Olander William E
Full Text Available Abstract Background In February, 2007, the Associated Press (AP conducted a poll of 1,002 adults in the United States about their attitudes towards the war in Iraq. Respondents were remarkably accurate estimating the current death toll of US soldiers, yet were grossly inaccurate in estimating the current death toll of Iraqi civilians. We conducted a search of newspapers reports to determine the extent of the discrepancy between reporting Coalition and Iraqi civilian deaths, hypothesizing that there would be an over-representation of Coalition deaths compared to Iraqi civilian deaths. Methods We examined 11 U.S. newspapers and 5 non-U.S. newspapers using electronic databases or newspaper web-archives, to record any reports between March 2003 and March 2008 of Coalition and Iraqi deaths that included a numeric indicator. Reports were described as "events" where they described a specific occurrence involving fatalities and "tallies" when they mentioned the number of deaths over a period of time. We recorded the number of events and tallies related to Coalition deaths, Iraqi civilian deaths, and Iraqi combatant deaths Results U.S. newspapers report more events and tallies related to Coalition deaths than Iraqi civilian deaths, although there are substantially different proportions amongst the different U.S. newspapers. In four of the five non-US newspapers, the pattern was reversed. Conclusion This difference in reporting trends may partly explain the discrepancy in how well people are informed about U.S. and Iraqi civilian fatalities in Iraq. Furthermore, this calls into question the role of the media in reporting and sustaining armed conflict, and the extent to which newspaper and other media reports can be used as data to assess fatalities or trends in the time of war.
Hall, Katharine; Stahl, Dale
The problem of measuring the number of civilian fatalities in Iraq gained widespread media coverage when the Lancet published a study in October 2004 claiming that more than 100,000 Iraqi civilians...
Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To determine the pattern of causalities of Iraqi ballistic missile attacks on Tehran, the capital of Iran, during Iraq-Iran war. Methods: Data were extracted from the Army Staff Headquarters based on daily reports of Iranian army units during the war. Results: During 52 days, Tehran was stroked by 118 Al-Hussein missiles (a modified version of Scud missile. Eighty-six missiles landed in populated areas. During Iraqi missile attacks, 422 civilians died and 1 579 injured (4.9 deaths and 18.3 injuries per missile. During 52 days, 8.1 of the civilians died and 30.4 injured daily. Of the cases that died, 101 persons (24% were excluded due to the lack of information. Among the remainders, 179 (55.8% were male and 142 (44.2% were female. The mean age of the victims was 25.3 years±19.9 years. Our results show that the high accuracy of modified Scud missiles landed in crowded ar-eas is the major cause of high mortality in Tehran. The pres-ence of suitable warning system and shelters could reduce civilian casualties. Conclusion: The awareness and readiness of civilian defense forces, rescue services and all medical facilities for dealing with mass casualties caused by ballistic missile at-tacks are necessary. Key words: Mortality; War; Mass casualty incidents; Wounds and injuries
The subject of this report directly applies to the work of DoD civilian and military personnel responsible for the reset of equipment provided to the warfighter deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom...
This is an abstract of the final report focusing on the collection, collation, analysis, and recording of information pertaining to Iraqi nuclear weapons development and on the long term monitoring of Iraq
Nguyen, Tinh; Thompson, Charles; Williams, Roger M
.... One indicator being reported is information on the number of Iraqi Security Forces (ISF) authorized (required), assigned (on-the-payroll), and trained. The Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction...
This is the second Annual Report on the activities and expenditures of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and covers the fiscal year ending September 30, 1984. Research over the past 30 years has shown that high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel can be safely disposed of in geologic repositories. This report provides an overview of the OCRWM organization. The specific accomplishments of the Office are presented. The Office's financial statements for fiscal years 1983 and 1984 are included, and a concluding chapter updates the report with a brief summary of key accomplishments since the end of fiscal year 1984. 9 figs., 5 tabs
This is the third annual report on the activities and expenditures of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and covers the period from October 1, 1984 through September 30, 1985. The following were among the most significant accomplishments during FY 1985: publication of the mission plan; creation of a systems integration capability; publication of draft environmental assessments; development of a program management system and implementation of a comprehensive approach of ''managing for quality'' in all program activities; and development of new initiatives and more consistent interactions in the area of institutional relationships. The Office's financial statements for fiscal years 1984 and 1985 are included, and a concluding chapter updates the report with a brief summary of highlights of accomplishments following the end of fiscal year 1985. 96 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs
This is the fifth Annual Report to Congress by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The report covers the activities and expenditures of OCRWM during fiscal year 1987, which ended on September 30, 1987. The activities and accomplishments of OCRWM during fiscal year 1987 are discussed in chapters 1 through 9 of this report. The audited financial statements of the Nuclear Waste Fund are provided in chapter 10. Since the close of the fiscal year, a number of significant events have occurred. Foremost among them was the passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 (Amendments Act) on December 21, 1987, nearly 3 months after the end of the fiscal year covered by this report. As a result, some of the plans and activities discussed in chapters 1 through 9 are currently undergoing significant change or are being discontinued. Most prominent among the provisions of the Amendments Act is the designation of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the only candidate first repository site to be characterized. Therefore, the site characterization plans for Deaf Smith, Texas, and Hanford, Washington, discussed in chapter 3, will not be issued. The refocusing of the waste management program under the Amendments Act is highlighted in the epilogue, chapter 11. 68 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs
This seventh Annual Report to Congress by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) describes activities and expenditures of the Office during fiscal years (FY) 1989 and 1990. In November 1989, OCRWM is responsible for disposing of the Nation's spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and the quality of the environment. To direct the implementation of its mission, OCRWM has established the following objectives: (1) Safe and timely disposal: to establish as soon as practicable the ability to dispose of radioactive waste in a geologic repository licensed by the NRC. (2) Timely and adequate waste acceptance: to begin the operation of the waste management system as soon as practicable in order to obtain the system development and operational benefits that have been identified for the MRS facility. (3) Schedule confidence: to establish confidence in the schedule for waste acceptance and disposal such that the management of radioactive waste is not an obstacle to the nuclear energy option. (4) System flexibility: to ensure that the program has the flexibility necessary for adapting to future circumstances while fulfilling established commitments. To achieve these objectives, OCRWM is developing a waste management system consisting of a geologic repository for permanent disposed deep beneath the surface of the earth, a facility for MRS, and a system for transporting the waste
The Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Radioactive Waste (10 CFR Part 961) requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to issue an Annual Capacity Report (ACR) for planning purposes. This report is the fifth in the series published by DOE. In March 1993, DOE published the 1992 Acceptance Priority Ranking (APR) that established the order in which DOE will allocate projected acceptance capacity. As required by the Standard Contract, the acceptance priority ranking is based on the date the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) was permanently discharged, with the owners of the oldest SNF, on an industry-wide basis, given thehighest priority. The 1992 ACR applies the projected waste acceptance rates in Table 2.1 to the 1992 APR, resulting in individual allocations for the owners and generators of the SNF. These allocations art, listed in detail in the Appendix, and summarized in Table 3.1. The projected waste acceptance rates for SNF presented in Table 2.1 assume a site for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility will tic obtained; the facility will initiate operations in 1998; and the statutory linkages between the MRS facility and the repository set forth in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended (NWPA), will be modified. During the first ten years following projected commencement of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) operation, the total quantity of SNF that could be accepted is projected to be 8200 metric tons of uranium (MTU). This is consistent with the storage capacity licensing conditions imposed on an MRS facility by the NWPA. The annual acceptance rates provide an approximation of the system throughput and are subject to change as the program progresses
This document summarizes the activities of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management for FY 1986. Topics include public interaction between the states and affected Indian Tribes, planning for a waste management system, site selection and site characterization of potential geologic repositories, participation in international repository projects, proposal development for a monitored retrievable storage system, demonstrations of spent fuel storage, and development of quality assurance and safety plans. 59 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs
This is our final report on the audit of the Joint Civilian Orientation Conference (JCOC) Fund (the Fund). We performed the audit from June to July...1990. The Director, Budget and Finance, Washington Headquarters Services, requested the audit because a new Treasurer had been appointed. The overall...Instruction No. 48, Joint Civilian Orientation Conference Fund, May 31, 1983, and with DoD policy and guidelines. In addition, the audit evaluated
Four recent estimates of the fossil fuel resources in the United States are used in the Report on Civilian Nuclear Power. They are not entirely independent estimates and, in particular, three of the estimates of coal resources have as their basis the data in 'Coal Reserves of the United States - A Progress Report, January 1, 1960,' Geological Survey Bulletin 1136. The total energy content of the various fossil fuel resources remaining in the United States as given by these estimates has been summarized.
Seaborg, Glenn T. [United States Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC (United States)
This overarching report on the role of nuclear power in the U.S. economy was requested by U.S. President John F. Kennedy in March, 1962. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission was charged with producing the report, gaining input from individuals inside and outside government, including the Department of Interior, the Federal Power Commission, and the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Natural Resources. The study was to identify the objectives, scope, and content of a nuclear power development program in light of prospective energy needs and resources. It should recommend appropriate steps to assure the proper timing of development and construction of nuclear power projects, including the construction of necessary prototypes and continued cooperation between government and industry. There should also be an evaluation of the extent to which the U.S. nuclear power program will further international objectives in the peaceful uses of atomic energy.
The Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste (10 CRF 961) requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to issue and Annual Capacity Report (ACR) for planning purposes. This report is currently scheduled to be the last in the series of ACRs to be published by DOE. The Standard Disposal Contract states that beginning in April 1991, DOE will publish the first annual Acceptance Priority Ranking report which will formally set forth the acceptance queue in which Purchasers will receive priority for allocation of the Waste Management System (WMS) acceptance capacity. This 1990 issue of the ACR utilizes two projected WMS waste acceptance schedules as the bases for allocation of acceptance capacity to the Purchasers for a 10-year period following the projected commencement of facility operations. The acceptance schedules were selected to be representative of upper and lower boundaries for a WMS which includes a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility capable of receiving and storing SNF starting in 1998. 6 refs., 4 tabs
Hosmer, Stephen T
.... Drawing upon information derived primarily from interviews with former senior Iraqi civilian and military officials, this monograph focuses on two questions relating to the rapidity and ease of that victory: (1...
The Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste (10 CFR Part 961) requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to issue an Annual Capacity Report (ACR) for planning purposes. This report is the fourth in the series published by DOE. In December 1991, the Department published the 1991 Acceptance Priority Ranking (APR) that established the order in which the Department will allocate acceptance capacity. As required by the Standard Contract, the priority ranking for acceptance capacity is based on the date the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) was permanently discharged, with the owners of the oldest SNF, on an industry-wide basis, given the highest priority. The 1991 ACR applies the waste acceptance rates in the 1991 APR, resulting in individual Purchaser allocations. These allocations are listed and summarized. The projected waste acceptance rates for SNF presented assume: a site for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility will be obtained and the facility will be obtained and the facility will initiate operations in 1998; and the statutory schedule linkages between the MRS facility and the repository set forth in the Nuclear Waste Policy of 1982, as amended (NWPA) will be modified
During Fiscal Year 1999, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) continued to make significant progress in its characterization of the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, candidate geologic repository site. Although OCRWM's appropriation for Fiscal Year 1999 was lower than requested, the Program accomplished all three success measures in the Secretary's Fiscal Year 1999 Performance Agreement with the President and completed important work in many other areas. This Annual Report reviews this work and looks toward future activities
During Fiscal Year 1999, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) continued to make significant progress in its characterization of the Yucca Mountain, Nevada, candidate geologic repository site. Although OCRWM's appropriation for Fiscal Year 1999 was lower than requested, the Program accomplished all three success measures in the Secretary's Fiscal Year 1999 Performance Agreement with the President and completed important work in many other areas. This Annual Report reviews this work and looks toward future activities.
The system configuration used as the basis for this year's report is the authorized system defined in the Mission Plan Amendment. It includes a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility as an integral system component. The illustrative waste acceptance schedule for this WMS configuration reflects the amended first repository schedule and a proposed schedule for the MRS facility. This schedule provides only an approximation of when and how the system may operate and is subject to changes as recognized in the draft Mission Plan Amendment. During the first 10 years of WMS operation, the total quantity of spent fuel that could be accepted is projected to be 24,100 metric tons uranium (MTU). The allocation of acceptance rights is currently based on the projected annual capacity of the WMS to receive SNF and the age of permanently discharged spent fuel as determined from 1986 data provided by the Purchasers of waste disposal services on the 1987 Nuclear Fuel Data Form, RW-859. The allocations are based on assigning the highest priority to the oldest fuel on an industry-wide basis. The Annual Capacity Report (ACR) provides a discussion of the requirement for the ACR and the role it plays in DOE's interaction with the Purchasers in implementing the provisions of the Standard Disposal Contract. The currently projected annual acceptance capacity to be allocated and a discussion of some of the impacts the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 may have on the Purchasers, DOE, and the Contract are presented. The basis and procedure for allocating this capacity (acceptance rights) are discussed. The status of the ACR Issue Resolution Process and DOE responses to comments on the 1987 ACR are discussed. 7 refs
The system configuration used as the basis for this report is defined in the Mission Plan Amendment. It includes a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility as an integral system component. During the first 10 years of WMS operation, the total quantity of spent fuel that could be accepted is 18,600 metric tons uranium (MTU). By starting WMS operations in 1998, the MRS facility could accept 6000 MTU of spent fuel by the time repository operations are projected to begin in 2003. The allocation of acceptance right is currently based on the projected annual capacity of the waste management system to receive SNF and the age of permanently discharged spent fuel. The allocations are based on the oldest fuel having the highest priority. Section 1.0 provides a discussion of the requirement for the (ACR) and the role the ACR will play in DOE's interaction with the Purchasers in implementing the provisions of the Standard Disposal Contract. The currently projected annual acceptance capacity to be allocated is discussed and presented in Section 2.0. Section 3.0 discusses the procedure and basis for allocation of this capacity (acceptance rights). Allocation will be based on the chronological listing of spent fuel assemblies and equivalent MTU. Some of the contingencies which may have an impact on Contract implementation and system operation considerations which could affect the projected annual capacity and its allocation are identified in Section 4.0. 4 refs., 11 tabs
In the Report of the House Committee on Appropriations (House Report No. 101-96) on the Energy and Water Development Appropriation Act, 1990 (P.L. 101-101), the Committee directed the Department of Energy (DOE) ''hor-ellipsis to submit a report within 60 days of enactment hor-ellipsis which describes in detail how the Department plans to respond to the Committee's hor-ellipsis concerns dealing with endemic schedule slips, problems in management structure, and lack of integrated contractor efforts.'' This report has been prepared in response to the above-mentioned Congressional directive. It is based on a comprehensive review that the Secretary of Energy has recently completed of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The Secretary's review has led to the development of a three-point action plan for restructuring the program. This plan is explained in this report
The Institutional Challenges Subpanel of the Energy Research Advisory Board's Civilian Nuclear Power Panel was charged with the task of addressing the institutional issues that affect the future of nuclear power in the United States. Barriers created by non-technical issues are generally considered to be primary obstacles to revitalizing the nuclear fission option as part of a robust supply for future electrical generation. The Subpanel examined the following categories of institutional issues: (1) Administration Policy and Leadership, (2) Licensing Reform, (3) Standardized Designs, (4) Shared Financial Risk, (5) State and Economic Regulation, (6) Waste Disposal, and (7) Public Perception. The Subpanel concluded that the Administration and Congress have the opportunity and responsibility to provide leadership in resolving these difficulties. The main report provides information on the background and current situation for each institutional issue and concludes with the set of recommendations for action
Katon, Jodie; Cypel, Yasmin; Raza, Mubashra; Zephyrin, Laurie; Reiber, Gayle; Yano, Elizabeth M; Barth, Shannon; Schneiderman, Aaron
Infertility is associated with psychosocial distress and is a growing public health concern. Our objective was to report the prevalence of lifetime history of infertility among men and women Veterans. We used data from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs National Health Study for a New Generation of U.S. Veterans, a nationally representative survey of Veterans serving during Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF). The primary dependent variables were self-reported lifetime history of infertility among Veterans and their partners, defined as trying unsuccessfully to become pregnant for at least 12 months, and seeking medical help for infertility. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine whether gender was associated with lifetime history of infertility or seeking medical help for infertility, after adjusting for sociodemographic and military characteristics. All analyses were weighted to account for the complex survey design and nonresponse. Among the 20,370 Veterans (16,056 men; 4,314 women) in our final analytic sample, the prevalence of lifetime history of infertility was 15.8% for women and 13.8% for men. After adjusting for age, ever married, education, race/ethnicity, component, branch of service, and deployment to OEF/OIF, compared with men, women Veterans had similar odds of lifetime history of infertility (odds ratio [OR] 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.94, 1.20), but increased odds of seeking medical help for infertility (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.06, 1.72). Women Veterans are more likely than their male counterparts to seek care for infertility, and given their increasing numbers, the demand for infertility evaluation and care within Veterans' Affairs may increase.
Ostovary, Fariba; Dapprich, Janet
This article presents issues related to disabled military servicemen and women who are transitioning to civilian life. The emphasis is on the experience of veterans serving in the Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) as they reintegrate into civilian workplace and learning environments. The authors begin with an…
Shatha Hussain Ali
Full Text Available Renal disease in hospitalized children can be difficult to diagnose early as it may exhibit few symptoms, unlike in adults. This study reports the epidemiological data, percentages and types of renal disorders in children seen at the pediatric nephrology center of the AlKadhymia Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq. A retrospective review of the charts of all patients, aged between one month and 14 years, who were admitted and followed-up for a period of three years from January 2009 till January 2012 were studied. The presence of renal disease based on their clinical records, laboratory tests and final diagnosis were noted. A total of 4785 children were admitted during the study period, of whom 326 renal disorders were observed in 281 children (5.8%. The affected children included 158 males (56.2% and 123 females (43.7%. Majority of the cases were above two years of age (n = 181; 64.4%. Among them, urinary tract infection, seen in 60 patients (18.4%, was the most common renal disease, followed by nephrotic syndrome (n = 52; 15.9%, renal stone disease (n = 49; 15%, congenital malformations (n = 46; 14.1%, acute renal failure (n = 37; 11.3%, chronic renal failure (n = 22; 6.7%, glomerulonephritis (n = 16; 4.9%, isolated hematuria (n = 14; 4.2%, hypertension (n = 8; 2.4%, tubular disorders [renal tubular acidosis (n = 8; 2.4%, isolated hypercalciuria (n = 7; 2.1%, Bartter syndrome (n = 1; 0.3%] and Wilm′s tumor in six (1.8% patients. The spectrum of renal disorders in Iraq is wide, and is similar to those reported from other developing countries with a predominance of infectious diseases.
Nodar Z. Mossaki
Full Text Available The article analyzes the system of training of officers in military academies in Iraq – in Zakho, Qalacholan, ar-Rustamiyah and an-Nasiriyah. The author describes the history of creation, process of evolution, challenges and features of training in these colleges. Particular attention paid to military academies in the territory of Iraqi Kurdistan, which actually do not obey the central government of Iraq, however, have the highest level of training. Currently, Iraq's military academies operate on the basis of the NATO standards. Iraqi military academies paid miuch attention to the specifics of the military and political situation in Iraq – counterinsurgency and counterterrorism operations, patrolling cities, fighting in an urban environment etc. Significant place in the curriculum take the courses contributing to the formation of pro-Western sentiment.
On November 29, 1989, the Secretary of Energy published his ''Report to Congress on the Reassessment of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program'' (Report), and sent copies to numerous interested parties for their review and comment. This document summarizes comments received on the Report and presents the DOE's current responses to those comments as a basis for further discussions. Included as appendixes are a list of commenters, a crosswalk showing where each comment is addressed, the comment letters themselves with specific comments delineated, and the DOE's response to those letters. Twenty-five individuals or organizations submitted comments on the Report. The DOE identified 130 individual comments and classified them into the following seven categories: Management, Institutional, Regulatory, Transportation, Monitored Retrievable Storage, Scheduling, and Yucca Mountain. For the responses, comments were than grouped into more specific topics under each of the major headings. The DOE attempted to respond to all comments
The Secretary of Energy requested that the Office of Nuclear Energy prepare a strategic national plan that outlines the Department's role in the future development of civilian nuclear power and that the Energy Research Advisory Board establish an ad hoc panel to review and comment on this plan. The Energy Research Advisory Board formed a panel for this review and three subpanels were formed. One subpanel was formed to address the institutional issues surrounding nuclear power, one on research and development for advanced nuclear power plants and a third subpanel on light water reactor utilization and improvement. The subpanel on light water reactors held two meetings at which representatives of the DOE, the NRC, EPRI, industry and academic groups made presentations. This is the report of the subpanel on light water reactor utilization and improvement. This report presents the subpanel's assessment of initiatives which the Department of Energy should undertake in the national interest, to develop and support light water reactor technologies
Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose M; Guha-Sapir, Debarati; Schlüter, Benjamin-Samuel; Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei
Evidence of use of toxic gas chemical weapons in the Syrian war has been reported by governmental and non-governmental international organizations since the war started in March 2011. To date, the profiles of victims of the largest chemical attacks in Syria remain unknown. In this study, we used descriptive epidemiological analysis to describe demographic characteristics of victims of the largest chemical weapons attacks in the Syrian war. We analysed conflict-related, direct deaths from chemical weapons recorded in non-government-controlled areas by the Violation Documentation Center, occurring from March 18, 2011 to April 10, 2017, with complete information on the victim's date and place of death, cause and demographic group. 'Major' chemical weapons events were defined as events causing ten or more direct deaths. As of April 10, 2017, a total of 1206 direct deaths meeting inclusion criteria were recorded in the dataset from all chemical weapons attacks regardless of size. Five major chemical weapons attacks caused 1084 of these documented deaths. Civilians comprised the majority ( n = 1058, 97.6%) of direct deaths from major chemical weapons attacks in Syria and combatants comprised a minority of 2.4% ( n = 26). In the first three major chemical weapons attacks, which occurred in 2013, children comprised 13%-14% of direct deaths, ranging in numbers from 2 deaths among 14 to 117 deaths among 923. Children comprised higher proportions of direct deaths in later major chemical weapons attacks, forming 21% ( n = 7) of 33 deaths in the 2016 major attack and 34.8% ( n = 32) of 92 deaths in the 2017 major attack. Our finding of an extreme disparity in direct deaths from major chemical weapons attacks in Syria, with 97.6% of victims being civilians and only 2.4% being combatants provides evidence that major chemical weapons attacks were indiscriminate or targeted civilians directly; both violations of International Humanitarian Law (IHL). Identifying and
Priebe, John A.; And Others
The report presents tabular data on occupation and years of school completed by age for the civilian labor force, by sex, race and Spanish origin, obtained from the 1980 Census/Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) Special File. All tables list males and females separately for each category. Table 1 lists totals for 613 labor force categories, then…
J. Kh. ALsaedy
Full Text Available Buffaloes in Iraq represent the most productive animal since its domestication in Mesopotamia about pre-historic era recently, domesticated buffaloes all over country go through drastic factors from (1980_2006, such as (gulf wars, marsh drainage, rinder pest plaque, economic blockade which are attributed to widely changes in animal environment ,geographical sites, and dangerous decline in buffalo population accompanied by reduced fertility and feed shortage, resulted in switch of buffalo raising and started to work on another easy jobs .lastly American war in 2003 lead to marsh return and finally ethnic-fighting release, so thousands of buffalo breeders (Madan started a big mass moving from hot-spot area around Baghdad countryside villages nearer to conflicting sectors in Anbar and sallah aldin provinces towards southern marshes (natural habitats before along time. This new theater encouraged Iraqi government represented by Ministry of agriculture through three involved companies to put strategic plane for buffalo development in future.
Pokemon ” really represented a subterfuge by international Zionism to undermine Iraq’s security. Supposedly, “ Pokemon ” meant “I am Jewish” in Hebrew. They...found the fact that the Pokemon character was “widely beloved by Iraqi youth” particularly alarming.22 Once secure in power Saddam Hussein saw...Report on a Cartoon Character Called ‘ Pokemon ’ from Direc- torate of General Security.” This Directorate of General Security report states that the name of
Sardar Shaker Ibrahim
This study examines the influence of liquidity on the profitability of Iraqi commercial banks. Five banks based in Iraq namely: North bank, Iraqi Islamic bank, Sumer bank, Dar Es-Salam bank and Babylon bank randomly selected and analyzed for the current study over the period 2005 to 2013. Moreover, annual reports of these banks have studied and the main ratios of profitability and liquidity were calculated. These reports are available at Iraqi Stock Exchange site. The variables that were ide...
This paper reports that Iraq is making progress in putting its battered petroleum industry back together 1 1/2 years after the Persian Gulf war ended. OPEC News Agency (Opecna) reported the finish of reconstruction of Iraq's Mina al-Bakr oil terminal on the northern tip of the Persian Gulf, using Iraqi know-how and engineering personnel. The terminal, heavily damaged during the gulf conflict, has been restored to its prewar loading capacity of 1.6 million b/d at a cost of $16 million. Ninety per cent of the port had been damaged
Chapters detail how the Department of Energy assembled resources, created an organizational structure, and carried out specific tasks during the past year in response to the complex mandate of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. This report concludes with a brief preview of the many projects and tasks that remain to be accomplished in order to make certain that a safe and effective solution to the nuclear waste problem becomes a reality
Farrell, Brenda S
To examine the extent to which DOD's civilian human capital strategic plan addresses congressional reporting requirements, we obtained and analyzed the "Department of Defense Civilian Human Capital...
Sharp, Jeremy M
.... According to the December 2006 Iraq Study Group Report, Significant questions remain about the ethnic composition and loyalties of some Iraqi units specifically, whether they will carry out missions...
Azimi, S.A.; Conrad, J.L.; Reed, J.E.
Intent of the survey was to identify and characterize activities potentially applicable to improving energy efficiency and overall productivity in the civilian manufacturing industries. The civilian industries emphasized were the general manufacturing industries (including fabricated metals, glass, machinery, paper, plastic, textile, and transportation equipment manufacturing) and the primary metals industries (including primary aluminum, copper, steel, and zinc production). The principal steps in the survey were to: develop overview taxonomies of the general manufacturing and primary metals industries as well as specific industry taxonomies; identify needs and opportunities for improving process energy efficiency and productivity in the industries included; identify federal programs, capabilities, and special technical expertise that might be relevant to industry's needs and opportunities; contact federal laboratories/facilities, through visits and other forms of inquiry; prepare formatted profiles (descriptions) potentially applicable work efforts; review findings with industry; and compile and evaluate industry responses.
date stamp than the last message received will be ignored. The Remote Message Center adjusts to Zulu time so the time zones are accounted for, but... creation and movement of messages between the DOD and other responders (government, civilian first responders and private sector), the strength of...able to interoperate. The current standard allows too much flexibility in message creation in regards to required fields/spaces in mandatory fields
Iraq moved closer to all-out civil war following an attack on the Imam Ali al-Hadi mosque in Samarra, one of Shi'i Islam's holiest shrines, on 22nd February. In the days that followed, several hundred Iraqis died in inter-communal violence. Attacks on installations close to the Basrah Oil Terminal were reported. Earlier in the month, the main oil storage facility in Kirkuk was bombed, forcing the Northern Oil Company to shut-in the 0.3 mn bpd field. Oil and electricity supplies in southern Iraq were cut by attacks on installations some 40 miles south of Baghdad. Turkey agreed to resume product exports to Iraq after a deal was agreed on repaying Iraqi debts of $1 bn to Turkish suppliers. An official Australian inquiry into illegal payments made under the UN's oil-for-food programme is to investigate allegations involving two Australian-controlled oil firms. (author)
This report contains a review of the information available on nuclear powered ships, built for civilian purposes. In the introduction a short discussion is given of the reasons for the limited use of nuclear ships for these purposes. In the second section a brief review is presented of data for the three experimental/merchant ships build by the United States, Germany and Japan, i.e. NS Savannah, NS Otto Hahn and NS Mutsu. In the third section the Soviet/Russian icebreaker NS Lenin is considered. Its design, operational experience and the introduction of a new nuclear propulsion plant is reviewed. In the fourth section the newer Soviet/Russian icebreakers with nuclear propulsion are considered. Finally design of the Soviet/Russian icebreaker transport/container ship NS Sevmorput is reviewed in the fifth section. The future Russian plans for nuclear vessels for the arctic waters are briefly discussed. (au)
The International Crisis Group, a non-governmental organization, interviewed Iraqi refugees in 2007 and reported a number of instances of harassment ...process: Before they can be legally employed, Iraqi refugees must obtain a work permit from the Ministry of Labour . To be eligible for a work permit...Minister of the Interior and the Minister of Labour , respectively. Jordanian law also requires potential employers to provide a litany of documents and
Dijkstra, Hylke; Petrov, Petar; Mahr, Ewa
This report analyses how the EU, UN and OSCE make resources available for civilian missions. It starts with an overview of civilian missions around the world before comparing civilian planning and conduct procedures in these international organisations. The report zooms in on EU civilian
The purpose of this volume is to assess the proliferation vulnerabilities of the present deployment of civilian nuclear-power systems within the current nonproliferation regime and, in light of their prospective deployment, to consider technical and institutional measures and alternatives which may contribute to an improved regime in which nuclear power could play a significant part. An assessment of these measures must include consideration of their nonproliferation effectiveness as well as their bearing upon energy security, and their operational, economic, and political implications. The nature of these considerations can provide some measure of their likely acceptability to various nations.
The purpose of this volume is to assess the proliferation vulnerabilities of the present deployment of civilian nuclear-power systems within the current nonproliferation regime and, in light of their prospective deployment, to consider technical and institutional measures and alternatives which may contribute to an improved regime in which nuclear power could play a significant part. An assessment of these measures must include consideration of their nonproliferation effectiveness as well as their bearing upon energy security, and their operational, economic, and political implications. The nature of these considerations can provide some measure of their likely acceptability to various nations
Hinojosa, Ramon; Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna
Social relationships are important to health out comes. The postdeployment family reintegration literature focuses on the role of the civilian family in facilitating the transition from Active Duty military deployment to civilian society. The focus on the civilian family relationship may miss other important personal connections in veterans' lives. One such connection is the relationship many veterans have with former military unit members who served with them when deployed. Drawing on interviews with male Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom veterans conducted from 2008 to 2009, we argue that the members of a military unit, especially during armed conflict, should be considered a resource to help the "family" reintegration process rather than impede it. This research has implications for current reintegration policy and how best to assist veterans transitioning into civilian society.
Full Text Available There are strong humanitarian reasons and close ties that underpin a Swedish commitment to Iraq. More than 100,000 Iraqis are living in Sweden and the numbers are rising. Europe could do more to provide humanitarian assistance and assist Iraqi refugees.
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iraqi origin. 575.311 Section 575.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Government of Iraq, or of a business entity located in Iraq. Services of Iraqi origin are not imported into...
The purpose of this volume is limited to an assessment of the relative effects that particular choices of nuclear-power systems, for whatever reasons, may have on the possible spread of nuclear-weapons capabilities. This volume addresses the concern that non-nuclear-weapons states may be able to initiate efforts to acquire or to improve nuclear-weapons capabilities through civilian nuclear-power programs; it also addresses the concern that subnational groups may obtain and abuse the nuclear materials or facilities of such programs, whether in nuclear-weapons states (NWS's) or nonnuclear-weapons states (NNW's). Accordingly, this volume emphasizes one important factor in such decisions, the resistance of nuclear-power systems to the proliferation of nuclear-weapons capabilities
Thaut, Lane C; Murtha, Andrew S; Johnson, Anthony E; Roper, Jamie L
The management of patients with impaled unexploded devices is rare in the civilian setting. However, as the lines of the traditional battlefield are blurred by modern warfare and terrorist activity, emergency providers should be familiar with facility protocols, plans, and contact information of their local resources for unexploded devices. A 44-year-old male sustained a close-proximity blast injury to his lower extremities while manipulating a mortar-type firework. He presented to the regional trauma center with an open, comminuted distal femur fracture and radiographic evidence of a potential explosive device in his thigh. His management was coordinated with the local Explosive Ordinance Disposal and the fire department. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Explosive devices pose a grave threat when encountered. Familiarization with protocols to manage these patients can mitigate disaster. Emergency providers should expect and be prepared to coordinate care for these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This revision; (1) Contains changes required by the establishment of a consolidated and realigned management structure for civilian personnel, manpower, and related functions in the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army...
Nelson, C Beau; Zivin, Kara; Walters, Heather; Ganoczy, Dara; MacDermid Wadsworth, Shelley; Valenstein, Marcia
Employment is a vital part of the postdeployment return to civilian life. This study investigated factors associated with employment-related outcomes (employment status, self-reported work performance, and self-reported work satisfaction) among National Guard members returning from Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom, or Operation New Dawn deployments. The sample consisted of 1,151 National Guard service members who had returned from overseas deployments approximately six months earlier. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were performed to examine associations between predictors and employment-related outcome variables. Higher-risk alcohol use was associated with reduced odds of being employed as well as with lower ratings of work satisfaction, whereas psychiatric symptom load was associated with lower self-reported work performance and work satisfaction ratings. Perceived social resources were associated with higher self-reported work performance and work satisfaction, whereas better physical functioning was associated with better self-reported work performance. Policy makers and clinicians may need to consider and assess alcohol use among unemployed National Guard members. They may also need to consider psychiatric symptom load and physical functioning among employed service members who perceive poor work performance and have low work satisfaction. Further research is needed on causal links between these predictors and employment outcomes.
Every two years since 2008, IRSN has published in a report the lessons learnt from its analysis of significant events involving the transport of radioactive materials for civilian purposes in France. Each year in France, some 770,000 shipments of radioactive materials for civilian use are done by road, railway, inland waterway, sea and air. For 2012 and 2013, the report did not find evidence of degradation compared with previous years, particularly for industrial activities in the nuclear power industry, which raise the most significant safety issues. Since 1999, approximately a hundred events are reported each year, which represents, on average, one event per 10,000 packages transported. IRSN notes that none of the events that occurred over the two years had an impact on public health or environmental protection. Events involving a defect in the closure of spent fuel shipping packages and deviations concerning the content of the packages, which had increased in 2010 and 2011, are now down. It would seem to confirm that the organizational measures implemented by those sending the packages have had a positive impact. Previous trends which brought to light failures in the preparation of packages and their handling, in particular in the medical sector, have been confirmed. Even if most of the packages concerned contain low levels of radioactivity, recurrence of these events confirms the value of implementing appropriate preventive actions on the part of the companies involved. Lastly, descriptions of several typical events that occurred in 2012 and 2013 provide illustrations of the analyses that were performed on actual cases
OLWAN, Mohamed Y.
Euro-Mediterranean Consortium for Applied Research on International Migration (CARIM) Jordan has traditionally been one of the regions most welcoming countries toward Iraqis. The country received several flows of Iraqis during the last four decades, but most of Iraqis residing in Jordan fled the precarious situation prevailing in Iraq following the U.S. –led invasion of Iraq in March 2003. Jordan is not a party to the 1951 Convention on the Status of Refuges or the 1967 Protocol on Refugee...
Woods, Kevin M; Lacey, James
Captured Iraqi documents have uncovered evidence that links the regime of Saddam Hussein to regional and global terrorism, including a variety of revolutionary, liberation, nationalist, and Islamic...
Rafei, Rayane; Dabboussi, Fouad; Hamze, Monzer; Eveillard, Matthieu; Lemarié, Carole; Mallat, Hassan; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Joly-Guillou, Marie-Laure; Kempf, Marie
The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii has been observed worldwide. We describe the first detection of A. baumannii carrying the blaNDM-1 gene in Lebanon, isolated from Syrian patients wounded during the civil war. Four carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strains isolated in 2012 in the Tripoli Government Hospital, Lebanon, from civilians wounded during the Syrian war, were analysed. Susceptibility was determined by disk diffusion testing, and resistance to carbapenems was confirmed by Etest. The presence of blaOXA-23-like, blaOXA-24-like, blaOXA-58-like, blaOXA-143-like, and blaNDM was investigated by PCR. Clonal relationships were studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and blaOXA-51 sequence-based typing. All isolates harboured the blaNDM-1 gene and were negative for other tested carbapenemases. They all belonged to the sequence type 85 and formed a single cluster by PFGE. Finally, blaOXA-51-like gene sequencing revealed the presence of the blaOXA-94 variant in all four isolates. These findings show that Syria constitutes a reservoir for NDM-1-producing bacteria. These results also highlight the need for effective measures to stop the threatening spread of such strains. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Edwards-Stewart, Amanda; Kinn, Julie T; June, Jennifer D; Fullerton, Nicole R
Military suicide has increased over the past decade and reports of Service Member and Veteran suicides receive media attention. Some methods of reporting suicide appear to cause a "media contagion" effect, potentially increasing suicide. This effect is explored in relation to media reports of both military and civilian suicides. To reduce possible contagion, recommendations for media reporting of suicides were adapted by the Suicide Prevention Resource Center (SPRC). We assessed 240 military and civilian newspaper reports of suicide from 15 different sources for compliance with the SPRC guidelines. Nearly all reviewed articles violated at least one guideline. Results highlighted military news articles regarding Service Members included more pejorative language and discussion of failed psychological treatment. Conversely, civilian articles romanticized the victim and provided more details regarding the suicide. Further exploration of military suicide reporting bias is discussed as a need in future research.
Caston, Christine J
... addressed by the Combatant and Joint Force Commanders. The lack of an occupation plan had a major impact on how the Combatant Commander carried out Phases IV and V of Operation Iraqi Freedom and provides relevant lessons for future operations.
Clay, Troy A
U.S. strategy in Iraq after the removal of Saddam Hussein was to promote a democratic style of government and to conduct reconstruction of essential Iraqi infrastructure for the political and economic redevelopment of Iraq...
The purpose of this volume is to assess the proliferation vulnerabilities of the present deployment of civilian nuclear-power systems within the current nonproliferation regime and, in light of their prospective deployment, to consider technical and institutional measures and alternatives which may contribute to an improved regime in which nuclear power could play a significant part. An assessment of these measures must include consideration of their nonproliferation effectiveness as well as their bearing upon energy security, and their operational, economic, and political implications. The nature of these considerations can provide some measure of their likely acceptability to various nations. While any final assessment of such measures and alternatives would have to examine the circumstances particular to each nation, it is hoped that the more generic assessments conducted here will be useful in suggesting guidelines for developing an improved nonproliferation regime which also helps to meet nuclear-energy needs. One chapter outlines the existing nonproliferation regime, including the Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards, bilateral and multilateral requirements for agreements of cooperation and transfers of technology, and existing provisons for sanctions for violation of nonproliferation commitments. The chapter then proceeds to an assessment of various alternatives for providing assurance of fuel supply in light of this current regime. Another chapter examines a set of technical and institutional measures and alternatives for various components of once-through and closed fuel cycles. The components of the once-through fuel cycle assessed are enrichment services and spent-fuel management; the components of closed fuel cycles assessed are reprocessing and plutonium management and fast-breeder reactor (FBR) deployment
Patton, Christina L; McNally, Matthew R; Fremouw, William J
Previous studies have implicated significant differences between military members and civilians with regard to violent behavior, including suicide, domestic violence, and harm to others, but none have examined military murder-suicide. This study sought to determine whether there were meaningful differences between military and civilian murder-suicide perpetrators. Using data from the Center for Disease Control's (CDC) National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), military (n = 259) and civilian (n = 259) murder-suicide perpetrators were compared on a number of demographic, psychological, and contextual factors using chi-square analyses. Logistic regression was used to determine which variables predicted membership to the military or civilian perpetrator groups. Military murder-suicide perpetrators were more likely to be older, have physical health problems, be currently or formerly married, less likely to abuse substances, and to exhibit significantly different motives than civilian perpetrators. Logistic regression revealed that membership to the military, rather than the civilian, perpetrator group was predicted by age, physical health problems, and declining heath motive-reflecting the significance of a more than 15-year difference in mean age between the two groups. Findings point to the need to tailor suicide risk assessments to include questions specific to murder-suicide, to assess attitudes toward murder-suicide, and to the importance of assessing suicide and violence risk in older adult military populations. © The Author(s) 2015.
Hijazi, Alaa M; Lumley, Mark A; Ziadni, Maisa S; Haddad, Luay; Rapport, Lisa J; Arnetz, Bengt B
Many Iraqi refugees suffer from posttraumatic stress. Efficient, culturally sensitive interventions are needed, and so we adapted narrative exposure therapy into a brief version (brief NET) and tested its effects in a sample of traumatized Iraqi refugees. Iraqi refugees in the United States reporting elevated posttraumatic stress (N = 63) were randomized to brief NET or waitlist control conditions in a 2:1 ratio; brief NET was 3 sessions, conducted individually, in Arabic. Positive indicators (posttraumatic growth and well-being) and symptoms (posttraumatic stress, depressive, and somatic) were assessed at baseline and 2- and 4-month follow-up. Treatment participation (95.1% completion) and study retention (98.4% provided follow-up data) were very high. Significant condition by time interactions showed that those receiving brief NET had greater posttraumatic growth (d = 0.83) and well-being (d = 0.54) through 4 months than controls. Brief NET reduced symptoms of posttraumatic stress (d = -0.48) and depression (d = -0.46) more, but only at 2 months; symptoms of controls also decreased from 2 to 4 months, eliminating condition differences at 4 months. Three sessions of brief NET increased growth and well-being and led to symptom reduction in highly traumatized Iraqi refugees. This preliminary study suggests that brief NET is both acceptable and potentially efficacious in traumatized Iraqi refugees. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
May George Kassir
Full Text Available In this research the specifications of Iraqi drinking bottled water brands are investigated throughout the comparison between local brands, Saudi Arabia and the World Health Organization (WHO for bottled water standard specifications. These specifications were also compared to that of Iraqi Tap Water standards. To reveal variations in the specifications for Iraqi bottled water, and above mentioned standards some quality control tools are conducted for more than 33% of different bottled water brands (of different origins such as spring, purified,..etc in Iraq by investigating the selected quality parameters registered on their marketing labels. Results employing Minitab software (ver. 16 to generate X bar, and Pareto chart. It was found from X bar charts that the quality parameters of some drinking bottled water brands are not within Iraqi standards set by the “Central Agency for Standardization and Quality Control” such as pH values, Fe, Na, and Mg concentrations. While the comparison of previously mentioned standard specifications through radar chart many important issues are detected such as the absence of lower limits the whole bottled water quality parameters such as for Na and Mg also the radar chart shows that Iraqi bottled and tap water specifications are almost equal in their quality values. Also the same chart pictured the limited range of Iraqi specifications compared to that of Saudi Arabia, and WHO and the need to introduce other water specifications such as K, Na, etc. This confirms the need to improve Iraqi bottled water specifications since it was introduced on 2000. These results also highlighted the weakness of quality assurance activities since only 33 % of the investigated companies registered the whole water quality specifications as shown in Pareto chart. Other companies do not register any quality characteristics. Also certain companies should be stopped due to non-conforming specifications, yet these companies are
Full Text Available Iraqi architecture have many periods passed through it until now, each on from these periods have it is architectural style, also through time these styles interacted among us, to creating kind of space forming, space relationships, and architectural elements (detailed treatments, the research problem being from the multi interacted architectural styles causing some of confused of general characteristic to every style, that we could distinguish by it. Research tries to study architecture style through Mogul Conquest to Baghdad. Aim of research follow main characteristic for this architectural style in the Mogul periods on the level of form, elements, and treatments. Research depending on descriptive and analytical all buildings belong to this period, so from analyzing there style by, general form for building, architectural elements, and it architectural treatment, therefore; repeating this procedures to every building we get some similarities, from these similarities we can making conclusion about pure characteristic of the style of these period. Other side, we also discover some Dissimilar in the building periods, these will lead research to make what interacting among styles in this period, after all that we can drew clearly main characteristic of Architectural Style for Mogul Conquest in Baghdad
Al-Smadi, Ahmed Mohammad; Tawalbeh, Loai Issa; Gammoh, Omar Salem; Ashour, Ala Fawzi; Alshraifeen, Ali; Gougazeh, Yazeed Mohammed
This study was conducted to identify the predictors, levels, and prevalence of anxiety and stress and to assess the relationship between these factors and quality of life in recently displaced Iraqis. A cross-sectional design was used. A convenience sample of 171 Iraqi refugees was recruited. The results indicated that more than half of the sample suffered from high anxiety levels, while 42.8% reported high stress. The regression model explained 46.3% of the variance in levels of quality of life. Unemployment, fewer than three family members, and high anxiety significantly predicted low-level quality of life. These three predictors need to be taken into consideration when developing health-related interventions to improve the quality of life of Iraqi refugees. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
This article reports on the announcement by the Department of Energy (DOE) that the opening of a high-level radioactive nuclear waste repository site will be delayed for seven years. The article discusses DOE's reassessment plan, the restructuring of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, site access and evaluation, the Monitored Retrievable Storage Commission proposal, and the industry's response
This report summarizes the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP): its background, its studies, and its results. This introductory chapter traces the growth of the issue of nuclear weapons proliferation and the organization and objectives of NASAP. Chapter 2 summarizes the program's assessments, findings and recommendations. Each of Volumes II-VII reports on an individual assessment (Volume II: Proliferation Resistance; Volume III: Resources and Fuel Cycle Facilities; Volume IV: Commercial Potential; Volume V: Economics and Systems Analysis; Volume VI: Safety and Environmental Considerations for Licensing; Volume VII: International Perspectives). Volume VIII (Advanced Concepts) presents a combined assessment of several less fully developed concepts, and Volume IX (Reactor and Fuel Cycle Descriptions) provides detailed descriptions of the reactor and fuel-cycle systems studied by NASAP.
This report summarizes the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP): its background, its studies, and its results. This introductory chapter traces the growth of the issue of nuclear weapons proliferation and the organization and objectives of NASAP. Chapter 2 summarizes the program's assessments, findings and recommendations. Each of Volumes II-VII reports on an individual assessment (Volume II: Proliferation Resistance; Volume III: Resources and Fuel Cycle Facilities; Volume IV: Commercial Potential; Volume V: Economics and Systems Analysis; Volume VI: Safety and Environmental Considerations for Licensing; Volume VII: International Perspectives). Volume VIII (Advanced Concepts) presents a combined assessment of several less fully developed concepts, and Volume IX (Reactor and Fuel Cycle Descriptions) provides detailed descriptions of the reactor and fuel-cycle systems studied by NASAP
This report summarizes the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP): its background, its studies, and its results. The introductory chapter traces the growth of the issue of nuclear weapons proliferation and the organization and objectives of NASAP. Chapter 2 summarizes the program's assessments, findings, and recommendations. Each of Volumes II-VII reports on an individual assessment (Volumn II: Proliferation Resistance; Volume III: Resources and Fuel Cycle Facilities; Volume IV: Commercial Potential; Volume V: Economics and Systems Analysis; Volume VI: Safety and Environmental Considerations for Licensing; Volume VII: International Perspectives). Volume VIII (Advanced Concepts) presents a combined assessment of several less fully developed concepts, and Volume IX (Reactor and Fuel Cycle Descriptions) provides detailed descriptions of the reactor and fuel-cycle systems studied by NASAP
This volume of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) report provides time and cost estimates for positioning new nuclear power systems for commercial deployment. The assessment also estimates the rates at which the new systems might penetrate the domestic market, assuming the continuing viability of the massive light-water reactor network that now exists worldwide. This assessment does not recommend specific, detailed program plans and budgets for individual systems; however, it is clear from this analysis that any of the systems investigated could be deployed if dictated by national interest.
This volume of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) report provides time and cost estimates for positioning new nuclear power systems for commercial deployment. The assessment also estimates the rates at which the new systems might penetrate the domestic market, assuming the continuing viability of the massive light-water reactor network that now exists worldwide. This assessment does not recommend specific, detailed program plans and budgets for individual systems; however, it is clear from this analysis that any of the systems investigated could be deployed if dictated by national interest
Army civilian workforce with regard to gender and ethnic origin (Office of the Assistant G-1 for Civilian Personnel, 2013). The reported education...climates of perceived inequality . Civilian leader comments frequently referenced favoritism as reflecting cronyism, unfair personnel actions, and...interests of others, unequal enforcement of standards and discipline, and use of discretion in workplace justice. As demonstrated in previous CASAL
Many Iraqi refugee students in the United States suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as well as acculturation stresses. These stresses often create challenges for their integration into U.S. schools. The project explored risk factors such as the length of educational gaps in transit, PTSD, and separation and marginalization…
Gresham, J.; Saleh, F.; Majid, S.
With appreciation to the Royal Institute for Inter-Faith Studies for initiating the Second World Congress for Middle Eastern Studies, this paper summarizes findings on homogeneity in community-level social groups derived from inter-ethnic research conducted during 2005 among Iraqi Arabs and Kurds
Lawlor, Alison C; Thompson, Eric V
.... The goal of this study is two-fold: to provide Iraqi and Coalition personnel with a common assessment of capability requirements and force structure recommendations for the Iraqi Navy, and to provide the Iraqi Navy leadership...
Full Text Available Terrorism is an extreme form of political violence, that is inherently abhorrent in nature. Yet, it continues to attain enough support to continue and survive. The recent proliferation of Islamic State and its ever increasing domestic and international civilian support base urges immediate attention to this question. While most research holds that provision of public goods by terrorist groups is the primary cause for high levels of civilian support, I argue that, terrorist groups are more interested in resource extraction rather than resource provision. Additionally, these studies pay scant attention to existing resource structure, especially territorial and political control to explain terrorist-civilian interaction. This paper emphasizes the bi-directional nature of this interaction – a. perception of civilians by the terrorist group and b. terrorist group’s perception of the civilians. To analyze levels of civilian support for terrorism, I compare fifteen terrorist groups using qualitative comparative analysis and show how territory, political competition, ethnicity, target selection and organizational structure combine to explain conditions that lead terrorist groups to include or exclude civilian population for support. Based on the variance in support networks of terrorist groups, counter-terrorism policies should also differ. High civilian support indicates the need to use non-military methods to decrease the appeal of terrorist groups. However, terrorist groups with more diffused and multiple support structures need more collaborative and coercive measures to intercept all the possible links to the main group.
An examination of the roles of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder on emotion regulation strategies of Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation Enduring Freedom, and Operation New Dawn veterans.
Sippel, Lauren M; Roy, Alicia M; Southwick, Steven M; Fichtenholtz, Harlan M
Theories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) implicate emotional processes, including difficulties utilizing adaptive emotion regulation strategies, as critical to the etiology and maintenance of PTSD. Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation Enduring Freedom, and Operation New Dawn (OIF/OEF/OND) veterans report high levels of combat exposure and PTSD. We aimed to extend findings suggesting that emotion regulation difficulties are a function of PTSD, rather than combat trauma exposure or common comorbidities, to OIF/OEF/OND veterans, in order to inform models of PTSD risk and recovery that can be applied to returning veterans. We tested differences in emotion regulation, measured with the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale and Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, among trauma-exposed veterans with (n = 24) or without PTSD (n = 22) and healthy civilian comparison participants (n = 27) using multivariate analyses of covariance, adjusting for major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and demographic variables (age, sex, and ethnicity). Veterans with PTSD reported more use of expressive suppression and more difficulties with emotion regulation than veterans without PTSD and healthy comparison participants. Groups did not differ on cognitive reappraisal. Findings suggest the key role of PTSD above and beyond trauma exposure, depression, and anxiety in specific aspects of emotion dysregulation among OIF/OEF/OND veterans. Interventions that help veterans expand and diversify their emotion regulation skills may serve as helpful adjunctive treatments for PTSD among OIF/OEF/OND veterans.
correspondent best remembered for the Spanish American War, James Creelman . (Knightley, 1975) Creelman , who worked for the Journal, actually led a...important responsibility in the matter of psychological warfare.” (Knightley, 1975) The voluntary code of war reporting caused confusion among the...away with a clear understanding of the physical, emotional, and psychological demands that war will have on the military. I think the military walks
reason for believing that Iraqi soldiers would also surrender during Operation Iraqi Freedom.12 Thus, when considering the mistreatment of POWs at Abu ... Ghraib the harm was not only the immediate harm to the POWs but also the long-term harm to the US military operations. As eloquently stated in a
Hinojosa, Ramon; Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna; Högnäs, Robin S
Twenty Reserve component (Army and Marines) and Army National Guard male veterans of Operational Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom discuss their deployment and postdeployment family reintegration experiences. A Grounded Theory approach is used to highlight some of the ways in which family miscommunication during deployment can occur. Communication with civilian family members is affected by the needs of operational security, technical problems with communication tools, miscommunication between family members, or because veterans have "nothing new to say" to family back home. These communication difficulties may lead to an initial gulf of understanding between veterans and family members that can cause family strain during postdeployment family reintegration. We end with a discussion of veteran family reintegration difficulties.
Mateen, Farrah J; Carone, Marco; Nyce, Sayre; Ghosn, Jad; Mutuerandu, Timothy; Al-Saedy, Huda; Lowenstein, Daniel H; Burnham, Gilbert
The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) recognizes 43.7 million forcibly displaced persons and asylum seekers due to conflict and persecution worldwide. Neurological disorders have rarely been described in displaced persons but likely pose a significant burden of disease. We describe the disease spectrum and health service utilization of Iraqi refugees and asylum seekers with neurological disorders using an information system developed by the UNHCR. Neurological disorders were actively monitored among the 7,642 UNHCR-registered Iraqi refugees and asylum seekers who received health and humanitarian assistance using a pilot, centralized, database called the Refugee Assistance Information System (RAIS) in the Kingdom of Jordan in 2010. There were 122 neurological diagnoses reported in 1,328 refugees (mean age 41 years, 49% female, 10% disabled, 43% with pending resettlement applications) in 2,659 health visits, accounting for 17% of all refugees who sought health assistance in RAIS. Referral to a neurologist occurred in 178 cases (13.4%). The most frequent ICD-10 neurological diagnoses were dorsalgia (back pain) (29.7% of individuals with neurological disorders), headache (13.1%), and epilepsy (12.6%). Approximately 1 in 20 Iraqi refugees with a neurological diagnosis self-reported a history of torture, which was higher than Iraqi refugees without a history of torture [66/1,328 versus 196/6,314, odds ratio (OR) = 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21-2.18]. Neurological disease affects a high proportion of Iraqi refugees, including victims of torture and the disabled. Refugees require dedicated care for treatment of neurological disease with a focus on pain disorders and epilepsy.
The implications of Iran's policy turn-about of allowing ships smuggling Iraqi crude oil to sail through its coastal waters, out of reach of UN and US ships patrolling the Persian Gulf, are discussed. It is suspected that the change in Iranian policy may be due to the fact that an infusion of Iraqi oil on the international markets would suit Iran's purposes by reducing the need for OPEC to raise production quotas. Iran is known to be opposed to an increase of production by OPEC members. At the same time, developments in US-Iranian relations and in the international oil market also have to be considered as factors influencing the Iranian position on this issue
Zardawi, Faraedon M; Xiao, Kaida; Yates, Julian M
Objective: Skin colour measurement and analysis was performed for Iraqi Kurdish population in sulaimani city. The purpose of this study was to produce a dedicated skin shade guide for precise colour reproduction and colour matching of maxillofacial prostheses with the patientâ€™s original skin colour. Methodology: A skin colour measurement was undertaken for 140 subjects (73 female and 67 male). A method of capturing their (L* a* b*) colour values from nine body parts was performed using a Mi...
Woods, Kevin M
Captured Iraqi documents have uncovered evidence that links the regime of Saddam Hussein to regional and global terrorism, including a variety of revolutionary, liberation, nationalist, and Islamic...
Woods, Kevin M
Captured Iraqi documents have uncovered evidence that links the regime of Saddam Hussein to regional and global terrorism, including a variety of revolutionary, liberation, nationalist, and Islamic...
Woods, Kevin M
Woods, Kevin M
de Montravel, G
Current humanitarian emergencies create complex, mutidimensional situations that stimulate simultaneous responses from a wide variety of sources including governments, non-governmental organizations (NGO), United Nations agencies, and private individuals. As a result, it has become essential to establish a coherent framework in which each actor can contribute promptly and effectively to the overall effort. This is the role of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Regardless of the circumstances and level of coordination, cooperation and collaboration between humanitarian and military personnel, it is necessary to bear in mind their objectives. The purpose of humanitarian action is to reduce human suffering. The purpose of military intervention is to stop warfare. The author of this article will discuss the three major obstacles to civilian-military coordination (strategic, tactical, and operational). Operations cannot be conducted smoothly and differences cannot be ironed out without mutual respect between the two parties, an explicit definition of their respective duties and responsibilities, a clear understanding of their cultural differences, and the presence of an organization and facilities for coordination and arbitrage by a neutral referee.
May, Samantha; Rapee, Ronald M; Coello, Mariano; Momartin, Shakeh; Aroche, Jorge
This study investigated differences in mental health knowledge and beliefs between participants from the Iraqi and Sudanese refugee communities, and Australian-born individuals, in Sydney, Australia. Ninety-seven participants were given vignettes of characters describing symptoms of major depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress. They were required to identify psychological symptoms as disorders, rate beliefs about the causes of and helpful treatments for these disorders, and rate attitude statements regarding the two characters. Australian participants recognized the presented symptoms as specific mental disorders significantly more than Iraqi and Sudanese participants did, and reported causal and treatment beliefs which were more congruent with expert beliefs as per the western medical model of mental disorder. The Sudanese group endorsed supernatural and religious causal beliefs regarding depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms most often; but both Sudanese and Iraqi participants strongly supported options from the supernatural and religious treatment items. However, evidence for pluralistic belief systems was also found. Although sampling was non-random, suggesting caution in the interpretation of results, it appears that the mental health literacy of lay Australians may be more aligned with the western medical model of mental disorder than that of Iraqi and Sudanese refugee communities. Mental health literacy support needs of Iraqi and Sudanese refugee communities resettled in western countries such as Australia might include education about specific symptoms and causes of mental disorder and the effectiveness of psychiatric treatments. These findings provide useful directions for the promotion of optimal service utilization among such communities.
Madelyn Hsiao-Rei Hicks
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Warring groups that compete to dominate a civilian population confront contending behavioral options: target civilians or battle the enemy. We aimed to describe degrees to which combatant groups concentrated lethal behavior into intentionally targeting civilians as opposed to engaging in battle with opponents in contemporary armed conflict. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified all 226 formally organized state and non-state groups (i.e. actors that engaged in lethal armed conflict during 2002-2007: 43 state and 183 non-state. We summed civilians killed by an actor's intentional targeting with civilians and combatants killed in battles in which the actor was involved for total fatalities associated with each actor, indicating overall scale of armed conflict. We used a Civilian Targeting Index (CTI, defined as the proportion of total fatalities caused by intentional targeting of civilians, to measure the concentration of lethal behavior into civilian targeting. We report actor-specific findings and four significant trends: 1. 61% of all 226 actors (95% CI 55% to 67% refrained from targeting civilians. 2. Logistic regression showed actors were more likely to have targeted civilians if conflict duration was three or more years rather than one year. 3. In the 88 actors that targeted civilians, multiple regressions showed an inverse correlation between CTI values and the total number of fatalities. Conflict duration of three or more years was associated with lower CTI values than conflict duration of one year. 4. When conflict scale and duration were accounted for, state and non-state actors did not differ. We describe civilian targeting by actors in prolonged conflict. We discuss comparable patterns found in nature and interdisciplinary research. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Most warring groups in 2002-2007 did not target civilians. Warring groups that targeted civilians in small-scale, brief conflict concentrated more lethal
Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei; Lee, Uih Ran; Sundberg, Ralph; Spagat, Michael
Warring groups that compete to dominate a civilian population confront contending behavioral options: target civilians or battle the enemy. We aimed to describe degrees to which combatant groups concentrated lethal behavior into intentionally targeting civilians as opposed to engaging in battle with opponents in contemporary armed conflict. We identified all 226 formally organized state and non-state groups (i.e. actors) that engaged in lethal armed conflict during 2002-2007: 43 state and 183 non-state. We summed civilians killed by an actor's intentional targeting with civilians and combatants killed in battles in which the actor was involved for total fatalities associated with each actor, indicating overall scale of armed conflict. We used a Civilian Targeting Index (CTI), defined as the proportion of total fatalities caused by intentional targeting of civilians, to measure the concentration of lethal behavior into civilian targeting. We report actor-specific findings and four significant trends: 1.) 61% of all 226 actors (95% CI 55% to 67%) refrained from targeting civilians. 2.) Logistic regression showed actors were more likely to have targeted civilians if conflict duration was three or more years rather than one year. 3.) In the 88 actors that targeted civilians, multiple regressions showed an inverse correlation between CTI values and the total number of fatalities. Conflict duration of three or more years was associated with lower CTI values than conflict duration of one year. 4.) When conflict scale and duration were accounted for, state and non-state actors did not differ. We describe civilian targeting by actors in prolonged conflict. We discuss comparable patterns found in nature and interdisciplinary research. Most warring groups in 2002-2007 did not target civilians. Warring groups that targeted civilians in small-scale, brief conflict concentrated more lethal behavior into targeting civilians, and less into battles, than groups in larger
Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei; Lee, Uih Ran; Sundberg, Ralph; Spagat, Michael
Background Warring groups that compete to dominate a civilian population confront contending behavioral options: target civilians or battle the enemy. We aimed to describe degrees to which combatant groups concentrated lethal behavior into intentionally targeting civilians as opposed to engaging in battle with opponents in contemporary armed conflict. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified all 226 formally organized state and non-state groups (i.e. actors) that engaged in lethal armed conflict during 2002–2007: 43 state and 183 non-state. We summed civilians killed by an actor's intentional targeting with civilians and combatants killed in battles in which the actor was involved for total fatalities associated with each actor, indicating overall scale of armed conflict. We used a Civilian Targeting Index (CTI), defined as the proportion of total fatalities caused by intentional targeting of civilians, to measure the concentration of lethal behavior into civilian targeting. We report actor-specific findings and four significant trends: 1.) 61% of all 226 actors (95% CI 55% to 67%) refrained from targeting civilians. 2.) Logistic regression showed actors were more likely to have targeted civilians if conflict duration was three or more years rather than one year. 3.) In the 88 actors that targeted civilians, multiple regressions showed an inverse correlation between CTI values and the total number of fatalities. Conflict duration of three or more years was associated with lower CTI values than conflict duration of one year. 4.) When conflict scale and duration were accounted for, state and non-state actors did not differ. We describe civilian targeting by actors in prolonged conflict. We discuss comparable patterns found in nature and interdisciplinary research. Conclusions/Significance Most warring groups in 2002–2007 did not target civilians. Warring groups that targeted civilians in small-scale, brief conflict concentrated more lethal behavior into
Margesson, Rhoda; Sharp, Jeremy M; Bruno, Andorra
.... It is estimated that in total (including those displaced prior to the war) there may be 2 million Iraqi refugees who have fled to Jordan, Syria, and other neighboring states, and approximately 2 million Iraqis who have been displaced within Iraq itself...
In this article, we examine the status of civilians in the ethical context. For this purpose, we explore the ethical sources that address their status; specifically, we consider the ethical reasons that civilians should be protected in armed conflict by examining ethical concepts that could differentiate civilians from combatants and justify the protection of civilians. In order to assess how the status of civilians can be characterised and their protection justified by ethical concepts, we e...
Carlton-Ford, Steve; Ender, Morten G; Tabatabai, Ahoo
A year into the 2003 US-Iraq war, how were adolescents in Baghdad faring? Conflict-related events typically lower psychological well-being; in contrast, investment in and protection of threatened identities should lead to self-esteem striving and, presumably, better well-being. How threatened do Iraqi adolescents feel? Is their self-esteem related to their sense of threat? Do age, religion, ethnicity, and gender alter the link between perceived threat and self-esteem? We use data from 1000 randomly selected adolescents living in Baghdad during July 2004. Iraqi adolescents reported high levels of threat; those feeling more threatened reported higher levels of self-esteem. Social background correlates with both self-esteem and perceived threat, but controlling for social background does not eliminate the relationship between self-esteem and perceived threat. We interpret our results in light of theory and research concerning social identity, mortality threats, and war trauma.
Yanni, Emad A; Naoum, Marwan; Odeh, Nedal; Han, Pauline; Coleman, Margaret; Burke, Heather
More than 63,000 Iraqi refugees were resettled in the United States from 1994 to 2010. We analyzed data for all US-bound Iraqi refugees screened in International Organization for Migration clinics in Jordan during June 2007-September 2009 (n = 18,990), to describe their health profile before arrival in the United States. Of 14,077 US-bound Iraqi refugees ≥ 15 years of age, one had active TB, 251 had latent TB infection, and 14 had syphilis. No HIV infections were reported. Chronic diseases comorbidities accounted for a large burden of disease in this population: 35% (n = 4,105) of screened Iraqi refugees had at least one of three chronic medical conditions; hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or obesity. State health departments and clinicians who screen refugees need to be aware of the high prevalence of chronic diseases among Iraqi refugees resettled in the United States. These results will help public health specialists develop policies to reduce morbidity and mortality among US-bound Iraqi refugees.
Al Rawi, A.M.; Hamoudi, H.I.
Iraqi dates (Zahdi and Khestawi) were irradiated at different dose levels (0 to 1500 krad) to extend their shelf-lives. Samples irradiated at 150 krad showed no change in the behaviour studies of tested Swiss albino mice. Fungi were found to have a constant rate of growth on the syrup irradiated dates. Chemical products such as malondialdehyde, deoxy sugars, acids and reducing sugars were quantified. In conclusion, 150 krad is a convenient dose to extend the shelf-lives of the tested dates and is therefore recommended. (author)
Managemen 15.6.6 Results Related t 15.6.7 NCOs and Multiple-Deployments 15.6.8 Validated Trainin 15.6.9 Theater Suicide Prevention Program and Suicide...include mental health providers who have deployed to the IT0 and are experienced using AHLTA- T . As noted above, as the operational theater matures in...Mental Health Advisory Team (MHAT) V Operation Iraqi Freedom 06-08 14 February 2008 Office of the Surgeon Multi-National Force-Iraq and Office
influenced and do not draw as much scrutiny from coalition forces. Children are primarily being used by Iraqi insurgents to plant roadside bombs or as...conduct must also mean that there needs to be a group to which these standards are assigned—the soldier class. Though there are warts to the
Withee, Jeffrey W; Pena, Edwin D
This thesis documents the findings of an Iraqi-Arabic language test and concept of operations for speaker verification technology as part of the Iraqi Banking System in support of the Iraqi Enrollment...
Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Anderson, Jamie; Tileva, Margarita; Biermann, Elizabeth; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert
The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East in recent history, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. With an increase in the number of people affected by complex emergencies and the number of people displaced in urban settings, the international community must adapt intervention strategies to meet the specific demands and contexts of this population. The study aimed to provide information on food security and livelihoods for Iraqi refugees in Syria and Jordan to inform humanitarian assistance planning. National cross-sectional cluster sample surveys of displaced Iraqi populations displaced were conducted in Jordan (October 2008) and Syria (March 2009). Clusters of ten households were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed about food security and receipt of humanitarian assistance. In Syria, 60% of households reported the household food situation had declined since the arrival period as compared to 46% in Jordan. Food aid receipt was reported by 18.0% of households in Jordan and 90.3% of households in Syria. In Jordan, 10.2% of households received cash assistance and in Syria 25.3% of households received cash assistance. In Jordan, cash assistance was associated with low socioeconomic status, large household size, and UNHCR registration. In Syria, female headed households, Damascus residents, families with children, and those registered with UNHCR were more likely to receive cash assistance. Food insecurity remains a concern among displaced Iraqi households in both Jordan and Syria. Improved targeting of both food and cash assistance and the expansion of cash-based programs could lead to a more effective use of funds and facilitate the implementation of assistance programs that are sustainable in the context of declining funding availability. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All
Webb, Billy P
.... While Gen Jumper's sight picture recognizes the need to grow civilians for leadership positions, there is a more compelling reason for the Air Force to focus on civilian leadership development...
Seng, V S; Masquelet, A C
The management of ballistic fractures, which are open fractures, has often been studied in wartime and has benefited from the principles of military surgery with debridement and lavage, and the use of external fixation for bone stabilization. In civilian practice, bone stabilization of these fractures is different and is not performed by external fixation. Fifteen civilian ballistic fractures, Gustilo II or IIIa, two associated with nerve damage and none with vascular damage, were reviewed. After debridement and lavage, ten internal fixations and five conservative treatments were used. No superficial or deep surgical site infection was noted. Fourteen of the 15 fractures (93%) healed without reoperation. Eleven of the 15 patients (73%) regained normal function. Ballistic fractures have a bad reputation due to their many complications, including infections. In civilian practice, the use of internal fixation is not responsible for excessive morbidity, provided debridement and lavage are performed. Civilian ballistic fractures, when they are caused by low-velocity firearms, differ from military ballistic fractures. Although the principle of surgical debridement and lavage remains the same, bone stabilization is different and is similar to conventional open fractures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Sardar Shaker Ibrahim
Full Text Available This study examines the influence of liquidity on the profitability of Iraqi commercial banks. Five banks based in Iraq namely: North bank, Iraqi Islamic bank, Sumer bank, Dar Es-Salam bank and Babylon bank randomly selected and analyzed for the current study over the period 2005 to 2013. Moreover, annual reports of these banks have studied and the main ratios of profitability and liquidity were calculated. These reports are available at Iraqi Stock Exchange site. The variables that were identified as independent for liquidity were, loan deposit ratio, deposit asset ratio and cash deposit ratio, while return on assets as dependent variable for profitability. The Ordinary Least Square (OLS model used to examine the impact of liquidity on profitability. The study observes that any increase in liquidity ratios as above mentioned will lead return on asset to increase as well. Depending on this study it could be better for Iraqi banks to keep a balance between liquidity and profitability.
Margesson, Rhoda; Sharp, Jeremy M; Bruno, Andorra
.... It is estimated that in total (including those displaced prior to the war) there may be as many as 2 million Iraqi refugees who have fled to Jordan, Syria, and other neighboring states, and approximately...
Margesson, Rhoda; Sharp, Jeremy M; Bruno, Andorra
.... It is estimated that in total (including those displaced prior to the war) there may be as many as 2 million Iraqi refugees who have fled to Jordan, Syria, and other neighboring states, and approximately...
Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) was launched on March 20, 2003, with the immediate stated goal of removing Saddam Hussein's regime and destroying its ability to use weapons of mass destruction or to make them available to terrorists...
Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) was launched on March 20,2003, with the immediate stated goal of removing Saddam Hussein's regime and destroying its ability to use weapons of mass destruction or to make them available to terrorists...
This paper will seek to show how social, political, cultural, and environmental factors have combined to impede Iraqi police development in ways that are predictable, understandable, and, with external help, resolvable...
.... The corruption and abuse found in the Iraqi police services cannot simply be explained by poor leadership, the actions of a few corrupt individuals, or even the competing agendas of the various...
McKenzie, Erica D; Spiegel, Paul; Khalifa, Adam; Mateen, Farrah J
The burden of neuropsychiatric disorders in refugees is likely high, but little has been reported on the neuropsychiatric disorders that affect Syrian and Iraqi refugees in a country of first asylum. This analysis aimed to study the cost and burden of neuropsychiatric disorders among refugees from Syria and Iraq requiring exceptional, United Nations-funded care in a country of first asylum. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees works with multi-disciplinary, in-country exceptional care committees to review refugees' applications for emergency or exceptional medical care. Neuropsychiatric diagnoses among refugee applicants were identified through a retrospective review of applications to the Jordanian Exceptional Care Committee (2012-2013). Diagnoses were made using International Classification of Disease-10(th) edition codes rendered by treating physicians. Neuropsychiatric applications accounted for 11% (264/2526) of all Exceptional Care Committee applications, representing 223 refugees (40% female; median age 35 years; 57% Syrian, 36% Iraqi, 7% other countries of origin). Two-thirds of neuropsychiatric cases were for emergency care. The total amount requested for neuropsychiatric disorders was 925,674 USD. Syrian refugees were significantly more likely to request neurotrauma care than Iraqis (18/128 vs. 3/80, p = 0.03). The most expensive care per person was for brain tumor (7,905 USD), multiple sclerosis (7,502 USD), and nervous system trauma (6,466 USD), although stroke was the most frequent diagnosis. Schizophrenia was the most costly and frequent diagnosis among the psychiatric disorders (2,269 USD per person, 27,226 USD total). Neuropsychiatric disorders, including those traditionally considered outside the purview of refugee health, are an important burden to health among Iraqi and Syrian refugees. Possible interventions could include stroke risk factor reduction and targeted medication donations for multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and
Yasir Bdaiwi Jasim Al-Shujairi
Full Text Available Several studies have been conducted to investigate the grammatical errors of Iraqi postgraduates and undergraduates in their academic writing. However, few studies have focused on the writing challenges that Iraqi pre-university students face. This research aims at examining the written discourse of Iraqi high school students and the common grammatical errors they make in their writing. The study had a mixed methods design. Through convenience sampling method, 112 compositions were collected from Iraqi pre-university students. For purpose of triangulation, an interview was conducted. The data was analyzed using Corder’s (1967 error analysis model and James’ (1998 framework of grammatical errors. Furthermore, Brown’s (2000 taxonomy was adopted to classify the types of errors. The result showed that Iraqi high school students have serious problems with the usage of verb tenses, articles, and prepositions. Moreover, the most frequent types of errors were Omission and Addition. Furthermore, it was found that intralanguage was the dominant source of errors. These findings may enlighten Iraqi students on the importance of correct grammar use for writing efficacy.
IRSN publishes its report on the safety of transport of radioactive materials for civilian use in France for the years 2014 and 2015. It is based on an overall review of the significant events that occurred during this period during transport operations in France by road, railway, inland waterway, sea and air of 980 000 parcels loaded with radioactive substances. In 2014 and 2015, respectively 139 and 122 events were reported, which is about one event reported for 7,500 packages carried. While these figures are up significantly compared to 2013 (93 reported events, or 1 in 10,000 packages carried), IRSN believes that this trend should not however be interpreted as a deterioration of the safety level of the transport of radioactive materials. Indeed, it is largely explained by better detection of events relevant to safety by the actors concerned and therefore their declaration to the authorities. None of these events had significant radiological consequences for the workers, the population or the environment. As part of progress made, IRSN notes a sharp decrease, in 2015, in the number of damage of packages intended for medical activities during their handling in airport areas. This decrease is linked to awareness actions conducted for airlines companies and staff involved in the handling of packages. Finally, three themes must be the subject of particular vigilance of the actors concerned and of corrective actions: - Compliance with the requirements for the transport of gamma radiography devices, in particular those associated with the locking of the source; events related to the transport of gamma radiography devices appeared as remarkable events over the period (3 level 1 events and 1 level 2 events); - The tie-down of packages on their means of transport, given the risks of fall of the package during transport, as well as tie-down of the objects in their transport container; - The operations of filling and closing of drums containing uranium ore in order to
... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0728] Proposed Information Collection (Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans Health Needs Assessment) Activities Under OMB....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans Health Needs...
Morina, Nexhmedin; Ford, Julian D
The impact of war trauma on civilians may include, but also extend beyond, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to include complex sequelae such as those described by the syndrome of Disorders of Extreme Stress Not Otherwise Specified (DESNOS). In the present study, 102 civilian war victims were interviewed in Kosovo, assessing traumatic life events, PTSD, DESNOS, and depression. Full DESNOS rarely occurred (2% prevalence), however, clinically significant DESNOS symptoms of somatization, altered relationships, and altered systems of meaning were reported by between 24-42% of respondents. Although DESNOS symptoms were correlated with PTSD symptoms, DESNOS symptoms were associated with poorer overall psychological functioning, self-evaluations, satisfaction with life, and social support independent of the effects of PTSD. The findings suggest that DESNOS warrants attention in addition to PTSD in the assessment and treatment of civilians who have been exposed to war and genocide.
Since the United Kingdom's defence nuclear industry was founded in the late 1940s, Service and civilian personnel have been exposed to ionising radiation. During the last forty years, as knowledge about the effects of radiation exposure has grown, concern to ensure adequate protection against exposure has also increased,. As part of our continuing scrutiny of the Ministry of Defence (MoD), we have undertaken a short inquiry to examine MoD's current and future policy and practice on radiological protection. The principal work involving exposure of Service and civilian personnel to significant levels of radiation falls into two discrete areas: the nuclear weapons programme and the nuclear propulsion programme. The nuclear weapons programme involves research, the production of nuclear warheads and their deployment with Her Majesty's Forces. The nuclear propulsion programme involves research, production, operation, refitting and decommissioning of pressurised water reactors as a source of propulsion power in Royal Navy submarines. These two nuclear programmes are not the only sources of ionising radiation within MoD's responsibility: it also arises from research, non-destructive testing and medical applications, most notably conventional radiography. In this Report we have concentrated upon ionising radiation arising from the two defence nuclear programmes. (author)
Doarn, Charles R; McVeigh, Francis; Poropatich, Ronald
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become the signature injury of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. The use of improvised explosive devices has seen an exponential increase in both Iraq and Afghanistan. In previous conflicts prior to Iraq, survivability of such an injury was far less. Today, technological improvements in trauma care have increased an injured warfighter's chance of survival. A reduction in severe TBI has been achieved but an increase in mild or moderate TBI has been observed. The consequences of this kind of injury can be both physical and mental and can often be hidden or even misdiagnosed. The U.S. Army is interested in pursuing technological solutions for early detection and treatment of TBI to reduce its lasting impact on the warfighter. Such technological breakthroughs have benefit beyond the military, as TBI is a high probable event in nonmilitary settings as well. To gauge what technologies or methods are currently available, the U.S. Army's Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center partnered with the American Telemedicine Association to organize and conduct a discipline-specific symposium entitled "Innovative New Technologies to Identify and Treat Traumatic Brain Injuries: Crossover Technologies and Approaches Between Military and Civilian Applications." This symposium was held in Palm Springs, CA, in September 2009. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a unique opportunity for leaders from disparate organizations involved in telemedicine and related other activities to meet and explore opportunities to collaborate in new partnership models. The meeting was designed to help Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center identify opportunities to expand strategic operations and form new alliances. This report summarizes this symposium while raising awareness for collaboration into better ways of adapting and adopting technologies to address this growing health issue.
... (Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans Health Needs Assessment) Activity; Comment... Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans and their families. DATES: Written comments and...: Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans Health Needs Assessment, VA Form 10-21091. OMB...
... (Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously Injured/Ill Service Member Veteran Worksheet... solicits comments on information provided to Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans... information technology. Title: Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously Injured/Ill...
Ugla, Raed Latif; Abidin, Mohamad Jafre Zainol
This study was aimed at exploring apology strategies of English used by Iraqi EFL students, apology strategies in Iraqi Arabic and the pragmatic strategies of Iraqi EFL students in relation to the use of apology as a speech act. The data analyzed in this study were collected in Al-Yarmouk University College and University of Diyala. The study was…
Consistency of Self-Reported Neurocognitive Symptoms, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms, and Concussive Events From End of First Deployment to Veteran Health Administration Comprehensive Traumatic Brain Injury Evaluation by Operations Enduring Freedom/Iraqi Freedom/New Dawn Veterans.
Russo, Arthur C; Fingerhut, Esther C
This study examined the consistency of self-reported symptoms and concussive events in combat veterans who reported experiencing concussive events. One hundred and forty, single deployed, Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation New Dawn combat veterans with Veteran Health Administration (VHA) Comprehensive Traumatic Brain Injury Evaluations (CTBIE) and no post-deployment head injury were examined to assess consistency of self-reported (a) traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related symptoms, (b) post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related symptoms, and (c) TBI-related concussive events from soon after deployment to time of VHA CTBIE. Compared to their self-report of symptoms and traumatic events at the time of their Post-Deployment Health Assessment, at the time of their comprehensive VHA evaluation, subjects reported significantly greater impairment in concentration, decision making, memory, headache, and sleep. In addition, although half the subjects denied any PTSD symptoms post-deployment, approximately three quarters reported experiencing all four PTSD screening symptoms near the time of the VHA CTBIEs. At the latter time, subjects also reported significantly more TBI-related concussive events, as well as more post-concussive sequelae such as loss of consciousness immediately following these concussive events. Finally, although 84% reported a level of impairment so severe as to render all but the simplest activity doable, the vast majority simultaneously reported working and/or attending college. These findings raise questions regarding the accuracy of veteran self-report of both near and distant traumatic events, and argue for the inclusion of contemporaneous Department of Defense (DOD) records in veteran assessment and treatment planning. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Mukhalad Malik Almutalabi
Full Text Available The current study aims at analysing the improper pronunciation of Iraqi EFL learners concerning the pronunciation of diphthongs in words of various syllables. It describes and identifies thoroughly the mispronunciations of such important sounds in English language. The study attempts at analysing such mispronunciations by clarifying and assigning the phonetic deviations of Iraqi EFL learners when they pronounce diphthongs. So the main objective of the study is to analyse the errors committed by Iraqi learners in the pronunciation of diphthongs grouping each error into its specific category. To verify the objective of the paper, 25 Iraqi EFL learners from the department of English at Cihan University/ Slemani are chosen to be the main participants of the study. The test which was conducted in the laboratory of the Department of English contained 10 words comprising various diphthongs. The results clearly revealed that mispronouncing English diphthongs by Iraqi EFL were mostly observed by replacing the required diphthong with another improper one and they also tended to use simple vowels instead of the correct required diphthongs.
Duncan, James E; Corwin, Christian H; Sweeney, W Brian; Dunne, James R; Denobile, John W; Perdue, Philip W; Galarneau, Michael R; Pearl, Jonathan P
Management of penetrating colorectal injuries in the civilian trauma population has evolved away from diversionary stoma into primary repair or resection and primary anastomosis. With this in mind, we evaluated how injuries to the colon and rectum were managed in the ongoing war in Iraq. The records of Operation Iraqi Freedom patients evacuated to National Naval Medical Center (NNMC) from March 2004 until November 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with colorectal injuries were identified and characterized by the following: (1) injury type; (2) mechanism; (3) associated injuries; (4) Injury Severity Score; (5) levels of medical care involved in patient treatment; (6) time interval(s) between levels of care; (7) management; and (8) outcomes. Twenty-three patients were identified as having either colon or rectal injury. The average ISS was 24.4 (range, 9-54; median 24). On average, patients were evaluated and treated at 2.5 levels of surgically capable medical care (range, 2-3; median 2) between time of injury and arrival at NNMC, with a median of 6 days from initial injury until presentation at NNMC (range, 3-11). Management of colorectal injuries included 7 primary repairs (30.4%), 3 resections with anastomoses (13.0%), and 13 colostomies (56.6%). There was one death (4.3%) and three anastomotic leaks (30%). Total complication rate was 48%. Based upon injury severity, the complex nature of triage and medical evacuation, and the multiple levels of care involved for injured military personnel, temporary stoma usage should play a greater role in military casualties than in the civilian environment for penetrating colorectal injuries.
.... It implements policy, establishes uniform DoD-wide procedures, provides guidelines and model programs, delegates authority, and assigns responsibilities regarding civilian personnel management within...
Rzger A. Abdula
Full Text Available Bottom hole temperature (BHT data from 12 oil wells in Iraqi Kurdistan were used to obtain the thermal trend of Iraqi Kurdistan. Due to differences in thermal conductivity of rocks and groundwater movement, variations in geothermal gradients were observed. The highest geothermal gradient (29.2 °C/km was found for well Taq Taq-8 in the Low Folded Zone (central part of the area. The lowest geothermal gradients (14.9 °C/km were observed for well Bekhme-1 in the High Folded Zone (northern and northeastern parts of the area. The average regional geothermal gradient for Iraqi Kurdistan is 21 °C/km.
Abdula, Rzger A.
Bottom hole temperature (BHT) data from 12 oil wells in Iraqi Kurdistan were used to obtain the thermal trend of Iraqi Kurdistan. Due to differences in thermal conductivity of rocks and groundwater movement, variations in geothermal gradients were observed. The highest geothermal gradient (29.2 °C/km) was found for well Taq Taq-8 in the Low Folded Zone (central part of the area). The lowest geothermal gradients (14.9 °C/km) were observed for well Bekhme-1 in the High Folded Zone (northern and...
Richard H. Becker
Full Text Available The Iraqi (Mesopotamian Marshes, an extensive wetlands system in Iraq, has been heavily impacted by both human and climate forces over the past decades. In the period leading up to the Second Gulf War in 2002, the marshlands were shrinking due to both a policy of draining and water diversion in Iraq and construction of dams upstream on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Following the war through 2006, this trend was reversed as the diversions were removed and active draining stopped. A combination of MODIS and GRACE datasets were used to determine the change in surface water area (SWA in the marshes, marshland extent and change in mass both upriver in the Tigris and Euphrates watersheds and in the marshlands. Results suggest that the post war dam removal and decreased pumping in 2003 provided only temporary respite for the marshlands (2003–2006 SWA: 1,477 km2 increase (600%, water equivalent depth (WED: +2.0 cm/yr.; 2006–2009: −860 km2 (−41% WED: −3.9 cm/yr.. Unlike in the period 2003–2006, from 2006 forward the mass variations in the marshes are highly correlated with those in the upper and middle watershed (R = 0.86 and 0.92 respectively, suggesting that any recovery due to that removal is complete, and that all future changes are tied more strongly to any climate changes that will affect recharge in the upper Tigris-Euphrates system. Precipitation changes in the watershed show a reduction of an average of 15% below the 15 yr mean in 2007–2011 This corresponds with published ensemble predictions for the 2071–2099 time period, that suggested similar marshland shrinkage should be expected in that time period.
Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Tileva, Margarita; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert
The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East since the Palestinian crisis, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. The study aimed to provide information on chronic medical conditions and disability to inform humanitarian assistance planning. Nationally representative cross-sectional surveys of Iraqi populations displaced in Jordan and Syria were conducted in late 2008 and early 2009. Clusters of 10 household were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed. The majority of respondents in both countries perceived healthcare as unaffordable but accessible; cost was an important barrier to care. In Jordan, most routine health expenditures were for medications where in Syria, expenses were divided between medical consultations and medication. Chronic disease prevalence among adults was 51.5% (confidence interval (CI): 49.4-53.5) in Syria and 41.0% (CI: 39.4-42.7) in Jordan, most common were hypertension and musculoskeletal problems. Overall disability rates were 7.1% (CI: 6.3-8.0) in Syria and 3.4% (CI: 3.0-3.9) in Jordan. In both countries, the majority of disability was attributed to conflict, prevalence was higher in men than women, and depression was the leading cause of mental health disability. Chronic illnesses, disabilities and psychological health are key challenges for the Iraqi population and the health systems in Jordan and Syria. Continued attention to the development of systems to manage conditions that require secondary and tertiary care is essential, particularly given reported difficulties in accessing care and the anticipated prolonged displacement. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Darweesh, Abbas Deygan; Mehdi, Wafaa Sahib
The present paper investigates the performance of the Iraqi students for the speech act of correction and how it is realized with status unequal. It attempts to achieve the following aims: (1) Setting out the felicity conditions for the speech act of correction in terms of Searle conditions; (2) Identifying the semantic formulas that realize the…
Tomas Mas, Carmen; Diez, Isabel E; Moncada, Enrique
(ST) values were statistically significant when pairwise comparisons were performed between the 18 populations. The Iraqi population did not show significant difference from the population in Turkey and it grouped together with other Middle-Eastern populations when a multidimensional scaling plot was drawn...
Having accumulated, throughout the twentieth century, historical achievements in education and standards of living higher than in most Arab and "third world" countries, Iraqi women were hit hard by two wars, the US-imposed economic sanctions of the 1990s, and then set back by the 2003 Anglo-American imperial occupation. Physical survival…
Semiannual Headcount Report and payroll information from step 5.a. and the calculated headcount from step 5.b. Refer to the management official for an...and one difference of 2.48 percent in the VA Payroll Office. DFAS management did not explain the differences. Procedure 6. Calculate employer and...percent difference, and the VA Payroll Office had a 117.11-percent difference. DFAS management did not provide an explanation for these differences
Full Text Available Regarding representational function of media, the current dissertation intends to examine the changes in the representation of the image of the Iraqis in the Sacred Defense Cinema. Iraqies have been pictured as the "Others" during last three decades. Due to the importance and role of sacred defense and its cinematic representations of "Self" and "Other" and thereby its contribution in the process of reconstruction of Iranian national identity this research is aimed at studying represented images of Iraqies and its changes during last three decades. To reach this objective I first examined the concept and theories of representation as stated by Richard Dyer and Stuart Hall. Then to complement Hall’s theories I referred to other thinkers in the field of identity theory, ‘self’ and ‘the other’ as stated. In the chapter on methodology I’ve benefited from a combination of the patterns presented by Kate Selbi, Ran Kallory and Rolan Bart to analyze the texts.The findings of this thesis demonstrates that in order to depict the Iraqis in the sixties verbal codes were primarily used whereas in the seventies and the eighties social and technical codes were most used respectively.In the first decade Iraqis were portrayed as those people who are imagined to be cruel, inhuman, in which the emphasis was laid on the impact of the Iraqi’s invasion. In the second decade we see Iraqi’s depicted as dumb and fat people having thick moustaches and rough voices and in the third we see this portrayal to be transformed where Iraqi’s are shown to be our Muslim brothers who have been forced to fight in the war. Having observed, examined and analyzed the films, we found out that when facing ‘the other’, i.e. the Iraqis, the metaphor of the boundary or border was used. This border is seen between ‘self’ and ‘the other’, i.e. the Iranians and the Iraqis in all the chosen movies on the Sacred Defense. In the first decade there was an objective
This volume of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program report addresses safety and environmental considerations in licensing the principal alternative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles in the United States for large-scale commercial nuclear power plants. In addition, this volume examines the safety and environmental considerations for licensing fuel service centers. These centers, which have been proposed for controlling sensitive fuel-cycle facilities and special nuclear materials, would contain a combination of such facilities as reprocessing plants, fabrication plants, and reactors. For this analysis, two fuel service center concepts were selected - one with power - generating capability and one without
Dewachi, Omar; Skelton, Mac; Nguyen, Vinh-Kim; Fouad, Fouad M; Sitta, Ghassan Abu; Maasri, Zeina; Giacaman, Rita
The health consequences of the ongoing US-led war on terror and civil armed conflicts in the Arab world are much more than the collateral damage inflicted on civilians, infrastructure, environment, and health systems. Protracted war and armed conflicts have displaced populations and led to lasting transformations in health and health care. In this report, we analyse the effects of conflicts in Iraq and Syria to show how wars and conflicts have resulted in both the militarisation and regionalisation of health care, conditions that complicate the rebuilding of previously robust national health-care systems. Moreover, we show how historical and transnational frameworks can be used to show the long-term consequences of war and conflict on health and health care. We introduce the concept of therapeutic geographies--defined as the geographic reorganisation of health care within and across borders under conditions of war. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pavlik, John V.; Laufer, Peter D.; Burns, David P.; Ataya, Ramzi T.
Journalism and mass communication higher education in Iraq is well established but largely isolated from global developments since the 1970s. In the post-Iraq war period, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) implemented a multiyear project to work with the leadership of Iraqi higher education to help update…
Volume 6 of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program report addresses safety and environmental considerations in licensing the principal alternative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles in the United States for large-scale commercial nuclear power plants. In addition, this volume examines the safety and environmental considerations for licensing fuel service centers. These centers, which have been proposed for controlling sensitive fuel-cycle facilities and special nuclear materials, would contain a combination of such facilities as reprocessing plants, fabrication plants, and reactors. For this analysis, two fuel service center concepts were selected - one with power-generating capability and one without. This volume also provides estimates of the time required for development of large-scale commercial reactor systems to reach the construction permit application stage and for fuel-cycle facilities to reach the operating license application stage, which is a measure of the relative technical status of alternative nuclear systems
US Agency for International Development — The purpose of OCR DTS is to establish, manage and track relevant Civilian Response Corps teams for deployment by sector experience, training, education etc.
...) examined the attributes of a subset of the government's civilian workforce: the roughly 1.4 million salaried workers not including employees of the Postal Service who fill full-time permanent positions in the executive branch...
Matsumoto, Mary E; Khan, Mohammed; Jayabalan, Prakash; Ziebarth, Jessica; Munin, Michael C
To report the incidence of symptomatic heterotopic ossification (HO) in a defined civilian amputee population, describe its characteristics, and compare these findings to published data in military amputees. Retrospective chart analysis from July 1998 to July 2009. Ambulatory amputee clinic within a large university medical center. Adults with lower limb amputation (N=158). Not applicable. Patients with symptomatic HO confirmed by radiographs. A total of 261 patients were evaluated; 158 met inclusion criteria, with 59% having traumatic etiology, 18% vascular etiology, 22% infection, and 1% tumor. Symptomatic HO was diagnosed in 36 (22.8%) patients, and 94% patients had mild HO on radiographic scoring. Rate of HO in amputations related to trauma was not increased compared with those of other etiologies. Surgical resection of the ectopic bone was required in 4 (11%) patients. HO is seen commonly after civilian lower limb amputation regardless of etiology. The prevalence was less than that observed in previous reports from military populations. This is the first report estimating the prevalence of HO in adult civilian amputees. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ghanim, Aghareed; Morgan, Michael; Mariño, Rodrigo; Manton, David; Bailey, Denise
The understanding and detection of molar-incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) is linked to its recognition by clinicians. No study has investigated dental clinicians' level of perception regarding MIH in the Middle East region including Iraq. To determine the perception of Iraqi academic clinicians about MIH prevalence, severity and aetiological factors. A questionnaire, based on previous European and Australian/New Zealand studies was administered to the academic dental staff of Mosul University. A response rate of 77.7% was reported. General dental practitioners represented 30.8% of the total respondents, whilst 65.1% were dentists with post-graduate qualification. The majority of the respondents (81.2%) encountered MIH in their clinical activities and 37.3% of them identified that the prevalence appeared to have increased in recent years. Fewer than half of the respondents observed MIH affected teeth on a monthly basis. The condition was less commonly seen in primary second molars than the first permanent molars. A variation in views was recorded about MIH specific aetiological factor/s. Respondents advocated the need for clinical training regarding MIH-aetiological and therapeutic fields. Molar-incisor hypomineralisation is a condition commonly diagnosed by Iraqi dental academics. No apparent consensus existed between the general and specialist dentists regarding the anticipated prevalence, severity and aetiology of this condition. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Lina Fathi Sidig Sidgi
Full Text Available The present study focuses on determining whether automatic speech recognition (ASR technology is reliable for improving English pronunciation to Iraqi EFL students. Non-native learners of English are generally concerned about improving their pronunciation skills, and Iraqi students face difficulties in pronouncing English sounds that are not found in their native language (Arabic. This study is concerned with ASR and its effectiveness in overcoming this difficulty. The data were obtained from twenty participants randomly selected from first-year college students at Al-Turath University College from the Department of English in Baghdad-Iraq. The students had participated in a two month pronunciation instruction course using ASR Eyespeak software. At the end of the pronunciation instruction course using ASR Eyespeak software, the students completed a questionnaire to get their opinions about the usefulness of the ASR Eyespeak in improving their pronunciation. The findings of the study revealed that the students found ASR Eyespeak software very useful in improving their pronunciation and helping them realise their pronunciation mistakes. They also reported that learning pronunciation with ASR Eyespeak enjoyable.
Marla B. Keenan
Full Text Available This practice note details an emerging best practice of civilian harm mitigation in armed conflict: namely, the creation of civilian casualty tracking, analysis and response processes by a warring party or peace operation force. It asserts that in Iraq, Afghanistan and soon Somalia, these processes to better understand civilian harm and address consequences have positively shaped mission tactics, training, and overall operations. In both Iraq and Afghanistan, tracking and analysis has lead to a marked decrease in civilian casualties and facilitated the making of amends for any civilian losses. The paper argues that for warring parties to achieve their mission—particularly one with a protection of civilians mandate as with the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA—they must fully understand the impact of their actions on the civilian population, positive or negative. For this reason, a Civilian Casualty Tracking, Analysis, and Response Cell should be created for MINUSMA to improve its ability mitigate risk to civilians as required by its Security Council mandate.
Uih Ran Lee
This article explores warring groups’ intentional targeting behavior against civilians, a strictly prohibited war strategy by international norms. Using dynamic panel regressions run on a comprehensive dataset of contemporary warfare which covers 22 years (1989-2010), I find that warring actors, both sovereign states and formally organized armed groups, behave systematically in terms of civilian targeting when they are involved in prolonged armed conflict (15-22 years). Warring actors’ lethal...
... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civilian nautical school. 168.10-5 Section 168.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS CIVILIAN NAUTICAL SCHOOL VESSELS Definitions of Terms Used in This Part § 168.10-5 Civilian nautical school. The term civilian...
CIVILIAN TECHNOLOGY FIRMS PLAY A ROLE IN THE DEFENSE INDUSTRIAL BASE GOING FORWARD? by Daniel J. Shipman December 2017 Thesis Advisor: Mie...2017 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE HOW MIGHT CIVILIAN TECHNOLOGY FIRMS PLAY A ROLE IN THE DEFENSE INDUSTRIAL...the competitive business environment of Department of Defense (DOD) vendors and whether the market is favorable for non-traditional, technology
Bodas, Moran; Siman-Tov, Maya; Kreitler, Shulamith; Peleg, Kobi
Preparedness for emergencies and disasters is imperative for public resilience. Previous studies have revealed low levels of civilian preparedness for conflicts. Classic behavioral models prove inapt in describing preparedness patterns in victimized populations chronically exposed to this threat. In an effort to expand this perspective, we hypothesized that other psychological constructs are correlated with preparedness. A cross-sectional, Internet-based study was performed in Israel in early 2016. A sociodemographically diverse sample included 385 participants, Jews and Arabs. The tools included a preparedness index, sense of preparedness questionnaire, Trait Anxiety Inventory, Life Orientation Test, Behavioral Inhibition & Activation System scales, and ego defenses. The results suggested that optimistic and rational individuals reported significantly higher levels of preparedness, whereas those who scored highly on the trait anxiety scale and those with a tendency to use denial coping mechanisms reported significantly lower levels of preparedness. The findings suggest that additional constructs, other than classic threat perception components, might play a key role in governing preparedness behavior. In particular, psychological manipulation of dispositional optimism or optimistic thinking might be effective in motivating preparedness behavior. Future research should explore such innovative ways to promoting preparedness. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:451-459).
Full Text Available The current study involved conducting a pilot test of a culturally sensitive support group program developed to assist Iraqi women in the year following the birth of their baby (CSSG-B in Perth, Western Australia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the social validity of the program. It was hypothesised that women involved in the program would find the program to be socially valid and culturally appropriate, and will also report lower levels of depressive symptomatology and higher levels of social support, following the group intervention. Participants were twelve Iraqi Arabic speaking women, who had a child less than 12 months of age. The program was based on Iraqi women's explanatory models (Kleinman, 1978; Di Ciano, Rooney, Wright, Hay, & Robinson, 2010 of the birth and motherhood experience. Social validity ratings were obtained during the implementation of the program in order to assess the level of acceptability of the intervention. A one-group pretest-posttest design was used to determine if depressive symptoms had decreased during the course of the intervention and social support had increased. Results indicated that Iraqi Arabic speaking women found the support group intervention acceptable and relevant and there was a significant decrease in scores on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression scale from pretest to posttest. These results that the culturally sensitive group intervention was culturally acceptable and was associated with decreased levels of depressive symptomatology.
Davenport, Lisa A
Though the United States has become a place of increasing resettlement for refugees, particularly Iraqi refugees who have been forced to flee their homeland due to violence, persecution and civil unrest, little is known about Iraqi refugee resettlement in the United States, or the way in which resettlement impacts health and adjustment. A grounded theory study was conducted to develop a substantive theory of Iraqi refugee resettlement. Participants in the qualitative study included 29 Iraqi refugees and 2 community partners who participated in face-to face interviews. Data analysis and interpretation revealed fundamental concepts related to Iraqi refugee resettlement. Results of analysis showed that for Iraqis choosing to resettle here, the outcome is dichotomous: satisfaction or regret. The outcome is influenced by contextual factors as well as facilitating and hindering intervening conditions during the basic social process of resettlement transition. Each refugee's story is unique, yet all share common threads. This study allowed Iraqi refugees the opportunity to voice their personal experiences of resettling in America, and revealed life stories that inspire and illuminate a process that can guide health care delivery as they cope with the stresses of their journey. As a result, an in-depth storyline was established to explain the process of resettlement for Iraqi refugees. The development of this resettlement theory, grounded in Iraqi refugee experience, has the potential to guide nursing education, enhance the efficacy of practice, inform policy development and form the basis for research.
not pan out. We knew that our mission was ultimately to hand over security responsibility to the Iraqi government, but we had not yet developed a...were “ chicken -egg” discus- sions about whether the security situation had to improve before the political track could begin. I strongly argued that...2005 Lt Gen Nick Houghton (UK), October 2005–February 2006 Lt Gen Rob Fry (UK), March 2006–September 2006 Lt Gen Graham Lamb (UK), September 2006
Ahmed, Herish M.; Coulter, J. Brian S.; Nakagomi, Osamu; Zaki, Jamal M.; Al-Rabaty, Abas A.; Dove, Winifred; Cunliffe, Nigel A.
Of 260 children with acute diarrhea in Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan, 96 (37%) were infected with rotavirus. Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction identified G1, G4, G2, G9, P, P, and P as the most common genotypes. Eight G/P combinations were found, but PG1 and PG2 accounted for >50% of the strains. PMID:16704845
AlObaidi, Abdul Kareem; Jeffrey, Linda R; Scarth, Leslie; Albadawi, Ghazwan
War violates every human right of children. In recent years, the lives of Iraqi children and the livelihoods of their families have become precarious. Conflict has split the communities where they live and taken the lives of hundreds of their friends and family members. The literature focuses on the negative effects of armed conflict on Iraqi children, and the steps that need to be taken to ameliorate their condition by adapting evidence based but culturally sensitive measures. A comprehensive solution to child protection problems clearly will take time. The primary need for the protection of Iraqi children is an end to conflict. Family and educational order and social stability are central to efforts to achieve progress in child protection. Solutions to armed conflict and its aftermath work best when they are responsive to local cultural practices and beliefs, and are drawn from an understanding of child development. Child safety, security and well-being should be in the forefront of the national agenda to ensure a more positive future both economically and socially to achieve a healthier Iraq.
Talving, Peep; Nicol, Andrew J; Navsaria, Pradeep H
Low-velocity gunshot wounds cause most civilian duodenal injuries. The objective of this study was to describe a simplified surgical algorithm currently in use in a South African civilian trauma center and to verify its validity by measuring morbidity and mortality. A retrospective chart review of patients with duodenal gunshot injuries during the study period January 1999 to December 2003 was performed. Data points accrued included patient demographics, admission hemodynamic status and resuscitative measures, laparotomy damage control procedures, methods of surgical repair of the duodenal injury, associated injuries, length of intensive care and hospital stays, complications, and mortality. A total of 75 consecutive patients with gunshot injuries to the duodenum were reviewed. Primary repair was performed in 54 patients (87%), resection and reanastomosis in 7 (11%), and pancreatoduodenectomy in 1 (2%) during the initial phases. The overall morbidity and mortality were 58% and 28%, respectively. Duodenum-related complications were recorded in nine (15%) patients: two duodenal fistulas, one duodenal obstruction, and six cases of suture-line dehiscence. Overall and duodenum-related morbidity rates in patients with combined pancreatoduodenal injuries were 83% and 17%, respectively. Duodenum-related mortality occurred in three (4.8%) patients. Most civilian low-velocity duodenal gunshot injuries treated with simple primary repair result in overall morbidity, mortality, and duodenum-related complication rates comparable to those in reports where more complex surgical procedures were employed. Primary repair is also applicable for most combined pancreatic and duodenal gunshot injuries.
destroy the residence of the US Ambassador in Jakarta, Japanese Embassy and American Airlines in Philippines 2 CMPC-2003-000 17015 2 Production and...used to seek a number oftargets like (The Iraqi Communist Party Headquarters, assassinating some ofP.K.K members, blowing up Dilshad Cinema ) where...Sulaymaniyyah like Dilshad Cinema , a Casino in (Illegible) Subdivision and a media whole. 4- They issued the first declaration threatening the Secularism
Wright, A Michelle; Talia, Yousif R; Aldhalimi, Abir; Broadbridge, Carissa L; Jamil, Hikmet; Lumley, Mark A; Pole, Nnamdi; Arnetz, Bengt B; Arnetz, Judith E
Although kidnapping is common in war-torn countries, there is little research examining its psychological effects. Iraqi refugees (N = 298) were assessed upon arrival to the U.S. and 1 year later. At arrival, refugees were asked about prior trauma exposure, including kidnapping. One year later refugees were assessed for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression disorder (MDD) using the SCID-I. Individual resilience and narratives of the kidnapping were also assessed. Twenty-six refugees (9 %) reported being kidnapped. Compared to those not kidnapped, those who were had a higher prevalence of PTSD, but not MDD, diagnoses. Analyses examining kidnapping victims revealed that higher resilience was associated with lower rates of PTSD. Narratives of the kidnapping were also discussed. This study suggests kidnapping is associated with PTSD, but not MDD. Additionally, kidnapping victims without PTSD reported higher individual resilience. Future studies should further elucidate risk and resilience mechanisms.
... (Operation Enduring Freedom/ Operation Iraqi Freedom Seriously Injured/Ill Service Member Veteran Worksheet... No. 2900-0720.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom... used VA Form 21-0773 as a checklist to ensure they provided Operation Enduring Freedom or Operation...
U.S. Army Troop Support Command. The survey was conducted as part of an organizational diagnosis in preparation for the implementation of a civilian...survey as part of the program evaluation is recommended. Keywords: Surveys; Questionnaires; Employee attitudes; Attitude measurement; Organizational diagnosis .
Rascon, Carlos G
Organizations within the Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Labor (DoL) report safety metrics that quantify DoD civilian employee injury incident rates and lost work time for all military services...
Jaddou, H; Al-Hakim, M; Mhaisen, M D [Iraq Atomic Energy Commission, Baghdad. Nuclear Research Inst.
The possibility of using gamma-irradiation for date preservation had been considered as an alternative method to fumigation. Two varieties of Iraqi dates (Zahdi and Sayer) had been used in the study, and three doses of 50, 100 and 150 krads. A combination of treatments of heat plus irradiation were also applied and tests were conducted at three maturation stages. Gas chromatographic analysis was used to fractionate sugars from dates after converting to their TMS - ether derivatives. No qualitative or quantitative changes were observed in sugar components in either Zahdi or Sayer dates within the doses used in the experiments.
... UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION FOR FEDERAL CIVILIAN EMPLOYEES Responsibilities of Federal Agencies § 609.20 Information to Federal civilian employees. Each Federal agency shall: (a) Furnish information to its employees... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information to Federal civilian employees...
... the Navy. (b) Each Civilian Executive Assistants, within his or her assigned area of responsibility... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The Civilian Executive Assistants. 700.320... of the Navy The Office of the Secretary of the Navy/the Civilian Executive Assistants § 700.320 The...
... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civilian EEO program staff. 191.7 Section 191.7...) MISCELLANEOUS THE DOD CIVILIAN EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY (EEO) PROGRAM § 191.7 Civilian EEO program staff. (a) EEO Managers, including SEP Managers and other staff who are responsible for EEO and affirmative...
Rooney, Rosanna M.; Kane, Robert T.; Wright, Bernadette; Gent, Vanessa; Di Ciano, Taralisa; Mancini, Vincent
The current study involved conducting a pilot test of a culturally sensitive support group program developed to assist Iraqi women in the year following the birth of their baby (CSSG-B) in Perth, Western Australia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the social validity of the program. It was hypothesised that women involved in the program would find the program to be socially valid and culturally appropriate, and will also report lower levels of depressive symptomatology and higher levels ...
Karadakhy, Kamaran; Othman, Nasih; Ibrahimm, Faredun; Saeed, Akam Ali; Amin, Ari Abdul-Adheem Hama
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health problem especially in low and middle-income countries. The current study was undertaken to estimate the incidence of the disease and describe its epidemiological characteristics in Iraqi Kurdistan. A retrospective study was carried out on cases registered in the directly observed treatment-short course (DOTS) centers in Sulaimaniyah province. Information was collected from the summary reports of all cases registered in 2010 and detailed information was obtained from 307 cases in the main center. During 2010, a total of 530 new and relapsed cases were registered in the DOTS centers amounting to an annual incidence of 31 per 100,000. Over 73% of cases were pulmonary TB and 45% of all cases had positive smear. Most common symptoms were cough (58%), sweating (49%) and fever (48). Almost 43% of patients were diagnosed by direct swab examination, 30% by biopsy and 23% through clinical and radiologic examination. In relation to outcome, 89% of patients were treated successfully, 7% died and 3% defaulted. Mortality rate was 8% in pulmonary infection and 4% in extrapulmonary infection. Old age (65 years and over) was significantly associated with higher odds of death compared to people aged 34 years and younger (OR 6.7, 95% CI 1.3-36.1, P=0.03). The incidence of TB is still high in the Iraqi Kurdistan. The DOTS has been successful in treating the majority of cases but there are areas needing improvement especially record-keeping and patient follow-up during and after treatment.
The purpose of this report is to identify and assess major alternatives for governmental policies, organizational structures, and actions in civilian nuclear reactor emergency management in the United States. The National Academy of Public Administration agreed to identify and evaluate alternatives for governmental policies, organizational structures, and actions in civilian nuclear reactor emergency management. It agreed to review present policies and practices in civilian nuclear reactor emergency management, to review selected experiences and practices of governmental agencies other than the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and industries other than the nuclear power industry, and to identify alternatives to the present nuclear emergency system
Ghattas, Hala; Sassine, AnnieBelle J; Seyfert, Karin; Nord, Mark; Sahyoun, Nadine R
Iraqi refugees in Lebanon are vulnerable to food insecurity because of their limited rights and fragile livelihoods. The objective of the present study was to assess household food insecurity among Iraqi refugees living in Lebanon, almost 10 years after the invasion of Iraq. A representative survey of 800 UN High Commissioner for Refugees-registered refugee households in Lebanon was conducted using multi-stage cluster random sampling. We measured food insecurity using a modified US Department of Agriculture household food security module. We collected data on household demographic, socio-economic, health, housing and dietary diversity status and analysed these factors by food security status. Hb level was measured in a subset of children below 5 years of age (n 85). Weighted data were used in univariate and multivariate analyses. Among the Iraqi refugee households surveyed (n 630), 20·1% (95% CI 17·3, 23·2) were found to be food secure, 35·5% (95% CI 32·0, 39·2) moderately food insecure and 44·4% (95% CI 40·8, 48·1) severely food insecure. Severe food insecurity was associated with the respondent's good self-reported health (OR 0·3, 95% CI 0·2, 0·5), length of stay as a refugee (OR 1·1, 95% CI 1·0, 1·2), very poor housing quality (OR 3·3, 95% CI 1·6, 6·5) and the number of children in the household (OR 1·2, 95% CI 1·0, 1·4), and resulted in poor dietary diversity (PLebanon call for urgent programmes to address the food and health situation of this population with restricted rights.
Saleem, Rozhgar A; Othman, Nasih; Fattah, Fattah H; Hazim, Luma; Adnan, Berivan
The high prevalence of female genital mutilation has been a concern in Iraqi Kurdistan. This study was undertaken to estimate its prevalence and describe factors associated with its occurrence. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken from March to April 2011 of females aged up to 20 years using interviews and clinical examination. The survey included 1,508 participants with mean age of 13.5 years (SD 5.6). Overall female genital mutilation prevalence was 23%, and the mean age at which it had been performed was 4.6 years (SD 2.4). Type I (partial or total removal of the clitoris) comprised 76% of those who had had female genital mutilation; in 79% of cases the decision to perform it was made by the mother; and in 54% of cases it was performed by traditional birth attendants/midwives. Women aged 16 years and over were more likely to have had female genital mutilation compared to children aged below 6 years (OR 11.9, p Kurdistan region were more likely to have been circumcised. The study results show that female genital mutilation is a frequent practice in Iraqi Kurdistan. Attention and intervention is needed to address this aspect of the well-being of girls and women.
Onyia, Ephraim Eziechina; Chikani, Mark C; Mezue, Wilfred C; Uche, Enoch O; Iloabachie, Izuchukwu; Mesi, Matthew; Ejembi, Sunday; Agunwa, Chuka
Civilian penetrating gunshot injuries to the neurocranium are no longer uncommon in Nigeria. Such injuries are however poorly reported. They are associated with poor outcome and, at close range, are frequently fatal, especially when inflicted by high-velocity weapons. Prompt transfer to neurosurgical service and urgent intervention may improve outcome in those that are not mortally wounded. Fifty-two patients with civilian penetrating gunshot wounds seen over a 10-year period (2004-2014) at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital and Memfys Hospital for Neurosurgery Enugu were reviewed retrospectively, and their data were analyzed to evaluate factors that impacted on outcome. Only patients with clinical and imaging evidence of cranial gunshot injuries who reached hospital alive were included in the study. The overall mortality and Glasgow outcome score were analyzed. Fifty-two patients with isolated civilian penetrating gunshot wounds were identified (M:F = 7.7:1); mean (standard deviation) age was 32.8 (11.9) years. There was a high correlation (0.983) between the sex of the patients and the outcome. The overall mortality was 30.8%, whereas the mortality for patients with postresuscitation Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score ≤8 was 57%, as against 12.9% in those in whom postresuscitation GCS was >8; meaning that 87.1% of patients in whom postresuscitation GCS was >8 survived. Thirty-one patients (59.6%) had papillary abnormalities. Majority of patients with monohemispheric lesions survived while all those with diencephalic, transventricular, and posterior fossa involvement had 100% mortality. Admitting GCS and bullet trajectory were predictive of outcome.
Ephraim Eziechina Onyia
Full Text Available Introduction: Civilian penetrating gunshot injuries to the neurocranium are no longer uncommon in Nigeria. Such injuries are however poorly reported. They are associated with poor outcome and, at close range, are frequently fatal, especially when inflicted by high-velocity weapons. Prompt transfer to neurosurgical service and urgent intervention may improve outcome in those that are not mortally wounded. Materials and Methods: Fifty-two patients with civilian penetrating gunshot wounds seen over a 10-year period (2004–2014 at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital and Memfys Hospital for Neurosurgery Enugu were reviewed retrospectively, and their data were analyzed to evaluate factors that impacted on outcome. Only patients with clinical and imaging evidence of cranial gunshot injuries who reached hospital alive were included in the study. The overall mortality and Glasgow outcome score were analyzed. Results: Fifty-two patients with isolated civilian penetrating gunshot wounds were identified (M:F = 7.7:1; mean (standard deviation age was 32.8 (11.9 years. There was a high correlation (0.983 between the sex of the patients and the outcome. The overall mortality was 30.8%, whereas the mortality for patients with postresuscitation Glasgow coma scale (GCS score ≤8 was 57%, as against 12.9% in those in whom postresuscitation GCS was> 8; meaning that 87.1% of patients in whom postresuscitation GCS was> 8 survived. Thirty-one patients (59.6% had papillary abnormalities. Majority of patients with monohemispheric lesions survived while all those with diencephalic, transventricular, and posterior fossa involvement had 100% mortality. Conclusions: Admitting GCS and bullet trajectory were predictive of outcome.
Bushnell, Dennis M.
This paper addresses the major problems/issues with civilian aeronautics going forward, the contextual ongoing technology revolutions, the several emerging civilian aeronautical "Big Ideas" and associated enabling technological approaches. The ongoing IT Revolution is increasingly providing, as 5 senses virtual presence/reality becomes available, along with Nano/Molecular Manufacturing, virtual alternatives to Physical transportation for both people and goods. Paper examines the potential options available to aeronautics to maintain and perhaps grow "market share" in the context of this evolving competition. Many of these concepts are not new, but the emerging technology landscape is enhancing their viability and marketability. The concepts vary from the "interesting" to the truly revolutionary and all require considerable research. Paper considers the speed range from personal/general aviation to supersonic transports and technologies from energetics to fabrication.
Chief of Staff deferred action on the recommendations and requested a subsequent briefing with the following guidance. (1) Need to do more to take...Term Actions ... ..................... 38-39 ix CIVILIAN END STRENGTH STUDY Abstract This study examined the methodology by which the Army determines...DAPE-MBC) and COA ( DACA -OMP) has facilitated this process; an updated LOI, in draft, will clear up some of the problems identified in the test
Larionov, a consultant to the institute, both at RAND and in Moscow; and Drs. Alexei Arbatov and Aleksandr Savelyev and several of their colleagues during...Soviet defense industry resources to civilian use is presented in Arthur J. Alexander , Perestroika and Change in Soviet Weapons Acquisition, The RAND...1986, especially pp. 101-102. 17 18 the more prominent younger specialists like Alexei Arbatov, Andrei Kokoshin, and Aleksandr Savelyev have long been
Dewachi, O.; Skelton, M.; Nguyen, V.K.; Fouad, F.M.; Ghassan, A.S.; Maasri, Z.; Giacaman, R.
The health consequences of the ongoing US-led war on terror and civil armed conflicts in the Arab world are much more than the collateral damage inflicted on civilians, infrastructure, environment, and health systems. Protracted war and armed conflicts have displaced populations and led to lasting
Full Text Available Whilst the protection of civilians (POC in conflict has been a recurring feature of the humanitarian discourse the same has not been true in military doctrines, where the protection of civilians has long been cast in terms of arms bearers upholding their responsibilities under international humanitarian law (IHL. However, opportunities for and pressures on military actors to develop more specific capacities and approaches in this field have grown: partly as a response to the changing nature, location and scope of conflict, particularly the increasing proportion of internal conflicts fought by irregular armed groups in urban environments. It is also a response to the scale and complexity of protection challenges in the Balkans, Rwanda, Darfur and Libya - each of which has clearly demonstrated that threats to civilians are complex and dynamic and that no single international actor is capable of mitigating them without significant support from other institutions (O’Callaghan and Pantuliano, 2007. Despite the enormous growth in opportunities for interaction between militaries and humanitarians there is only a very limited literature on their interaction over protection issues and evaluations of the emerging doctrines. Consequently this article charts the growth in military policies towards POC in the UN, UK, NATO and a range of other states as well as drawing attention to the challenges that still remain in operationalising responses.
Maniscalco, J.; Blink, J.; Buntzen, R.; Hovingh, J.; Meier, W.; Monsler, M.; Walker, P.
The commercial aspects of laser fusion were evaluated in an attempt to relate the end products (neutrons and energy) to significant commercial applications. We have found that by far the largest markets and highest payoffs for laser fusion are associated with electric power production. Hence, much of this report evaluates the prospects of producing commercial electricity with laser fusion. To this end, we have described in detail a new and promising laser fusion concept--the liquid lithium waterfall reactor. In addition, we have taken the most attractive features from our laser fusion studies and used them to compare laser fusion to other long-range sources of energy (breeder reactors and solar energy). It is our contention that all three sources of electrical energy should be developed to the point where the final selections are primarily based on economic competitiveness. The other potential applications of laser fusion (fissile fuel production, synthetic fuel production, actinide burning, and propulsion) are also discussed, and our preliminary plan for the engineering development of laser fusion is presented
Maniscalco, J.; Blink, J.; Buntzen, R.; Hovingh, J.; Meier, W.; Monsler, M.; Walker, P.
The commercial aspects of laser fusion were evaluated in an attempt to relate the end products (neutrons and energy) to significant commercial applications. It was found that by far the largest markets and highest payoffs for laser fusion are associated with electric power production. Hence, much of this report evaluates the prospects of producing commercial electricity with laser fusion. To this end, we have described in detail a new and promising laser fusion concept--the liquid lithium waterfall reactor. In addition, we have taken the most attractive features from our laser studies and used them to compare laser fusion to other long-range sources of energy (breeder reactors and solar energy). It is our contention that all three sources of electrical energy should be developed to the point where the final selections are primarily based on economic competitiveness. The other potential applications of laser fusion (fissile fuel production, synthetic fuel production, actinide burning, and propulsion) are also discussed, and our preliminary plan for the engineering development of laser fusion is presented
Maniscalco, J.; Blink, J.; Buntzen, R.; Hovingh, J.; Meier, W.; Monsler, M.; Walker, P.
The commercial aspects of laser fusion were evaluated in an attempt to relate the end products (neutrons and energy) to significant commercial applications. It was found that by far the largest markets and highest payoffs for laser fusion are associated with electric power production. Hence, much of this report evaluates the prospects of producing commercial electricity with laser fusion. To this end, we have described in detail a new and promising laser fusion concept--the liquid lithium waterfall reactor. In addition, we have taken the most attractive features from our laser studies and used them to compare laser fusion to other long-range sources of energy (breeder reactors and solar energy). It is our contention that all three sources of electrical energy should be developed to the point where the final selections are primarily based on economic competitiveness. The other potential applications of laser fusion (fissile fuel production, synthetic fuel production, actinide burning, and propulsion) are also discussed, and our preliminary plan for the engineering development of laser fusion is presented.
Full Text Available Despite the occupation and ensuing war, Iraq has experienced the emergence of a truly pluralistic media landscape after the fall of the Baath regime in 2003. Today, media coverage of domestic affairs is characterized not only by pluralism but also by bias and partiality reflecting strong ties between political actors and media outlets. Accordingly, the Iraqi media are often accused of fueling conflict and deepening the ethno-sectarian divide in society. Based on a qualitative frame analysis of Iraqi news bulletins, this study reveals that Iraqi media outlets provide indeed contesting frames on even the most divisive issues. Only the coverage of the armed war against IS is characterized by a non-pluralistic conformity among Iraqi channels that unequivocally focus on military successes against IS and jointly refrain from any criticism against the varied forces fighting IS in Iraq.
Vermette, David; Shetgiri, Rashmi; Al Zuheiri, Haidar; Flores, Glenn
To identify access barriers to healthcare and potential interventions to improve access for Iraqi refugee children. Four focus groups were conducted using consecutive sampling of Iraqi refugee parents residing in the US for 8 months to 5 years. Eight key-informant interviews also were conducted with employees of organizations serving Iraqi refugee families, recruited using snowball sampling. Focus groups and interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using margin coding and grounded theory. Iraqi refugees identified provider availability, Medicaid maintenance and renewal, language issues, and inadequate recognition of post-traumatic stress disorder as barriers to care for their children. Interviewees cited loss of case-management services and difficulties in understanding the Medicaid renewal process as barriers. Potential interventions to improve access include community-oriented efforts to educate parents on Medicaid renewal, obtaining services, and accessing specialists. Given the enduring nature of language and Medicaid renewal barriers, policies addressing eligibility alone are insufficient.
Waddick, James L
... their missions during the initial Operation Iraqi Freedom deployment (OIF 1). Additionally, the study sought to identify the potential benefit of additional training on key medical logistics tasks and training events...
This work deals with some socio-economic and political aspects about the stakes of iraqi petroleum for France. After having described the history of iraqi petroleum, the author gives the estimation of the actual petroleum reserves, the production objective, the petroleum and gaseous projects and the exporting way. Then is given the economic and political role played by France: the increase of importation uses, the economic interests and the political responsibility. (O.L.). 10 tabs
Dworkin, Jonathan; Saeed, Rebeen; Mykhan, Hawar; Kanan, Shwan; Farhad, Dlawer; Ali, Kocher Omer; Abdulwahab, Runak Hama Kareem; Palardy, John; Neill, Marguerite A
Typhoid fever imposes a high disease burden worldwide, but resource limitations mean that the burden of typhoid fever in many countries is poorly understood. The authors conducted a prospective surveillance study at the adult and pediatric teaching hospitals in Sulaimania, Iraqi Kurdistan. All patients presenting with an undifferentiated febrile illness consistent with typhoid were eligible for enrollment. Enrolled patients had blood cultures and Brucella serologies performed. Incidence was calculated with reference to census data. Both typhoid fever and brucellosis were common, and the incidence of typhoid fever was 21 cases/100 000 patient-years. Classic disease symptoms were uncommonly observed. Cost-effective surveillance projects to calculate disease burden of typhoid fever are practical and replicable. Typhoid has successfully adapted to the healthcare environment in Sulaimania. Additional work in the region should focus on antibiotic resistance and other enteric pathogens such as Brucella spp. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Al-Smadi, Ahmed Mohammad; Tawalbeh, Loai Issa; Gammoh, Omar Salem; Ashour, Ala; Alzoubi, Fatmeh Ahmad; Slater, Paul
The purpose of this study was to examine coping strategies used by Iraqi refugees in Jordan based on their demographic details. A cross-sectional design was used. A representative sample of 333 refugees living in Jordan participated in the study. The Cope inventory and the demographic details were compiled to produce and collate the relevant data. Being older, female, educated, single, and living with more than three family members was associated with greater use of the problem solving coping strategy. Being female, educated, and unemployed was associated with greater use of the active emotional coping strategy. In addition, being older, male, illiterate, unemployed, and living with less than three family members was associated with greater use of the avoidant emotional coping strategy. This study recommends a multidisciplinary approach intervention as being the best method of addressing and fulfilling the health and socioeconomic needs of older, male, illiterate, unemployed people.
Full Text Available Humanitarian immigrants and refugees face multiple adjustment tasks and post-settlement support services concentrated in metropolitan areas play an important role. As part of an ongoing commitment, the Australian Government has increasingly supported resettlement in rural and regional areas of the country. Drawing on the experience of Iraqi migrants in Victoria, Australia, we examine some of the conditions that characterize regional resettlement and raise key questions for public health policy. Structural vulnerabilities and discriminations impact upon physical, mental and social wellbeing, leading to further exclusion, with negative long-term implications. The discussion throws light on the issues that migrants and refugees may encounter in other parts within Australia, but are also germane in many countries and highlight the resulting complexity for policy-making.
The Tuwaitha site, 20 km south of Baghdad, was chosen at the beginning of the sixties to be the Center for Research and Development of the Iraqi Nuclear Program. The israeli air attack to the Osirak reactor in 1981, the clandestine activities for nuclear weapons production and the inspections carried out by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to verify such activities are parts of the history of that nuclear complex. Its installations were extensively damaged in 1991 during the so called Golf War and finally destroyed by air bombardment during the invasion by the Coalition Forces in 2003. The IAEA and other several countries have elaborated an international assistance program for the future activities of installations dismantling and site remediation. (author) [es
Shatha Hussain Ali
Full Text Available Background. The polymorphism R229Q is one of the most commonly reported podocin sequence variations among steroid-resistant nephrotic syndromes (SRNS. Aim of the Study. We investigated the frequency and risk of this polymorphism among a group of Iraqi children with SRNS and steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS. Patients and Methods. A prospective case control study which was conducted in Al-Imamein Al-Kadhimein Medical City, spanning the period from the 1st of April 2015 to 30th of November 2015. Study sample consisted of 54 children having NS, divided into 2 groups: patients group consisted of 27 children with SRNS, and control group involved 27 children with SSNS. Both were screened by real time polymerase chain reaction for R229Q in exon 5 of NPHS2 gene. Results. Molecular study showed R229Q polymorphism in 96.3% of SRNS and 100% of SSNS. There were no phenotypic or histologic characteristics of patients bearing homozygous R229Q polymorphism and the patients with heterozygous R229Q polymorphism. Conclusion. Polymorphism R229Q of NPHS2 gene is prevalent in Iraqi children with SRNS and SSNS. Further study needs to be done, for other exons and polymorphism of NPHS2 gene in those patients.
Cleveland, Sandi D.; Branscum, Adam J.; Bovbjerg, Viktor E.; Thorburn, Sheryl
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate if and to what extent student service members/veterans differ from civilian college students in the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of poor mental health. Participants: The Fall 2011 implementation of the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment included 27,774…
Mansfield, Alyssa J.; Bender, Randall H.; Hourani, Laurel L.; Larson, Gerald E.
Suicides have markedly increased among military personnel in recent years. We used path analysis to examine factors associated with suicidal/self-harming ideation among male Navy and Marine Corps personnel transitioning to civilian life. Roughly 7% of men (Sailors = 5.3%, Marines = 9.0%) reported ideation during the previous 30 days. Results…
In this paper, positive impacts of 3 Indian Navigational Satellite programmes (GAGAN, IRNSS and INSAT-MSS reporting system for the civilian applications over Sri Lanka are discussed. Other neighbouring countries covered under the footprint of Indian navigational satellite programmes can also employ these services for the location based applications productively.
Full Text Available In this study, we analyzed the night-time light dynamics in Iraq over the period 2012–2017 by using Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS monthly composites. The data quality of VIIRS images was improved by repairing the missing data, and the Night-time Light Ratio Indices (NLRIs, derived from urban extent map and night-time light images, were calculated for different provinces and cities. We found that when the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS attacked or occupied a region, the region lost its light rapidly, with the provinces of Al-Anbar, At-Ta’min, Ninawa, and Sala Ad-din losing 63%, 73%, 88%, and 56%, of their night-time light, respectively, between December 2013 and December 2014. Moreover, the light returned after the Iraqi Security Forces (ISF recaptured the region. In addition, we also found that the night-time light in the Kurdish Autonomous Region showed a steady decline after 2014, with the Arbil, Dihok, and As-Sulaymaniyah provinces losing 47%, 18%, and 31% of their night-time light between December 2013 and December 2016 as a result of the economic crisis in the region. The night-time light in Southern Iraq, the region controlled by Iraqi central government, has grown continuously; for example, the night-time light in Al Basrah increased by 75% between December 2013 and December 2017. Regions formerly controlled by ISIS experienced a return of night-time light during 2017 as the ISF retook almost all this territory in 2017. This indicates that as reconstruction began, electricity was re-supplied in these regions. Our analysis shows the night-time light in Iraq is directly linked to the socioeconomic dynamics of Iraq, and demonstrates that the VIIRS monthly night-time light images are an effective data source for tracking humanitarian disasters in that country.
Weeks, Murray; Zamorski, Mark A; Rusu, Corneliu; Colman, Ian
This study sought to compare the prevalence and impacts of mental illness-related stigma among Canadian Armed Forces personnel and Canadian civilians. Data were from two highly comparable, population-based, cross-sectional surveys of Canadian military personnel and Canadian civilians: the 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (N=6,696) and the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (N=25,113), respectively. Perceived stigma was assessed among those who reported care seeking for a mental health problem in the past 12 months. Follow-up questions assessed the impact of stigma in various domains. Modified Poisson regression and linear regression were used to examine population differences (military versus civilian) in terms of care seeking, stigma, and stigma impact, with adjustments for sociodemographic characteristics and the need for care. Military personnel were significantly more likely than civilians to have perceived stigma (adjusted prevalence ratio [PR]=1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.11-2.60). Stigma had a greater impact on military personnel, particularly in terms of work or school life (b=1.01, CI=.57-1.47). However, military personnel were also significantly more likely than civilians to have sought care (PR=1.86, CI=1.53-2.25). Military personnel reported a disproportionate amount of mental illness-related stigma, compared with Canadian civilians, and a greater impact of stigma. Nevertheless, military personnel were more likely to seek care, pointing to a complex relationship between stigma and care seeking in the military.
The document reproduces a letter dated 27 December 1993 from the Alternate Resident Representative of Iraq to the IAEA including in an annex the news reported on 30 November 1993 by the Middle East News Agency concerning the detection of nuclear radiations in Iraqi military equipment left behind by the Iraqi army during the war for Kuwait liberation.
The document reproduces a letter dated 27 December 1993 from the Alternate Resident Representative of Iraq to the IAEA including in an annex the news reported on 30 November 1993 by the Middle East News Agency concerning the detection of nuclear radiations in Iraqi military equipment left behind by the Iraqi army during the war for Kuwait liberation
For sustainable use of nuclear energy in large scale, it seems inevitable to choose a closed cycle option. One of the important questions is, then, whether we can really achieve the compatibility between civilian nuclear fuel cycle and nonproliferation norms. In this aspect, Japan is very unique because she is now only one country with full-scope nuclear fuel cycle program as a non-nuclear weapon state in NPT regime. In June 2004 in the midst of heightened proliferation concerns in NPT regime, the IAEA Board of Governors concluded that, for Japanese nuclear energy program, non-diversion of declared nuclear material and the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities were verified through the inspections and examinations under Comprehensive Safeguards and the Additional Protocol. Based on this conclusion, the IAEA announced the implementation of Integrated Safeguards in Japan in September 2004. This paper reviews how Japan has succeeded in becoming the first country with full-scope nuclear fuel cycle program to qualify for integrated Safeguards, and identifies five key elements that have made this achievement happen: (1) Obvious need of nuclear fuel cycle program, (2) Country's clear intention for renunciation of nuclear armament, (3) Transparency of national nuclear energy program, (4) Record of excellent compliance with nonproliferation obligations for many decades, and (5) Numerous proactive efforts. These five key elements will constitute a kind of an acceptance model for civilian nuclear fuel cycle in NNWS, and may become the basis for building 'Nonproliferation Culture'. (author)
Ramirez, Mario Luis; Slovis, Corey M
Tactical emergency medicine services (TEMS) has emerged as a specialized niche within the field of emergency medicine. With increasing demand for physician participation in civilian tactical teams, there will be efforts by residents to become involved at earlier points in their clinical training. This article discusses resident involvement with a civilian TEMS unit and provides five maxims for emergency physicians to better understand the difference between working in the emergency department or with emergency medical services vs. in a TEMS environment. Differences between TEMS and other trauma life support models, institutional and political barriers likely to be encountered by the resident, the value of preventive medicine and the role of the physician in long-term tactical operations, opportunities for subspecialty growth, and the role of operational security are all discussed in detail. Tactical emergency medicine is a specialty that utilizes the full array of the emergency physician's skill set. It is also a field that is ripe for continued expansion, but the resident looking to become involved with a team should be aware of the requirements necessary to do so and the obstacles likely to be encountered along the way. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yugami, Hiroo; Sasa, Hiromi; Yamaguchi, Masafumi
The potential market for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) applications has been studied for civilian and industrial sectors in Japan. Comparing the performance of gas engines or turbines, as well as the underdeveloped power generation technologies such as fuel cells or chemical batteries, we have discussed the feasible application field of TPV systems to compete with those power generators. From the point of view of applicability for TPV systems in Japan, portable generators, co-generation systems and solar power plants are selected for our system analysis. The cost and performance targets of TPV systems for co-generation are also discussed by assuming a typical daily profile of electricity and hot water demands in Japanese homes. A progress report on the recent TPV research activities is given as well as a feasibility study concerning such TPV systems in Japan. (Author)
Smith, Edward Reed; Shapiro, Geoff; Sarani, Babak
The incidence and severity of civilian public mass shootings (CPMS) continue to rise. Initiatives predicated on lessons learned from military woundings have placed strong emphasis on hemorrhage control, especially via use of tourniquets, as means to improve survival. We hypothesize that both the overall wounding pattern and the specific fatal wounds in CPMS events are different from those in military combat fatalities and thus may require a new management strategy. A retrospective study of autopsy reports for all victims involved in 12 CPMS events was performed. Civilian public mass shootings was defined using the FBI and the Congressional Research Service definition. The site of injury, probable site of fatal injury, and presence of potentially survivable injury (defined as survival if prehospital care is provided within 10 minutes and trauma center care within 60 minutes of injury) was determined independently by each author. A total 139 fatalities consisting of 371 wounds from 12 CPMS events were reviewed. All wounds were due to gunshots. Victims had an average of 2.7 gunshots. Relative to military reports, the case fatality rate was significantly higher, and incidence of potentially survivable injuries was significantly lower. Overall, 58% of victims had gunshots to the head and chest, and only 20% had extremity wounds. The probable site of fatal wounding was the head or chest in 77% of cases. Only 7% of victims had potentially survivable wounds. The most common site of potentially survivable injury was the chest (89%). No head injury was potentially survivable. There were no deaths due to exsanguination from an extremity. The overall and fatal wounding patterns following CPMS are different from those resulting from combat operations. Given that no deaths were due to extremity hemorrhage, a treatment strategy that goes beyond use of tourniquets is needed to rescue the few victims with potentially survivable injuries. Prognostic/epidemiologic study, level IV
Mula-Abed, Waad-Allah S.; Chilmeran, Saba K.
Objective was to establish the prevalence of dyslipidemia in the Iraqi adult population in Mosul, according to the different recommended criteria. The study was carried out from October 2003 to April 2004, with 871 apparently healthy volunteers (413 males, 458 females) aged 20-70 year ([mean+- SD] 41.2+-13.8 year). Fasting blood specimens were collected from all subjects for measurement of serum lipid profile including triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and ratios of cholesterol such as TC:HDL-C, LDL-C:HDL-C, and TG:HDL-C. Classification was carried out according to the different cut-off levels as recommended by the 2001 American National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) III using thresholds of TG>150mg/dl (2.0 mmol/L), LDL-C>100 mg/dl (2.6 mmol/L), LDL-C 130mg/dl (3.37 mmol/L). The criteria of the 1998 British Hyperlipidemia Association (BHA) were also followed using thresholds of TG>180mg/dl (2.4mmol/L), TC>194mg/dl (5.0 mmol/L), LDL-C>116mg/dl (3.0mmol/L), HDL-C 5.0, HDL-C: DL-C>2.5 and TG: HDL-C>3.0. Based on the American NCEPIII criteria, the dyslipidemic states were noted with high TG (41.6%), high LDL-C (57.8%), low HDL-C (49.9%) and high HDL-C (57.8%), low HDL-C (49.9%) and high non-HDL-C (56.8%) from the subjects. Based on BHA criteria, high TG24.5%), high TC (32.7%), high HDL-C (37.8%), high TC: HDL-C (30.9%), high LDL-C HDL-C (55.7%) and high TG: HDL-C (58.3%) were noted. Dyslipidemia is common in Iraqi population, and this was identified at different recommendation criteria. (author)
Mula-Abed, Waad-Allah S [Dept. of Chemical Pathology, Royal Hospital, Muscat (Oman); Chilmeran, Saba K [Dept. of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Univ. of Mosul (Iraq)
Objective was to establish the prevalence of dyslipidemia in the Iraqi adult population in Mosul, according to the different recommended criteria. The study was carried out from October 2003 to April 2004, with 871 apparently healthy volunteers (413 males, 458 females) aged 20-70 year ([mean+- SD] 41.2+-13.8 year). Fasting blood specimens were collected from all subjects for measurement of serum lipid profile including triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and ratios of cholesterol such as TC:HDL-C, LDL-C:HDL-C, and TG:HDL-C. Classification was carried out according to the different cut-off levels as recommended by the 2001 American National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) III using thresholds of TG>150mg/dl (2.0 mmol/L), LDL-C>100 mg/dl (2.6 mmol/L), LDL-C<40mg/dl (1.04mmol/L) and non-HDL-C>130mg/dl (3.37 mmol/L). The criteria of the 1998 British Hyperlipidemia Association (BHA) were also followed using thresholds of TG>180mg/dl (2.4mmol/L), TC>194mg/dl (5.0 mmol/L), LDL-C>116mg/dl (3.0mmol/L), HDL-C<45mg/dl (1.15mmol/L), TC: HDL-C>5.0, HDL-C: DL-C>2.5 and TG: HDL-C>3.0. Based on the American NCEPIII criteria, the dyslipidemic states were noted with high TG (41.6%), high LDL-C (57.8%), low HDL-C (49.9%) and high HDL-C (57.8%), low HDL-C (49.9%) and high non-HDL-C (56.8%) from the subjects. Based on BHA criteria, high TG24.5%), high TC (32.7%), high HDL-C (37.8%), high TC: HDL-C (30.9%), high LDL-C HDL-C (55.7%) and high TG: HDL-C (58.3%) were noted. Dyslipidemia is common in Iraqi population, and this was identified at different recommendation criteria. (author)
other burgeoning global issues mandate the existence of capable senior civilian leaders who can effectively participate within the whole-of-government...experience that provides the opportunity to discuss and debate current global issues with the members of the world’s finest military. Civilians not only
Bennett, David; Wellman, Greg; Mahmood, Maysaa; Freye, Ryan; Remund, Daniel; Samples, Phil L
To explore variables relevant to transition to civilian pharmacy career path for retiring military pharmacists. A cross-sectional survey was designed to collect information from retired military pharmacists including demographics, military service information, postretirement employment and perceptions of transition, satisfaction, level of responsibility, work environment, rewards (level of financial compensation, opportunities for professional development and career advancement, health benefits), and level of supervisory support. The questionnaire also included additional items asking about their perception of their military experience, transition to civilian work and the impact the military career had on their personal and family life. Respondents included 140 retired pharmacists from the U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, or Coast Guard. Factors found to be significant predictors of transition to civilian career included: bureaucracy in current job, time elapsed since retirement, extent to which an individual misses military structure and chain of command, access to military facilities and Veterans Administration benefits, and reporting little or no stress in committed long-term personal relationship while in the military. Findings suggest that the majority of retired military pharmacists perceived the transition to civilian professional sector was about what they expected or easier than expected. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Drucker, Christopher; Gerberich, Susan G; Manser, Michael P; Alexander, Bruce H; Church, Timothy R; Ryan, Andrew D; Becic, Ensar
Motor vehicle crashes involving civilian and emergency vehicles (EVs) have been a known problem that contributes to fatal and nonfatal injuries; however, characteristics associated with civilian drivers have not been examined adequately. This study used data from The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's Fatality Analysis Reporting System and the National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System to identify driver, roadway, environmental, and crash factors, and consequences for civilian drivers involved in fatal and nonfatal crashes with in-use and in-transport EVs. In general, drivers involved in emergency-civilian crashes (ECCs) were more often driving: straight through intersections (vs. same direction) of four-points or more (vs. not at intersection); where traffic signals were present (vs. no traffic control device); and at night (vs. midday). For nonfatal ECCs, drivers were more often driving: distracted (vs. not distracted); with vision obstructed by external objects (vs. no obstruction); on dark but lighted roads (vs. daylight); and in opposite directions (vs. same directions) of the EVs. Consequences included increased risk of injury (vs. no injury) and receiving traffic violations (vs. no violation). Fatal ECCs were associated with driving on urban roads (vs. rural), although these types of crashes were less likely to occur on dark roads (vs. daylight). The findings of this study suggest drivers may have difficulties in visually detecting EVs in different environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This research deals with the viability of using polyester fiber (PF, crumb rubber tire (CRT and cellulose fiber (CF as stabilizing waste additives in producing Iraqi SMA mixtures that sustain drain down phenomenon and moisture damage sensitivity. Different ratios of these additives (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% by weight of aggregate and filler were mixed with 40/50 paving asphalt by means of dry process. Unmodified and modified SMA mixtures were subjected to drain down, Marshall, static indirect tensile strength, tensile stiffness modulus, static compressive strength, tensile strength ratio and index of retained strength tests. A set of regression equations between these tests were established. In addition, an optimization table based on these tests, which can be used to select the type or amount of additive for any field applications has been determined and reported. The results indicated that the inclusion of these additives in SMA mixtures can satisfy the performance requirement of high temperature and much rain zone.
This document (18 power point slides) gives an overview of the French civilian nuclear industry and research and development: importance of the nuclear power generation in France, excellence of the education in nuclear sciences, organization of the nuclear connection (CEA, Areva, EDF, IRSN), the role of the French International Nuclear Agency (AFNI), the requirements for a renewal of human resources (French and foreign engineers) in the field of nuclear energy, the degree course for a diploma, examples of engineer and university diplomas, the educational networks in various regions of France, presentation of the Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires (Nuclear Sciences and Techniques National Institute) and its master degrees, organization of the French education system in nuclear sciences with strong relations with the research and development programs
Weinberg, Jordan A; Moore, Andrew H; Magnotti, Louis J; Teague, Rebecca J; Ward, Tyler A; Wasmund, Joshua B; Lamb, Elena M P; Schroeppel, Thomas J; Savage, Stephanie A; Minard, Gayle; Maish, George O; Croce, Martin A; Fabian, Timothy C
The management of arterial injury at the thoracic outlet has long hinged on the fundamental principles of extensile exposure and vascular anastomosis. Nonetheless, treatment options for such injuries have evolved to include both endovascular stent placement and temporary vascular shunts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate our recent experience with penetrating cervicothoracic arterial injuries in light of these developments in trauma care. Patients with penetrating injuries to the innominate, carotid, subclavian, or axillary arteries managed at a single civilian trauma center between 2000 and 2013 were categorized as the modern era (ME) cohort. The management strategies and outcomes pertaining to the ME group were compared to those of previously reported experience (PE) concerning injuries to the innominate, carotid, subclavian, or axillary arteries at the same institution from 1974 to 1988. Over the two eras, there were 202 patients: 110 in the ME group and 92 in the PE group. Most of the injuries in both groups were managed with primary repair (45% vs. 46%; p = 0.89). A similar proportion of injuries in each group was managed with anticoagulation alone (14% vs. 10%; p = 0.40). In the ME group, two cases were managed with temporary shunt placement, and endovascular stent placement was performed in 12 patients. Outcomes were similar between the groups (bivariate comparison): mortality (ME, 15% vs. PE, 14%; p = 0.76), amputation following subclavian or axillary artery injury (ME, 5% vs. PE, 4%; p = 0.58), and posttreatment stroke following carotid injury (ME, 2% vs. PE, 6%; p = 0.57). Experience with penetrating arterial cervicothoracic injuries at a high-volume urban trauma center remained remarkably similar with respect to both anatomic distribution of injury and treatment. Conventional operative exposure and repair remain the cornerstone of treatment for most civilian cervicothoracic arterial injuries. Therapeutic study, level V.
Full Text Available The communications in Iraq has been fluctuated for decades. In fact, this fluctuation constitutes a reality that the country has been facing such as the security issues, the economic blockade imposed on the previous regime, and all the exceptional circumstances. This paper illustrates the nature and reality of communication in Iraq after 2003. While the sophisticated technology works very well all around the world, Iraq still does not keep the work up to improve its communications. This paper tackles the most importantcommunication problems in Iraq after 2003, and the possibility to process good services to customers, either by developing the governmental combinations, or/and by enforcing telecommunication companies to provide their best services to their customers. This paper answers the following the questions: Are the telecom/communication companies serve good qualities to the customers? If not, why? Who is the responsible? Are these companies at least doing their best to serve good qualities? Or are they just profitable companies? Why have these companies not started using the optical fiber cables instead of the copper one? Is the government seeking to compel such companies to serve good services? Whether the Iraqi government plans to develop the landlines services so it would compete with the telecom companies? What is the role of the Communication and Media Commission (CMC?
Saba Jabar Neama Al-Khafaji
Full Text Available The approach of greening existing buildings, is an urgent necessity, because the greening operation provides the speed and optimal efficiency in the environmental performance, as well as keeping up with the global green architecture revolution. Therefore, greening existing buildings in Iraq is important for trends towards renewable energies, because of what the country went through economic conditions and crises and wars which kept the country away from what took place globally in this issue. The research problem is: insufficient knowledge about the importance and the mechanism of the greening of existing buildings, including its environmental and economic dimensions, by rationalization of energy consumption and preserving the environment. The research objective is: clarifying the importance of greening existing buildings environmentally and economically, providing a virtual experience for greening the presidency building of Baghdad University, through advanced computer program. The main conclusions is: there is difference representing by reducing the disbursed thermal loads amount for cooling in summer and heating in winter through the use of computerized program (DesignBuilder and that after the implementation of greening operations on the building envelope, which confirms its effectiveness in raising the energy performance efficiency inside the building. Hence, the importance of the application of greening existing buildings approach in Iraq, to bring back Iraqi architecture to environmental and local track proper.
Qais M. Alias
Full Text Available It is vital in any industry to regain the spent capitals plus running costs and a margin of profits for the industry to flourish. The electricity industry is an everyday life touching industry which follows the same finance-economic strategy. Cost allocation is a major issue in all sectors of the electric industry, viz, generation, transmission and distribution. Generation and distribution service costing’s well documented in the literature, while the transmission share is still of need for research. In this work, the cost of supplying a bulk electric load connected to the EHV system is calculated. A sample basic lump-average method is used to provide a rough costing guide. Also, two transmission pricing methods are employed, namely, the postage-stamp and the load-flow based MW-distance methods to calculate transmission share in the total cost of each individual bulk load. The three costing methods results are then analyzed and compared for the 400kV Iraqi power grid considered for a case study.
سید عدنان اشکوری
Full Text Available ‘Eghterab’ in Iraqi Emigrants' Poetry: The Case of Ahmad Matar Jafar Delshad * Seyyed Adnan Eshkewaree ** Abstract The word ‘eghterab’ in human sciences has different concepts which could be classified into three groups: 1 Westernization and tending to western culture or being alien with eastern authenticity 2 nostalgia and homesickness caused by being away from his/her motherhood land and hometown. Most of this group of poets are emigrants or are in exile and 3 having the sense of nostalgia but being in home country. It means that this group of poets have very high ideals which no one in their homeland can take and bare these ideals. The poet perceives that ideals which are essential for him/her are higher than the society in which he/she lives can grasp. This essay makes an attempt to study the various concepts of ‘eghterab’ by focusing on Ahmad Matar as a prominent poet with regard to the third concept and deal with the third concept of Eghterab from three points of view: political, social and spiritual. This article examines some samples of these three parts in Ahmad Matar's poetry. Key words: nostalgia, poetry, emigration, Ahmad Matar, Iraq * Assistant Professor, Department of Arabic Language and Literature, University of IsfahanE-mail: email@example.com ** Assistant Professor, University for Teacher Training, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Sabri, Manhal Isam; Hussain, Azham
Mobile utilization has rapidly expanded due to its feasibility in executing different applications that can be used in solving everyday problems. Common issues in daily life include electricity saving. In Iraq, the Ministry of Power seriously faces such issue. This is because most households have lack access to information regarding to sufficient power consumption, as well as applications that educate about such saving. Therefore, this study aims at developing a mobile application for Iraqi to help them understand the basis for reducing electricity consumption based on the meter data supplied by the users for square meter along with the active devices and period of usage. The proposed mobile application was evaluated by 50 households from the perspective of ease of use, usefulness, ease of learning, and satisfaction. The obtained result showed that majority of the participants found the application to be ease to use, useful, easy to learn, and were satisfied with its functionalities. The study findings provide some insights about the importance of using mobile application for promoting households in Iraq to manage their power consumption behavior.
Full Text Available An in-depth situation analysis was carried out on the Iraqi civil registration system in 2011, years after the end of the military operation of 2003. The study was done using a combination of methods, including interviews with key role players in the Iraqi civil registration system, observation, study of documents, triangulation, and gap analysis. The study found the civil registration system in Iraq to be largely intact and functional, in spite of the wars experienced in Iraq over the past three decades. Given that civil registration systems generally get destroyed through wars, the paper discusses the reasons for the resilience in the Iraqi civil registration system and draws lessons from them.
Anspaugh, L.R.; Hendrickson, S.M.
This report contains brief summaries of the status of projects of the Environmental Transport Group of the US-USSR Joint Coordinating Committee of Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety. Projects reported on include: Management and Administration; Atmospheric Transport; Resuspension; External Dose; Terrestrial Food Chains; Aquatic Food Chains; Hydrological Transport; and Intercalibration
McLane, Brendan R
... of what was happening in the war. In an age of the continuous media cycle and information transparency, Operation Iraqi Freedom marked the first time so many reporters were provided so much relatively unrestricted front-line access...
Bushnell, Dennis M.
Since 1940 Aeronautics has had an immense impact upon Global Human lifestyles and affairs - in both the Civilian and Military arenas. During this period Long distance Train and Ship passenger transport were largely supplanted by Air Travel and Aviation assumed a dominant role in warfare. The early 1940 s to the mid 1970 s was a particularly productive period in terms of Aeronautical Technology. What is interesting is that, since the mid 1970 s, the rate of Aeronautical Technological Progress has been far slower, the basic technology in nearly all of our current Aero Systems dates from the mid 70 s or earlier. This is especially true in terms of Configuration Aerodynamics, Aeronautics appears to have "settled" on the 707, double delta and rotary wing as the approach of choice for Subsonic long haul, supersonic cruise and VTOL respectively. Obviously there have been variants and some niche digression from this/these but in the main Aeronautics, particularly civilian Aeronautics, has become a self-professed "mature", Increasingly "Commodity", Industry. The Industry is far along an existing/deployed technology curve and focused, now for decades, on incremental/evolutionary change - largely Appliers vs. developers of technology. This is, of course, in sharp contrast to the situation in the early-to-later 20th century where Aeronautics was viewed as A Major Technological Engine, much the way IT/Bio/Nano/Energetics/Quantum Technologies are viewed today. A search for Visionary Aeronautical "Futures" papers/projections indicates a decided dearth thereof over the last 20 plus years compared to the previous quarter Century. Aeronautics is part of Aerospace and Aerospace [including Aeronautics] has seen major cutbacks over the last decades. Some numbers for the U.S. Aerospace Industry serve as examples. Order of 600,000 jobs lost, with some 180,000 more on the block over the next 10 years. Approximately 25% of the Aerospace workforce is eligible to retire and the average
Stojsih, Sarah E; Baker, Janice L; Les, Clifford M; Bir, Cynthia A
Working dogs have been proven effective in multiple military and law enforcement applications. Similar to their human counterparts, understanding mortality while still in service can help improve treatment of injuries, and improve equipment and training, to potentially reduce deaths. This is a retrospective study to characterize mortality of working dogs used in civilian law enforcement. Reported causes of death were gathered from two working dog and law enforcement officer memorial websites. Of the 867 civilian law enforcement dogs reported to these memorial websites from 2002 to 2012 with reported causes of death while in service, the deaths of 318 were categorized as traumatic. The leading reported causes of traumatic death or euthanasia include trauma as a result of a vehicle strike, 25.8% (n=82); heatstroke, 24.8% (n=79); and penetrating ballistic trauma, 23.0% (n=73). Although the information gathered was from online sources, this study casts some light on the risks that civilian law enforcement dogs undergo as part of the tasks to which they are assigned. These data underscore the need for a comprehensive database for this specialized population of working dogs to provide the robust, reliable data needed to develop prevention and treatment strategies for this valuable resource. 2014.
Full Text Available This Experiment was conducted in the Newashi village of Thiqar province in the south of Iraq from 15 October till 31 December 2006. A sample of 50 milking buffaloes in 1st to 7th lactation were randomly choosed in three nearby herds , then divided into two equal groups for the treatment and the control. After 10 days of adaptation, the treated group was fed the standardized diet which was consisted of: Alfa Alfa hay ,12 kg/day, concentrates, 8 kg/day. The concentrate consists of barley grains 37%, maize grain 15%, wheat bran 40%, rice bran 5%,calcium carbonate 2% and food salt 1% .The control group was fed -as it is usual in the region –reed roughages , rice straws, dray bred and some wheat bran. Daily milk yield for the whole sample, cream( ghiamer and fat percent rom randomly choosed individuals from each group were measured . Simple linear model was used to detect the effect of the lactation, herd, calf sex and milking time on the traits . Duncan test was used to compare the differences between means . The results obtained showed that the lactation , herd, sex of calf and milking time had significant effect on the traits (p< 0.001. The diet had significantly affected daily milk yield , cream and fat percent ( 8.40 ± 1.75 vis 5.67 ± 1.41,21± 6.6 vis 9.79 3.24, and 12.4.11 vis 5.88±1.95 for the treated group vis. the control group (p<0.001.Accordingly, it can be assumed that the Iraqi buffaloes have good potential to produce more milk and fat under standardized feed condition.
Khudhair, H.; Jaim, A.; Nassralla, A.; Suhail, A.; Abass, H.; Hassan, A.; Hussain, A.; Mahmood, J.
Mutation breeding programme was conducted to improve soybean (Glycine max. L. merrill) yield and oil Seeds were irradiation with 0,100,200,300 Gray of gamma ray Co 60 Selection of genetic variants started from M2 and continued to M8. Eight variants were selected in M8 generation that were characterized with high yield and desirable morphological characters. Preliminary comparison experiments of M9 and M10 with check variety (Lee74) were conducted at two locations (Twaitha and Lattifya). Three promising variants were selected for high yield and low percentage of seed shrinkage as compared with the check variety (Lee74) and other mutants. The same selected variants were planted in large scale comparison experiments with check variety (LEE 74) and two introduced varieties (Coker335 and Gasoy17) in two locations (Twaitha and lattifya) for two seasons (1998,1999). Variants H134 and H39 were superior in their yield components and earliness in maturity compared with the variant H226 and the other check varieties . The average yield and oil percentage in the two seasons(1998,1999) was 3195, 3115kg/ha and 18.2%, 19.3% respectively for the variants H134 and H39 compared with the yield and the percentage of oil for the check variety (Lee74) that was 2794 kg/ha and 18.3% respectively. These two variants were also superior in their protein percentage. According to these promising results of the variants H134 and H39 they were submitted for registration. They were registered under the names TAKA1 and TAKA-2 as suitable varieties for Iraqi environmental conditions. (authors) 13 refs., 5 tabs
at preparing them for future responsibilities. Engagement is a measure of initiative and productivity . It is highest among civilian leaders but is at...are reported to exhibit counter- productive or negative leadership behaviors such as berating subordinates for small mistakes (15%), blaming other...outcomes (e.g., employee satisfaction, motivation, job performance) and organizational outcomes (e.g., turnover and absenteeism ). CASAL results
Costs, 1986 4 2. Direct Total Manpower Bidget Costs, 1992 5 3. Pay Raises 1985-1992 6 4. Support Costs 9 5. Internal Support Personnel 10 6. External...34 Incremental Costs of Military and Civilian Manpower in the Military Services." This docu- ment provides the basis for this section. The report assesses...6 Aug 91. MTS Workyear Cost Comparison. Internal AFSC paper, 20 November 1990. Palmer, Adele R., Osbaldeston, David J., Incremental Costs of Military
On August 9, 1985, the Secretary of Energy requested that the Chairman of the Energy Research Advisory Board establish an ad-hoc Panel to review a draft ''Strategic National Plan for Civilian Nuclear Reactor Development.'' The resulting report, approved by the Board, contains suggestions for improving the draft plan and also contains major recommendations for alleviating the several institutional barriers that appear to preclude the construction of any new nuclear power plants in this country
The international community agrees that the safe operation of civilian nuclear infrastructure is in every population’s best interest. One challenge each government must address is defining and agreeing to a set of acceptable norms of behavior in cyberspace as they relate to these facilities. The introduction of digital systems and networking technologies into these environments has led to the possibility that control and supporting computer systems are now accessible and exploitable, especially where interconnections to global information and communications technology (ICT) networks exist. The need for norms of behavior in cyberspace includes what is expected of system architects and cyber defenders as well as adversaries who should abide by rules of engagement even while conducting acts that violate national and international laws. The goal of this paper is to offer three behavioral cyber norms to improve the overall security of the ICT and Operational Technology (OT) networks and systems that underlie the operations of nuclear facilities. These norms of behavior will be specifically defined with the goals of reducing the threats associated to the theft of nuclear materials, accidental release of radiation and sabotage of nuclear processes. These norms would also include instances where an unwitting attacker or intelligence collection entity inadvertently makes their way into a nuclear facility network or system and can recognize they are in a protected zone and an approach to ensuring that these zones are not exploitable by bad actors to place their sensitive cyber effect delivery systems.
.... Department of Defense Directive (DoDD) 3000.05 directs that the military shall be prepared to accomplish 'all tasks necessary to establish or maintain order when civilians are unable to do so,' but the metrics which define success...
Koucheravy, Richard J
.... Lately, the Army has improved safety and embedded a more effective safety culture, but it has not improved its program for reducing civilian accident costs or returning injured workers to the workplace...
...) Method of Payment. The fees and mileage of a civilian witness shall be paid by the disbursing officer of... whose testimony is determined not to meet the standards of relevancy and materiality set forth in...
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons ... Table 1: Clinicodemographic profile of civilian penetrating gunshot neurocranial injuries ... (*Armed robbery, cultists, terrorism). [Downloaded free from ...
statistics. This especially includes Mr. Mike Dove, Ms. Kris Hoffman, Ms. Ninfa Camargo , Mr. Edward Christie, Ms. Rebecca Tag, Ms. Elizabeth Kundift Ms...Center, San Francisco , CA, will close. DoD Civilian Training Study Page 10 Chapter 2: Source There were 1,507 civilians trained We learned that 166...San Diego, CA Service School Command 13 60 San Diego, CA Submarine Training Facility 4 61 San Francisco , CA Naval Technical Training Center 13 62
Ahmad, Abdulbaghi; Mohamad, Kirmanj
A one-year follow-up study of children who had lost both parents and were placed in orphanages (n=19) or foster homes (n=18) in Iraqi Kurdistan investigated the orphans' situation and development. The children in orphanages were found to have higher frequency of post-traumatic stress disorder than the foster care children. (Author/CR)
Darweish, Marwan; Mohammed, Maamoon Abdulsamad
The Kurdistan Regional Government has implemented a wide range of reforms in Iraqi Kurdistan's education system since its establishment in 2003. This qualitative study utilises critical discourse analysis to investigate the content of History Education (HE) textbooks (grades five to eight) and to assess how far peace education values and…
Burner, Tony; Madsen, Janne; Zako, Nadia; Ismail, Adham
In Iraqi Kurdistan, the educational system is going through significant changes. The educational system influences the students' attitudes, and one wants the educational system to support the young democracy. In this study, student-centred learning (SCL) is seen as a first step to learning, but also to participation and engagement as a citizen.…
Elameer, Amer Saleem; Idrus, Rozhan M.
Nowadays, the HE (higher education) sector of Iraq has suffered severe disruption and mass destruction due to the war and, in general, only 10% of its remaining operational sectors are in the acceptable conditions. This research is an attempt to plan a PS (proposed strategy) for the Iraqi HE sector that can be executed easily in Iraq as a part of…
This essay attempts to disentangle a debate within the study of refugee crises and their security implications involving 'refugee warriors'. It situates the debate in the context of the Iraqi refugee crisis and its purported and real manifestations in three main host countries: Syria, Jordan and
This article will consider the significant role which the Society of Jesus had played in the Iraqi secondary and higher education systems in the period 1932-1968. The Jesuits' Baghdad-based school and university formed a part of the substantial Jesuit educational network established across the Middle East from the nineteenth century and this…
Al-Ghazalli, Mehdi Falih; Al-Shammary, Mohanad A. Amert
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the pragmatic difficulties encountered by Iraqi EFL university students in producing the speech act of apology. Although the act of apology is easy to recognize or use by native speakers of English, non-native speakers generally encounter difficulties in discriminating one speech act from another. The…
Darwish, Dana A; Abdelmalek, Suzanne; Abu Dayyih, Wael; Hamadi, Salim
Antimicrobial resistance is a serious global health concern. It has considerable implications on societies' health and resources. In Jordan, there is a large Iraqi community due to the ongoing turmoil in Iraq. Unfortunately, health awareness and practices of this community are under-investigated due to scarcity of research. This paper assesses the awareness of antibiotic use and antimicrobial resistance in the Iraqi community residing in Amman, Jordan. Their level of interaction with health care professionals regarding antibiotics and differences in their antibiotic use between Iraq and Jordan are also discussed. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey involving randomly selected Iraqis residing in Amman, Jordan was conducted. The study involved 508 participants. Sixty-two percent of participants agreed with buying antibiotics without a prescription, 29% agreed with obtaining antibiotics from friends or relatives, and 46% agreed with keeping leftover antibiotics for future use. Furthermore, 60% disagreed with not completing an antibiotic course and almost 90% of the sample listed viral diseases as an indication for antibiotics. Forty-four percent of participants abided by physicians' instructions on antibiotic use. Half of the participants believed that pharmacists provided instructions on antibiotics all the time, whereas physicians were perceived to do so by 29% of participants. Gaps exist in knowledge of antibiotic use and reasons for antimicrobial resistance among Iraqis residing in Jordan. These gaps should serve in planning educational campaigns to raise the community's awareness of responsible antibiotic use. Law enforcement to restrict access to antibiotics is also pivotal to tackle their misuse.
Bright, Larry K.; Mahdi, Ghada S.
Mahdi is an Iraqi doctoral candidate in adult and higher education and Bright is her doctoral advisor. The two have been involved in intensive dialogue about how they see their cultures, how they perceive the conflict in the Middle East, and how andragogical theory offers hope for changing learning and teaching approaches that can influence…
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trade agreements... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7022 Trade agreements certificate—inclusion of Iraqi end products. As prescribed in 225.1101(7), use the following provision: Trade Agreements...
Author, Not Given
This study group covered the following: delineation of the specific objectives of the overall US AEC civilian power reactor program, technical objectives of each reactor concept, preparation of a chronological development program for each reactor concept, evaluation of the economic potential of each reactor type, a program to encourage the the development, and yardsticks for measuring the development. Results were used for policy review by AEC, program direction, authorization and appropriation requests, etc. This evaluation encompassed civilian power reactors rated at 25 MW(e) or larger and related experimental facilities and R&D. This Part I summarizes the significant results of the comprehensive effort to determine the current technical and economic status for each reactor concept; it is based on the 8 individual technical status reports (Part III).
This document specifies the top-level requirements for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). The document is referred to herein as the CRD, for CRWMS Requirements document. The OCRWM System Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) establishes the technical document hierarchy (hierarchy of technical requirements and configuration baseline documents) for the CRWMS program. The CRD is the top-level document in this hierarchy. The immediate subordinate documents are the System Requirements Documents (SRDS) for the four elements of the CRWMS and the Interface Specification (IFS). The four elements of the CRWMS are the Waste Acceptance System, the Transportation System, the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) System and the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS). The Interface Specification describes the six inter-element interfaces between the four elements. This hierarchy establishes the requirements to be addressed by the design of the system elements. Many of the technical requirements for the CRWMS are documented in a variety of Federal regulations, DOE directives and other Government documentation. It is the purpose of the CRD to establish the technical requirements for the entire program. In doing so, the CRD summarizes source documentation for requirements that must be addressed by the program, specifies particular requirements, and documents derived requirements that are not covered in regulatory and other Government documentation, but are necessary to accomplish the mission of the CRWMS. The CRD defines the CRWMS by identifying the top-level functions the elements must perform (These top-level functions were derived using functional analysis initially documented in the Physical System Requirements (PSR) documents). The CRD also defines the top-level physical architecture of the system and allocates the functions and requirements to the architectural elements of the system
Full Text Available Analysis of the Israel's Foreign Policy is one of the important issues concerned by the researchers of the international and regional affairs. Israel's Foreign Policy in years 2003-2015 has witnessed a lot of events. In these years, transformation of the Iraq's internal structures including the fall of the Baath Regime in Iraq and appearance of the terroristic group of Dashi (ISIS in this country has provided new opportunities and challenges for the Israel's Foreign Policy. In this regard, establishment of a republic system in Iraq and the reinforcement of the Kurdish streams, specially during the current transformations and the increasing desires for the independence in Iraqi's Kurdistan, have paved the way for Israel to intensify its activities in the region. In this regard, the current study has approach the issue of Israel's Foreign Policy concerning Iraqi's Kurdistan during the years 2003-2015 with a descriptive analytic method. The achieved results show that the political reasons (alliance of the periphery and development of the strategic depth in closeness to Iran, economic (accessing the energy and mineral resources in Iraqi's Kurdistan, the importance of the Kurdistan's hydro-politic resources for Israel and the Israel's economical influence from the Nile to the Euphrates, military-security (presence in the strategic environment of Iran and the external threats in the Middle East, creation of an environmental crisis un the Kurdish region of the Middle East, weakening the Iraqi's central government and disintegration of this country, Israel's security-intelligence expansion, acquiring a strategic territory and getting out of isolation and the resolving the its legitimacy crisis, controlling the currents of thought in this region, all have been influential in thein Israel's Foreign Policy Concerning Iraqi's Kurdistan.
Barry, Adam E.; Whiteman, Shawn D.; MacDermid Wadsworth, Shelley M.
Objectives Determine whether posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS) are associated with problem drinking and alcohol-related consequences, as well as academic correlates among military-affiliated and civilian students. Participants Final sample (n = 248) included 78 combat exposed student service members/veterans, 53 non-combat exposed student service members/veterans, 38 ROTC students, and 79 civilian students. Method Self-report data was collected spring 2011 via a web-based survey measuring PTS, problem drinking, alcohol-related consequences, GPA, educational self-efficacy, academic amotivation and persistence. Results Military students exposed to combat-related trauma reported significantly greater PTS symptoms than other military and civilian groups. PTS symptoms were associated with problem drinking and alcohol-related consequences for all groups, yet unrelated to academic correlates among those exposed to combat-related trauma. Conclusions This study adds to the scant literature base exploring the unique characteristics of student service members/veterans in higher education. PMID:23157198
Ehsan K. Al-Shimmery
Full Text Available Objectives: To study the precipitating and relieving factors of migraine headache in a group of Iraqi Kurdish patients including the effect of fasting in Ramadan, and to estimate the percentage of family history of migraine. Methods: A series of 200 migraine cases from different parts of the Kurdistan region in the North of Iraq attending the out-patient Neurology clinic at Rizgary Teaching Hospital and a private Neurology clinic at Erbil City was carried out between October 2007 and May 2008 were reviewed. The precipitating factors and relieving factors for migraine headache were registered and tabulated to be compared with others. Case definition of migraine was based on the International Headache Society (IHS criteria.Results: 33% of the patients were aged between 30-39 years, while 40.5% of patients experienced their first attack aged between 20-29 years. Stress or psychological upset was the commonest triggering factor (80%, followed by increasing physical activity (68%, change in weather (65.5%, and in relation to fasting (65%. Fasting in Ramadan was a triggering factor for headaches in 65% of patients. However, there was no significant association between the triggering factors with regards to sex difference. Relief of migraine in the studied sample was achieved using NSAIDs in 50% of patients, and sleep (45.5%. Hence, 61% of the study population had positive family history of migraine, 32.5% of them reported maternal history of migraine. Conclusion: Psychological upset, stress and excessive physical activity were the commonest triggering factors of migraine headache, while NSAID was the commonest relieving factor of migraine in this population. Family history was present in 61% of migraine patients based mainly from maternal root.
Çelikel, Adnan; Karaarslan, Bekir; Demirkıran, Dua Sümeyra; Zeren, Cem; Arslan, Muhammet Mustafa
A considerable number of deaths due to firearm injuries have occurred during wars all over the world. In this study, it is aimed to evaluate demographic characteristics and injury properties of cases died during civil war in Syria. The postmortem examination and autopsy reports of 321 forensic deaths occurred between January and December 2012 were analyzed, retrospectively. Of the 321 forensic deaths,186 cases were injured and died in the civil war in Syria and, therefore, included in the scope of the study. Four cases died by natural causes or traffic accidents were excluded. Cases were most commonly (n=73, 39.2%) aged between 21 and 30 years, and 21.5% (n=40) of cases aged under 20 years. Of females, 68.8% (n=11) were children and young adults under 20 years of age. An overwhelming majority of deaths (n=125, 67.2%) were caused by explosive and shrapnel injuries, followed by (n=49, 26.3%) gunshot injuries related deaths. This study indicated that a significant proportion of those who died after being injured in the Syrian war were children, women and elderly people. The nature and localization of the observed injuries indicated open attacks by military forces regardless of targets being civilians and human rights violations.
The OCRWM Safety Plan sets forth management policies and general requirements for the safety of the public and of personnel associated with the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program (hereinafter called the ''Program''). It is applicable to all individuals and organizational elements of the Program, including all facilities and activities controlled by the Program pursuant to the Act, and to all phases of the Program. The plan defines the responsibilities assigned by the Director of the OCRWM to the various OCRWM line organizations, and to the contractors and the projects. It discusses the means by which safety policies and requirements will be communicated, and summarizes the applicable DOE Orders, and the procedures for reviewing, reporting, and evaluating safety problems. In addition, the OCRWM Safety Plan addresses DOE Orders applicable to occupational health and safety, worker protection, and public health and safety. OCRWM believes that it has an equally high level of commitment to both public safety and worker safety. The Plan also summarizes applicable NRC criteria and regulations that will be imposed through the formal licensing proceedings. While the Safety Plan sets forth OCRWM policy, it is not intended to be prescriptive in the details of implementation. Each OCRWM program element must develop and control its own set of detailed requirements for the protection of its workers and the public based on the principles set forth herein
Vogt, D. S; Proctor, S. P; King, D. W; King, L. A; Vasterling, J. J
.... Although initial evidence for the reliability and validity of DRRI scales based on Gulf War veteran samples is encouraging, evidence with respect to a more contemporary cohort of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF...
Cordts, Paul R; Brosch, Laura A; Holcomb, John B
Between December 2004 and June 2007, 13 key Operation Iraqi Freedom/ Operation Enduring Freedom combat casualty care policies were published to inform medical practice in the combat theater of operations...
Elsea, Jennifer K
A recent Army report charging that U.S. Military Police and other personnel, including civilian contractor personnel, abused Iraqi prisoners held under the authority of the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA...
Morina, Naser; Schnyder, Ulrich; Klaghofer, Richard; Müller, Julia; Martin-Soelch, Chantal
It has been well documented that the exposure to war has a negative effect on the psychological health of civilian. However, little is known on the impact of war exposure on the physical health of the civilian population. In addition, the link between trauma exposure and somatic symptoms remain poorly understood. This cross-sectional study examined levels of somatic symptoms in the aftermath of war, and the mediating role of posttraumatic stress symptoms in the relationship between trauma exposure and somatic symptoms. Civilian war survivors (N = 142) from Kosovo were assessed for potentially traumatic events, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and somatic symptoms. Data were analyzed using mediation analyses. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were categorized based on King's four factor model (Psychol Assessment. 10: 90-96, 1998). Participants reported on average more than 5 types of traumatic exposure. The cut-off indicative for PTSD was exceeded by 26.1% of participants. Symptom levels of PTSD were associated with somatic symptoms. The relationship between trauma exposure and somatic symptoms was partly mediated by the active avoidance and hyperarousal symptom clusters of PTSD. Active avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms seem to play a key role in traumatized people suffering from somatic symptoms.
Full Text Available What are the varying roles that norms play to either enable or constrain violence in armed conflict settings? The article examines this question by drawing on experiences from communities and armed groups in Colombia and Syria. It begins by presenting an explanation of how norms of violence and nonviolence may arise within communities and influence the behavior of civilian residents, reducing the chances of them becoming involved with armed groups. It then considers how civilian communities can transmit those same norms, shared understandings, and patterns of interaction to the ranks of illegal armed groups and subsequently shape their decisions about the use of violence against civilians. The author argues that civilians may be better positioned to promote the principles codified in International Humanitarian Law than international humanitarian organizations because they have closer contact with irregular armed actors and are viewed with greater legitimacy. The analysis illustrates that to better understand civilian protection mechanisms it is essential to study the interactions between communities and armed actors.
Ammar Saleem Khazaal
Full Text Available This research reviews a statistical study to check the conformity of aggregates (Coarse and Fine was used in Kirkuk city to the requirements of the Iraqi specifications. The data of sieve analysis (215 samples of aggregates being obtained from of National Central Construction Laboratory and Technical College Construction Laboratory in Kirkuk city have analyzed using the statistical program SAS. The results showed that 5%, 17%, and 18% of fine aggregate samples are passing sieve sizes 10 mm, 4.75 mm, and 2.36 mm, respectively, which were less than the minimum limit allowed by the Iraqi specifications for each sieve. The percentages passing sieve sizes 1.18mm, 600micrometers, and 300micrometers were more than the upper limit of specification by 5%, 20%, and 30% respectively. The samples were passing sieve sizes 1.18mm, and 600micrometers less than the minimum limit of specification by 17%, and 4%, respectively. The results showed that the deviation in a sieve size of 150 micrometers for the upper limit of the specification performs 2% of the total number of samples. For Coarse aggregate, the samples passing sieves size 37.5mm and 20mm were comforting the Iraqi specifications by 100% and 83% respectively, it has found that the samples were passing sieve sizes 10 mm was 5% was more than the higher limit of Iraqi specifications, and 27% of these samples were less than the minimum limit, whereas sample passing sieve size 5mm was 1% which is more than the upper limit of the Iraqi specification. As a result of statistical analysis of data for fine aggregate, it has found that the samples were passing sieve sizes 10 mm, 2.36 mm, 1.18 mm and 150micrometers conforming from statistical point of view the Iraqi specifications, whereas the samples were passing sieve sizes 4.75 mm, 600micrometers and 300 micrometers didn’t conform. Statistical analysis of the results of the coarse aggregates also showed that conforming to sieve sizes of 37.5 mm and 20 mm and
Full Text Available Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depression are common among populations displaced due to large-scale political conflicts and war. Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and gender-based differences in symptoms of PTSD and depression among Iraqi Yazidis displaced into Turkey. Method: The study was conducted on 238 individuals who were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I and the Stressful Life Events Screening Questionnaire. Results: Of the participants, 42.9% met the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for PTSD, 39.5% for major depression, and 26.4% for both disorders. More women than men suffered from PTSD and major depression. More women than men with PTSD or depression reported having experienced or witnessed the death of a spouse or child. Women with PTSD reported flashbacks, hypervigilance, and intense psychological distress due to reminders of trauma more frequently than men. Men with PTSD reported feelings of detachment or estrangement from others more frequently than women. More depressive women than men reported feelings of guilt or worthlessness. Conclusions: PTSD and major depression affected women more frequently than men. While women tended to respond to traumatic stress by undermodulation of emotions and low self-esteem, men tended to respond by overmodulation of emotions. Rather than being a derivative of sex differences, this complementary diversity in response types between genders seems to be shaped by social factors in consideration of survival under extreme threat.
Bulson, Ryan; Jun, Weon; Hayes, John
Advances in protective armor technology and changes in the "patterns of war" have created a population of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) veterans with traumatic brain injury (TBI) that provide a unique challenge to Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare practitioners. The purpose of the study was to determine the frequency of symptomatic ocular and visual sequelae of TBI in OIF/OEF veterans at the Portland VA Medical Center, a Polytrauma Support Clinic Team site. A retrospective analysis of 100 OIF/OEF veterans with TBI was conducted to determine the prevalence of ocular and visual complaints. Referral patterns were also investigated. Visual symptoms were reported in approximately 50% of veterans with TBI. Loss of consciousness, but not number of deployments or number of blast exposures, was found to have a statistically significant association with severity of reported visual symptoms. The most commonly reported symptoms included blurred vision (67%), photosensitivity (50%), and accommodative problems (40%). Visual symptoms of OIF/OEF veterans at the Portland VA Medical Center are reported at slightly lower rates than similar studies conducted at the Palo Alto and Edward Hines Jr VA facilities.
Vie, Loryana L; Scheier, Lawrence M; Lester, Paul B; Ho, Tiffany E; Labarthe, Darwin R; Seligman, Martin E P
This report describes a groundbreaking military-civilian collaboration that benefits from an Army and Department of Defense (DoD) big data business intelligence platform called the Person-Event Data Environment (PDE). The PDE is a consolidated data repository that contains unclassified but sensitive manpower, training, financial, health, and medical records covering U.S. Army personnel (Active Duty, Reserve, and National Guard), civilian contractors, and military dependents. These unique data assets provide a veridical timeline capturing each soldier's military experience from entry to separation from the armed forces. The PDE was designed to afford unprecedented cost-efficiencies by bringing researchers and military scientists to a single computerized repository rather than porting vast data resources to individual laboratories. With funding from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, researchers from the University of Pennsylvania Positive Psychology Center joined forces with the U.S. Army Research Facilitation Laboratory, forming the scientific backbone of the military-civilian collaboration. This unparalleled opportunity was necessitated by a growing need to learn more about relations between psychological and health assets and health outcomes, including healthcare utilization and costs-issues of major importance for both military and civilian population health. The PDE represents more than 100 times the population size and many times the number of linked variables covered by the nation's leading sources of population health data (e.g., the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). Following extensive Army vetting procedures, civilian researchers can mine the PDE's trove of information using a suite of statistical packages made available in a Citrix Virtual Desktop. A SharePoint collaboration and governance management environment ensures user compliance with federal and DoD regulations concerning human subjects' protections and also provides a secure
Waitzkin, Howard; Noble, Marylou
Due to the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, the unmet medical and psychological needs of military personnel are creating major challenges. Increasingly, active duty military personnel are seeking physical and mental health services from civilian professionals. The Civilian Medical Resources Network attempts to address these unmet needs. Participants in the Network include primary care and mental health practitioners in all regions of the country. Network professionals provide independent assessments, clinical interventions in acute situations, and documentation that assists GIs in obtaining reassignment or discharge. Most clients who use Network services come from low-income backgrounds and manifest psychological rather than physical disorders. Qualitative themes in professional-client encounters have focused on ethical conflicts, the impact of violence without meaning (especially violence against civilians), and perceived problems in military health and mental health policies. Unmet needs of active duty military personnel deserve more concerted attention from medical professionals and policy makers. PMID:21339846
Full Text Available Due to the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, the unmet medical and psychological needs of military personnel are creating major challenges. Increasingly, active duty military personnel are seeking physical and mental health services from civilian professionals. The Civilian Medical Resources Network attempts to address these unmet needs. Participants in the Network include primary care and mental health practitioners in all regions of the country. Network professionals provide independent assessments, clinical interventions in acute situations, and documentation that assists GIs in obtaining reassignment or discharge. Most clients who use Network services come from low-income backgrounds and manifest psychological rather than physical disorders. Qualitative themes in professional-client encounters have focused on ethical conflicts, the impact of violence without meaning (especially violence against civilians, and perceived problems in military health and mental health policies. Unmet needs of active duty military personnel deserve more concerted attention from medical professionals and policy makers.
Elliott, Brenda; Chargualaf, Katie A; Patterson, Barbara
To examine and describe the transition process of military nurses from military nursing practice to civilian nursing practice. A second aim was to identify challenges and facilitators to this transition. Serving in the military, and embodying its values, can have a major impact on a person's worldview. These individuals serve not only as nurses but also as part of a larger military culture with a mission to protect. The decision to separate from the military and transition into the civilian workforce carries many challenges capable of influencing nurses' personal and professional identities. Qualitative descriptive. Semi-structured interviews of 10 nurse veterans were conducted in 2015-2016. Data were collected until saturation was reached. The transition includes four major phases from military to civilian nurse: Separating from Military Life, Conflict and Chaos, Shifting Sands and Personal and Professional Reconstruction. Duration and progress through each phase varied slightly for individual nurses. Both work-role and personal identity transition occur when a nurse leaves the military and enters civilian practice. Military and civilian organisations, in both the USA and other countries, can implement supports to aid these nurses during this personal and professional change. Recommendations from the study group are provided. The global nursing profession, as well as healthcare organisations that employ nurse veterans, has a commitment and obligation to understand the transition process of nurses who practise within the scope of military nursing and later in civilian nursing environments so that they may be supported and used to the extent of their prior experience. Lessons learned and advice from this group of nurses may positively aid others in their transition experience. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Savitsky, Laura; Illingworth, Maria; DuLaney, Megan
This article discusses social work practice areas for civilian social workers who provide services to military service members,veterans, and their families. These practice areas include education, child welfare, domestic violence, mental health, health care, substance abuse, and criminal justice. The authors examine the impact of the contemporary military lifestyle and current military operations on service members and their families in the context of these practice areas, with the goal of compelling civilian social workers to acknowledge their responsibility to competently serve military and veteran clients.
Johnson, R.A.; Klein, S.W.; Gurol, H.
Seventy years after its discovery, superconducting technology is beginning to play an important role in the civilian sector. Strategic defense initiative (SDI)-related research in space- and ground-based strategic defense weapons, particularly research efforts utilizing superconducting magnet energy storage, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), and superconducting pulsed-power devices, have direct applications in the civilian sector as well and are discussed in the paper. Other applications of superconducting magnets, which will be indirectly enhanced by the overall advancement in superconducting technology, include high-energy physics accelerators, magnetic resonance imaging, materials purifying, water purifying, superconducting generators, electric power transmission, magnetically levitated trains, magnetic-fusion power plants, and superconducting computers
Santos, James Farley Estevam Dos; Santos, Regina Maria Dos; Costa, Laís de Miranda Crispim; Almeida, Lenira Maria Wanderley Santos de; Macêdo, Amanda Cavalcante de; Santos, Tânia Cristina Franco
to identify and analyze evidence from studies about the importance of civilian nursing organizations. an integrative literature review, for which searches were conducted in the databases LILACS, PubMed/MEDLINE, SciELO, BDENF, and Scopus. sixteen articles published between the years 2004-2013 were selected, 68.75% of which were sourced from Brazilian journals and 31.25% from American journals. civilian nursing organizations are important and necessary, because they have collaborated decisively in nursing struggles in favor of the working class and society in general, and these contributions influence different axes of professional performance.
Objectives include: Promote the use of standards ]based, objective, and quantitative systems for managing projects and programs in the federal government. Understand how civilian agencies in general, manage their projects and programs. Project management survey expected to go out soon to civilian agencies. Describe how EVM and other best practices can be applied by the government to better manage its project and programs irrespective of whether work is contracted out or the types of contracts employed. Develop model policies aimed at project and program managers that are transportable across the government.
Dossani, Rimal Hanif; Carr, Steven; Bolles, Gene; Balata, Razvan; Guthikonda, Bharat
The medical infrastructure of Iraqi Kurdistan, a semiautonomous region in the northern part of Iraq, lags disproportionately behind relative to the otherwise booming industrial advances of the region. Although neurosurgical training is available, the local population lacks trust in its own neurosurgeons. Medical facilities suffer from a lack of basic resources, such as high-speed drills, intracranial pressure monitoring, and stereotaxy to care for neurosurgical patients. Since 2012, American volunteer neurosurgeons have delivered lectures and mentored local neurosurgeons in performing neurosurgical procedures. Over the last 4 years, the visiting neurosurgical team has seen hundreds of patients in consultation and performed more than 50 complex cranial and spinal operations jointly with local neurosurgeons. This article discusses our experience as volunteer neurosurgeons in building neurosurgical capacity in Iraqi Kurdistan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jen, K-L Catherine; Zhou, Kequan; Arnetz, Bengt; Jamil, Hikmet
Refugees have typically experienced stress and trauma before entering the US. Stressors and mental health disorders may contribute to obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the body mass index (BMI) in Iraqi refugees settled in Michigan in relationship to pre- and post-migration stressors and mental health. Anthropometric and demographic data were collected from 290 Iraqi refugees immediately after they arrived in Michigan and one year after settlement. Significant increases were observed in BMI (+0.46 ± 0.09 kg/m(2), p refugees suffering from hypertension (from 9.6 to 13.1%, p migration trauma and social support, were also observed. Linear regression analyses failed to link stressors, well-being, and mental health to changes in BMI. It is likely that acculturation to a new lifestyle, including dietary patterns and physical activity levels, may have contributed to these changes.
Salman, Khlood F; Resick, Lenore K
The purpose of this study was to understand the description of health among Iraqi women refugees, their health status, and health experiences during resettlement in the United States. Twelve women, ages 21-67 years old, who resettled in the United States during or after 2003 where interviewed. The women described health as a gift determined by God, the ability to function, the absence of physical symptoms, and the need to feel safe and secure in the context of resettlement. Although the Iraqi women valued health, during the resettlement process, seeking safety and feeling secure were the foremost priorities. Findings revealed that this is a vulnerable population which has experienced the violence of war and, as a result, have unique physical, mental, economic, and social concerns related to health. Implications are for a multidisciplinary approach to best meet the unique individual health needs of this vulnerable population.
Slewa-Younan, Shameran; Mond, Jonathan M; Bussion, Elise; Melkonian, Maral; Mohammad, Yaser; Dover, Hanan; Smith, Mitchell; Milosevic, Diana; Jorm, Anthony Francis
To examine levels of psychological distress and help seeking behaviour in resettled refugees attending English tuition classes in Australia, and their associations with participants' demographic characteristics. Data was collected by bilingual interviewers between March and November 2013. A volunteer sample of attendees of Adult Migrant English Programs (AMEP) in Western Sydney were recruited. Participants were two hundred and twenty five Iraqi refugees resettled in Western Sydney, who had left Iraq no earlier than 1991, were fluent in Arabic and/or English, and were between the ages of 18 and 70. The chief outcome measures used were the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K-10) as well as The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). On the K-10, 39.8% of participants had severe psychological distress, 19.4% moderate distress, and 40.7% had low to mild distress. Ninety-five percent of participants reported having experienced one or more potentially traumatic event (PTE) as defined by the HTQ prior to leaving Iraq, with a mean of 14.28 events (SD = 8.69). Thirty-one percent of participants met the threshold (≥2.5) for clinically significant PTSD symptomatology, with a significantly higher occurrence among participants with lower education attainment (χ (2) (3) = 8.26, p = .04). Of those participants with clinically significant PTSD symptomatology according to the HTQ, only 32.9% reported ever having ever sought help for a mental health problem. The high level of distress found in this sample, combined with low uptake of mental health care, highlights the need for programs targeted to promote help-seeking among Iraqi refugees who have resettled in Australia. Further, the higher level of PTSD symptomatology found amongst those with lower education attainment has mental health promotion and treatment implications. Specifically, in designing service and treatment programs, consideration should be given to the possible impact excessive levels of psychological
Muhanned Abdul Hasan Kareem; Ali Hmood Al-Saadi ; Hassan Fadhil Naji
In this study provided all molecular markers of Random amplified polymorphic (RAPD) successfully with the sixty five Iraqi date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars, which collected from Hilla city in Iraq, to determine fingerprinting, polymorphic value, and relationships among varieties of date palm cultivars, and also with the same type of cultivars. Data analysis of ten RAPD has been revealed. Number of amplified DNA fragments were (592) bands, polymorphism per all primers were (%64.2),...
Muhanned Abdul Hasan; Ali Hmood Al-Saadi; Hassan Fadhil Naji
In this study provided all molecular markers of Random amplified polymorphic (RAPD) successfully with the sixty five Iraqi date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars, which collected from Hilla city in Iraq, to determine fingerprinting, polymorphic value, and relationships among varieties of date palm cultivars, and also with the same type of cultivars. Data analysis of ten RAPD has been revealed. Number of amplified DNA fragments were (592) bands, polymorphism per all primers were (%64.2),...
Hadi, Iman Majeed
Electronic commerce is an increasingly vital part of national economies and the global economy. The promotion of electronic commerce requires clear and effective laws. As electronic contracts are the building blocks for electronic commerce, it is essential for national laws, especially in developing countries, to be sufficiently certain and appropriately adapted to promote electronic commerce. This thesis formulates recommendations for reforming Iraqi contract law in order to promote the a...
Mehdi Falih Al-Ghazalli
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the pragmatic difficulties encountered by Iraqi EFL university students in producing the speech act of apology. Although the act of apology is easy to recognize or use by native speakers of English, non-native speakers generally encounter difficulties in discriminating one speech act from another. The problem can be attributed to two factors: pragma-linguistic and socio-pragmatic knowledge. The aim of this study is(1to evaluate the socio-pragmatic level of interpreting apologies as understood and used by Iraqi EFL university learners, (2 find out the level of difficulty they experience in producing apologies and(3 detect the reasons behind such misinterpretations and misuses. It is hypothesized that the socio-pragmatic interpretation of apology tends to play a crucial role in comprehending what is intended by the speaker. However, cultural gaps can be the main reason behind the EFL learners' inaccurate production of the act of apology. To verify the aforementioned hypotheses, a test has been constructed and administered to a sample of 70 fourth-year Iraqi EFL university learners, morning classes. The subjects' responses have been collected and linguistically analyzed in the light of an eclectic model based on Deutschmann (2003 and Lazare (2004. It has been concluded that the misinterpretation or difficulty Iraqi EFL students have faced is mainly attributed to their lack of socio-pragmatic knowledge. The interference of the learnersʹ first language culture has led to non-native productions of speech act of apology.
Ammar Saleem Khazaal; Nizar N Ismeel; Abdel fattah K. Hussein
This research reviews a statistical study to check the conformity of aggregates (Coarse and Fine) was used in Kirkuk city to the requirements of the Iraqi specifications. The data of sieve analysis (215 samples) of aggregates being obtained from of National Central Construction Laboratory and Technical College Construction Laboratory in Kirkuk city have analyzed using the statistical program SAS. The results showed that 5%, 17%, and 18% of fine aggregate samples are passing sieve sizes 10 mm,...
Galal, Lise Paulsen
This presentation explores negotiations of belonging among Christian immigrants of Iraqi and Egyptian background in Denmark. Based on transnational and diaspora studies, experiences and practices of belonging are explored as multi-directional and situational springing from everyday encounters...... and personal life trajectory, political events in both the region of origin and in the receiving country (Denmark), as well as opportunity structures empowering Middle Eastern Christians as collective and individual actors....
Trentacosta, Christopher J; McLear, Caitlin M; Ziadni, Maisa S; Lumley, Mark A; Arfken, Cynthia L
This study examined mental health problems among children of Iraqi refugees, most of whom were Christian. Exposure to potentially traumatic events was hypothesized to predict more symptoms of depression and traumatic stress. Moreover, youth reports of supportive relationships with parents and positive feelings about school were examined in relation to mental health problems. These promotive factors were expected to mitigate the hypothesized association between traumatic event exposure and mental health problems. Participants were 211 youth recruited from agencies and programs serving Iraqi refugees in a large metropolitan area in the United States. The hypotheses were partially supported. Youth who reported experiencing more potentially traumatic events endorsed more traumatic stress and depression symptoms. After accounting for exposure to potentially traumatic events and other covariates, youth who reported more positive feelings about school endorsed fewer symptoms of traumatic stress, and youth who reported more supportive relationships with parents endorsed fewer symptoms of depression. In addition, there was an interaction between potentially traumatic events and relationships with parents when predicting depression symptoms. Youth endorsed higher levels of depression symptoms when they reported less supportive relationships, regardless of the amount of traumatic event exposure, whereas youth endorsed lower levels of depression symptoms when they reported more supportive relationships with parents, but only at low levels of traumatic event exposure. Otherwise, the main effects were not qualified by interactions between potentially traumatic event exposure and the promotive factors. The findings from this study have implications for future research, policy, and practice with children of refugees. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Several studies have indicated that the range and linguistics expressions of external modifiers available in one language differ from those available in another language. The present study aims to investigate the cross-cultural differences and similarities with regards to the realization of request external modifications. To this end, 30 Iraqi and 30 Malay university students are selected as the participants of this study. Spencer-Oatey's (2008 rapport management theoretical framework is used to examine how face rapport is managed through the use of external modifications. The corpus consists of responses to a Discourse Completion Test (DCT consisting of eight situations. The questionnaires, adopted from Rose (1994, were distributed among Iraqi students and Malaysian Malay students studying at Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia. The corpus were then analyzed based on Blum-Kulka, House and Kasper (1989 classification of external modifiers. The primary objective of this paper is to compare the effect of situational factors on the realization patterns of request modification between Iraqi and Malay university students .The findings are hoped to have implications for comparative cross-cultural and intercultural communication studies.
Uribe Guajardo, Maria Gabriela; Slewa-Younan, Shameran; Santalucia, Yvonne; Jorm, Anthony Francis
Refugees are one of the most vulnerable groups in Australian society, presenting high levels of exposure to traumatic events and consequently high levels of severe psychological distress. While there is a need for professional help, only a small percentage will receive appropriate care for their mental health concerns. This study aimed to determine cultural considerations required when providing mental health first aid to Iraqi refugees experiencing mental health problems or crises. Using a Delphi method, 16 experts were presented with statements about possible culturally-appropriate first aid actions via questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional actions not covered by the questionnaire content. Statements were accepted for inclusion in a guideline if they were endorsed by ≥90 % of panellists as 'Essential' or 'Important'. From a total of 65 statements, 38 were endorsed (17 for cultural awareness, 12 for cross-cultural communication, 7 for stigma associated with mental health problems, and 2 for barriers to seeking professional help). Experts were able to reach consensus about how to provide culturally-appropriate first aid for mental health problems to Iraqi refugees, demonstrating the suitability of this methodology in developing cultural considerations guidelines. This specific refugee study provided potentially valuable cultural knowledge required to better equip members of the Australian public on how to respond to and assist Iraqi refugees experiencing mental health problems or crises.
Carone, Marco; Al-Saedy, Huda; Nyce, Sayre; Ghosn, Jad; Mutuerandu, Timothy; Black, Robert E
Abstract Objective To determine the range and burden of health services utilization among Iraqi refugees receiving health assistance in Jordan, a country of first asylum. Methods Medical conditions, diagnosed in accordance with the tenth revision of the International classification of diseases, were actively monitored from 1January to 31December 2010 using a pilot centralized database in Jordan called the Refugee Assistance Information System. Findings There were 27 166 medical visits by 7642 Iraqi refugees (mean age: 37.4 years; 49% male; 70% from Baghdad; 6% disabled; 3% with a history of torture). Chronic diseases were common, including essential hypertension (22% of refugees), visual disturbances (12%), joint disorders (11%) and type II diabetes mellitus (11%). The most common reasons for seeking acute care were upper respiratory tract infection (11%), supervision of normal pregnancy (4%) and urinary disorders (3%). The conditions requiring the highest number of visits per refugee were cerebrovascular disease (1.46 visits), senile cataract (1.46) and glaucoma (1.44). Sponsored care included 31 747 referrals or consultations to a specialty service, 18 432 drug dispensations, 2307 laboratory studies and 1090 X-rays. The specialties most commonly required were ophthalmology, dentistry, gynaecology and orthopaedic surgery. Conclusion Iraqi refugees in countries of first asylum and resettlement require targeted health services, health education and sustainable prevention and control strategies for predominantly chronic diseases. PMID:22690034
Mateen, Farrah J; Carone, Marco; Al-Saedy, Huda; Nyce, Sayre; Ghosn, Jad; Mutuerandu, Timothy; Black, Robert E
To determine the range and burden of health services utilization among Iraqi refugees receiving health assistance in Jordan, a country of first asylum. Medical conditions, diagnosed in accordance with the tenth revision of the International classification of diseases, were actively monitored from 1 January to 31 December 2010 using a pilot centralized database in Jordan called the Refugee Assistance Information System. There were 27 166 medical visits by 7642 Iraqi refugees (mean age: 37.4 years; 49% male; 70% from Baghdad; 6% disabled; 3% with a history of torture). Chronic diseases were common, including essential hypertension (22% of refugees), visual disturbances (12%), joint disorders (11%) and type II diabetes mellitus (11%). The most common reasons for seeking acute care were upper respiratory tract infection (11%), supervision of normal pregnancy (4%) and urinary disorders (3%). The conditions requiring the highest number of visits per refugee were cerebrovascular disease (1.46 visits), senile cataract (1.46) and glaucoma (1.44). Sponsored care included 31 747 referrals or consultations to a specialty service, 18 432 drug dispensations, 2307 laboratory studies and 1090 X-rays. The specialties most commonly required were ophthalmology, dentistry, gynaecology and orthopaedic surgery. Iraqi refugees in countries of first asylum and resettlement require targeted health services, health education and sustainable prevention and control strategies for predominantly chronic diseases.
Zekri, A.N.; Mohamed, W.S.; Hafez, M.M.; Hassan, Z.K.; Bahnassy, A.A.; El-Kassem, F.A.; El-Khalidi, S.J.
Background and purpose: The role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in breast carcinogenesis is still controversial. Unraveling this relationship is potentially important for better understanding of breast cancer etiology, early detection and possibly prevention of breast cancer. The aim of the current study is to unravel the association between EBV and primary invasive breast cancer (PIBC) in two different Arab populations (Egyptian and Iraqi women). Patients and Methods: The study was done on paraffin-embedded tissues of 40 Egyptian and 50 Iraqi patients with PIBC in addition to 20 normal breast tissues as controls for each group. Both controls and neoplastic tissues were assessed for the expression of EBV genes and proteins (EBNA-1, LMP-1, and EBER) as well as CD21 marker by immunohistochemistry (IHC), in situ hybridization (ISH) and PCR techniques. Results: Our gold standard for EBV reactivity in breast cancer cases was positivity of both EBNA1 by PCR and EBER by in situ hybridization. EBV was detected in 18/40 (45%) and 14/50 (28%) of Egyptian and Iraqi women; respectively where p = 0.073, compared to 0/20 (0%) of their control groups (p < 0.05). Regarding the association between EBV positivity and tumor grade, there was not any statistical significant difference between EBV presence and tumor grade in both populations
Naseem Yousif Hanna Lallo
Full Text Available In ensuring that competent graduates are produced in the universities, the course used embedding knowledge in the students, mindsets needs to be effective. However, the unusual circumstances that happened in Iraq were affected on a universities course. The revolution in information technology (IT affects most of our activations. As a result, it is important to consider the impact of IT on accounting careers. Developing accenting information system course content can generate an accountant who is armed with the knowledge and skills before entering accounting job. Also the development process required instructors have characteristics that make the integrating process of IT knowledge components in AIS course content more smoothly. Iraq is the country facing many difficulties that makes its higher education institutions (HEIs suffered from un updated learning environment and technological backwardness. This causes a low level of accounting graduates’ knowledge and in turn leads to led to consider the Iraqi accountant incapable of working with international organizations and companies or conducting was it professionally. The aim of this paper is to explain the role of IT knowledge elements in developing AIS course content in Iraqi HEIs with considering the moderate effect of the instructors’ characteristics. Furthermore, this paper discusses the development and validation of the quantitative instrument (questionnaire for IT knowledge elements in Iraqi HEIs. Moreover, the reliability of the constructs is also discussed.
Whiteman, Shawn D; Barry, Adam E; Mroczek, Daniel K; Macdermid Wadsworth, Shelley
Student service members/veterans represent a growing population on college campuses. Despite this growth, scholarly investigations into their health- and adjustment-related issues are almost nonexistent. The limited research that is available suggests that student service members/veterans may have trouble connecting with their civilian counterparts and be at risk for social isolation. The present study compared the development and implications of emotional support from peers among 199 student service members/veterans and 181 civilian students through 3 distinct occasions over the course of 1 calendar year. Data were collected via electronic survey. Measured constructs included perceived emotional support from university friends, mental health, alcohol use, and academic functioning. A series of multilevel models revealed that student service members/veterans reported less emotional support from their peers compared with their civilian counterparts; yet, emotional support from peers increased similarly for both groups over time. Although, increasing peer emotional support was generally related to better academic and mental health outcomes for both groups, the links between emotional support and mental health were stronger for civilian students. Results suggest that mental health practitioners, particularly those on college campuses, should be prepared to deal with veteran-specific experiences that occur before and during college.
In the growing collection of literature on the EU’s governance credentials, security and defence activities of the Union remain under-represented. This thesis attempts to fill that void by shedding light on the law and practice of accountability in EU civilian crisis management. Unknown to many, the
A survey was conducted to determine if training in high-altitude physiology should : be required for civilian pilots; what the current status of such training was; and, : if required, what should be included in an ideal curriculum. The survey include...
Personal hygiene including foot care, hydration, and nutrition will be covered. The appropriate clothing and footwear will be discussed, including how...policy proposals , for review by civilian health system leaders, National Guard command staff, and both the Departments of Homeland Security and...for healthcare emergency response planning. Journal of Business Continuity and Emergency Preparedness, 1(4). Center for Disease Control and
would have nothing to do with it after the Second World War.4. The National ... 113–115. 4. Visser, British influence on military training and education in South Africa, p. 73. ..... residence, but agreed that they could be dispersed among the civilian students within .... Memories of the Second World War were still very strong …
Dec 12, 2013 ... thoracic and cardiovascular surgery care. Road traffic, occupational and industrial accidents account for a large proportion of cases while stab wounds and gunshot injuries are emerging as common causes in civilian practice (1). The incidence of vascular injuries is increasing in the developing countries.
Evans, Samuel S
.... A chart showing the numbers of civilians/contractors versus military personnel who served in the Civil War, World War I, World War II, Korean War, Vietnam War, Persian Gulf War, the Balkans War...
Porcari, Carole; Koch, Ellen I; Rauch, Sheila A M; Hoodin, Flora; Ellison, Grant; McSweeney, Lauren
Despite significant numbers of Afghanistan and Iraqi veterans and service members who report symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, and substance abuse, the majority do not seek help for these problems. A better understanding of the help-seeking process might aid providers and administrators in outreach and provision of services for those who need them. Past research has shown several variables that influence an individual's help-seeking behavior: demographic variables, the nature and severity of a mental health problem, and psychological variables. The three goals of the study were to determine which variables predicted help-seeking intentions from various sources for a psychological problem, identify barriers to help seeking, and identify sources of help sought in the past year. All Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans and service members registered with a Midwestern VA Healthcare System between 2001 and 2007 received a letter requesting participation in an Internet-based survey. Participants completed nine questionnaires regarding their current physical and psychological health, social support, self-efficacy, public and self-stigma, and barriers to seeking help for a psychological problem. In addition, patterns of help seeking from informal (i.e., partner/spouse, family, friends) and formal (i.e., physician, psychiatrist, or psychologist, either from Veterans Affairs [VA] or the private sector) sources of help were examined. Results from the linear regression model including all formal and informal sources of help indicated a significant model fit with attitudes toward psychotherapy, social support, and current mental health status as significant coefficients. Of note, attitudes toward psychotherapy were a significant coefficient in all help-seeking models; stigma was a significant coefficient with formal and VA sources, and social support was found to be a significant predictor with informal sources
Kaplan, Lewis J; Siegel, Mark D; Eastman, Alexander L; Flynn, Lisa M; Rosenbaum, Stanley H; Cone, David C; Blake, David P; Mulhern, Jonathan
Tactical emergency medical services (TEMS) bring immediate medical support to the inner perimeter of special weapons and tactics team activations. While initially envisioned as a role for an individual dually trained as a police officer and paramedic, TEMS is increasingly undertaken by physicians and paramedics who are not police officers. This report explores the ethical underpinnings of embedding a surgeon within a military or civilian tactical team with regard to identity, ethically acceptable actions, triage, responsibility set, training, certification, and potential future refinements of the role of the tactical police surgeon.
Fortney, John C; Curran, Geoffrey M; Hunt, Justin B; Lu, Liya; Eisenberg, Daniel; Valenstein, Marcia
A Web-based survey examined treatment seeking among community college students to inform the design of engagement interventions. Veteran and civilian community college students (N=765) were screened for mental disorders and reported perceptions of treatment need, effectiveness, and stigma, as well as service use. Regression analysis identified predictors of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy use. Of the 511 students who screened positive for a current mental disorder or reported a perceived need for treatment (149 veterans and 362 civilians), 30% reported past-year use of psychotropic medications. Predictors were perceived treatment need (odds ratio [OR]=7.81, p<.001) and the perception that psychotropic medications are effective (OR=3.38, p=.012). Eleven percent of participants reported past-year psychotherapy use, and predictors were a positive screen for posttraumatic stress disorder (OR=2.78, p=.04) and poorer financial status. Modifiable barriers, including perceived need for and effectiveness of treatment, were correlated with pharmacotherapy use and should be targeted by engagement interventions.
... assume responsibility for the prisoner while he is in its custody; and (3) that the civilian authority... civilian courts. 720.23 Section 720.23 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE... civilian courts. (a) Criminal actions. When Federal or State authorities desire the attendance of a naval...
Chimah, Carol Uzoamaka; Adogu, Prosper Obunikem Uche; Odeyemi, Kofoworola; Ilika, Amobi Linus
Intimate partner violence (IPV) occurs across the world, in various cultures, and affects people across societies irrespective of economic status or gender. Most data on IPV before World Health Organization multicountry study (WHOMCS) usually came from sources other than the military. Result of this study will contribute to the existing body of knowledge and may serve as a baseline for future studies in military populations. This study compares the prevalence of the different types of IPV against women in military and civilian communities in Abuja, Nigeria. Using a multistage sampling technique, 260 women who had intimate male partners were selected from military and civilian communities of Abuja. Collected data on personal characteristics and different types of IPV experienced were analyzed to demonstrate comparison of the association between the different forms of IPV and the respondents' sociodemographic and partner characteristics in the two study populations using percentages and χ-square statistics, and P-value was assumed to be significant at ≤0.05. The prevalence of the four major types of IPV was higher among the military respondents than among civilians: controlling behavior, 37.1% versus 29.1%; emotional/psychological abuse, 42.4% versus 13.4%; physical abuse, 19.7% versus 5.9%, and sexual abuse, 9.2% versus 8.8%. Significantly more respondents from the military population (59 [45.4%]) compared to civilians (21 [19.4%]) were prevented by their partners from seeing their friends (P=0.000). The situation is reversed with regard to permission to seek health care for self, with civilians reporting a significantly higher prevalence (35 [32.4%]) than did military respondents (20 [15.4%]) (P=0.002). The military respondents were clearly at a higher risk of experiencing all the variants of emotional violence than the civilians (P=0.00). The commonest form of physical violence against women was "being slapped or having something thrown at them, that could hurt
The document reproduces the message from Mr. R.A. Al-Kital, Commissioner of the Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission received by the Director General of the IAEA on 23 October 1985 related to the Israeli attack against the Iraqi nuclear installations
Barak, Adiel; Elhalel, Amir; Pikkel, Joseph; Krauss, Eli; Miller, Benjamin
To analyze the incidence and severity of ocular and adnexal injuries in the Second Lebanon War among Israeli soldiers and civilians. Retrospective cohort study. All patients recorded in the Israeli National Trauma Registry during the Second Lebanon War (July-August, 2006). Retrieval of all data relevant to ocular and adnexal injuries sustained during the study period, and differentiation between those associated with combat/terrorist and other events. Analysis of data according to the severity of trauma , anatomical location of the injury, and whether the patients were military personnel or civilians. A total of 69 war-related ocular trauma patients (58 military personnel and 11 civilians) were registered during the 34 days of war. The injuries involved the anterior segment injury (n = 25), posterior segment (n = 29) and the periocular region (n = 15, all severe). Twenty-seven of the patients had open-globe injuries, of which 18 involved intraocular foreign bodies, and 27 patients had closed-globe injuries. The rate of ocular injuries was 7% among all registered wounded military personnel and 1.2% among all injured civilians. The incidence and severity of ocular and adnexal injuries among military personnel during the Second Lebanon War were consistent with previous reports from American sources of ocular injuries sustained in Iraq and Afghanistan. The rates of ocular injury associated with wartime events sustained by civilians has not been investigated before, and it was relatively low, probably as a result of stringent government-mandated building regulations for passive defense that are discussed.
Turner, Conor D A; Lockey, David J; Rehn, Marius
Mass casualty civilian shootings present an uncommon but recurring challenge to emergency services around the world and produce unique management demands. On the background of a rising threat of transnational terrorism worldwide, emergency response strategies are of critical importance. This study aims to systematically identify, describe and appraise the quality of indexed and non-indexed literature on the pre-hospital management of modern civilian mass shootings to guide future practice. Systematic literature searches of PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Scopus were conducted in conjunction with simple searches of non-indexed databases; Web of Science, OpenDOAR and Evidence Search. The searches were last carried out on 20 April 2016 and only identified those papers published after the 1 January 1980. Included documents had to contain descriptions, discussions or experiences of the pre-hospital management of civilian mass shootings. From the 494 identified manuscripts, 73 were selected on abstract and title and after full text reading 47 were selected for inclusion in analysis. The search yielded reports of 17 mass shooting events, the majority from the USA with additions from France, Norway, the UK and Kenya. Between 1994 and 2015 the shooting of 1649 people with 578 deaths at 17 separate events are described. Quality appraisal demonstrated considerable heterogeneity in reporting and revealed limited data on mass shootings globally. Key themes were identified to improve future practice: tactical emergency medical support may harmonise inner cordon interventions, a need for inter-service education on effective haemorrhage control, the value of senior triage operators and the need for regular mass casualty incident simulation.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: wars and its challenges have historically afflicted humanity. In Syria, severe injuries occurred due to firearms and explosives used in the war between government forces and civilians for a period of over 2 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: the study included 364 cases, who were admitted to Mustafa Kemal University Hospital, Medicine School (Hatay, Turkey, and underwent surgery. Survivors and non-survivors were compared regarding injury site, injury type and number of transfusions given. The mortality rate found in this study was also compared to those reported in other civil wars. RESULTS: the mean age was 29 (3-68 years. Major sites of injury included extremities (56.0%, head (20.1%, abdomen (16.2%, vascular structures (4.4% and thorax (3.3%. Injury types included firearm injury (64.4%, blast injury (34.4% and miscellaneous injuries (1.2%. Survival rate was 89.6% while mortality rate was 10.4%. A significant difference was observed between mortality rates in this study and those reported for the Bosnia and Lebanon civil wars; and the difference became extremely prominent when compared to mortality rates reported for Vietnam and Afghanistan civil wars. CONCLUSION: among injuries related to war, the highest rate of mortality was observed in head-neck, abdomen and vascular injuries. We believe that the higher mortality rate in the Syrian Civil War, compared to the Bosnia, Vietnam, Lebanon and Afghanistan wars, is due to seeing civilians as a direct target during war.
This report is volume 3, part B, of the program to satisfy the allocated requirements of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, in the development of the nuclear waste management system. The report is divided into the following sections: regulatory compliance; external relations; international programs; strategic and contingency planning; contract business management; and administrative services. (CS)
basis to claim a corporate identity for these employees of PMFs. On the other hand, there is a prima facie case to be made that the employees of this...of social obligation to utilize this craft for the benefit of society.’ 3 Mercenaries ‘who fight for employers other than their home state’s...report by the Congressional Research Service, ‘conduct that violates international obligations is attributable to a State if it is committed by the
Foltz, Greg W.; Hoette, Trisha Marie
The objective of this project, which was supported by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) Chemical and Biological Division (CBD), was to investigate options for the decontamination of the exteriors and interiors of vehicles in the civilian setting in order to restore those vehicles to normal use following the release of a highly toxic chemical. The decontamination of vehicles is especially challenging because they often contain sensitive electronic equipment, multiple materials some of which strongly adsorb chemical agents, and in the case of aircraft, have very rigid material compatibility requirements (i.e., they cannot be exposed to reagents that may cause even minor corrosion). A systems analysis approach was taken examine existing and future civilian vehicle decontamination capabilities.
University Press for the National Bureau of Economic Research, New York, 1967, pp. 21-35; Eric A. Hanushek , Regional Differences in the Structure...DeTray. tZvi Griliches and William M. Mason, "Education, Income and Ability," J. Pol. Econ., Vol. 80, May-June 1972, pp. S74-Sl03; and Hanushek . :j...S91; and Hanushek , pp. 12-13. tThe effect on wages of an additional year of academic education reported by previous studies, which are limited to
Iraq occupies a unique position in the system of manpower exchanges between Middle Eastern states brought about by the rise in petroleum incomes of the 1970s. Iraq was among the most important oil exporters until the war with Iran, but its economy is predominantly agricultural, it is a rich country in terms of available financial resources, and it is both an importer and exporter of labor, traits which place it squarely between the nonoil-producing states which are poor and overpopulated and the oil exporters which are rich and underpopulated. Its migration policy, which radically distinguishes between Arab and non-Arab manpower, is also unique. Data on migration to Iraq are very sparse despite the fact that the nation has a good data-gathering capacity. Estimates of migration to Iraq and employment patterns of migrants have varied widely and have contradicted each other in crucial respects. The most unusual aspect of Iraqi immigration policy, the free access offered to Egyptians and other Arabs, has hampered attempts to estimate the volume of migration, as workers come and go for relatively short periods, seeking their own employment in Iraq and working in jobs for which they may be overqualified. Official formulations of Iraqi migration policy insist that migration should not only be beneficial to individual importing and exporting countries in terms of development and social cohesion, but should also reinforce the solidarity and regional complementarity of the Arab world as a whole. Iraqi migration policy is presented as expressing the most fundamental choices of the "Arab revolution" in the socialist dimension of Arab unitary ideology rather than in terms of immediate national economic interest. Iraqi legislation grants non-Iraqi Arabs the same labor, residence, investment, and ultimately naturalization rights as those enjoyed by nationals, but severely restricts access to employment and other rights of non-Arab foreigners. Denunciation of the dangers posed by
The 'Code' was promulgated by the National Nuclear Safety Administration (NSSA) on June 17, 1993, which is applicable to civilian nuclear fuel fabrication, processing, storage and reprocessing installations, not including the safety requirements for the use of nuclear fuel in reactors. The contents of the 'Code' involve siting, design, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning of fuel cycle installation. The NNSA shall be responsible for the interpretation of this 'Code'
significant contribution to the construction of an Afghan police force. 1 See for example, Dempsey, 2006; DiManno, 2008; and Graw , 2007. 18 EU Civilian...Giegerich, Bastian, European Military Crisis Management: Connecting Ambition and Reality, Adelphi Paper No. 397, London: Routledge, 2008. Graw , Ansgar...4. Gros-Verheyde, Nicolas, “Interview with Stephen White, Head of EUJUST Lex Mission for Iraq,” Europolitics, January 21, 2009. References 51
This Civilian Reactor Development Program document has the prime purpose of summarizing the technical programs supported by the FY 1983 budget request. This section provides a statement of the overall program objectives and a general program overview. Section II presents the technical programs in a format intended to show logical technical interrelationships, and does not necessarily follow the structure of the formal budget presentation. Section III presents the technical organization and management structure of the program
SEBATA, TAKAO; 瀬端, 孝夫
Over the last thirty years, military official of Japan's Self-Defense Forces (SDF) have begun voicing their opinions more aggressively, exerting influence and power in such areas as: the right of personnel management, budget formulation, organization, and defense policy decision-making. Due to the enhanced status of military officials, change of power balance between civilians and military is taking place. This paper examines civil-military relations in the above areas and discusses how this ...
burdened costs , as they are known, would include the per-person share of costs for recruit -processing centers, schools, and training bases and would...sector so that, in principle, those same positions could be filled by civilian employees. To cut costs , DoD could transfer some of those positions to...functions more cost -effectively. DoD competed and outsourced many positions outlined in those plans. However, CBO does not have information showing
Logan, Joseph; Bohnert, Amy; Spies, Erica; Jannausch, Mary
Suicidal Ideation among Afghanistan/Iraq War Veterans remains a health concern. As young Veterans adjust to civilian life, new risk factors might emerge and manifest differently in this group versus those in the general population. We explored these differences. With 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data, we examined differences in risk of past-year suicidal ideation between Veterans of the Afghanistan/Iraq War periods aged 18-34 years (N=328) and age-comparable civilians (N=23,222). We compared groups based on individual and socio-environmental risk factors as well as perceptions of unmet mental healthcare needs. We report adjusted rate ratios (aRRs); interaction terms tested for between-group differences. PY suicidal ideation rates for Veterans and civilians did not differ (52 versus 59 per 1,000, p=0.60) and both groups shared many risk factors. However, drug problems and perceived unmet mental health care needs were vastly stronger risk factors among Veterans versus civilians (interaction terms indicated that the aRRs were 3.8-8.0 times higher for Veterans versus civilians). Other differences were discovered as well. Past-year suicidal ideation rates did not differ by Veteran status among young adults. However, different risk factors per group were detected, which can inform Veteran suicide prevention efforts. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Bhatti, Junaid Ahmad; Mehmood, Amber; Shahid, Muhammad; Bhatti, Sajjad Akbar; Akhtar, Umbreen; Razzak, Junaid Abdul
In this study, we assessed the epidemiological patterns of suicide terrorism in the civilian population of Pakistan. Information about suicide terrorism-related events, deaths and injuries was extracted from the South-Asian Terrorism Portal (SATP) for the period from 2002 to October 2009. Of 198 events, civilians were involved in 194 events. Civilians accounted for 74.1% (N = 2017) of those who died and 93.8% (N = 6129) of those who were injured. In nine districts, mortality rates were more than one death per 100,000 inhabitants per year. The yearly trend showed a shift of attack targets from foreigners and sectarian targets in 2002-2005 to security forces or general public in 2006-2009. Attacks on public installations (mosques) or political gatherings resulted in a significantly greater (P ≤ 0.02) number of deaths (22 vs. 8) and injuries (59 vs. 24) per event compared with security installations. These results show that prevention might focus on political negotiation with armed groups and that appropriate measures should be taken to protect mosques and political gatherings.
Shabila, Nazar P; Al-Tawil, Namir G; Tahir, Rebaz; Shwani, Falah H; Saleh, Abubakir M; Al-Hadithi, Tariq S
The views of medical professionals on efficiency of health system and needs for any changes are very critical and constitute a cornerstone for any health system improvement. This is particularly relevant to Iraqi Kurdistan case as the events of the last few decades have significantly devastated the national Iraqi health system while the necessity for adopting a new health care system is increasingly recognized since 2004. This study aims to examine the regional health system in Iraqi Kurdistan from medical professionals' perspectives and try to define its problems and priorities for improvement. A survey questionnaire was developed and administered to a convenience sample of 250 medical professionals in Erbil governorate. The questionnaire included four items; rating of the quality of services and availability of resources in the health institutions, view on different aspects of the health system, the perceived priority needs for health system improvement and gender and professional characteristics of the respondents. The response rate to the survey was 83.6%. A high proportion of respondents rated the different aspects of services and resources in the health institutions as weak or very weak including the availability of the required quantity and quality of medicines (68.7%), the availability of sufficient medical equipment and investigation tools (68.7%), and the quality of offered services (65.3%). Around 72% of respondents had a rather negative view on the overall health system. The weak role of medical research, the weak role of professional associations in controlling the system and the inefficient health education were identified as important problems in the current health system (87.9%, 87.1% and 84.9%, respectively). The priority needs of health system improvement included adoption of social insurance for medical care of the poor (82%), enhancing the role of family medicine (77.2%), adopting health insurance system (76.1%) and periodic scientific
Freyhof, Jörg; Abdullah, Younis Sabir; Ararat, Korsh; Ibrahim, Hamad; Geiger, Matthias F
Eidinemacheilus proudlovei, new species, is described from subterranean waters in the Little Zab River drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan. After the discovery of E. smithi in 1976, E. proudlovei is the second troglomorphic nemacheilid loach found in the Middle East and the second species placed in Eidinemacheilus. Eidinemacheilus proudlovei is distinguished from E. smithi by having 8+8 or 8+7 branched caudal-fin rays, no adipose keel on the caudal peduncle, enlarged jaws and a fully developed head canal system. It furthers differs substantially in its DNA barcode (>8% K2P distance) from all other nemacheilid loaches in the Middle East, Europe and Western India.
Freyhof, Jörg; Abdullah, Younis Sabir
Two new species of Oxynoemacheilus are described from the Sirvan River drainage in Iraqi Kurdistan. Oxynoemacheilus gyndes, new species, is distinguished by having a very short lateral line, reaching behind the pectoral-fin base, no scales except on the posteriormost part of the caudal peduncle, a slightly emarginate caudal fin and no suborbital groove in males. Oxynoemacheilus hanae, new species, is distinguished by having a midlateral row of elongated blotches, isolated patches of dark-brown spots or blotches on lower flank, a deeply emarginate caudal fin and a suborbital groove in males.
Ali Jadoo, Saad Ahmed; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Dastan, Ilker; Tawfeeq, Ruqiya Subhi; Mustafa, Mustafa Ali; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; AlDubai, Sami Abdo Radman
During the last two decades, the Iraqi human resources for health was exposed to an unprecedented turnover of trained and experienced medical professionals. This study aimed to explore prominent factors affecting turnover intentions among Iraqi doctors. A descriptive cross-sectional multicentre study was carried out among 576 doctors across 20 hospitals in Iraq using multistage sampling technique. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire, which included socio-demographic information, work characteristics, the 10-item Warr-Cook-Wall job satisfaction scale, and one question on turnover intention. Descriptive and bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify significant factors affecting turnover intentions. More than one half of Iraqi doctors (55.2%) were actively seeking alternative employment. Factors associated with turnover intentions among doctors were low job satisfaction score (odds ratio (OR) = 0.97; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95, 0.99), aged 40 years old or less (OR = 2.9; 95% CI: 1.74, 4.75), being male (OR = 4.2; 95% CI: 2.54, 7.03), being single (OR = 5.0; 95% CI: 2.61, 9.75), being threatened (OR = 3.5; 95% CI: 1.80, 6.69), internally displaced (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.43, 6.57), having a perception of unsafe medical practice (OR = 4.1; 95% CI: 1.86, 9.21), working more than 40 h per week, (OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.27, 4.03), disagreement with the way manager handles staff (OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.19, 4.03), being non-specialist, (OR = 3.9, 95% CI: 2.08, 7.13), and being employed in the government sector only (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.82). The high-turnover intention among Iraqi doctors is significantly associated with working and security conditions. An urgent and effective strategy is required to prevent doctors' exodus.
This report describes the study conducted by the Department of Energy (the Department) regarding payment charges for the federal interim storage (FIS) of spent fuel and presents the details of the study results. It describes the selection of a methodology for calculating a FIS fee schedule, sets forth the estimates of cost for construction and operation of FIS facilities, provides a range of estimates for the fee for FIS services, and identifies special contractual considerations associated with providing FIS services to authorized users. The fee is structured for a range of spent fuel capacities because of uncertainties regarding the schedule of availability and amount of spent fuel that may require and qualify for FIS. The results set forth in the report were used as a basis for development of the report entitled Payment Charges for Federal Interim Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel from Civilian Nuclear Power Plants in the United States, dated July 1983
health care for self, with civilians reporting a significantly higher prevalence (35 [32.4%] than did military respondents (20 [15.4%] (P=0.002. The military respondents were clearly at a higher risk of experiencing all the variants of emotional violence than the civilians (P=0.00. The commonest form of physical violence against women was “being slapped or having something thrown at them, that could hurt”, which was markedly higher in the military (43 [33.1%] than in the civilian population (10 [9.3%], (P<0.05.Conclusion: IPV is a significant public health problem in Abuja, and the military population is clearly at a higher risk of experiencing all forms of IPV compared to the civilian population. The military should encourage and finance research on effect of military operations and posttraumatic stress disorders on family relationships with a view of developing evidence-based treatment models for military personnel. Keywords: intimate partner violence, prevalence, military, civilian, women, Abuja, Nigeria
Al-Sarraj, Ziyad Shihab; Damboos, Hassan I; Roumie, Mohamad
The present work aimed at investigating the compositions and microstructures of some archaeological samples which dated back to various periods of the ancient Iraqi civilizations using PIXE, XRF, XRD, and SEM techniques. The models selected for the study (ceramics, glaze, etc.) were diverse in size and nature, therefore a limited number of samples were then butted from them by a small diamond wheel. Conventional powder metallurgy method was then used to prepare the samples. Dried samples were then coated with a thin layer of carbon, and analyzed using the ion beam accelerator of the LAEC. Three other groups of samples were also prepared for the purpose of analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Analysis results of the chemical composition showed good agreement between the various techniques as well as for phases, while the fine structure analysis obtained by optical and scanning microscopy exhibited features of a structure where it got an intensified densification in the final stage of sintering and accompanied by quasi-homogeneous distribution of the closed pores. This will lead to the conclusion that the temperature used for sintering by ancient Iraqi was sufficient and it may fall in the range between 950-1200°C, also the mixes and the forming methods used by them, were both suitable to obtain good sintered bodies with even distribution of pores. A ring-shaped trace noticed in SEM micrographs need more work and study to explain what it is?
Shahbaa A Mohammed
Full Text Available Background: Many attempts were done to develop a method that actually reflects the sagittal jaw discrepancies without depending on cranial landmarks or dental occlusion. This study aimed to use one of these methods (dentoskeletal overjet for assessing the sagittal jaw relationships of Iraqi adult sample with different skeletal jaw relationship. Materials and method: The sample consisted of 90 digital true lateral cephalometric radiographs of Iraqi individuals with no previous orthodontic treatment. Cephalometric analysis of skeletal sagittal jaw relationship -ANB angle, beta angle and Wits appraisal- will perform for everyone to divide the sample into three groups (skeletal class I, II, III for which the dentoskeletal overjet will be measured. All cephalometric measurements will be done using AutoCAD. Results: Descriptive statistics of all variables with different skeletal jaw relationship showed that mean values of dentoskeletal overjet were (1.15, 3.91 and –2.01 mm for skeletal class I, class II and class III jaw relationship respectively. Accurate reproducibility of dentoskeletal overjet in assessment of jaw skeletal relationship showed that the lowest value was for assessment of skeletal class III jaw relationship (73% and the value for assessment of both skeletal class I and class II was higher (93%. Conclusions: Dentoskeletal overjet could be utilized in accurate representation of skeletal jaw relationship.
Omar Thanoon Dawood
Full Text Available Background: Smoking is a major public health problem, especially in Iraq. There is very little information had been documented regarding smoking risk factors and quit intention among Iraqi smokers. Objectives: The main objectives of this study are to determine smokers' knowledge and perception about smoking health risks; and to determine smoking behavior and quitting intentions among Iraqi smokers; as well as to predict the factors that may associate with quit intentions. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the outpatient clinic in Tikrit Teaching Hospital, Tikrit City, Iraq. Adult smokers who are smoking cigarette everyday and able to communicate with the researcher were invited to participate in the study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from 386 participants. Results: This study showed that smokers had low awareness about some risk effects of smoking such as lung cancer in nonsmokers (30.1%, impotence in male smokers (52.6%, premature ageing (64%, and stroke (66.3%. In addition, the high score of knowledge and perception was significantly associated with quitting intention. Conclusion: Smokers' knowledge and perception regarding smoking health effects were low, especially in terms of secondhand smokers. Many efforts needed from health policy-makers and health care professionals to disseminate information about the risks of smoking and health benefits of give up smoking.
Warrior Resilience Training (WRT) is an educational class designed to enhance Warrior resilience, thriving, and posttraumatic growth for Soldiers deployed in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Warrior Resilience Training uses rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), Army leadership principles, and positive psychology as a vehicle for students to apply resilient philosophies derived from Army Warrior Ethos, Stoic philosophy, and the survivor and resiliency literature. Students in WRT are trained to focus upon virtue, character, and emotional self-regulation by constructing and maintaining a personal resiliency philosophy that emphasizes critical thinking, rationality, virtue, and Warrior Ethos. The author, an Army licensed clinical social worker, executive coach, REBT doctoral fellow, and former Special Forces noncommissioned officer, describes his initial experience teaching WRT during Operation Iraqi Freedom to combat medics and Soldiers from 2005 to 2006, and his experience as a leader of a combat stress control prevention team currently in Iraq offering mobile WRT classes in-theater. Warrior Resilience Training rationale, curriculum, variants (like Warrior Family Resilience Training), and feedback are included, with suggestions as to how behavioral health providers and combat stress control teams might better integrate their services with leaders, chaplains, and commands to better market combat stress resiliency, reduce barriers to care, and promote force preservation. Informal analysis of class feedback from 1168 respondents regarding WRT reception and utilization is examined.
Ghena, Hana Khlaif
This paper aims at exploring the exilic experience of the Iraqi poet, Adnan Al-Sayegh whose involuntarily departure from his homeland, Iraq, in the early 1990s made him suffer a strong sense of estrangement, nostalgia, self-fragmentation and disconnection. The paper is divided into three sections and a conclusion. Section one sheds light on the…
The author examines the US policy in the petroleum domain, the US intentions concerning the Iraqi petroleum, the Opec coherence facing the come back of the Iraq and the increase power of Russian and the demand increase (77 mb/d today for 115 mb/d in 2030). (A.L.B.)
Bennet, Louise; Lindström, Martin
Poor self-rated health is an estimator of quality of life and a predictor of mortality seldom studied in immigrant populations. This work aimed to study self-rated health in relation to social capital, socioeconomic status, lifestyle and comorbidity in immigrants from Iraq - one of the largest non-European immigrant group in Sweden today - and to compare it with the self-rated health of native Swedes. The study was a cross-sectional population-based study conducted from 2010 to 2012 among citizens of Malmö, Sweden, aged 30-65 years and born in Iraq or Sweden. All participants underwent a health examination and answered questionnaires on self-rated health, social capital, comorbidity, lifestyle and socioeconomic status. In total, 1348 Iraqis and 677 Swedes participated. Poor self-rated health was identified in 43.9% of Iraqis and 21.9% of native Swedes ( psocial capital was highly prevalent in the immigrants. Female gender showed higher odds of poor self-rated health in Iraqis than in Swedes (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.4-2.5, p interaction =0.024), independent of other risk factors connected to social capital, socioeconomic status, lifestyle or comorbidity. Although public health initiatives promoting social capital, socioeconomic status and comorbidity in immigrants are crucial, the excess risk of poor self-rated health in Iraqi women is not fully attributed to known risk factors for self-rated health, but remains to be further explored.
Alaa kamil Abdulla
Full Text Available Iraqi goats have a major economic role in production of meat, milk and leather as well as it considered a financial source for owners as reproduce twice a year, yet the Damascus goats have great importance than Iraqi goats owing to the number of twin births. The gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH and its receptors have great importance in the reproduction and eugenics. To make a comparison between the Iraqi and Damascus goats in terms of this receptor gene expression in the ovaries and uterus tissue cells, the study was performed, in which used the (∆Ct Using a Reference Gene method by quintitive -real time PCR technique. Results were found a significant difference (p<0.05, as the gene expression of (GnRH-R higher in the ovaries and uterus tissue cells in Damascus goats compared with the Iraqi goats. In conclusion; the multiple pregnancies of twins in Damascus goats may be due to an increase gene expression of (GnRH-R in the ovaries and uterus tissue
DOE/CH/10140-05 is an annotated bibliography of approved reports that have been produced for the US Department of Energy Salt Repository Project Office of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program since April 1978. This document is intended for use by the US Department of Energy, State and local officials, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, contractors to the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation, concerned citizens, and others who need a comprehensive listing of reports related to a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document consists of a main report listing, appendixes with Work Breakdown Structure lists, and a topical index
This document is an annotated bibliography of approved reports that have been produced for the US Department of Energy Salt Repository Project Office of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program since April 1978. This document is intended for use by the US Department of Energy, State and local officials, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, contractors to the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation, concerned citizens, and others who need a comprehensive listing of reports related to a nuclear waste repository in salt. This document consists of a main report listing, appendixes with Work Breakdown Structure lists, and a topical index
This paper is an introduction to the session on the management of information within the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). OCRWM'S mission will take decades to fulfill, and its success will leave a legacy of implications for millennia to come. The effective management of information during the life span of such a large and long term endeavor is critical. The programmatic information takes other forms: reports are written; policy documents are produced; correspondence is generated; and the daily flow of information through the program presses on staff as they sort, create, and respond to its demands. The major problem with electronic information generation within the public sector was aptly expressed at the beginning of the 1985 blue panel report of the Committee on the Records of Government: the United States is losing its institutional memory. This thought has been a major driver in our technical strategic planning and implementation
Full Text Available Abstract Background Gun violence is on the rise in some European countries, however most of the literature on gunshot injuries pertains to military weaponry and is difficult to apply to civilians, due to dissimilarities in wound contamination and wounding potential of firearms and ammunition. Gunshot injuries in civilians have more focal injury patterns and should be considered distinct entities. Methods A search of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health MEDLINE database was performed using PubMed. Results Craniocerebral gunshot injuries are often lethal, especially after suicide attempts. The treatment of non space consuming haematomas and the indications for invasive pressure measurement are controversial. Civilian gunshot injuries to the torso mostly intend to kill; however for those patients who do not die at the scene and are hemodynamically stable, insertion of a chest tube is usually the only required procedure for the majority of penetrating chest injuries. In penetrating abdominal injuries there is a trend towards non-operative care, provided that the patient is hemodynamically stable. Spinal gunshots can also often be treated without operation. Gunshot injuries of the extremities are rarely life-threatening but can be associated with severe morbidity. With the exception of craniocerebral, bowel, articular, or severe soft tissue injury, the use of antibiotics is controversial and may depend on the surgeon's preference. Conclusion The treatment strategy for patients with gunshot injuries to the torso mostly depends on the hemodynamic status of the patient. Whereas hemodynamically unstable patients require immediate operative measures like thoracotomy or laparotomy, hemodynamically stable patients might be treated with minor surgical procedures (e.g. chest tube or even conservatively.
Background Gun violence is on the rise in some European countries, however most of the literature on gunshot injuries pertains to military weaponry and is difficult to apply to civilians, due to dissimilarities in wound contamination and wounding potential of firearms and ammunition. Gunshot injuries in civilians have more focal injury patterns and should be considered distinct entities. Methods A search of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health MEDLINE database was performed using PubMed. Results Craniocerebral gunshot injuries are often lethal, especially after suicide attempts. The treatment of non space consuming haematomas and the indications for invasive pressure measurement are controversial. Civilian gunshot injuries to the torso mostly intend to kill; however for those patients who do not die at the scene and are hemodynamically stable, insertion of a chest tube is usually the only required procedure for the majority of penetrating chest injuries. In penetrating abdominal injuries there is a trend towards non-operative care, provided that the patient is hemodynamically stable. Spinal gunshots can also often be treated without operation. Gunshot injuries of the extremities are rarely life-threatening but can be associated with severe morbidity. With the exception of craniocerebral, bowel, articular, or severe soft tissue injury, the use of antibiotics is controversial and may depend on the surgeon's preference. Conclusion The treatment strategy for patients with gunshot injuries to the torso mostly depends on the hemodynamic status of the patient. Whereas hemodynamically unstable patients require immediate operative measures like thoracotomy or laparotomy, hemodynamically stable patients might be treated with minor surgical procedures (e.g. chest tube) or even conservatively. PMID:20565804
Heim, Alexandre; Laconde, Thibault
The main nuclear actors in Asia are China, South Korea, India and Japan. The authors indicate the share of nuclear energy in their energy mix, the number of operating reactors, the total installed power, and the number of projects. Then, for each of these four countries, and for Pakistan and Taiwan, they propose a brief history of the nuclear program and briefly present its current status. They also evoke the official reactions after the Fukushima accident. Finally, they briefly discuss some issues for the development of civilian nuclear industry in Asia: uranium supplies, nuclear waste processing, development of a national nuclear sector
This proceedings document from the 1983 Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Information Meeting serves to highlight developments since the passage of the Nuclear Policy Act of 1982 and reviews program activities necessary to provide for the permanent disposal and storage of commercially generated high-level radioactive waste. Presentations included in this program cover topics concerning interim spent fuel, monitored retrievable storage, geologic repository deployment as well as management of the Nuclear Waste Fund. Individual papers were abstracted for inclusion in the Energy Data Base
Hall, Alison V; Hall, Erika V; Perry, Jamie L
In late 2014, a series of highly publicized police killings of unarmed Black male civilians in the United States prompted large-scale social turmoil. In the current review, we dissect the psychological antecedents of these killings and explain how the nature of police work may attract officers with distinct characteristics that may make them especially well-primed for negative interactions with Black male civilians. We use media reports to contextualize the precipitating events of the social unrest as we ground our explanations in theory and empirical research from social psychology and industrial and organizational (I/O) psychology. To isolate some of the key mechanisms at play, we disentangle racial bias (e.g., stereotyping processes) from common characteristics of law enforcement agents (e.g., social dominance orientation), while also addressing the interaction between racial bias and policing. By separating the moving parts of the phenomenon, we provide a more fine-grained analysis of the factors that may have contributed to the killings. In doing so, we endeavor to more effectively identify and develop solutions to eradicate excessive use of force during interactions between "Black" (unarmed Black male civilians) and "Blue" (law enforcement). (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Lafta, Riyadh; Al-Ani, Waleed; Dhiaa, Saba; Cherewick, Megan; Hagopian, Amy; Burnham, Gilbert
The environment for medical education in Iraq has been difficult for many years. The 2003 invasion of Iraq accelerated a steady emigration of faculty and graduates. Kidnappings and deaths of doctors became commonplace. To understand current career plans, expectations and perceptions of medical students, three Baghdad medical schools were surveyed. Written questionnaires were completed by 418 medical students variously in their 4th, 5th and 6th (final)years of training. We asked about perceptions of the quality of their medical education, the quality of health services in Iraq generally, and about deaths, injuries and migration of faculty, classmates and family. The average age of students was 22 years, with 59% women. Most students (90%) were originally from Baghdad. Although there were some positive responses, many students (59%) rated the overall quality of their medical education as fair or poor. Three-fourths of students believed the quality of hospital care in Iraq to be only fair or poor. A majority of students (57%) stated they were thinking frequently or all the time about leaving Iraq after graduation. Reasons given for leaving included the desire for further education, seeking a better lifestyle and fleeing conflict. Leading reasons for staying included the pull of friends and family, familiarity with the health system, and a sense of responsibility to the country. Nearly one in five (18%) students reported the death of a family member attributable to intentional violence, and 15% reported the violent death of a medical school classmate or faculty member since the 2003 invasion. Half the students reported at least one school faculty members had left Iraq because of the war. Medical students hold a mediocre view of the quality of their medical education and of Iraq's health system. Many of their faculty members have left the country. The majority of students may leave Iraq after graduation, afforded the opportunity. This poses a significant problem for
Higgins, Diana M; Kerns, Robert D; Brandt, Cynthia A; Haskell, Sally G; Bathulapalli, Harini; Gilliam, Wesley; Goulet, Joseph L
Chronic pain is a significant concern for the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), with chronic pain conditions among those most frequently reported by Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF)/Operation New Dawn (OND) veterans. The current study examined VHA electronic medical record data to examine variation in demographics and high prevalence and high impact medical and mental health conditions in order to characterize the differences between patients with persistent pain and no pain. A conservative operational definition of chronic or "persistent pain" based on multiple indicators of pain (i.e., pain intensity ratings, prescription opioids, pain clinic visits, International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes) was employed. Analyses included the entire roster of longitudinal clinical data on OEF/OIF/OND veterans who used VHA care to compare those with persistent pain with those with no clinical evidence of pain. Results of logistic regression models suggest that sex, race, education, military variables, body mass index (BMI), traumatic brain injury (TBI), and mental health conditions, but not age, reliably discriminate the two groups. Those with persistent pain were more likely to be Black, female, on active duty, enlisted, Army service members, have a high school education or less, and have diagnoses of mood disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance use disorders, anxiety disorders, TBI, and have a BMI consistent with overweight and obesity. The operational definition of chronic pain used in this study may have research implications for examining predictors of incident and chronic pain. These data have important clinical implications in that addressing comorbid conditions of persistent pain may improve adaptive coping and functioning in these patients. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Civilian use transport of radioactive substances on public road. Volume 1: Shipment accreditation and approval requests. Guide Nr 7, Revision 2 of 15 February 2016. Volume 2: safety file of package models, European guide 'Package Design Safety Report'. Civilian use transport of radioactive packages or substances on public road. Volume 3: Compliance of package models not subject to accreditation. Guide Nr 7, Revision 7 of the 2015/11/13
After having recalled the regulatory context and sanctions susceptible to be applied, the first volume presents the accreditation process for a package model: file content, tests programme, safety file, certification studies, documents to be produced, accreditation prorogation request, accreditation extension or package model modifications, instruction delays. Some peculiar cases are described. Models of accreditation certificate are provided, and obligations concerning packaging design, fabrication, use and maintenance are briefly discussed. The second volume is a European technical guide which is intended to assist in the preparation of the Package Design Safety Report (PDSR) to demonstrate compliance of a package design for the transport of radioactive material with the regulatory requirements. It covers package designs requiring competent authority approval, and also covers package designs not requiring competent authority approval. In its first two chapters, this document provides a generic structure and contents of a PDSR which applies to all package types. The contents are described in a comprehensive way to cover all important aspects. Some of these aspects may not be applicable to specific package type and details can be found in the annexes which provide further guidance for the scope of the contents of a PDSR, specifically for each package type. The third volume presents recommendations made by the ASN for all stakeholders to guarantee the compliance to regulation of package models which are 'not submitted to competent authority approval'. After an indication and a comment of the regulatory context, it presents requirements to be applied for the design of those package models, and then describes and comments the structure and content of a safety file for such package models (generalities, authorised contents, packaging description, safety demonstration, receipt, use and maintenance instruction, management system). The last part presents the
.... From a military perspective, intentional reliance on civilian systems must address, inter alia, national security concerns, contractual obligations, licensing restrictions, liability, and long-term...
Hakimoglu, Sedat; Karcıoglu, Murat; Tuzcu, Kasım; Davarcı, Isıl; Koyuncu, Onur; Dikey, İsmail; Turhanoglu, Selim; Sarı, Ali; Acıpayam, Mehmet; Karatepe, Celalettin
wars and its challenges have historically afflicted humanity. In Syria, severe injuries occurred due to firearms and explosives used in the war between government forces and civilians for a period of over 2 years. the study included 364 cases, who were admitted to Mustafa Kemal University Hospital, Medicine School (Hatay, Turkey), and underwent surgery. Survivors and non-survivors were compared regarding injury site, injury type and number of transfusions given. The mortality rate found in this study was also compared to those reported in other civil wars. the mean age was 29 (3-68) years. Major sites of injury included extremities (56.0%), head (20.1%), abdomen (16.2%), vascular structures (4.4%) and thorax (3.3%). Injury types included firearm injury (64.4%), blast injury (34.4%) and miscellaneous injuries (1.2%). Survival rate was 89.6% while mortality rate was 10.4%. A significant difference was observed between mortality rates in this study and those reported for the Bosnia and Lebanon civil wars; and the difference became extremely prominent when compared to mortality rates reported for Vietnam and Afghanistan civil wars. among injuries related to war, the highest rate of mortality was observed in head-neck, abdomen and vascular injuries. We believe that the higher mortality rate in the Syrian Civil War, compared to the Bosnia, Vietnam, Lebanon and Afghanistan wars, is due to seeing civilians as a direct target during war. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Hakimoglu, Sedat; Karcıoglu, Murat; Tuzcu, Kasım; Davarcı, Isıl; Koyuncu, Onur; Dikey, İsmail; Turhanoglu, Selim; Sarı, Ali; Acıpayam, Mehmet; Karatepe, Celalettin
Wars and its challenges have historically afflicted humanity. In Syria, severe injuries occurred due to firearms and explosives used in the war between government forces and civilians for a period of over 2 years. The study included 364 cases, who were admitted to Mustafa Kemal University Hospital, Medicine School (Hatay, Turkey), and underwent surgery. Survivors and non-survivors were compared regarding injury site, injury type and number of transfusions given. The mortality rate found in this study was also compared to those reported in other civil wars. The mean age was 29 (3-68) years. Major sites of injury included extremities (56.0%), head (20.1%), abdomen (16.2%), vascular structures (4.4%) and thorax (3.3%). Injury types included firearm injury (64.4%), blast injury (34.4%) and miscellaneous injuries (1.2%). Survival rate was 89.6% while mortality rate was 10.4%. A significant difference was observed between mortality rates in this study and those reported for the Bosnia and Lebanon civil wars; and the difference became extremely prominent when compared to mortality rates reported for Vietnam and Afghanistan civil wars. Among injuries related to war, the highest rate of mortality was observed in head-neck, abdomen and vascular injuries. We believe that the higher mortality rate in the Syrian Civil War, compared to the Bosnia, Vietnam, Lebanon and Afghanistan wars, is due to seeing civilians as a direct target during war. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
The recent development and implementation of a revised Program Approach for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) was accomplished in response to significant changes in the environment in which the program was being executed. The lack of an interim storage site, growing costs and schedule delays to accomplish the full Yucca Mountain site characterization plan, and the development and incorporation of a multi-purpose (storage, transport, and disposal) canister (MPC) into the CRWMS required a reexamination of Program plans and priorities. Dr. Daniel A. Dreyfus, the Director of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), established top-level schedule, targets and cost goals and commissioned a Program-wide task force of DOE and contractor personnel to identify and evaluate alternatives to meet them. The evaluation of the suitability of Yucca Mountain site by 1998 and the repository license application data of 2001 were maintained and a target date of January 1998 for MPC availability was established. An increased multi-year funding profile was baselined and agreed to by Congress. A $1.3 billion reduction in Yucca Mountain site characterization costs was mandated to hold the cost to $5 billion. The replanning process superseded all previous budget allocations and focused on program requirements and their relative priorities within the cost profiles. This paper discusses the process for defining alternative scenarios to achieve the top-level program goals in an integrated fashion
This paper focuses on three periods of stabilisation in Colombia: the Alliance for Progress (1961-73) that sought to stem the threat of communist revolution in Latin America; Plan Colombia and President Alvaro Uribe's 'democratic security' policy (2000-07) aimed at defeating the guerrillas and negotiating a settlement with the paramilitaries; and the current 'integrated approach', adopted from 2007, to consolidate more effectively the state's control of its territory.(1) The paper assesses the extent to which these stabilisation efforts have enhanced the protection of civilians and ultimately finds that in all three periods there has been a disconnect between the discourse and the practice of stabilisation. While they have all sought to enhance security, in actual fact, they have privileged the security of the state and its allies at the expense of the effective protection of the civilian population. This has not only led to widespread human rights abuses but also has undermined the long-term stability being pursued. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.
This paper reports that science education has long been a critical element in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. OCRWM has developed educational programs aimed at improving the science literacy of students from kindergarten through college and post-graduate levels, enhancing the skills of teachers, encouraging careers in science and engineering, and developing a keener awareness of science issues among the general population. Activities include interaction with educators in the development of curricula material; workshops for elementary and secondary students; cooperative agreements and projects with universities; OCRWM exhibit showings at technical and non-technical meetings and at national and regional teacher/educator conferences; the OCRWM Fellowship Program; and support for Historically Black Colleges and Universities
This report provides projections of the employment of scientists, engineers, technicians, and other occupations for the civilian nuclear industry through the year 2000. Low, medium, and high projections are provided. In all cases, a substantial number of job openings are anticipated to fill needs created by employment growth, retirement, death, and occupational mobility. The expected adequacy of supply to fill these positions is assessed after taking into account projections of college enrollments and degrees along with competing labor demand from nuclear defense, defense waste management, weapons development, non-nuclear defense activities, and other highly technical industries. The likelihood for shortages is high in certain fields. Positions for engineers (particularly nuclear engineers), health physicists, health physics technicians, and electronics technicians will be the most difficult to fill
Watheq Naser Hussein
Full Text Available Detection the behavior of some metals ( carbon steel and copper that are widely used in automobiles cooling system in tap water and a cooling mixture for radiators was held. The purpose of this work is to check the performance of two types of mixtures that available in Iraqi markets, viz the Kuwait mixture and the Germany one and what are known as blue water by an electrochemical technique. The experiments were held at two values of temperatures of 17 and 80 ˚C-where these values of temperature almost represent the cases of idle and operating engine. The obtained results showed that the two types of mixtures have given good inhibition efficiency for the case of steel especially in presence of Germany mixture.
Smetana, Judith G; Ahmad, Ikhlas; Wray-Lake, Laura
This study examined intra- and interindividual variations in parental legitimacy beliefs in a sample of 883 Arab refugee adolescents (M(age) = 15.01 years, SD = 1.60), 277 Iraqis, 275 Syrians, and 331 Palestinians in Amman, Jordan. Confirmatory factor analyses showed distinct latent factors for moral-conventional, prudential, and personal legitimacy items. Older adolescents rated legitimacy lower for personal issues, but higher for prudential issues. Beliefs were associated with socioeconomic status (fathers' education, family size), particularly for personal issues, but were more pervasively associated with displacement-related experiences. Greater war trauma was associated with less prudential legitimacy for all youth and more authority legitimacy over moral-conventional issues for Syrian youth. Greater hopefulness was associated with more authority legitimacy over all but personal issues. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Dole, Mark J; Kissane, Jonathan M
Medical Logistics (MEDLOG) is a function of the Army's integrated System for Health that provides the medical products and specialized logistics services required to deliver health protection and care under all operational conditions. In unified land operations, MEDLOG is an inherent function of Health Service Support (HSS), which also includes casualty care and medical evacuation. This paper focuses on a few key lessons observed during Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom with direct implications for the support of HSS in future operations as envisioned in the Army Operating Concept and the Joint Concept for Health Services. It also examines a few key enablers that helped mitigate these challenges that are not yet fully acknowledged in Army Medical Department doctrine, policy, and planning.
Mohd Khanapi Abd Ghani
Full Text Available The Iraqi healthcare services are struggling to regain their lost momentum. Many physicians and nurses left Iraq because of the current situation in the country. Despite plans of calling back the skilled health workforce, they are still worried by the disadvantages of their return. Hence, technology plays a central role in taking advantage of their profession through the use of telemedicine. Studying the factors that affect the implementation of telemedicine is necessary. Telemedicine covers network services, policy makers, and patient understanding. A framework that includes the influencing factors in adopting telemedicine in Iraq was developed in this study. A questionnaire was distributed among physicians in Baghdad Medical City to examine the hypothesis on each factor. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences was utilized to verify the reliability of the questionnaire and Cronbach’s alpha test shows that the factors have values more than 0.7, which are standard.
Harrington Lamorie, Jill
Military deaths are often sudden, unanticipated, traumatic, and/or violent in nature and involve the death of a young adult. More than 5,500 service members have died as a result of their service in the wars in Afghanistan (2001) and Iraq (2003) in combat- or non-combat- related incidences. As the death toll continues to rise, service members and their families struggle with the visible and invisible wounds of war. This article explores wartime death, trauma, and bereavement experienced by those survivors affected by service members who have died as a result of their military service in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF). It recognizes the circumstantial and cultural factors of the death as well as the grief and trauma experiences of survivors. Resources and suggested interventions of support are highlighted.
Auda, H.; Khalaf, Z.; Mirjan, J.
Completely ripened date fruits of several Iraqi varieties were irradiated with 30, 70, 100, 270 and 500krad of gamma irradiation and stored at a temperature of 25-35 0 C in wooden boxes or in plastic bags. At various intervals samples were taken and analysed by paper-chromatography, gas-chromatography and spectrophotometry for quantitative and qualitative changes in carbohydrates. The results showed no effect of gamma irradiation on reducing sugar and major carbohydrate components. The formation of malonaldehyde under gamma irradiation of dates and solid standard sugars was also studied up to 500krad. The results showed no formation of malonaldehyde in irradiated date samples as well as standard sugars. Gamma irradiation showed no effect on the protein content of dates. However, storage showed some reduction in the protein content of both unirradiated and irradiated samples. (author)
Arnetz, Bengt B; Broadbridge, Carissa L; Jamil, Hikmet; Lumley, Mark A; Pole, Nnamdi; Barkho, Evone; Fakhouri, Monty; Talia, Yousif Rofa; Arnetz, Judith E
Trauma exposure contributes to poor mental health among refugees, and exposure often is measured using a cumulative index of items from the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Few studies, however, have asked whether trauma subtypes derived from the HTQ could be superior to this cumulative index in predicting mental health outcomes. A community sample of recently arrived Iraqi refugees (N = 298) completed the HTQ and measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms. Principal components analysis of HTQ items revealed a 5-component subtype model of trauma that accounted for more item variance than a 1-component solution. These trauma subtypes also accounted for more variance in PTSD and depression symptoms (12 and 10%, respectively) than did the cumulative trauma index (7 and 3%, respectively). Trauma subtypes provided more information than cumulative trauma in the prediction of negative mental health outcomes. Therefore, use of these subtypes may enhance the utility of the HTQ when assessing at-risk populations.
Al-Hamzawi, A.A.; Al-Qadisiyah University, Qadisiyah; Jaafar, M.S.; Tawfiq, N.F.
The technique of nuclear fission track analysis with solid state nuclear track detectors CR-39 has been applied to determine concentrations of uranium in cancerous samples of human tissues that excised from patients in the three key southern Iraqi governorates namely, Basrah, Dhi-Qar, and Muthanna. These provinces were the sites of intensive military events during the Gulf Wars in 1991 and 2003. The investigation was based on the study of 24 abnormal samples and 12 normal samples for comparing the results. These samples include four types of soft tissues (kidney, breast, stomach and uterus). The results show that uranium concentrations in the normal tissues ranged between (1.42-4.76 μg kg -1 ), whereas in the cancerous tissues ranged between (3.37-7.22 μg kg -1 ). The uranium concentrations in the normal tissues were significantly lower than in the abnormal tissues (P < 0.001). (author)
Serafino, Nina M
.... In September 2008, Congress passed the Reconstruction and Stabilization Civilian Management Act, 2008, as Title XVI of the Duncan Hunter National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2009 (S. 3001, P.L...
Al-Jumaili, Ali Azeez; Al-Rekabi, Mohammed Dakhil; Sorofman, Bernard
Low health literacy is associated with lack of medical information, less use of preventive measures, low medication adherence rates, high health care costs and high risk of hospitalization. The aims were to compare the results of the three health literacy tests, to measure for the first time the health literacy level of Iraqis, to describe the use of standardized health literacy tests, to evaluate reliability and validity of the Arabic versions of these tests, and to investigate whether there is relationship between the participant characteristics and the health literacy level. A convenience sample of 95 subjects was studied in five community pharmacies in Al-Najaf and Babylon governorates, Iraq. Three health literacy tests, the Single Item Literacy Screener (SILS), the New Vital Sign (NVS) and the Short version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA), were translated in the Arabic language and administered to the pharmacy customers. There were no statistically significant associations between age, gender, education and current education status and NVS score, but there were significant positive associations between the level of education and each one of SILS, New SILS, and S-TOFHLA scores. SILS has one subjective, possibly culturally biased question. Since Iraqis are generally not exposed to reading product labels, the NVS test might be not an accurate measure for them. S-TOFHLA was the most comprehensive test and gave equitable results. The Arabic version of S-TOFHLA can be used to measure health literacy in 22 Arabic speaking countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
....36 Government transportation of civilians for public affairs purposes. (a) General policy. (1... Assistant Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs), as appropriate. (8) Point to point transportation within... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Government transportation of civilians for...
Miller, Zachary F.
This study examined whether cadets at a U.S. service academy perceived attitudinal differences toward their military and civilian L2 instructors along three variables: foreign language expertise, communicative anxiety, and relatability. Cadets' proficiency levels (divided by beginning and intermediate classes) and current instructor (civilian or…
Joshua A. Itsifinus
Full Text Available AIM: HIV/AIDS is a serious social pathology in public health, developmental and security problem since the productive and reproductive age group is mostly affected. This study was to determine the sero-prevalence of HIV among civilian applicants enrolling into military services of Nigeria army where youths vulnerability to HIV infection is very high. METHOD: A periodic cross sectional study was carried out amongst the civilian applicants undergoing recruitment into the Nigeria Army between January-February and July-August 2005, to determine their HIV status. Samples were collected from the applicants after interview to collect their socio-demographic characteristics. Data were analyzed with the aid of SPSS Version 12 and Chi square statistics was used to test for significance of association at P< 0.05. RESULTS: Out of the 9260 samples collected, 204 (2.2% tested positive for HIV with the highest proportion (73.5% occurring in the 22-25yrs bracket. Infection was detected in both sexes. The mean age of the applicants was 22yrs, with age range of 18-30 yrs and sex ratio of 1:7 (M: F. Age sex-specificity shows aged between 21-24 years have the highest number of HIV-antibody positivity. CONCLUSION: Antibody-positive applicants were identified in all the regions of Nigeria and the prevalence suggests that the epidemiology of transmission is changing both quantitatively and qualitatively because HIV now occurs commonly among young adults in their teens and late 20s and the impact of HIV on the military has grave consequences on the stability of Nigeria. The adoption of routine screening of applicants at point of recruitment, serving and retiring from the military can also be a source of data for understanding the epidemiology of this disease among the civilian and the military but in as HIV counseling and testing is an important continuum of the disease prevention and treatment, there is need to review Nigerian Army HIV and AIDS policy. [TAF Prev Med
Bukhari, Asma; Roberts, Susan B; Young, Andrew J; McGraw, Susan; Dallal, Gerard E; Das, Sai Krupa
Adult civilian dependents of active duty military personnel (ADMP) may play a central role in influencing the home food environment and the risk of overweight and obesity in American Warfighters and military families. However, there is no information on whether this group would be receptive to weight control programs. We conducted a survey to determine the level of interest of adult civilian dependents of ADMP in participating in a group weight control program. Subjects were a convenience sample of 191 adult civilian dependents of ADMP (94% women, 6% men) based in Massachusetts and aged 33.8 ± 8.4 years, body mass index 25.5 ± 5.5 kg/m(2). Overall, there was a significant effect of body mass index on interest in program participation (p = 0.004). Eighty five percent of overweight participants and 100% of obese participants reported being Moderately Likely or Very Likely to participate in a provided weight control program. In overweight and obese survey respondents there was no significant effect of ADMP rank on interest in program participation (p = 0.34). These findings suggest that overweight and obese adult civilian dependents of ADMP may be very receptive targets for programs to control overweight and obesity in military families. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
During President Reagan's first term, the nation faced squarely most of the major issues facing nuclear power - issues which had accumulated for several decades. The nation established a very large and challenging agenda aimed at: removing Federal impediments to commercial nuclear power; aimed at fulfilling Federal statutory responsibilities in nuclear power rather than sluffing off those obligations; and aimed at restoring the Federal Government as a reliable partner with industry rather than a vacillating nuisance - a cheerleader one day and a nag the next. Very substantive progress has been made on that agenda in the face of what seemed to be insurmountable opposition. The US civilian nuclear program was launched by President Eisenhower in the 1950's. In the 1980's, another great American President has moved to restore the commitment to safe, economic and reliable nuclear power
Vlahakis, J.G.; Palabrica, R.J.
The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW) has successfully negotiated the issuance of a Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters Order that provides for exemption of RW from certain DOE directives. This exemption assures precedence of Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements in radiation protection, nuclear safety (including quality assurance), and safeguards and security of nuclear materials. This Order is necessary to avoid the unwarranted cost and potential confusion resulting from dual regulation of RW facilities and activities by DOE and NRC. Development of this Order involved a systematic review of applicable DOE directives and NRC requirements to identify potential overlaps and duplication when applied to the RW program. Following this review and extensive negotiations with appropriate DOE organizations responsible for directives development, this Order was issued as HQ 1321.1 on December 22, 1993
The inclusion of article 56 in Protocol 1 of the Geneva convention of 12 August 1949 represents a significant achievement in the development of international humanitarian law. Article 56 of protocol 1 reads as follow: firstly, works or installations containing dangerous forces, namely dams, dykes and nuclear electrical generating stations, shall not not be made the object of attack, even where these objects are military objectives, if such attack may cause the release of dangerous forces and consequent severe losses among the civilian population. Other military objectives located at or in the vicinity of these works or installations shall not be made the object of attack if such attack may cause the release of dangerous forces from the works or installations and consequent severe losses among the civilian population. Secondly, the special protection against attack provided by paragraph 1 shall cease: for a dam or a dyke only if it is used for other than its normal function and in regular, significant and direct support of military operations and if such attack is the only feasible way to terminate such support; for a nuclear electrical generating station only if it provides electric power in regular, significant and direct support of military operations and if such attack is the only feasible way to terminate such support;for other military objectives located at or in the vicinity of these works or installations only if they are used in regular, significant and direct support of military operations and if such attack is the only feasible way to terminate such support. Thirdly, in all cases, the civilian population and individual civilians shall remain entitled to all the protection accorded them by international law, including the protection of the precautionary measures provided for in article 57. If the protection ceases and any of the works, installations or military objectives mentioned in paragraph 1 is attacked, all practical precautions shall be taken to
The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is publishing this catalog to provide citations of selected technical and public information on the subject of high-level radioactive waste management. The catalog is a resource and reference tool that is updated and printed periodically. The online catalog is available for review through OCRWM's Product Record System (PRS) and is available to the public. The printed catalog version is suitable for libraries and those individuals needing either a broad base of information or a particular source; the computerized catalog version provides the most current information resources available, since updates to citations are made as they are received. The number of documents suitable for listing in this catalog is expected to grow significantly each year
This revision of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan describes the objectives of the Civilian Radioactive Waste management Program (Program) as prescribed by legislative mandate, and the technical achievements, schedule, and costs planned to complete these objectives. The Plan provides Program participants and stakeholders with an updated description of Program activities and milestones for fiscal years (FY) 1998 to 2003. It describes the steps the Program will undertake to provide a viability assessment of the Yucca Mountain site in 1998; prepare the Secretary of Energy`s site recommendation to the President in 2001, if the site is found to be suitable for development as a repository; and submit a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 2002 for authorization to construct a repository. The Program`s ultimate challenge is to provide adequate assurance to society that an operating geologic repository at a specific site meets the required standards of safety. Chapter 1 describes the Program`s mission and vision, and summarizes the Program`s broad strategic objectives. Chapter 2 describes the Program`s approach to transform strategic objectives, strategies, and success measures to specific Program activities and milestones. Chapter 3 describes the activities and milestones currently projected by the Program for the next five years for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project; the Waste Acceptance, Storage and Transportation Project; ad the Program Management Center. The appendices present information on the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, and the Energy Policy Act of 1992; the history of the Program; the Program`s organization chart; the Commission`s regulations, Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Wastes in geologic Repositories; and a glossary of terms.
This revision of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan describes the objectives of the Civilian Radioactive Waste management Program (Program) as prescribed by legislative mandate, and the technical achievements, schedule, and costs planned to complete these objectives. The Plan provides Program participants and stakeholders with an updated description of Program activities and milestones for fiscal years (FY) 1998 to 2003. It describes the steps the Program will undertake to provide a viability assessment of the Yucca Mountain site in 1998; prepare the Secretary of Energy's site recommendation to the President in 2001, if the site is found to be suitable for development as a repository; and submit a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 2002 for authorization to construct a repository. The Program's ultimate challenge is to provide adequate assurance to society that an operating geologic repository at a specific site meets the required standards of safety. Chapter 1 describes the Program's mission and vision, and summarizes the Program's broad strategic objectives. Chapter 2 describes the Program's approach to transform strategic objectives, strategies, and success measures to specific Program activities and milestones. Chapter 3 describes the activities and milestones currently projected by the Program for the next five years for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project; the Waste Acceptance, Storage and Transportation Project; ad the Program Management Center. The appendices present information on the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended, and the Energy Policy Act of 1992; the history of the Program; the Program's organization chart; the Commission's regulations, Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Wastes in geologic Repositories; and a glossary of terms
point 16 repeatedly to the Baathist regime’s de-Kurdification of Kirkuk as prima facie justification for returning control of the city to the Kurds...Americans had a quid pro quo obligation to help them get their land back from the 10,000 squatting Arabs.23 Patrick Clawson of the Middle East Quarterly...beginning of the campaign, US Soldiers were gradu- ally passing these obligations to Iraqi government officials to manage their own internal and external
with some of the Arab Spring militaries and has a particu- larly strong relationship with the Egyptian military. These bonds of trust, cooperation...suitable tomb for the co-founder of Ba’athism. Saddam was not a military man, and as a youth was rejected for entry into the Iraqi military academy due...Egypt. While parallels between Saddam Hussein’s Iraq and 64 these countries exist, differences vastly outnumber similarities. The Tunisian and Egyptian
Talal Anwer Abdulkareem*, Sawsan Ali Al-Sharifi, Sajeda Mahdi Eidan and R.G. Sasser1
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of pre-mating and pre-calving concentrate supplementation of Iraqi buffaloes on some of the reproductive (estrus, mating, pregnancy and calving rates and productive (daily milk yield and calves birth weight traits. This study was carried out in 4 Iraqi South-central governorates using 596 pre-mating and 628 pregnant buffaloes (during the last two months of gestation. Pre-mating buffaloes were divided randomly into 496 concentrate-supplemented buffaloes (Flushing and 100 control ones. Additionally, pregnant buffaloes were also divided into 528 concentrate- supplemented buffaloes (Steaming up and 100 controls. Each buffalo within the flushing and steaming up groups were fed daily on 7 Kg of concentrate diet (13% crude protein and 1.70 Mcal of net energy for 60 days. The control buffaloes were nourished only on low-quality roughages of the area and wheat bran. Higher estrus (+15%, P<0.01, pregnancy (+23.8%, P<0.05 and calving rates (+30.8%, P<0.01 were observed in concentrate-supplemented buffaloes as compared with controls. An obvious increase in (P<0.05 calving rate (+14.7%, daily milk yield (+44.8% and calf birth weight (+25.6% were noted in steaming up buffaloes in comparison with control buffaloes. Results indicated that improvement in feeding schedule of Iraqi buffaloes during pre-mating and late gestation periods enhanced the reproductive performance and increased milk production of subsequent lactation and calf birth weight. These improvements increased owner income ($174=209,000 Iraqi dinar /buffalo from the sale of meat and milk.
oxygenmask held in proximity to the dog’s face or taped to a basket-style muzzle ) during evacuation to the VTF. None of the WIA dogs received IV crystalloid...military working dogs in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom: 29 cases (2003–2009) Janice L. Baker, DVM; Karyn A. Havas, DVM; Laura A...received on the battlefield, and ultimate outcome of U.S. military working dogs that incurred gunshot wound (GSW) injury in Operation Enduring Freedom
assistance with editing and for supporting this endeavor, and to our two wonderful children , Olivia and Theodore. Our time here at Fort Leavenworth has been...Baathist regime. 7 Mary Kaldor, New and Old Wars: Organized Violence in a Global Era, 3d ed...II, 165. 33 television several hours later, denouncing the strike as a “criminal act” and calling on the Iraqi people to draw their swords
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Mohammed, M. A.; Eman, Y.; Hussein, A. H.; Hasson, A. R.
Arab countries face the corruption issues in its several public organizations. The corruption in these countries is considered as the main challenge. The oil sector is one of the public sectors that have huge level of corruption. However, the Iraqi economy had become dependable on oil sector daring the last three decades, and on the contrary, of what other oil countries did. The capital is considered as one of the essential factor for economic development. The revenues of oil exports will stay the essential source for economic development in Iraq in the future in order to reduce being dependable on oil. Since the beginning of the 3rd thousands, the world witnessed great rise in the demand on oil, but the Iraqi exports of crude oil come to be less than its similarities in the seventeenths of last century. So our oil sector is still in need of deep study. This study focuses on technological technique that can make huge decrease for corruption in oil sector in Iraq. However, e-government is considered as the best techniques that can decrease the corruption. Thus, this study bases on challenges that effect on build successful e-government project in Iraqi oil industry.
Grewal, Navnit Kaur; Andersen, Lene Frost; Kolve, Cathrine Solheim; Kverndalen, Ingrid; Torheim, Liv Elin
The aim of the present paper was to describe food and nutrient intake among 12-month-old Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi infants, with a focus on iron and vitamin D intake. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from August 2013 through September 2014. Eighty-nine mothers/infants of Somali origin and 77 mothers/infants of Iraqi origin residing in Eastern Norway participated in the study. Data were collected using two 24-h multiple-pass recalls. Forty percent of the Norwegian-Somali infants and 47% of the Norwegian-Iraqi infants were breastfed at 12 months of age ( p = 0.414). Median energy percentages (E%) from protein, fat and carbohydrates were within the recommended intake ranges, except the level of saturated fats (12-13 E%). Median intakes of almost all micronutrients were above the recommended daily intakes. Most of the infants consumed iron-enriched products (81%) and received vitamin D supplements (84%). The median intakes of iron and vitamin D were significantly higher among infants receiving iron-enriched products and vitamin D supplements compared to infants not receiving such products ( p food and nutrient intake of this group of infants in general seems to be in accordance with Norwegian dietary recommendations. Foods rich in iron and vitamin D supplements were important sources of the infants' intake of iron and vitamin D and should continue to be promoted.
Al-Jumaili, Ali Azeez; Al-Rekabi, Mohammed D; Alsawad, Oday S; Allela, Omer Q B; Carnahan, Ryan; Saaed, Hiwa; Naqishbandi, Alaadin; Kadhim, Dheyaa J; Sorofman, Bernard
Objective. To explore for the first time the extent to which Iraqi pharmacy students and faculty use Facebook and university email for academic communications, and to examine factors influencing utilization within the framework of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Methods. An electronic survey was administered to convenience samples of students and faculty of six Iraqi public schools and colleges of pharmacy in 2015. Results. Responses included 489 student and 128 faculty usable surveys. Both students and faculty use Facebook more than university email for academic communications. Less than a third of the faculty used university email. Students used Facebook for academic purposes twice as much as faculty. Conclusion. Absence of university email in Iraqi schools and colleges of pharmacy makes Facebook essential for faculty-student communications. The majority (71.1% to 82%) of respondents perceived that Facebook was easy to use. Three TAM variables (intention to use, attitude toward use and perceived usefulness) had significant positive associations with actual use of both Facebook messaging and university email.
Nelson, Matthew; Hess, Julia Meredith; Isakson, Brian; Goodkind, Jessica
Social and geographic displacement is a global phenomenon that precipitates novel stressors and disruptions that intersect with longstanding familial and social roles. Among the displaced are war-torn Iraqi refugee families, who must address these new obstacles in unconventional ways. This study explores how such disruptions have influenced associations between gender and apparent self-worth experienced by Iraqi refugee families upon relocation to the United States. Further, the psychosocial mechanisms requisite of any novel approach to a new social construct are explored and reveal that production in the family is at the core of instability and shifting power dynamics during resettlement, preventing family members from "seeing the life" in the United States that they had envisioned prior to immigration. Over 200 semi-structured qualitative interviews with Iraqi participants and mental health providers were conducted over the course of the study, and demonstrate a plasticity among social roles in the family and community that transcends the notion of a simple role reversal, and illustrate the complex positionalities that families under stress must approximate during such physical and social displacement.
This book has three separate complementary goals. First, it develops a model to explain how the command and control of nuclear weapons evolves over time. Second, it tells the story of the evolution of one critical aspect of the nuclear command system, the custody of nuclear weapons. Finally, it assesses the general problem of ensuring civilian control over nuclear operations. The focus is on the formation of operational policy. Where to deploy a weapon and at what state of alertness is an operational decision. Part I, The Theory of Civilian Control is divided into three chapters: Civilian control: Principles and problems; Civilian Control: From alerts to war termination; and Explaining changes in civilian control. Part II, The Evolution of Custody Policy has seven chapters: The Atomic Energy Act and the origin of assertive control, 1945-1947; The first test of assertive civilian control, 1948-1949; The breach in assertive control, 1950-1952; Assertive control becomes delegative control, 1953-1958; The resurgence of assertive control, 1959-1962; The cycle continues, 1963-1990; and Conclusion: The future of civilian control
Williams, P.T.; Graham, R.F.; Lagerberg, G.N.; Chung, T.C.
This assessment uses several recent assessments and the more general code compilations that have been completed to produce a list of 116 codes that can be used for thermal analysis. This list is then compared with criteria prepared especially for the Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (DOE/OCRWM). Based on these criteria, fifteen codes are narrowed to three primary codes and four secondary codes for use by the OCRWM thermal analyst. The analyst is cautioned that since no single code is sufficient for all applications, a code must be selected based upon the predominate heat transfer mode of the problem to be solved, but the codes suggested in this report have been used successfully for a range of OCRWM applications. The report concludes with a series of recommendations for additional work of which the major points include the following: The codes suggested by this report must be benchmarked with the existing US and international problems and validated when possible; An interactive code selection tool could be developed or, perhaps even more useful, a users group could be supported to ensure the proper selection of thermal codes and dissemination of information on the latest version; The status of the 116 codes identified by this report should be verified, and methods for maintaining the still active codes must be established; and special capabilities of each code in phase change, convection and radiation should be improved to better enable the thermal analyst to model OCRWM applications. 37 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs
Williams, P.T.; Graham, R.F.; Lagerberg, G.N.; Chung, T.C.
This assessment uses several recent assessments and the more general code compilations that have been completed to produce a list of 116 codes that can be used for thermal analysis. This list is then compared with criteria prepared especially for the Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (DOE/OCRWM). Based on these criteria, fifteen codes are narrowed to three primary codes and four secondary codes for use by the OCRWM thermal analyst. The analyst is cautioned that since no single code is sufficient for all applications, a code must be selected based upon the predominate heat transfer mode of the problem to be solved, but the codes suggested in this report have been used successfully for a range of OCRWM applications. The report concludes with a series of recommendations for additional work of which the major points include the following: The codes suggested by this report must be benchmarked with the existing US and international problems and validated when possible; An interactive code selection tool could be developed or, perhaps even more useful, a users group could be supported to ensure the proper selection of thermal codes and dissemination of information on the latest version; The status of the 116 codes identified by this report should be verified, and methods for maintaining the still active codes must be established; and special capabilities of each code in phase change, convection and radiation should be improved to better enable the thermal analyst to model OCRWM applications. 37 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.
Laban, Cornelis J; Komproe, Ivan H; Gernaat, Hajo B P E; de Jong, Joop T V M
Refugees in western countries often face long juridical procedures before their requests for a resident permit is granted. The, still scanty, literature shows high prevalence rates of psychopathology among asylum seekers, but there has been little interest for other impaired dimensions of health. The present study is part of a community-based mental health survey among Iraqi asylum seekers in the Netherlands, conducted between November 2000 and September 2001, on the risks of a long asylum procedure. The objectives of this study were to explore quality of life (QoL), disability and physical health and their relationships with psychopathology and pre- and post-migration variables. Two groups of pre-stratified (length of asylum procedure), randomly selected Iraqi asylum seekers (N = 143 and N = 151), were interviewed with fully structured, culturally validated questionnaires. Quality of life was examined with QoLWHO-Bref, functional disability with the Brief Disability Questionnaire and physical health with a newly developed questionnaire. Psychiatric (DSM IV) disorders were measured with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the relationships between the outcome measures and socio-demographics, adverse life events in Iraq, post-migration living problems (PMLP) and psychopathology. Respondents with a long asylum procedure reported significantly lower QoL, higher functional disability and more physical complaints. Multivariate regression shows that length of stay is the strongest predictor for a low overall QoL. In addition, lower QoL was predicted by psychopathology, higher age, adverse life events in the Netherlands and the PMLP-clusters: family issues, socio-economic living conditions and socio-religious aspects. Disability was predicted by psychopathology, higher age and the PMLP clusters: family issues and socio-religious aspects. Physical complaints were predicted by length of
Full Text Available Laboratory testing is roughly divided into three phases: a pre-analytical phase, an analytical phase and a post-analytical phase. Most analytical errors have been attributed to the analytical phase. However, recent studies have shown that up to 70% of analytical errors reflect the pre-analytical phase. The pre-analytical phase comprises all processes from the time a laboratory request is made by a physician until the specimen is analyzed at the lab. Generally, the pre-analytical phase includes patient preparation, specimen transportation, specimen collection and storage. In the present study, we report the first comprehensive assessment of the frequency and types of pre-analytical errors at the Sulaimani diagnostic labs in Iraqi Kurdistan.Over 2 months, 5500 venous blood samples were observed in 10 public diagnostic labs of Sulaimani City. The percentages of rejected samples and types of sample inappropriateness were evaluated. The percentage of each of the following pre-analytical errors were recorded: delay in sample transportation, clotted samples, expired reagents, hemolyzed samples, samples not on ice, incorrect sample identification, insufficient sample, tube broken in centrifuge, request procedure errors, sample mix-ups, communication conflicts, misinterpreted orders, lipemic samples, contaminated samples and missed physician's request orders. The difference between the relative frequencies of errors observed in the hospitals considered was tested using a proportional Z test. In particular, the survey aimed to discover whether analytical errors were recorded and examine the types of platforms used in the selected diagnostic labs.The analysis showed a high prevalence of improper sample handling during the pre-analytical phase. In appropriate samples, the percentage error was as high as 39%. The major reasons for rejection were hemolyzed samples (9%, incorrect sample identification (8% and clotted samples (6%. Most quality control schemes
Laboratory testing is roughly divided into three phases: a pre-analytical phase, an analytical phase and a post-analytical phase. Most analytical errors have been attributed to the analytical phase. However, recent studies have shown that up to 70% of analytical errors reflect the pre-analytical phase. The pre-analytical phase comprises all processes from the time a laboratory request is made by a physician until the specimen is analyzed at the lab. Generally, the pre-analytical phase includes patient preparation, specimen transportation, specimen collection and storage. In the present study, we report the first comprehensive assessment of the frequency and types of pre-analytical errors at the Sulaimani diagnostic labs in Iraqi Kurdistan. Over 2 months, 5500 venous blood samples were observed in 10 public diagnostic labs of Sulaimani City. The percentages of rejected samples and types of sample inappropriateness were evaluated. The percentage of each of the following pre-analytical errors were recorded: delay in sample transportation, clotted samples, expired reagents, hemolyzed samples, samples not on ice, incorrect sample identification, insufficient sample, tube broken in centrifuge, request procedure errors, sample mix-ups, communication conflicts, misinterpreted orders, lipemic samples, contaminated samples and missed physician's request orders. The difference between the relative frequencies of errors observed in the hospitals considered was tested using a proportional Z test. In particular, the survey aimed to discover whether analytical errors were recorded and examine the types of platforms used in the selected diagnostic labs. The analysis showed a high prevalence of improper sample handling during the pre-analytical phase. In appropriate samples, the percentage error was as high as 39%. The major reasons for rejection were hemolyzed samples (9%), incorrect sample identification (8%) and clotted samples (6%). Most quality control schemes at Sulaimani
ALI AZEEZ ALI AL-JUMAILI
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to measure the incidence and types of medication prescribing errors (MPEs in Iraqi hospitals, to calculate for the first time the percentage of physician agreement with pharmacist medication regimen review (MRR recommendations regarding MPEs, and to identify the factors influencing the physician agreement rate with these recommendations. Methods: Fourteen pharmacists (10 females and 4 males reviewed each hand-written physician order for 1506 patients who were admitted to two public hospitals in Al-Najaf, Iraq during August 2015. The pharmacists identified medication prescribing errors using the Medscape WebMD, LCC phone application as a reference. The pharmacists contacted the physicians (2 females and 34 males in-person to address MPEs that were identified. Results: The pharmacists identified 78 physician orders containing 99 MPEs with an incidence of 6.57 percent of all the physician orders reviewed. The patients with MPEs were taking 4.8 medications on average. The MPEs included drug-drug interactions (65.7%, incorrect doses (16.2%, unnecessary medications (8.1%, contra-indications (7.1%, incorrect drug duration (2%, and untreated conditions (1%. The physicians implemented 37 (37.4% pharmacist recommendations. Three factors were significantly related to physician acceptance of pharmacist recommendations. These were physician specialty, pharmacist gender, and patient gender. Pediatricians were less likely (OR= 0.1 to accept pharmacist recommendations compared to internal medicine physicians. Male pharmacists received more positive responses from physicians (OR=7.11 than female pharmacists. Lastly, the recommendations were significantly more likely to be accepted (OR= 3.72 when the patients were females. Conclusions: The incidence of MPEs is higher in Iraqi hospitalized patients than in the U.S. and U.K, but lower than in Brazil, Ethiopia, India, and Croatia. Drug-drug interactions were the most common type of
Frounfelker, Rochelle; Gilman, Stephen E.; Betancourt, Theresa S.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gluzman, Semyon; Gureje, Oye; Karam, Elie G.; Lee, Sing; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Ono, Yutaka; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Popovici, Daniela G.; Have, Margreet ten; Kessler, Ronald C.
Purpose Understanding the effects of war on mental disorders is important for developing effective post-conflict recovery policies and programs. The current study uses cross-sectional, retrospectively reported data collected as part of the World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative to examine the associations of being a civilian in a war zone/region of terror in World War II with a range of DSM-IV mental disorders. Methods Adults (n= 3,370)who lived in countries directly involved in World War II in Europe and Japan were administered structured diagnostic interviews of lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders. The associations of war-related traumas with subsequent disorder onset-persistence were assessed with discrete-time survival analysis (lifetime prevalence) and conditional logistic regression (12-month prevalence). Results Respondents who were civilians in a war zone/region of terror had higher lifetime risks than other respondents of major depressive disorder (MDD; OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 1.9) and anxiety disorder (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 2.0). The association of war exposure with MDD was strongest in the early years after the war, whereas the association with anxiety disorders increased over time. Among lifetime cases, war exposure was associated with lower past year risk of anxiety disorders. (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2, 0.7). Conclusions Exposure to war in World War II was associated with higher lifetime risk of some mental disorders. Whether comparable patterns will be found among civilians living through more recent wars remains to be seen, but should be recognized as a possibility by those projecting future needs for treatment of mental disorders. PMID:29119266
Jackson, James C.; Morandi, Alessandro; Girard, Timothy D.; Hughes, Christopher G.; Thompson, Jennifer L.; Kiehl, Amy L.; Elstad, Mark R.; Wasserstein, Mitzi L.; Goodman, Richard B.; Beckham, Jean C.; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Dittus, Robert S.; Ely, E. Wesley; Pandharipande, Pratik P.
Rationale: The incidence and risk factors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to the intensive care unit (ICU) experience have not been reported in a mixed veteran and civilian cohort. Objectives: To describe the incidence and risk factors for ICU-related PTSD in veterans and civilians. Methods: This is a prospective, observational, multicenter cohort enrolling adult survivors of critical illness after respiratory failure and/or shock from three Veterans Affairs and one civilian hospital. After classifying those with/without preexisting PTSD (i.e., PTSD before hospitalization), we then assessed all subjects for ICU-related PTSD at 3 and 12 months post hospitalization. Measurements and Main Results: Of 255 survivors, 181 and 160 subjects were assessed for ICU-related PTSD at 3- and 12-month follow-up, respectively. A high probability of ICU-related PTSD was found in up to 10% of patients at either follow-up time point, whether assessed by PTSD Checklist Event-Specific Version (score ≥ 50) or item mapping using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV). In the multivariable regression, preexisting PTSD was independently associated with ICU-related PTSD at both 3 and 12 months (P < 0.001), as was preexisting depression (P < 0.03), but veteran status was not a consistent independent risk factor for ICU-related PTSD (3-month P = 0.01, 12-month P = 0.48). Conclusions: This study found around 1 in 10 ICU survivors experienced ICU-related PTSD (i.e., PTSD anchored to their critical illness) in the year after hospitalization. Preexisting PTSD and depression were strongly associated with ICU-related PTSD. PMID:26735627
Frounfelker, Rochelle; Gilman, Stephen E; Betancourt, Theresa S; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn J; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gluzman, Semyon; Gureje, Oye; Karam, Elie G; Lee, Sing; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Ono, Yutaka; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Popovici, Daniela G; Ten Have, Margreet; Kessler, Ronald C
Understanding the effects of war on mental disorders is important for developing effective post-conflict recovery policies and programs. The current study uses cross-sectional, retrospectively reported data collected as part of the World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative to examine the associations of being a civilian in a war zone/region of terror in World War II with a range of DSM-IV mental disorders. Adults (n = 3370) who lived in countries directly involved in World War II in Europe and Japan were administered structured diagnostic interviews of lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders. The associations of war-related traumas with subsequent disorder onset-persistence were assessed with discrete-time survival analysis (lifetime prevalence) and conditional logistic regression (12-month prevalence). Respondents who were civilians in a war zone/region of terror had higher lifetime risks than other respondents of major depressive disorder (MDD; OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 1.9) and anxiety disorder (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 2.0). The association of war exposure with MDD was strongest in the early years after the war, whereas the association with anxiety disorders increased over time. Among lifetime cases, war exposure was associated with lower past year risk of anxiety disorders (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2, 0.7). Exposure to war in World War II was associated with higher lifetime risk of some mental disorders. Whether comparable patterns will be found among civilians living through more recent wars remains to be seen, but should be recognized as a possibility by those projecting future needs for treatment of mental disorders.
MacDonald, Emily; Einöder-Moreno, Margot; Borgen, Katrine; Thorstensen Brandal, Lin; Diab, Lore; Fossli, Øivind; Guzman Herrador, Bernardo; Hassan, Ammar Ali; Johannessen, Gro S; Johansen, Eva Jeanette; Jørgensen Kimo, Roger; Lier, Tore; Paulsen, Bjørn Leif; Popescu, Rodica; Tokle Schytte, Charlotte; Sæbø Pettersen, Kristin; Vold, Line; Ørmen, Øyvind; Wester, Astrid Louise; Wiklund, Marit; Nygård, Karin
In May 2014, a cluster of Yersinia enterocolitica (YE) O9 infections was reported from a military base in northern Norway. Concurrently, an increase in YE infections in civilians was observed in the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases. We investigated to ascertain the extent of the outbreak and identify the source in order to implement control measures. A case was defined as a person with laboratory-confirmed YE O9 infection with the outbreak multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA)-profile (5-6-9-8-9-9). We conducted a case-control study in the military setting and calculated odds ratios (OR) using logistic regression. Traceback investigations were conducted to identify common suppliers and products in commercial kitchens frequented by cases. By 28 May, we identified 133 cases, of which 117 were linked to four military bases and 16 were civilians from geographically dispersed counties. Among foods consumed by cases, multivariable analysis pointed to mixed salad as a potential source of illness (OR 10.26; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85-123.57). The four military bases and cafeterias visited by 14/16 civilian cases received iceberg lettuce or radicchio rosso from the same supplier. Secondary transmission cannot be eliminated as a source of infection in the military camps. The most likely source of the outbreak was salad mix containing imported radicchio rosso, due to its long shelf life. This outbreak is a reminder that fresh produce should not be discounted as a vehicle in prolonged outbreaks and that improvements are still required in the production and processing of fresh salad products. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.
McCoy, Kaylyn Marie
There are significant challenges to successfully monitoring multiple processes within a nuclear reactor facility. The evidence for this observation can be seen in the historical civilian nuclear incidents that have occurred with similar initiating conditions and sequences of events. Because there is a current lack within the nuclear industry, with regards to the monitoring of internal sensors across multiple processes for patterns of failure, this study has developed a program that is directed at accomplishing that charge through an innovation that monitors these systems simultaneously. The inclusion of digital sensor technology within the nuclear industry has appreciably increased computer systems' capabilities to manipulate sensor signals, thus making the satisfaction of these monitoring challenges possible. One such manipulation to signal data has been explored in this study. The Nuclear Reactor Condition Analyzer (NRCA) program that has been developed for this research, with the assistance of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Graduate Fellowship, utilizes one-norm distance and kernel weighting equations to normalize all nuclear reactor parameters under the program's analysis. This normalization allows the program to set more consistent parameter value thresholds for a more simplified approach to analyzing the condition of the nuclear reactor under its scrutiny. The product of this research provides a means for the nuclear industry to implement a safety and monitoring program that can oversee the system parameters of a nuclear power reactor facility, like that of a nuclear power plant.
The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 confirms the Federal responsibility for nuclear waste management and provides for unprecedented involvement by States, Indian tribes and the public. The Act provides a comprehensive framework for disposing of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive wastes of domestic origin generated by civilian nuclear power reactors. It establishes detailed schedules and procedures for selecting and developing geologic repositories; provides a mechanism for financing the cost of disposal; and sets forth other provisions relating to nuclear waste disposal. The other provisions of the Act include provision for a user-financed federal interim storage facility with time and quantity limitations, as well as strict Nuclear Regulatory Commission-prescribed eligibility criteria; a proposal for a Federally-owned and operated monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility for the interim period prior to operation of a permanent repository; and provision for a Test and Evaluation Facility (TEF). This paper centers on the schedule and current status and siting of the first two geologic repositories
The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) currently sponsors two educationally related programs: the Radioactive Waste Management Fellowship Program and the Radioactive Waste Management Research Program for Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU). The graduate fellowship program was implemented in 1985 to meet the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) expected manpower needs for trained scientists and engineers to assist in carrying out the activities of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. It is recognized that a shortage of master's and doctoral level scientists and engineers in disciplines supportive of the nation's high-level radioactive waste management (RWM) program may impede the DOE's ability to properly carry out its mission under the act. The fellowship program encourages talented undergraduate students to enter graduate programs designed to educate and train them in fields directly related to RWM. The program supports graduate students in various disciplines, including nuclear science and engineering, health physics, and certain area of geology and chemical engineering. It also encourages universities to support and improve research activities and academic programs related to the management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste
Gunapala, Sarath D.; Kukkonen, Carl A.; Sirangelo, Mark N.; McQuiston, Barbara K.; Chehayeb, Riad; Kaufmann, M.
Advanced thermal imaging infrared cameras have been a cost effective and reliable method to obtain the temperature of objects. Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) based thermal imaging systems have advanced the state-of-the-art and are the most sensitive commercially available thermal systems. QWIP Technologies LLC, under exclusive agreement with Caltech University, is currently manufacturing the QWIP-ChipTM, a 320 X 256 element, bound-to-quasibound QWIP FPA. The camera performance falls within the long-wave IR band, spectrally peaked at 8.5 μm. The camera is equipped with a 32-bit floating-point digital signal processor combined with multi- tasking software, delivering a digital acquisition resolution of 12-bits using nominal power consumption of less than 50 Watts. With a variety of video interface options, remote control capability via an RS-232 connection, and an integrated control driver circuit to support motorized zoom and focus- compatible lenses, this camera design has excellent application in both the military and commercial sector. In the area of remote sensing, high-performance QWIP systems can be used for high-resolution, target recognition as part of a new system of airborne platforms (including UAVs). Such systems also have direct application in law enforcement, surveillance, industrial monitoring and road hazard detection systems. This presentation will cover the current performance of the commercial QWIP cameras, conceptual platform systems and advanced image processing for use in both military remote sensing and civilian applications currently being developed in road hazard monitoring.
Mpotos, N; Watelet, J B
Civilian law:from occupational medicine to occupational event. Despite the growing importance of objective measurements, the health effects of many occupational risk factors are currently not fully quantified. Occupational noise, as a widespread risk factor, is illustrative in this regard; there is a strong body of evidence linking it to an important health outcome (hearing loss), but it is less decisively associated with others (such as psychological disorders). It is also distinct from environmental noise, and therefore falls under the responsibility of employers as well as individuals. Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is, at present, incurable and irreversible. However, it is preventable, if effective and global hearing conservation programmes can be implemented. These programmes should not be isolated efforts, but should be integrated into the overall hazard prevention and control programme of the workplace. Belgian law encompasses a set of provisions for prevention and the protection of the health and safety of workers within the workplace, including aspects pertaining to the hygiene of the workplace and psychosocial aspects at work (stress, violence, bullying and sexual harassment, among others). In principle, combating environmental noise is fully addressed in this country. However, other levels of policy-making also play an important role in this regard. For example, the federal government is in charge of product standards, and therefore also of noise emission standards for products. The interpretation and enforcement of Belgian legislation on well-being at work converts European directives and international agreements on well-being at work into Belgian law.
Arnetz, Bengt B.; Broadbridge, Carissa L.; Jamil, Hikmet; Lumley, Mark A.; Pole, Nnamdi; Barkho, Evone; Fakhouri, Monty; Talia, Yousif Rofa; Arnetz, Judith E.
Background Trauma exposure contributes to poor mental health among refugees, and exposure often is measured using a cumulative index of items from the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Few studies, however, have asked whether trauma subtypes derived from the HTQ could be superior to this cumulative index in predicting mental health outcomes. Methods A community sample of recently arrived Iraqi refugees (N = 298) completed the HTQ and measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms. Results Principal components analysis of HTQ items revealed a 5-component subtype model of trauma that accounted for more item variance than a 1-component solution. These trauma subtypes also accounted for more variance in PTSD and depression symptoms (12% and 10%, respectively) than did the cumulative trauma index (7% and 3%, respectively). Discussion Trauma subtypes provided more information than cumulative trauma in the prediction of negative mental health outcomes. Therefore, use of these subtypes may enhance the utility of the HTQ when assessing at-risk populations. PMID:24549491
Muhanned Abdul Hasan Kareem
Full Text Available In this study provided all molecular markers of Random amplified polymorphic (RAPD successfully with the sixty five Iraqi date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. cultivars, which collected from Hilla city in Iraq, to determine fingerprinting, polymorphic value, and relationships among varieties of date palm cultivars, and also with the same type of cultivars. Data analysis of ten RAPD has been revealed. Number of amplified DNA fragments were (592 bands, polymorphism per all primers were (%64.2, primer efficiency was 0.1, and discriminatory value was (%0.09, which revealed a high percentage similarity about %67 to %100 between cultivars belong to the same variety. There are relationships with twenty four genotypes, divided in to two clusters, clusterΙ ranged distance from 0.74 to 1.30 represented(Maddany, Ashrasi, Greatli, Smeasmi and sukkary and clusterII ranged distance from 0.25 to 0.60 which divided into three sub group, there are sub group I represented (Sultana, Khestawi, Breem, Sabb Drrah, Hamrawi, Brban, and Khadrawi, sub groupiesII represented (Zahdi, Tebarzal, Maktom, brahi, Chipchab and Fom Alrman, sub groupies III represented (Usta Umran, Nersi, Najdi, Guntar, Shwethi and Ghanami Ahmer.
Muhanned Abdul Hasan
Full Text Available In this study provided all molecular markers of Random amplified polymorphic (RAPD successfully with the sixty five Iraqi date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. cultivars, which collected from Hilla city in Iraq, to determine fingerprinting, polymorphic value, and relationships among varieties of date palm cultivars, and also with the same type of cultivars. Data analysis of ten RAPD has been revealed. Number of amplified DNA fragments were (592 bands, polymorphism per all primers were (%64.2, primer efficiency was 0.1, and discriminatory value was (%0.09, which revealed a high percentage similarity about %67 to %100 between cultivars belong to the same variety. There are relationships with twenty four genotypes, divided in to two clusters, clusterΙ ranged distance from 0.74 to 1.30 represented(Maddany, Ashrasi, Greatli, Smeasmi and sukkary and clusterII ranged distance from 0.25 to 0.60 which divided into three sub group, there are sub group I represented (Sultana, Khestawi, Breem, Sabb Drrah, Hamrawi, Brban, and Khadrawi, sub groupiesII represented (Zahdi, Tebarzal, Maktom, brahi, Chipchab and Fom Alrman, sub groupies III represented (Usta Umran, Nersi, Najdi, Guntar, Shwethi and Ghanami Ahmer.
Sissakian, Varoujan K.
The Iraqi territory could be divided into four main tectonic zones; each one has its own characteristics concerning type of the rocks, their age, thickness and structural evolution. These four zones are: (1) Inner Platform (stable shelf), (2) Outer Platform (unstable shelf), (3) Shalair Zone (Terrain), and (4) Zagros Suture Zone. The first two zones of the Arabian Plate lack any kind of metamorphism and volcanism. The Iraqi territory is located in the extreme northeastern part of the Arabian Plate, which is colliding with the Eurasian (Iranian) Plate. This collision has developed a foreland basin that includes: (1) Imbricate Zone, (2) High Folded Zone, (3) Low Folded Zone and (4) Mesopotamia Foredeep. The Mesopotamia Foredeep, in Iraq includes the Mesopotamia Plain and the Jazira Plain; it is less tectonically disturbed as compared to the Imbricate, High Folded and Low Folded Zones. Quaternary alluvial sediments of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers and their tributaries as well as distributaries cover the central and southeastern parts of the Foredeep totally; it is called the Mesopotamian Flood Plain. The extension of the Mesopotamia Plain towards northwest however, is called the Jazira Plain, which is covered by Miocene rocks. The Mesopotamia Foredeep is represented by thick sedimentary sequence, which thickens northwestwards including synrift sediments; especially of Late Cretaceous age, whereas on surface the Quaternary sediments thicken southeastwards. The depth of the basement also changes from 8 km, in the west to 14 km, in the Iraqi-Iranian boarders towards southeast. The anticlinal structures have N-S trend, in the extreme southern part of the Mesopotamia Foredeep and extends northwards until the Latitude 32°N, within the Jazira Plain, there they change their trends to NW-SE, and then to E-W trend. The Mesozoic sequence is almost without any significant break, with increase in thickness from the west to the east, attaining 5 km. The sequence forms the main
Kareem Salih, Watheq
Fire retardants have an extraordinary importance because of their role in saving the people, property and reducing the damages and minimizing the dangers resulting from fires and burning of polymeric composites which are used in different civil and industrial fields. The work in this paper can be divided into two main stages. In first one nano-clay was manufactured from Iraqi bentonite and it was characterized using AFM, XRD, XRF, SEM, and BET. The AFM test showed the particle size of prepared nano clay was about 99.25 nm. In the second stage, polypropylene/nano clay composites at three low loading percents (0%,2%,4%,6%) were formulated via twin screw extruder. The fire retardancy tests included burning rate according to ASTM:D-635 and maximum flame height of flame according to ASTM:D-3014. Besides, the mechanical tests and thermal behavior of prepared samples were investigated. The results showed that (4%) of nano-clay had the maximum fire retardancy and while at (2%) loading, the maximum value of tensile strength and Yong modulus were obtained. The maximum heat of fusion was recorded for 6% nano clay sample. The final results assessment confirmed on the possibility of using low loadings of prepared nano clay to improve the fire retardancy, mechanical and thermal properties successfully.
Full Text Available Non-state armed groups are the main threats to states’ national security in the 21st century, to defend against which, states require useful methods. Recently, use of children by these groups, especially in the Middle East, has turned into one of the most important discussable issues that need to be evaluated in the context of the law of armed conflict. This study aims to discuss legal regime of the military use of children in armed conflict. The main purpose of the study is to analyze the use of child soldiers by the Syrian-Iraqi Salafi-Jihadist Group in its combat operations. In this respect, initially, the legal definition of child soldiers and the role of them in armed conflicts will be discussed. Based on this, different forms of the child soldiers’ involvement in armed conflicts and the international criminal responsibility for their war crimes will be examined as an applicable law in the context of international criminal law.
LeMaster, Joseph W; Broadbridge, Carissa L; Lumley, Mark A; Arnetz, Judith E; Arfken, Cynthia; Fetters, Michael D; Jamil, Hikmet; Pole, Nnamdi; Arnetz, Bengt B
Refugees frequently experience symptoms of posttraumatic stress and depression, which impede their acculturation in the new host country where they are resettling. There are few longitudinal studies investigating predictors of mental health and acculturation during the early postmigration period. We conducted a longitudinal study of 298 Iraqi refugees, assessing them upon arrival to the U.S. and 1 year after migration. Premigration trauma was associated with increased PTSD and depressive symptoms at baseline, and with decreased acculturation 1 year later. Resilience was associated with depressive symptoms at 1-year follow-up, but not with other resettlement outcomes (PTSD symptoms, English-language skills, or acculturation). PTSD and depressive symptoms at baseline predicted the same symptoms at 1-year follow-up, but not any other resettlement outcomes. The number of chronic diseases at baseline predicted worse PTSD and depressive symptoms, acculturation, and English language skills at 1-year follow up. Postmigratory exposure to daily stressors and less social support predicted worse 1-year outcomes. Results suggest that interventions that aim to improve mental health and promote acculturation among refugees should assess their history of trauma, chronic disorders, and psychological symptoms soon after migration, and promptly provide opportunities for social support. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Thair A. Kadhim
Full Text Available The current state of education is mostly electronic. Factors such as servers, storage space, and software are more prominent than ever before. Cloud Computing is defined as an Internet-based computing space that allows its users to share resources, software and information. In the context of Iraq, increased educational spending has not translated into improved learning environments. This work intends to increase the efficiency of education in Iraq through reviewing the characteristics associated with cloud computing providers, such as Microsoft, Google and Amazon, in the context of enhancing the advantages to students, teachers, and other stakeholders. The work will also try to determine approaches that offered rich and affordable services and tools through posing a suitable Cloud Computing Model for Iraqi Schools (CCIS. This particular model is made up of three major parts; preparation, implementation and monitoring, and evaluating and reviewing. The CCIS model combines public and private clouds in the provision of multiple services to the students and enables the formation of links outside of schools. Problems associated with security and data privacy are quite low and under control in this model, as they are defended beyond firewalls alongside remote services, scalability, low costs, efficiency, and functional plug and play options. This study will also decrease the challenges faced by the model internally and externally via constant appraisals and review.
Muntaha A. Abdulwahid
Full Text Available Legal translation of contract agreements is a challenge to translators as it involves combining the literary translation with the technical terminological precision. In translating legal contract agreements, a legal translator must utilize the lexical or syntactic precision and, more importantly, the pragmatic awareness of the context. This will guarantee an overall communicative process and avoid inconsistency in legal translation. However, the inability of the translator to meet these two functions in translating the contract item not only affects the contractors’ comprehension of the contract item but also affects the parties’ contractual obligations. In light of this, the purpose of this study was to find out how legal collocations used in contract agreements are translated from Arabic into English by student-translators in terms of (1 purely technical, (2 semi-technical, and (3 everyday vocabulary collocations. For the data collection, a multiple-choice collocation test was used to be answered by 35 EFL Iraqi undergraduate translator-students to decide on the aspects of weaknesses and strengths of their translation, thus decide on the aspects of correction. The findings showed that these students had serious problems in translating legal collocations as they lack the linguistic knowledge and pragmatic awareness needed to achieve the legal meaning and effect. They were also unable to make a difference among the three categories of legal collocations, purely technical, semi-technical, and everyday vocabulary collocations. These students should be exposed to more legal translation practices to obtain the required experience needed for their future career.
Wright, A. Michelle; Dhalimi, Abir; Lumley, Mark A.; Jamil, Hikmet; Pole, Nnamdi; Arnetz, Judith E.; Arnetz, Bengt B.
Previous refugee research has been unable to link pre-displacement trauma with unemployment in the host country. The current study assessed the role of pre-displacement trauma, post-displacement trauma, and the interaction of both trauma types to prospectively examine unemployment in a random sample of newly-arrived Iraqi refugees. Participants (N=286) were interviewed three times over the first two years post-arrival. Refugees were assessed for pre-displacement trauma exposure, post-displacement trauma exposure, a history of unemployment in the country of origin and host country, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Analyses found that neither pre-displacement nor post-displacement trauma independently predicted unemployment 2 years post-arrival; however, the interaction of pre and post-displacement trauma predicted 2-year unemployment. Refugees with high levels of both pre and post-displacement trauma had a 91% predicted probability of unemployment, whereas those with low levels of both traumas had a 20% predicted probability. This interaction remained significant after controlling for sociodemographic variables and mental health upon arrival to the U.S. Resettlement agencies and community organizations should consider the interactive effect of encountering additional trauma after escaping the hardships of the refugee's country of origin. PMID:27535348
Full Text Available Being labelled and framed as a remote periphery of Iraq, the Kurdistan Region of Iraq is transforming since 2003 into a center attracting investments worth billions of dollars. Investigating this transformation, I scrutinize one of the visible outcomes of the investments, namely shop- ping malls, as examples and symbols of “modernity” and “progress.” The recently built shopping malls are thereby analyzed as the built materialization and symbols of neoliberal transformation and socio-economic change. Engaging with representatives of shopping malls as well as with the experiences of young female shopping-mall-goers, it will be illustrated how modernity and progress is framed within the Kurdish nationalist narrative and how this is taken up by young Kurdish female mall-goers. Thus, it will be contended that a historical narrative of past sufferings comes to legitimize the new liberal “freedoms” that are available through the full connection to and participation of Iraqi Kurdistan in the capitalist economic world system.
Shaemaa Hadi Abdulsada
Full Text Available Patients with β-thalassemia may have an increased risk for diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases due to high level of iron which may lead to insulin resistanceand metabolic syndrome. So this study aimed to evaluate the levels of lipids profile in Iraqi female patients with β-thalassemia. Forty twofemale (age 15-30 years were enrolled in this study. Blood was collected and the sera were separated from (22 female patients with β-thalassemia who were attended the Ibn-Al-Baladi hospital from September 2012 to January 2013 and (20 healthy subject as a control group. Body mass index (BMI, lipid profile, FSG, insulin, insulin resistance, insulin sensitivity, B-cell function, iron, atherogenic index of serum were estimated. The results showed the presence of a significant increase in serum iron and significant decrease in insulin, B-cell function, LDL, VLDL, and TC in serum of patients with β-thalassemia when compared with control group. BMI also showed a significant decrease in patients when compared with the controls. Serum Insulin resistance, insulin sensitivity, HDL, TG, AIS, and FSG showed no-significant differences in patients with β-thalassemia when compared with control group. We concluded there was no metabolic syndrome in female patients with β-thalassemia.
Pruitt, Jr, Basil A
.... Treatment refinements developed during wartime and research findings generated during conflict and the interbellum periods have been transferred to the civilian community to improve the care of all trauma patients...
Matthews, Warren E
...: economic development, political parties, and the Monarchy. Next, the thesis analyzes three different periods in Thailand's political development to determine trends in the level of military autonomy and civilian control...
Peczalski, Andy; Kriz, Jeff; Carlson, Stephen G; Sampson, Steven J
... AND T) MMGR objective of meeting pervasive defense system requirements and civilian needs for ultra-small GPS receiver technology is dependent in part upon the creation of multi- L-band reconfigurable...
...) recent analysis of the effects of reserve call-ups on civilian employers. The military reserves provide trained service members and units that are available for active military duty during peacetime and war...
... 0720-AB48] Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services (CHAMPUS); TRICARE Young Adult... Year 2011 (NDAA for FY11). It establishes the TRICARE Young Adult (TYA) program to provide an extended.... The TRICARE Young [[Page 23480
... regional centers, and attempting to improve personnel management business processes. A key part of this initiative is Defense's development of a new information management system-the Defense Civilian Personnel Data System (DCPDs...
The Department of Defense (DoD) prides itself on providing "world class" training and continuing education to its military employees and would like to expand that reputation to its civilian employees...
Elling, Terry L
.... The thesis examines the advice to accused persons concerning the nature of the charge to which they pleaded guilty and the manner in which military and civilian judges develop the factual basis to support a guilty plea...
Department of Veterans Affairs — Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Department of Veterans Affairs (CHAMPVA) is a health care benefit program designed for the dependents of certain Veterans....
The objective of the study was to compare the prevalence of intimate partner violence and health consequences in civilian and active duty military women in the same geographic area using telephone survey and a case...
.... While international space law is very permissive with regard to military uses of space, there are considerable legal and security implications resulting from military and civilian dependence on the same space services...
.... Particularly in El Salvador, which has only just recently resolved a decade-long insurgency, there exists an absolute need for the civilian and military leadership to work efficiently and effectively...
Turner, Conor D. A.; Lockey, David J.; Rehn, Marius
Background Mass casualty civilian shootings present an uncommon but recurring challenge to emergency services around the world and produce unique management demands. On the background of a rising threat of transnational terrorism worldwide, emergency response strategies are of critical importance. This study aims to systematically identify, describe and appraise the quality of indexed and non-indexed literature on the pre-hospital management of modern civilian mass shootings to guide future p...
Richard Shelly Hartigan, Civilian Victims in War: A Political History (Chicago: Precedent Publishers, 2010), 5–6. 32 Ibid., 7. 33 Martha Finnemore...in the DRC, and also because it casts light on the convoluted reality of violence in the eastern Congo. That is, it presents a visceral example of how...be Anonymous,’” National Public Radio World News, 6 April 2011. Hartigan, Richard Shelly . Civilian Victims in War: A Political History. Chicago
Smith, EA; Malone, RE
Smoking impairs the readiness and performance of military personnel, yet congressional opposition has thwarted military tobacco control initiatives. Involvement of civilian organizations might alter this political dynamic. We interviewed 13 leaders of national civilian public health and tobacco control organizations to explore their perspectives on military tobacco control, inductively analyzing data for themes. Leaders believed that military tobacco use was problematic but lacked specific kn...
External Relation, Clarity of Expression, Social Style, Subject Matter, and Aesthetics ). Each of these 10 subscales are rated on a scale of 0 to 5 where 0...Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0635 TITLE: Treatment of Social Competence in Military Veterans, Service Members, and Civilians with Traumatic Brain...1Aug2014 - 31Jul2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Treatment of Social Competence in Military Veterans, Service Members, and Civilians with
Burch, J M; Feliciano, D V; Mattox, K L
One hundred consecutive patients with injuries to the extraperitoneal rectum were treated over a ten-year period at an urban trauma center. The mechanisms of injury included firearms in 82 patients, stab wounds in 3 patients, a variety of other penetrating injuries in 10 patients, and in 5 patients the injuries resulted from blunt trauma. Treatment of the rectal injury was determined by the bias of the operating surgeon, the condition of the patient, and the magnitude of the rectal injury. Proximal loop colostomies were performed in 44 patients, diverting colostomies in 51 patients, Hartmann's procedure in 4 patients, and an abdominoperineal resection in 1 patient. Extraperitoneal rectal perforations were closed in 21 patients and the rectum was irrigated free of feces in 46 patients. Transperineal, presacral drainage was used in 93 patients. Infectious complications potentially related to the management of the rectal wound occurred in 11 patients (11%) and included abdominal or pelvic abscesses (4 patients), wound infections (6 patients), rectocutaneous fistulas (3 patients), and missile tract infections (2 patients). Four patients (4%) died as a result of their injuries. Of the therapeutic options available, statistical analysis revealed that only the failure to drain the presacral space increased the likelihood of infectious complications (p = 0.03); however, as it could not be determined with certainty that the use of, or failure to use, any particular therapeutic option had an effect on the risk of death. It is concluded that colostomy and drainage are the foundations of the successful treatment of civilian injuries to the extraperitoneal rectum. The use of adjuncts such as diverting colostomies, repair of the rectal wound, and irrigation of the rectum has little effect on mortality and morbidity. PMID:2705824
Miqdam Tariq Chaichan
Iraqi conventional gasoline characterized by its low octane number not exceed 82 and high lead and sulfur content. In this paper tri-component or ternary, blends of gasoline, ethanol, and methanol presented as an alternative fuel for Iraqi conventional gasoline. The study conducted by using GEM blend that equals E85 blend in octane rating. The used GEM selected from Turner, 2010 collection. G37 E20 M43 (37% gasoline + 20% ethanol+ 43% methanol) was chosen as GEM in present study. This blend u...
Jawad, L. A
Full Text Available Two specimens (116,119 mm TL of Heniochus acuminatus (Linnaeus, 1758 and four specimens (171–190 mm TL of Pomacanthus maculosus (Forsskål, 1775 were collected from Iraqi marine waters of the Arabian Gulf. These findings confirm the presence of H. acuminatus and establish the first record of P. maculosus from Iraqi waters. The samples were captured by hook and line off the coasts of Al–Fao City Peninsula, southern Iraq. Arabian Gulf. morphometric and meristic data are provided and compared with data from other parts of the world.
This dissertation investigates the processes of mobilization and demobilization of fighters during civil war. Why do civilians, at some point during a conflict, decide to participate in the violence of the war? What are the consequences of becoming part of a guerilla movement? And, once a civil war
Kashuk, Jeffry L; Cothren, C Clay; Moore, Ernest E; Johnson, Jeffrey L; Biffl, Walter L; Barnett, Carlton C
Although the safety of primary repair/anastomosis for civilian colon injuries after standard laparotomy (SL) has been established, recent civilian and military reports have questioned the advisability of this technique in the patient requiring damage control laparotomy (DL). We hypothesized that, even in the high-risk DL group, primary repair could be safely used after patient stabilization and that the open abdomen would facilitate the safety of this procedure. All patients admitted to our level 1 trauma center with a colon injury over a 7-year period were reviewed from a prospectively collected database. Patients were categorized as having undergone either SL or DL at initial operation. Primary variables of interest were as follows: injury patterns; method of primary repair (suture repair, resection and primary anastomosis, resection and delayed anastomosis); diversion techniques (planned diversion or diversion for anastomotic dehiscence); and colon-related morbidity and mortality. High-risk status in the DL group was identified by the following physiologic variables: mean injury severity score (ISS), red blood cell (RBC) transfusions, ventilator days, and intensive care unit (ICU) duration of stay. During the study period, 309 patients had colonic wounds identified at laparotomy. Of these 309 patients, 280 (91%) underwent SL, of which 277 (98.9%) had primary colonic repair/anastomosis. In the SL group, 1 (0.3%) patient required diversion for subsequent leak and 2 (0.6%) patients had planned diversion The remaining 29 hemodynamically unstable patients required DL. Mean +/- standard deviation indices of injury severity in this group included: ISS = 36.2 +/- 15.8, RBC = 28.7 +/- 25.4 units, ventilator days = 20.1 +/- 16.3, ICU duration of stay = 29.5 +/- 21.6 days. Of the 29 patients in the DL group, 21 (72%) had bowel continuity successfully reestablished in 2.6 +/- 2 days after initial attempts at primary suture repair or resection/anastomosis. A total of 4 (16
Business-Higher Education Forum, 2013
This report shows how insights gained from system dynamics modeling and the U.S. STEM Undergraduate Model® can help inform the Navy's strategy to grow a robust civilian workforce that is strongly invested with Navy-relevant STEM skills and ready to contribute to the next generation of Naval innovation. This work positions the Navy to serve a…
Varnado, S.G.; Mitchiner, J.L.
Electrical power generation by controlled fusion may provide a partial solution to the world's long-term energy supply problem. Achievement of a fusion reaction requires the confinement of an extremely hot plasma for a time long enough to allow fuel burnup. Inertial confinement of the plasma may be possible through the use of tightly focused, relativistic electron or ion beams to compress a fuel pellet. The Sandia Particle Beam Fusion program is developing the particle-beam accelerators necessary to achieve fuel ignition. In this report we review the status of the particle-beam fusion technology development program and identify several potential civilian applications for this technology. We describe program objectives, discuss the specific accelerators presently under development, and briefly review the results of beam-focusing and target-irradiation experiments. Then we identify and discuss applications for the beam technology and for the fusion neutrons. The applications are grouped into near-term, intermediate-term, and long-term categories. Near-term applications for the beam technology include electron-beam (e-beam) pumping of gas lasers and several commercial applications. Intermediate-term applications (pellet gain less than 50) include hybrid reactors for electrical power production and fissile fuel breeding, pure fusion reactors for electrical power production, and medical therapy using ion accelerators. In the long term, complex, high-gain pellets may be used in pure fusion reactors
Worley, Gordon H
Helicopters are commonly used in search and rescue operations, and accidents have occurred during helicopter search and rescue (HSAR) missions. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether the HSAR accident rate in the United States could be determined and whether any common contributing factors or trends could be identified. Searches were conducted of the National Transportation Safety Board aviation accident database, the records of the major search and rescue and air medical organizations, and the medical and professional literature for reports of HSAR accidents. A total of 47 civilian HSAR accidents were identified during the study. Of these, 43% involved fatal injuries, compared with a 19% fatality rate for US helicopter general aviation accidents during the same time period and a 40% rate for helicopter emergency medical services. The HSAR accidents carried a significantly higher risk of fatal outcomes when compared with helicopter general aviation accidents (2-tailed Fisher's exact test, P .05). The number of HSAR missions conducted annually could not be established, so an overall accident rate could not be calculated. Although the overall number of HSAR accidents is small, the percentage of fatal outcomes from HSAR accidents is significantly higher than that from general helicopter aviation accidents and is comparable to that seen for helicopter emergency medical services operations. Further study could help to improve the safety of HSAR flights. Copyright © 2015 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available While psychopathology in general is linked to poorer marital and parental satisfaction, there is a paucity of data regarding these interactions in parents with Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The current study addresses this issue among a civilian population. Two hundred trauma-exposed parents, mean age of 37.2, 62% mothers, were assessed using self-report questionnaires, for background variables, PTSD symptoms using the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS, depression symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI, marital satisfaction (Dyadic Adjustment Scale, DAS-7, parenting behavior (Alabama Parenting Questionnaire, APQ-9, and parenting satisfaction (Parenting Satisfaction Questionnaire. We hypothesized that positive parenting behavior and parenting satisfaction would be negatively correlated with PTSD symptom levels, and that this relationship would be mediated by marital satisfaction; the independent effects of depression on marital and parenting functioning were also examined. Data was analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM. Results indicated that PTSD was related to poorer parenting behavior (B = 0.089, p = 0.033, depression had a negative impact on parenting satisfaction (B = 0.983, p = 0.003, and marital satisfaction (B = −0.672, p = 0.004, and marital satisfaction fully mediated the relationship between depression and parenting. The findings demonstrated that the effects of PTSD can cast a pall not only over the individual but over the entire family. Interventions are needed to address these issues.
The total-system life-cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is an ongoing activity that helps determine whether the revenue-producing mechanism established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 -- a fee levied on electricity generated in commercial nuclear power plants -- is sufficient to cover the cost of the program. This report provides cost estimates for the sixth annual evaluation of the adequacy of the fee and is consistent with the program strategy and plans contained in the DOE's Draft 1988 Mission Plan Amendment. The total-system cost for the system with a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS), and a transportation system is estimated at $24 billion (expressed in constant 1988 dollars). In the event that a second repository is required and is authorized by the Congress, the total-system cost is estimated at $31 to $33 billion, depending on the quantity of spent fuel to be disposed of. The $7 billion cost savings for the single-repository system in comparison with the two-repository system is due to the elimination of $3 billion for second-repository development and $7 billion for the second-repository facility. These savings are offset by $2 billion in additional costs at the first repository and $1 billion in combined higher costs for the MRS facility and transportation. 55 refs., 2 figs., 24 tabs
Shabila, Nazar P; Al-Tawil, Namir G; Al-Hadithi, Tariq S; Sondorp, Egbert; Vaughan, Kelsey
As part of a comprehensive study on the primary health care system in Iraq, we sought to explore primary care providers' perspectives about the main problems influencing the provision of primary care services and opportunities to improve the system. A qualitative study based on four focus groups involving 40 primary care providers from 12 primary health care centres was conducted in Erbil governorate in the Iraqi Kurdistan region between July and October 2010. A topic guide was used to lead discussions and covered questions on positive aspects of and current problems with the primary care system in addition to the priority needs for its improvement. The discussions were fully transcribed and the qualitative data was analyzed by content analysis, followed by a thematic analysis. Problems facing the primary care system included inappropriate health service delivery (irrational use of health services, irrational treatment, poor referral system, poor infrastructure and poor hygiene), health workforce challenges (high number of specialists, uneven distribution of the health workforce, rapid turnover, lack of training and educational opportunities and discrepancies in the salary system), shortage in resources (shortage and low quality of medical supplies and shortage in financing), poor information technology and poor leadership/governance. The greatest emphasis was placed on poor organization of health services delivery, particularly the irrational use of health services and the related overcrowding and overload on primary care providers and health facilities. Suggestions for improving the system included application of a family medicine approach and ensuring effective planning and monitoring. This study has provided a comprehensive understanding of the factors that negatively affect the primary care system in Iraq's Kurdistan region from the perspective of primary care providers. From their experience, primary care providers have a role in informing the community and
Shabila, Nazar P
An important proactive factor for the continuation of female genital mutilation (FGM) is tradition and customs inherited in the family from mothers to daughters. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine mothers' factors associated with the occurrence of FGM among their daughters. The datasets from the Iraq Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011, on 5,184 women aged 15 to 49 years having at least one daughter, was used. Multivariate analysis based on a binary logistic regression model was applied. Mothers' age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 8.18 at ages 25-34 years, aOR = 22.64 at ages 35-44 years, and aOR = 29.78 at ages 45-49 years, compared to the age group 15-24 years), educational level (aOR = 0.52 for primary education, aOR = 0.26 for secondary education, and aOR = 0.03 for higher education compared to uneducated), employment status (aOR = 0.55 for women having office work compared with unemployed), FGM status (aOR = 27.44 for circumcised mothers compared to uncircumcised), the governorate of residence (aOR = 18.73 for Suleimaniya and aOR = 33.23 for Erbil compared with Dohuk), and the wealth index of the household (aOR = 0.55 for richest group compared to the poorest) were significantly associated with the occurrence of FGM in daughters. Strategies aimed at preventing this harmful practice in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region should include female education and empowerment.
Othman, Nasih; Kendrick, Denise; Al-Windi, Ahmad
While it is globally observed that young children are at a higher risk of burn injuries, little is known about childhood burns in Iraqi Kurdistan. This study was undertaken to describe the epidemiology of burns amongst pre-school children in this region. A prospective study was undertaken from November 2007 to November 2008 involving all children aged 0-5 years attending the burns centre in Sulaimaniyah province for a new burn injury whether treated as an outpatient or admitted to hospital. 1,122 children attended the burns centre of whom 944 (84%) were interviewed (male 53%, female 47%). Mean age was 1.9 years with children aged 1 year comprising 32% and those aged 2 years comprising 21% of the sample. The incidence of burns was 1044/100,000 person-years (1030 in females and 1057 in males). Mechanisms of injury included scalds (80%), contact burns (12%) flames (6%) and other mechanisms (2%). Almost 97% of burns occurred at home including 43% in the kitchen. Winter was the commonest season (36%) followed by autumn (24%). There were 3 peak times of injury during the day corresponding to meal times. The majority of burns were caused by hot water (44%) and tea (20%) and the most common equipment/products responsible were tea utensils (41%). There were 237 admissions with an admission rate of 95 per 100,000 person-years. Scald injuries accounted for most admissions (84%). Median total body surface area affected by the burn or scald (TBSA) was 11% and median hospital stay was 7 days. In-hospital mortality was 8%. Mortality rate was 4% when TBSA was ≤25%, and 100% when TBSA was over 50%. Burn incidence is high in young children especially those aged 1-2 years. Preventive interventions targeted at families with young children & focusing on home safety measures could be effective in reducing childhood burns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Al-Mendalawi, Mahmood Dhahir; Karam, Nadia Taha
Tooth decay (TD) is common in children with significant consequences on systemic well-being, growth and quality of life, as well as increasing the risk of decay in the permanent teeth. The aim of the present study is to define risk factors associated with deciduous TD (DTD) in Iraqi preschool children. From the 1(st) June to 31(st) December 2012, a case-control study was carried out on 684 children under the age of 6 years who attended Al-Aulwyiah pediatric teaching hospital in Baghdad. Clinical examination and World Health Organization caries diagnostic criteria for decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) were applied. Data including gender, residence, socio-economic status (SES), parental education level, parental smoking, tooth brushing frequency, type of feeding during infancy and the presence of any systemic disease in the child were sought. The mean DMFT score in the case group was 2.03 ± 1.39, of which decayed teeth formed 1.93. Males had a higher mean DMFT (2.10 ± 1.08) than females (1.96 ± 1.70) but with no statistically significant difference. The study revealed that residence, SES, parental education level and tooth brushing frequency were dependent risk factors significantly associated with DTD. However, gender, parental smoking and pattern of feeding during infancy were not significantly associated with DTD. Only four children with systemic disorders (1.2%), namely asthma and congenital heart diseases, were noticed to have DTD. Pediatricians and dentists could provide dental preventive and screening measures. Confronting relevant risk factors associated with DTD and improving access to oral care services are suggested. In addition, promotion of oral health programs through school curricula is needed.
This report has the following sections: Summary; Civilian Power Reactors; Applied and Reactor Physics; Reactor Fuels and Materials; Engineering Development; Plutonium Recycle Program; and Nuclear Safety.
Full Text Available Background: Consequences of war-related traumatisation have mostly been investigated in military and predominant male populations, while research on female civilian victims of war has been neglected. Furthermore, research of post-war posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in women has rarely included early-life trauma in their prediction models, so the contribution of trauma in childhood and early youth is still unexplored. Objective: To examine the relationship of early-life trauma, war-related trauma, personality traits, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress among female civilian victims of the recent war in Croatia. Method: The cross-sectional study included 394 participants, 293 war-traumatised adult women civilians, and 101 women without war-related trauma. Participants were recruited using the snowball sampling method. The applied instruments included the Clinician-Administrated PTSD Scale (CAPS, the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R, the War Stressors Assessment Questionnaire (WSAQ, and the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form (ETISR-SF. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to assess the prediction model of PTSD symptom severity measured by CAPS score for current PTSD. Results: The prevalence of current PTSD (CAPS cut-off score=65 in this cohort was 20.7%. The regression model that included age, early-life trauma, war-related trauma, neuroticism, and extraversion as statistically significant predictors explained 45.8% of variance in PTSD symptoms. Conclusions: Older age, exposure to early-life trauma, exposure to war-related traumatic events, high neuroticism, and low extraversion are independent factors associated with higher level of PTSD symptoms among women civilian victims of war.
Boyd, L Renee; Borawski, J; Lairet, J; Limkakeng, A T
Our understanding of the expertise and equipment required to air transport injured soldiers with severe traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) continue to evolve. We conducted a retrospective chart review of characteristics, interventions required and short-term outcomes of patients with severe TBI managed by the US Air Force Critical Care Air Transport Teams (CCATTs) deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom between 1 June 2007 and 31 August 2010. Patients were cared for based on guidelines given by the Brain Trauma Foundation and the Joint Theater Trauma System by non-neurosurgeon physicians with dedicated neurocritical care training. We report basic characteristics, injuries, interventions required and complications during transport. Intracranial haemorrhage was the most common diagnosis in this cohort. Most injuries were weapon related. During this study, there were no reported in-flight deaths. The majority of patients were mechanically ventilated. There were 45 patients who required at least one vasopressor to maintain adequate tissue perfusion, including four patients who required three or more. Some patients required intracranial pressure (ICP) management, treatment of diabetes insipidus and/or seizure prophylaxis medications. Air transport personnel must be prepared to provide standard critical care but also care specific to TBIs, including ICP control and management of diabetes insipidus. Although these patients and their potential complications are traditionally managed by neurosurgeons, those providers without neurosurgical backgrounds can be provided this training to help fill a wartime need. This study provides data for the future development of air transport guidelines for validating and clearing flight surgeons. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Mirlashari, Jila; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht; Amin, Pakestan Mohammad
Patients with burns have to live with a variety of long-term physical and psychosocial consequences. Burns lead to prolonged hospital stay, disfiguring scars, disability, and even death. Since self-immolation is common in women of Iraqi Kurdistan, the present study sought to explore the experiences of women living with scars caused by self-immolation. This paper was part of a qualitative research study. A purposive sample of 18 female self-immolation survivors from Iraqi Kurdistan was selected, and 21 individual interviews were conducted and analyzed using conventional content analysis. Four categories emerged during the data analysis: (1) feelings of disbelief, regret, and anger caused by post-burn scars; (2) desperately seeking solutions; (3) grief due to disappointment and surrender to despair; and (4) rejection and isolation. In conclusion, individuals with scars and disfigurements sometimes adopted inappropriate measures to deal with the psychological problems caused by others' behaviors and wrong perceptions. Educational and support programs are hence indicated to promote awareness levels of self-immolation survivors, their families, and the whole society. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Al-Emam, A. M.; Mhemeed, A.K.; Hasan, H.I.
The present study aims to determine the concentration of polonium 2 10P o in some of the food consumed by the Iraqi individual collecting (27) sample produced within the country, including imported and available in local markets to some Iraqi provinces, and these foods included potatoes, wheat and fish. To find concentration of polonium 2 10P o method is used chemical separation and deposition on silver disc, and use surface barrier detector to find alpha particle spectrum for polonium and find concentrations ere at 7.15, 2.58, 6.86 Bq / kg, for each of potatoes, wheat and fish, respectively, Daily intake rate for polotuinm 2 10P o which found in the food under study was measured, and show that the annual dose resulting from eating foods that contain this element was at 4.55, 87,69, 0.298 μSv/ y for food stuff mentioned are compatible with universal values and within the permissible limits worldwide. (Author)
Al-Qaraghuli, S. A.
Iraqi western plateau is considered as one of the most resourceful areas of the middle east, that is not yet well explored, due to the many political disturbances and security issues. The viability of underground water for the various industrial, municipal, commercial and agricultural uses is examined for Shithatha, Karbala governorates as a representative for the western plateau via chemical and physical analysis of water samples that are taken from 9 wells and 3 springs all-around the study area during the wet and dry periods. Hydro chemical and statistical analysis for the field samples have proved that groundwater of the studied area is classified as slightly-brackish water and water hardness is very high. Also, the results of the analyses of trace elements in the groundwater of the study area have confirmed the contamination of groundwater with some elements such as (Fe, Cd, Pb, Ni) in concentrations that have exceeded the WHO and Iraqi national standards IQS, permissible limits. The application of Hydro-chemical formulae of Kurlouv and Piper, Schoeller, Stiff classifications have demonstrated that most samples of the study area have water type of (Na2SO4) while other samples have ranged between (MgSO4), and (NaCl) water type. The quality of groundwater is unsuitable for drinking and industrial purposes and it is almost suitable for irrigation purposes, but it is suitable for livestock, building and agricultural purposes because the salinity of the water is within the permissible limits when considering the nature of the soil.
Zander, Viktoria; Müllersdorf, Maria; Christensson, Kyllike; Eriksson, Henrik
As dispersed ethnic populations in Swedish society expand, the healthcare system need to adapt rehabilitation services according to their needs. The experiences of trauma and forced resettlement have a continuing impact on health and musculoskeletal pain, as well as the intersecting structures that prerequisite the possibilities in the new country. To understand the specific needs of women from the Iraqi diaspora in Sweden, there is a need to elucidate the effects of pain on their everyday life. To elucidate everyday life with chronic pain from the perspective of women from the Iraqi diaspora in Sweden. Qualitative interview study according to Glaser's grounded theory. The results from 11 interviews suggest that pain was associated with dependency on society as well as on family. It resulted in a struggle for sense of control, framed by faith in God, influenced by the healthcare system, and with support from family. The women's testimony of lack of continuity of care, resulting in recollection of lived traumas in every visit, is a vital sign of the unconscious power relations within health care and how representatives from health care, instead of being the ones who help the women forward, become the ones who hold them back. The results show the importance of challenging the normative assumptions embedded in health care and treatment for patients with chronic pain and of including the voice of "others".
Full Text Available This paper deals with the way in which Communist writers in mid-twentieth-century Iraq used literature in order to, on the one hand express their tense relationship with the regime during times of severe political repression, and on the other hand sharply criticize the Iraqi people themselves for not taking responsibility for or caring about their fate—or, for that matter, for failing to internalize the social class discourse to which the Communists aspired. The paper’s objective is to examine the connection between the writers’ ideology and the rhetorical and conceptual elements with which they expressed their dissatisfaction with the regime, the way Iraqi society was run, and the desires of both—intellectuals and society at large—to undergo change. In addition, this study will survey the esthetic and stylistic devices, which the writers under consideration chose, and consider both the meanings and motives behind their choices. These aspects will be examined in the framework of a proposed model of “circles of criticism.”
Collet, Bruce A.; Bang, Hyeyoung
Drawing on data collected in South Korea, Jordan and the USA, this paper examines the degree to which security concerns impact the schooling of North Korean refugees in South Korea and Iraqi refugees in Jordan. Operating from a framework examining the intersection of migration and securitisation, the authors find that accounts of negative images…
Wynd, Christine A; Ryan-Wenger, Nancy A
This study identified health-risk and health-promoting behaviors in military and civilian personnel employed in hospitals. Intrinsic self-motivation and extrinsic organizational workplace factors were examined as predictors of health behaviors. Because reservists represent a blend of military and civilian lifestyles, descriptive analyses focused on comparing Army Reserve personnel (n = 199) with active duty Army (n = 218) and civilian employees (n = 193), for a total sample of 610. Self-motivation and social support were significant factors contributing to the adoption of health-promoting behaviors; however, organizational workplace cultures were inconsistent predictors of health among the three groups. Only the active Army subgroup identified a hierarchical culture as having an influence on health promotion, possibly because of the Army's mandatory physical fitness and weight control standards. Social support and self-motivation are essential to promoting health among employees, thus hospital commanders and chief executive officers should encourage strategies that enhance and reward these behaviors.
Farzanegan, G.; Mohebbi, H.A.; Moharamzad, Y.
To determine the results of discectomy surgery for lumbar disc herniation in military personnel and compare it with civilians. One-hundred and seventeen military patients (54 subjects as combat forces and 63 as office personnel) and 115 civilians, who underwent discectomy surgery were included. In a mean duration of 50.8 months, the ability to return to full duty and resolution of complaints were assessed and satisfaction was measured using a Visual Analog Scale. Inability to return to previous duty was significantly higher in military personnel compared to civilians (p = 0.002); and in combat forces compared to office personnel (p 0.05). Surgical intervention had relatively poor outcomes in military personnel, specifically in combat forces. Prevention of injury to back region should be considered in military training programs and in case of presence of disc herniation related symptoms, efforts should be made to save patients effective function by conservation and medical therapies. (author)
Mundell, Benjamin F; Friedberg, Mark W; Eibner, Christine; Mundell, William C
The US Military Health System (MHS), which is responsible for providing care to active and retired members of the military and their dependents, faces challenges in delivering cost-effective, high-quality primary care while maintaining a provider workforce capable of meeting both peacetime and wartime needs. The MHS has implemented workforce management strategies to address these challenges, including "medical home" teams for primary care and other strategies that expand the roles of nonphysician providers such as physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and medical technicians. Because these workforce strategies have been implemented relatively recently, there is limited evidence of their effectiveness. If they prove successful, they could serve as a model for the civilian sector. However, because the MHS model features a broad mix of provider types, changes to civilian scope-of-practice regulations for nonphysician providers would be necessary before the civilian provider mix could replicate that of the MHS.
The CRD addresses the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3-Change 1, ''Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets'', by providing the Secretarial Acquisition Executive (Level 0) scope baseline and the Program-level (Level 1) technical baseline. The Secretarial Acquisition Executive approves the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management's (OCRWM) critical decisions and changes against the Level 0 baseline; and in turn, the OCRWM Director approves all changes against the Level 1 baseline. This baseline establishes the top-level technical scope of the CRMWS and its three system elements, as described in section 1.3.2. The organizations responsible for design, development, and operation of system elements described in this document must therefore prepare subordinate project-level documents that are consistent with the CRD. Changes to requirements will be managed in accordance with established change and configuration control procedures. The CRD establishes requirements for the design, development, and operation of the CRWMS. It specifically addresses the top-level governing laws and regulations (e.g., ''Nuclear Waste Policy Act'' (NWPA), 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 63, 10 CFR Part 71, etc.) along with specific policy, performance requirements, interface requirements, and system architecture. The CRD shall be used as a vehicle to incorporate specific changes in technical scope or performance requirements that may have significant program implications. Such may include changes to the program mission, changes to operational capability, and high visibility stakeholder issues. The CRD uses a systems approach to: (1) identify key functions that the CRWMS must perform, (2) allocate top-level requirements derived from statutory, regulatory, and programmatic sources, and (3) define the basic elements of the system architecture and operational concept. Project-level documents address CRD requirements by further
Cooper, Linda; Andrew, Sharon; Fossey, Matt
In the UK, military veterans will receive care by civilian nurses in civilian hospitals. We propose that the nurses providing this care require an understanding of the unique experiences and specific health needs of veterans to deliver evidence-based care. To conduct an integrative review of published literature to explore how nursing programmes prepare nurses to care for the military veteran population in civilian hospitals. A systematic search was undertaken of a range of electronic databases, Google Scholar and hand searching of Military and Veteran health journals. Papers that focused on education of civilian nurses about veteran health and included primary research or description of practice-based innovations were included in the review. The search generated sixteen papers that were focused on nurse education in higher education institutions. Several papers focused on simulation as a teaching method for veteran-specific health issues or curriculum developments with educational innovations such as online courses. Six papers focusing in continuing professional education of nurses in the clinical setting were included as supplementary information. All papers reviewed were US focused and dated between January 2011 and September 2015. Our search concluded that there is a gap in knowledge in this subject area within a UK context, therefore our review includes UK background information to support the US findings. Civilian nurses need educational preparation to understand the specific needs of veterans. Educational institutions in the US have responded to nationwide initiatives to undertake that preparation. More empirical studies need to be undertaken to develop, test and evaluate educational innovations for preparing students and nurses delivering care to military veteran in civilian healthcare settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ivchenko, E V; Borisov, D N; Golota, A S; Krassiĭ, A B; Rusev, I T
The current article positions the combined burn and non-burn injuries in the general array of civilian and combat burns. For that purpose the official state statistics and scientific medical publications, domestic as well as foreign, have been analyzed. It has been shown that in peace time the combined burn/trauma injuries are infrequent. But the same type of injury becomes routine especially among the civilian population in the conditions of the modern so called "hybrid war". And the medical service should be prepared for it.
Sprecher, W.M.; Katz, J.; Redmond, R.J.
This paper describes the approach that the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) of the Department of Energy (DOE) is taking to the task of strategic planning for the civilian high-level radioactive waste management program. It highlights selected planning products and activities that have emerged over the past year. It demonstrates that this approach is an integrated one, both in the sense of being systematic on the program level but also as a component of DOE strategic planning efforts. Lastly, it indicates that OCRWM strategic planning takes place in a dynamic environment and consequently is a process that is still evolving in response to the demands placed upon it
reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors. Support RAND Make a tax-deductible charitable contribution at www.rand.org/giving... Organisation [now the Defence Science and Technology Group] EEAS European External Action Service FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency HR human resources... Organisation (DSTO); and the European Union’s European External Action Service (EEAS) Civilian Planning and Conduct Capability (CPCC), including a
The PERSEREC Crime Self-Reporting Study covers criminal record checks conducted in CY00 on 14,470 subjects of DoD security clearance investigations, including uniformed military, civilian, and contractor personnel...
Jurick, Sarah M; Crocker, Laura D; Sanderson-Cimino, Mark; Keller, Amber V; Trenova, Liljana S; Boyd, Briana L; Twamley, Elizabeth W; Rodgers, Carie S; Schiehser, Dawn M; Aupperle, Robin L; Jak, Amy J
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), and executive function (EF) difficulties are prevalent in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans. We evaluated the contributions of injury variables, lower-order cognitive component processes (processing speed/attention), and psychological symptoms to EF. OEF/OIF Veterans (N = 65) with PTSD and history of mTBI were administered neuropsychological tests of EF and self-report assessments of PTSD and depression. Those impaired on one or more EF measures had higher PTSD and depression symptoms and lower processing speed/attention performance than those with intact performance on all EF measures. Across participants, poorer attention/processing speed performance and higher psychological symptoms were associated with worse performance on specific aspects of EF (eg, inhibition and switching) even after accounting for injury variables. Although direct relationships between EF and injury variables were equivocal, there was an interaction between measures of injury burden and processing speed/attention such that those with greater injury burden exhibited significant and positive relationships between processing speed/attention and inhibition/switching, whereas those with lower injury burden did not. Psychological symptoms as well as lower-order component processes of EF (attention and processing speed) contribute significantly to executive dysfunction in OEF/OIF Veterans with PTSD and history of mTBI. However, there may be equivocal relationships between injury variables and EF that warrant further study. Results provide groundwork for more fully understanding cognitive symptoms in OEF/OIF Veterans with PTSD and history of mTBI that can inform psychological and cognitive interventions in this population.
Pietrzak, Robert H; Morgan, Charles A; Southwick, Steven M
Sleep difficulties are common in individuals exposed to stress or trauma, and maladaptive cognitive coping strategies, such as worry and fear of losing vigilance, as well as low social support, may further impair sleep quality. This study examined the severity and correlates of sleep difficulties in a sample of treatment-seeking veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF-OIF). A total of 167 OEF-OIF veterans seeking behavioral or primary care services completed a questionnaire containing measures of sleep quality, combat exposure, psychopathology, fear of loss of vigilance, cognitive coping strategies, and unit and postdeployment social support within 1 year of returning from deployment. Mean Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory scores in the full sample were indicative of severely impaired sleep. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was associated with increased sleep difficulties, most notably sleep disturbances, daytime dysfunction, and sleep quality. Hierarchical regression analysis in the full sample revealed that PTSD symptoms and scores on measures of worry and fear of loss of vigilance were positively associated with sleep difficulties and that scores on a measure of unit member support were negatively associated with sleep difficulties. Among veterans with PTSD, fear of loss of vigilance was positively associated with sleep difficulties and cognitive distraction and unit member support were negatively associated with sleep difficulties. Treatment-seeking OEF-OIF veterans report severe sleep difficulties, with more pronounced impairment in veterans with PTSD. The results of this study suggest that interventions to mitigate worry and fear of loss of vigilance and to enhance perceived unit member support may be helpful in reducing sleep difficulties following return from deployment in this population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mortera, Marianne H; Kinirons, Stacy A; Simantov, Jessie; Klingbeil, Heidi
To describe Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans who underwent the Comprehensive Traumatic Brain Injury Evaluation (CTBIE), differences between the traumatic brain injury (TBI) and non-TBI subgroups, and factors associated with return to productivity (RTP). Retrospective medical record review. Medical center. Medical records of OEF/OIF veterans (N=236) who underwent the CTBIE between 2009 and 2013. Not applicable. Demographic characteristics, injury history, clinical presentation, and factors associated with RTP. Veteran sample included 90.7% men, was 45.3% white and 34.7% black, with half of Hispanic origin, and had a mean age of 33 years. The mean time since injury was approximately 4 years. Reported symptoms were high, with >90% reporting anxiousness, irritability, sleep difficulty, forgetfulness, and headaches. TBI diagnosis was found in 163 veterans (69%). The TBI subgroup was younger (TBI: 32.5y vs non-TBI: 34.9y; P=.02), reported a greater number of injuries (P<.001), and had significantly higher rates of half of the reported symptoms. Greatest differences were noted with forgetfulness (TBI: 95.7% vs non-TBI: 79.5%; P<.001), poor concentration (TBI: 90.2% vs non-TBI: 76.7%; P=.007), and headaches (TBI: 93.9% vs non-TBI: 83.6%; P=.014). RTP was 60.6% for the total veteran population. Factors associated with RTP were race (white) (odds ratio [OR], 2.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-3.55; P=.018), sensitivity to light (OR, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.17-5.66; P=.018), and fatigue (OR, 3.68; 95% CI, 1.51-8.95; P=.004). Veterans that did RTP were 3 times less likely to report depression (OR, .32; 95% CI, .12-.85; P=.022). Veterans reported a substantial number of lingering symptoms, with a higher prevalence in veterans with TBI. Veterans with reported depression were less likely to RTP. Future research should focus on the relation between depression and non-RTP and the effectiveness of Department of Veterans Affairs services. Copyright
Tsai, Alexander C; Eisa, Mohammed A; Crosby, Sondra S; Sirkin, Susannah; Heisler, Michele; Leaning, Jennifer; Iacopino, Vincent
Ongoing conflict in the Darfur region of Sudan has resulted in a severe humanitarian crisis. We sought to characterize the nature and geographic scope of allegations of human rights violations perpetrated against civilians in Darfur and to evaluate their consistency with medical examinations documented in patients' medical records. This was a retrospective review and analysis of medical records from all 325 patients seen for treatment from September 28, 2004, through December 31, 2006, at the Nyala-based Amel Centre for Treatment and Rehabilitation of Victims of Torture, the only dedicated local provider of free clinical and legal services to civilian victims of torture and other human rights violations in Darfur during this time period. Among 325 medical records identified and examined, 292 (89.8%) patients from 12 different non-Arabic-speaking tribes disclosed in the medical notes that they had been attacked by Government of Sudan (GoS) and/or Janjaweed forces. Attacks were reported in 23 different rural council areas throughout Darfur. Nearly all attacks (321 [98.8%]) were described as having occurred in the absence of active armed conflict between Janjaweed/GoS forces and rebel groups. The most common alleged abuses were beatings (161 [49.5%]), gunshot wounds (140 [43.1%]), destruction or theft of property (121 [37.2%]), involuntary detainment (97 [29.9%]), and being bound (64 [19.7%]). Approximately one-half (36 [49.3%]) of all women disclosed that they had been sexually assaulted, and one-half of sexual assaults were described as having occurred in close proximity to a camp for internally displaced persons. Among the 198 (60.9%) medical records that contained sufficient detail to enable the forensic medical reviewers to render an informed judgment, the signs and symptoms in all of the medical records were assessed to be consistent with, highly consistent with, or virtually diagnostic of the alleged abuses. Allegations of widespread and sustained torture and
Alexander C Tsai
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ongoing conflict in the Darfur region of Sudan has resulted in a severe humanitarian crisis. We sought to characterize the nature and geographic scope of allegations of human rights violations perpetrated against civilians in Darfur and to evaluate their consistency with medical examinations documented in patients' medical records. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a retrospective review and analysis of medical records from all 325 patients seen for treatment from September 28, 2004, through December 31, 2006, at the Nyala-based Amel Centre for Treatment and Rehabilitation of Victims of Torture, the only dedicated local provider of free clinical and legal services to civilian victims of torture and other human rights violations in Darfur during this time period. Among 325 medical records identified and examined, 292 (89.8% patients from 12 different non-Arabic-speaking tribes disclosed in the medical notes that they had been attacked by Government of Sudan (GoS and/or Janjaweed forces. Attacks were reported in 23 different rural council areas throughout Darfur. Nearly all attacks (321 [98.8%] were described as having occurred in the absence of active armed conflict between Janjaweed/GoS forces and rebel groups. The most common alleged abuses were beatings (161 [49.5%], gunshot wounds (140 [43.1%], destruction or theft of property (121 [37.2%], involuntary detainment (97 [29.9%], and being bound (64 [19.7%]. Approximately one-half (36 [49.3%] of all women disclosed that they had been sexually assaulted, and one-half of sexual assaults were described as having occurred in close proximity to a camp for internally displaced persons. Among the 198 (60.9% medical records that contained sufficient detail to enable the forensic medical reviewers to render an informed judgment, the signs and symptoms in all of the medical records were assessed to be consistent with, highly consistent with, or virtually diagnostic of the alleged abuses
... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Inspections of civilian component training... Disposal Inspections to Insure Compliance with Disposal Conditions § 644.560 Inspections of civilian... responsibility of the Secretary of Transportation; for property conveyed for purposes of health and education...
.... Title of Information Collection: Civilian Response Corps Database In-Processing Electronic Form. OMB... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7976] 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Civilian Response Corps Database In-Processing Electronic Form, OMB Control Number 1405-0168, Form DS-4096...
Levin, Liran; Zadik, Yehuda; Peleg, Kobi; Bigman, Galya; Givon, Adi; Lin, Shaul
To analyze the incidence and severity of maxillofacial injuries in the Second Lebanon War, that occurred during the summer of 2006, among Israeli soldiers and civilians. This is a retrospective cohort study of patients recorded in the Israel National Trauma Registry during the Second Lebanon War. Data refer to all general hospitals throughout the country. Data were analyzed according to the etiology of the injury, severity of trauma using the Injury Severity Score, trauma location, and duration of hospital stay. Cases with multiple injuries that included maxillofacial injuries were separated and further analyzed according to the above parameters. Patients with only dental injuries and superficial facial soft tissue lacerations were excluded because they were referred to the military dental clinics and not to general hospitals. Maxillofacial injuries were found in 36 (6.4%) of the 565 wounded. Patients with maxillofacial injuries ranged in age from 20 to 44 years (mean age, 25.5 +/- 5.7 years). Greater than 50% of the injuries required more than 3 hospitalization days. Mortality rate of the maxillofacial injured was 2.8%. Most of the maxillofacial injuries (33; 91.7%) were combined with other organ injuries; 9 (25%) patients also had dental injuries. In the Second Lebanon War, the incidence and severity of true maxillofacial injuries, without dental injuries alone, were relatively low compared with previous reports of other conflicts. However, because most injuries involved multiple organs, special attention is required when planning and providing emergency, as well as secondary and tertiary medical care to war wounded.
McKenzie, W.F.; Wolery, T.J.; Delany, J.M.; Silva, R.J.; Jackson, K.J.; Bourcier, W.L.; Emerson, D.O.
This plan replaces an earlier plan for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. It includes activities for all repository projects in the Office of Geologic Repositories: NNWSI, the Basalt Waste Isolation Project, the Salt Repository Project, and the Crystalline Project. Each of these projects is part of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program. The scope of work for fiscal years 1986 to 1992 includes the work required to upgrade the geochemical codes and supporting data bases, to permit modeling of chemical processes associated with nuclear waste repositories in four geological environments: tuff, salt, basalt, and crystalline rock. Planned tasks include theoretical studies and code development to take account of the effects of precipitation kinetics, sorption, solid solutions, glass/water interactions, variable gas fugacities, and simple mass transport. Recent progress has been made in the ability of the codes to account for precipitation kinetics, highly-saline solutions, and solid solutions. Transition state theory was re-examined resulting in new insights that will provide the foundation for further improvements necessary to model chemical kinetics. Currently there is an increased effort that is concentrated on the supporting data base. For aqueous species and solid phases, specific to nuclear waste, requisite thermodynamic values reported in the literature are being evaluated and for cases where essential data is lacking, laboratory measurements will be carried out. Significant modifications and expansions have been made to the data base. During FY86, the total number of species in the data base has almost doubled and many improvements have been made with regard to consistency, organization, user applications, and documentation. Two Ridge computers using a RISC implementation of UNIX were installed; they are completely dedicated EQ3/6 machines
McKenzie, W.F.; Wolery, T.J.; Delany, J.M.; Silva, R.J.; Jackson, K.J.; Bourcier, W.L.; Emerson, D.O.
This plan replaces an earlier plan for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. It includes activities for all repository projects in the Office of Geologic Repositories: NNWSI, the Basalt Waste Isolation Project, the Salt Repository Project, and the Crystalline Project. Each of these projects is part of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program. The scope of work for fiscal years 1986 to 1992 includes the work required to upgrade the geochemical codes and supporting data bases, to permit modeling of chemical processes associated with nuclear waste repositories in four geological environments: tuff, salt, basalt, and crystalline rock. Planned tasks include theoretical studies and code development to take account of the effects of precipitation kinetics, sorption, solid solutions, glass/water interactions, variable gas fugacities, and simple mass transport. Recent progress has been made in the ability of the codes to account for precipitation kinetics, highly-saline solutions, and solid solutions. Transition state theory was re-examined resulting in new insights that will provide the foundation for further improvements necessary to model chemical kinetics. Currently there is an increased effort that is concentrated on the supporting data base. For aqueous species and solid phases, specific to nuclear waste, requisite thermodynamic values reported in the literature are being evaluated and for cases where essential data is lacking, laboratory measurements will be carried out. Significant modifications and expansions have been made to the data base. During FY86, the total number of species in the data base has almost doubled and many improvements have been made with regard to consistency, organization, user applications, and documentation. Two Ridge computers using a RISC implementation of UNIX were installed; they are completely dedicated EQ3/6 machines.
Grewal, Navnit Kaur; Andersen, Lene Frost; Sellen, Daniel; Mosdøl, Annhild; Torheim, Liv Elin
To examine breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices during the first 6 months of life among Norwegian infants of Somali and Iraqi family origin. A cross-sectional survey was performed during March 2013-February 2014. Data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ adapted from the second Norwegian national dietary survey among infants in 2006-2007. Somali-born and Iraqi-born mothers living in eastern Norway were invited to participate. One hundred and seven mothers/infants of Somali origin and eighty mothers/infants of Iraqi origin participated. Breast-feeding was almost universally initiated after birth. Only 7 % of Norwegian-Somali and 10 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants were exclusively breast-fed at 4 months of age. By 1 month of age, water had been introduced to 30 % of Norwegian-Somali and 26 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants, and infant formula to 44 % and 34 %, respectively. Fifty-four per cent of Norwegian-Somali and 68 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants had been introduced to solid or semi-solid foods at 4 months of age. Breast-feeding at 6 months of age was more common among Norwegian-Somali infants (79 %) compared with Norwegian-Iraqi infants (58 %; P=0·001). Multivariate analyses indicated no significant factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding at 3·5 months of age. Factors positively associated with breast-feeding at 6 months were country of origin (Somalia) and parity (>2). Breast-feeding initiation was common among Iraqi-born and Somali-born mothers, but the exclusive breast-feeding period was shorter than recommended in both groups. The study suggests that there is a need for new culture-specific approaches to support exclusive breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices among foreign-born mothers living in Norway.
A content analysis of four civilian enterprise Army newspapers published in the United States was conducted to determine if editorial differences in content and tone existed between military and civilian editors...
Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Andersen, Søren B.; Bertelsen, Mette
This study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C; Weathers, Litz, Herman, Huska, & Keane, 1993) and to establish the most accurate cutoff for prevalence estimation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a representative...
updated and may no longer be applicable as a result of changes in law, regulation and/or administration civilian business and civic leaders Oct. 19, providing an introduction to the U.S. Army in Europe. Story Business Leaders Meet Unique Navy Crew ABOARD THE USS MOUNT WHITNEY, Oct. 21, 2005 - Business leaders
Danker, W.J.; Floyd, W.
The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) within the U.S. Department of Energy is charged with the responsibility of safe and efficient disposal of this Nation's civilian high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel. Part of this responsibility includes providing for the application of both domestic and international safeguards on nuclear material at facilities of the Civilian Waste Management System. While detailed safeguards requirements for these disposal facilities have yet to be established, once established, they could impact facility design. Accordingly, OCRWM has participated in efforts to develop safeguards approaches for geologic repositories and will continue to participate actively with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), as well as other Department of Energy (DOE) Offices in efforts to resolve safeguards issues related to spent fuel disposal, to minimize any potential design impacts and to support effective nuclear material safeguards. The following paper discusses current plants and issues related to the application of safeguards to the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS)
...) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL DELIVERY OF PERSONNEL; SERVICE OF PROCESS AND SUBPOENAS; PRODUCTION OF OFFICIAL RECORDS Service of Process and Subpoenas Upon Personnel § 720.21 Members or civilian employees... (e.g., Medical Care Recovery Act cases), follow the procedures described in § 720.22. If State...
In many ways the Palestinian civilian is the ultimate or significant ‘other' for the Israeli soldier serving in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT). (S)he is the one who will be stopped, checked, controlled and at times arrested. (S)he is the one who negotiates, pleads, begs and sometimes
...) and Naval Support Activity-Monterey Bay (NSA-MB) to determine what civilian non-faculty employee jobs are likely to be left vacant in the next three years due to attrition and to identify what training and skills will be needed by personnel whose...
Godinez, Eileen; Leslie, Barry B.
The mission of the Army Management Staff College (AMSC) is to provide leader development educational experiences for Army civilians. To develop as leaders, students must recognize they have a choice to take action that influences their work environment. The authors suggest the learning environment at AMSC is intentionally designed to be…
Hosseini Shokouh, Seyyed Javad; Mohammadi, Babak; Rajabi, Jalil; Mohammadian Roshan, Ghasem
This study aimed to investigate serologic immunity to diphtheria and tetanus in army personnel and a sample population of adult civilians in Mashhad, Iran. Army personnel (n = 180) and civilians (n = 83) who presented at Mashhad army hospital participated in this study. Diphtheria and tetanus antitoxin levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Approximately 77% and 94% of army personnel aged 18-34 years had at least basic protection against diphtheria (antitoxin level ≥0.1 IU/mL) and tetanus (antitoxin level >0.1 IU/mL), respectively. For civilians in this age group, the proportions were 76% for both diseases. Antitoxin levels waned with age. Thus, participants older than 50 years had lower immunity; this decrease in immunity was more pronounced for tetanus than for diphtheria in both army personnel and civilians. For both diseases, geometric mean antitoxin titers and the proportion of participants with at least basic protection were higher in subjects with a history of vaccination in the last 10 years (P diphtheria and tetanus. However, the large number of susceptible older adults (>50 years old) calls for improved booster vaccination protocols.
System-Army IT Information Technology LMP Logistics Modernization Program PLL Prescribed Load List SCM Supply Chain Management SSA Supply Support...Civilian and Military SCM Future Trends Army future transformations are based around the Logistics Modernization Program (LMP). What began as a plan...
Conclusion: among injuries related to war, the highest rate of mortality was observed in head–neck, abdomen and vascular injuries. We believe that the higher mortality rate in the Syrian Civil War, compared to the Bosnia, Vietnam, Lebanon and Afghanistan wars, is due to seeing civilians as a direct target during war.
Full Text Available Questions about the future of the European Union as an international actor continue to puzzle students of international relations and particularly students of EU foreign policy. What kind of predictions can we make about the future role of the EU in international politics? While the question is often framed in terms of military versus normative and/or global civilian power Europe, there are indications that ambitions in both directions may very well coincide. However, despite the EU’s development towards deepened defense integration since the 1990s, such developments are by far outweighed by developments pointing in the direction of the EU consolidating its role as a global civilian power. In this article, we analyze the union’s civilian policies and contrast the findings of our analysis with developments in the field of Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP. Based on our analysis of EU enlargement policy, external aid, global environmental policy and the union’s commitment to multilateralism, our conclusion is that the EU’s international role in the next decades will continue to be best described in terms of a global civilian power.
Barry, Adam E.; Whiteman, Shawn D.; MacDermid Wadsworth, Shelley M.
Objectives: To determine whether posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms are associated with problem drinking and alcohol-related consequences, as well as academic correlates among military-affiliated and civilian students. Participants: The final sample (n = 248) included 78 combat-exposed student service members/veterans, 53 non-combat-exposed…
The military problems connected with the probable use in warfare the chemical and nuclear weapon have been discussed. The concept of soldiers, civilians and environmental protection against the chemical and radiological contamination has been presented from the view point of military tactics
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the technical factors that contributed to the formulation of the international safeguards policy enunciated in September 1988 by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), which is the federal organization responsible for the implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, as amended
Shaak, Kyle; Lafta, Riyadh; Stewart, Barclay T; Fowler, Thomas R; Al-Shatari, Sahar A Esa; Burnham, Gilbert; Cherewick, Megan; Wren, Sherry M; Groen, Reinou S; Kushner, Adam L
To examine sex differences in injury mechanisms, injury-related death, injury-related disability, and associated financial consequences in Baghdad since the 2003 invasion of Iraq to inform prevention initiatives, health policy, and relief planning. Reliable estimates of injury burden among civilians during conflict are lacking, particularly among vulnerable subpopulations, such as women. A 2-stage, cluster randomized, community-based household survey was conducted in May 2014 to determine the civilian burden of injury in Baghdad since 2003. Households were surveyed regarding injury mechanisms, healthcare required, disability, deaths, connection to conflict, and resultant financial hardship. We surveyed 900 households (5148 individuals), reporting 553 injuries, 162 (29%) of which were injuries among women. The mean age of injury was higher among women compared with men (34 ± 21.3 vs 27 ± 16.5 years; P < 0.001). More women than men were injured while in the home [104 (64%) vs 82 (21%); P < 0.001]. Fewer women than men died from injuries [11 (6.8%) vs 77 (20%); P < 0.001]; however, women were more likely than men to live with reduced function [101 (63%) vs 192 (49%); P = 0.005]. Of intentional injuries, women had higher rates of injury by shell fragments (41% vs 26%); more men were injured by gunshots [76 (41%) vs 6 (17.6%); P = .011). Women experienced fewer injuries than men in postinvasion Baghdad, but were more likely to suffer disability after injury. Efforts to improve conditions for injured women should focus on mitigating financial and provisional hardships, providing counseling services, and ensuring access to rehabilitation services.
Younus, Laith A; Algenabi, Abdul Hussein A; Abdul-Zhara, Mohammed S; Hussein, Majid K
The variation of the SNPs in FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene are improved to be associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in some ethnic groups for example in European while, this consistency is controversial in Asians and there were few studies in Iraqi population about the effect of this gene on the development of T2DM in obese patients. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the impact of the two common FTO gene variants in the development of T2DM in obese Iraqi patients. A case-control study in which the FTO gene variants rs9939609 and rs17817449 were genotyping in a total of 800 individuals, 400 T2DM obese patients (patients group) and 400 healthy control obese volunteers (control group) to explore the relation of these SNPs with T2DM in obese Iraqi population. The patients group was enrolled from diabetic clinic in Al Najaf al Ashraf based on WHO guidelines of T2DM. From whole blood the DNA was extraction and genotyped by using ScaI and AlwNI enzymes respectively in the PCR-RFLP technique. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to compare the proportions of genotypes and alleles. The odd's ratio, t-test P value at 95% confidence interval were measured before and after adjustment of BMI, age and sex adjustment. The genetic power, Hardy Weinberg equilibrium and haplotype analysis were tested in the present study. It was observed that the presence of T allele in the two SNPs rs9939609 and rs17817449 in the FTO gene polymorphisms was associated with increased risk for the development of T2DM in Iraqi obese individuals. The minor allele (T) in rs9939609 was significantly higher (P=0.0001) in T2DM (31.25%) when compared with that of the control obese group (20%). The Homozygous genotype (TT) significantly (OR=3.25, CI 95% 1.87-5.64, P=0.000) increased the risk of T2DM by three folds with respect to those of wild type (AA) after adjustment for age, sex and BMI, furthermore, it was significantly increased the risk in the
Al-Saaidi, Jabbar Abbas Ahmed; Khudair, Khalisa Khadim; Al-Kafaji, Sura Safe Aubaes
The present study was conducted to investigate the impacts of active and passive immunization against synthetic inhibin and steroid-free bovine follicular fluid, respectively, on reproductive fecundity out of breeding season in Iraqi Awassi ewes. Follicular fluid was aspired from mature bovine follicles, treated with activated charcoal, and used for immunization of male rabbits for obtaining steroid free bovine follicular fluid (SFBFF) antiserum. Forty non-pregnant Awassi ewes were allocated into 4 groups (n = 10 each). At day 38 of experiment, ewes were treated with intra-vaginal MPA sponge (60 mg for 12 days). Ewes were treated at 0, 28, and 50 days with 4, 2 and 2 ml of normal saline (control; C-ve), 400, 200 and 200 µl of ovalbumine (C+ve), 400, 200 and 200 µl of inhibin (SI group), and 4 ml of normal saline at 0 day, and 4ml and 2ml of SFBFF antiserum, at 28, and 50 days (AI group). After mating with Awassi rams, pregnancy and embryo number were diagnosed using ultrasonography. Blood samples were collected at 30, 60, 90, and 120 days of pregnancy, for assessment of estradiol-17β (E2) and progesterone (P4) levels. After parturition, numbers of delivered lambs were recorded. The results revealed significant increase of P4 and significant decrease of E2 levels in SI and AI pregnant ewes than controls at 30, 60 and 90 day. Newborn number increased significantly in SI and AI treated than control ewes. Active or passive immunization against endogenous inhibin could augment reproductive fecundity out of breeding season in Iraqi Awassi ewes.
Full Text Available International human rights law relies on state sovereignty to localize suggested policy with codification and enforcement in an attempt to reconcile universalism with particularity. However, amidst domestic governance developments from post-conflict state building and self-determination, governmental instability complicates and often overlooks priorities of international human rights for more tangible domestic infrastructure, such as basic human needs rather than seemingly suggested rights ideals. This does not diminish the significance of human rights, though, pertaining to the rights of the child in addressing gender-based violence through the elimination of female genital mutilation, for example. While state-centric localization is currently prioritized for implementing international law, the rule of law is more integrated throughout the realms of societal structure, culture, and institutions in addition to the legal realm. If the legal realm is disrupted with instability, violence, and discontinuity, how does society internalize and integrate international human rights law over time, and can it be sustainable despite instability? This research evaluates the development of the rule of law, and its effectiveness, regarding female genital mutilation (FGM as a case study in Iraqi Kurdistan from the end of the Iran-Iraq War in 1988 until 2013, the early years of the Kurdistan Regional Government’s parliament. Comprehensive rule of law evolution can be measured through comparing domestic legal developments through state-centric policy and enforcement, or lack thereof, with cultural internalization and non-governmental engagements. By studying the legal and cultural realms’ interaction with the anti-FGM discourse over Iraqi Kurdistan’s past two decades, this research will determine the role of a continuous society overlaid by intermittent legal structures in the sustainability of negotiating cultural relativity with universal human rights.
Full Text Available During the Cold War the European Community lacking common military instruments was perceived as the example of a civilian power. However, in the early 1990s, under the framework of CFSP, the first concrete defence initiatives have been launched. By the end of the 1990s and after the agreement on the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP the first Rapid Reaction Forces were on the European military agenda. Such defence and military capabilities challenged the idea of the EU as a civil or civilian power. Thus, a main concern in the paper has been to assess the character and identity of the EU`s activities in the context of international relations. For this purpose, this study has explored the EU policy instruments such as the enlargement policy, external aid, environmental policy at the global level, multilateralism, and the EU armed forces. The study concludes that the enlargement policy accounts for an important EU strategy to shape the international environment through civilian means. Furthermore, the international aid policy of the EU states has primarily been based on the sense of duty to other countries as constructivists point out. The EU has also been vocal and has used environmental foreign policy as an instrument to demonstrate its global leadership role which is a clear indication of its commitment to global welfare. Thanks to its presence in the major multilateral interventions of the last decade, the EU has qualified itself as great supporter of multilateralism. Lastly, the EU military capabilities are not achieved by creating permanent European armed forces but are still based on the voluntary contributions of its member states. Therefore, the EU still can be portrayed as a global civilian power (GCP or civilian power Europe (CPE.
Ryken, Katherine O; Hogue, Matthew; Marsh, J Lawrence; Schweizer, Marin
Bosnia-Herzegovina is one of the most landmine-contaminated countries in Europe. Since the beginning of the war in 1992, there have been 7968 recorded landmine victims, with 1665 victims since the end of the war in 1995. While many of these explosions result in death, a high proportion of these injuries result in amputation, leading to a large number of disabled individuals. The purpose of this study is to conduct a survey of civilian landmine victims in Bosnia-Herzegovina in order to assess the effect of landmine injuries on physical, mental, and social well-being. Civilian survivors of landmine injuries were contacted while obtaining care through local non-governmental organizations (NGOs) throughout Bosnia-Herzegovina to inquire about their current level of independence, details of their injuries, and access to healthcare and public space. The survey was based upon Physicians for Human Rights handbook, "Measuring Landmine Incidents & Injuries and the Capacity to Provide Care." 42 survivors of landmines completed the survey, with an average follow up period of 22.0 years (±1.7). Of civilians with either upper or lower limb injuries, 83.3% underwent amputations. All respondents had undergone at least one surgery related to their injury: 42.8% had at least three total operations and 23.8% underwent four or more surgeries related to their injury. 26.2% of survivors had been hospitalized four or more times relating to their injury. 57.1% of participants reported they commonly experienced anxiety and 47.6% reported depression within the last year. On average, approximately 3% of household income each year goes towards paying medical bills, even given governmental and non-governmental assistance. Most survivors relied upon others to take care of them: only 41.5% responded they were capable of caring for themselves. 63.4% of respondents reported their injury had limited their ability to gain training, attend school, and go to work. The majority of civilian landmine
.... It is produced primarily from an integrated data base developed and maintained by WHS/DIOR from monthly information provided to the Office of Personnel Management on Standard Form 113-A, Report...
Full Text Available Widely considered as one of the cradles of human civilization, Mesopotamia is largely situated in the Republic of Iraq, which is also the birthplace of the Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian and Babylonian civilizations. These lands were subsequently ruled by the Persians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Mongolians, Ottomans and finally British prior to the independence. As a direct consequence of this rich history, the contemporary Iraqi population comprises a true mosaic of different ethnicities, which includes Arabs, Kurds, Turkmens, Assyrians, and Yazidis among others. As such, the genetics of the contemporary Iraqi populations are of anthropological and forensic interest. In an effort to contribute to a better understanding of the genetic basis of this ethnic diversity, a total of 500 samples were collected from Northern Iraqi volunteers belonging to five major ethnic groups, namely: Arabs (n = 102, Kurds (n = 104, Turkmens (n = 102, Yazidis (n = 106 and Syriacs (n = 86. 17-loci Y-STR analyses were carried out using the AmpFlSTR Yfiler system, and subsequently in silico haplogroup assignments were made to gain insights from a molecular anthropology perspective. Systematic comparisons of the paternal lineages of these five Northern Iraqi ethnic groups, not only among themselves but also in the context of the larger genetic landscape of the Near East and beyond, were then made through the use of two different genetic distance metric measures and the associated data visualization methods. Taken together, results from the current study suggested the presence of intricate Y-chromosomal lineage patterns among the five ethic groups analyzed, wherein both interconnectivity and independent microvariation were observed in parallel, albeit in a differential manner. Notably, the novel Y-STR data on Turkmens, Syriacs and Yazidis from Northern Iraq constitute the first of its kind in the literature. Data presented herein is expected to contribute to further population
Dogan, Serkan; Gurkan, Cemal; Dogan, Mustafa; Balkaya, Hasan Emin; Tunc, Ramazan; Demirdov, Damla Kanliada; Ameen, Nihad Ahmed; Marjanovic, Damir
Widely considered as one of the cradles of human civilization, Mesopotamia is largely situated in the Republic of Iraq, which is also the birthplace of the Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian and Babylonian civilizations. These lands were subsequently ruled by the Persians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Mongolians, Ottomans and finally British prior to the independence. As a direct consequence of this rich history, the contemporary Iraqi population comprises a true mosaic of different ethnicities, which includes Arabs, Kurds, Turkmens, Assyrians, and Yazidis among others. As such, the genetics of the contemporary Iraqi populations are of anthropological and forensic interest. In an effort to contribute to a better understanding of the genetic basis of this ethnic diversity, a total of 500 samples were collected from Northern Iraqi volunteers belonging to five major ethnic groups, namely: Arabs (n = 102), Kurds (n = 104), Turkmens (n = 102), Yazidis (n = 106) and Syriacs (n = 86). 17-loci Y-STR analyses were carried out using the AmpFlSTR Yfiler system, and subsequently in silico haplogroup assignments were made to gain insights from a molecular anthropology perspective. Systematic comparisons of the paternal lineages of these five Northern Iraqi ethnic groups, not only among themselves but also in the context of the larger genetic landscape of the Near East and beyond, were then made through the use of two different genetic distance metric measures and the associated data visualization methods. Taken together, results from the current study suggested the presence of intricate Y-chromosomal lineage patterns among the five ethic groups analyzed, wherein both interconnectivity and independent microvariation were observed in parallel, albeit in a differential manner. Notably, the novel Y-STR data on Turkmens, Syriacs and Yazidis from Northern Iraq constitute the first of its kind in the literature. Data presented herein is expected to contribute to further population and forensic
Khaled Khassaf Al-Khafaji
Full Text Available Specimens of the The Brachyuran crab Atergatis roseus (Ruppell, 1830, were collected for first times from Iraqi coast, south Al-Faw, Basrah city, Iraq, in coast of northwest of Arabian Gulf. Morphological features and distribution pattern of this species are highlighted and a figure is provided. The material was mostly collected from the shallow subtidal and intertidal areas using trawl net and hand.
the Annualized Cost of Leaving model and, more recently, dynamic programming models of retention (Warner and Asch, 1995; Goldberg , 2001; J. Hosek...reveals significant variation by state. For example, the U.S. unemployment rate in May 2011 was 9.1 percent. However, Nebraska, New Hampshire, North...www.rand.org/pubs/monograph_reports/MR916.html Buddin, Richard, Daniel S. Levy, Janet M. Hanley, and Donald Waldman, Promotion Tempo and Enlisted
Nelson, Matthew; Hess, Julia Meredith; Isakson, Brian; Goodkind, Jessica
Social and geographic displacement is a global phenomenon that precipitates novel stressors and disruptions that intersect with longstanding familial and social roles. Among the displaced are war-torn Iraqi refugee families, who must address these new obstacles in unconventional ways. This study explores how such disruptions have influenced associations between gender and apparent self-worth experienced by Iraqi refugee families upon relocation to the United States. Further, the psychosocial mechanisms requisite of any novel approach to a new social construct are explored and reveal that production in the family is at the core of instability and shifting power dynamics during resettlement, preventing family members from “seeing the life” in the United States that they had envisioned prior to immigration. Over 200 semi-structured qualitative interviews with Iraqi participants and mental health providers were conducted over the course of the study, and demonstrate a plasticity among social roles in the family and community that transcends the notion of a simple role reversal, and illustrate the complex positionalities that families under stress must approximate during such physical and social displacement. PMID:28966556
Experiencing 'pathologized presence and normalized absence'; understanding health related experiences and access to health care among Iraqi and Somali asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status.
Fang, Mei Lan; Sixsmith, Judith; Lawthom, Rebecca; Mountian, Ilana; Shahrin, Afifa
Asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status have been reported to experience a range of difficulties when accessing public services and supports in the UK. While research has identified health care barriers to equitable access such as language difficulties, it has not considered the broader social contexts of marginalization experienced through the dynamics of 'othering'. The current study explores health and health care experiences of Somali and Iraqi asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status, highlighting 'minoritization' processes and the 'pathologization' of difference as analytical lenses to understand the multiple layers of oppression that contribute to health inequities. For the study, qualitative methods were used to document the lived experiences of asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status. Thirty-five in-depth interviews and five focus groups were used to explore personal accounts, reveal shared understandings and enable social, cognitive and emotional understandings of on-going health problems and challenges when seeking treatment and care. A participatory framework was undertaken which inspired collaborative workings with local organizations that worked directly with asylum seekers, refugees and persons without legal status. The analysis revealed four key themes: 1) pre-departure histories and post-arrival challenges; 2) legal status; 3) health knowledges and procedural barriers as well as 4) language and cultural competence. Confidentiality, trust, wait times and short doctor-patient consultations were emphasized as being insufficient for culturally specific communications and often translating into inadequate treatment and care. Barriers to accessing health care was associated with social disadvantage and restrictions of the broader welfare system suggesting that a re-evaluation of the asylum seeking process is required to improve the situation. Macro- and micro-level intersections of accustomed societal
Full Text Available Abstract Background The province of North Kivu in the Democratic Republic of Congo has been afflicted by conflict for over a decade. After months of relative calm, offences restarted in September 2008. We did an epidemiological study to document the impact of violence on the civilian population and orient pre-existing humanitarian aid. Methods In May 2009, we conducted three cross-sectional surveys among 200 000 resident and displaced people in North Kivu (Kabizo, Masisi, Kitchanga. The recall period covered an eight month period from the beginning of the most recent offensives to the survey date. Heads of households provided information on displacement, death, violence, theft, and access to fields and health care. Results Crude mortality rates (per 10 000 per day were below emergency thresholds: Kabizo 0.2 (95% CI: 0.1-0.4, Masisi 0.5 (0.4-0.6, Kitchanga 0.7 (0.6-0.9. Violence was the reported cause in 39.7% (27/68 and 35.8% (33/92 of deaths in Masisi and Kitchanga, respectively. In Masisi 99.1% (897/905 and Kitchanga 50.4% (509/1020 of households reported at least one member subjected to violence. Displacement was reported by 39.0% of households (419/1075 in Kitchanga and 99.8% (903/905 in Masisi. Theft affected 87.7% (451/514 of households in Masisi and 57.4% (585/1019 in Kitchanga. Access to health care was good: 93.5% (359/384 of the sick in Kabizo, 81.7% (515/630 in Masisi, and 89.8% (651/725 in Kitchanga received care, of whom 83.0% (298/359, 87.5% (451/515, and 88.9% (579/651, respectively, did not pay. Conclusions Our results show the impact of the ongoing war on these civilian populations: one third of deaths were violent in two sites, individuals are frequently subjected to violence, and displacements and theft are common. While humanitarian aid may have had a positive impact on disease mortality and access to care, the population remains exposed to extremely high levels of violence.
Full Text Available We considered the impact of external influences on a GPS receiver and how these influences affect the capabilities of civilian-type GPS receivers. A standard commercial radio frequency signal generator and passive GPS antenna were used to test the sensitivity of GPS to intentional jamming; the possible effects of the terrain on the propagation of the jamming signal were also tested. It was found that the high sensitivity of GPS receivers and the low strength level of GPS satellite signals combine to make GPS receivers very vulnerable to intentional jamming or unintentional radio frequency interference. Terrain undulation was used to shield GPS antennas from the direct line-of-sight of the jamming antenna and this indicated that terrain characteristics can be used to mitigate the effects of jamming. These results illuminate the vulnerability of civilian-type GPS receivers to the possibility and the ease of disablement and establish the foundation for future work.
Voth, H J
This paper is a reexamination of the Winter hypothesis, which holds that there was a marked difference in the development of civilian health during the First World War between the central powers and the Western allies. Ultimate success on the battlefield, according to Winter, required balancing the needs of the military with civilian demands; Germany lost because it failed to achieve such a balance. The resulting decline in health standards undermined the war effort and eventually led to defeat. This article proceeds in two steps. First, it demonstrates that Winter's data does not allow him to make a proper comparison between the two camps. Second, I argue that his hypothesis can be refuted once a truly comparable source is used--infant mortality rated. There is as yet no convincing evidence to suggest that the outcome of the First world War was determined by public health policy.
WARFIGHTING SCHOOL ADVANCING U.S. STRATEGIC COMMUNICATION THROUGH GREATER CIVILIAN-MILITARY COORDINATION AND INTERGRATION by Wendy A. Kolls U.S... products synchronized with the actions of all instruments of national power." Department af Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms...the "British street," the "American street," and the "Israeli street.ŗ Selling "Brand America" If the " product " was America, then the thinking in
Kaiser, Peter; Madsen, Michael
The world’s first civilian nuclear power plant was commissioned on June 27, 1954 in Obninsk, which was at that time in the Soviet Union, today, the Russian Federation. The Obninsk nuclear power plant generated electricity and supported experimental nuclear research. The Obninsk nuclear power plant operated without incident for 48 years. In September 2002, the last fuel subassembly was unloaded, when the Obninsk nuclear power plant set another first: it became the first nuclear power plant to be decommissioned in Russia
society is “one of the most accurate indicators of the existence of a substantive, participatory democracy . A high degree of...the armed forces is an essential component to a free and open democracy . The states of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) rely on civilian...these forces challenge military supremacy in democracies . Policies or budget decisions that infringe on military prerogatives lead to conflict with
could not record a journal entry to this account. DFAS Indianapolis provided us with a System Change Proposal dated April 17, 2014, which proposed a...system change to DAI to permit journal entries to USSGL 2213 that was implemented in October 2015. However, DFAS Indianapolis should not have allowed...properly accrued civilian pay for the 12 ODOs that used the Defense Agencies Initiative or the Defense Business Management System general ledgers
was to develop a tool that is capable of assessing the effect of CBRN exposures on civilian populations and medical infrastructure in order to...allows planners to import exposures , calculate time-dependent casualties, and to assess the beneficial effect of medical countermeasures including the...option 2. The ability to import exposure data from HPAC and JEM 3. Health effects models that underwent Independent Verification & Validation (IV&V) by
febi arya hidayat
Full Text Available Background: In aviation world, fatigue may cause incapacitation among pilot which can lead to aircraft accidents. Flight hours is believed to be one of the factors related to the risk of fatigue. The purpose of this study is to identify relationship between flight hours in seven day and other factors to the risk of fatigue among civilian pilot in Indonesia.Methods: A cross sectional study with consecutive sampling was conducted among civilian pilots who attended medical check-up at Aviation Medical Center in Jakarta on June 2016. Demographic characteristics, employment related factors, habits and flight hours were obtained through questionnaire and interviews. Fatigue data were obtained through fatigue self-questionnaire form and measured with Fatigue Severity Scale which had been validated. Fatigue was categorized into non-fatigue (FSS score <36 and fatigue (FSS score ≥36. Relative risk was computed using Cox regression with a constant time.Results: This study included 542 pilots among which 50.2% had fatigue. The subjects who have flight hours >30 hours/week compared to ≤30 hours/week, had 1.37-fold higher risk of fatigue [adjusted relative risk [RRa=1.37; CI=1.14-1.65; p=0.001]. The subject with ATPL license compared to CPL license had 1.28-fold higher risk of fatigue [RRa=1.31; CI=1.11-1.54; p=0.001. Furthermore, subjects who have appropriate exercise had 32% lower risk of fatigue (RRa=0.68; CI= 0.39-1.19; p=0.094.Conclusions: Civilian pilots in Indonesia who had more than 30 hours flight time in 7 days and ATPL type pilots have an increased risk of fatigue. Appropriate exercise decreased the risk of fatigue.Keywords: fatigue, flight hours. civilian pilots. Indonesia
The OCRWM Bulletin is published by the Department of Energy, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management to provide current information about the national program for managing spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This document is a compilation of issues from the 1989 calendar year. A table of contents and one index have been provided to assist in finding information contained in this year's Bulletins. The pages have been numbered consecutively at the bottom for easy reference. 7 figs
In terms of usage, fresh milk is No. I or 2 for all installations studied. Chicken was the next highest product in terms of usage appearing among...DoD but not for civilian operations are: fresh white bread (6), butter, (8) and beef pot roast (9). Meat or poultry or fish products account for 17...Law Univ. Football Enforc. 2 1 7 6 Milk, fresh 1 1 Milk, Evap. 2 Milk, Choc. 3 3 Chicken (+Ducks) 10 4 Potatoes, white
interests are at odds.21 This framework uses a two by two chart of high and low internal or external threats to try and demonstrate the ideal scenario.22...Military, 17. 24 Ibid., 19. 25 Thomas C. Bruneau, Patriots for Profit: Contractors and the Military in U.S. National Security (Stanford: Stanford...effectiveness does not, the blame can likely be squarely placed on the civilians controlling the military, creating tension and animosity, not to
American Marketing Association expresses fundamental principles of print advertising in a paper written by Steve Blom. Although these principles ...medium if targeting a large group of people was the intention. In addition to medium by negation, civilian marketing professors Kotler , Roberto, and...best suited for which portion of IO. 78 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 79 LIST OF REFERENCES Armstrong, Gary and Kotler , Philip. Marketing
Pauner Chulvi, Cristina; Viguri Cordero, Jorge Agustín
Drones are a growth industry evolving quickly from military to civilian uses however, they have the potential to pose a serious risk to security, privacy and data protection. After a first stage focused on safety issues, Europe is facing the challenge to develop a regulatory framework for drones integration into the airspace system while safeguarding the guarantees of fundamental rights and civil liberties. This paper analyses the potential privacy and data protection risks ...
conformity, patience • Satisfaction is a job well done • Being respected • Prefer job security over entrepreneurship — cautious • Unadventurous...Journal of Applied Social Psychology , 44(3), 175–189. Burch, D. (2014). The Army civilian today. Paper presented at U.S. Army Senior Service...Organizational Psychology , New Orleans. Cennamo, L., & Gardner, D. (2008). Generational differences in work values, outcomes and person-organisation
Munive, Jairo; Somer, Jonathan
Recent events in the Middle East present the latest and undoubtedly not the last challenge to international engagement with armed non-state actors. Over the last many years international humanitarian law has increasingly regulated the behaviour of armed non-state actors with regard to the protection of civilians. At the same time, counter-terror measures have increasingly addressed such conduct, as well as controlled the extent to which other actors may interact with armed non-state actors. Y...