which were not identified in the current review.

  16. Personal resource questionnaire: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawalbeh, Loai I; Ahmad, Muayyad M

    2013-09-01

    Social support is a key nursing variable. No review has yet systematically assessed the effectiveness of the personal resource questionnaire (PRQ) as a measure of perceived social support. This article reviewed nine previous studies that used the PRQ (Brandt & Weinert, 1981). Completed studies were identified through searches of indexes that included PubMed, the Cumulative Index for Nursing and EBSCO host, and Ovid. Studies that reported PRQ scores, sample descriptions, and sample sizes and that tested the relationship between the PRQ and study variables were included in the present review. Three other studies were included that did not report on PRQ correlations with other health variables. The included studies addressed a variety of health problems and different population in different settings. Cronbach's alphas for the included studies ranged from .87 to .93, supporting the internal consistency of the PRQ. Hypothesized relationships between the PRQ and study variables including health promotion behavior, self-care behavior, self-efficacy, self-esteem, stress, depression, loneliness, pain, and disability were supported, providing positive evidence for PRQ construct validity. Included studies used the PRQ to address disparate populations in terms of age, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and educational background. This review found the PRQ to be a reliable and valid tool for measuring perceived social support across a wide range of populations. Further studies are necessary to examine the relationship between social support and selected demographics among populations with different cultural backgrounds.

  17. Review of the Methods to Obtain Paediatric Drug Safety Information: Spontaneous Reporting and Healthcare Databases, Active Surveillance Programmes, Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Marta; Pozzi, Marco; Peeters, Gabrielle; Radice, Sonia; Carnovale, Carla

    2018-02-06

    Knowledge of drugs safety collected during the pre-marketing phase is inevitably limited because the randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are rarely designed to evaluate safety. The small and selective groups of enrolled individuals and the limited duration of trials may hamper the ability to characterize fully the safety profiles of drugs. Additionally, information about rare adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in special groups is often incomplete or not available for most of the drugs commonly used in the daily clinical practice. In the paediatric setting several highimpact safety issues have emerged. Hence, in recent years, there has been a call for improved post-marketing pharmacoepidemiological studies, in which cohorts of patients are monitored for sufficient time in order to determine the precise risk-benefit ratio. In this review, we discuss the current available strategies enhancing the post-marketing monitoring activities of the drugs in the paediatric setting and define criteria whereby they can provide valuable information to improve the management of therapy in daily clinical practice including both safety and efficacy aspects. The strategies we cover include the signal detection using international pharmacovigilance and/or healthcare databases, the promotion of active surveillance initiatives which can generate complete, informative data sets for the signal detection and systematic review/meta-analysis. Together, these methods provide a comprehensive picture of causality and risk improving the management of therapy in a paediatric setting and they should be considered as a unique tool to be integrated with post-marketing activities. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Laryngeal Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiano, Emily; Chin, Oliver Y; Fang, Christina H; Park, Richard Chan; Baredes, Soly; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2016-03-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant minor salivary gland tumor that represents laryngeal tumors. The submucosal location of laryngeal adenoid cystic carcinoma (LACC) results in delayed presentation. Here, we present the first systematic review of reported cases of LACC to determine trends in presentation, diagnostic and treatment modalities, and patient outcome. PubMed, Web of Science, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases. A search of the above databases was done to identify articles reporting cases of LACC. The variables included in the analysis were patient demographics, presenting symptoms, tumor location, imaging, treatment, follow-up time, recurrence, and outcome. A total of 50 articles and 120 cases were included in the review. The most common presenting symptom was dyspnea (48.8%), followed by hoarseness (43.9%). LACC arose most frequently from the subglottis (56.7%). At presentation, 14.6% (13 of 89) of patients had regional disease. The average follow-up time was 54.0 months. At follow-up, distant metastasis was reported in 30 cases (33.3%). Surgery alone (43.3%) and surgery with radiotherapy (43.3%) were used most frequently and resulted in 57.1% and 55.3% of patients alive with no evidence disease at follow-up, respectively. LACC was most often located in the subglottis. Patients commonly presented with dyspnea and hoarseness. In this systematic review, surgery with radiotherapy and surgery alone were the most commonly employed treatment modalities, and both resulted in slightly more than 50% of patients alive with no evidence of disease at follow-up. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  19. Cinnamon: A systematic review of adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajimonfarednejad, Mahdie; Ostovar, Mohadeseh; Raee, Mohammad Javad; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Mayer, Johannes Gottfried; Heydari, Mojtaba

    2018-04-05

    Cinnamon, from the genus Cinnamomum and Lauraceae family, has been used as a popular spice for thousands of years around the world. Many studies have shown therapeutic effects of cinnamon including its antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal, antioxidant, antitumor, antihypertensive, antilipemic, antidiabetic, gastroprotective, and immunomodulatory effects. Due to popular use of cinnamon and several human reports on adverse events associated with short or long term use of cinnamon, we aimed to systematically review its human reports of adverse event. Databases including Medline, Scopus, Science Direct, Embase, PubMed Central and Google scholar were searched using the key words "cinnamon" or "cinnamomum" for clinical trials, case reports and case series. Also spontaneous reports about adverse effects of cinnamon were collected from five national and international spontaneous reporting schemes. Thirty eight clinical trials were found, five of them reported adverse events. Twenty case reports and seven case series, as well as, spontaneous reports including 160 adverse events were also included. The most frequent adverse events were gastrointestinal disorders and allergic reactions which were self-limiting in the majority of cases. The available data suggests that despite the safety of cinnamon use as a spice and/or flavoring agent, its use may be associated with significant adverse effects in medicinal uses with larger doses or longer duration of use and should be clinically monitored. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  20. A Systematic Review of End-of-Life Care Communication Skills Training for Generalist Palliative Care Providers: Research Quality and Reporting Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighton, Lisa Jane; Koffman, Jonathan; Hawkins, Amy; McDonald, Christine; O'Brien, Suzanne; Robinson, Vicky; Khan, Shaheen A; George, Rob; Higginson, Irene J; Selman, Lucy Ellen

    2017-09-01

    End-of-life care (EoLC) communication skills training for generalist palliative care providers is recommended in policy guidance globally. Although many training programs now exist, there has been no comprehensive evidence synthesis to inform future training delivery and evaluation. To identify and appraise how EoLC communication skills training interventions for generalist palliative care providers are developed, delivered, evaluated, and reported. Systematic review. Ten electronic databases (inception to December 2015) and five relevant journals (January 2004 to December 2015) were searched. Studies testing the effectiveness of EoLC communication skills training for generalists were included. Two independent authors assessed study quality. Descriptive statistics and narrative synthesis are used to summarize the findings. From 11,441 unique records, 170 reports were identified (157 published, 13 unpublished), representing 160 evaluation studies of 153 training interventions. Of published papers, eight were of low quality, 108 medium, and 41 high. Few interventions were developed with service user involvement (n = 7), and most were taught using a mixture of didactics (n = 123), reflection and discussion (n = 105), and role play (n = 86). Evaluation designs were weak: communication skills training interventions in the literature, evidence is limited by poor reporting and weak methodology. Based on our findings, we present a CONSORT statement supplement to improve future reporting and encourage more rigorous testing. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Granuloma Faciale Treatment: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lindhaus

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Granuloma faciale is an uncommon benign chronic dermatosis characterized by reddish-brown to violaceous asymptomatic plaques appearing predominantly on the face. The pathogenesis of granuloma faciale remains unclear, and it is frequently unresponsive to therapy. This systematic review aims to summarize all recent publications on the management of granuloma faciale. The publications are mainly individual case reports, small case series and a few retrospective studies. Treatment options included topical, intralesional and systemic corticosteroids, topical pimecrolimus and tacrolimus, topical and systemic dapsone, systemic hydroxychloroquine, clofazimine, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors. More invasive therapies using lasers as well as cryosurgery and surgery were also reported. Topical glucocorticosteroids and tacrolimus remain treatments of first choice, possibly supplemented by topical dapsone.

  2. Treatment of pulmonary brucellosis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solera, Javier; Solís García Del Pozo, Julián

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary involvement is a rare, focal complication of human brucellosis. The aim of this review is to describe clinical and radiologic features, treatment administered and clinical course of these patients. Areas covered: We conducted a systematic search of scientific reports of brucellosis with pulmonary involvement published from January 1985 to July 2016. Four main patterns of disease were observed: pneumonia, pleural effusion, nodules and interstitial pattern. Cough and fever were the most common symptoms. Brucella spp. culture was obtained from blood (50%) or pleural fluid. Treatment is based on the same antibiotics and combinations of antibiotics as for patients with acute no complicated brucellosis. The most frequent antimicrobial combination was doxycycline and rifampin for six weeks. The clinical course was favorable in most reports, and mortality was remarkably low (Brucellosis from other pulmonary infections, such as tuberculosis, sometimes posed an added diagnostic challenge.

  3. A systematic review of peri-operative melatonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L P H; Werner, M U; Rosenberg, J

    2014-01-01

    We systematically reviewed randomised controlled trials of peri-operative melatonin. We included 24 studies of 1794 participants that reported eight peri-operative outcomes: anxiety; analgesia; sleep quality; oxidative stress; emergence behaviour; anaesthetic requirements; steal induction......%, respectively. Qualitative reviews suggested the melatonin improved sleep quality and emergence behaviour, and might be capable of reducing oxidative stress and anaesthetic requirements....

  4. Task-oriented training in rehabilitation after stroke : systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensink, Marijke; Schuurmans, Marieke; Lindeman, Eline; Hafsteinsdottir, Thora

    Task-oriented training in rehabilitation after stroke: systematic review. This paper is a report of a review conducted to provide an overview of the evidence in the literature on task-oriented training of stroke survivors and its relevance in daily nursing practice. Stroke is the second leading

  5. Creative Learning Environments in Education--A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Dan; Jindal-Snape, Divya; Collier, Chris; Digby, Rebecca; Hay, Penny; Howe, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a systematic review of 210 pieces of educational research, policy and professional literature relating to creative environments for learning in schools, commissioned by Learning and Teaching Scotland (LTS). Despite the volume of academic literature in this field, the team of six reviewers found comparatively few empirical…

  6. Systematic review of reporting rates of adverse events following immunization: an international comparison of post-marketing surveillance programs with reference to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Biao; Page, Andrew; Wang, Huaqing; Taylor, Richard; McIntyre, Peter

    2013-01-11

    China is the most populous country in the world, with an annual birth cohort of approximately 16 million, requiring an average of 500 million vaccine doses administered annually. In China, over 30 domestic and less than 10 overseas vaccine manufacturers supply over 60 licensed vaccine products, representing a growing vaccine market mainly due to recent additions to the national immunization schedule, but data on post-marketing surveillance for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) are sparse. To compare reporting rates for various categories of AEFI from China with other routine post-marketing surveillance programs internationally. Systematic review of published studies reporting rates of AEFI by vaccine, category of reaction and age from post-marketing surveillance systems in English and Chinese languages. Overall AEFI reporting rates (all vaccines, all ages) in Chinese studies were consistent with those from similar international studies elsewhere, but there was substantial heterogeneity in regional reporting rates in China (range 2.3-37.8/100,000 doses). The highest AEFI reporting rates were for diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis whole-cell (DTwP) and acellular (DTaP) vaccines (range 3.3-181.1/100,000 doses for DTwP; range 3.5-92.6/100,000 doses for DTaP), with higher median rates for DTwP than DTaP, and higher than expected rates for DTaP vaccine. Similar higher rates for DTwP and DTaP containing vaccines, and relatively lower rates for vaccines against hepatitis B virus, poliovirus, and Japanese encephalitis virus were found in China and elsewhere in the world. Overall AEFI reporting rates in China were consistent with similar post-marketing surveillance systems in other countries. Sources of regional heterogeneity in AEFI reporting rates, and their relationships to differing vaccine manufacturers versus differing surveillance practices, require further exploration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Systematic review of model-based analyses reporting the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of cardiovascular disease management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maru, Shoko; Byrnes, Joshua; Whitty, Jennifer A; Carrington, Melinda J; Stewart, Simon; Scuffham, Paul A

    2015-02-01

    The reported cost effectiveness of cardiovascular disease management programs (CVD-MPs) is highly variable, potentially leading to different funding decisions. This systematic review evaluates published modeled analyses to compare study methods and quality. Articles were included if an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) or cost-utility ratio (ICUR) was reported, it is a multi-component intervention designed to manage or prevent a cardiovascular disease condition, and it addressed all domains specified in the American Heart Association Taxonomy for Disease Management. Nine articles (reporting 10 clinical outcomes) were included. Eight cost-utility and two cost-effectiveness analyses targeted hypertension (n=4), coronary heart disease (n=2), coronary heart disease plus stoke (n=1), heart failure (n=2) and hyperlipidemia (n=1). Study perspectives included the healthcare system (n=5), societal and fund holders (n=1), a third party payer (n=3), or was not explicitly stated (n=1). All analyses were modeled based on interventions of one to two years' duration. Time horizon ranged from two years (n=1), 10 years (n=1) and lifetime (n=8). Model structures included Markov model (n=8), 'decision analytic models' (n=1), or was not explicitly stated (n=1). Considerable variation was observed in clinical and economic assumptions and reporting practices. Of all ICERs/ICURs reported, including those of subgroups (n=16), four were above a US$50,000 acceptability threshold, six were below and six were dominant. The majority of CVD-MPs was reported to have favorable economic outcomes, but 25% were at unacceptably high cost for the outcomes. Use of standardized reporting tools should increase transparency and inform what drives the cost-effectiveness of CVD-MPs. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  8. Pharmaceutical supply chain risks: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Supply of medicine as a strategic product in any health system is a top priority. Pharmaceutical companies, a major player of the drug supply chain, are subject to many risks. These risks disrupt the supply of medicine in many ways such as their quantity and quality and their delivery to the right place and customers and at the right time. Therefore risk identification in the supply process of pharmaceutical companies and mitigate them is highly recommended. Objective In this study it is attempted to investigate pharmaceutical supply chain risks with perspective of manufacturing companies. Methods Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science bibliographic databases and Google scholar scientific search engines were searched for pharmaceutical supply chain risk management studies with 6 different groups of keywords. All results found by keywords were reviewed and none-relevant articles were excluded by outcome of interests and researcher boundaries of study within 4 steps and through a systematic method. Results Nine articles were included in the systematic review and totally 50 main risks based on study outcome of interest extracted which classified in 7 categories. Most of reported risks were related to supply and supplier issues. Organization and strategy issues, financial, logistic, political, market and regulatory issues were in next level of importance. Conclusion It was shown that the majority of risks in pharmaceutical supply chain were internal risks due to processes, people and functions mismanagement which could be managed by suitable mitigation strategies. PMID:24355166

  9. Pharmaceutical supply chain risks: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaberidoost, Mona; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Abdollahiasl, Akbar; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2013-12-19

    Supply of medicine as a strategic product in any health system is a top priority. Pharmaceutical companies, a major player of the drug supply chain, are subject to many risks. These risks disrupt the supply of medicine in many ways such as their quantity and quality and their delivery to the right place and customers and at the right time. Therefore risk identification in the supply process of pharmaceutical companies and mitigate them is highly recommended. In this study it is attempted to investigate pharmaceutical supply chain risks with perspective of manufacturing companies. Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science bibliographic databases and Google scholar scientific search engines were searched for pharmaceutical supply chain risk management studies with 6 different groups of keywords. All results found by keywords were reviewed and none-relevant articles were excluded by outcome of interests and researcher boundaries of study within 4 steps and through a systematic method. Nine articles were included in the systematic review and totally 50 main risks based on study outcome of interest extracted which classified in 7 categories. Most of reported risks were related to supply and supplier issues. Organization and strategy issues, financial, logistic, political, market and regulatory issues were in next level of importance. It was shown that the majority of risks in pharmaceutical supply chain were internal risks due to processes, people and functions mismanagement which could be managed by suitable mitigation strategies.

  10. Advancing Systematic Review Workshop (December 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA hosted an event to examine the systematic review process for development and applications of methods for different types of evidence (epidemiology, animal toxicology, and mechanistic). The presentations are also available.

  11. Systematic reviews in the field of nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Systematic reviews are valuable tools for staying abreast of evolving nutrition and aging -related topics, formulating dietary guidelines, establishing nutrient reference intakes, formulating clinical practice guidance, evaluating health claims, and setting research agendas. Basic steps of conductin...

  12. Building Research Capacity for Systematic Reviews | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... is addressing this gap, summarizing the best available primary research on digital ... Systematic reviews are used to appraise relevant research and synthesize ... The health sciences field uses them widely to inform studies and evaluate ...

  13. Systematic reviews in pain research: methodology refined

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McQuay, H. J; Kalso, Eija; Moore, R. Andrew

    2008-01-01

    "Presents invited papers from the 6th IASP Research Symposium, Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in Pain, held in Spain in September 2006, organized by the International Collaboration on Evidence...

  14. Considering resistance in systematic reviews of antibiotic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibovici, Leonard; Soares-Weiser, Karla; Paul, Mical; Goldberg, Elad; Herxheimer, Andrew; Garner, Paul

    2003-10-01

    Microorganisms resistant to antibiotic drugs are a threat to the health and chances of survival of patients. Systematic reviews on antibiotic drugs that ignore the topic of resistance present readers with a skewed view, emphasizing short-term efficacy or effectiveness while ignoring long-term consequences. To examine whether systematic reviews of antibiotic treatment consider resistance; if not, to find out whether data on resistance were reported in the original trials; and based on that, to offer a framework for taking resistance into account in systematic reviews. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (the Cochrane Library, 2001, issue 2); and MEDLINE, 1996-2000. (i) Systematic reviews or meta-analyses of antimicrobial therapy, published during 1996-2000. (ii) Randomized, controlled trials abstracted in systematic reviews that addressed a topic highly relevant to antibiotic resistance. We examined each systematic review, and each article, to see whether the implications of resistance were discussed; and whether data on resistance were collected. Out of 111 systematic reviews, only 44 (40%) discussed resistance. Ten reviews (9%) planned or performed collection of data on the response of patients with susceptible or resistant isolates. In 22 systematic reviews (20%), collection of data on induction of resistance was planned or performed. The topic of 41 reviews was judged highly relevant to resistance, and these reviews extracted data from 337 articles, out of which we retrieved 279 articles (83%). In 201 (72%) articles, resistance was discussed or data pertaining to it were collected. Ninety-seven articles (35%) gave actual data on resistance of pathogens to the study drugs, 71 articles (25%) data on efficacy of antibiotic drugs in patients with susceptible and resistant pathogens, and 55 articles (20%) provided data on infection or colonization with resistant strains during treatment. Most systematic reviews on antibiotic treatment ignored the issue of

  15. Effects of fixed orthodontic brackets on oral malodor: A systematic review and meta-analysis according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Li, Cui-Ying; Jiang, Jiu-Hui

    2018-04-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to identify whether there is any relationship between fixed orthodontic appliances and malodor, and if self-ligating brackets (SLBs) prevent malodor better than conventional brackets (CBs). The electronic databases PubMed, Ovid, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to September 2016; a manual search was also performed. Randomized controlled and clinical controlled trials, in which experimental groups received fixed orthodontic therapy and malodor was measured, were included. Patients treated with fixed orthodontic brackets were compared with those without any treatment, and SLB systems were compared with CB systems. Two reviewers independently selected potentially relevant studies, evaluated the risk for bias, extracted essential data, and synthesized findings using Review Manager version 5.3 (Copenhagen: The. Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, 2014). Four studies, involving a total of 152 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Fixed orthodontic appliances caused malodor from the initial visit to 2 to 3 months, but was only significant after the first week (mean difference 20.24 [95% confidence interval [CI]11.75-28.74]; P orthodontic treatment appeared to be a risk factor for malodor, independent of periodontal changes, and SLB systems controlled malodor better than CB systems.

  16. Uteroabdominal Wall Fistula After Cesarean Section in a Patient With Prior Colorectal Resection for Endometriosis: A Case Report and Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattot, Chloé; Aristizabal, Patrick; Bendifallah, Sofiane; Daraï, Emile

    Uteroabdominal wall fistula (UAWF) is a very rare complication of cesarean section. We report an unusual case of a UAWF occurring in a 37-year-old woman 4 years after a cesarean section and previous radical surgery for deep infiltrating endometriosis with bowel resection. The patient presented with persistent purulent discharge of the Pfannenstiel scar and noted that the discharge was blood stained during menstruation. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the diagnosis of UAWF. Surgery was performed by laparotomy and was complicated by a postoperative rectovaginal fistula, which was successfully treated by the placement of a biological mesh via the vagina route. The postoperative course was favorable at 6 months with disappearance of painful symptoms and good quality of the colorectal anastomosis. A systematic review was conducted, and 18 case reports were found from 1939 to 2016. This case report highlights the risk of postdelivery complications in women with deep infiltrating endometriosis and colorectal involvement, especially after cesarean section. Persistent abdominal discharge in this context should suggest a diagnosis of UAWF despite its low incidence. Finally, the vaginal route for rectovaginal fistula might be considered an option for patients with prior multiple laparotomies. Copyright © 2017 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Physical activity in spondyloarthritis: a systematic review

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Dwyer, Tom

    2014-10-01

    Physical activity (PA) is associated with numerous health-related benefits among adults with chronic diseases and the general population. As the benefits are dose-dependent, this review aims to establish the PA levels of adults with spondyloarthritis and to compare these to the general population. Electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, MEDLINE\\/PubMed, PEDro, AMED, CINAHL) were systematically searched from inception to May 2014 using medical subject headings and keywords. This was supplemented by searching conference abstracts and hand-searching reference lists of included studies. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials and observational studies of adults with SpA in which free-living PA or energy expenditure levels were measured. Subjects less than 18 years or with juvenile-onset SpA were excluded. Outcomes included objective and self-report measurements. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion and assessed methodological quality using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and the RTI item bank. From the 2,431 records reviewed, nine studies involving 2,972 participants were included. This review focused on qualitative synthesis. Meta-analyses were not undertaken due to differences in study design, measurement tools, and participant characteristics. This heterogeneity, coupled with the risk of bias inherent in the included observational studies, limits the generalizability of findings. Objective measurements suggest PA levels may be lower among adults with spondyloarthritis than in healthy population controls. Self-reported PA and self-reported rates of adherence to PA recommendations varied largely across studies; higher disease activity was associated with lower self-reported PA levels. Physical activity levels may be lower in adults with axial spondyloarthritis, with higher disease activity associated with lower PA levels.

  18. Living systematic reviews: 2. Combining human and machine effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James; Noel-Storr, Anna; Marshall, Iain; Wallace, Byron; McDonald, Steven; Mavergames, Chris; Glasziou, Paul; Shemilt, Ian; Synnot, Anneliese; Turner, Tari; Elliott, Julian

    2017-11-01

    New approaches to evidence synthesis, which use human effort and machine automation in mutually reinforcing ways, can enhance the feasibility and sustainability of living systematic reviews. Human effort is a scarce and valuable resource, required when automation is impossible or undesirable, and includes contributions from online communities ("crowds") as well as more conventional contributions from review authors and information specialists. Automation can assist with some systematic review tasks, including searching, eligibility assessment, identification and retrieval of full-text reports, extraction of data, and risk of bias assessment. Workflows can be developed in which human effort and machine automation can each enable the other to operate in more effective and efficient ways, offering substantial enhancement to the productivity of systematic reviews. This paper describes and discusses the potential-and limitations-of new ways of undertaking specific tasks in living systematic reviews, identifying areas where these human/machine "technologies" are already in use, and where further research and development is needed. While the context is living systematic reviews, many of these enabling technologies apply equally to standard approaches to systematic reviewing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of self-report and subjective history in the diagnosis of low back pain with non-specific lower extremity symptoms: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Susan; Averell, Kristina; Eickelman, Angela; Sanker, Holly; Donaldson, Megan Burrowbridge

    2015-02-01

    Subjective history questions/self-report items are commonly used to triage the patient with low back pain and related leg symptoms. However the value of the history taking process for decision-making to identify common classifications/diagnosis for patients presenting with low back related leg pain (LBRLP) have not been considered. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of self-report items/history-taking questions used to identify patients with LBRLP. Eligible studies included: 1)subjects with low back pain AND related lower extremity pain, 2)details of subjective examination/self-report items, 3)cohort, prospective/longitudinal studies, and randomized control trials, 4)use of statistical reporting, 5)an acceptable reference standard. Quality was evaluated using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2. A synthesis of history items that met the threshold for at least a small shift in the likelihood of the condition with a +LR ≥ 2 or -LR ≤ 0.5 were reported. Conditions commonly reported in the literature: lumbar spinal stenosis, lumbosacral nerve root compression/radiculopathy, disc herniation and neurophysiological low back pain ± leg pain. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. This is the first systematic review of diagnostic accuracy studies that examined only the history-taking items for their ability to identify LBRLP conditions. Clustering key items may provide a more precise clinical picture necessary to detect and treat a patient's presentation. History questions formed within the interview and their contributing value for decision-making remain understudied. There is a need for better designs to determine a more accurate diagnostic power to identify conditions with LBRLP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Osseoperception in Dental Implants: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sunil Kumar; Chowdhary, Ramesh; Chrcanovic, Bruno Ramos; Brånemark, Per-Ingvar

    2016-04-01

    Replacement of lost teeth has significant functional and psychosocial effects. The capability of osseointegrated dental implants to transmit a certain amount of sensibility is still unclear. The phenomenon of developing a certain amount of tactile sensibility through osseointegrated dental implants is called osseoperception. The aim of this article is to evaluate the available literature to find osseoperception associated with dental implants. To identify suitable literature, an electronic search was performed using Medline and PubMed database. Articles published in English and articles whose abstract is available in English were included. The articles included in the review were based on osseoperception, tactile sensation, and neurophysiological mechanoreceptors in relation to dental implants. Articles on peri-implantitis and infection-related sensitivity were not included. Review articles without the original data were excluded, although references to potentially pertinent articles were noted for further follow-up. The phenomenon of osseoperception remains a matter of debate, so the search strategy mainly focused on articles on osseoperception and tactile sensibility of dental implants. This review presents the histological, neurophysiological, and psychophysical evidence of osseoperception and also the role of mechanoreceptors in osseoperception. The literature on osseoperception in dental implants is very scarce. The initial literature search resulted in 90 articles, of which 81 articles that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in this systematic review. Patients restored with implant-supported prostheses reported improved tactile and motor function when compared with patients wearing complete dentures. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  1. Match Analysis in Volleyball: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to review the available literature on match analysis in adult male Volleyball. Specific key words "performance analysis", "match analysis", "game analysis", "notational analysis", "tactical analysis", "technical analysis", "outcome" and "skills" were used to search relevant databases (PubMed, Web of Science, SportDiscus, Academic Search Complete and the International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport. The research was conducted according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta analyses guidelines. Of 3407 studies initially identified, only 34 were fully reviewed, and their outcome measures extracted and analyzed. Studies that fit all inclusion criteria were organized into two levels of analysis, according to their research design (comparative or predictive and depending on the type of variables analyzed (skills and their relationship with success, play position and match phase. Results show that from a methodological point of view, comparative studies where currently complemented with some predictive studies. This predictive approach emerged with the aim to identify the relationship between variables, considering their possible interactions and consequently its effect on team performance, contributing to a better understanding of Volleyball game performance through match analysis. Taking into account the limitations of the reviewed studies, future research should provide comprehensive operational definitions for the studied variables, using more recent samples, and consider integrating the player positions and match phase contexts into the analysis of Volleyball.

  2. Psychometric properties of self-reported questionnaires for the evaluation of symptoms and functional limitations in individuals with rotator cuff disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Pierre, Corinne; Desmeules, François; Dionne, Clermont E; Frémont, Pierre; MacDermid, Joy C; Roy, Jean-Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    To conduct a systematic review of the psychometric properties (reliability, validity and responsiveness) of self-report questionnaires used to assess symptoms and functional limitations of individuals with rotator cuff (RC) disorders. A systematic search in three databases (Cinahl, Medline and Embase) was conducted. Data extraction and critical methodological appraisal were performed independently by three raters using structured tools, and agreement was achieved by consensus. A descriptive synthesis was performed. One-hundred and twenty articles reporting on 11 questionnaires were included. All questionnaires were highly reliable and responsive to change, and showed construct validity; seven questionnaires also shown known-group validity. The minimal detectable change ranged from 6.4% to 20.8% of total score; only two questionnaires (American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeon questionnaire [ASES] and Upper Limb Functional Index [ULFI]) had a measurement error below 10% of global score. Minimal clinically important differences were established for eight questionnaires, and ranged from 8% to 20% of total score. Overall, included questionnaires showed acceptable psychometric properties for individuals with RC disorders. The ASES and ULFI have the smallest absolute error of measurement, while the Western Ontario RC Index is one of the most responsive questionnaires for individuals suffering from RC disorders. All included questionnaires are reliable, valid and responsive for the evaluation of individuals with RC disorders. As all included questionnaires showed good psychometric properties for the targeted population, the choice should be made according to the purpose of the evaluation and to the construct being evaluated by the questionnaire. The WORC, a RC-specific questionnaire, appeared to be more responsive. It should therefore be used to evaluate change in time. If the evaluation is time-limited, shorter questionnaires or short versions should be considered (such as

  3. Protocol for an HTA report: Does therapeutic writing help people with long-term conditions? Systematic review, realist synthesis and economic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meads, C; Nyssen, O P; Wong, G; Steed, L; Bourke, L; Ross, C A; Hayman, S; Field, V; Lord, J; Greenhalgh, T; Taylor, S J C

    2014-02-18

    Long-term medical conditions (LTCs) cause reduced health-related quality of life and considerable health service expenditure. Writing therapy has potential to improve physical and mental health in people with LTCs, but its effectiveness is not established. This project aims to establish the clinical and cost-effectiveness of therapeutic writing in LTCs by systematic review and economic evaluation, and to evaluate context and mechanisms by which it might work, through realist synthesis. Included are any comparative study of therapeutic writing compared with no writing, waiting list, attention control or placebo writing in patients with any diagnosed LTCs that report at least one of the following: relevant clinical outcomes; quality of life; health service use; psychological, behavioural or social functioning; adherence or adverse events. Searches will be conducted in the main medical databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Library and Science Citation Index. For the realist review, further purposive and iterative searches through snowballing techniques will be undertaken. Inclusions, data extraction and quality assessment will be in duplicate with disagreements resolved through discussion. Quality assessment will include using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. Data synthesis will be narrative and tabular with meta-analysis where appropriate. De novo economic modelling will be attempted in one clinical area if sufficient evidence is available and performed according to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) reference case.

  4. Protocol for an HTA report: Does therapeutic writing help people with long-term conditions? Systematic review, realist synthesis and economic modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meads, C; Nyssen, O P; Wong, G; Steed, L; Bourke, L; Ross, C A; Hayman, S; Field, V; Lord, J; Greenhalgh, T; Taylor, S J C

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Long-term medical conditions (LTCs) cause reduced health-related quality of life and considerable health service expenditure. Writing therapy has potential to improve physical and mental health in people with LTCs, but its effectiveness is not established. This project aims to establish the clinical and cost-effectiveness of therapeutic writing in LTCs by systematic review and economic evaluation, and to evaluate context and mechanisms by which it might work, through realist synthesis. Methods Included are any comparative study of therapeutic writing compared with no writing, waiting list, attention control or placebo writing in patients with any diagnosed LTCs that report at least one of the following: relevant clinical outcomes; quality of life; health service use; psychological, behavioural or social functioning; adherence or adverse events. Searches will be conducted in the main medical databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Library and Science Citation Index. For the realist review, further purposive and iterative searches through snowballing techniques will be undertaken. Inclusions, data extraction and quality assessment will be in duplicate with disagreements resolved through discussion. Quality assessment will include using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. Data synthesis will be narrative and tabular with meta-analysis where appropriate. De novo economic modelling will be attempted in one clinical area if sufficient evidence is available and performed according to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) reference case. PMID:24549165

  5. A Systematic Method for Search Term Selection in Systematic Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jenna; Davis, Jacqueline; Mazerolle, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    The wide variety of readily available electronic media grants anyone the freedom to retrieve published references from almost any area of research around the world. Despite this privilege, keeping up with primary research evidence is almost impossible because of the increase in professional publishing across disciplines. Systematic reviews are a…

  6. Infusion phlebitis assessment measures: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray-Barruel, Gillian; Polit, Denise F; Murfield, Jenny E; Rickard, Claire M

    2014-04-01

    Phlebitis is a common and painful complication of peripheral intravenous cannulation. The aim of this review was to identify the measures used in infusion phlebitis assessment and evaluate evidence regarding their reliability, validity, responsiveness and feasibility. We conducted a systematic literature review of the Cochrane library, Ovid MEDLINE and EBSCO CINAHL until September 2013. All English-language studies (randomized controlled trials, prospective cohort and cross-sectional) that used an infusion phlebitis scale were retrieved and analysed to determine which symptoms were included in each scale and how these were measured. We evaluated studies that reported testing the psychometric properties of phlebitis assessment scales using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) guidelines. Infusion phlebitis was the primary outcome measure in 233 studies. Fifty-three (23%) of these provided no actual definition of phlebitis. Of the 180 studies that reported measuring phlebitis incidence and/or severity, 101 (56%) used a scale and 79 (44%) used a definition alone. We identified 71 different phlebitis assessment scales. Three scales had undergone some psychometric analyses, but no scale had been rigorously tested. Many phlebitis scales exist, but none has been thoroughly validated for use in clinical practice. A lack of consensus on phlebitis measures has likely contributed to disparities in reported phlebitis incidence, precluding meaningful comparison of phlebitis rates. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Factors that influence the recognition, reporting and resolution of incidents related to medical devices and other healthcare technologies: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polisena, Julie; Gagliardi, Anna; Urbach, David; Clifford, Tammy; Fiander, Michelle

    2015-03-29

    Medical devices have improved the treatment of many medical conditions. Despite their benefit, the use of devices can lead to unintended incidents, potentially resulting in unnecessary harm, injury or complications to the patient, a complaint, loss or damage. Devices are used in hospitals on a routine basis. Research to date, however, has been primarily limited to describing incidents rates, so the optimal design of a hospital-based surveillance system remains unclear. Our research objectives were twofold: i) to explore factors that influence device-related incident recognition, reporting and resolution and ii) to investigate interventions or strategies to improve the recognition, reporting and resolution of medical device-related incidents. We searched the bibliographic databases: MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and PsycINFO database. Grey literature (literature that is not commercially available) was searched for studies on factors that influence incident recognition, reporting and resolution published and interventions or strategies for their improvement from 2003 to 2014. Although we focused on medical devices, other health technologies were eligible for inclusion. Thirty studies were included in our systematic review, but most studies were concentrated on other health technologies. The study findings indicate that fear of punishment, uncertainty of what should be reported and how incident reports will be used and time constraints to incident reporting are common barriers to incident recognition and reporting. Relevant studies on the resolution of medical errors were not found. Strategies to improve error reporting include the use of an electronic error reporting system, increased training and feedback to frontline clinicians about the reported error. The available evidence on factors influencing medical device-related incident recognition, reporting and resolution by healthcare professionals can inform data collection and

  8. Identification and characterization of outcome measures reported in animal models of epilepsy: Protocol for a systematic review of the literature-A TASK2 report of the AES/ILAE Translational Task Force of the ILAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonato, Michele; Iyengar, Sloka; Brooks-Kayal, Amy; Collins, Stephen; Depaulis, Antoine; Howells, David W; Jensen, Frances; Liao, Jing; Macleod, Malcolm R; Patel, Manisha; Potschka, Heidrun; Walker, Matthew; Whittemore, Vicky; Sena, Emily S

    2017-11-01

    Current antiseizure therapy is ineffective in approximately one third of people with epilepsy and is often associated with substantial side effects. In addition, most current therapeutic paradigms offer treatment, but not cure, and no therapies are able to modify the underlying disease, that is, can prevent or halt the process of epileptogenesis or alleviate the cognitive and psychiatric comorbidities. Preclinical research in the field of epilepsy has been extensive, but unfortunately, not all the animal models being used have been validated for their predictive value. The overall goal of TASK2 of the AES/ILAE Translational Task Force is to organize and coordinate systematic reviews on selected topics regarding animal research in epilepsy. Herein we describe our strategy. In the first part of the paper we provide an overview of the usefulness of systematic reviews and meta-analysis for preclinical research and explain the essentials for their conduct. Then we describe in detail the protocol for a first systematic review, which will focus on the identification and characterization of outcome measures reported in animal models of epilepsy. The specific goals of this study are to define systematically the phenotypic characteristics of the most commonly used animal models, and to effectively compare these with the manifestations of human epilepsy. This will provide epilepsy researchers with detailed information on the strengths and weaknesses of epilepsy models, facilitating their refinement and future research. Ultimately, this could lead to a refined use of relevant models for understanding the mechanism(s) of the epilepsies and developing novel therapies. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  9. What Is a "Community Perception" of REDD+? A Systematic Review of How Perceptions of REDD+ Have Been Elicited and Reported in the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmadja, Stibniati S; Sills, Erin O

    2016-01-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) is expected to generate co-benefits and safeguard the interests of people who live in the forested regions where emissions are reduced. Participatory measurement, reporting and verification (PMRV) is one way to ensure that the interests of local people are represented in REDD+. In order to design and use PMRV systems to monitor co-benefits and safeguards, we need to obtain input on how local people perceive REDD+. In the literature, this is widely discussed as "community perceptions of REDD+." We systematically reviewed this literature to understand how these perceptions have been assessed, focusing specifically on how individual perceptions have been sampled and aggregated into "community perceptions." Using Google Scholar, we identified 19 publications that reported community perceptions of REDD+, including perceptions of its design, implementation, impacts, relationship with land tenure, and both interest and actual participation by local people. These perceptions were elicited through surveys of probability samples of the local population and interviews with purposively selected community representatives. Many authors did not provide sufficient information on their methods to interpret the reported community perceptions. For example, there was often insufficient detail on the selection of respondents or sampling methods. Authors also reported perceptions by unquantified magnitudes (e.g., "most people", "the majority") that were difficult to assess or compare across cases. Given this situation in the scholarly literature, we expect that there are even more severe problems in the voluminous gray literature on REDD+ not indexed by Google Scholar. We suggest that readers need to be cognizant of these issues and that publication outlets should establish guidelines for better reporting, requiring information on the reference population, sampling methods, and methods used to aggregate individual

  10. What Is a "Community Perception" of REDD+? A Systematic Review of How Perceptions of REDD+ Have Been Elicited and Reported in the Literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stibniati S Atmadja

    Full Text Available Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+ is expected to generate co-benefits and safeguard the interests of people who live in the forested regions where emissions are reduced. Participatory measurement, reporting and verification (PMRV is one way to ensure that the interests of local people are represented in REDD+. In order to design and use PMRV systems to monitor co-benefits and safeguards, we need to obtain input on how local people perceive REDD+. In the literature, this is widely discussed as "community perceptions of REDD+." We systematically reviewed this literature to understand how these perceptions have been assessed, focusing specifically on how individual perceptions have been sampled and aggregated into "community perceptions." Using Google Scholar, we identified 19 publications that reported community perceptions of REDD+, including perceptions of its design, implementation, impacts, relationship with land tenure, and both interest and actual participation by local people. These perceptions were elicited through surveys of probability samples of the local population and interviews with purposively selected community representatives. Many authors did not provide sufficient information on their methods to interpret the reported community perceptions. For example, there was often insufficient detail on the selection of respondents or sampling methods. Authors also reported perceptions by unquantified magnitudes (e.g., "most people", "the majority" that were difficult to assess or compare across cases. Given this situation in the scholarly literature, we expect that there are even more severe problems in the voluminous gray literature on REDD+ not indexed by Google Scholar. We suggest that readers need to be cognizant of these issues and that publication outlets should establish guidelines for better reporting, requiring information on the reference population, sampling methods, and methods used to

  11. Interventions to promote cycling: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Sahlqvist, Shannon; McMinn, Alison; Griffin, Simon J; Ogilvie, David

    2010-10-18

    To determine what interventions are effective in promoting cycling, the size of the effects of interventions, and evidence of any associated benefits on overall physical activity or anthropometric measures. Systematic review. Published and unpublished reports in any language identified by searching 13 electronic databases, websites, reference lists, and existing systematic reviews, and papers identified by experts in the field. Review methods Controlled "before and after" experimental or observational studies of the effect of any type of intervention on cycling behaviour measured at either individual or population level. Twenty five studies (of which two were randomised controlled trials) from seven countries were included. Six studies examined interventions aimed specifically at promoting cycling, of which four (an intensive individual intervention in obese women, high quality improvements to a cycle route network, and two multifaceted cycle promotion initiatives at town or city level) were found to be associated with increases in cycling. Those studies that evaluated interventions at population level reported net increases of up to 3.4 percentage points in the population prevalence of cycling or the proportion of trips made by bicycle. Sixteen studies assessing individualised marketing of "environmentally friendly" modes of transport to interested households reported modest but consistent net effects equating to an average of eight additional cycling trips per person per year in the local population. Other interventions that targeted travel behaviour in general were not associated with a clear increase in cycling. Only two studies assessed effects of interventions on physical activity; one reported a positive shift in the population distribution of overall physical activity during the intervention. Community-wide promotional activities and improving infrastructure for cycling have the potential to increase cycling by modest amounts, but further controlled

  12. Identifying and recruiting smokers for preoperative smoking cessation--a systematic review of methods reported in published studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fujian; Brown, Tracey J; Blyth, Annie; Maskrey, Vivienne; McNamara, Iain; Donell, Simon

    2015-11-11

    Smoking cessation before surgery reduces postoperative complications, and the benefit is positively associated with the duration of being abstinent before a surgical procedure. A key issue in providing preoperative smoking cessation support is to identify people who smoke as early as possible before elective surgery. This review aims to summarise methods used to identify and recruit smokers awaiting elective surgery. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO, and references of relevant reviews (up to May 2014) to identify prospective studies that evaluated preoperative smoking cessation programmes. One reviewer extracted and a second reviewer checked data from the included studies. Data extracted from included studies were presented in tables and narratively described. We included 32 relevant studies, including 18 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and 14 non-randomised studies (NRS). Smokers were recruited at preoperative clinics (n = 18), from surgery waiting lists (n = 6), or by general practitioners (n = 1), and the recruitment methods were not explicitly described in seven studies. Time points of preoperative recruitment of smokers was unclear in four studies, less than 4 weeks before surgery in 17 studies, and at least 4 weeks before surgery in only 11 studies. The recruitment rate tended to be lower in RCTs (median 58.2 %, range 9.1 to 90.9 %) than that in NRS (median 99.1 %, range 12.3 to 100 %) and lower in preoperative clinic-based RCTs (median 54.4 %, range 9.1 to 82.4 %) than that in waiting list-based RCTs (median 70.1 %, range 36.8 to 85.0 %). Smokers were recruited at least 4 weeks before surgery in four of the six waiting list-based studies and in only three of the 18 preoperative clinic-based studies. Published studies often inadequately described the methods for recruiting smokers into preoperative smoking cessation programmes. Although smoking cessation at any time is beneficial, many programmes recruited smokers at times

  13. Primer on statistical interpretation or methods report card on propensity-score matching in the cardiology literature from 2004 to 2006: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Peter C

    2008-09-01

    Propensity-score matching is frequently used in the cardiology literature. Recent systematic reviews have found that this method is, in general, poorly implemented in the medical literature. The study objective was to examine the quality of the implementation of propensity-score matching in the general cardiology literature. A total of 44 articles published in the American Heart Journal, the American Journal of Cardiology, Circulation, the European Heart Journal, Heart, the International Journal of Cardiology, and the Journal of the American College of Cardiology between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2006, were examined. Twenty of the 44 studies did not provide adequate information on how the propensity-score-matched pairs were formed. Fourteen studies did not report whether matching on the propensity score balanced baseline characteristics between treated and untreated subjects in the matched sample. Only 4 studies explicitly used statistical methods appropriate for matched studies to compare baseline characteristics between treated and untreated subjects. Only 11 (25%) of the 44 studies explicitly used statistical methods appropriate for the analysis of matched data when estimating the effect of treatment on the outcomes. Only 2 studies described the matching method used, assessed balance in baseline covariates by appropriate methods, and used appropriate statistical methods to estimate the treatment effect and its significance. Application of propensity-score matching was poor in the cardiology literature. Suggestions for improving the reporting and analysis of studies that use propensity-score matching are provided.

  14. Religiousness and Mental Health: Systematic Review Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdAleati, Naziha S; Mohd Zaharim, Norzarina; Mydin, Yasmin Othman

    2016-12-01

    Many people use religious beliefs and practices to cope with stressful life events and derive peace of mind and purpose in life. The goal of this paper was to systematically review the recent psychological literature to assess the role of religion in mental health outcomes. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using medical and psychological databases on the relationship between religiosity and mental health. Seventy-four articles in the English and Arabic languages published between January 2000 and March 2012 were chosen. Despite the controversial relationship between religion and psychiatry, psychology, and medical care, there has been an increasing interest in the role which spirituality and religion play in mental health. The findings of past research showed that religion could play an important role in many situations, as religious convictions and rules influence the believer's life and health care. Most of the past literature in this area reported that there is a significant connection between religious beliefs and practices and mental health.

  15. Religion and Suicide Risk: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Ryan E; Oquendo, Maria A; Stanley, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Although religion is reported to be protective against suicide, the empirical evidence is inconsistent. Research is complicated by the fact that there are many dimensions to religion (affiliation, participation, doctrine) and suicide (ideation, attempt, completion). We systematically reviewed the literature on religion and suicide over the last 10 years (89 articles) with a goal of identifying what specific dimensions of religion are associated with specific aspects of suicide. We found that religious affiliation does not necessarily protect against suicidal ideation, but does protect against suicide attempts. Whether religious affiliation protects against suicide attempts may depend on the culture-specific implications of affiliating with a particular religion, since minority religious groups can feel socially isolated. After adjusting for social support measures, religious service attendance is not especially protective against suicidal ideation, but does protect against suicide attempts, and possibly protects against suicide. Future qualitative studies might further clarify these associations.

  16. Respiratory Manifestations of Hypothyroidism: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Jesper Roed; Winther, Kristian Hillert; Bonnema, Steen Joop; Godballe, Christian; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2016-11-01

    Hypothyroidism has been associated with increased pulmonary morbidity and overall mortality. A systematic review was conducted to identify the prevalence and underlying mechanisms of respiratory problems among patients with thyroid insufficiency. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for relevant literature from January 1950 through January 2015 with the following study eligibility criteria: English-language publications; adult subclinical or overt hypothyroid patients; intervention, observational, or retrospective studies; and respiratory manifestations. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses statement was followed, and Cochrane's risk of bias tool was used. A total of 1699 papers were screened by two independent authors for relevant titles. Of 109 relevant abstracts, 28 papers underwent full-text analyses, of which 22 were included in the review. Possible mechanisms explaining respiratory problems at multiple physiological levels were identified, such as the ventilator control system, diaphragmatic muscle function, pulmonary gas exchange, goiter caused upper airway obstruction, decreased capacity for energy transduction, and reduced glycolytic activity. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome was found among 30% of newly diagnosed patients with overt hypothyroidism, and demonstrated reversibility following treatment. The evidence for or against a direct effect on pulmonary function was ambiguous. However, each of the above-mentioned areas was only dealt with in a limited number of studies. Therefore, it is not possible to draw any strong conclusions on any of these themes. Moreover, most studies were hampered by considerable risk of bias due for example to small numbers of patients, lack of control groups, randomization and blinding, and differences in body mass index, sex, and age between subjects and controls. Mechanistic data linking hypothyroidism and respiratory function are at best limited. This area of research is therefore

  17. SARS: systematic review of treatment effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren J Stockman

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The SARS outbreak of 2002-2003 presented clinicians with a new, life-threatening disease for which they had no experience in treating and no research on the effectiveness of treatment options. The World Health Organization (WHO expert panel on SARS treatment requested a systematic review and comprehensive summary of treatments used for SARS-infected patients in order to guide future treatment and identify priorities for research. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In response to the WHO request we conducted a systematic review of the published literature on ribavirin, corticosteroids, lopinavir and ritonavir (LPV/r, type I interferon (IFN, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG, and SARS convalescent plasma from both in vitro studies and in SARS patients. We also searched for clinical trial evidence of treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome. Sources of data were the literature databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL up to February 2005. Data from publications were extracted and evidence within studies was classified using predefined criteria. In total, 54 SARS treatment studies, 15 in vitro studies, and three acute respiratory distress syndrome studies met our inclusion criteria. Within in vitro studies, ribavirin, lopinavir, and type I IFN showed inhibition of SARS-CoV in tissue culture. In SARS-infected patient reports on ribavirin, 26 studies were classified as inconclusive, and four showed possible harm. Seven studies of convalescent plasma or IVIG, three of IFN type I, and two of LPV/r were inconclusive. In 29 studies of steroid use, 25 were inconclusive and four were classified as causing possible harm. CONCLUSIONS: Despite an extensive literature reporting on SARS treatments, it was not possible to determine whether treatments benefited patients during the SARS outbreak. Some may have been harmful. Clinical trials should be designed to validate a standard protocol for dosage

  18. Effectiveness of Manual Therapy for Pain and Self-reported Function in Individuals With Patellofemoral Pain: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckenrode, Brian J; Kietrys, David M; Parrott, J Scott

    2018-05-01

    Study Design Systematic literature review with meta-analysis. Background Management of patellofemoral pain (PFP) may include the utilization of manual therapy (MT) techniques to the patellofemoral joint, surrounding soft tissues, and/or lumbopelvic region. Objectives To determine the effectiveness of MT, used alone or as an adjunct intervention, compared to standard treatment or sham for reducing pain and improving self-reported function in individuals with PFP. Methods An electronic literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Ovid, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and CINAHL databases for studies investigating MT for individuals with PFP. Studies published through August 2017 that compared MT (local or remote to the knee), used alone or in combination with other interventions, to control or sham interventions were included. Patient-reported pain and functional outcomes were collected and synthesized. Trials were assessed via the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool, and a meta-analysis of the evidence was performed. Results Nine studies were included in the review, 5 of which were rated as having a low risk of bias. The use of MT, applied to the local knee structure, was associated with favorable short-term changes in self-reported function and pain in individuals with PFP, when compared to a comparison (control or sham) intervention. However, the changes were clinically meaningful only for pain (defined as a 2-cm or 2-point improvement on a visual analog scale or numeric pain-rating scale). The evidence regarding lumbopelvic manipulation was inconclusive for pain improvement in individuals with PFP, based on 3 studies. Conclusion The data from this review cautiously suggest that MT may be helpful in the short term for decreasing pain in patients with PFP. Several studies integrated MT into a comprehensive treatment program. Changes in self-reported function with the inclusion of MT were shown to be significant, but not clinically meaningful. The

  19. Methodological systematic review: mortality in elderly patients with cervical spine injury: a critical appraisal of the reporting of baseline characteristics, follow-up, cause of death, and analysis of risk factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middendorp, J.J. van; Albert, T.J.; Veth, R.P.H.; Hosman, A.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Methodologic systematic review. OBJECTIVE: To determine the validity of reported risk factors for mortality in elderly patients with cervical spine injury. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: In elderly patients with cervical spine injury, mortality has frequently been associated with the type

  20. Contribution of systematic reviews to management decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Carly N; Possingham, Hugh P; Fuller, Richard A

    2013-10-01

    Systematic reviews comprehensively summarize evidence about the effectiveness of conservation interventions. We investigated the contribution to management decisions made by this growing body of literature. We identified 43 systematic reviews of conservation evidence, 23 of which drew some concrete conclusions relevant to management. Most reviews addressed conservation interventions relevant to policy decisions; only 35% considered practical on-the-ground management interventions. The majority of reviews covered only a small fraction of the geographic and taxonomic breadth they aimed to address (median = 13% of relevant countries and 16% of relevant taxa). The likelihood that reviews contained at least some implications for management tended to increase as geographic coverage increased and to decline as taxonomic breadth increased. These results suggest the breadth of a systematic review requires careful consideration. Reviews identified a mean of 312 relevant primary studies but excluded 88% of these because of deficiencies in design or a failure to meet other inclusion criteria. Reviews summarized on average 284 data sets and 112 years of research activity, yet the likelihood that their results had at least some implications for management did not increase as the amount of primary research summarized increased. In some cases, conclusions were elusive despite the inclusion of hundreds of data sets and years of cumulative research activity. Systematic reviews are an important part of the conservation decision making tool kit, although we believe the benefits of systematic reviews could be significantly enhanced by increasing the number of reviews focused on questions of direct relevance to on-the-ground managers; defining a more focused geographic and taxonomic breadth that better reflects available data; including a broader range of evidence types; and appraising the cost-effectiveness of interventions. © 2013 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley

  1. Help Options in CALL: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a systematic review of research investigating help options in the different language skills in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). In this review, emerging themes along with is-sues affecting help option research are identified and discussed. We argue that help options in CALL are application resources that do not only seem…

  2. Methodology Series Module 6: Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analysis have become an important of biomedical literature, and they provide the "highest level of evidence" for various clinical questions. There are a lot of studies - sometimes with contradictory conclusions - on a particular topic in literature. Hence, as a clinician, which results will you believe? What will you tell your patient? Which drug is better? A systematic review or a meta-analysis may help us answer these questions. In addition, it may also help us understand the quality of the articles in literature or the type of studies that have been conducted and published (example, randomized trials or observational studies). The first step it to identify a research question for systematic review or meta-analysis. The next step is to identify the articles that will be included in the study. This will be done by searching various databases; it is important that the researcher should search for articles in more than one database. It will also be useful to form a group of researchers and statisticians that have expertise in conducting systematic reviews and meta-analysis before initiating them. We strongly encourage the readers to register their proposed review/meta-analysis with PROSPERO. Finally, these studies should be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis checklist.

  3. Does restoration of focal lumbar lordosis for single level degenerative spondylolisthesis result in better patient-reported clinical outcomes? A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Chanseok; Visintini, Sarah; Dunning, Cynthia E; Oxner, William M; Glennie, R Andrew

    2017-10-01

    It is controversial whether the surgical restoration of sagittal balance and spinopelvic angulation in a single level lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis results in clinical improvements. The purpose of this study to systematically review the available literature to determine whether the surgical correction of malalignment in lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis correlates with improvements in patient-reported clinical outcomes. Literature searches were performed via Ovid Medline, Embase, CENTRAL and Web of Science using search terms "lumbar," "degenerative/spondylolisthesis" and "surgery/surgical/surgeries/fusion". This resulted in 844 articles and after reviewing the abstracts and full-texts, 13 articles were included for summary and final analysis. There were two Level II articles, four Level III articles and five Level IV articles. Most commonly used patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) were Oswestery disability index (ODI) and visual analogue scale (VAS). Four articles were included for the final statistical analysis. There was no statistically significant difference between the patient groups who achieved successful surgical correction of malalignment and those who did not for either ODI (mean difference -0.94, CI -8.89-7.00) or VAS (mean difference 1.57, CI -3.16-6.30). Two studies assessed the efficacy of manual reduction of lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis and their clinical outcomes after the operation, and there was no statistically significant improvement. Overall, the restoration of focal lumbar lordosis and restoration of sagittal balance for single-level lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis does not seem to yield clinical improvements but well-powered studies on this specific topic is lacking in the current literature. Future well-powered studies are needed for a more definitive conclusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeflang, Mariska M G; Deeks, Jonathan J; Gatsonis, Constantine

    2008-01-01

    More and more systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy studies are being published, but they can be methodologically challenging. In this paper, the authors present some of the recent developments in the methodology for conducting systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy studies....... Restrictive electronic search filters are discouraged, as is the use of summary quality scores. Methods for meta-analysis should take into account the paired nature of the estimates and their dependence on threshold. Authors of these reviews are advised to use the hierarchical summary receiver...

  5. Pioglitazone utilization, efficacy & safety in Indian type 2 diabetic patients: A systematic review & comparison with European Medicines Agency Assessment Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarayu A Pai

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: In India, probably due to lower dose, lower background incidence of bladder cancer and smaller sample size in epidemiological studies, association of bladder cancer with pioglitazone was not found to be significant. Reporting of CTs and adverse drug reactions to Clinical Trials Registry of India and Pharmacovigilance Programme of India, respectively, along with compliance studies with warning given in package insert and epidemiological studies with larger sample size are needed.

  6. Self-report fatigue questionnaires in multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease and stroke: a systematic review of measurement properties

    OpenAIRE

    Elbers, Roy G.; Rietberg, Marc B.; van Wegen, Erwin E. H.; Verhoef, John; Kramer, Sharon F.; Terwee, Caroline B.; Kwakkel, Gert

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To critically appraise, compare and summarize the measurement properties of self-report fatigue questionnaires validated in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson’s disease (PD) or stroke. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and SPORTdiscus were searched. The COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist was used to assess the methodological quality of studies. A qualitative data synthesis was performed to rate the mea...

  7. Factors Related to the Accuracy of Self-Reported Dietary Intake of Children Aged 6 to 12 Years Elicited with Interviews: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, Stefanie J; Skouteris, Helen; Powell, Martine B; Watson, Brittany

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between children's dietary consumption and health is important. As such, it is crucial to explore factors related to the accuracy of children's reports of what they consumed. The objective was to evaluate factors related to the accuracy of self-reported dietary intake information elicited by interview methods from children aged 6 to 12 years. A systematic review of English articles using PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, PsycEXTRA, PsycBOOKS, CINAHL Complete, Global Health, and MEDLINE Complete was performed. Search terms included interview, diet, children, and recall; studies were limited to those published from 1970 onward. Additional studies were identified using the reference lists of published articles. Studies that assessed children's dietary intake using direct observation, doubly labeled water, or the double-portion method and compared it with their recall of that intake (unassisted by parents) using an interview were included. The 45 studies that met the inclusion criteria showed that specific interview techniques designed to enhance children's recall accuracy had little effect. Rather, the timing of the interview appeared most important: The shorter the retention interval between children's consumption and their recall, the more accurate their memories. Children's age, body mass index, social desirability, food preferences, and cognitive ability were also related to accuracy. Factors related to the accuracy of children's dietary reporting should be taken into consideration when asking about consumption. Further research is required to examine whether other interview techniques, such as those developed to enhance children's recall of repeated staged events, can improve children's dietary reporting accuracy. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A systematic review of generic multidimensional patient-reported outcome measures for children, part II: evaluation of psychometric performance of English-language versions in a general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Astrid; Rogers, Morwenna; Thompson Coon, Jo; Allen, Karen; Green, Colin; Jenkinson, Crispin; Tennant, Alan; Logan, Stuart; Morris, Christopher

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this systematic review were 1) to identify studies that assess the psychometric performance of the English-language version of 35 generic multidimensional patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) for children and young people in general populations and evaluate their quality and 2) to summarize the psychometric properties of each PROM. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO were searched. The methodological quality of the articles was assessed using the COnsensus-based Standards for selection of health Measurement INstruments checklist. For each PROM, extracted evidence of content validity, construct validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, proxy reliability, responsiveness, and precision was judged against standardized reference criteria. We found no evidence for 14 PROMs. For the remaining 21 PROMs, 90 studies were identified. The methodological quality of most studies was fair. Quality was generally rated higher in more recent studies. Not reporting how missing data were handled was the most common reason for downgrading the quality. None of the 21 PROMs has had all psychometric properties evaluated; data on construct validity and internal consistency were most frequently reported. Overall, consistent positive findings for at least five psychometric properties were found for Child Health and Illness Profile, Healthy Pathways, KIDSCREEN, and Multi-dimensional Student Life Satisfaction Scale. None of the PROMs had been evaluated for responsiveness to detect change in general populations. Further well-designed studies with transparent reporting of methods and results are required. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Talent Identification in Sport: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kathryn; Wattie, Nick; Schorer, Jörg; Baker, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Talent identification (TID) programs are an integral part of the selection process for elite-level athletes. While many sport organizations utilize TID programs, there does not seem to be a clear set of variables that consistently predict future success. This review aims to synthesize longitudinal and retrospective studies examining differences between performance variables in highly skilled and less-skilled athletes in elite-level sport. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were used to identify relevant studies (N = 20). There was a clear overrepresentation of studies that (1) examined physical profiles of athletes (60%); (2) focused on male samples (65%); (3) examined athletes between the ages of 10 and 20 years (60%); and (4) were published between the years 2010 and 2015 (65%). On closer examination, there was a high degree of variability in the factors that were found to discriminate between skilled and less-skilled individuals. Findings from this review highlight how little is known about TID in elite sport and emphasize the need for greater diversity in TID research.

  10. Systematic review on cashew nut allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Valk, J P M; Dubois, A E J; Gerth van Wijk, R; Wichers, H J; de Jong, N W

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical recognition and to promote awareness of this emerging food allergy amongst clinicians. The goal of this study is to present a systematic review focused on the clinical aspects of allergy to cashew nut including the characteristics of cashew nut, the prevalence, allergenic components, cross-reactivity, diagnosis and management of cashew nut allergy. The literature search yielded 255 articles of which 40 met our selection criteria and were considered to be relevant for this review. The 40 articles included one prospective study, six retrospective studies and seven case reports. The remaining 26 papers were not directly related to cashew nut allergy. The literature suggests that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing, although the level of evidence for this is low. A minimal amount of cashew nut allergen may cause a severe allergic reaction, suggesting high potency comparable with other tree nuts and peanuts. Cashew allergy is clearly an underestimated important healthcare problem, especially in children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Iraq War mortality estimates: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyatt Gordon H

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In March 2003, the United States invaded Iraq. The subsequent number, rates, and causes of mortality in Iraq resulting from the war remain unclear, despite intense international attention. Understanding mortality estimates from modern warfare, where the majority of casualties are civilian, is of critical importance for public health and protection afforded under international humanitarian law. We aimed to review the studies, reports and counts on Iraqi deaths since the start of the war and assessed their methodological quality and results. Methods We performed a systematic search of 15 electronic databases from inception to January 2008. In addition, we conducted a non-structured search of 3 other databases, reviewed study reference lists and contacted subject matter experts. We included studies that provided estimates of Iraqi deaths based on primary research over a reported period of time since the invasion. We excluded studies that summarized mortality estimates and combined non-fatal injuries and also studies of specific sub-populations, e.g. under-5 mortality. We calculated crude and cause-specific mortality rates attributable to violence and average deaths per day for each study, where not already provided. Results Thirteen studies met the eligibility criteria. The studies used a wide range of methodologies, varying from sentinel-data collection to population-based surveys. Studies assessed as the highest quality, those using population-based methods, yielded the highest estimates. Average deaths per day ranged from 48 to 759. The cause-specific mortality rates attributable to violence ranged from 0.64 to 10.25 per 1,000 per year. Conclusion Our review indicates that, despite varying estimates, the mortality burden of the war and its sequelae on Iraq is large. The use of established epidemiological methods is rare. This review illustrates the pressing need to promote sound epidemiologic approaches to determining

  12. The systematic review as a research process in music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson-Abromeit, Deanna; Sena Moore, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Music therapists are challenged to present evidence on the efficacy of music therapy treatment and incorporate the best available research evidence to make informed healthcare and treatment decisions. Higher standards of evidence can come from a variety of sources including systematic reviews. To define and describe a range of research review methods using examples from music therapy and related literature, with emphasis on the systematic review. In addition, the authors provide a detailed overview of methodological processes for conducting and reporting systematic reviews in music therapy. The systematic review process is described in five steps. Step 1 identifies the research plan and operationalized research question(s). Step 2 illustrates the identification and organization of the existing literature related to the question(s). Step 3 details coding of data extracted from the literature. Step 4 explains the synthesis of coded findings and analysis to answer the research question(s). Step 5 describes the strength of evidence evaluation and results presentation for practice recommendations. Music therapists are encouraged to develop and conduct systematic reviews. This methodology contributes to review outcome credibility and can determine how information is interpreted and used by clinicians, clients or patients, and policy makers. A systematic review is a methodologically rigorous research method used to organize and evaluate extant literature related to a clinical problem. Systematic reviews can assist music therapists in managing the ever-increasing literature, making well-informed evidence based practice and research decisions, and translating existing music-based and nonmusic based literature to clinical practice and research development. © the American Music Therapy Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Definition of aggressive periodontitis in periodontal research. A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramírez, Valeria; Hach, Maria; López, Rodrigo

    2018-01-01

    . Consequently, considerable variation in the understanding of aggressive periodontitis can be anticipated. AIM: To systematically asses, the definitions of aggressive periodontitis reported in original periodontal research. METHODS: A systematic review of original research on aggressive periodontitis published.......7% of the publications no information is provided as to how the cases were defined. Many combinations of criteria for case definition were found. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed significant heterogeneity in the understanding and use of the term aggressive periodontitis in original research and poor documentation...

  14. Injuries in karate: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roger E; Ornstein, Jodie

    2018-05-22

    to identify all studies of Karate injuries and assess injury rates, types, location, and causes. Six electronic and four grey literature databases were searched. Two reviewers independently assessed titles/abstracts, abstracted data and assessed risk-of-bias with the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Average injury rates/1000AE (AE = athletic-encounter) and/1000minutesAE, injury location and type weighted by study size were calculated. In competitions rates of injury/1000AE and/1000 minutesAE were similar for males (111.4/1000AE, 75.4/1000 minAE) and females (105.8/1000AE, 72.8/1000 minAE). Location of injury rates/1000AE for males were 44.0 for head/neck, 11.9 lower extremities, 8.1 torso and 5.4 upper extremities and were similar for females: 41.2 head/neck, 12.4 lower extremities, 9.1 torso and 6.3 upper extremities. Injury rates varied widely by study. Rates/1000AE for type of injury were contusions/abrasions/lacerations/bruises/tooth avulsion for males (68.1) and females (30.4); hematomas/bleeding/epistaxis males (11.4) and females (12.1); strains/sprains males (3.5) and females (0.1); dislocations males (2.9) and females (0.9); concussions males (2.5) and females (3.9); and fractures males (2.9) and females (1.4). Punches were a more common mechanism of injury for males (59.8) than females (40.8) and kicks similar (males 19.7, females 21.7). Weighted averages were not calculated for weight class or belt colour because there were too few studies. Nineteen injury surveys reported annual injury rates from 30% to rates ten times higher but used different reporting methods. Studies provided no data to explain wide rate ranges. Studies need to adopt one injury definition, one data-collection form, and collect comprehensive data for each study for both training and competitions. More data are needed to measure the effect of weight, age and experience on injuries, rates and types of injury during training, and for competitors with high injury rates. RCTs are needed of

  15. Methodological and Reporting Quality of Comparative Studies Evaluating Health-Related Quality of Life of Colorectal Cancer Patients and Controls: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carlos K H; Guo, Vivian Y W; Chen, Jing; Lam, Cindy L K

    2016-11-01

    Health-related quality of life is an important outcome measure in patients with colorectal cancer. Comparison with normative data has been increasingly undertaken to assess the additional impact of colorectal cancer on health-related quality of life. This review aimed to critically appraise the methodological details and reporting characteristics of comparative studies evaluating differences in health-related quality of life between patients and controls. A systematic search of English-language literature published between January 1985 and May 2014 was conducted through a database search of PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Medline. Comparative studies reporting health-related quality-of-life outcomes among patients who have colorectal cancer and controls were selected. Methodological and reporting quality per comparison study was evaluated based on a 11-item methodological checklist proposed by Efficace in 2003 and a set of criteria predetermined by reviewers. Thirty-one comparative studies involving >10,000 patients and >10,000 controls were included. Twenty-three studies (74.2%) originated from European countries, with the largest number from the Netherlands (n = 6). Twenty-eight studies (90.3%) compared the health-related quality of life of patients with normative data published elsewhere, whereas the remaining studies recruited a group of patients who had colorectal cancer and a group of control patients within the same studies. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality-of-Life Questionnaire Core 30 was the most extensively used instrument (n = 16; 51.6%). Eight studies (25.8%) were classified as "probably robust" for clinical decision making according to the Efficace standard methodological checklist. Our further quality assessment revealed the lack of score differences reported (61.3%), contemporary comparisons (36.7%), statistical significance tested (38.7%), and matching of control group (58.1%), possibly leading to

  16. Tuberculosis incidence in prisons: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baussano, Iacopo; Williams, Brian G; Nunn, Paul; Beggiato, Marta; Fedeli, Ugo; Scano, Fabio

    2010-12-21

    Transmission of tuberculosis (TB) in prisons has been reported worldwide to be much higher than that reported for the corresponding general population. A systematic review has been performed to assess the risk of incident latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and TB disease in prisons, as compared to the incidence in the corresponding local general population, and to estimate the fraction of TB in the general population attributable (PAF%) to transmission within prisons. Primary peer-reviewed studies have been searched to assess the incidence of LTBI and/or TB within prisons published until June 2010; both inmates and prison staff were considered. Studies, which were independently screened by two reviewers, were eligible for inclusion if they reported the incidence of LTBI and TB disease in prisons. Available data were collected from 23 studies out of 582 potentially relevant unique citations. Five studies from the US and one from Brazil were available to assess the incidence of LTBI in prisons, while 19 studies were available to assess the incidence of TB. The median estimated annual incidence rate ratio (IRR) for LTBI and TB were 26.4 (interquartile range [IQR]: 13.0-61.8) and 23.0 (IQR: 11.7-36.1), respectively. The median estimated fraction (PAF%) of tuberculosis in the general population attributable to the exposure in prisons for TB was 8.5% (IQR: 1.9%-17.9%) and 6.3% (IQR: 2.7%-17.2%) in high- and middle/low-income countries, respectively. The very high IRR and the substantial population attributable fraction show that much better TB control in prisons could potentially protect prisoners and staff from within-prison spread of TB and would significantly reduce the national burden of TB. Future studies should measure the impact of the conditions in prisons on TB transmission and assess the population attributable risk of prison-to-community spread. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  17. Usefulness of systematic review search strategies in finding child health systematic reviews in MEDLINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boluyt, Nicole; Tjosvold, Lisa; Lefebvre, Carol; Klassen, Terry P.; Offringa, Martin

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensitivity and precision of existing search strategies for retrieving child health systematic reviews in MEDLINE using PubMed. DESIGN: Filter (diagnostic) accuracy study. We identified existing search strategies for systematic reviews, combined them with a filter that

  18. Effect and reporting bias of RhoA/ROCK-blockade intervention on locomotor recovery after spinal cord injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watzlawick, Ralf; Sena, Emily S; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Brommer, Benedikt; Kopp, Marcel A; Macleod, Malcolm R; Howells, David W; Schwab, Jan M

    2014-01-01

    Blockade of small GTPase-RhoA signaling pathway is considered a candidate translational strategy to improve functional outcome after spinal cord injury (SCI) in humans. Pooling preclinical evidence by orthodox meta-analysis is confounded by missing data (publication bias). To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of RhoA/Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK) blocking approaches to (1) analyze the impact of bias that may lead to inflated effect sizes and (2) determine the normalized effect size of functional locomotor recovery after experimental thoracic SCI. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science and hand searched related references. Studies were selected if they reported the effect of RhoA/ROCK inhibitors (C3-exoenzmye, fasudil, Y-27632, ibuprofen, siRhoA, and p21) in experimental spinal cord hemisection, contusion, or transection on locomotor recovery measured by the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan score or the Basso Mouse Scale for Locomotion. Two investigators independently assessed the identified studies. Details of individual study characteristics from each publication were extracted and effect sizes pooled using a random effects model. We assessed risk for bias using a 9-point-item quality checklist and calculated publication bias with Egger regression and the trim and fill method. A stratified meta-analysis was used to assess the impact of study characteristics on locomotor recovery. Thirty studies (725 animals) were identified. RhoA/ROCK inhibition was found to improve locomotor outcome by 21% (95% CI, 16.0-26.6). Assessment of publication bias by the trim and fill method suggested that 30% of experiments remain unpublished. Inclusion of these theoretical missing studies suggested a 27% overestimation of efficacy, reducing the overall efficacy to a 15% improvement in locomotor recovery. Low study quality was associated with larger estimates of neurobehavioral outcome. Taking into account

  19. Using text mining for study identification in systematic reviews: a systematic review of current approaches

    OpenAIRE

    O?Mara-Eves, Alison; Thomas, James; McNaught, John; Miwa, Makoto; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Background The large and growing number of published studies, and their increasing rate of publication, makes the task of identifying relevant studies in an unbiased way for inclusion in systematic reviews both complex and time consuming. Text mining has been offered as a potential solution: through automating some of the screening process, reviewer time can be saved. The evidence base around the use of text mining for screening has not yet been pulled together systematically; this systematic...

  20. Pharmacological interventions to treat phlebitis: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Paula Elaine Diniz; Silveira, Renata Cristina de Campos Pereira; Vasques, Christiane Inocêncio; de Carvalho, Emilia Campos

    2009-01-01

    This study presents a systematic review for evaluating effective pharmacological actions for the treatment of phlebitis stemming from infusion therapy. The studies reviewed were categorized according to the type of therapeutic approach proposed by the author and by the level of evidence presented. The review found that topical nitroglycerin and notoginseny were more effective in the reduction of the inflammatory process when compared with other proposed alternatives. Nevertheless, the development of research related to possible alternatives for the treatment of phlebitis is important.

  1. Serologic Screening for Genital Herpes: An Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltner, Cynthia; Grodensky, Catherine; Ebel, Charles; Middleton, Jennifer C; Harris, Russell P; Ashok, Mahima; Jonas, Daniel E

    2016-12-20

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is a prevalent sexually transmitted infection. Vertical transmission of HSV can lead to fetal morbidity and mortality. To assess the evidence on serologic screening and preventive interventions for genital HSV infection in asymptomatic adults and adolescents to support the US Preventive Services Task Force for an updated recommendation statement. MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and trial registries through March 31, 2016. Surveillance for new evidence in targeted publications was conducted through October 31, 2016. English-language randomized clinical trials (RCTs) comparing screening with no screening in persons without past or current symptoms of genital herpes; studies evaluating accuracy and harms of serologic screening tests for HSV-2; RCTs assessing preventive interventions in asymptomatic persons seropositive for HSV-2. Dual review of abstracts, full-text articles, and study quality; pooled sensitivities and specificities of screening tests using a hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curve analysis when at least 3 similar studies were available. Accuracy of screening tests, benefits of screening, harms of screening, reduction in genital herpes outbreaks. A total of 17 studies (n = 9736 participants; range, 24-3290) in 19 publications were included. No RCTs compared screening with no screening. Most studies of the accuracy of screening tests were from populations with high HSV-2 prevalence (greater than 40% based on Western blot). Pooled estimates of sensitivity and specificity of the most commonly used test at the manufacturer's cutpoint were 99% (95% CI, 97%-100%) and 81% (95% CI, 68%-90%), respectively (10 studies; n = 6537). At higher cutpoints, pooled estimates were 95% (95% CI, 91%-97%) and 89% (95% CI, 82%-93%), respectively (7 studies; n = 5516). Use of this test at the manufacturer's cutpoint in a population of 100 000 with a prevalence of HSV-2 of 16% (the

  2. Topical report review status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-08-01

    A Topical Report Review Status is scheduled to be published semi-annually. The primary purpose of this document is to provide periodic progress reports of on-going topical report reviews, to identify those topical reports for which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff review has been completed and, to the extent practicable, to provide NRC management with sufficient information regarding the conduct of the topical report program to permit taking whatever actions deemed necessary or appropriate. This document is also intended to be a source of information to NRC Licensing Project Managers and other NRC personnel regarding the status of topical reports which may be referenced in applications for which they have responsibility. This status report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the topical report program, but is also used by NRC to advise the industry of report review status

  3. Topical report review status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    A Topical Report Review Status is scheduled to be published semi-annually. The primary purpose of this document is to provide periodic progress reports of on-going topical report reviews, to identify those topical reports for which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff review has been completed and, to the extent practicable, to provide NRC management with sufficient information regarding the conduct of the topical report program to permit taking whatever actions deemed necessary or appropriate. This document is also intended to be a source of information to NRC Licensing Project Managers and other NRC personnel regarding the status of topical reports which may be referenced in applications for which they have responsibility. This status report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the topical report program, but is also used by NRC to advise the industry of report review status

  4. The albatross plot: A novel graphical tool for presenting results of diversely reported studies in a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Sean; Jones, Hayley E; Martin, Richard M; Lewis, Sarah J; Higgins, Julian P T

    2017-09-01

    Meta-analyses combine the results of multiple studies of a common question. Approaches based on effect size estimates from each study are generally regarded as the most informative. However, these methods can only be used if comparable effect sizes can be computed from each study, and this may not be the case due to variation in how the studies were done or limitations in how their results were reported. Other methods, such as vote counting, are then used to summarize the results of these studies, but most of these methods are limited in that they do not provide any indication of the magnitude of effect. We propose a novel plot, the albatross plot, which requires only a 1-sided P value and a total sample size from each study (or equivalently a 2-sided P value, direction of effect and total sample size). The plot allows an approximate examination of underlying effect sizes and the potential to identify sources of heterogeneity across studies. This is achieved by drawing contours showing the range of effect sizes that might lead to each P value for given sample sizes, under simple study designs. We provide examples of albatross plots using data from previous meta-analyses, allowing for comparison of results, and an example from when a meta-analysis was not possible. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Fetofetal Transfusion Syndrome in Monochorionic-Triamniotic Triplets Treated with Fetoscopic Laser Ablation: Report of Two Cases and A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair J. Blumenfeld

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective - This study aims to determine the clinical outcomes of monochorionic-triamniotic (MT pregnancies complicated by severe fetofetal transfusion undergoing laser photocoagulation. Study Design - We report two cases of MT triplets complicated by fetofetal transfusion syndrome (FFTS and a systematic review classifying cases into different subtypes: MT with two donors and one recipient, MT with one donor and two recipients, MT with one donor, one recipient, and one unaffected triplet. The number of neonatal survivors was analyzed based on this classification as well as Quintero staging. Results - A total of 26 cases of MT triples complicated by FFTS were analyzed. In 56% of the cases, the FFTS involved all three triplets, 50% of whom had an additional donor and 50% an additional recipient. Among the 24 cases that survived beyond 1 week after the procedure, the average gestational age of delivery was 29.6 weeks, and the average interval from procedure to delivery was 10.1 weeks. The overall neonatal survival rate was 71.7%, with demises occurring equally between donor and recipient triplets. Overall neonatal survival including survival of at least two fetuses occurred with equal frequency between the different groups. Conclusion - Significant neonatal survival can be achieved in most cases of MT triplets with FFTS.

  6. Brief report on a systematic review of youth violence prevention through media campaigns: Does the limited yield of strong evidence imply methodological challenges or absence of effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Tali; Bowman, Brett; McGrath, Chloe; Matzopoulos, Richard

    2016-10-01

    We present a brief report on a systematic review which identified, assessed and synthesized the existing evidence of the effectiveness of media campaigns in reducing youth violence. Search strategies made use of terms for youth, violence and a range of terms relating to the intervention. An array of academic databases and websites were searched. Although media campaigns to reduce violence are widespread, only six studies met the inclusion criteria. There is little strong evidence to support a direct link between media campaigns and a reduction in youth violence. Several studies measure proxies for violence such as empathy or opinions related to violence, but the link between these measures and violence perpetration is unclear. Nonetheless, some evidence suggests that a targeted and context-specific campaign, especially when combined with other measures, can reduce violence. However, such campaigns are less cost-effective to replicate over large populations than generalised campaigns. It is unclear whether the paucity of evidence represents a null effect or methodological challenges with evaluating media campaigns. Future studies need to be carefully planned to accommodate for methodological difficulties as well as to identify the specific elements of campaigns that work, especially in lower and middle income countries. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Robotic Transnasal Endoscopic Skull Base Surgery: Systematic Review of the Literature and Report of a Novel Prototype for a Hybrid System (Brescia Endoscope Assistant Robotic Holder).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzoni Villaret, Andrea; Doglietto, Francesco; Carobbio, Andrea; Schreiber, Alberto; Panni, Camilla; Piantoni, Enrico; Guida, Giovanni; Fontanella, Marco Maria; Nicolai, Piero; Cassinis, Riccardo

    2017-09-01

    Although robotics has already been applied to several surgical fields, available systems are not designed for endoscopic skull base surgery (ESBS). New conception prototypes have been recently described for ESBS. The aim of this study was to provide a systematic literature review of robotics for ESBS and describe a novel prototype developed at the University of Brescia. PubMed and Scopus databases were searched using a combination of terms, including Robotics OR Robot and Surgery OR Otolaryngology OR Skull Base OR Holder. The retrieved papers were analyzed, recording the following features: interface, tools under robotic control, force feedback, safety systems, setup time, and operative time. A novel hybrid robotic system has been developed and tested in a preclinical setting at the University of Brescia, using an industrial manipulator and readily available off-the-shelf components. A total of 11 robotic prototypes for ESBS were identified. Almost all prototypes present a difficult emergency management as one of the main limits. The Brescia Endoscope Assistant Robotic holder has proven the feasibility of an intuitive robotic movement, using the surgeon's head position: a 6 degree of freedom sensor was used and 2 light sources were added to glasses that were therefore recognized by a commercially available sensor. Robotic system prototypes designed for ESBS and reported in the literature still present significant technical limitations. Hybrid robot assistance has a huge potential and might soon be feasible in ESBS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A comprehensive systematic review of the development process of 104 patient-reported outcomes (PROs for physical activity in chronically ill and elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frei Anja

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Capturing dimensions of physical activity relevant to patients may provide a unique perspective for clinical studies of chronically ill patients. However, the quality of the development of existing instruments is uncertain. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the development process of patient-reported outcome (PRO instruments including their initial validation to measure physical activity in chronically ill or elderly patient populations. Methods We conducted a systematic literature search of electronic databases (Medline, Embase, Psychinfo, Cinahl and hand searches. We included studies describing the original development of fully structured instruments measuring dimensions of physical activity or related constructs in chronically ills or elderly. We broadened the population to elderly because they are likely to share physical activity limitations. At least two reviewers independently conducted title and abstract screening and full text assessment. We evaluated instruments in terms of their aim, items identification and selection, domain development, test-retest reliability, internal consistency, validity and responsiveness. Results Of the 2542 references from the database search and 89 from the hand search, 103 full texts which covered 104 instruments met our inclusion criteria. For almost half of the instruments the authors clearly described the aim of the instruments before the scales were developed. For item identification, patient input was used in 38% of the instruments and in 32% adaptation of existing scales and/or unsystematic literature searches were the only sources for the generation of items. For item reduction, in 56% of the instruments patient input was used and in 33% the item reduction process was not clearly described. Test-retest reliability was assessed for 61%, validity for 85% and responsiveness to change for 19% of the instruments. Conclusions Many PRO instruments exist to measure

  9. Ring Avulsion Injuries: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamba, Ravinder; Malhotra, Gautam; Bueno, Reuben A; Thayer, Wesley P; Shack, R Bruce

    2018-01-01

    Ring avulsion injuries can range from soft tissue injury to complete amputation. Grading systems have been developed to guide treatment, but there is controversy with high-grade injuries. Traditionally, advanced ring injuries have been treated with completion amputation, but there is evidence that severe ring injuries can be salvaged. The purpose of this systematic review was to pool the current published data on ring injuries. A systematic review of the English literature published from 1980 to 2015 in PubMed and MEDLINE databases was conducted to identify patients who underwent treatment for ring avulsion injuries. Twenty studies of ring avulsion injuries met the inclusion criteria. There were a total of 572 patients reported with ring avulsion injuries. The Urbaniak class breakdown was class I (54 patients), class II (204 patients), and class III (314 patients). The average total arc of motion (TAM) for patients with a class I injury was 201.25 (n = 40). The average 2-point discrimination was 5.6 (n = 10). The average TAM for patients with a class II injury undergoing microsurgical revascularization was 187.0 (n = 114), and the average 2-point discrimination was 8.3 (n = 4