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  1. AN INCIDENCE STUDY OF SCHIZOPHRENIA IN INDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wig, N.N.; Varma, Vijoy K.; Mattoo, S.K.; Behere, P.B.; Phookan, H.R.; Misra, A.K.; Murthy, R. Srinivasa; Tripathi, B.M.; Menon, D.K.; Khandelawal, S.K.; Bedi, H.

    1993-01-01

    SUMMARY Under a WHO collaborative study, the Chandigarh center monitored two geographically defined populations over a 2-year period. Using helping-agency-coverage and other methods along with a set of specified criteria, 268 first-onset potentially schizophrenic cases were actively identified. Of these, 232 cases could be assessed in detail which included 209 schizophrenics as per specified ICD-9 or Catego criteria. The annual incidence rates obtained were 4.4 and 3.8 per 10,000 for rural and urban areas, respectively. The rural cohort had a higher incidence for each of the three diagnostic definitions. In the urban cohort, sex and diagnostic definition did not affect the incidence. In the rural cohort, females had a lower incidence for Catego S+ and a higher incidence for other diagnostic definitions. PMID:21776160

  2. [Incidence study of listeriosis in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Fernando Parrilla; Rafart, Josep Vaqué

    2014-01-01

    We performed a descriptive retrospective study of cases of listeriosis occurring in Spain from 2001 to 2007 to determine the burden and trend of this disease in our setting. Several sources of information were used. Epidemiological information was collected from 1.242 cases of listeriosis, representing a mean incidence rate of 0,56 cases per 100.000 inhabitants per year, which was extrapolated as an overall estimate for Spain. The annual incidence showed a statistically significant increasing trend (p listeriosis in the Mandatory Notification System would allow determination of the distribution and characteristics of this infection in humans, as well as promotion of effective prevention and control.

  3. Methodological choices affect cancer incidence rates: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah L Brooke; Talbäck, Mats; Feychting, Maria; Ljung, Rickard

    2017-01-01

    Background Incidence rates are fundamental to epidemiology, but their magnitude and interpretation depend on methodological choices. We aimed to examine the extent to which the definition of the study population affects cancer incidence rates. Methods All primary cancer diagnoses in Sweden between 1958 and 2010 were identified from the national Cancer Register. Age-standardized and age-specific incidence rates of 29 cancer subtypes between 2000 and 2010 were calculated using four definitions ...

  4. Retrospective Study of Disease Incidence and Type of Pneumonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retrospective Study of Disease Incidence and Type of Pneumonia in ... out on small ruminants submitted for necropsy in the Department of Veterinary Pathology, ... broncho-interstitial pneumonia with giant cells (40%) and collapsed lung (5%).

  5. The Christchurch earthquake stroke incidence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Teddy Y; Cheung, Jeanette; Cole, David; Fink, John N

    2014-03-01

    We examined the impact of major earthquakes on acute stroke admissions by a retrospective review of stroke admissions in the 6 weeks following the 4 September 2010 and 22 February 2011 earthquakes. The control period was the corresponding 6 weeks in the previous year. In the 6 weeks following the September 2010 earthquake there were 97 acute stroke admissions, with 79 (81.4%) ischaemic infarctions. This was similar to the 2009 control period which had 104 acute stroke admissions, of whom 80 (76.9%) had ischaemic infarction. In the 6 weeks following the February 2011 earthquake, there were 71 stroke admissions, and 61 (79.2%) were ischaemic infarction. This was less than the 96 strokes (72 [75%] ischaemic infarction) in the corresponding control period. None of the comparisons were statistically significant. There was also no difference in the rate of cardioembolic infarction from atrial fibrillation between the study periods. Patients admitted during the February 2011 earthquake period were less likely to be discharged directly home when compared to the control period (31.2% versus 46.9%, p=0.036). There was no observable trend in the number of weekly stroke admissions between the 2 weeks leading to and 6 weeks following the earthquakes. Our results suggest that severe psychological stress from earthquakes did not influence the subsequent short term risk of acute stroke, but the severity of the earthquake in February 2011 and associated civil structural damages may have influenced the pattern of discharge for stroke patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Incidence of ulcerative colitis in Central Greece: A prospective study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Spiros D. Ladas; Elias Mallas; Konstantinos Giorgiotis; Georgios Karamanolis; Dimitrios Trigonis; Apostolos Markadas; Vana Sipsa; Sotirios A. Raptis

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the incidence of ulcerative colitis UC in the prefecture of Trikala, Central Greece.METHODS: A prospective and population basedepidemiological study of UC from 1990 to the end of 1994was conducted. Trikala is a semirural prefecture of Central Greece with a population of 138 946 (census 1991). Three gastroenterologists (one hospital based, two private doctors)of the prefecture participated in this study.RESULTS: During the study period, 66 new histologically verified cases of UC were recorded. The mean annual incidence of the disease in 1990-1994 was 11.2 per 105inhabitants (95%CI: 8.7-14.3). There was no difference between men and women (annual incidence: 10.5 and 12.0 per 105 inhabitants respectively), either among urban,semirural or rural populations (annual incidence: 11.7,17.1 and 9.9 per 105 inhabitants respectively). The majority (56%) of the patients never smoked and a quarter were ex-smokers. About a half of all cases had proctitis.CONCLUSION: UC is common in Central Greece and its incidence is similar to that in North-Western European countries.

  7. Stressful life events and incident metabolic syndrome : The Hoorn study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutters, F.; Pilz, S.; Koopman, A.D.; Rauh, S.P.; Pouwer, F.; Stehouwer, C.D.; Elders, P.J.; Nijpels, G.; Dekker, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Stressful life events are associated with the metabolic syndrome in cross-sectional studies, but prospective studies addressing this issue are rare and limited. We therefore evaluated whether the number of stressful life events is associated with incident metabolic syndrome. We assessed the

  8. Poststroke epilepsy in the Copenhagen stroke study: incidence and predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Lars Peter; Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2005-01-01

    Poststroke epilepsy (PSE) is a feared complication after stroke and is reported in 3% to 5% of stroke survivors. In this study we sought to identify incidence and predictors of PSE in an unselected stroke population with a follow-up period of 7 years. The study was community-based and comprises...

  9. Stressful life events and incident metabolic syndrome : the Hoorn study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutters, Femke; Pilz, Stefan; Koopman, Anitra D M; Rauh, Simone P; Pouwer, Frans; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Elders, Petra J; Nijpels, Giel; Dekker, Jacqueline M

    2015-01-01

    Stressful life events are associated with the metabolic syndrome in cross-sectional studies, but prospective studies addressing this issue are rare and limited. We therefore evaluated whether the number of stressful life events is associated with incident metabolic syndrome. We assessed the associat

  10. Acanthamoeba keratitis: study of the 5-year incidence in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffi, Shmuel; Peretz, Avi; Jabaly, Haneen; Koiefman, Anna; Naftali, Modi

    2013-11-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is not a notifiable disease in Israel, so there are no accurate incidence rates for this condition in Israel. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of AK in Israel for the years 2008-2012. We distributed a survey questionnaire to laboratory managers in Israel. The laboratories were affiliated to medical institutes that either provided ophthalmology services or served community ophthalmology clinics. Our questionnaire requested survey respondents to provide information regarding the methods used to diagnose AK, and the number of positive and negative cultures for Acanthamoebae species performed for each of the years from 2008 to 2012. Six laboratories used non-nutrient agar with Escherichia coli as the culture medium, one used calcofluor-white staining with fluorescent microscopy, and two used PCR for diagnosing AK. Twenty-three AK cases were identified, to give an estimated incidence of 1/1 668 552. AK is mostly attributable to the use of contact lenses. As contact lenses are popular in Israel, we expected a higher incidence rate. A lower than expected incidence rate may indicate insufficient awareness of AK in Israel.

  11. Incident reporting: a technique for studying police corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vigneswaran, D.V.

    2011-01-01

    The study of police corruption faces seemingly insurmountable sampling and validity problems. This paper outlines an experimental technique for overcoming these issues by challenging the assumption that corruption is not prone to systematic observational research. Incident reporting combines a ‘comb

  12. Incident reporting: a technique for studying police corruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.V. Vigneswaran

    2011-01-01

    The study of police corruption faces seemingly insurmountable sampling and validity problems. This paper outlines an experimental technique for overcoming these issues by challenging the assumption that corruption is not prone to systematic observational research. Incident reporting combines a ‘comb

  13. [Multicentre study of infection incidence in knee prosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaén, F; Sanz-Gallardo, M I; Arrazola, M P; García de Codes, A; de Juanes, A; Resines, C

    2012-01-01

    To determine the incidence of surgical site infection in knee prosthesis surgical procedure for a follow-up period of one year in twelve hospitals in Madrid region. A prospective study was carried out from January to December 2009 using a national surveillance system called Indicadores Clínicos de Mejora Continua de Calidad. Primary and revision knee joint replacements in patients operated on in the previous year were included. Criteria used to define surgical site infection and patient risk index categories were those established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance. The incidence rates were worked out crude and adjusted by hazard ratio. 2,088 knee prosthesis procedures were analyzed. The overall incidence of surgical site infection was 2.1%. Sixty-five percent of the infections were organ/space. Sixty percent of the infections were identified in the early postoperative period. Of all surgical site infections, 41.9% were microbiologically confirmed. Antibiotic prophylaxis was implemented correctly in 63.3% of the cases. The most important cause of inappropriate prophylaxis was an unsuitable duration in 85.7% of the cases. The presurgical preparation was carried out correctly in 50.3% of surgical operations. The incidence of knee arthroplasty infection was twice as high as in the National Healthcare Safety Network and similar to national rates. In this study, the incidence of infection was within the range of infection rates in other published European studies. Surveillance and control strategies of health care for associated infections allow us to assess trends and the impact of preventive measures. Copyright © 2011 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. The Thai Anesthesia Incident Monitoring Study (Thai AIMS) of anesthetic equipment failure/malfunction: an analysis of 1996 incident reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumaphanyo, Chaiyapruk; Charuluxananan, Somrat; Sriramatr, Dujduen; Pulnitiporn, Aksorn; Sriraj, Wimonrat

    2009-11-01

    The present study is a part of the multi-centered study of model of anesthesia relating adverse events in Thailand by incident report (The Thai Anesthesia Incident Monitoring Study or Thai AIMS). The objective was to identify the frequency distribution, contributing factors, and factors minimizing incident of equipment failure/malfunction. As a prospective descriptive research design, anesthesia providers reported the data as soon as the incidents of equipment failure/malfunction occurred. Standardized forms of incident report were then mailed to the center at Chulalongkorn University and three anesthesiologists reviewed the data. Ninety-two cases of equipment failure/malfunction were reported from 51 hospitals across Thailand Between January and June 2007, 92 incidents of equipment failure/malfunction were reported out of 1996 anesthesia-related incidents (4.6%). Failed/malfunctioned equipment included anesthetic circuit (17.4%), anesthesia machine (15.2%), capnography (15.2%), laryngoscope (15.2%), ventilator (12%), pulse oximeter (8.7%), vaporizer (4.3%), endotracheal tube (3.3%), sodalime (3.3%), and electrocardiogram (2.2%). All 16 anesthetic circuit incidents (100%) were detected by clinical signs whereas five incidents (31.3%) were detected firstly by monitors. All 14 laryngoscope malfunction (100%) were detected solely by clinical signs. Only one out of eight (12.5%) of pulse oximeter incidents was detected by clinical signs before the pulse oximeter itself. Three out of four (75%) incidents of vaporizer were detected by clinical signs before monitors. The majority of equipment malfunction was considered as related to anesthetic (69.6%) and system factors (69.6%) and 71.7% of incidents were preventable. Seventy-four incidents (80.4%) were caused by human error and, specifically, rule-based error in three fourths. Contributing factors were ineffective equipment, haste, lack of experience, ineffective monitors, and inadequate equipment. Factors minimizing

  15. Stressful life events and incident metabolic syndrome: the Hoorn study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutters, Femke; Pilz, Stefan; Koopman, Anitra D M; Rauh, Simone P; Pouwer, Frans; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Elders, Petra J; Nijpels, Giel; Dekker, Jacqueline M

    2015-01-01

    Stressful life events are associated with the metabolic syndrome in cross-sectional studies, but prospective studies addressing this issue are rare and limited. We therefore evaluated whether the number of stressful life events is associated with incident metabolic syndrome. We assessed the association between the number of stressful life events experienced in the 5 years up until baseline and incident metabolic syndrome after 6.5 years at follow-up in the Hoorn study, a middle-aged and elderly population-based cohort. Participants with prevalent metabolic syndrome at baseline were excluded. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III, including fasting plasma glucose levels, HDL-C levels, triglyceride levels, waist circumference and hypertension. We included 1099 participants (47% male; age 60 ± 7 years). During 6.5 years of follow-up, 238 participants (22%) developed the metabolic syndrome. Logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, education level and follow-up duration showed a positive association between the number of stressful life events at baseline and incident metabolic syndrome [OR 1.13 (1.01-1.27) per event, p = 0.049]. In addition, a Poisson model showed a significant positive association between the number of stressful life events at baseline and the number of metabolic syndrome factors at follow-up [OR 1.05 (1.01-1.11) per event, p = 0.018]. Finally, we observed a significant association between the number of stressful life events at baseline and waist circumference at follow-up [adjusted for confounders β 0.86 (0.39-1.34) cm per event, p metabolic syndrome during 6.5 years of follow-up, in a middle-aged and elderly population-based cohort.

  16. An Epidemiological Study on Pattern and Incidence of Mandibular Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subodh S. Natu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandible is the second most common facial fracture. There has been a significant increase in the number of cases in recent years with the advent of fast moving automobiles. Mandibular fractures constitute a substantial proportion of maxillofacial trauma cases in Lucknow. This study was undertaken to study mandibular fractures clinicoradiologically with an aim to calculate incidence and study pattern and the commonest site of fractures in population in and around Lucknow. Patient presenting with history of trauma at various centers of maxillofacial surgery in and around Lucknow were included in this study. Detailed case history was recorded followed by thorough clinical examination, and radiological interpretation was done for establishing the diagnosis and the data obtained was analyzed statistically. Out of 66 patients with mandibular fractures, highest percentage was found in 21–30 years of age with male predominance. Road traffic accidents were the most common cause of fracture with parasymphysis being commonest site. Commonest combination was parasymphysis with subcondyle. There was no gender bias in etiology with number of fracture sites. The incidence and causes of mandibular fracture reflect trauma patterns within the community and can provide a guide to the design of programs geared toward prevention and treatment.

  17. Incidence of Pneumonia After Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study and Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hannae; Park, Jung-Gyoo; Min, David; Park, Hee-Won; Kang, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Kun-Jai; Baek, Sora

    2016-02-01

    Pneumonia after videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) is sometimes considered to be caused by aspiration during VFSS; however, to our knowledge, a relationship between these events has not been clearly investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of VFSS-related pneumonia and related factors. Overall, 696 VFSS cases were retrospectively reviewed. Cases in which blood culture was performed within 3 days after VFSS due to newly developed infectious signs were considered as post-VFSS infection cases. Pneumonia was suspected when there was some evidence of respiratory infectious signs in clinical, radiological, and laboratory findings. The underlying disease, clinical signs, and VFSS findings of the pneumonia group were assessed. Among 696 cases, pneumonia was diagnosed in 15 patients. The patients in the pneumonia group tended to be older and had higher aspiration rate on VFSS than those in the non-pneumonia group. In the pneumonia group, 2 patients showed no aspiration during VFSS. In 6 patients, pneumonia developed after massive aspiration of gastric content in 5 patients and inappropriate oral feeding with risk of aspiration before VFSS in 1 patient. Only 7 patients (1.0 %) were finally determined as having VFSS-related pneumonia. In conclusion, the 72-h incidence of VFSS-related pneumonia was 1.0 %. Old age and severity of swallowing difficulty are associated with occurrence of pneumonia.

  18. STUDY OF INCIDENCE & MANAGEMENT OF PARA PHARYNGEAL TUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Kumari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Parapharyngeal tumors are rare, comprising approximately 0.5% of all head and neck tumours. Most of them are benign. These tumors present with difficulties in diagnosis - complementary MRI and CT scanning are necessary for diagnosis, and Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC is very specific in the histological diagnosis of these tumours. Open biopsy is not advisable due to bleeding, breaching of the capsule and seeding of the tumor. These tumors presents a challenge to the surgeon due to its anatomical complexities. This study deals with the incidence and management of various parapharyngeal tumors. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: This study deals with the incidence of various tumors in the parapharyngeal space in different age and sex groups, role of sophisticated diagnostic modalities like CT, MRI, MR Angio. Colour Doppler along with FNAC and various surgical approaches to this space. This study also deals with intra-operative and post operative complications. In this series, a total of 25 cases has been studied retrospectively in a time period of 2 years from 2012 to 2014, presenting in our ENT and Head and Neck Dept., Gandhi hospital. RESULTS: According to this study, there is male preponderance (52% and highest incidence is seen in 3rd and 5th decade (24% each. Most common presenting symptoms are difficulty in swallowing (36% and swelling either intraoral or in the neck (28%. Least common symptoms being cranial nerve palsy (4%, difficulty in breathing/noisy breathing (4%, nasal regurgitation (4% and hard of hearing (8%. FNAC was done in 21 cases, in which 13 were correlating with the biopsy report. CT scan was required in all cases. MR Angiography was done in 4 cases and colour Doppler in 2 cases. Surgery is the mainstay of the treatment. Most common tumor in PPS is neurogenic (schwannoma/neurofibroma.i.e 44%. Next commonly occurring tumor in our study is of salivary origin-pleomorphic adenoma (24%, paragangliomas (12%. Other less

  19. LPI studies with grazing incidence irradiation at the Nike laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J.; Kehne, D.; Schmitt, A.; Obenschain, S.; Serlin, V.; Oh, J.; Lehmberg, R.; Seely, J.

    2013-10-01

    Studies of laser plasma instabilities (LPI) at the Nike laser facility at NRL have previously concentrated on planar targets irradiated with their surface normal aligned to the central axis of the laser. Shots with planar targets rotated up 60° to the laser have shown changes in thresholds for the two-plasmon decay instability and stimulated Raman scattering near the quarter critical region. In the case of rotated low-Z targets, spectra were observed to shift to lower wavelength and were substantially stronger in the visible and ultraviolet spectral ranges. The low-Z target data show growth at an incident intensity slightly below (~30%) the threshold values observed at normal incidence. A rapid rise in signal level over the same laser intensities was also observed in the hard x-ray data which serve as an overall indicator of LPI activity. Shots with rotated planar high-Z targets showed that the visible and ultraviolet emissions dropped significantly when compared to low-Z targets in the same geometry. This presentation will include results from upcoming experiments to determine the LPI signal for low-Z, high-Z, and high-Z coated targets at lower laser intensities for several angles of target rotation. Shots with widely separated laser beams are also planned to explore cross beam energy transport at Nike. Work supported by DoE/NNSA.

  20. Study of the course of the incidence angle during growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangione, P; Gomez, D; Senegas, J

    1997-01-01

    Standing posture is made possible by hip extension and lumbar lordosis. Lumbar lordosis is correlated with pelvic parameters, such as the declivity angle of the upper surface of the sacrum and the incidence angle, which determine the sagittal morphotype. Incidence angle, which is different for each individual, is known to be very important for up-right posture, but its course during life has not yet been established. Incidence angle was measured on radiographs of 30 fetuses, 30 children and 30 adults, and results were analysed using the correlation coefficient r and Student's t test. A statistically significant correlation between age and incidence angle was observed. Incidence angle considerably increases during the first months, continues to increase during early years, and stabilizes around the age of 10 years. Incidence is a mark of bipedism, and its role in sagittal balance is essential.

  1. A study of incidence of congenital anomalies in newborn: a hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivedita Prashar

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: This study stresses upon incidence of congenital anomalies as they are an important cause of perinatal mortality. To decrease the incidence of various congenital anomalies and their prevalence in the particular region, it is important that the distribution and prevalence are identified in that region and country as a whole. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2050-2053

  2. Incidence and clinical outcome of renal amyloidosis: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Abdallah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The kidneys are affected in almost all patients with amyloid A in secondary amyloidosis (AA amyloidosis but less frequently in immunoglobulin light chains in primary systemic amyloidosis (AL amyloidosis. In this study, we present the incidence, etiology, clinical manifestations, biochemical features and clinical course of renal amyloidosis. We conducted a retrospective study on a group of 40 cases with renal biopsy-proven amyloidosis. They constituted 2.5% of the total cases of renal biopsies performed in the Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt, during the period from February 2003 to May 2009. The mean age (30 males, ten females was 36.51 ± 10.32 years. Thirty-two of the cases had secondary AA amyloidosis and eight cases had primary AL amyloidosis. The causes of secondary amyloidosis were as follows: 12 (30% familial Mediterranean fever (FMF, eight (20% pulmonary tuberculosis, four (10% chronic osteomyelitis, four (10% bronchiectasis, three (7% rheumatoid arthritis and one (2% rheumatic heart disease. The eight cases of primary AL amyloidosis comprised of five cases that were associated with myloma (13% and three (8% cases that were idiopathic. Among the 23 patients with AA amyloidosis, after six months of treatment with colchicine, the proteinuria improved, serum albumin level increased and edema disappeared in 13 patients. In four cases of AA amyloidosis who were clinically and biochemically normal after cholchicine therapy, a second renal biopsy disclosed decreased amyloid deposition compared with the first biopsy. In the three renal transplanted patients who had amyloidosis secondary to FMF and were treated with colchicines, AA amyloidosis did not recur in the transplanted kidney. It might be possible that in AL amyloidosis, treatment with methotrexate, melphalan and prednisolone may improve survival. The incidence of renal amyloidosis is increasing and colchicine can be used in secondary amyloidosis as it may have an effect

  3. Ethical Dilemmas of Turkish Counsellors: A Critical Incidents Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivis-Cetinkaya, Rahsan

    2015-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas from a national purposive sample of Turkish counsellors (N = 172) were collected using critical incidents technique. Content analysis was performed with open coding guided by the classification of American Counseling Association code of ethics. Incidents regarding confidentiality and privacy (56.4%), with 37.1% involving incidents…

  4. Ethical Dilemmas of Turkish Counsellors: A Critical Incidents Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivis-Cetinkaya, Rahsan

    2015-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas from a national purposive sample of Turkish counsellors (N = 172) were collected using critical incidents technique. Content analysis was performed with open coding guided by the classification of American Counseling Association code of ethics. Incidents regarding confidentiality and privacy (56.4%), with 37.1% involving incidents…

  5. Challenges of information security incident learning: an industrial case study in a Chinese healthcare organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying; Johnson, Chris

    2017-01-09

    Security incidents can have negative impacts on healthcare organizations, and the security of medical records has become a primary concern of the public. However, previous studies showed that organizations had not effectively learned lessons from security incidents. Incident learning as an essential activity in the "follow-up" phase of security incident response lifecycle has long been addressed but not given enough attention. This paper conducted a case study in a healthcare organization in China to explore their current obstacles in the practice of incident learning. We interviewed both IT professionals and healthcare professionals. The results showed that the organization did not have a structured way to gather and redistribute incident knowledge. Incident response was ineffective in cycling incident knowledge back to inform security management. Incident reporting to multiple stakeholders faced a great challenge. In response to this case study, we suggest the security assurance modeling framework to address those obstacles.

  6. Social disorganization of neighborhoods and incidence of psychotic disorders: a 7-year first-contact incidence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veling, W; Susser, E; Selten, J-P; Hoek, H W

    2015-07-01

    Environmental factors such as urban birth and ethnic minority position have been related to risk for psychotic disorders. There is some evidence that not only individual, but also neighborhood characteristics influence this risk. The aim of this study was to investigate social disorganization of neighborhoods and incidence of psychotic disorders. The research was a 7-year first-contact incidence study of psychotic disorders in The Hague. Neighborhood characteristics included continuous, dichotomous and cumulative measures of socio-economic level, residential mobility, ethnic diversity, proportion of single person households, voter turnout, population density and crime level. Using multilevel Poisson regression analysis, incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of psychotic disorders were calculated for the indicators of neighborhood social disorganization. A total of 618 incident cases were identified. Neighborhood socio-economic level and residential mobility had the strongest association with incidence of psychotic disorders [individual-level adjusted Wald χ2 1 = 13.03 (p = 0.0003) and 5.51 (p = 0.02), respectively]. All but one (proportion of single person households) of the dichotomous neighborhood indicators were significantly associated with a higher IRR. The cumulative degree of neighborhood social disorganization was strongly and linearly associated with the incidence of psychotic disorders (trend test, Wald χ2 5 = 25.76, p = 0.0001). The IRR in neighborhoods with the highest degree of social disorganization was 1.95 (95% CI 1.38-2.75) compared with the lowest disorganization category. The findings suggest that the risk for developing a psychotic disorder is higher for people living in socially disorganized environments. Longitudinal studies are needed to investigate causality.

  7. Critical incident analysis through narrative reflective practice: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S. C. Farrell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Teachers can reflect on their practices by articulating and exploring incidents they consider critical to themselves or others. By talking about these critical incidents, teachers can make better sense of seemingly random experiences that occur in their teaching because they hold the real inside knowledge, especially personal intuitive knowledge, expertise and experience that is based on their accumulated years as language educators teaching in schools and classrooms. This paper is about one such critical incident analysis that an ESL teacher in Canada revealed to her critical friend and how both used McCabe’s (2002 narrative framework for analyzing an important critical incident that occurred in the teacher’s class.

  8. Trends in stroke incidence. The Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truelsen, T; Prescott, E; Grønbaek, M;

    1997-01-01

    at least one of the two first examinations as well as the total cohort including nonresponders. Subjects between 45 and 84 years of age were followed from March 1, 1976 until March 1, 1993. Changes in age-specific stroke incidence were calculated by means of Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS......: For subjects aged 45 to 64 years, no significant trends were observed, with an annual incidence rate ratio of 1.00 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97 to 1.03) and 1.04 (95% CI, 0.99 to 1.08) for men and women, respectively. In subjects aged 65 to 84 years a significant decrease in stroke incidence was found...... there has been a decline in incidence of stroke in men and women aged 65 to 84 years that was significant only in men, whereas no changes were found for persons aged 45 to 64 years....

  9. Location and incidence of the zygomaticofacial foramen: An anatomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu, Funda; Ceri, Nazli Gulriz; Arman, Candan; Zeybek, Fatma Gulşah; Tetik, Suleyman

    2009-07-01

    The location and incidence of the zygomaticofacial foramen (ZFF) was studied in 80 dry skulls (160 sides) of unsexed adult skulls of West Anatolian people. The average distances from the ZFF to the frontozygomatic suture, to the zygomaticomaxillary suture, and to the inferior orbital rim were found to be 26.2 +/- 3.2 mm, 18.6 +/- 3.14 mm, and 5.94 +/- 1.43 mm, respectively. The zygomas were evaluated for the number of foramina on their facial aspects. There was none in 25 (15.6%), one in 71 (44.4%), two in 45 (28.1%), three in 10 (6.3%), four in seven (4.4%), and five in two (1.3%) sides. The ZFF was also studied for its distribution around the zygoma by dividing the surface into four anatomical areas. There was no statistical difference between the morphometrical results on both sides. Data regarding the location and variation in the number of the ZFF is important in avoiding zygomatic nerve and vessel injury during surgery, but by virtue of the great variability found, ZFF is an unreliable landmark for maxillofacial surgery. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Preliminary study of malaria incidence in Nouakchott, Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekweiry, Khadijetou Mint; Abdallahi, Mohamed Ould; Ba, Hâmpaté; Arnathau, Céline; Durand, Patrick; Trape, Jean-François; Salem, Ali Ould Mohamed

    2009-05-05

    Malaria is one of the main motives for outpatient consultation and hospitalization in Mauritania. However, its incidence remains unclear because of diagnostic problems and insufficient epidemiological data. Between April and August 2007, a study on malaria incidence was carried out in Nouakchott city. A total of 237 febrile outpatients, from all Nouakchott districts, attending the two main hospitals of the city were investigated. Finger prick and blood dried filter paper samples were performed to prepare thick and thin films and nested-PCR for malaria parasite species identification and density. The accuracy of diagnosis of 'presumptive malaria', assigned by clinicians and based on fever and other malaria suggestive symptoms, was assessed. Entomological investigations based on morphological and molecular characterization of Anopheline species were conducted in Dar Naïm district. Malaria prevalence rate was 25.7% (61/237), the majority of positive blood slides as well as nested-PCR products were due to Plasmodium vivax 70.5% (43/61) and Plasmodium ovale 24.6% (15/61). Two malaria patients, both with P. vivax, have never travelled out of Nouakchott and seem likely to have been autochthonous (3.3%). Of the 237 individuals included in the survey, 231(97.5%) were clinically diagnosed and treated as malaria cases. 26.4% of clinically diagnosed cases were positive for Plasmodium using microscopic examination and PCR. Thus, false positive cases constituted 73.6% (170/231) of the clinically diagnosed malaria cases. The search for mosquito vectors in Dar Naïm district allowed morphological and molecular identification of Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles pharoensis. This study demonstrates that, during the hot and dry season, Plasmodium species responsible of recurrent malaria (P. vivax and P. ovale) are the dominant species in Nouakchott city and autochthonous malaria cases exist but are rare. Clinical diagnosis of malaria has a very low positive predicted value. The

  11. Preliminary study of malaria incidence in Nouakchott, Mauritania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trape Jean-François

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is one of the main motives for outpatient consultation and hospitalization in Mauritania. However, its incidence remains unclear because of diagnostic problems and insufficient epidemiological data. Methods Between April and August 2007, a study on malaria incidence was carried out in Nouakchott city. A total of 237 febrile outpatients, from all Nouakchott districts, attending the two main hospitals of the city were investigated. Finger prick and blood dried filter paper samples were performed to prepare thick and thin films and nested-PCR for malaria parasite species identification and density. The accuracy of diagnosis of 'presumptive malaria', assigned by clinicians and based on fever and other malaria suggestive symptoms, was assessed. Entomological investigations based on morphological and molecular characterization of Anopheline species were conducted in Dar Naïm district. Results Malaria prevalence rate was 25.7% (61/237, the majority of positive blood slides as well as nested-PCR products were due to Plasmodium vivax 70.5% (43/61 and Plasmodium ovale 24.6% (15/61. Two malaria patients, both with P. vivax, have never travelled out of Nouakchott and seem likely to have been autochthonous (3.3%. Of the 237 individuals included in the survey, 231(97.5% were clinically diagnosed and treated as malaria cases. 26.4% of clinically diagnosed cases were positive for Plasmodium using microscopic examination and PCR. Thus, false positive cases constituted 73.6% (170/231 of the clinically diagnosed malaria cases. The search for mosquito vectors in Dar Naïm district allowed morphological and molecular identification of Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles pharoensis. Conclusion This study demonstrates that, during the hot and dry season, Plasmodium species responsible of recurrent malaria (P. vivax and P. ovale are the dominant species in Nouakchott city and autochthonous malaria cases exist but are rare. Clinical diagnosis

  12. Medication Incidents Related to Automated Dose Dispensing in Community Pharmacies and Hospitals - A Reporting System Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ka-Chun; van den Bemt, Patricia M. L. A.; Bouvy, Marcel L.; Wensing, Michel; De Smet, Peter A. G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Automated dose dispensing (ADD) is being introduced in several countries and the use of this technology is expected to increase as a growing number of elderly people need to manage their medication at home. ADD aims to improve medication safety and treatment adherence, but it may introduce new safety issues. This descriptive study provides insight into the nature and consequences of medication incidents related to ADD, as reported by healthcare professionals in community pharmacies and hospitals. Methods The medication incidents that were submitted to the Dutch Central Medication incidents Registration (CMR) reporting system were selected and characterized independently by two researchers. Main Outcome Measures Person discovering the incident, phase of the medication process in which the incident occurred, immediate cause of the incident, nature of incident from the healthcare provider's perspective, nature of incident from the patient's perspective, and consequent harm to the patient caused by the incident. Results From January 2012 to February 2013 the CMR received 15,113 incidents: 3,685 (24.4%) incidents from community pharmacies and 11,428 (75.6%) incidents from hospitals. Eventually 1 of 50 reported incidents (268/15,113 = 1.8%) were related to ADD; in community pharmacies more incidents (227/3,685 = 6.2%) were related to ADD than in hospitals (41/11,428 = 0.4%). The immediate cause of an incident was often a change in the patient's medicine regimen or relocation. Most reported incidents occurred in two phases: entering the prescription into the pharmacy information system and filling the ADD bag. Conclusion A proportion of incidents was related to ADD and is reported regularly, especially by community pharmacies. In two phases, entering the prescription into the pharmacy information system and filling the ADD bag, most incidents occurred. A change in the patient's medicine regimen or relocation was the immediate causes of an incident

  13. A retrospective study on incidence of lameness in domestic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mohsina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the incidence of lameness among different species of animals presented to the Veterinary Polyclinic, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar. Materials and Methods: Outpatient department (OPD records for the period from January 2006 to December 2010 were referred and information was collected regarding number of lameness in different species, breeds, type of injury, limb affected, gender, age at onset, treatment offered, outcome and any reoccurrence. In this study, fractured cases were not included. Results: The incidence of lameness among different species were recorded: canine (56%, equine (21%, caprine (7%, feline (3%, cattle (7%, buffalo (5.47%, sheep (0.6%, monkey (0.39% and swine (0.19%. In dog, the different conditions were reported with hind quarter weakness recording 55% of lameness followed by right hind limb lameness (14.7%, left hind limb lameness (12.6%, left forelimb lameness (12%, hip dislocation (6.3% and hip dysplasia (4.2%. In caprines, important causes of lameness were right forelimb lameness (23%, right hind limb lameness (12%, left forelimb lameness (12%, posterior paresis (9%, left shoulder dislocation (14% and right shoulder dislocation (6%. In cattle, 34.28% of cases with right hind limb lameness, 28.5% cases were due to HQW, 14.28% had hip dysplasia, 8.57% suffered left hind limb lameness, 6% cases were recorded with obturator nerve paralysis and 8.57% cases suffered contracted tendon in calves. In buffaloes, cases reported were right carpal arthritis, foot rot and left hind limb lameness (14.28% each, due to bilateral upward luxation of patella and due bilateral purulent wound in stifle (18% each and hip dislocation (21.4%. In equines, lameness were reported with right hind limb affection (13%, left forelimb affection (11%, right forelimb affection (17%, 4% each due to disease of right shoulder, HQW and both forelimb affection, lateral dislocation of patella (3%, affection of both hind limbs (9%, 5

  14. The Incidence and Temporal Patterning of Insomnia: a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlis, Michael; Phillips, Cindy; Gehrman, Philip R.; Pigeon, Wilfred; Matteson, Sara; Jungquist, Carla

    2014-01-01

    To date very little research has been conducted on night-to-night variability in the incidence of insomnia. Unclear from prior research is whether subjects with Primary Insomnia (PI) exhibit good sleep (or better than average sleep) on some interval basis. In the present study, pilot data are provided on 1) the frequency with which “good sleep” occurs in subjects with PI and 2) whether these events occur in a non-random manner. 10 PI subjects participated in this “naturalistic” study. All subjects completed daily sleep diaries for a minimum of 20 days. None of the subjects received treatment for their insomnia during the monitoring period. The night-tonight data were evaluated by typing each night’s sleep as “Good” or “Bad” and then by determining the number of bad nights that occurred prior to a good night for each subject. Good and bad nights were typed in two ways: 1. using a ≥ 85% cutoff and 2. using a better than the individual’s mean sleep efficiency (idiographic cutoff). Subjects exhibited good sleep on between 29% (> 85% criteria) and 55% (idiographic criteria) of the nights evaluated. The temporal patterning analysis (based on a idiographic cutoff) revealed that better than average sleep most frequently occurred (> 89% of instances) following one to three night’s of poor sleep. These data suggests that insomnia severity may be mediated/moderated by sleep homeostasis and that the homeostat, or input to the homeostat, may be abnormal in patients with Primary Insomnia. PMID:19912510

  15. Effects on incident reporting after educating residents in patient safety: a controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansma José D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical residents are key figures in delivering health care and an important target group for patient safety education. Reporting incidents is an important patient safety domain, as awareness of vulnerabilities could be a starting point for improvements. This study examined effects of patient safety education for residents on knowledge, skills, attitudes, intentions and behavior concerning incident reporting. Methods A controlled study with follow-up measurements was conducted. In 2007 and 2008 two patient safety courses for residents were organized. Residents from a comparable hospital acted as external controls. Data were collected in three ways: 1] questionnaires distributed before, immediately after and three months after the course, 2] incident reporting cards filled out by course participants during the course, and 3] residents' reporting data gathered from hospital incident reporting systems. Results Forty-four residents attended the course and 32 were external controls. Positive changes in knowledge, skills and attitudes were found after the course. Residents' intentions to report incidents were positive at all measurements. Participants filled out 165 incident reporting cards, demonstrating the skills to notice incidents. Residents who had reported incidents before, reported more incidents after the course. However, the number of residents reporting incidents did not increase. An increase in reported incidents was registered by the reporting system of the intervention hospital. Conclusions Patient safety education can have immediate and long-term positive effects on knowledge, skills and attitudes, and modestly influence the reporting behavior of residents.

  16. Incidence of chronic atrophic gastritis: systematic review and meta-analysis of follow-up studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamu, Mariam Abdullahi; Weck, Melanie Nicole; Gao, Lei; Brenner, Hermann

    2010-07-01

    Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is an important precursor lesion of intestinal gastric cancer. As it is typically asymptomatic, epidemiological data on the incidence of CAG are sparse. We aimed to provide an overview of published data on CAG incidence (overall and according to risk factors) from follow-up studies. Articles with information on incidence of CAG published in English until 26th of July 2009 were identified through a systematic MEDLINE and EMBASE search. Data extracted include study characteristics and key findings regarding the incidence of CAG. A meta-analysis was performed on the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and CAG incidence. Overall, data on CAG incidence were available from 14 studies, in 7 studies incidence could be estimated according to H. pylori infection. Most studies were conducted in symptomatic or high risk populations and the maximum number of incident cases was 284. Incidence estimates ranged from 0 to 11% per year and were consistently below 1% in patients not infected with H. pylori. The highest incidence was observed in a special study conducted on ulcer patients treated by proximal gastric vagotomy. Rate ratios for the association between H. pylori infection and CAG incidence ranged from 2.4 to 7.6 with a summary estimate of 5.0 (95% confidence interval: 3.1-8.3). Incidence of CAG is very low in the absence of H. pylori infection. There is a need for more population-based studies to provide comparable estimates of incidence and the impact of risk factors in the development of CAG.

  17. Temporal Trends and Temperature-Related Incidence of Electrical Storm: The TEMPEST Study (Temperature-Related Incidence of Electrical Storm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Federico; Bonelli, Paolo; Flori, Marco; Cipolletta, Laura; Carbucicchio, Corrado; Izquierdo, Maite; Kozluk, Edward; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Vaseghi, Marmar; Patani, Francesca; Cupido, Claudio; Pala, Salvatore; Ruiz-Granell, Ricardo; Ferrero, Angel; Tondo, Claudio; Capucci, Alessandro

    2017-03-01

    The occurrence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias seems to follow circadian, daily, and seasonal distributions. Our aim is to identify potential temporal patterns of electrical storm (ES), in which a cluster of ventricular tachycardias or ventricular fibrillation, negatively affects short- and long-term survival. The TEMPEST study (Circannual Pattern and Temperature-Related Incidence of Electrical Storm) is a patient-level, pooled analysis of previously published data sets. Study selection criteria included diagnosis of ES, absence of acute coronary syndrome as the arrhythmic trigger, and ≥10 patients included. At the end of the selection and collection processes, 5 centers had the data set from their article pooled into the present registry. Temperature data and sunrise and sunset hours were retrieved from Weather Underground, the largest weather database available online. Total sample included 246 patients presenting with ES (221 men; age: 65±9 years). Each ES episode included a median of 7 ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation episodes. Fifty-nine percent of patients experienced ES during daytime hours (P<0.001). The prevalence of ES was significantly higher during workdays, with Saturdays and Sundays registering the lowest rates of ES (10.4% and 7.2%, respectively, versus 16.5% daily mean from Monday to Friday; P<0.001). ES occurrence was significantly associated with increased monthly temperature range when compared with the month before (P=0.003). ES incidence is not homogenous over time but seems to have a clustered pattern, with a higher incidence during daytime hours and working days. ES is associated with an increase in monthly temperature variation. https://www.crd.york.ac.uk. Unique identifier: CRD42013003744. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Cancer incidence and incidence rates in Japan in 2008: a study of 25 population-based cancer registries for the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Ayako; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Katanoda, Kota; Sobue, Tomotaka; Nishimoto, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    The Japan Cancer Surveillance Research Group aimed to estimate the cancer incidence in Japan in 2008 based on data collected from 25 of 34 population-based cancer registries, as part of the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan project. The incidence in Japan for 2008 was estimated to be 749 767 (C00-C96). Stomach cancer and breast cancer were the leading types of cancer in males and females, respectively.

  19. The Incidence of Primary Systemic Vasculitis in Jerusalem: A 20-year Hospital-based Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesher, Gideon; Ben-Chetrit, Eli; Mazal, Bracha; Breuer, Gabriel S

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of primary systemic vasculitides varies among different geographic regions and ethnic origins. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence rates of vasculitides in the Jerusalem Jewish population, and to examine possible trends in incidence rates over a 20-year period. The clinical databases of inpatients at the 2 medical centers in Jerusalem were searched for patients with vasculitis diagnosed between 1990-2009. Individual records were then reviewed by one of the authors. The significance of trends in incidence rates throughout the study period was evaluated by Pearson correlation coefficient. The average annual incidence rate of polyarteritis nodosa was 3.6/million adults (95% CI 1.6-4.7). Incidence rates did not change significantly during this period (r = 0.39, p = 0.088). The incidence of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) was 4.1 (2.2-5.9) for the whole period, during which it increased significantly (r = 0.53, p Jerusalem are in the lower range of global incidence rates. While GPA and MPA incidence are increasing, GCA incidence is decreasing.

  20. Cancer incidence among 1st generation migrants compared to native Danes--a retrospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørredam, Marie Louise; Krasnik, A; Pipper, C

    2007-01-01

    had a significantly lower incidence. All migrants had a significantly lower incidence of breast and colorectal cancer but male migrants from East Europe had a significantly higher incidence of lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The overall cancer incidence among migrants was lower compared to native Danes......STUDY AIMS: To investigate the incidence of cancer among 1st generation migrants compared to native Danes, including time trends in the risk of cancer among migrants. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study design. Migrants were matched 1:4 on age and sex with a Danish born reference population....... The cohort was linked to the Danish Cancer Register and cancer cases among migrants (n=537) and native Danes (n=2829) were identified. RESULTS: The overall cancer incidence did not differ significantly between migrants from East Europe and native Danes; whereas migrants from the Middle East and North Africa...

  1. Laboratory Study on the Interaction Between Regular Obliquely Incident Waves and Vertical Walls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉成; 董国海; 孙昭晨; 徐双全; 毛恺; 牛恩宗

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of wave forces are studied based on physical model tests with regular waves. The ratio ofobliquely incident wave forces to normally incident wave forces on unit length of a vertical wall is related with variousfactors. A linear reduction of the mean force of obliquely incident waves is confirmed with an increase in the relativecaisson length. Also the characteristics of reflection coefficient of diagonal waves are discussed.

  2. A RETROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY ON THE INCIDENCE OF HAND DERMATITIS IN NURSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SMIT, HA; COENRAADS, PJ

    Data on the incidence and induction time of hand dermatitis are not available from the literature. To assist the planning of a prospective study on risk factors for hand dermatitis, a retrospective cohort study was performed in nurses and office employees to obtain a rough estimate of the incidence

  3. The Lymphedema and Gynecologic Cancer (LEG) Study: Incidence, Risk Factors, and | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The proposed study, "Lymphedema and Gynecologic cancer (LEG): Incidence, Risk Factors and Impact", will innovatively utilize the cooperative group setting of the GOG (Gynecologic Oncology Group) to prospectively study 1300 women newly diagnosed with cervical, endometrial, or vulvar cancer to determine the incidence and impact of lower extremity lymphedema following surgical treatment of these diseases. |

  4. Incidence of open-angle glaucoma in a general elderly population - The Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Voogd, S; Ikram, MK; Wolfs, RCW; Jansonius, NM; Hofman, A; de Jong, PTVM

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in a general elderly white population. Design: Population-based cohort study. Participants: Participants 55 years and older from the Rotterdam Study, The Netherlands. Methods: Participants at risk for incident OAG underwent at baseline

  5. Lessons Learnt from the Improvement of Customer Support Processes: A Case Study on Incident Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäntti, Marko

    IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) is the most widely used IT service management framework that provides guidelines how to create, manage and support IT services. Service support processes, such as incident management and problem management, are among the first ITIL processes that organizations start to implement. However, several challenges may exist in the process implementation. The research question of this study is: which issues are important in establishing an ITIL-based incident management process? The main contribution of this paper is to present lessons learnt from an ITIL-based process improvement project that focused on establishing an incident management process in an IS department of a university hospital. Our results show that key issues in implementing incident management are to 1) define the basic concepts of incident management with concrete examples and 2) define process interfaces between incident management and other support processes.

  6. On the etiology of incident brain lacunes: longitudinal observations from the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gouw, A.A.; Flier, W.M. van der; Pantoni, L.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We investigated regional differences in MRI characteristics and risk factor profiles of incident lacunes over a 3-year period. METHODS: Baseline and 3-year follow-up MRI were collected within the LADIS study (n=358). Incident lacunes were characterized with respect to brain...... region, their appearance within pre-existent white matter hyperintensities (WMH), surrounding WMH size, and risk factors. RESULTS: 106 incident lacunes were observed in 62 patients (58 subcortical white matter [WM], 35 basal ganglia, and 13 infratentorial). Incident subcortical WM lacunes occurred more...

  7. Incidence of acute deep vein thrombosis in two districts. A phlebographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, A

    1980-01-01

    The incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), diagnosed by ascending phlebography, was calculated in two Swedish districts. The average incidence per thousand population and year was 0.85 in males and 0.68 in females. Before the age of 50 the incidence was very low and almost the same in both sexes. After age 50 the incidence in men markedly increased with age. A similar increase was found in women, but not before age 60. DVT occurring after age 50 was significantly more common in men than in women. The study strongly suggests male sex as a risk factor for DVT.

  8. Blood pressure, atherosclerosis, and the incidence of age-related maculopathy: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Leeuwen (Redmer); M.K. Ikram (Kamran); J.R. Vingerling (Hans); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); P.T.V.M. de Jong (Paulus); A. Hofman (Albert)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE: To determine whether blood pressure and subclinical atherosclerosis are associated with incident age-related maculopathy (ARM). METHODS: The study was performed within the Rotterdam Study, a population-based, prospective cohort study in Rotterdam, The Netherlan

  9. Sydney epilepsy incidence study to measure illness consequences: the SESIMIC observational epilepsy study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epilepsy affects an estimated 50 million people and accounts for approximately 1% of days lost to ill health globally, making it one of the most common, serious neurological disorders. While there are abundant global data on epilepsy incidence, prevalence and treatment, there is a paucity of Australian incidence data. There is also a general lack of information on the psychosocial impact and socioeconomic consequences of a new diagnosis of epilepsy on an individual, their family, household, and community which are often specific to the health and social system of each country. Methods/Design The Sydney Epilepsy Incidence Study to Measure Illness Consequences (SEISMIC is an Australian population-based epilepsy incidence and outcome study that will recruit every newly diagnosed case of epilepsy in the Sydney South West Area Health Service to an epilepsy register. Multiple and overlapping sources of notification will be used to identify all new cases of epilepsy over a 24 month period in the Eastern Zone of the Sydney South West Area Health Service (SSWAHS and follow up will occur over 12 months. SEISMIC will use the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE definitions and classifications for epidemiologic studies of epilepsy. The study will examine outcomes including mood, quality of life, employment, education performance, driving status, marital and social problems, medication use, health care usage, costs and stigma. Discussion This study is designed to examine how clinical, psychological factors, socioeconomic circumstances, and healthcare delivery influence the experience of epilepsy for individuals and families allowing better targeting of specific services and informing policy makers and practitioners. In addition, the study will provide the basis for a longitudinal population-based cohort study and potentially inform qualitative sub-studies and randomised controlled trials of intervention strategies. The study has

  10. Incidence and outcomes of bulimia nervosa : a nationwide population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keski-Rahkonen, A.; Hoek, H. W.; Linna, M. S.; Raevuori, A.; Sihvola, E.; Bulik, C. M.; Rissanen, A.; Kaprio, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Little is known about the epidemiology of bulimia nervosa outside clinical settings. We report the incidence, prevalence and outcomes of bulimia nervosa using for the first time a nationwide Study design. Method. To assess the incidence and natural course and outcomes of DSM-IV bulimia n

  11. Using Critical Incident Reflections: A Self-Study as a Mathematics Teacher Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, Joanne E.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, I report the results of a 4-year study into how my students learn to become mathematics teachers during the combined 15-week methods and field placement course I teach. At the start of most weekly methods class meetings, groups of three or four students reported their critical incidents to each other, and then chose one incident to…

  12. Incidence and outcomes of bulimia nervosa : a nationwide population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keski-Rahkonen, A.; Hoek, H. W.; Linna, M. S.; Raevuori, A.; Sihvola, E.; Bulik, C. M.; Rissanen, A.; Kaprio, J.

    Background. Little is known about the epidemiology of bulimia nervosa outside clinical settings. We report the incidence, prevalence and outcomes of bulimia nervosa using for the first time a nationwide Study design. Method. To assess the incidence and natural course and outcomes of DSM-IV bulimia

  13. The Global Incidence of Appendicitis: A Systematic Review of Population-based Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Mollie; Quan, Samuel; Kaplan, Belle S; Molodecky, Natalie; Ball, Chad G; Chernoff, Greg W; Bhala, Nij; Ghosh, Subrata; Dixon, Elijah; Ng, Siew; Kaplan, Gilaad G

    2017-08-01

    We compared the incidence of appendicitis or appendectomy across the world and evaluated temporal trends. Population-based studies reported the incidence of appendicitis. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for population-based studies reporting the incidence of appendicitis or appendectomy. Time trends were explored using Poisson regression and reported as annual percent change (APC) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). APC were stratified by time periods and pooled using random effects models. Incidence since 2000 was pooled for regions in the Western world. The search retrieved 10,247 citations with 120 studies reporting on the incidence of appendicitis or appendectomy. During the 21st century the pooled incidence of appendicitis or appendectomy (in per 100,000 person-years) was 100 (95% CI: 91, 110) in Northern America, and the estimated number of cases in 2015 was 378,614. The pooled incidence ranged from 105 in Eastern Europe to 151 in Western Europe. In Western countries, the incidence of appendectomy steadily decreased since 1990 (APC after 1989=-1.54; 95% CI: -2.22, -0.86), whereas the incidence of appendicitis stabilized (APC=-0.36; 95% CI: -0.97, 0.26) for both perforated (APC=0.95; 95% CI: -0.25, 2.17) and nonperforated appendicitis (APC=0.44; 95% CI: -0.84, 1.73). In the 21st century, the incidence of appendicitis or appendectomy is high in newly industrialized countries in Asia (South Korea pooled: 206), the Middle East (Turkey pooled: 160), and Southern America (Chile: 202). Appendicitis is a global disease. The incidence of appendicitis is stable in most Western countries. Data from newly industrialized countries is sparse, but suggests that appendicitis is rising rapidly.

  14. Incidence of zoonotic Salmonella species bacteraemia: a multi-national population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laupland, Kevin; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Lyytikäinen, Outi;

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Although zoonotic (non-typhoidal) Salmonella species are important causes of invasive infections worldwide, few studies have investigated their epidemiology at the population level. The objective of this study was to define the incidence of zoonotic Salmonella species bacteraemia...

  15. Association of iodine fortification with incident use of antithyroid medication – a Danish nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerqueira, Charlotte; Knudsen, Nils; Ovesen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    iodine fortification program on incidence of hyperthyroidism as measured by the incident use of antithyroid medication. Design: We conducted a register study. Using the unique identification number of all Danes, we linked data from the Register of Medicinal Product Statistics and the Civil Registration......: In the region with moderate iodine deficiency, the number of incident users of antithyroid medication increased 46% in the first 4 yr of iodine fortification. The use increased the most among the youngest age group (younger than 40 yr) and the oldest age group (older than 75 yr). In the mildly iodine......-deficient region, the number of incident users increased only 18%, and only in the youngest age groups (below 40 and 40-59 yr). After 4 yr of fortification, the incidence rates started to fall and reached baseline, for most groups, 6 yr after onset of fortification. Conclusions: This study shows that iodine...

  16. Study on laser welding of austenitic stainless steel by varying incident angle of pulsed laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nikhil; Mukherjee, Manidipto; Bandyopadhyay, Asish

    2017-09-01

    In the present work, AISI 304 stainless steel sheets are laser welded in butt joint configuration using a robotic control 600 W pulsed Nd:YAG laser system. The objective of the work is of twofold. Firstly, the study aims to find out the effect of incident angle on the weld pool geometry, microstructure and tensile property of the welded joints. Secondly, a set of experiments are conducted, according to response surface design, to investigate the effects of process parameters, namely, incident angle of laser beam, laser power and welding speed, on ultimate tensile strength by developing a second order polynomial equation. Study with three different incident angle of laser beam 89.7 deg, 85.5 deg and 83 deg has been presented in this work. It is observed that the weld pool geometry has been significantly altered with the deviation in incident angle. The weld pool shape at the top surface has been altered from semispherical or nearly spherical shape to tear drop shape with decrease in incident angle. Simultaneously, planer, fine columnar dendritic and coarse columnar dendritic structures have been observed at 89.7 deg, 85.5 deg and 83 deg incident angle respectively. Weld metals with 85.5 deg incident angle has higher fraction of carbide and δ-ferrite precipitation in the austenitic matrix compared to other weld conditions. Hence, weld metal of 85.5 deg incident angle achieved higher micro-hardness of ∼280 HV and tensile strength of 579.26 MPa followed by 89.7 deg and 83 deg incident angle welds. Furthermore, the predicted maximum value of ultimate tensile strength of 580.50 MPa has been achieved for 85.95 deg incident angle using the developed equation where other two optimum parameter settings have been obtained as laser power of 455.52 W and welding speed of 4.95 mm/s. This observation has been satisfactorily validated by three confirmatory tests.

  17. The incidence rate of cancer in patients with schizophrenia: A meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hailong; Li, Jiasi; Yu, Xiya; Zheng, Huiwen; Sun, Xu; Lu, Yue; Zhang, Yanbo; Li, Chunbo; Bi, Xiaoying

    2017-09-21

    Numerous studies report that cancer prevalence in patients with schizophrenia might be different from the general population, but findings remain controversial. Our updated meta-analysis of cohort studies aims to analyze the data from cohort studies concerning the incidence risk of overall cancer and some site-specific cancers in patients with schizophrenia. We performed a systemic search through electronic databases. Cohort studies evaluating and describing the cancer incidence among patients with schizophrenia were included. Pooled risk ratios (RRs) were calculated for assessing the incidence risk of cancer. There were 16 cohort studies included in this meta-analysis, which combined a total of 480,356 participants with schizophrenia and 41,999 cases of cancer. Results showed that there was a slight significant decreased overall risk ratio of cancer incidence among patients with schizophrenia (RR=0.90, 95% CI 0.81-0.99). When stratified by cancer site and gender, there were significant decreased incidence risk rates of colorectal cancer (RR=0.82, 95% CI 0.69-0.98) and prostate cancer (RR=0.55, 95% CI 0.42-0.71) in those patients, moreover, the incidence rate of colorectal cancer decreased significantly in male patients (RR=0.89, 95% CI 0.81-0.98), and the incidence rate of lung cancer increased significantly in female patients (RR=1.12, 95% CI 1.01-1.25). The incidence risk of some cancers was reduced in patients with schizophrenia. Gender and type of cancer were two important confounding factors contributed to the heterogeneity that required adjustment in our cancer incidence meta-analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Studies on normal incidence backscattering in nodule areas using the multibeam-hydrosweep system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pathak, D.; Chakraborty, B.

    The acoustic response from areas of varying nodule abundance and number densities in the Central Indian Ocean has been studied by using the echo peak amplitudes of the normal incidence beam in the Multibeam Hydrosweep system. It is observed...

  19. Aspirin might reduce the incidence of pancreatic cancer: A meta-analysis of observational studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Yan-Peng; Wan, You-Dong; Sun, Yu-Ling; Li, Jian; Zhu, Rong-Tao

    2015-01-01

    .... We searched PubMed and Embase for observational (cohort or case-control) studies examining the consumption of aspirin and other NSAIDs and the incidence of or mortality rates associated with pancreatic cancer...

  20. Reliability studies of incident coding systems in high hazard industries: A narrative review of study methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Nikki S

    2013-03-01

    This paper reviews the current literature on incident coding system reliability and discusses the methods applied in the conduct and measurement of reliability. The search strategy targeted three electronic databases using a list of search terms and the results were examined for relevance, including any additional relevant articles from the bibliographies. Twenty five papers met the relevance criteria and their methods are discussed. Disagreements in the selection of methods between reliability researchers are highlighted as are the effects of method selection on the outcome of the trials. The review provides evidence that the meaningfulness of and confidence in results is directly affected by the methodologies employed by the researcher during the preparation, conduct and analysis of the reliability study. Furthermore, the review highlights the heterogeneity of methodologies employed by researchers measuring reliability of incident coding techniques, reducing the ability to critically compare and appraise techniques being considered for the adoption of report coding and trend analysis by client organisations. It is recommended that future research focuses on the standardisation of reliability research and measurement within the incident coding domain.

  1. Cancer incidence in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Taiwan: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiow-Ing; Yaung, Chih-Liang; Lee, Long-Teng; Chiou, Shang-Jyh

    2016-01-01

    Numerous antinuclear demonstrations reveal that the public is anxious about the potential health effects caused by nuclear power plants. The purpose of this study is to address the question "Is there a higher cancer incidence rate in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Taiwan?" The Taiwan Cancer Registry database from 1979 to 2003 was used to compare the standardized incidence rate of the top four cancers with strong evidence for radiation risks between the "plant-vicinity" with those "non-plant-vicinity" groups. All cancer sites, five-leading cancers in Taiwan, and gender-specific cancers were also studied. We also adopted different observation time to compare the incidence rate of cancers between two groups to explore the impact of the observation period. The incidences of leukemia, thyroid, lung, and breast cancer were not significantly different between two groups, but cervix uteri cancer showed higher incidence rates in the plant-vicinity group. The incidence of cervical cancer was not consistently associated with the duration of plant operation, according to a multiyear period comparison. Although there was higher incidence in cervix cancer in the plant-vicinity group, our findings did not provide the crucial evidence that nuclear power plants were the causal factor for some cancers with strong evidence for radiation risks.

  2. Healthy organizational practices against violence at work. Study of incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Gimeno Navarro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Violence at work is a growing problem for organizations. It involves significant costs for the organization, its members and the community. In its various dimensions, organized violence is one of the least investigated. This study provides evidence of the relevance of this dimension has on the development of violent behavior in the workplace. The results indicate that practices an organization implements an impact on levels of violence that occur at work. For the development of healthy organizations, free of violence, the company management must take a holistic approach and look at best practices related to human resource management, with leadership factors or job design

  3. [Regional Study of Patient Safety Incidents (ERIDA) in the Emergency Services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz-Martínez, J; Aranaz-Andrés, J M; Martínez-Ros, C; Moreno-Reina, S; Escobar-Álvaro, L; Ortega-Liarte, J V

    2016-01-01

    Evaluate the patient safety incidents that occur in the emergency departments of our region. Observational study conducted in all the hospital emergency departments in the Regional Health Service of Murcia. After systematic random sampling, data were collected during care and a week later by telephone survey. Health professionals of each service were trained and collected the information, following the methodology of the National Study of Adverse Events Related to Hospitalization -ENEAS- and the Adverse Events Related to Spanish Hospital Emergency Department Care -EVADUR-. A total of 393 samples were collected, proportional to the cases treated in each hospital. In 10 cases (3.1%) the complaint was a previous safety incident. At least one incident was detected in 47 patients (11.95%; 8.7 to 15.1%). In 3 cases there were 2 incidents, bringing the number of incidents to 50. Regarding the impact, the 51% of incidents caused harm to the patients. The effects more frequent in patients were the need for repeat visits (9 cases), and mismanagement of pain (8 cases). In 24 cases (51.1%) health care was not affected, although 3 cases required an additional test, 11 cases required further consultation, and led to hospitalisation in 2 cases. The most frequent causal factors of these incidents were medication (14) and care (12). The incidents were considered preventable in 60% of cases. A rate of incidents in the emergency departments, representative of the region, has been obtained. The implications of the results for the population means that 12 out of every 100 patients treated in emergency departments have an adverse event, and 7 of these are avoidable. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. An analysis of intraoperative recall of awareness in Thai Anesthesia Incidents Study (THAI Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungreungvanich, Mali; Lekprasert, Varinee; Sirinan, Chomchaba; Hintong, Thanoo

    2005-11-01

    This study aimed to analyze intraoperative awareness using database of Thai Anesthesia Incidents Study (THAI Study) with regard to frequency, contributing factors, preventive and corrective strategies. Details of intraoperative recall of awareness were recorded prospectively by attending anesthesiologists or nurse anesthetists in standardized record forms during February 1, 2003 to July 31, 2004. Participating hospitals included 7 university hospitals, 5 tertiary care hospitals, 4 secondary care hospitals, and 4 primary care hospitals. All data were analyzed to identify contributing factors, preventive and corrective strategies. Among 126078 general anesthetized cases, there were 99 cases of intraoperative recall of awareness. Awareness was found in female patients more than male patients (63% versus 37%). The majority of patients had ASA PS 1 and 2. Cardiac, obstetric, and lower abdominal surgery were involved in anesthesia awareness more than other type of surgery. Patients experiencing awareness reported sound (62%), pain (51%), feeling operated without pain (33%), and paralysis (25%). There was slight impact of anesthesia awareness in Thai patients (only 13% had temporary emotional stress and 13% had mild anxiety) despite small percentage of proper management by reassurance and psychiatric consultation (15%). The contributing factors included inadequate knowledge (67%), inadequate medication dosage (44%), and inadequate care from inexperience (11%). Awareness incidents were documented to be preventable in 36% of patients and partially preventable in 38% of patients. The corrective strategies included guideline practice (30%), additional training (28%), quality assurance activity (19%), and improved supervision (16%). The incidence of intraoperative recall of awareness in this study was 0.08%. Patients reported sound, pain, feeling operated without pain, and paralysis. Corrective strategies included guideline practice, additional training, quality assurance

  5. Prospective Study of Trichomonas vaginalis Infection and Prostate Cancer Incidence and Mortality: Physicians' Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Gregory; Alderete, John F.; Mundodi, Vasanthakrishna; Kucknoor, Ashwini S.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Fall, Katja; Kurth, Tobias; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir J.; Mucci, Lorelei A.

    2009-01-01

    Background A recent nested case–control study found that the presence of antibodies against Trichomonas vaginalis, a common nonviral sexually transmitted infection, was positively associated with subsequent incidence of prostate cancer. We confirmed these findings in an independent population and related serostatus for antibodies against T vaginalis to prostate cancer incidence and mortality. Methods We conducted a case–control study nested within the Physicians’ Health Study that included 673 case subjects with prostate cancer and 673 individually matched control subjects who had available plasma samples. Plasma from blood samples collected at baseline was assayed for antibodies against T vaginalis with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) of incident prostate cancer, extraprostatic prostate cancer, and cancer that would ultimately progress to bony metastases or prostate cancer–specific death. Results Although not statistically significant, the magnitude of the association between T vaginalis–seropositive status and overall prostate cancer risk (OR = 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.94 to 1.61) was similar to that reported previously. Furthermore, a seropositive status was associated with statistically significantly increased risks of extraprostatic prostate cancer (OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.08 to 4.37) and of cancer that would ultimately progress to bony metastases or prostate cancer–specific death (OR = 2.69, 95% CI = 1.37 to 5.28). Conclusions This large prospective case–control study obtained further support for an association between a seropositive status for antibodies against T vaginalis and the risk of prostate cancer, with statistically significant associations identified for the risk of extraprostatic prostate cancer and for clinically relevant, potentially lethal prostate cancer. PMID:19741211

  6. Three-year prospective study to improve the management of blood-exposure incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Paul Th L; Pelk-Jongen, Marianne; Wijkmans, Clementine; Voss, Andreas; Schneeberger, Peter M

    2008-09-01

    Throughout 2003-2005, all blood-exposure incidents registered by an expert counseling center in The Netherlands accessible by telephone 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, were analyzed to assess quality improvement in the center's management of such incidents. The expert center was established to handle blood-exposure incidents that occur both inside and outside of a hospital. Infection control practitioners carried out risk assessment, made the practical arrangements associated with managing incidents, and carried out treatment and follow-up, all in accordance with standardized procedures. We analyzed the time it took for exposed individuals to report the incident, the time required to perform a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) test for the source individual when needed, occurrence of injuries, hepatitis B (HBV) vaccination status of exposed individuals, and adherence to protocol at the expert center. A mean of 465 incidents was registered during each year of the 3-year study period. Although 698 (50%) of 1,394 reported exposures took place in a hospital, 704 (50%) took place outside of a hospital, and 460 (33%) occurred at a time other than regular office hours. HIV tests for source individuals were performed increasingly quickly over the course of the 3-year study period because of earlier reporting and improvements in practical matters associated with performing and processing the tests. The percentage of healthcare workers employed outside a hospital who were vaccinated against HBV increased from 34% (52 of 152) to 70% (119 of 170) during the 3-year study period. Consequently, the administration of immunoglobulin and unnecessary laboratory testing were reduced. In assessing the quality of the expert center, flaws in the handling of incidents were identified in 148 (37%) of 396 incidents analyzed in 2003, compared with 38 (8%) of 461 incidents analyzed in 2005. The practical matters associated with management of blood-exposure incidents, such as timely reporting

  7. Incidence of Multiple Sclerosis in Puerto Rico, 2014: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinea, Angel; Ríos-Bedoya, Carlos F; Rubi, Cristina; Vicente, Ivonne; Estades, Eduardo R; Hernandez-Silvestrini, Yatzka G

    2017-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects millions of people worldwide. The estimates for MS incidence are difficult to obtain but are important for understanding MS etiology, developing prevention strategies, and service planning. This study is aimed at estimating the 2014 incidence of MS in Puerto Rico (PR). The PR MS Foundation's registry was used as the data source. Neurologists, specialty pharmacies, MRI centers, health insurance companies, and the PR Department of Health identified MS cases missed by the registry. MS patients were 18 years and older and met the 2010 revised McDonald criteria. Age-standardized MS incidence rates and their corresponding 95% CIs were computed. A total of 144 new MS cases were diagnosed in 2014. The age-standardized MS incidence rate was 5.1/100,000 (95% CI 4.3-5.9). The incidence rate was 7.1/100,000 (95% CI 5.7-8.5) for females and 2.9/100,000 (95% CI 2.0-3.8) for males. MS cases were mostly females (72.9%) with a mean age of 41.0 years (±1.0). According to the country estimates, PR has a higher MS incidence than other Caribbean and Latin American countries, but a lower incidence compared to countries at higher latitudes. Our findings provide insights into the MS etiology in the Hispanic population that require additional research. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Pelvic Incidence: A Predictive Factor for Three-Dimensional Acetabular Orientation—A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Boulay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetabular cup orientation (inclination and anteversion is a fundamental topic in orthopaedics and depends on pelvis tilt (positional parameter emphasising the notion of a safe range of pelvis tilt. The hypothesis was that pelvic incidence (morphologic parameter could yield a more accurate and reliable assessment than pelvis tilt. The aim was to find out a predictive equation of acetabular 3D orientation parameters which were determined by pelvic incidence to include in the model. The second aim was to consider the asymmetry between the right and left acetabulae. Twelve pelvic anatomic specimens were measured with an electromagnetic Fastrak system (Polhemus Society providing 3D position of anatomical landmarks to allow measurement of acetabular and pelvic parameters. Acetabulum and pelvis data were correlated by a Spearman matrix. A robust linear regression analysis provided prediction of acetabulum axes. The orientation of each acetabulum could be predicted by the incidence. The incidence is correlated with the morphology of acetabula. The asymmetry of the acetabular roof was correlated with pelvic incidence. This study allowed analysis of relationships of acetabular orientation and pelvic incidence. Pelvic incidence (morphologic parameter could determine the safe range of pelvis tilt (positional parameter for an individual and not a group.

  9. College law enforcement and security department responses to alcohol-related incidents: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, Debra H; Lenk, Kathleen M; Nelson, Toben F; Winters, Ken C; Toomey, Traci L

    2014-08-01

    Campus police and security personnel are often the first to respond to alcohol-related incidents on campus. The purpose of this study is to examine how campus law enforcement and security respond to alcohol-related incidents, and how consequences and communication differ based on characteristics of the incident. Directors of campus police/security from 343 colleges across the United States completed a survey regarding usual practice following serious, underage, and less serious alcohol incidents on and off campus. Campus law enforcement and security most commonly reported contacting campus officials. A minority reported issuing citations and referring students to the health center. Enforcement actions were more commonly reported for serious and underage incidents than for less serious incidents. Large (vs. small) colleges, public (vs. private) colleges, and those located in small (vs. large) towns more consistently reported taking actions against drinkers. Understanding how campus police and security respond to alcohol-related incidents is essential for reducing alcohol-related problems on college campuses. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  10. Patients' Perceptions of Nurses' Behaviour That Influence Patient Participation in Nursing Care: A Critical Incident Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga E. Larsson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patient participation is an important basis for nursing care and medical treatment and is a legal right in many Western countries. Studies have established that patients consider participation to be both obvious and important, but there are also findings showing the opposite and patients often prefer a passive recipient role. Knowledge of what may influence patients' participation is thus of great importance. The aim was to identify incidents and nurses' behaviours that influence patients' participation in nursing care based on patients' experiences from inpatient somatic care. The Critical Incident Technique (CIT was employed. Interviews were performed with patients (=17, recruited from somatic inpatient care at an internal medical clinic in West Sweden. This study provided a picture of incidents, nurses' behaviours that stimulate or inhibit patients' participation, and patient reactions on nurses' behaviours. Incidents took place during medical ward round, nursing ward round, information session, nursing documentation, drug administration, and meal.

  11. Incidence of Awareness with Recall under General Anesthesia in Rural India: An Observational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Singla, Deepak; Mangla, Mishu

    2017-01-01

    Context: Awareness under anesthesia is a rare but extremely unpleasant phenomenon. There are very few studies in the developing world and none from rural areas where incidence of intraoperative awareness may be higher due to increased patient load, limited patient knowledge and lack of trained hospital staff, reliance on older, cheaper but less effective drugs, and lack of proper equipment both for providing anesthesia, as well as monitoring the patient. Aims: To assess the incidence of intra...

  12. Changes in somatic disease incidents during opioid maintenance treatment: results from a Norwegian cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Skeie, Ivar; Brekke, Mette; Gossop, Michael; Lindbaek, Morten; Reinertsen, Even; Thoresen, Magne; Waal, Helge

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To examine the effect of opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) on somatic morbidity in a cohort of OMT patients. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting OMT programme in two Norwegian counties. Participants 200 OMT patients, participation rate 71.2%. Main outcome measures Incidence rates (IR) before, during and after OMT for acute/subacute hospital-treated somatic disease incidents (drug-related, non-drug-related, injuries) and rates for inpatient days and outpatient treatment cont...

  13. Age Related Incidence and Early Outcomes of Hip Fractures: A Prospective Cohort Study of 1177 patients

    OpenAIRE

    Shenoy Ravikiran; Eranki Vivek; Pillai Anand; Hadidi Mahar

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Associated with the increase in the aging population, there is an increase in the incidence of hip fractures worldwide. Outcome following such fractures is affected by age of the patient. This study aims to assess the incidence and early outcome of hip fractures, comparing between different age groups. Methods Data of hip fractures collected over a period of five years was analysed. Patients were divided into three groups, group A (patients under the age of 64), group B ...

  14. Changes in somatic disease incidents during opioid maintenance treatment: results from a Norwegian cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Skeie, Ivar; Brekke, Mette; Gossop, Michael; Lindbaek, Morten; Reinertsen, Even; Thoresen, Magne; Waal, Helge

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To examine the effect of opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) on somatic morbidity in a cohort of OMT patients. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting OMT programme in two Norwegian counties. Participants 200 OMT patients, participation rate 71.2%. Main outcome measures Incidence rates (IR) before, during and after OMT for acute/subacute hospital-treated somatic disease incidents (drug-related, non-drug-related, injuries) and rates for inpatient days and outpatient treatment cont...

  15. Intimate partner violence and incident depressive symptoms and suicide attempts: a systematic review of longitudinal studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M Devries

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depression and suicide are responsible for a substantial burden of disease globally. Evidence suggests that intimate partner violence (IPV experience is associated with increased risk of depression, but also that people with mental disorders are at increased risk of violence. We aimed to investigate the extent to which IPV experience is associated with incident depression and suicide attempts, and vice versa, in both women and men. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies published before February 1, 2013. More than 22,000 records from 20 databases were searched for studies examining physical and/or sexual intimate partner or dating violence and symptoms of depression, diagnosed major depressive disorder, dysthymia, mild depression, or suicide attempts. Random effects meta-analyses were used to generate pooled odds ratios (ORs. Sixteen studies with 36,163 participants met our inclusion criteria. All studies included female participants; four studies also included male participants. Few controlled for key potential confounders other than demographics. All but one depression study measured only depressive symptoms. For women, there was clear evidence of an association between IPV and incident depressive symptoms, with 12 of 13 studies showing a positive direction of association and 11 reaching statistical significance; pooled OR from six studies = 1.97 (95% CI 1.56-2.48, I²  =  50.4%, p(heterogeneity = 0.073. There was also evidence of an association in the reverse direction between depressive symptoms and incident IPV (pooled OR from four studies = 1.93, 95% CI 1.51-2.48, I²  =  0%, p = 0.481. IPV was also associated with incident suicide attempts. For men, evidence suggested that IPV was associated with incident depressive symptoms, but there was no clear evidence of an association between IPV and suicide attempts or depression and incident IPV

  16. Human factors in aircraft incidents: results of a 7-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, C E; Reynard, W D

    1984-10-01

    Human error causes or contributes to considerably over half of all aviation mishaps. This report describes a 7-year study of aircraft incident data conducted in an attempt to further our understanding of the phenomenon of human error. The study of incidents as a surrogate for aircraft accidents is relevant only if incidents constitute a population or universe of which accidents are a subset. This assumption has been examined in a study of over 35,000 reports of aviation incidents collected from 1976-83 by the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System. One-third of the reports involve conflicts among aircraft. The most common single-aircraft anomalies in flight involve altitude or track deviations. The most common controller errors involve failure to coordinate traffic with other elements of the air traffic control system. Analysis of these reports indicates that both human and system factors contributing to human errors can be identified. Many other incidents involve shortcomings specifically of the human, rather than of the system. Failures of control are rare in this series, but failures of decision-making and cockpit resource management are frequent. Boredom, complacency and ennui appear to underlie some failures, while very high workloads are associated with others. These data indicate that at least several categories of aircraft accidents involving operational and human factors are, in fact, subsets of populations of incidents containing the same elements. The environment in which an incident occurs is extremely important in determining its outcome. It is concluded that aviation incident reports are a necessary and important instrument in safety surveillance.

  17. Incidence of cervical cancer after several negative smear results by age 50: prospective observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of cervical cancer after several negative cervical smear tests at different ages. DESIGN: Prospective observational study of incidence of cervical cancer after the third consecutive negative result based on individual level data in a national registry...... of histopathology and cytopathology (PALGA). SETTING: Netherlands, national data. Population 218,847 women aged 45-54 and 445,382 aged 30-44 at the time of the third negative smear test. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: 10 year cumulative incidence of interval cervical cancer. RESULTS: 105 women developed cervical cancer...... within 2 595,964 woman years at risk after the third negative result at age 30-44 and 42 within 1,278,532 woman years at risk after age 45-54. During follow-up, both age groups had similar levels of screening. After 10 years of follow-up, the cumulative incidence rate of cervical cancer was similar: 41...

  18. The incidence of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis in Quebec: a population data-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houde Michelle

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine the population incidence of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA in Quebec. Methods We obtained data from Quebec's physician claims database. Incident cases were defined as having a visit for JRA in 2000, no visit in the previous 3 years, a confirmed diagnosis by an arthritis specialist, or having ≥ 2 visits to any physician for JRA, ≥ 2 months apart but within 2 years. Results Cumulative incidence of JRA was 17.8/100,000. Mean age at diagnosis was 9.8 ± 4.6 years, 68% were female and more persons were diagnosed in winter. Subjects had a median of 10 medical visits over the first year. Conclusion Our population based incidence estimate was similar to others. Children and adolescents with JRA are heavy users of medical care. Additional study of environmental or climate- related triggers may be warranted.

  19. [Study on influence of floods on bacillary dysentery incidence in Liaoning province, 2004 -2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Liu, Z D; Han, D B; Xu, Y Q; Jiang, B F

    2016-05-01

    To understand the influence of floods on bacillary dysentery in Liaoning province. The monthly surveillance data of bacillary dysentery, floods, meteorological and demographic data in Liaoning from 2004 to 2010 were collected. Panel Poisson regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the influence of floods on the incidence of bacillary dysentery in Liaoning. The mean monthly morbidity of bacillary dysentery was 2.17 per 100 000 during the study period, the bacillary dysentery cases mainly occurred in during July-September. Spearman correlation analysis showed that no lagged effect was detected in the influence of floods on the incidence of bacillary dysentery. After adjusting the influence of meteorological factors, panel data analysis showed that the influence of floods on the incidence of bacillary dysentery existed and the incidence rate ratio was 1.439 4(95%CI: 1.408 1-1.471 4). Floods could significantly increase the risk of bacillary dysentery for population in Liaoning.

  20. Age-specific Incidence and Prevalence of Keratoconus: A Nationwide Registration Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godefrooij, Daniel A; de Wit, G Ardine; Uiterwaal, Cuno S; Imhof, Saskia M; Wisse, Robert P L

    2017-03-01

    To determine the age-specific incidence and prevalence of keratoconus in the modern era of diagnostics. Epidemiologic study. Total of 4.4 million patients from a mandatory health insurance database. Data were extracted from the largest health insurance provider in the Netherlands. Patients aged 10-40 years were defined as the relevant age category for newly diagnosed keratoconus and the annual incidence of newly diagnosed keratoconus was determined. The prevalence of keratoconus was estimated based on the annual incidence, mean age at diagnosis, and average life expectancy. Main outcome measure was the annual incidence and prevalence of keratoconus. The annual incidence of keratoconus was 1:7500 in the relevant age category (13.3 cases per 100 000, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.6-15.2) and the estimated prevalence of keratoconus in the general population was 1:375 (265 cases per 100 000, 95% CI: 260-270). These values are 5-fold to 10-fold higher than previously reported values in population studies. The mean age at diagnosis was 28.3 years and 60.6% of diagnosed patients were male. Both the annual incidence and the prevalence of keratoconus were 5-fold to 10-fold higher than previously reported. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Incidence of anogenital warts in Germany: a population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikolajczyk Rafael T

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papilloma virus (HPV types 6 and 11 account for 90 percent of anogenital warts (AGW. Assessment of a potential reduction of the incidence of AGW following introduction of HPV vaccines requires population-based incidence rates. The aim of this study was to estimate incidence rates of AGW in Germany, stratified by age, sex, and region. Additionally, the medical practitioner (gynaecologist, dermatologist, urologist etc. who made the initial diagnosis of AGW was assessed. Methods Retrospective cohort study in a population aged 10 to 79 years in a population-based healthcare insurance database. The database included more than 14 million insurance members from all over Germany during the years 2004-2006. A case of AGW was considered incident if a disease-free period of twelve months preceded the diagnosis. To assess regional variation, analyses were performed by federal state. Results The estimated incidence rate was 169.5/100,000 person-years for the German population aged 10 to 79 years. Most cases occurred in the 15 to 40 years age group. The incidence rate was higher and showed a peak at younger ages in females than in males. The highest incidence rates for both sexes were observed in the city-states Berlin, Hamburg and Bremen. In females, initial diagnosis of AGW was most frequently made by a gynaecologist (71.7%, whereas in males, AGW were most frequently diagnosed by a dermatologist (44.8% or urologist (25.1%. Conclusions Incidence of AGW in Germany is comparable with findings for other countries. As expected, most cases occurred in the younger age groups. The frequency of diagnoses of AGW differs between sexes and women and men receive treatment by doctors of different specialties.

  2. Arsenic Exposure, Arsenic Metabolism, and Incident Diabetes in the Strong Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Barbara V.; Umans, Jason G.; Gribble, Matthew O.; Best, Lyle G.; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Lee, Elisa; Guallar, Eliseo; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Little is known about arsenic metabolism in diabetes development. We investigated the prospective associations of low-moderate arsenic exposure and arsenic metabolism with diabetes incidence in the Strong Heart Study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 1,694 diabetes-free participants aged 45–75 years were recruited in 1989–1991 and followed through 1998–1999. We used the proportions of urine inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonate (MMA), and dimethylarsinate (DMA) over their sum (expressed as iAs%, MMA%, and DMA%) as the biomarkers of arsenic metabolism. Diabetes was defined as fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL, 2-h glucose ≥200 mg/dL, self-reported diabetes history, or self-reported use of antidiabetic medications. RESULTS Over 11,263.2 person-years of follow-up, 396 participants developed diabetes. Using the leave-one-out approach to model the dynamics of arsenic metabolism, we found that lower MMA% was associated with higher diabetes incidence. The hazard ratios (95% CI) of diabetes incidence for a 5% increase in MMA% were 0.77 (0.63–0.93) and 0.82 (0.73–0.92) when iAs% and DMA%, respectively, were left out of the model. DMA% was associated with higher diabetes incidence only when MMA% decreased (left out of the model) but not when iAs% decreased. iAs% was also associated with higher diabetes incidence when MMA% decreased. The association between MMA% and diabetes incidence was similar by age, sex, study site, obesity, and urine iAs concentrations. CONCLUSIONS Arsenic metabolism, particularly lower MMA%, was prospectively associated with increased incidence of diabetes. Research is needed to evaluate whether arsenic metabolism is related to diabetes incidence per se or through its close connections with one-carbon metabolism. PMID:25583752

  3. A Study of Radiation Incidence Angle in Anteroposterior Cervical Vertebra Examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeung, Seung Woon; Lim, Cheong Hwan; Jung, Hong Ryang; Joo, Yeong Cheol; Park, Mi Ja [Dept. of Radiological Science, Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of); Han, Beon Hee [Dept. of Radiological Science, Seonam University, Namwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    In anteroposterior projection for cervical vertebra, it is general that the incidence angle of X-ray is 15 degrees to 20 degrees to head in order to prevent overlap of mandible and occipital bone and to observe array of cervical interbody and shapes of joints. However, the angle is appropriate for foreigners that was determined by foreign literature review long ago, and there have been few researches of incidence angle for Koreans' body type. The purpose of in this study are to identify the incidence angle appropriate for Koreans and to present methodology. In order to measure the incidence angle, 1,044 patients who visited S Hospital located in Seosan were selected and measured of average length of cervical vertebra, OID, axis angle, and FID. The incidence angle was calculated from the applied formula by measuring average values per age groups and sex (see Formula 1 and 2). The average length of cervical vertebra was 6cm: the length was increased from teenagers to twenties but was decreased since thirties. The difference between males and females was around 1cm (p<.01). The OID was almost the same regardless of age groups and sex. As for axis angle, the slope was increased in teenagers and twenties, but was decreased since thirties. The difference between males and females was around 2 degrees (p<.01). The FID measurements were almost the same regardless of age groups and sex, and when the incidence angle was measured from these values, the teenagers were 15.9 degrees, the twenties were 16.9 degrees, the thirties were 16.6 degrees, the forties were 16.2 degrees, the fifties were 15.9 degrees, and the sixties were 14.5 degrees, indicating that the angle was increased from teenagers to the twenties but decreased since the thirties. While the angles of males and females were measured to be the same in the teenagers, the angle was different between males and females by 2 degrees. When the incidence angle statistically analyzed with measurement of average length

  4. Diabetes Incidence and Long-Term Exposure to Air Pollution: A cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Ketzel, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Animal and cross-sectional epidemiological studies suggest a link between air pollution and diabetes, whereas the limited prospective data show mixed results. We studied the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and incidence of diabetes.......Animal and cross-sectional epidemiological studies suggest a link between air pollution and diabetes, whereas the limited prospective data show mixed results. We studied the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and incidence of diabetes....

  5. Dietary patterns and incident functional disability in elderly Japanese: the Ohsaki Cohort 2006 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomata, Yasutake; Watanabe, Takashi; Sugawara, Yumi; Chou, Wan-Ting; Kakizaki, Masako; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2014-07-01

    To date, little is known about the association between dietary pattern and disability in older adults. The present prospective cohort study investigated the association between dietary patterns and incident functional disability. Information on food consumption and other lifestyle factors was collected from Japanese older persons aged ≥65 years via a questionnaire. Three dietary patterns (Japanese pattern, animal food pattern, and high dairy pattern) were derived using principal component analysis of the consumption of 39 food and beverage items. Data on functional disability were retrieved from the public Long-term Care Insurance database, in which participants were followed up for 5 years. The Cox model was used to estimate the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios of incident functional disability. Among 14,260 participants, the 5-year incidence of functional disability was 16.6%. The Japanese pattern score was associated with a lower risk of incident functional disability (hazard ratio of the highest quartile vs the lowest, 0.77; 95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.88; p trend food pattern and a high dairy pattern tended to have a higher risk of incident functional disability, but not to a significant degree. In Japanese older persons, the Japanese dietary pattern is associated with a decreased risk of incident functional disability. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Prospective study on incidence, risk factors, and long-term outcome of osteonecrosis in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, M.L. te; Pieters, R.; Hop, W.C.J.; Groot-Kruseman, H.A. de; Lequin, M.H.; Sluis, I.M. van der; Bokkerink, J.P.M.; Leeuw, J.A. de; Bruin, M.C.; Egeler, R.M.; Veerman, A.J.P.; Heuvel-Eibrink, M.M. van den

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: We studied cumulative incidence, risk factors, therapeutic strategies, and outcome of symptomatic osteonecrosis in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cumulative incidence of osteonecrosis was assessed prospectively in 694 patients treated with

  7. Prospective Study on Incidence, Risk Factors, and Long-Term Outcome of Osteonecrosis in Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, Mariel L. Te; Pieters, Rob; Hop, Wim C. J.; de Groot-Kruseman, Hester A.; Lequin, Maarten H.; van der Sluis, Inge M.; Bokkerink, Jos P. M.; Leeuw, Jan A.; Bruin, Marrie C. A.; Egeler, R. Maarten; Veerman, Anjo J. P.; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We studied cumulative incidence, risk factors, therapeutic strategies, and outcome of symptomatic osteonecrosis in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Patients and Methods Cumulative incidence of osteonecrosis was assessed prospectively in 694 patients treated with th

  8. Medication incidents related to automated dose dispensing in community pharmacies and hospitals--a reporting system study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Ka-Chun; van den Bemt, Patricia M L A; Bouvy, Marcel L; Wensing, Michel; De Smet, Peter A G M

    2014-01-01

    Automated dose dispensing (ADD) is being introduced in several countries and the use of this technology is expected to increase as a growing number of elderly people need to manage their medication at home. ADD aims to improve medication safety and treatment adherence, but it may introduce new safety issues. This descriptive study provides insight into the nature and consequences of medication incidents related to ADD, as reported by healthcare professionals in community pharmacies and hospitals. The medication incidents that were submitted to the Dutch Central Medication incidents Registration (CMR) reporting system were selected and characterized independently by two researchers. Person discovering the incident, phase of the medication process in which the incident occurred, immediate cause of the incident, nature of incident from the healthcare provider's perspective, nature of incident from the patient's perspective, and consequent harm to the patient caused by the incident. From January 2012 to February 2013 the CMR received 15,113 incidents: 3,685 (24.4%) incidents from community pharmacies and 11,428 (75.6%) incidents from hospitals. Eventually 1 of 50 reported incidents (268/15,113 = 1.8%) were related to ADD; in community pharmacies more incidents (227/3,685 = 6.2%) were related to ADD than in hospitals (41/11,428 = 0.4%). The immediate cause of an incident was often a change in the patient's medicine regimen or relocation. Most reported incidents occurred in two phases: entering the prescription into the pharmacy information system and filling the ADD bag. A proportion of incidents was related to ADD and is reported regularly, especially by community pharmacies. In two phases, entering the prescription into the pharmacy information system and filling the ADD bag, most incidents occurred. A change in the patient's medicine regimen or relocation was the immediate causes of an incident.

  9. Socioeconomic status and stomach cancer incidence in men: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, A.J.M. van; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1998-01-01

    Study objective - To study the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and stomach cancer incidence (cardia and non-cardia) and the role of lifestyle factors in explaining this association. Design - Prospective cohort study on diet and cancer that started in 1986. Data were collected by means

  10. Socioeconomic status and stomach cancer incidence in men: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, A.J.M. van; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    1998-01-01

    Study objective - To study the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and stomach cancer incidence (cardia and non-cardia) and the role of lifestyle factors in explaining this association. Design - Prospective cohort study on diet and cancer that started in 1986. Data were collected by means

  11. Tuberculosis incidence correlates with sunshine: an ecological 28-year time series study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin C K W Koh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Birmingham is the largest UK city after London, and central Birmingham has an annual tuberculosis incidence of 80 per 100,000. We examined seasonality and sunlight as drivers of tuberculosis incidence. Hours of sunshine are seasonal, sunshine exposure is necessary for the production of vitamin D by the body and vitamin D plays a role in the host response to tuberculosis. METHODS: We performed an ecological study that examined tuberculosis incidence in Birmingham from Dec 1981 to Nov 2009, using publicly-available data from statutory tuberculosis notifications, and related this to the seasons and hours of sunshine (UK Meteorological Office data using unmeasured component models. RESULTS: There were 9,739 tuberculosis cases over the study period. There was strong evidence for seasonality, with notifications being 24.1% higher in summer than winter (p<0.001. Winter dips in sunshine correlated with peaks in tuberculosis incidence six months later (4.7% increase in incidence for each 100 hours decrease in sunshine, p<0.001. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: A potential mechanism for these associations includes decreased vitamin D levels with consequent impaired host defence arising from reduced sunshine exposure in winter. This is the longest time series of any published study and our use of statutory notifications means this data is essentially complete. We cannot, however, exclude the possibility that another factor closely correlated with the seasons, other than sunshine, is responsible. Furthermore, exposure to sunlight depends not only on total hours of sunshine but also on multiple individual factors. Our results should therefore be considered hypothesis-generating. Confirmation of a potential causal relationship between winter vitamin D deficiency and summer peaks in tuberculosis incidence would require a randomized-controlled trial of the effect of vitamin D supplementation on future tuberculosis incidence.

  12. Relationship between incident types and impact on patients in drug name errors: a correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Toshikazu; Irisa, Toshihiro; Ohata, Shunichi; Kokubu, Chiyo; Kanaya, Akiko; Sueyasu, Masanori; Egashira, Nobuaki; Masuda, Satohiro

    2015-01-01

    There are many reports regarding various medical institutions' attempts at incident prevention, but the relationship between incident types and impact on patients in drug name errors has not been studied. Therefore, we analyzed the relationship between them, while also assessing the relationship between preparation and inspection errors. Furthermore, the present study aimed to clarify the incident types that lead to severe patient damage. The investigation object in this study was restricted to "drug name errors", preparation and inspection errors in them were classified into three categories (similarity of drug efficacy, similarity of drug name, similarity of drug appearance) or two groups (drug efficacy similarity (+) group, drug efficacy similarity (-) group). Then, the relationship between preparation and inspection errors was investigated in three categories, the relationship between incident types and impact on patients was examined in two groups. The frequency of preparation errors was liable to be caused by the following order: similarity of drug efficacy > similarity of drug name > similarity of drug appearance. In contrast, the rate of inspection errors was liable to be caused by the following order: similarity of drug efficacy < similarity of drug name < similarity of drug appearance. In addition, the number of preparation errors in the drug efficacy similarity (-) group was fewer than that in the drug efficacy similarity (+) group. However, the rate of inspection errors in the drug efficacy similarity (-) group was significantly higher than that in the drug efficacy similarity (+) group. Furthermore, the occupancy rate of preparation errors, incidents more than Level 0, 1, and 2 in the drug efficacy similarity (-) group increased gradually according to the rise of patient damage. Our results suggest that preparation errors caused by the similarity of drug appearance and/or drug name are likely to lead to the incidents (inspection errors

  13. Perceived Stress and Colorectal Cancer Incidence: The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Norimasa; Nishiyama, Takeshi; Sawada, Takayuki; Wang, Chaochen; Lin, Yingsong; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Kikuchi, Shogo

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide, and many risk factors for colorectal cancer have been established. However, it remains uncertain whether psychological stress contributes to the onset of colorectal cancer. Therefore, we conducted a large-scale prospective cohort study to confirm the association between perceived stress and colorectal cancer incidence. We identified 680 cases of colon cancer and 330 cases of rectal cancer during a maximum of 21-year follow-up of 61,563 Japanese men and women. Cox regression analysis adjusted for potential confounders revealed a significant association of perceived stress with rectal cancer incidence but not with colon cancer incidence. This finding is partly consistent with that from only one previous study that addressed an association between perceived stress and the risk of colorectal cancer. However, studies on this topic are sparse and warrant further exploration. PMID:28091607

  14. High incidence of bacteriuria in early post-kidney transplantation; results from a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parapiboon, W; Ingsathit, A; Jirasiritham, S; Sumethkul, V

    2012-04-01

    Since the incidence of bacteriuria in kidney transplant recipients varyes according to the study, we examined it among our cases. Our post hoc analysis of data from a single-center, parallel, randomized, controlled, open label study included 90 patients who underwent kidney transplantation at our hospital from April 2010 to January 2011. Patients were randomized to early ureteric stent removal at 8 days versus routine ureteric stent removal at 15 days after kidney transplantation. We identified the incidence of and causative organism for bacteriuria in the early posttransplant period. Seventy-Four patients (58% living donors) participated in this study. The overall incidence of bacteriuria was 56.7% during the first month after kidney transplantation. In patients who had bacteriuria, 48% showed symptomatic urinary tract infection, 40% asymptomatic bacteriuria and 12% urosepsis. The most common organism was Escherichia coli (40%) follow by Klebsiella pneumoniae (19%). The incidence of an ESBL producing organism was 34%. The incidence of bacteriuria was high during the early post-kidney transplant period, requiring increased awareness and surveillance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Study of Effect Of Maternal Nutrition On Incidence Of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma R.K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question : What is the effect of maternal nutrition on low birth weight ? Objective: To study the effect of maternal nutrition on low birth weight. Setting: Hospital based, Obstetrics & Gynaecology and Neonatology wing of department of paediatrics of Rajendra Hospital attached to Govt. Medical College, Patiala. Study design: Cross- sectional. Sample size : 200 low birth weight babies from 1048 live births. Study variables: Weight of newborn babies, nutritional status of mother, maternal weight, maternal height, dietary habits, mothers haemoglobin. Statistical analysis : Proportions, Chi square test. Results : Out of 1048 babies born. 200 were found to be low birth weight babies giving an overall incidence of 19.1%. incidence of LBW was higher among female babies (19.6% as compared to male babies (18.7%. The difference was statistically not significant. Incidence was 17.2% among non vegetarians while it was 20.7% in vegetarians. The difference was again statistically not significant. The lowest incidence (17% of LBW was observed in mothers having haemoglobin levels 10gm/dl or more and there was improvement in birth weight as haemoglobin levels increased. Incidence of LBW was maximum (26.6% in mothers having height less than 150 cms.

  16. Differences in reported sepsis incidence according to study design: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saga Elise Mariansdatter

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sepsis and severe sepsis are common conditions in hospital settings, and are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, but reported incidences vary considerably. In this literature review, we describe the variation in reported population-based incidences of sepsis and severe sepsis. We also examine methodological and demographic differences between studies that may explain this variation. Methods We carried out a literature review searching three major databases and reference lists of relevant articles, to identify all original studies reporting the incidence of sepsis or severe sepsis in the general population. Two authors independently assessed all articles, and the final decision to exclude an article was reached by consensus. We extracted data according to predetermined variables, including study country, sepsis definition, and data source. We then calculated descriptive statistics for the reported incidences of sepsis and severe sepsis. The studies were classified according to the method used to identify cases of sepsis or severe sepsis: chart-based (i.e. review of patient charts or code-based (i.e. predetermined International Classification of Diseases [ICD] codes. Results Among 482 articles initially screened, we identified 23 primary publications reporting incidence of sepsis and/or severe sepsis in the general population. The reported incidences ranged from 74 to 1180 per 100,000 person-years and 3 to 1074 per 100,000 person-years for sepsis and severe sepsis, respectively. Most chart-based studies used the Bone criteria (or a modification hereof and Protein C Worldwide Evaluation in Severe Sepsis (PROWESS study criteria to identify cases of sepsis and severe sepsis. Most code-based studies used ICD-9 codes, but the number of codes used ranged from 1 to more than 1200. We found that the incidence varied according to how sepsis was identified (chart-based vs. code-based, calendar year, data source, and

  17. Risk Factors for Incident Carotid Artery Revascularization among Older Adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen K. Garg

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population-based risk factors for carotid artery revascularization are not known. We investigated the association between demographic and clinical characteristics and incident carotid artery revascularization in a cohort of older adults. Methods: Among Cardiovascular Health Study participants, a population-based cohort of 5,888 adults aged 65 years or older enrolled in two waves (1989-1990 and 1992-1993, 5,107 participants without a prior history of carotid endarterectomy (CEA or cerebrovascular disease had a carotid ultrasound at baseline and were included in these analyses. Cox proportional hazards multivariable analysis was used to determine independent risk factors for incident carotid artery revascularization. Results: Over a mean follow-up of 13.5 years, 141 participants underwent carotid artery revascularization, 97% were CEA. Baseline degree of stenosis and incident ischemic cerebral events occurring during follow-up were the strongest predictors of incident revascularization. After adjustment for these, factors independently associated with an increased risk of incident revascularization were: hypertension (HR 1.53; 95% CI: 1.05-2.23, peripheral arterial disease (HR 2.57; 95% CI: 1.34-4.93, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HR 1.23 per standard deviation [SD] increment [35.4 mg/dL]; 95% CI: 1.04-1.46. Factors independently associated with a lower risk of incident revascularization were: female gender (HR 0.51; 95% CI: 0.34-0.77 and older age (HR 0.69 per SD increment [5.5 years]; 95% CI: 0.56-0.86. Conclusions: Even after accounting for carotid stenosis and incident cerebral ischemic events, carotid revascularization is related to age, gender, and cardiovascular risk factors. Further study of these demographic disparities and the role of risk factor control is warranted.

  18. Association between meteorological factors and bacillary dysentery incidence in Chaoyang city, China: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Zhu, Yaxin; Zhu, Zhiwei; Qu, Bo

    2016-12-09

    To quantify the relationship between meteorological factors and bacillary dysentery incidence. Ecological study. We collected bacillary dysentery incidences and meteorological data of Chaoyang city from the year 1981 to 2010. The climate in this city was a typical northern temperate continental monsoon. All meteorological factors in this study were divided into 4 latent factors: temperature, humidity, sunshine and airflow. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the relationship between meteorological factors and the incidence of bacillary dysentery. Incidences of bacillary dysentery were obtained from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Chaoyang city, and meteorological data were collected from the Bureau of Meteorology in Chaoyang city. The indexes including χ(2), root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), comparative fit index (CFI), standardised root mean square residual (SRMR) and goodness-of-fit index (GFI) were used to evaluate the goodness-of-fit of the theoretical model to the data. The factor loads were used to explore quantitative relationship between bacillary dysentery incidences and meteorological factors. The goodness-of-fit results of the model showing that RMSEA=0.08, GFI=0.84, CFI=0.88, SRMR=0.06 and the χ(2) value is 231.95 (p=0.0) with 15 degrees of freedom. Temperature and humidity factors had positive correlations with incidence of bacillary dysentery, with the factor load of 0.59 and 0.78, respectively. Sunshine had a negative correlation with bacillary dysentery incidence, with a factor load of -0.15. Humidity and temperature should be given greater consideration in bacillary dysentery prevention measures for northern temperate continental monsoon climates, such as that of Chaoyang. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Educational inequalities in acute myocardial infarction incidence in Norway: a nationwide cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannicke Igland

    Full Text Available Increasing differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD mortality across levels of education have been reported in Norway. The aim of the study was to investigate educational inequalities in acute myocardial infarction (AMI incidence and whether such inequalities have changed during the past decade using a nationwide longitudinal study design.Data on 141 332 incident (first AMIs in Norway during 2001-2009 were obtained through the Cardiovascular Disease in Norway (CVDNOR project. Educational inequalities in AMI incidence were assessed in terms of age-standardised incidence rates stratified on educational level, incidence rate ratios (IRR, relative index of inequality (RII and slope index of inequality (SII. All calculations were conducted in four gender and age strata: Men and women aged 35-69 and 70-94 years.AMI Incidence rates decreased during 2001-2009 for all educational levels except in women aged 35-69 among whom only those with basic education had a significant decrease. In all gender and age groups; those with the highest educational level had the lowest rates. The strongest relative difference was found among women aged 35-69, with IRR (95% CI for basic versus tertiary education 3.04 (2.85-3.24 and RII (95% CI equal to 4.36 (4.03-4.71. The relative differences did not change during 2001-2009 in any of the four gender and age groups, but absolute inequalities measured as SII decreased among the oldest men and women.There are substantial educational inequalities in AMI incidence in Norway, especially for women aged 35-69. Relative inequalities did not change from 2001 to 2009.

  20. Incidence of hypertension in a prospective cohort study of adults from Porto, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Marta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the past 30 years, Portugal has been described as one of the countries with highest median blood pressure levels in Europe, but the incidence of hypertension is unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of hypertension, according to socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyles. Methods A population-based cohort of randomly selected dwellers from Porto, Portugal, aged ≥18 years, was assembled in 1999–2003 (EPIPorto study and 796 hypertension-free individuals (62.6% women were reassessed after a median of 3.8 years. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg and/or antihypertensive drug therapy. Incidence rate ratios (IRR were estimated using Poisson regression. Results The overall incidence rate was 47.3 [95% confidence interval (95% CI: 40.5-55.5] per 1000 person-years. Among women, the incidence was 43.4 (35.6-53.1 and among men 52.7 (41.3-68.0 per 1000 person-years. The incidence was lower in women up to 60 years and much higher among women above 60 (110.0 vs. 64.4 per 1000 person-years among men, p for age-sex interaction=0.032. Participants with higher education had a lower risk of becoming hypertensive (≥13 years vs. ≤4 years: RR=0.70, 95% CI, 0.46-1.08, p for linear trend Conclusions In this urban Portuguese population the incidence rate of hypertension was high, with new cases occurring predominantly among older subjects, the less educated and those with overweight-obesity. Despite recent progresses in blood pressure related outcomes, the risk of hypertension remains higher in Portugal than in other developed countries.

  1. Fish consumption and incidence of heart failure: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yue-hua; ZHOU Cheng-hui; PEI Han-jun; ZHOU Xian-liang; LI Li-huan; WU Yong-jian; HUI Ru-tai

    2013-01-01

    Background The association between fish consumption and heart failure (HF) incidence is inconsistent.Methods We performed a systematic search of Pubmed and Embase (from 1953 to June 2012) using key words related to fish and HF.Studies with at least three categories of fish consumption reporting both relative risk (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) for HF incidence were included.The pooled RR and 95%C/were calculated using a fixed or random-effects model.The generalized least squares regression model was used to quantify the dose-response relationship between fish consumption and HF incidence.Results Five prospective cohort studies including 4750 HF events of 170 231 participants with an average of 9.7-year follow-up were selected and identified.Compared with those who never ate fish,individuals with higher fish consumption had a lower HF incidence.The pooled RRs for HF incidence was 0.99 (95%CI,0.91 to 1.08) for fish consumption 1 to 3 times per month,0.91 (95%C/,0.84 to 0.99) for once a week,0.87 (95%C/,0.81 to 0.95) for 2 to 4 times per week,and 0.86 (95%C/,0.84 to 0.99) for 5 or more times per week.An increment of 20 g of daily fish intake was related to a 6% lower risk of HF (RR:0.94,95% CI,0.90 to 0.97; P for trend =0.001).Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests that there is a dose-dependent inverse relationship between fish consumotion and HF incidence.Fish intake once or more times a week could reduce HF incidence.

  2. Sensor, a population-based cohort study on gastroenteritis in the Netherlands: incidence and etiology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, M.A.S. de; Koopmans, M.P.G.; Kortbeek, L.M.; Wannet, W.J.B.; Vinje, J; Leusden, F. van; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Duynhoven, Y.T.H.P. van

    2001-01-01

    A prospective population-based cohort study with a nested case- control study was conducted to estimate the incidence of gastroenteritis and the associated pathogens in the general Dutch population. Follow-up of two consecutive cohorts was performed by weekly reporting cards from december 1998 to de

  3. Sensor, a population-based cohort study on gastroenteritis in the Netherlands: incidence and etiology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, M.A.S. de; Koopmans, M.P.G.; Kortbeek, L.M.; Wannet, W.J.B.; Vinje, J; Leusden, F. van; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Duynhoven, Y.T.H.P. van

    2001-01-01

    A prospective population-based cohort study with a nested case- control study was conducted to estimate the incidence of gastroenteritis and the associated pathogens in the general Dutch population. Follow-up of two consecutive cohorts was performed by weekly reporting cards from december 1998 to

  4. Cognition and Incident Coronary Heart Disease in Late Midlife: The Whitehall II Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Manoux, Archana; Sabia, Severine; Kivimaki, Mika; Shipley, Martin J.; Ferrie, Jane E.; Marmot, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cognitive function in midlife predicts incident coronary heart disease (CHD), followed up over 6 years. Data on 5292 (28% women, mean age 55) individuals free from CHD at baseline were drawn from the British Whitehall II study. We used Cox regression to model the association between cognition…

  5. Cognition and Incident Coronary Heart Disease in Late Midlife: The Whitehall II Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh-Manoux, Archana; Sabia, Severine; Kivimaki, Mika; Shipley, Martin J.; Ferrie, Jane E.; Marmot, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cognitive function in midlife predicts incident coronary heart disease (CHD), followed up over 6 years. Data on 5292 (28% women, mean age 55) individuals free from CHD at baseline were drawn from the British Whitehall II study. We used Cox regression to model the association between cognition…

  6. The incidence of awareness during anesthesia: a multicenter United States study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebel, Peter S; Bowdle, T Andrew; Ghoneim, Mohamed M; Rampil, Ira J; Padilla, Roger E; Gan, Tong Joo; Domino, Karen B

    2004-09-01

    Awareness with recall after general anesthesia is an infrequent, but well described, phenomenon that may result in posttraumatic stress disorder. There are no recent data on the incidence of this complication in the United States. We, therefore, undertook a prospective study to determine the incidence of awareness with recall during general anesthesia in the United States. This is a prospective, nonrandomized descriptive cohort study that was conducted at seven academic medical centers in the United States. Patients scheduled for surgery under general anesthesia were interviewed in the postoperative recovery room and at least a week after anesthesia and surgery by using a structured interview. Data from 19,575 patients are presented. A total of 25 awareness cases were identified (0.13% incidence). These occurred at a rate of 1-2 cases per 1000 patients at each site. Awareness was associated with increased ASA physical status (odds ratio, 2.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-5.60 for ASA status III-V compared with ASA status I-II). Age and sex did not influence the incidence of awareness. There were 46 additional cases (0.24%) of possible awareness and 1183 cases (6.04%) of possible intraoperative dreaming. The incidence of awareness during general anesthesia with recall in the United States is comparable to that described in other countries. Assuming that approximately 20 million anesthetics are administered in the United States annually, we can expect approximately 26,000 cases to occur each year.

  7. A population-based, incidence cohort study of mid-back pain after traffic collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, M S; Boyle, E; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    data from a population-based inception cohort of all traffic injuries occurring in Saskatchewan, Canada, during a 2-year period were used. Annual overall and age-sex-specific incidence rates were calculated, the course of recovery was described using the Kaplan-Meier technique, and associations between......, depression or others) has been investigated previously; however, knowledge about traffic collision-related MBP is lacking. The study objectives were to describe the incidence, course of recovery and prognosis of MBP after traffic collisions, in terms of global self-reported recovery. METHODS: Longitudinal...... participant characteristics and time-to-self-reported recovery were explored in 3496 MBP cases using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: The yearly incidence rate was 236 per 100,000 population during the study period, and was highest in women and in young persons. The median time-to-first reported...

  8. Incidence of aplastic anemia and agranulocytosis in Latin America: the LATIN study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Hamerschlak

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Aplastic anemia and agranulocytosis are rare but life-threatening disorders, often caused by drugs and other environmental exposures. Reported incidence of these diseases seems to vary between different geographic regions, and few data on their incidence are available for Latin American countries. The aim of this work is to determine the incidence of agranulocytosis and aplastic anemia in Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Incidence study. Seven centers took part in the pilot phase, so as to represent all Brazilian regions. METHODS: Each center conducted an active search for new cases in a defined region by means of regular contacts with all hematologists, main clinical laboratories and clinicians in hospitals of the region. RESULTS: 74 patients with aplastic anemia and 16 with agranulocytosis were identified. Patients with agranulocytosis had a median age of 31 years (interquartile range, IQR: 12.5-48.2; 32.2% were male and 81.2% were white. The median age of aplastic anemia patients was 21 years (IQR 15.0-35.2; 62.2% were male, 50.0% were white and 39.2% mulatto. The incidence of agranulocytosis was estimated to be 0.5 cases per million individuals per year, ranging from 0.0 to 1.1 cases per million per year between regions. The incidence of aplastic anemia was 2.7 cases per million per year, ranging from 1.1 to 7.1 cases per million per year between regions. CONCLUSIONS: Aplastic anemia and agranulocytosis are rare diseases in Brazil. However, there is considerable variability in their incidences between different regions.

  9. Incidence of Alzheimer′s disease in India: A 10 years follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Mathuranath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine overall and age-specific incidence rates of Alzheimer′s disease (AD in a southern Indian province, Kerala. Materials and Methods: A 10-year (2001-2011 prospective epidemiologic study of community residing subjects aged ≥55 years at enrollment. The catchment area included four urban and semi-urban regions of Trivandrum city in Kerala, India, was selected to provide a range of demographic and socioeconomic representation. Cognitive and functional ability screening were done at baseline and 24-month follow-up assessments. Consensus diagnostic procedures were done using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 th edition (DSM-IV, and the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke - Alzheimer′s Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINDS-ADRDA criteria for the diagnosis of dementia and AD. Results: Among the 1066 eligible participants who were cognitively normal at baseline, 104 developed dementia (98 with AD over a follow-up period of 8.1 years. The incidence rates per 1000 person-years for AD was 11.67 (95% CI: 10.9-12.4 for those aged ≥55 years and higher for those aged ≥65 years (15.54, 95% CI: 14.6-16.5. In those aged ≥65 years, the world age standardized incidence rate was 21.61 per 100,000, and standardized against the age distribution for the year 2000 U.S. Census, the age-adjusted incidence rate was 9.19 (95% CI: 9.03-9.35 per 1000 person-years. Incidence rate of AD increased significantly and proportionately with increasing age. Conclusion: These are the first AD incidence rates to be reported from southern India. The incidence rates appear to be much higher than that reported from rural north India, comparable with that reported from China, and marginally lower than that reported from the western world.

  10. Incidence and predictors of contracture after spinal cord injury--a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diong, J; Harvey, L A; Kwah, L K; Eyles, J; Ling, M J; Ben, M; Herbert, R D

    2012-08-01

    Prospective cohort study. To determine incidence of contracture and develop prediction models to identify patients susceptible to contracture after spinal cord injury. Two Sydney spinal cord injury units. A total of 92 consecutive patients with acute spinal cord injury were assessed within 35 days of injury and 1 year later. Incidence of contracture at 1 year was measured in all major appendicular joints by categorizing range of motion on a 4-point scale (0-no contracture to 3-severe contracture), and in the wrist, elbow, hip and ankle by measuring range of motion at standardized torque. Multivariate models were developed to predict contracture at 1 year using age, neurological status, spasticity, pain and limb fracture recorded at the time of injury. At 1 year, 66% of participants developed at least one contracture (defined as ≥1 point deterioration on the 4-point scale). Incidence of contracture at each joint was: shoulder 43%, elbow and forearm 33%, wrist and hand 41%, hip 32%, knee 11% and ankle 40%. Incidence of contracture determined by standardized torque measures of range (defined as loss of ≥10 degrees) was: elbow 27%, wrist 26%, hip 23% and ankle 25%. Prediction models were statistically significant but lacked sufficient predictive accuracy to be clinically useful (R(2)≤31%). The incidence of contracture in major joints 1 year after spinal cord injury ranges from 11-43%. The ankle, wrist and shoulder are most commonly affected. It is difficult to accurately predict those susceptible to contracture soon after injury.

  11. A Prospective Study of Fatty Liver Index and Incident Hypertension: The KoGES-ARIRANG Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hye Huh

    Full Text Available Although non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, its influence on hypertension development is poorly understood. We investigated whether fatty liver disease, as assessed by the fatty liver index, could predict the development of hypertension independently of systemic insulin resistance, inflammatory status and adipokine levels.Prospective cohort study of 1,521 adults (484 men and 1037 women aged 40 to 70 years without baseline hypertension examined. An equation was used to calculate fatty liver index and classify patients as follows: fatty liver index <30, no non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; fatty liver index ≥ 60, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; and 30 ≤ fatty liver index <60, intermediate fatty liver index.During an average of 2.6 years of follow-up, 153 subjects (10.06% developed hypertension. Fatty liver index was positively associated with baseline blood pressure, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, urinary albumin/creatinine excretion, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. After adjustment for confounding factors, including markers of insulin resistance, systemic inflammation and adiponectin levels, the odds ratio [95% confidence interval] for the incident hypertension increased in a graded manner with fatty liver index (<30 vs. 30-59 vs. ≥ 60 = 1 vs. 1.83 [1.16~2.88] vs. 2.09 [1.08~4.055], respectively.Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease assessed by fatty liver index was an independent risk factor for hypertension. Our findings suggest that fatty liver index, a simple surrogate indicator of fatty liver disease, might be useful for identifying subjects at high risk for incident hypertension in clinical practice.

  12. A population-based, incidence cohort study of mid-back pain after traffic collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, M S; Boyle, E; Hartvigsen, Jan;

    2015-01-01

    data from a population-based inception cohort of all traffic injuries occurring in Saskatchewan, Canada, during a 2-year period were used. Annual overall and age-sex-specific incidence rates were calculated, the course of recovery was described using the Kaplan-Meier technique, and associations between...... participant characteristics and time-to-self-reported recovery were explored in 3496 MBP cases using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: The yearly incidence rate was 236 per 100,000 population during the study period, and was highest in women and in young persons. The median time-to-first reported......BACKGROUND: Traffic collisions often result in a wide range of symptoms included in the umbrella term whiplash-associated disorders. Mid-back pain (MBP) is one of these symptoms. The incidence and prognosis of different traffic injuries and their related conditions (e.g. neck pain, low back pain...

  13. Incidence of juvenile thyrotoxicosis in Denmark, 1982-1988. A nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavard, L; Ranløv, I; Perrild, H

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the annual incidence density of thyrotoxicosis in children under the age of 15 years in Denmark in 1982-1988. The design was based on computerized hospital registration of patient admittances in all departments of paediatrics and internal medicine of D.......7:1 was significant. It is concluded that thyrotoxicosis is a rare disorder in Danish children under the age of 15 years, and the incidence increases with age. Female preponderance is significant from early childhood....

  14. A study of cases reported as incidents in a public hospital from 2011 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göttems, Leila Bernarda Donato; Santos, Maria do Livramento Gomes Dos; Carvalho, Paloma Aparecida; Amorim, Fábio Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing incidents reported in a public hospital in the Federal District, Brasilia, according to the characteristics and outcomes involving patients. A descriptive and retrospective study of incidents reported between January 2011 and September 2014. 209 reported incidents were categorized as reportable occurrences (n = 22, 10.5%), near misses (n = 16, 7.7%); incident without injury (n = 4, 1.9%) and incident with injury (adverse events) (n = 167, 79.9%). The average age of patients was 44 years and the hospitalization time until the moment of the incident was on average 38.5 days. Nurses were the healthcare professionals who most reported the incidents (n = 55, 67%). No outcomes resulted in death. Incidents related to blood/hemoderivatives, medical devices/equipment, patient injuries and intravenous medication/fluids were the most frequent. Standardizing the reporting processes and enhancing participation by professionals in managing incidents is recommended. Analisar os incidentes notificados em um hospital público do Distrito Federal, segundo as características e os desfechos quando envolveram pacientes. Estudo descritivo e retrospectivo dos incidentes notificados entre janeiro de 2011 e setembro de 2014. Notificados 209 incidentes categorizados em ocorrência comunicável (n = 22, 10,5%), quase evento (n = 16, 7,7%), incidente sem dano (n = 4, 1,9%) e incidente com dano (eventos adversos) (n = 167, 79,9%). A idade média dos pacientes foi de 44 anos e o tempo da internação até o momento do incidente teve média de 38,5 dias. Os enfermeiros foram os que mais notificaram (n = 55, 67%). Nenhum desfecho resultou em morte. Os incidentes relacionados a sangue/hemoderivados, dispositivos/equipamento médico, acidentes do doente e medicação/fluidos endovenosos foram os mais frequentes. Recomenda-se padronizar os processos de notificação e potencializar a participação dos profissionais no manejo dos incidentes.

  15. Cancer incidence rate ratios of Turkish immigrants in Hamburg, Germany: A registry based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallek, Jacob; Arnold, Melina; Hentschel, Stefan; Razum, Oliver

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate cancer incidence rate ratios for Turkish migrants in Hamburg, Germany. We used a name-based approach and identified 1346 cases with Turkish names (as a proxy of Turkish origin) among 140,249 cases of cancer registered in the cancer registry Hamburg during 1990-2005. To estimate the size of the denominator population, we applied the name-based approach to the population of Hamburg as well. The cancer incidence of specific cancer sites was compared between Turkish and non-Turkish cases using incidence rate ratios (IRR), stratified by gender and birth cohort. Our main findings are that cancer of the respiratory organs is diagnosed less frequent among Turkish men in older birth cohorts but with higher frequency in the younger birth cohorts. Malignant neoplasms of lymphoid, haematopoietic and related tissues are slightly higher in most male Turkish men birth cohorts, and even considerably higher for the birth cohort 1961 to <1971 (IRR=1.8). Among women, incidence rates for Turkish women are lower than for non-Turkish women for cancer of the respiratory system, skin cancer and cancer of genital organs. Also, breast cancer incidence rates of Turkish women are lower than for non-Turkish women, especially in older birth cohorts. Incidence rate ratios of neoplasms of lymphoid, haematopoietic and related tissues are low in the 1931 to <1941 cohort (IRR=0.71) but increase in younger birth cohorts. In conclusion, we found differences in cancer risks between cases with and without Turkish names for specific cancer sites. These results are consistent with the findings of studies from other countries.

  16. Acromegaly incidence, prevalence, complications and long-term prognosis: a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal, Jakob; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Andersen, Marianne; Kristensen, Lars Ø; Laurberg, Peter; Pedersen, Lars; Dekkers, Olaf M; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Jørgensen, Jens Otto L

    2016-09-01

    Valid data on acromegaly incidence, complications and mortality are scarce. The Danish Health Care System enables nationwide studies with complete follow-up and linkage among health-related databases to assess acromegaly incidence, prevalence, complications and mortality in a population-based cohort study. All incident cases of acromegaly in Denmark (1991-2010) were identified from health registries and validated by chart review. We estimated the annual incidence rate of acromegaly per 10(6) person-years (py) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). For every patient, 10 persons were sampled from the general population as a comparison cohort. Cox regression and hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used. Mean age at diagnosis (48.7 years (CI: 95%: 47.2-50.1)) and annual incidence rate (3.8 cases/10(6) persons (95% CI: 3.6-4.1)) among the 405 cases remained stable. The prevalence in 2010 was 85 cases/10(6) persons. The patients were at increased risk of diabetes mellitus (HR: 4.0 (95% CI: 2.7-5.8)), heart failure (HR: 2.5 (95% CI: 1.4-4.5)), venous thromboembolism (HR: 2.3 (95% CI: 1.1-5.0)), sleep apnoea (HR: 11.7 (95% CI: 7.0-19.4)) and arthropathy (HR: 2.1 (95% CI: 1.6-2.6)). The complication risk was also increased before the diagnosis of acromegaly. Overall mortality risk was elevated (HR: 1.3 (95% CI: 1.0-1.7)) but uninfluenced by treatment modality. (i) The incidence rate and age at diagnosis of acromegaly have been stable over decades, and the prevalence is higher than previously reported. (ii) The risk of complications is very high even before the diagnosis. (iii) Mortality risk remains elevated but uninfluenced by mode of treatment. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  17. Coronary heart disease incidence in sleep disordered breathing: the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hla, Khin Mae; Young, Terry; Hagen, Erika W; Stein, James H; Finn, Laurel A; Nieto, F Javier; Peppard, Paul E

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the association of objectively measured sleep disordered breathing (SDB) with incident coronary heart disease (CHD) or heart failure (HF) in a nonclinical population. Longitudinal analysis of a community-dwelling cohort followed up to 24 y. Sleep laboratory at the Clinical Research Unit of the University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics. There were 1,131 adults who completed one or more overnight polysomnography studies, were free of CHD or HF at baseline, were not treated by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and followed over 24 y. None. In-laboratory overnight polysomnography was used to assess SDB, defined by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) using apnea and hypopnea events per hour of sleep. Incident CHD or HF was defined by new reports of myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization procedures, congestive heart failure, and cardiovascular deaths. We used baseline AHI as the predictor variable in survival analysis models predicting CHD or HF incidence adjusted for traditional confounders. The incidence of CHD or HF was 10.9/1,000 person-years. The mean time to event was 11.2 ± 5.8 y. After adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and smoking, estimated hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of incident CHD or HF were 1.5 (0.9-2.6) for AHI > 0-5, 1.9 (1.05-3.5) for AHI 5 ≤ 15, 1.8 (0.85-4.0) for AHI 15 ≤ 30, and 2.6 (1.1-6.1) for AHI > 30 compared to AHI = 0 (P trend = 0.02). Participants with untreated severe sleep disordered breathing (AHI > 30) were 2.6 times more likely to have an incident coronary heart disease or heart failure compared to those without sleep disordered breathing. Our findings support the postulated adverse effects of sleep disordered breathing on coronary heart disease and heart failure. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  18. Age at menopause and incident heart failure: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebong, Imo A; Watson, Karol E; Goff, David C; Bluemke, David A; Srikanthan, Preethi; Horwich, Tamara; Bertoni, Alain G

    2014-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate the associations of early menopause (menopause occurring before age 45 years) and age at menopause with incident heart failure (HF) in postmenopausal women. We also explored the associations of early menopause and age at menopause with left ventricular (LV) measures of structure and function in postmenopausal women. We included 2,947 postmenopausal women, aged 45 to 84 years without known cardiovascular disease (2000-2002), from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the associations of early menopause and age at menopause with incident HF. In 2,123 postmenopausal women in whom cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was obtained at baseline, we explored the associations of early menopause and age at menopause with LV measures using multivariable linear regression. Across a median follow-up of 8.5 years, we observed 71 HF events. There were no significant interactions with ethnicity for incident HF (Pinteraction > 0.05). In adjusted analysis, early menopause was associated with an increased risk of incident HF (hazard ratio, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.01-2.73), whereas every 1-year increase in age at menopause was associated with a decreased risk of incident HF (hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99). We observed significant interactions between early menopause and ethnicity for LV mass-to-volume ratio (LVMVR; Pinteraction = 0.02). In Chinese-American women, early menopause was associated with a higher LVMVR (+0.11; P = 0.0002), whereas every 1-year increase in age at menopause was associated with a lower LVMVR (-0.004; P = 0.04) at baseline. Older age at menopause is independently associated with a decreased risk of incident HF. Concentric LV remodeling, indicated by a higher LVMVR, is present in Chinese-American women who experienced early menopause at baseline.

  19. Mediterranean Style Diet and 12-Year Incidence of Cardiovascular Diseases : The EPIC-NL Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaar-Blom, Marieke P.; Nooyens, Astrid C. J.; Kromhout, Daan; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Verschuren, W. M. Monique

    2012-01-01

    Background: A recent meta-analysis showed that a Mediterranean style diet may protect against cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Studies on disease-specific associations are limited. We evaluated the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) in relation to incidence of total and specific CVDs. Methods: The EPIC-NL

  20. Time trends in the incidence of eating disorders : A primary care study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Son, Gabrielle E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Bartelds, Aad I. M.; van Furth, Eric F.; Hoek, Hans W.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This Dutch epidemiological study used primary care-based data to examine changes in the incidence of eating disorders in the 1990s compared to the 1980s. Method: A nationwide network of general practitioners, serving a representative sample of the total Dutch population, recorded newly di

  1. A nationwide study of asthma incidence rate and its determinants in Swedish pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröms, Kristina; Norbäck, Dan; Sundelin, Claes; Eriksson, Margaretha; Svärdsudd, Kurt

    2012-09-01

    While many studies on asthma prevalence have been published, the number of studies on asthma incidence in pre-school children is limited. In this project, a nationwide sample of pre-school children was followed with the aim of estimating cumulative 5-year asthma incidence and its determinants. Parents of 5,886 children 1-6 years of age, sampled from day-care centres in 62 municipalities all over Sweden, responded in 2002 to a baseline postal questionnaire with questions regarding symptoms indicating possible asthma or atopic conditions, and a number of other variables. In 2007, parents of 4,255 children responded to an almost identical follow-up questionnaire. Of these, the 3,715 children who were free from asthma at baseline constitute the study population for this report. A large number of potential baseline determinants for cumulative 5-year asthma incidence were identified. Of these, food allergy, rhinitis, incomplete asthma diagnosis criteria (wheezing last 12 months, and ever had asthma but no current symptoms), parental rhinitis, parental asthma, age, and eczema, in ranking order of importance, remained significant in multivariate logistic regression analysis. The asthma incidence rate was highly dependent on presence or absence of these variables, the average annual rate ranging from 2/1,000/year in 6-year-olds with no determinants to 154/1,000/year in 1-year-olds with all determinants, corresponding to 11/1,000/year based on the whole study population.

  2. Making Mathematics Placement Decisions for High School Students with High Incidence Disabilities: A Collective Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murzyn, Amy; Hughes, Trudie

    2015-01-01

    This multiple case study described the experiences of case managers making mathematics placement decisions for high school students with high incidence disabilities. Participants included three parents, three students, three case managers, three mathematics teachers, and three administrators from different high schools across rural, suburban and…

  3. Time trends in the incidence of eating disorders : A primary care study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Son, Gabrielle E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Bartelds, Aad I. M.; van Furth, Eric F.; Hoek, Hans W.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This Dutch epidemiological study used primary care-based data to examine changes in the incidence of eating disorders in the 1990s compared to the 1980s. Method: A nationwide network of general practitioners, serving a representative sample of the total Dutch population, recorded newly di

  4. Making Mathematics Placement Decisions for High School Students with High Incidence Disabilities: A Collective Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murzyn, Amy; Hughes, Trudie

    2015-01-01

    This multiple case study described the experiences of case managers making mathematics placement decisions for high school students with high incidence disabilities. Participants included three parents, three students, three case managers, three mathematics teachers, and three administrators from different high schools across rural, suburban and…

  5. Time trends in the incidence of eating disorders : A primary care study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Son, Gabrielle E.; van Hoeken, Daphne; Bartelds, Aad I. M.; van Furth, Eric F.; Hoek, Hans W.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This Dutch epidemiological study used primary care-based data to examine changes in the incidence of eating disorders in the 1990s compared to the 1980s. Method: A nationwide network of general practitioners, serving a representative sample of the total Dutch population, recorded newly

  6. White blood cell count and risk of incident atrial fibrillation (from the Framingham Heart Study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, Michel; Sun, Jenny X.; Magnani, Jared W.; Sinner, Moritz F.; Lubitz, Steven A.; Sullivan, Lisa M.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Benjamin, Emelia J.

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have reported that inflammatory markers are associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). The white blood cell (WBC) count is a widely available and broadly used marker of systemic inflammation. We sought to investigate the association between an increased WBC count and incident AF and w

  7. A One Year Prospective Study of Neurogenic Stuttering Following Stroke: Incidence and Co-Occurring Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theys, C.; van Wieringen, A.; Sunaert, S.; Thijs, V.; De Nil, L. F.

    2011-01-01

    In this prospective study, data on incidence, stuttering characteristics, co-occurring speech disorders, and recovery of neurogenic stuttering in a large sample of stroke participants were assessed. Following stroke onset, 17 of 319 participants (5.3%; 95% CI, 3.2-8.3) met the criteria for neurogenic stuttering. Stuttering persisted in at least…

  8. A One Year Prospective Study of Neurogenic Stuttering Following Stroke: Incidence and Co-Occurring Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theys, C.; van Wieringen, A.; Sunaert, S.; Thijs, V.; De Nil, L. F.

    2011-01-01

    In this prospective study, data on incidence, stuttering characteristics, co-occurring speech disorders, and recovery of neurogenic stuttering in a large sample of stroke participants were assessed. Following stroke onset, 17 of 319 participants (5.3%; 95% CI, 3.2-8.3) met the criteria for neurogenic stuttering. Stuttering persisted in at least…

  9. Incidence of shoulder pain after neck dissection : A clinical explorative study for risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, PU; van Wilgen, PC; Brendeke, W; de Goede, CJT; Kerst, A; Koolstra, M; Marinus, J; Schoppink, EM; Stuiver, MM; van de Velde, CF; Roodenburg, JLN

    2001-01-01

    Background. It is the purpose of this study to determine the incidence of shoulder pain and restricted range of motion of the shoulder after neck dissection, and to identify risk factors for the development of shoulder pain and restricted range of motion. Methods. Clinical patients who underwent a n

  10. Age-specific incidence and prevalence of keratoconus : a nationwide registration study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godefrooij, Daniel A; de Wit, G Ardine; Uiterwaal, Cuno S; Imhof, Saskia M; Wisse, Robert P L

    PURPOSE: To determine the age-specific incidence and prevalence of keratoconus in the modern era of diagnostics. DESIGN: Epidemiologic study. PARTICIPANTS: 4.4 million patients from a mandatory health insurance database. METHODS: Data were extracted from the largest health insurance provider in the

  11. Age-specific incidence and prevalence of keratoconus : a nationwide registration study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godefrooij, Daniel A; de Wit, G Ardine; Uiterwaal, Cuno S; Imhof, Saskia M; Wisse, Robert P L

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the age-specific incidence and prevalence of keratoconus in the modern era of diagnostics. DESIGN: Epidemiologic study. PARTICIPANTS: 4.4 million patients from a mandatory health insurance database. METHODS: Data were extracted from the largest health insurance provider in the

  12. Parenting a Child with a Cochlear Implant: A Critical Incident Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidman-Zait, Anat

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to describe and categorize the attributes that parents of young children with cochlear implants (CIs) consider as facilitating their parental coping experience. I interviewed 15 hearing mothers and 13 hearing fathers (including 12 married couples) whose children had CIs, using the critical incident technique that asked parents to…

  13. A Study on Incidence of Pre-Eclampsia and its Neonatal Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Faheemuddin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pre-eclampsia is one of the leading cause of mortality and morbidity to both mother and neonates worldwide. WHO estimates the incidence (number of new cases of pre-eclampsia to be seven times higher in developing countries (2.8% of live births than in developed countries (0.4%. It is defined as the new onset of hypertension in a previously normotensive women and the presence of protienuria. To study incidence of pre eclampsia and its neonatal outcome in a tertiary care hospital, a prospective observational study was conducted over a period of 6 months in inpatients of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department at SVS medical college and hospital, Mahabubnagar. The data regarding demographic details, present complaints, gestational age, obstetrics history, diagnosis, were collected and evaluated. A total of 628 cases of pregnant women were observed among them 52 cases were found to be Pre eclamptic patients. The incidence was found to be 8.28%. Neonatal data showed low APGAR score (23.07%, LBW (67.30%, IUD (3.84%, IUGR (3.84% and neonatal death (9.61%. The study concluded that incidence of preeclampsia was high. The most common risk factors associated were nulliparity, consanguineous marriage and women with high body mass index and adverse neonatal outcome was seen. So there is need for patient education and public health awareness and improvment of socioeconomic circumstances which can help maternal and neonatal prognosis.

  14. Cumulative incidence of childhood autism: a total population study of better accuracy and precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hideo; Shimizu, Yasuo; Imai, Miho; Nitto, Yukari

    2005-01-01

    Most studies on the frequency of autism have had methodological problems. Most notable of these have been differences in diagnostic criteria between studies, degree of cases overlooked by the initial screening, and type of measurement. This study aimed to replicate the first report on childhood autism to address cumulative incidence as well as prevalence, as defined in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision (ICD-10) Diagnostic Criteria for Research. Here, the same methodological accuracy (exactness of a measurement to the true value) as the first study was used, but population size was four times larger to achieve greater precision (reduction of random error). A community-oriented system of early detection and early intervention for developmental disorders was established in the northern part of Yokohama, Japan. The city's routine health checkup for 18-month-old children served as the initial mass screening, and all facilities that provided child care services aimed to detect all cases of childhood autism and refer them to the Yokohama Rehabilitation Center. Cumulative incidence up to age 5 years was calculated for childhood autism among a birth cohort from four successive years (1988 to 1991). Cumulative incidence of childhood autism was 27.2 per 10000. Cumulative incidences by sex were 38.4 per 10000 in males, and 15.5 per 10000 in females. The male:female ratio was 2.5:1. The proportions of children with high-functioning autism who had Binet IQs of 70 and over and those with Binet IQs of 85 and over were 25.3% and 13.7% respectively. Data on cumulative incidence of childhood autism derived from this study are the first to be drawn from an accurate, as well as precise, screening methodology.

  15. Primary care incidence and treatment of four neuropathic pain conditions: A descriptive study, 2002–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll Dawn

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Between 1992 and 2001 the UK general practice incidence of post-herpetic neuralgia and trigeminal neuralgia declined, whilst the incidence of painful diabetic neuropathy increased. The most common first line treatments were compound analgesics. As therapeutic options have subsequently changed, this study presents updated data on incidence and prescribing patterns in neuropathic pain. Methods A descriptive analysis of the epidemiology and prescription treatment at diagnosis of incident post-herpetic neuralgia (n = 1,923; trigeminal neuralgia (1,862; phantom limb pain (57 and painful diabetic neuropathy (1,444 using computerised UK general practice records (THIN: May 2002 to July 2005. Results Primary care incidences per 100,000 person years observation of 28 (95% confidence interval (CI 27–30 for post-herpetic neuralgia, 27 (95%CI 26–29 for trigeminal neuralgia, 0.8 (95%CI 0.6–1.1 for phantom limb pain and 21 (95%CI 20–22 for painful diabetic neuropathy are reported. The most common initial treatments were tricyclic antidepressants (post-herpetic neuralgia or antiepileptics (trigeminal neuralgia and painful diabetic neuropathy and opioid analgesics (phantom limb pain. The mean number of changes before a stable drug regimen was 1.2 to 1.5 for trigeminal neuralgia, painful diabetic neuropathy and post-herpetic neuralgia, and 2.4 for phantom limb pain. Conclusion The incidence of phantom limb pain and post-herpetic neuralgia are decreasing whilst painful diabetic neuropathy plateaued and trigeminal neuralgia remained constant. Despite more frequent use of antidepressants and antiepileptics for first line treatment, as opposed to conventional non-opioid analgesics, changes to therapy are common before a stable regimen is reached.

  16. Cancer Incidence among Glyphosate-Exposed Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Blair, Aaron; Rusiecki, Jennifer A.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Svec, Megan; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Sandler, Dale P.; Alavanja, Michael C.

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide that is one of the most frequently applied pesticides in the world. Although there has been little consistent evidence of genotoxicity or carcinogenicity from in vitro and animal studies, a few epidemiologic reports have indicated potential health effects of glyphosate. We evaluated associations between glyphosate exposure and cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of 57,311 licensed pesticide applicators in...

  17. Iron supplementation and mortality in incident dialysis patients: an observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Zitt

    Full Text Available Studies on the association between iron supplementation and mortality in dialysis patients are rare and conflicting.In our observational single-center cohort study (INVOR study we prospectively studied 235 incident dialysis patients. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models using all measured laboratory values for up to 7.6 years were applied to study the association between iron supplementation and all-cause mortality, cardiovascular and sepsis-related mortality. Furthermore, the time-dependent association of ferritin levels with mortality in patients with normal C-reactive protein (CRP levels (800 ng/mL were linked with increased mortality.Iron supplementation is associated with reduced all-cause mortality in incident dialysis patients. While serum ferritin levels up to 800 ng/mL appear to be safe, higher ferritin levels are associated with increased mortality in the setting of concomitant inflammation.

  18. Increased incidence of Sjogren's syndrome in systemic sclerosis: A nationwide population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chia-Chun; Yen, Jeng-Hsien; Tsai, Wen-Chan; Ou, Tsan-Teng; Wu, Cheng-Chin; Sung, Wan-Yu; Hsieh, Ming-Chia; Chang, Shun-Jen

    2015-01-01

    In the past, there were no studies to evaluate the incidence of Sjogren's syndrome and its relationship with sex and age in patients with systemic sclerosis. In this study, we enrolled 2217 patients with systemic sclerosis and 6485 controls from Taiwan's Registry of Catastrophic Illness database and National Health Insurance Research Database. Every patient with systemic sclerosis was matched to at most three controls by sex, age, month, and year of first diagnosis of systemic sclerosis. Standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of Sjogren's syndrome in patients with systemic sclerosis and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. Cox hazard regression was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR). Both male and female patients with systemic sclerosis had higher incidences of Sjogren's syndrome (SIR: 7.59, 95% CI = 2.97-19.51; SIR: 7.59, 95% CI = 5.56-10.42, respectively). The incidence of Sjogren's syndrome in patients with systemic sclerosis was still higher compared with control when stratified according to age. Age at diagnosis of Sjogren's syndrome was earlier in patients with systemic sclerosis in both male and female groups (p = 0.018; p Systemic sclerosis was associated with Sjogren's syndrome after adjusting for age, sex, and various autoimmune diseases (HR: 5.98, 95% CI = 4.79-7.47, p systemic sclerosis.

  19. Kawasaki disease incidence in children and adolescents: an observational study in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Gillian C; Tulloh, Louise E; Tulloh, Robert M R

    2016-04-01

    Kawasaki disease is reported to be increasing in incidence and is the commonest childhood cause of acquired heart disease in the Western world. To determine the current UK incidence of Kawasaki disease across childhood and adolescence; and investigate trends over time and season. An observational, descriptive study in the UK. The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database of primary healthcare records was searched for codes or text indicating Kawasaki disease. Identified records were compared with a study case definition and a date of onset was assigned to cases. The incidence, age/sex distribution, and trend in seasonal and temporal distribution were estimated (2008-2012). A total of 110 episodes of Kawasaki disease in 109 children were identified from 3.9 million person-years observation. The incidence of Kawasaki disease was 2.8 per 100 000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.3 to 3.4) when aged Kawasaki disease remains low and has stabilised in the UK, GPs should recognise that the condition occurs throughout childhood and across the seasons. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  20. Geographical variation in cardiovascular incidence: results from the British Women's Heart and Health Study

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    Ebrahim Shah

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD in women shows regional variations not explained by common risk factors. Analysis of CVD incidence will provide insight into whether there is further divergence between regions with increasing age. Methods Seven-year follow-up data on 2685 women aged 59-80 (mean 69 at baseline from 23 towns in the UK were available from the British Women's Heart and Health Study. Time to fatal or non-fatal CVD was analyzed using Cox regression with adjustment for risk factors, using multiple imputation for missing values. Results Compared to South England, CVD incidence is similar in North England (HR 1.05 (95% CI 0.84, 1.31 and Scotland (0.93 (0.68, 1.27, but lower in Midlands/Wales (0.85 (0.64, 1.12. Event severity influenced regional variation, with South England showing lower fatal incident CVD than other regions, but higher non-fatal incident CVD. Kaplan-Meier plots suggested that regional divergence in CVD occurred before baseline (before mean baseline age of 69. Conclusions In women, regional differences in CVD early in adult life do not further diverge in later life. This may be due to regional differences in early detection, survivorship of women entering the study, or event severity. Targeting health care resources for CVD by geographic variation may not be appropriate for older age-groups.

  1. Factors related to the dental caries incidence in youth: a cohort study in Brazilian Northeastern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karine Macedo Teixeira

    Full Text Available Abstract The conceptual model of the life course considers that health-disease is a dynamic process that is also affected by previous and current lifelong experiences. The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence of caries and its determinants in young people in Sobral-Ceará, Brazil. This was a cohort study of oral health started in 2000, with waves in 2006 and 2012. 482 young people aged 17-21 years were examined and interviewed. The incidence of caries between 2006 and 2012 was the outcome analyzed and the independent variables were socioeconomic conditions and use of oral health actions and services. The average incidence of caries was 2.95 teeth from the adolescence to the youth. It was found that social deprivation throughout life and deny access to the dentist during infancy implies a greater incidence of caries in youth, therefore, the use of services and oral health actions during the adolescence and youth have not been sufficient to reduce inequities in oral health.

  2. Duration of lactation and incidence of maternal hypertension: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuebe, Alison M; Schwarz, Eleanor B; Grewen, Karen; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Michels, Karin B; Foster, E Michael; Curhan, Gary; Forman, John

    2011-11-15

    Never or curtailed lactation has been associated with an increased risk for incident hypertension, but the effect of exclusive breastfeeding is unknown. The authors conducted an observational cohort study of 55,636 parous women in the US Nurses' Health Study II. From 1991 to 2005, participants reported 8,861 cases of incident hypertension during 660,880 person-years of follow-up. Never or curtailed lactation was associated with an increased risk of incident hypertension. Compared with women who breastfed their first child for ≥12 months, women who did not breastfeed were more likely to develop hypertension (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18, 1.36), adjusting for family history and lifestyle covariates. Women who never breastfed were more likely to develop hypertension than women who exclusively breastfed their first child for ≥6 months (HR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.20, 1.40). The authors found similar results for women who had never breastfed compared with those who had breastfed each child for an average of ≥12 months (HR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.32). In conclusion, never or curtailed lactation was associated with an increased risk of incident maternal hypertension, compared with the recommended ≥6 months of exclusive or ≥12 months of total lactation per child, in a large cohort of parous women.

  3. Seasonal variation in incidence of sarcoidosis: a population-based study, 1976-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungprasert, Patompong; Crowson, Cynthia S; Matteson, Eric L

    2016-12-01

    Studies of seasonal patterns of incidence of sarcoidosis may provide a better understanding of potential environmental triggers of the disease. In this study, Olmsted County, Minnesota residents who were diagnosed with sarcoidosis between 1976 and 2013 were identified based on individual medical record review. The seasonal variation of incident sarcoidosis was then calculated. The age-adjusted and sex-adjusted incidence rate of sarcoidosis was lower in autumn (2.0/100 000; 95% CI 1.5 to 2.5) compared with winter (3.2/100 000; 95% CI 2.6 to 3.8), spring (2.8/100 000; 95% CI 2.2 to 3.4) and summer (2.9/100 000; 95% CI 2.2 to 3.5, p=0.024). Subgroup analysis per decade consistently showed lower incidence of sarcoidosis in autumn. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Epilepsy and Neurocysticercosis: An Incidence Study in a Peruvian Rural Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarán, Manuel V.; Montano, Silvia M.; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Moyano, Luz M.; Chero, Juan C.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Pan, William; Tsang, Victor C.W.; Gilman, Robert H.; Garcia, Hector H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Epilepsy is a serious neurological disorder and neurocysticercosis (NCC), the central nervous system infection by the larvae of Taenia solium, is the main cause of acquired epilepsy in developing countries. NCC is becoming more frequent in industrialized countries due to immigration from endemic areas. Previously reported epilepsy incidences range from 30 to 50/100,000 people in industrialized countries and 90 to 122/100,000 people in developing countries. Objectives To determine the incidence of epilepsy in a cysticercosis endemic area of Peru. Methods A screening survey for possible seizure cases was repeated biannually in this cohort for a period of 5 years (1999–2004) using a previously validated questionnaire. All positive respondents throughout the study were examined by a trained neurologist in the field to confirm the seizure. If confirmed, they were offered treatment, serological testing, neuroimaging (CT scans and MRI) and clinical follow-up. Results The cohort study comprised 817 individuals. The overall epilepsy incidence rate was 162.3/100,000 person-years, and for epileptic seizures, 216.6/100,000 person-years. Out of the 8 individuals who had epileptic seizures, 4 had markers for NCC (neuroimaging and/or serology). Conclusion The incidence of epilepsy in this area endemic for cysticercosis is one of the highest reported worldwide. PMID:19325247

  5. Prospective study of the incidence, nature and causes of dispensing errors in community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcroft, Darren M; Quinlan, Paul; Blenkinsopp, Alison

    2005-05-01

    Each year over 600 million prescription items are dispensed in community pharmacies in England and Wales. Despite this, there is little published evidence relating to dispensing errors and near misses occurring in this setting. This study sought to determine their incidence, nature and causes. Prospective study over a 4-week period in 35 community pharmacies (9 independent pharmacies and 26 chain pharmacies) in the UK. Pharmacists recorded details of all incidents that occurred during the dispensing process, including information about: the stage at which the error was detected; who found the error; who made the error; type of error; reported cause of error and circumstances associated with the error. 125,395 prescribed items were dispensed during the study period and 330 incidents were recorded relating to 310 prescriptions. 280 (84.8%) incidents were classified as a near miss (rate per 10,000 items dispensed=22.33, 95%CI 19.79-25.10), while the remaining 50 (15.2%) were classified as dispensing errors (rate per 10,000 items dispensed=3.99, 95%CI 2.96-5.26). Selection errors were the most common types of incidents (199, 60.3%), followed by labeling (109, 33.0%) and bagging errors (22, 6.6%). Most of the incidents were caused either by misreading the prescription (90, 24.5%), similar drug names (62, 16.8%), selecting the previous drug or dose from the patient's medication record on the pharmacy computer (42, 11.4%) or similar packaging (28, 7.6%). This study has demonstrated that a wide range of medication errors occur in community pharmacies. On average, for every 10,000 items dispensed, there are around 22 near misses and four dispensing errors. Given the current plans for reporting adverse events in the NHS, greater insight into the likely incidence and nature of dispensing errors will be helpful in designing effective risk management strategies in primary care. Copyright (c) 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Increasing Incidence of Herpes Zoster Over a 60-year Period From a Population-based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Kosuke; Yawn, Barbara P; Wollan, Peter; Harpaz, Rafael

    2016-07-15

    Temporal increases in the incidence of herpes zoster (HZ) have been reported but studies have examined short study periods, and the cause of the increase remains unknown. We examined the long-term trend of HZ. A population-based cohort study was conducted in Olmsted County, Minnesota, using data from 1945-1960 and 1980-2007. Medical records review of possible cases was performed to confirm incident cases of HZ, the patient's immune status, and prescribing of antivirals for HZ. We examined the relative change in the temporal trend in the incidence rates before and after the introduction of the varicella vaccination program. Of the 8017 patients with HZ, 58.7% were females and 6.6% were immunocompromised. The age- and sex-adjusted incidence rate of HZ increased from 0.76 per 1000 person-years (PY) (95% confidence interval [CI], .63-.89) in 1945-1949 to 3.15 per 1000 PY (95% CI, 3.04-3.26) in 2000-2007. The rate of increase across the time period was 2.5% per year after adjusting for age and sex (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 1.025 [95% CI, 1.023-1.026]; P 4-fold over the last 6 decades. This increase is unlikely to be due to the introduction of varicella vaccination, antiviral therapy, or change in the prevalence of immunocompromised individuals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Existential issues among nurses in surgical care--a hermeneutical study of critical incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Camilla; Danielson, Ella; Melin-Johansson, Christina

    2013-03-01

    To report a qualitative study conducted to gain a deeper understanding of surgical nurses' experiences of existential care situations. Background.  Existential issues are common for all humans irrespective of culture or religion and constitute man's ultimate concerns of life. Nurses often lack the strategies to deal with patients' existential issues even if they are aware of them. This is a qualitative study where critical incidents were collected and analysed hermeneutically. During June 2010, ten surgical nurses presented 41 critical incidents, which were collected for the study. The nurses were first asked to describe existential care incidents in writing, including their own emotions, thoughts, and reactions. After 1-2 weeks, individual interviews were conducted with the same nurses, in which they reflected on their written incidents. A hermeneutic analysis was used. The majority of incidents concerned nurses' experiences of caring for patients' dying of cancer. In the analysis, three themes were identified, emphasizing the impact of integration between nurses' personal self and professional role in existential care situations: inner dialogues for meaningful caring, searching for the right path in caring, and barriers in accompanying patients beyond medical care. Findings are interpreted and discussed in the framework of Buber's philosophy of the relationships I-Thou and I-It, emphasizing nurses' different relationships with patients during the process of caring. Some nurses integrate their personal self into caring whereas others do not. The most important finding and new knowledge are that some nurses felt insecure and were caught somewhere in between I-Thou and I-It. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Red Blood Cell Fatty Acids and Incident Diabetes Mellitus in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William S Harris

    Full Text Available The relations between dietary and/or circulating levels of fatty acids and the development of type 2 diabetes is unclear. Protective associations with the marine omega-3 fatty acids and linoleic acid, and with a marker of fatty acid desaturase activity delta-5 desaturase (D5D ratio have been reported, as have adverse relations with saturated fatty acids and D6D ratio.To determine the associations between red blood cell (RBC fatty acid distributions and incident type 2 diabetes.Prospective observational cohort study nested in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study.General population.Postmenopausal women.Self-reported incident type 2 diabetes.There were 703 new cases of type 2 diabetes over 11 years of follow up among 6379 postmenopausal women. In the fully adjusted models, baseline RBC D5D ratio was inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes [Hazard Ratio (HR 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.81-0.95 per 1 SD increase. Similarly, baseline RBC D6D ratio and palmitic acid were directly associated with incident type 2 diabetes (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.04-1.25; and HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.14-1.35, respectively. None of these relations were materially altered by excluding incident cases in the first two years of follow-up. There were no significant relations with eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic or linoleic acids.Whether altered fatty acid desaturase activities or palmitic acid levels are causally related to the development of type 2 diabetes cannot be determined from this study, but our findings suggest that proportions of certain fatty acids in RBC membranes are associated with risk for type 2 diabetes.

  9. Aortic dissection in pregnancy in England: an incidence study using linked national databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Amitava; Begaj, Irena; Thorne, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To conduct the first population-level incidence study of aortic dissection in pregnancy using linked hospital-based data in England. Setting Hospital-based data (Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) linked with mortality data from the Office of National Statistics), national enquiries (Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Mortality) and surveys (UK Obstetric Surveillance System; UKOSS) of aortic dissection in pregnancy from 2003 to 2011 in England. Participants Between 2003 and 2011, all female patients admitted with diagnoses of aortic dissection (not necessarily as the primary cause of admission) and of pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium, were included. Outcome measures Diagnosis of aortic dissection during pregnancy, operated or not operated, with outcome of death or live patient from 2003 to 2011 in England. Results There were significant differences in characteristics of databases with respect to study population, time of study, recorded event and follow-up of outcomes. On the basis of HES, annual incidence of aortic dissection was 1.23 (95% CI 1.22 to 1.24) per 100 000 maternities. Incidence of aortic dissection with death within 1 year was 0.30 (0.29 to 0.31) per 100 000 maternities. Incidence of aortic dissection increased from 0.74 (0.73 to 0.75) per 100 000 maternities in 2003–2005 to 1.52 (1.51 to 1.53) per 100 000 maternities in 2009–2011. In the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths, incidence of deaths was highest for 2003–2005 (0.43/100 000 maternities) and lowest for 1997–1999 (0.21/100 000 maternities). In the UK Obstetric Surveillance System, national incidence of aortic dissection was 0.80 (0.50 to 1.50) per 100 000 maternities between 2009 and 2011. Conclusions The case of aortic dissection in pregnancy illustrates data limitations regarding complications in pregnancy from different sources in the UK, even for a diagnosis with seemingly few alternative coding and diagnostic possibilities. These limitations should be

  10. A Study of Incidence of calcaneal spurs in North Indian population: A dry bone study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Ghindha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The calcaneal spurs are the most common cause of pain in heel. The pain appears when patient stands on the foot for walking and pain disappears when patient walks some distance. The most common causes of spur formation is chronic fasciitis, wears and tears of ligaments and fascia present in the sole of foot. When the fasciitis heals, during the healing process the calcification of fascia or ligaments takes place, which results into the spur formation. The present study has been conducted on 325 dry human calcanei, irrespective of their sex, in the Department of Anatomy of M. M. Medical College and Hospital, Kumarhatti, District Solan (Himachal Pradesh. The objective of this study is to assess the rate of incidence of the presence of spurs in the calcanei and their types present in these calcanei. The photographs of all types of calcaneal spurs are taken and recorded and the study is compared with the standard literature and previous studies done by other authors. Out of 325 calcanei, 150 (35.38 % cases are having inferior, posterior calcaneal spurs. In 28 (8.62 % cases both types of spurs have been found. Other calcanei are having either inferior or posterior calcaneal spurs. The inferior spurs are more common on right and left side i.e out of 325 cases 75 (23.08 % cases, and posterior spurs found in 40 (12,31 % cases, respectively. In 2 (0.61 % cases a scale type of spurs was present which was attached in the middle of the inferior surface of the calcanei and their anterior ends are free, sharp and pointing forwards. These observations are definitely helpful to the orthopedician, traumatologist and surgeons in their diagnosis and treatment.

  11. STUDY ABOUT THE INCIDENCE OF HEARING-SPEAKING DISORDERS IN A POPULATION WITH MENTAL DEFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Mihaela Tomulescu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is about the incidence of hearing-speaking disorders in a population with mental deficiency. We studied 596 children interned in Neurology and Psychiatry Clinical Hospital of Oradea during the 1999 - 2001 period. In 596 children, 393 presented different types of mental deficiency. The most frequent disorders observed are hearing loss or deafness, deaf-mutism, mutism and speaking retardation. Also, we related an increased frequency in rural area and in group of children with severe mental deficiency.

  12. Dietary protein sources in early adulthood and breast cancer incidence: prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Chen, Wendy Y.; Eliassen, A Heather; Willett, Walter C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between dietary protein sources in early adulthood and risk of breast cancer. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Health professionals in the United States. Participants: 88 803 premenopausal women from the Nurses’ Health Study II who completed a questionnaire on diet in 1991. Main outcome measure Incident cases of invasive breast carcinoma, identified through self report and confirmed by pathology report. Results: We documented 2830 cases of b...

  13. Dietary protein sources in early adulthood and breast cancer incidence: prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Chen, Wendy Y.; Eliassen, A Heather; Willett, Walter C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between dietary protein sources in early adulthood and risk of breast cancer. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Health professionals in the United States. Participants 88 803 premenopausal women from the Nurses’ Health Study II who completed a questionnaire on diet in 1991. Main outcome measure Incident cases of invasive breast carcinoma, identified through self report and confirmed by pathology report. Results We documented 2830 cases of breast...

  14. A prospective study of the incidence of falls in patients with advanced cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stone, Carol

    2011-10-01

    The association between aging and falls risk, and the morbidity and mortality resulting from falls in older persons, is well documented. Results from a small number of studies of patients with cancer in inpatient settings suggest that patients with advanced cancer may be at high risk of falling. We present preliminary results pertaining to the incidence of falls in patients with advanced cancer from an ongoing study of risk factors for falls.

  15. Incidence of New-Onset Hypertension in Cancer Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy H. Fraeman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective cohort study was conducted to estimate incidence rates of new-onset hypertension in adult cancer patients identified from the Varian Medical Oncology outpatient database. Incidence rates of increasing levels of hypertension severity were calculated overall and for periods of chemotherapy exposure and nonexposure. Cox models sought predictors of new-onset hypertension severity among baseline and chemotherapy exposure variables. New-onset hypertension was observed in about one-third of 25,090 patients with various cancer types. The incidence rates (IR of severe and crisis-level hypertension, respectively, were the highest in patients with gastric (18.5 cases per 100 person-years (PY, 5.6 per 100 PY and ovarian cancer (20.2 per 100 PY, 4.8 per 100 PY. The highest IR of moderate hypertension was observed in patients with renal cancer (46.7 per 100 PY. Across all cancers, chemotherapy exposure was associated with a 2–3.5-fold increase in risk of any degree of hypertension compared to periods of no chemotherapy; higher hypertension levels showed greater variability in relative risks by type and line of therapy but indicated an overall increase associated with chemotherapy exposure. These results help to elucidate the factors influencing HTN among cancer patients and the incidence of HTN relative to chemotherapy exposure.

  16. Television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L; Hamer, M

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the longitudinal association between television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus in an elderly sample of adults in England. Analyses of data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. At baseline (2008), participants reported their television viewing time and physical activity level. Diabetes mellitus was recorded from self-reported physician diagnosis at 2-year follow-up. Associations between television viewing time and combined television viewing time and physical activity level with risk of incident diabetes mellitus at follow-up were examined using adjusted logistic regression models. A total of 5964 participants (mean ± sd age 65 ± 9 years at baseline, 44% male) were included in the analyses. There was an association between baseline television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus at 2-year follow-up (≥ 6 h/day compared with diabetes mellitus at 2-year follow-up than those who were active/had low television viewing time (fully adjusted odds ratio 1.94, 95% CI 1.02, 3.68), although active participants reporting high television viewing were not at risk. Interventions to reduce the incidence of diabetes in the elderly that focus on both increasing physical activity and reducing television viewing time might prove useful. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Diabetes UK.

  17. Clinical assessment of a new anaesthetic drug administration system: a prospective, controlled, longitudinal incident monitoring study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, C S; Larsson, L; Frampton, C M; Weller, J; McKenzie, A; Cumin, D; Merry, Alan F

    2010-05-01

    A safety-orientated system of delivering parenteral anaesthetic drugs was assessed in a prospective incident monitoring study at two hospitals. Anaesthetists completed an incident form for every anaesthetic, indicating if an incident occurred. Case mix data were collected and the number of drug administrations made during procedures estimated. From February 1998 at Hospital A and from June 1999 at Hospital B, until November 2003, 74,478 anaesthetics were included, for which 59,273 incident forms were returned (a 79.6% response rate). Fewer parenteral drug errors occurred with the new system than with conventional methods (58 errors in an estimated 183,852 drug administrations (0.032%, 95% CI 0.024-0.041%) vs 268 in 550,105 (0.049%, 95% CI 0.043-0.055%) respectively, p = 0.002), a relative reduction of 35% (difference 0.017%, 95% CI 0.006-0.028%). No major adverse outcomes from these errors were reported with the new system while 11 (0.002%) were reported with conventional methods (p = 0.055). We conclude that targeted system re-design can reduce medical error.

  18. High incidence of balanitis xerotica obliterans in boys with phimosis: prospective 10-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, András; Király, László; Kutasy, Balázs; Merksz, Miklós

    2005-01-01

    This prospective study was designed to address the incidence and clinical and histologic characteristics of balanitis xerotica obliterans in a large random pediatric population with phimosis. We investigated 1178 boys who presented consecutively with phimosis between 1991 and 2001. All patients who underwent complete circumcision and surgical specimens were typed histologically as early, intermediate, or late forms of this disorder or as nonspecific chronic inflammation. Patients with balanitis xerotica obliterans were controlled at 1, 6, and 12 months postoperatively, then yearly. Balanitis xerotica obliterans was found in 471 of the 1178 patients (40%), with the highest incidence in boys aged 9 to 11 years (76%). Secondary phimosis occurred in 93% of boys with balanitis xerotica obliterans and in 32% of those without the disorder. In six instances of balanitis xerotica obliterans, meatotomy and in one meatoplasty was performed, as well as circumcision. On histologic evaluation, we found 19% had early, 60% intermediate, and 21% late form of balanitis xerotica obliterans. Glanular lesions disappeared completely within 6 months in 229 out of 231 patients. Our data strongly suggest that the true incidence of childhood balanitis xerotica obliterans is higher than previously assumed. Its incidence peaks in the 9 to 11 years age group, in whom secondary phimosis was almost exclusively caused by balanitis xerotica obliterans.

  19. Incidence, type of atrial fibrillation and risk factors for stroke: a population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Cecilia; Dahlqvist, Erik; Andersson, Jonas; Jansson, Jan-Håkan; Johansson, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this study were to estimate the incidence of atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter (AF), to assess the presence of provoking factors and risk factors for stroke and systemic embolism, and to determine the type of AF in patients with first-diagnosed AF. Patients and methods This cohort study was performed in northern Sweden between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2012. Diagnosis registries were searched for the International Classification of Diseases-10 code for AF (I48) to identify cases of incident AF. All AF diagnoses were electrocardiogram-verified. Data pertaining to provoking factors, type of AF and presence of risk factors for stroke and systemic embolism according to the CHA2DS2-VASc score were obtained from medical records. Results The incidence of AF in the entire population was 4.0 per 1,000 person-years. The incidence was 27.5 per 1,000 person-years in patients aged ≥80 years. A total of 21% of all patients had a provoking factor in association with the first-diagnosed episode of AF. The CHA2DS2-VASc score was 2 or higher in 81% of the patients. Permanent AF was the most common type of AF (29%). Conclusion There was a considerable increase in the incidence of AF with age, and a provoking factor was found in one-fifth. The most common type of AF was permanent AF. Four in five patients had a CHA2DS2-VASc score of 2 or more. PMID:28182159

  20. Incidence of weapon injuries not related to interfactional combat in Afghanistan in 1996: prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Markus; Meddings, David R; Ramez, Salah; Gutiérrez-Fisac, Juan Luis

    1999-01-01

    Objective To examine the descriptive epidemiology of weapon injuries not directly attributable to combat during armed conflict. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Nangarhar region of Afghanistan, which experienced effective peace, intense fighting, and then peace over six months in 1996. Subjects 608 people admitted to Jalalabad hospital because of weapon injuries. Main outcome measures Estimated incidence of injuries from combat or otherwise (non-combat injury) before, during, and after the fall of Kabul. Results Incidence of non-combat injury was initially 65 per 100 000. During the intense military campaign for Kabul the incidence declined dramatically, and then differentially increased dependent on injury subcategory—that is, whether injuries were accidental or intentional and whether they were inflicted by firearms or fragmenting munitions. Non-combat injuries accounted for 51% of weapon injuries observed over the study period. Civilians were more likely to have non-combat injuries than combat injuries. Conclusions Weapon injuries that are not attributable to combat are common. Social changes accompanying conflict and widespread availability of weapons may be predictive of use of weapons that persists independently of conflict. Key messagesA region in Afghanistan experienced peace, intense combat, and then peace in 1996During peace the incidence of injury from weapons was high, the incidence of injury from firearms being similar to that in the United StatesOver half of all weapon injuries were not attributable to interfactional combatWeapon availability and social breakdown accompanying conflict may be important factors in the occurrence of weapon injuries that persist independently of conflict PMID:10445923

  1. Thyroid hormone levels and incident chronic kidney disease in euthyroid individuals: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiyi; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Cho, Juhee; Lee, Won-Young; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Kwon, Min-Jung; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Rampal, Sanjay; Han, Won Kon; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-10-01

    Overt and subclinical hypothyroidism are associated with higher levels of serum creatinine and with increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The prospective association between thyroid hormones and kidney function in euthyroid individuals,however, is largely unexplored. We conducted a prospective cohort study in 104 633 South Korean men and women who were free of CKD and proteinuria at baseline and had normal thyroid hormone levels and no history of thyroid disease or cancer. At each annual or biennial follow-up visit, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxin (FT4) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. The study outcome was incident CKD, defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)<60 ml/min/1.73 m2 based on the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration creatinine equation. After a median follow-up of 3.5 years, 1032 participants developed incident CKD.There was a positive association between high-normal levels of TSH and increased risk of incident CKD. In fully-adjusted models including baseline eGFR, the hazard ratio comparing the highest vs the lowest quintiles of TSH was 1.26 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02 to 1.55; P for linear trend=0.03]. In spline models, FT3 levels below 3 pg/ml were also associated with increased risk of incident CKD. There was no association between FT4 levels and CKD. In a large cohort of euthyroid men and women, high levels of TSH and low levels of FT3, even within the normal range, were modestly associated with an increased risk of incident CKD.

  2. Airflow Obstruction, Lung Function, and Incidence of Atrial Fibrillation: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing; Agarwal, Sunil K.; Alonso, Alvaro; Blecker, Saul; Chamberlain, Alanna M.; London, Stephanie J.; Loehr, Laura R.; McNeill, Ann Marie; Poole, Charles; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Heiss, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Background Reduced low forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) is reportedly associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). Extant reports do not provide separate estimates for never smokers, and for African Americans, who incongruously have lower AF incidence than Caucasians. Methods and Results We examined 15,004 middle-aged African Americans and Caucasians enrolled in ARIC cohort study. Standardized spirometry were collected at the baseline examination. Incident AF was identified from the first among the following: ICD codes for AF on hospital discharge records or death certificates or 12-lead ECGs performed during three triennial follow-up visits. Over an average follow-up of 17.5 years, a total of 1,691 (11%) participants developed new onset AF. The rate of incident AF was inversely associated with FEV1 in each of the four race and gender- groups. After multivariable adjustment for traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors and height, hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of AF comparing the lowest with the highest quartile of FEV1 were 1.37 (1.02,1.83) for white women, 1.49 (1.16,1.91) for white men, 1.63 (1.00,2.66) for black women, and 2.36 (1.30,4.29) for black men. The above associations were observed across all smoking status categories. Moderate/severe airflow obstruction (FEV1/FVC<0.70 and FEV1< 80% of predicted value) was also associated with higher AF incidence. Conclusions In this large population-based study with a long term follow-up, reduced FEV1 and obstructive respiratory disease were inversely - associated with a higher AF incidence after adjusting for measured confounders. PMID:24344084

  3. Mantram repetition for stress management in veterans and employees: a critical incident study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, Jill E; Oman, Doug; Kemppainen, Jeanne K; Becker, Sheryl; Gershwin, Madeline; Kelly, Ann

    2006-03-01

    This paper reports a study assessing the usefulness of a mantram repetition programme. Complementary/alternative therapies are becoming commonplace, but more research is needed to assess their benefits. A 5-week programme teaching a 'mind-body-spiritual' technique of silently repeating a mantram - a word or phrase with spiritual meaning - to manage stress was developed. A mantram was chosen by individuals, who were taught to repeat it silently throughout the day or night to interrupt unwanted thoughts and elicit the relaxation response. Participants who attended a 5-week course were invited to participate in the study. Of those who consented, a randomly selected subset (n = 66) was contacted approximately 3 months after the course for a telephone interview using the critical incident interviewing technique. Participants were asked whether the intervention was helpful or not, and if helpful, to identify situations where it was applied. Interviews were transcribed and incidents were identified and categorized to create a taxonomy of uses. The data were collected in 2001-2002. Participants included 30 veterans, mostly males (97%), and 36 hospital employees, mostly females (86%). Mean age was 56 years (sd = 12.94). Fifty-five participants (83.3%) practiced the technique and reported 147 incidents where the programme was helpful. Outcomes were organized into a taxonomy of incidents using four major categories that included managing: (a) emotions other than stress (51%); (b) stress (23.8%); (c) insomnia (12.9%); and (d) unwanted thoughts (12.3%). A group of raters reviewed the categories for inter-rater reliability. The majority of participants from two distinct samples reported that the mantram programme was helpful in a variety of situations. The critical incident interviewing method was found to be practical, efficient, and thorough in collecting and analyzing data. Such qualitative methods contribute to understanding the benefits of mind-body complementary therapies.

  4. Physical activity and incident asthma in adults: the HUNT Study, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumpton, Ben M; Langhammer, Arnulf; Ferreira, Manuel A R; Chen, Yue; Mai, Xiao-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to investigate the associations of physical activity and change in physical activity with incident asthma in a cohort of Norwegian adults. Design We conducted a prospective cohort study using data on self-reported physical activity from 3 waves of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study. Physical activity was reported at the first and second surveys (1985–1986 and 1995–1997). Physical activity was defined from the second survey as inactive or active and the active group was further defined as very low, low, moderate and high. Change in physical activity was defined from the first and second surveys. Setting A large population-based health survey in Norway. Participants We followed 18 894 adults over 11 years who were free from asthma at baseline in 1995–1997. Outcome Incident asthma was reported in the third survey (2006–2008). Results The cumulative incidence of asthma was 3.6% over the 11 years. The adjusted OR for incident asthma among active participants compared with inactive participants was 0.95 (95% CI 0.69 to 1.34). The adjusted OR for those who were active in the first or second survey versus those who were inactive in both surveys was 0.64 (95% CI 0.34 to 1.38); however, this association was strongly attenuated in sensitivity analysis (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.38 to 3.09). Conclusions We did not observe statistically significant associations of physical activity or change in physical activity with incident asthma in adults over the 11-year follow-up. PMID:27864254

  5. Prevalence and incidence of sarcopenia in the very old: findings from the Newcastle 85+ Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granic, Antoneta; Davies, Karen; Kirkwood, Thomas B. L.; Jagger, Carol; Sayer, Avan Aihie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Recognition that an older person has sarcopenia is important because this condition is linked to a range of adverse outcomes. Sarcopenia becomes increasingly common with age, and yet there are few data concerning its descriptive epidemiology in the very old (aged 85 years and above). Our aims were to describe risk factors for sarcopenia and estimate its prevalence and incidence in a British sample of the very old. Methods We used data from two waves (2006/07 and 2009/10) of the Newcastle 85+ Study, a cohort born in 1921 and registered with a Newcastle/North Tyneside general practice. We assessed sarcopenia status using the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) definition. Grip strength was measured using a Takei digital dynamometer (Takei Scientific Instruments Ltd., Niigata, Japan), gait speed was calculated from the Timed Up and Go test, and lean mass was estimated using a Tanita‐305 body fat analyzer. We used logistic regression to examine associations between risk factors for prevalent sarcopenia at baseline and incident sarcopenia at follow‐up. Results European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People sarcopenia was present in 21% of participants at baseline [149/719 participants, mean age 85.5 (0.4) years]. Many participants had either slow gait speed or weak grip strength (74.3%), and hence measurement of muscle mass was frequently indicated by the EWGSOP definition. Incidence data were available for 302 participants, and the incident rate was 3.7 cases per 100 person years at risk. Low Standardized Mini‐Mental State Examination, lower occupational social class, and shorter duration of education were associated with sarcopenia at baseline, while low muscle mass was associated with incident sarcopenia. Low body mass index (BMI) was a risk factor for both in a graded fashion, with each unit decrease associated with increased odds of prevalent [odds ratio (OR) 1.29, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21, 1

  6. High Incidence of Celiac Disease in a Long-term Study of Adolescents With Susceptibility Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Edwin; Dong, Fran; Barón, Anna E; Taki, Iman; Norris, Jill M; Frohnert, Brigitte I; Hoffenberg, Edward J; Rewers, Marian

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about the incidence of celiac disease in the general population of children in the United States. We aimed to estimate the cumulative incidence of celiac disease in adolescents born in the Denver metropolitan area. We collected data on HLA-DR, DQ genotypes of 31,766 infants, born from 1993 through 2004 at St. Joseph's Hospital in Denver, from the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young. Subjects with susceptibility genotypes for celiac disease and type 1 diabetes were followed up for up to 20 years for development of tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (tTGA). Outcomes were the development of celiac disease autoimmunity (CDA) or celiac disease. CDA was defined as persistence of tTGA for at least 3 months or development of celiac disease. Celiac disease was defined based on detection of Marsh 2 or greater lesions in biopsy specimens or persistent high levels of tTGA. For each genotype, the cumulative incidence of CDA and celiac disease were determined. To estimate the cumulative incidence in the Denver general population, outcomes by each genotype were weighted according to the frequency of each of these genotypes in the general population. Of 1339 subjects followed up, 66 developed CDA and met criteria for celiac disease and 46 developed only CDA. Seropositivity for tTGA resolved spontaneously, without treatment, in 21 of the 46 subjects with only CDA (46%). The estimated cumulative incidence for CDA in the Denver general population at 5, 10, and 15 years of age was 2.4%, 4.3%, and 5.1%, respectively, and incidence values for celiac disease were 1.6%, 2.8%, and 3.1%, respectively. In a 20-year prospective study of 1339 children with genetic risk factors for celiac disease, we found the cumulative incidence of CDA and celiac disease to be high within the first 10 years. Although more than 5% of children may experience a period of CDA, not all children develop celiac disease or require gluten-free diets. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published

  7. TO STUDY THE INCIDENCE OF ANAEMIA AND IDENTIFY AS RISK FACTOR IN CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

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    S. Periasamy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM AND OBJECTIVE To identify the incidence of anaemia and to identity anaemia itself as a risk factors in coronary artery disease in rural population. METHODS AND MATERIALS A prospective observational study done in patients admitted with evidence of coronary artery disease in Rajah Muthiah Medical College Hospital from January 2016 to April 2016. Patients with age more than 18 years, both gender, evidence of coronary artery disease were included and secondary case for anaemia were excluded. A detailed clinical history and examination, blood count with smear study was done. RESULT In our present study, male predominance (72% with more common in age group between (51-60 years 36%. Mean haemoglobin level in our study showed 11.70 g/dL. The incidence of anaemia was 80% with varying severity 7-9 (2%, 9-11 (32%, 11-13 (46%, >13(20% and smear showed microcytic hypochromic dominated with 52%. CONCLUSION Incidence of anaemia observed in rural population with reference to significances of role as risk factor yet to be studied with detailed study. It is important also to investigate secondary cause of anaemia.

  8. Pressure ulcer incidence in Dutch and German nursing homes: design of a prospective multicenter cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohrmann Christa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pressure ulcers are a common and serious health care problem in all health care settings. Results from annual national pressure ulcer prevalence surveys in the Netherlands and Germany reveal large differences in prevalence rates between both countries over the past ten years, especially in nursing homes. When examining differences in prevalence and incidence rates, it is important to take into account all factors associated with the development of pressure ulcers. Numerous studies have identified patient related factors, as well as nursing related interventions as risk factors for the development of pressure ulcers. Next to these more process oriented factors, also structural factors such as staffing levels and staff quality play a role in the development of pressure ulcers. This study has been designed to investigate the incidence of pressure ulcers in nursing homes in the Netherlands and Germany and to identify patient related factors, nursing related factors and structural factors associated with pressure ulcer development. The present article describes the protocol for this study. Methods/design A prospective multicenter study is designed in which a cohort of newly admitted nursing home residents in 10 Dutch and 11 German nursing homes will be followed for a period of 12 weeks. Data will be collected by research assistants using questionnaires on four different levels: resident, staff, ward, and nursing home. Discussion The results of the study will provide information on the incidence of pressure ulcers in Dutch and German nursing homes. Furthermore, information will be gathered on the influence of patient related factors, nursing related factors and structural factors on the incidence of pressure ulcers. The present article describes the study design and addresses the study's strengths and weaknesses.

  9. Incidence of dementia among atomic-bomb survivors--Radiation Effects Research Foundation Adult Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Michiko; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Mimori, Yasuyo; Miyachi, Takafumi; Ohshita, Tomohiko; Sasaki, Hideo

    2009-06-15

    Radiotherapy has been reported to cause neuropsychological dysfunction. Here we examined whether exposure to atomic bomb radiation affected the incidence of dementia among 2286 atomic bomb survivors and controls - all members of the Adult Health Study cohort. Study subjects were non-demented and aged >or=60 years at baseline examination and had been exposed in 1945 at >or=13 years of age to a relatively low dose (or=500 mGy group. Alzheimer disease was the predominant type of dementia in each dose category. After adjustment for potential risk factors, radiation exposure did not affect the incidence rate of either all dementia or any of its subtypes. No case of dementia had a history of therapeutic cranial irradiation. Although we found no relationship between radiation exposure and the development of dementia among atomic bomb survivors exposed at >or=13 years old in this longitudinal study, effects on increased risk of early death among atomic bomb survivors will be considered.

  10. Perioperative hypothermia and incidence of surgical wound infection: a bibliographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Aline Batista da; Peniche, Aparecida de Cassia Giani

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review article was to understand and analyze the scientific production related to the occurrence of perioperative hypothermia and the incidence of infection on the surgical site. For this purpose, a search was conducted in the databases LILACS, MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL and Cochrane, using the health science descriptors DECS, from 2004 to 2009. A total of 91 articles were found. After eliminating duplicate items and using selection criteria for inclusion, six manuscripts remained for analysis. The studies were classified as retrospective, prospective, case studies, and clinical trials. After analysis, the majority of studies showed that hypothermia must be prevented during the perioperative period to reduce complications in the healing process of the surgical incision. Therefore, unadverted hypothermia directly influences in surgical site healing, increasing the incidence of infection in the surgical wound.

  11. Association of open-angle glaucoma loci with incident glaucoma in the Blue Mountains Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdon, Kathryn P; Mitchell, Paul; Lee, Anne; Healey, Paul R; White, Andrew J R; Rochtchina, Elena; Thomas, Peter B M; Wang, Jie Jin; Craig, Jamie E

    2015-01-01

    To determine if open-angle glaucoma (OAG)-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with incident glaucoma and if such genetic information is useful in OAG risk prediction. Case-control from within a population-based longitudinal study. study population: Individuals aged over 49 years of age living in the Blue Mountains region west of Sydney and enrolled in the Blue Mountains Eye Study. observation: Cases for this sub-study (n = 67) developed incident OAG between baseline and 10-year visits, in either eye, while controls (n = 1919) had no evidence for OAG at any visit. All participants had an ocular examination and DNA genotyped for reported OAG risk SNPs. main outcome measure: Incident OAG. Two loci also known to be associated with cup-to-disc ratio as well as OAG (9p21 near CDKN2B-AS1 and SIX1/SIX6) were both significantly associated with incident OAG in the Blue Mountains Eye Study cohort (P = .006 and P = .004, respectively). The TMCO1 locus was nominally associated (P = .012), while the CAV1/CAV2 and 8q22 loci were not associated. Multivariate logistic regression and neural network analysis both indicated that the genetic risk factors contributed positively to the predictive models incorporating traditional risk factors. This study shows that previously reported genetic variations related to OAG and cup-to-disc ratio are associated with the onset of OAG and thus may become useful in risk prediction algorithms designed to target early treatment to those most at risk of developing glaucoma. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Personal, situational and organizational aspects that influence the impact of patient safety incidents: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gerven, E; Deweer, D; Scott, S D; Panella, M; Euwema, M; Sermeus, W; Vanhaecht, K

    2016-07-01

    When a patient safety incident (PSI) occurs, not only the patient, but also the involved health professional can suffer. This study focused on this so-called "second victim" of a patient safety incident and aimed to examine: (1) experienced symptoms in the aftermath of a patient safety incident; (2) applied coping strategies; (3) the received versus needed support and (4) the aspects that influenced whether one becomes a second victim. Thirty-one in-depth interviews were performed with physicians, nurses and midwives who have been involved in a patient safety incident. The symptoms were categorized under personal and professional impact. Both problem focused and emotion focused coping strategies were used in the aftermath of a PSI. Problem focused strategies such as performing a root cause analysis and the opportunity to learn from what happened were the most appreciated, but negative emotional responses such as repression and flight were common. Support from colleagues and supervisors who were involved in the same event, peer supporters or professional experts were the most needed. A few individuals described emotional support from the healthcare institution as unwanted. Rendered support was largely dependent on the organizational culture, a stigma remained among healthcare professionals to openly discuss patient safety incidents. Three aspects influenced the extent to which a healthcare professional became a second victim: personal, situational and organizational aspects. These findings indicated that a multifactorial approach including individual and emotional support to second victims is crucial. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Coffee consumption and risk of incident gout in women: the Nurses’ Health Study123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curhan, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Background: Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and may affect the risk of gout via various mechanisms, but prospective data on the relation between coffee intake and the risk of incident gout are limited. Design: Over a 26-y period, we prospectively examined the relation between coffee intake and risk of incident gout in 89,433 female participants in the Nurses’ Health Study. We assessed the consumption of coffee, decaffeinated coffee, tea, and total caffeine in participants every 2–4 y through validated questionnaires. We used a supplementary questionnaire to ascertain whether participants met the survey criteria of the American College of Rheumatology for gout. Results: During the 26 y of follow-up, we documented 896 confirmed incident cases of gout. There was an inverse association between higher coffee intake and the risk of gout. The multivariate relative risks (RRs) for incident gout according to coffee-consumption categories [ie, 0, 1–237, 238–947, and ≥948 mL coffee/d (237 mL = one 8-ounce cup)] were 1.00, 0.97, 0.78 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.95), and 0.43 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.61; P for trend coffee, the multivariate RRs according to consumption categories (0, 1–237, and ≥237 mL decaffeinated coffee/d) were 1.00, 1.02, and 0.77 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.95; P for trend = 0.02), respectively. There was an inverse association between total caffeine from all sources and the risk of gout; the multivariate RR of the highest quintile compared with the lowest quintile was 0.52 (95% CI: 0.41, 0.68; P for trend coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of incident gout in women. PMID:20739424

  14. [Descriptive study of cancer incidence in the area around the Ispra Joint Research Centre (JCR)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Salvatore; Bianchi, Nadia; Gambino, Maria; Prandini, Beatrice; Soma, Renato; Contiero, Paolo; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Marmondi, Elio Giorgio; Banfi, Fabio; Bonarrigo, Domenico

    2009-01-01

    to assess the effects of radioactive emissions from the EU Joint Research Centre (JRC) (nuclear) at Ispra, the Local Health Authority (ASL) of Varese carried out an ecological study to measure any excess incidence of cancer in the surrounding population. after estimation of historical exposure levels in the surrounding population, the incidence rates of leukaemia and other exposure-related tumours were calculated from data in the population based Lombardy Cancer Registry (Varese Province). By indirect standardization, the expected cases (based on incidence rate in the Province) were compared with observed cases in the close-by municipality of Ispra, in municipalities within a 5 km radius of the JRC (5kmArea) and in the area covered by the District of Sesto Calende (DistrictArea). in the period 1982-1998, mean populations were 4,687 (Ispra), 32,120 (5kmArea) and 43,707 (DistrictArea); the population of the Province was 793,752. The numbers of cancers registered were 374, 2,920, 4,099 and 72,246 respectively. Significant excesses of leukaemia were not found in Ispra (SIR 0.33, 95% CI 0.07-0.96) or the 5kmArea (SIR 0.83, 95% CI 0.63-1.08). For all cancers combined and for the commonest cancers (breast, colo-rectal) the numbers of incident cases were lower than expected. consistent with the low levels of exposure detected, and despite the fears of the local people, no incidence excesses of cancers was found in Ispra, the town closest to the JRC, or inforin the surrounding areas. It may be worth searching for excess cancer among exposed workers.

  15. Incidence and risk factors of intracranial aneurysm: A national cohort study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tackeun; Lee, Heeyoung; Ahn, Soyeon; Kwon, O-Ki; Bang, Jae Seung; Hwang, Gyojun; Kim, Jeong Eun; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Son, Young-Je; Cho, Won-Sang; Oh, Chang Wan

    2016-10-01

    Background Estimations of the intracranial aneurysm incidence require long-term follow-up of a relatively large at-risk population; as a result, the incidence remains largely unknown. Aims To investigate the national incidence of intracranial aneurysm in a Korean population. Methods After excluding 18,604 potential subjects with a previous history of stroke (I6x.x), 998,216 subjects were included in this observational cohort. The primary endpoint was the earliest date of diagnosis of either unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA; I67.1) or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH; I60.x). We collected anthropometric data, blood pressure measurements, laboratory data, and smoking, drinking, and physical exercise habits of 132,355 subjects for whom healthcare screening data were available. Factors influencing intracranial aneurysm were evaluated via multivariate Cox regression. Results The overall observation size was 8,792,214 person-years. During follow-up, 4346 subjects were diagnosed with intracranial aneurysm (SAH, 1960; UIA, 2386). The crude incidence of intracranial aneurysm was 49.4/100,000 person-years. The hazard ratio for women was 1.56 ( p intracranial aneurysm. A history of heart disease and family history of stroke were associated with respective hazard ratios of 2.08 and 1.77. Conclusions In this Korean population study, the standardized incidence of intracranial aneurysm was 52.2/100,000 person-years. Older age, female sex, hypertension, history of heart disease, and family history of stroke were independent risk factors for intracranial aneurysm.

  16. Physical Activity and Incident Hypertension in African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Keith M; Booth, John N; Seals, Samantha R; Abdalla, Marwah; Dubbert, Patricia M; Sims, Mario; Ladapo, Joseph A; Redmond, Nicole; Muntner, Paul; Shimbo, Daichi

    2017-03-01

    There is limited empirical evidence to support the protective effects of physical activity in the prevention of hypertension among African Americans. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of physical activity with incident hypertension among African Americans. We studied 1311 participants without hypertension at baseline enrolled in the Jackson Heart Study, a community-based study of African Americans residing in Jackson, Mississippi. Overall physical activity, moderate-vigorous physical activity, and domain-specific physical activity (work, active living, household, and sport/exercise) were assessed by self-report during the baseline examination (2000-2004). Incident hypertension, assessed at examination 2 (2005-2008) and examination 3 (2009-2013), was defined as the first visit with systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg or self-reported antihypertensive medication use. Over a median follow-up of 8.0 years, there were 650 (49.6%) incident hypertension cases. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for incident hypertension comparing participants with intermediate and ideal versus poor levels of moderate-vigorous physical activity were 0.84 (0.67-1.05) and 0.76 (0.58-0.99), respectively (P trend=0.038). A graded, dose-response association was also present for sport/exercise-related physical activity (Quartiles 2, 3, and 4 versus Quartile 1: 0.92 [0.68-1.25], 0.87 [0.67-1.13], 0.75 [0.58-0.97], respectively; P trend=0.032). There were no statistically significant associations observed for overall physical activity, or work, active living, and household-related physical activities. In conclusion, the results of the current study suggest that regular moderate-vigorous physical activity or sport/exercise-related physical activity may reduce the risk of developing hypertension in African Americans. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Progression of Coronary Artery Calcium and Incident Heart Failure: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshi, Hooman; Ambale-Venkatesh, Bharath; Yang, Xiaoying; Ostovaneh, Mohammad R; Wu, Colin O; Budoff, Matthew; Bahrami, Hossein; Wong, Nathan D; Bluemke, David A; Lima, João A C

    2017-04-20

    Although the association between coronary artery calcium (CAC) and future heart failure (HF) has been shown previously, the value of CAC progression in the prediction of HF has not been investigated. In this study, we investigated the association of CAC progression with subclinical left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and incident HF in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis is a population-based study consisting of 6814 men and women aged 45 to 84, free of overt cardiovascular disease at enrollment, who were recruited from 4 ethnicities. We included 5644 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants who had baseline and follow-up cardiac computed tomography and were free of HF and coronary heart disease before the second cardiac computed tomography. Mean (±SD) age was 61.7±10.2 years and 47.2% were male. The Cox proportional hazard models and multivariable linear regression models were deployed to determine the association of CAC progression with incident HF and subclinical LV dysfunction, respectively. Over a median follow-up of 9.6 (interquartile range: 8.8-10.6) years, 182 participants developed incident HF. CAC progression of 10 units per year was associated with 3% of increased risk of HF independent of overt coronary heart disease (P=0.008). In 2818 participants with available cardiac magnetic resonance images, CAC progression was associated with increased LV end diastolic volume (β=0.16; P=0.03) and LV end systolic volume (β=0.12; P=0.006) after excluding participants with any coronary heart disease. CAC progression was associated with incident HF and modestly increased LV end diastolic volume and LV end systolic volume at follow-up exam independent of overt coronary heart disease. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  18. Incidence of Awareness with Recall under General Anesthesia in Rural India: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Deepak; Mangla, Mishu

    2017-01-01

    Awareness under anesthesia is a rare but extremely unpleasant phenomenon. There are very few studies in the developing world and none from rural areas where incidence of intraoperative awareness may be higher due to increased patient load, limited patient knowledge and lack of trained hospital staff, reliance on older, cheaper but less effective drugs, and lack of proper equipment both for providing anesthesia, as well as monitoring the patient. To assess the incidence of intraoperative awareness during general anesthesia among patients in rural India and any factors associated with the same. Prospective, nonrandomized, observational study. Patients undergoing elective surgical procedures in various specialties under general anesthesia from over a period of 1 year were considered for this study. Approximately, after 1 h of arrival in postanaesthesia care unit, anesthesiologist (not involved in administering anesthesia) assessed intraoperative awareness using a modified form of Brice questionnaire. Data were collected on a Microsoft Excel(®) sheet and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences(®) version 23 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) for windows. A total of 896 patients completed the questionnaire. Postoperatively, in response to the questionnaire, seven patients reported to have remembered something under anesthesia. Out of these, three patients described events that were confirmed by operation theater staff to have occurred whereas they were under anesthesia. Incidence of definite awareness under anesthesia with postoperative recall was found to be 0.33% (three patients out of total 896) in our study.

  19. Cancer incidence in Jordan from 1996 to 2009--a comprehensive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Said Ibrahim; Soubani, Majd; Nimri, Jena Monther; Al-Zeer, Ali Hazem

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a major health problem facing the entire world, and Jordan is no exception. However, patterns of cancer incidence and cancer burden in Jordan have never been explored thoroughly, and the aim of this study was to close this knowledge gap. The study was based on data obtained from the Jordan cancer registry from 1996 to 2009. All cancer cases that were diagnosed during the study period were registered and included in this study. A total of 51,626 cases were registered in Jordan during the 14- year period. The incidence rate showed no significant increase in males (percent change PC 6.8%), while in females a marked increase was observed (PC 14.8%). The major cancer sites for males were bronchus and lung, colorectal, bladder, leukemia and prostate. In females, the leading cancer sites were breast, colorectal, leukemia, thyroid and NHL. Compared to other countries in the region, Jordan has comparable rates. On the other hand the rates of cancer are markedly lower in Jordan compared to more industrialized countries such as the US and Europe. There was an overall increase in the incidence of cancer in Jordan, especially among females, which stresses the need for programs to raise awareness on the importance of early diagnosis and preventive life style measures.

  20. A STUDY ON INCIDENCE OF VARIOUS SYSTEMIC CONGENITAL MALFORMATIONS AND THEIR ASSOCIATION WITH MATERNAL FACTORS

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    Sumit Gupta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the overall and individual incidence of clinically detectable congenital malformations in newborns delivered at a tertiary hospital and to find out the associated maternal factors. Methodology: The present study is a prospective study of all the newborns delivered at Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, SSG Hospital, Baroda for a period of one year in which total 4058 consecutively born babies were examined for all visible structural anomalies and associated maternal factors were studied. Results: Incidence of malformed babies was 1.53% (62 malformations out of 4058 babies of which the anomalies of CNS were the most frequent .In associated maternal factors, anaemia and diabetes were found to be relevant. Conclusion: The incidence of congenital anomalies of CNS was highest amongst all types of congenital anomalies (neural tube defects being the commonest. More stress should be laid on prevention by regular antenatal care and avoidance of known teratogens and probable teratogenic agents. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(1.000: 19-21

  1. Incidence of lipohypertrophy in diabetic patients and a study of influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardar, Bahar; Kizilci, Sevgi

    2007-08-01

    This study examines the incidence of lipohypertrophy in diabetic individuals as well as the factors that have an influence on causing this condition. In consideration of the period of development of lipohypertrophy, the research sampling consisted of 215 diabetics who had been using insulin for at least 2 years. Observation and palpation techniques were used in assessing lipohypertrophy in these diabetics. Data were evaluated using percentages, chi(2) and logistic regression analysis. Results of the study established lipohypertrophy in 48.8% of the individuals comprising the sampling. It was seen that the incidence of lipohypertrophy in these individuals was affected by their level of education, the frequency that they changed needles, the frequency of changing their injection sites and the amount of time they had been using insulin, the difference proving to be statistically significant (plipohypertrophy. These results show that the amount of time insulin is used and the procedure for injection both affect the development of lipohypertrophy.

  2. Nervous System and Intracranial Tumour Incidence by Ethnicity in England, 2001-2007: A Descriptive Epidemiological Study.

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    Edward J Maile

    Full Text Available There is substantial variation in nervous system and intracranial tumour incidence worldwide. UK incidence data have limited utility because they group these diverse tumours together and do not provide data for individual ethnic groups within Blacks and South Asians. Our objective was to determine the incidence of individual tumour types for seven individual ethnic groups.We used data from the National Cancer Intelligence Network on tumour site, age, sex and deprivation to identify 42,207 tumour cases. Self-reported ethnicity was obtained from the Hospital Episode Statistics database. We used mid-year population estimates from the Office for National Statistics. We analysed tumours by site using Poisson regression to estimate incidence rate ratios comparing non-White ethnicities to Whites after adjustment for sex, age and deprivation.Our study showed differences in tumour incidence by ethnicity for gliomas, meningiomas, pituitary tumours and cranial and paraspinal nerve tumours. Relative to Whites; South Asians, Blacks and Chinese have a lower incidence of gliomas (p<0.01, with respective incidence rate ratios of 0.68 (confidence interval: 0.60-0.77, 0.62 (0.52-0.73 and 0.58 (0.41-0.83. Blacks have a higher incidence of meningioma (p<0.01 with an incidence rate ratio of 1.29 (1.05-1.59 and there is heterogeneity in meningioma incidence between individual South Asian ethnicities. Blacks have a higher incidence of pituitary tumours relative to Whites (p<0.01 with an incidence rate ratio of 2.95 (2.37-3.67. There is heterogeneity in pituitary tumour incidence between individual South Asian ethnicities.We present incidence data of individual tumour types for seven ethnic groups. Current understanding of the aetiology of these tumours cannot explain our results. These findings suggest avenues for further work.

  3. Swedish snuff and incidence of cardiovascular disease. A population-based cohort study

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    Hedblad Bo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between smoking and an increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases is well known. Whether smokeless tobacco (snuff is related to myocardial infarction (MI or stroke is still controversial. Aim of this study was to explore whether snuff users have an increased incidence of MI or stroke. Methods A total of 16 754 women and 10 473 men (aged 45–73 years, without history of cardiovascular disease (CVD, belonging to the population-based "Malmö Diet and Cancer" study were examined. Incidence of MI and stroke were monitored over 10.3 years. Results Snuff was used by 737 (7.0% men and 75 (0.4% women, respectively. Among men, snuff was significantly associated with low occupation level, single civil status, high BMI and with current and former smoking. In women, snuff was associated with lower systolic blood pressure. A total of 964 individuals (3.5%, i.e.544 men (5.3% and 420 (2.5% women suffered a MI during the follow-up period. The corresponding numbers of incident stroke cases were 1048, i.e. 553 men (5.3% and 495 (3.0% women, respectively. Snuff was not associated with any statistically significant increased risk of MI or stroke in men or women. The relative risks (RR in male snuff users compared to non-users were 1.05 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.8–1.4, p = 0.740 for incident MI and 0.97 (0.7–1.4, p = 0.878 for stroke, after taking age and potential confounders into account. In women none of the 420 (2.5% women who were snuff users had a MI and only one suffered a stroke during the follow-up. Conclusion Several life-style risk factors were more prevalent in snuff-users than in non-users. However, the present study does not support any relationship between snuff and incidence of cardiovascular disease in men.

  4. [Body mass index and cancer incidence:a prospective cohort study in northern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lanwei; Li, Ni; Wang, Gang; Su, Kai; Li, Fang; Yang, Lin; Ren, Jiansong; Chang, Sheng; Chen, Shuohua; Wu, Shouling; He, Jie; Dai, Min

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the association and its strength between body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) and cancer incidence in a large-scale population-based cohort study. A dynamic cohort was established on May 1, 2006. Baseline information on demography, lifestyle, anthropometry such as body height and weight, were collected during the first interview, and cancer incidence, mortality and other related outcome information were obtained through active follow-up every two years and passive follow-up every year. Cancer cases diagnosed within 1 year follow-up period were excluded. Multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression model was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs)and 95% confidence interval (CI) between BMI and cancer incidence after adjusted for age group, education level, tobacco smoking (smokers and non-smokers), alcohol consumption (drinkers or non-drinkers) and HBsAg status (positive or negative, for liver cancer only) when appropriate. Repeated analysis was carried out on male lung cancer, male liver cancer and female breast cancer, stratified by tobacco smoking, HBsAg status and menopausal status respectively. By December 31, 2011, a total of 133 273 subjects, including 106 630 (80.01%)males and 26 643(19.99%)females were enrolled in the cohort. There were 570 531.02 person-years of follow-up and 4.28-year of average follow-up period. According to the Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Overweight and Obesity in Chinese Adults, study subjects were divided into groups as: underweight (BMIobese(BMI≥28.0 kg/m(2)). In males, 2 387 (2.24%) were underweight, 45 090(42.29%)were normal weight, 43 774 (41.05%) were overweight and 15 379 (14.42%) were obese. Meanwhile, in females, 858 (3.22%)were underweight, 14 037 (52.69%) were normal weight, 8 507 (31.93%) were overweight and 3 241 (12.16%) were obese. A total of 1 647 incident cancer cases among different cancers were collected during the follow-up, including 1 348 in men and 299 in women. Results from

  5. Designing prevention programmes to reduce incidence of dementia: prospective cohort study of modifiable risk factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Ritchie, Karen; Carrière, Isabelle; Ritchie, Craig; Berr, Claudine; Artero, Sylvaine; Ancelin, Marie-Laure

    2010-01-01

    International audience; OBJECTIVE: To estimate the percentage reduction in incidence of dementia that would be obtained if specific risk factors were eliminated. DESIGN: Prospective seven year cohort study. SETTING: General population, Montpellier, France. PARTICIPANTS: 1433 people aged over 65 with a mean baseline age of 72.5 (SD 5.1) years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment or dementia established by a standardised neurological examination. RESULTS: Cox models we...

  6. Incidence of Renal Hypertention In Iran : (A Study Over 611 Patients

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    Ali Akbar Handjani

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available The cause of elevated diastoic blood pressure remains elusive in the majority of instanses, however in about 3-25 per cent of all hypertensive patients an specific causative factor such as renal can be identified. Based upon our recent study, we believe that the incidence of renal hypertensions is quite high in our community with the esternate ranging from 10 to 4U per cent of all secondary hypertentions.

  7. Cancer incidence among glyphosate-exposed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roos, Anneclaire J; Blair, Aaron; Rusiecki, Jennifer A; Hoppin, Jane A; Svec, Megan; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Sandler, Dale P; Alavanja, Michael C

    2005-01-01

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide that is one of the most frequently applied pesticides in the world. Although there has been little consistent evidence of genotoxicity or carcinogenicity from in vitro and animal studies, a few epidemiologic reports have indicated potential health effects of glyphosate. We evaluated associations between glyphosate exposure and cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of 57,311 licensed pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. Detailed information on pesticide use and other factors was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire completed at time of enrollment (1993-1997). Among private and commercial applicators, 75.5% reported having ever used glyphosate, of which > 97% were men. In this analysis, glyphosate exposure was defined as a) ever personally mixed or applied products containing glyphosate; b) cumulative lifetime days of use, or "cumulative exposure days" (years of use times days/year); and c) intensity-weighted cumulative exposure days (years of use times days/year times estimated intensity level). Poisson regression was used to estimate exposure-response relations between glyphosate and incidence of all cancers combined and 12 relatively common cancer subtypes. Glyphosate exposure was not associated with cancer incidence overall or with most of the cancer subtypes we studied. There was a suggested association with multiple myeloma incidence that should be followed up as more cases occur in the AHS. Given the widespread use of glyphosate, future analyses of the AHS will allow further examination of long-term health effects, including less common cancers.

  8. Influence of Perceived Stress on Incident Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: Results From the Einstein Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Mindy J; Derby, Carol A; Wang, Cuiling; Sliwinski, Martin J; Ezzati, Ali; Zimmerman, Molly E; Zwerling, Jessica L; Lipton, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    Stress is a potentially remediable risk factor for amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Our objective is to determine whether perceived stress predicts incident aMCI and to determine if the influence of stress on aMCI is independent of known aMCI risk factors, particularly demographic variables, depression, and apolipoprotein genotype. The Einstein Aging Study is a longitudinal community-based study of older adults. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was administered annually in the Einstein Aging Study to participants (N=507; 71 developed incident aMCI; mean follow-up time=3.6 y, SD=2.0) who were aged 70 years and older, free of aMCI and dementia at baseline PSS administration, and had at least 1 subsequent annual follow-up. Cox hazard models were used to examine time to aMCI onset adjusting for covariates. High levels of perceived stress are associated with a 30% greater risk of incident aMCI (per 5-point increase in PSS: hazard ratio=1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.58) independent of covariates. The consistency of results after covariate adjustment and the lack of evidence for reverse causation in longitudinal analyses suggest that these findings are robust. Understanding of the effect of perceived stress on cognition may lead to intervention strategies that prevent the onset of aMCI and Alzheimer dementia.

  9. Incidence of impacted mandibular third molars in population of Bosnia and Herzegovina: a retrospective radiographic study

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    Sadeta Šečić

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Impaction may be defined as the failure of complete eruption into a normal functional position of one tooth within normal time due to lack of space in the dental arch, caused by obstruction byanother tooth or development in an abnormal position. The mandibular third molar is the most frequently impacted tooth. The incidence varies from 9.5% to 68% in different populations.Methods: The study was conducted in Department of Oral Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, University in Sarajevo. Study represents retrospective analysis of panoramic radiographs (orthopantomograms of patientsreferred to Department of Oral Surgery from January 2010 to February 2013 with indication for surgical removal of impacted third molars.Results: Of the 2000 radiographs, 761 presented with at least one impacted third molar (38%. A total of 1034 impacted mandibular third molars were present (51.7%. The most common age group was thirddecade (61.2%. Signifi cant statistical difference in incidence of third molar impaction was found between females and males (p<0.05, but there was no statistical difference in incidence in urban and suburbanpopulation (p=0.374. Vertical angulation was the most common pattern of impaction (65%. Frequency of third molars erupted into their normal position (class IA was 42%. Impacted mandibular molars wereassociated with periodontal pockets in 134 (6.5% cases and with dentigerous cysts in 5 cases (0.2%.Conclusion: The present study provides useful data regarding the clinical status of third molars in population of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  10. Prior depression and incident back pain among military registered nurses: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D Alan; Menzel, Nancy; Horoho, Patricia

    2017-06-28

    Occupational back pain rates are substantial among registered nurses, and nurses also report high rates of depression. The role of depression as a potential predictor of back pain among nurses appears understudied. The objective of the study was to determine whether a history of depression predicted incident back pain in a population of military registered nurses when controlling for relevant risk factors. We employed a retrospective cohort approach using longitudinal data in which gender-specific subject groups were followed from the beginning of duty as a registered nurse to the occurrence of an outcome, or to censoring due to completion of service or the end of available data. This study included all United States Army registered nurses who began work during 2011-2014 without evidence of prior back pain in clinical records. Data from automatically-collected medical and administrative sources were combined and used to provide 2134 person-years of observation on 1248 individuals. These data were organized at the person-month level in a panel data structure to support discrete-time multivariable logistic regression models. The models examined the relationships between prior depression, Body Mass Index, the presence of prior combat duty and selected control variables and the outcome, the incident occurrence of back pain. The incidence rate of back pain was 18.6 per 100 person-years and the period prevalence was 31.7%. Prior depression was a statistically-significant predictor of incident back pain among female subjects (odds ratio [OR]: 1.75, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-2.83, P-valueback pain for male and female nurses. The study's findings provide the first evidence of a temporal link between antecedent depression and later back pain among female military nurses. High Body Mass Index was found to be a further, modifiable risk factor for back pain in this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Relative deprivation and incident functional disability among older Japanese women and men: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, N; Kawachi, I; Hirai, H; Kondo, K; Subramanian, S V; Hanibuchi, T; Yamagata, Z

    2009-06-01

    A prospective observational study was conducted to test the hypothesis that relative deprivation was associated with incident physical or cognitive disability, independent of absolute income. Study subjects consist of 9463 non-disabled people aged 65+ years in the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES), Aichi prefecture, Japan. Baseline mail-in survey in 2003 gathered information on income, educational attainment, lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption and health check-up) and healthcare utilisation. Three-year incidence of disability was assessed through public long-term care insurance databases and resident registry. A total of 7673 subjects (81%) with complete information were analysed. Our measure of relative deprivation was the Yitzhaki index across eight reference groups, which calculates the deprivation suffered by each individual as a function of the aggregate income shortfall for each person relative to everyone else with higher incomes in that person's reference group. Cox regression demonstrated that, after controlling for sociodemographic factors (including absolute income), the hazard ratio (and 95% confidence intervals) of incident physical/cognitive disability per one standard deviation increase in relative deprivation ranged from 1.13 (0.99 to 1.29) to 1.15 (1.01 to 1.31) in men and from 1.11 (0.94 to 1.31) to 1.18 (1.00 to 1.39) in women, depending on the definition of the reference group. Additional adjustment for lifestyle factors attenuated the hazard ratios to statistical non-significance. Relative deprivation may be a mechanism underlying the link between income inequality and disability in older age, at least among men. Lifestyle factors in part explain the association between relative deprivation and incident disability.

  12. The Provision of Critical Incident Stress Debriefing Services by EAPs: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; Linzer, Marc

    1994-01-01

    Provides a description of critical incident stress debriefing (CISD) strategies used after a bank robbery-hostage incident. Intervention intended to reduce the effects of the incident on the employees' morale, health, and productivity. Knowledge of CISD procedures will enable counselors to respond effectively to traumatic incidents in the…

  13. Incidence of Malignancy after Living Kidney Transplantation: A Multicenter Study from Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einollahi, Behzad; Rostami, Zohreh; Nourbala, Mohammad Hossein; Lessan-Pezeshki, Mahboob; Simforoosh, Naser; Nemati, Eghlim; Pourfarziani, Vahid; Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Nafar, Mohsen; Pour-Reza-Gholi, Fatemeh; Mazdeh, Mitra Mahdavi; Amini, Manochehr; Ahmadpour, Pedram; Makhdoomi, Khadijeh; Ghafari, Ali; Ardalan, Mohammad Reza; Khosroshahi, Hamid Taebi; Oliaei, Farshid; Shahidi, Shahrzad; Abbaszadeh, Shahin; Fatahi, Mohammad Reza; Hiedari, Fatemeh; Makhlogh, Atehieh; Azmandian, Jalal; Samimagham, Hamid Reza; Shahbazian, Heshmatollah; Nazemian, Fatemeh; Naghibi, Massih; Khosravi, Masoud; Monfared, Ali; Mosavi, Seyed Majid; Ahmadi, Javad; Jalalzadeh, Mojgan

    2012-01-01

    Malignancy is a common complication after renal transplantation. However, limited data are available on post-transplant malignancy in living kidney transplantation. Therefore, we made a plan to evaluate the incidence and types of malignancies, association with the main risk factors and patient survival in a large population of living kidney transplantation. We conducted a large retrospective multicenter study on 12525 renal recipients, accounting for up to 59% of all kidney transplantation in Iran during 22 years follow up period. All information was collected from observation of individual notes or computerized records for transplant patients. Two hundred and sixty-six biopsy-proven malignancies were collected from 16 Transplant Centers in Iran; 26 different type of malignancy categorized in 5 groups were detected. The mean age of patients was 46.2±12.9 years, mean age at tumor diagnosis was 50.8±13.2 years and average time between transplantation and detection of malignancy was 50.0±48.4 months. Overall tumor incidence in recipients was 2%. Kaposis' sarcoma was the most common type of tumor. The overall mean survival time was 117.1 months (95% CI: 104.9-129.3). In multivariate analysis, the only independent risk factor associated with mortality was type of malignancy. This study revealed the lowest malignancy incidence in living unrelated kidney transplantation. PMID:22712025

  14. Incidence of Malignancy after Living Kidney Transplantation: A Multicenter Study from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Einollahi, Zohreh Rostami, Mohammad Hossein Nourbala, Mahboob Lessan-Pezeshki, Naser Simforoosh, Eghlim Nemati, Vahid Pourfarziani, Fatemeh Beiraghdar, Mohsen Nafar, Fatemeh Pour-Reza-Gholi, Mitra Mahdavi Mazdeh, Manochehr Amini, Pedram Ahmadpour,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignancy is a common complication after renal transplantation. However, limited data are available on post-transplant malignancy in living kidney transplantation. Therefore, we made a plan to evaluate the incidence and types of malignancies, association with the main risk factors and patient survival in a large population of living kidney transplantation. We conducted a large retrospective multicenter study on 12525 renal recipients, accounting for up to 59% of all kidney transplantation in Iran during 22 years follow up period. All information was collected from observation of individual notes or computerized records for transplant patients. Two hundred and sixty-six biopsy-proven malignancies were collected from 16 Transplant Centers in Iran; 26 different type of malignancy categorized in 5 groups were detected. The mean age of patients was 46.2±12.9 years, mean age at tumor diagnosis was 50.8±13.2 years and average time between transplantation and detection of malignancy was 50.0±48.4 months. Overall tumor incidence in recipients was 2%. Kaposis' sarcoma was the most common type of tumor. The overall mean survival time was 117.1 months (95% CI: 104.9-129.3. In multivariate analysis, the only independent risk factor associated with mortality was type of malignancy. This study revealed the lowest malignancy incidence in living unrelated kidney transplantation.

  15. Errors in the management of cardiac arrests: an observational study of patient safety incidents in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panesar, Sukhmeet S; Ignatowicz, Agnieszka M; Donaldson, Liam J

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this qualitative study is to better understand the types of error occurring during the management of cardiac arrests that led to a death. All patient safety incidents involving management of cardiac arrests and resulting in death which were reported to a national patient safety database over a 17-month period were analysed. Structured data from each report were extracted and these together with the free text, were subjected to content analysis which was inductive, with the coding scheme emerged from continuous reading and re-reading of incidents. There were 30 patient safety incidents involving management of cardiac arrests and resulting in death. The reviewers identified a main shortfall in the management of each cardiac arrest and this resulted in 12 different factors being documented. These were grouped into four themes that highlighted systemic weaknesses: miscommunication involving crash number (4/30, 13%), shortfalls in staff attending the arrest (4/30, 13%), equipment deficits (11/30, 36%), and poor application of knowledge and skills (11/30, 37%). The factors identified represent serious shortfalls in the quality of response to cardiac arrests resulting in death in hospital. No firm conclusion can be drawn about how many deaths in the study population would have been averted if the emergency had been managed to a high standard. The effective management of cardiac arrests should be considered as one of the markers of safe care within a healthcare organisation.

  16. Incidence and risk of chondrolysis in Denmark: A nationwide population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Christian F; Thygesen, Sandra K; Pedersen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Background: Chondrolysis is a rare disease with destruction of cartilage of joints. Incidence and risk factors have not been studied in a formal epidemiologic population-based setting. Methods: We used the Danish National Registry of Patients (NRP) covering all Danish hospitals to identify all cases of chondrolysis from 1994 to 2008. Incidence rates were estimated using the general population as the denominator. For each chondrolysis patient, 10 age-matched population controls were sampled for a case-control analysis. For cases and controls, we ascertained in the NRP history of diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, orthopedic surgery, including surgery of shoulder and upper arm, injury to shoulder girdle or upper arm, and treatment with pain pump. We determined the prevalence of these risk factors in cases and controls, and computed odds ratios (OR). Results: We identified 43 patients with chondrolysis in the 15-year study period. The incidence rate was 5.5 per 10,000,000 person-years. Diabetes was more prevalent in chondrolysis cases, compared with the 430 controls (OR = 6.7; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.1–39.9). Orthopedic surgery was also associated with an increased risk of chondrolysis (OR = 28.8, 95% CI: 11.0–75.6), while previous injury was not (OR = 0.8; 95% CI: 0.1–5.9). Conclusion: Chondrolysis was rarely diagnosed in Denmark. Diabetes and orthopedic surgery may be risk factors. PMID:20865107

  17. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with lower incidence of frailty: A longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, Nicola; Stubbs, Brendon; Noale, Marianna; Solmi, Marco; Rizzoli, Renè; Vaona, Alberto; Demurtas, Jacopo; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Maggi, Stefania

    2017-09-04

    There is a paucity of data investigating the relationship between the Mediterranean diet and frailty, with no data among North American people. We aimed to investigate if adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of frailty in a large cohort of North American people. This study included subjects at higher risk or having knee osteoarthritis. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated using a validated Mediterranean diet score (aMED) as proposed by Panagiotakos and classified into five categories. Frailty was defined using the Study of Osteoporotic Fracture (SOF) index as the presence of ≥2 out of: (i) weight loss ≥5% between baseline and the subsequent follow-up visit; (ii) inability to do five chair stands; (iii) low energy level. During the 8 years follow-up, of the 4421 participants initially included (mean age: 61.2 years, % of females = 58.0), the incidence of frailty was approximately half in those with a higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet (8 for 1000 person years) vs. those with a lower adherence (15 for 1000 persons-years). After adjusting for 10 potential confounders (age, sex, race, body mass index, education, smoking habits, yearly income, physical activity level, Charlson co-morbidity index and daily energy intake), participants with the highest aMED scores were found to have a significant reduction in incident frailty (hazard ratio = 0.71; 95% CIs: 0.50-0.99, p = 0.047) with respect to those in a lower category. Regarding individual components of the Mediterranean diet, low consumption of poultry was found to be associated with higher risk of frailty. A higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with a lower incidence of frailty over an 8-year follow-up period, even after adjusting for potential confounders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  18. Incidence and risk of chondrolysis in Denmark: A nationwide population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian F Christiansen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Christian F Christiansen, Sandra K Thygesen, Lars PedersenDepartment of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, DenmarkBackground: Chondrolysis is a rare disease with destruction of cartilage of joints. Incidence and risk factors have not been studied in a formal epidemiologic population-based setting. Methods: We used the Danish National Registry of Patients (NRP covering all Danish hospitals to identify all cases of chondrolysis from 1994 to 2008. Incidence rates were estimated using the general population as the denominator. For each chondrolysis patient, 10 age-matched population controls were sampled for a case-control analysis. For cases and controls, we ascertained in the NRP history of diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, orthopedic surgery, including surgery of shoulder and upper arm, injury to shoulder girdle or upper arm, and treatment with pain pump. We determined the prevalence of these risk factors in cases and controls, and computed odds ratios (OR.Results: We identified 43 patients with chondrolysis in the 15-year study period. The incidence rate was 5.5 per 10,000,000 person-years. Diabetes was more prevalent in chondrolysis cases, compared with the 430 controls (OR = 6.7; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.1–39.9. Orthopedic surgery was also associated with an increased risk of chondrolysis (OR = 28.8, 95% CI: 11.0–75.6, while previous injury was not (OR = 0.8; 95% CI: 0.1–5.9.Conclusion: Chondrolysis was rarely diagnosed in Denmark. Diabetes and orthopedic surgery may be risk factors.Keywords: epidemiology, surgery, incidence, risk factors

  19. The estimated incidence of induced abortion in Kenya: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Shukri F; Izugbara, Chimaraoke; Moore, Ann M; Mutua, Michael; Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth W; Ziraba, Abdhalah K; Bankole, Akinrinola; Singh, Susheela D; Egesa, Caroline

    2015-08-21

    The recently promulgated 2010 constitution of Kenya permits abortion when the life or health of the woman is in danger. Yet broad uncertainty remains about the interpretation of the law. Unsafe abortion remains a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in Kenya. The current study aimed to determine the incidence of induced abortion in Kenya in 2012. The incidence of induced abortion in Kenya in 2012 was estimated using the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology (AICM) along with the Prospective Morbidity Survey (PMS). Data were collected through three surveys, (i) Health Facilities Survey (HFS), (ii) Prospective Morbidity Survey (PMS), and (iii) Health Professionals Survey (HPS). A total of 328 facilities participated in the HFS, 326 participated in the PMS, and 124 key informants participated in the HPS. Abortion numbers, rates, ratios and unintended pregnancy rates were calculated for Kenya as a whole and for five geographical regions. In 2012, an estimated 464,000 induced abortions occurred in Kenya. This translates into an abortion rate of 48 per 1,000 women aged 15-49, and an abortion ratio of 30 per 100 live births. About 120,000 women received care for complications of induced abortion in health facilities. About half (49%) of all pregnancies in Kenya were unintended and 41% of unintended pregnancies ended in an abortion. This study provides the first nationally-representative estimates of the incidence of induced abortion in Kenya. An urgent need exists for improving facilities' capacity to provide safe abortion care to the fullest extent of the law. All efforts should be made to address underlying factors to reduce risk of unsafe abortion.

  20. Masked Hypertension and Incident Clinic Hypertension Among Blacks in the Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Marwah; Booth, John N; Seals, Samantha R; Spruill, Tanya M; Viera, Anthony J; Diaz, Keith M; Sims, Mario; Muntner, Paul; Shimbo, Daichi

    2016-07-01

    Masked hypertension, defined as nonelevated clinic blood pressure (BP) and elevated out-of-clinic BP may be an intermediary stage in the progression from normotension to hypertension. We examined the associations of out-of-clinic BP and masked hypertension using ambulatory BP monitoring with incident clinic hypertension in the Jackson Heart Study, a prospective cohort of blacks. Analyses included 317 participants with clinic BP hypertension was defined as mean daytime blood pressure ≥135/85 mm Hg, masked night-time hypertension as mean night-time BP ≥120/70 mm Hg, and masked 24-hour hypertension as mean 24-hour BP ≥130/80 mm Hg. Incident clinic hypertension, assessed at study visits in 2005 to 2008 and 2009 to 2012, was defined as the first visit with clinic systolic/diastolic BP ≥140/90 mm Hg or antihypertensive medication use. During a median follow-up of 8.1 years, there were 187 (59.0%) incident cases of clinic hypertension. Clinic hypertension developed in 79.2% and 42.2% of participants with and without any masked hypertension, 85.7% and 50.4% with and without masked daytime hypertension, 79.9% and 43.7% with and without masked night-time hypertension, and 85.7% and 48.2% with and without masked 24-hour hypertension, respectively. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of incident clinic hypertension for any masked hypertension and masked daytime, night-time, and 24-hour hypertension were 2.13 (1.51-3.02), 1.79 (1.24-2.60), 2.22 (1.58-3.12), and 1.91 (1.32-2.75), respectively. These findings suggest that ambulatory BP monitoring can identify blacks at increased risk for developing clinic hypertension. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. The Faroese IBD studyIncidence of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases across 54 years of population-based data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Turið; Nielsen, KR; Munkholm, Pia;

    2016-01-01

    [European Standard Population, ESP]. The present study assessed the long-term time trends in IBD incidence in the Faroese population. METHODS: In this population-based study, data were retrieved from the National Hospital of the Faroe Islands and included all incident cases of CD, UC, and IBDU diagnosed...

  2. Incidence of Glaucomatous Visual Field Loss : A Ten-Year Follow-up from the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czudowska, Monika A.; Ramdas, Wishal D.; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; Hofman, Albert; De Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the 10-year incidence of glaucomatous visual field loss (GVFL) and to investigate the influence of risk factors for open-angle glaucoma on this incidence. Design: Population-based cohort study. Participants: Participants aged >55 years from the Rotterdam Study. Methods: Of the

  3. Incidence of Glaucomatous Visual Field Loss: A Ten-Year Follow-up from the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Czudowska; W.D. Ramdas; R.C.W. Wolfs; A. Hofman; P.T.V.M. de Jong; J.R. Vingerling; N.M. Jansonius

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the 10-year incidence of glaucomatous visual field loss (GVFL) and to investigate the influence of risk factors for open-angle glaucoma on this incidence. Design: Population-based cohort study. Participants: Participants aged >55 years from the Rotterdam Study. Methods: Of the

  4. LANDSLIDES INCIDENCE IN THE PIEDMONT OF BAIA MARE URBAN AREA (CASE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ZAHARIA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The landslides incidence in the piedmont of baia mare urbana area cae studies. The General Urban Plan (GUP of Baia Mare municipality requires the study of expected susceptibility for landslides in order to build infrastructure within sustainable development conditions. The complexity and diversity of local geographic area factors, strongly affected by the human pressure, favours the triggering and extension of slope processes in the municipality’s piedmont area. To prevent some major imbalances it is imperative to implement some adequate measures based on in-depth studies.

  5. General health status and incidence of first-onset temporomandibular disorder: OPPERA prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Anne E.; Slade, Gary D; Bair, Eric; Fillingim, Roger B; Knott, Charles; Dubner, Ronald; Greenspan, Joel D.; Maixner, William; Ohrbach, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) overlap with other health conditions but no study has examined which of these conditions increase the risk of developing first-onset TMD. The authors prospectively evaluated the relationship between health status at enrollment and subsequent incidence of TMD in 2,722 men and women. Participants aged 18–44 years had no history of TMD and were clinically free of TMD when enrolled in 2006–08 at four U.S. study sites in the OPPERA prospective cohort study. First-...

  6. Conventional epidemiology underestimates the incidence of asthma and wheeze-a longitudinal population-based study among teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedman Linnéa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of shifts in the gender ratio and incidence and remission rates of asthma during the teen ages, the methodology of incidence studies among teenagers is important, i.e. if the time intervals between surveys are too long, the incident cases might not be properly identified. The aim was to study the impact of study design on the incidence rates of asthma and wheeze during the teen ages. Methods In a study about asthma and allergic diseases within the OLIN studies (Obstructive Lung Disease in northern Sweden, a cohort of school children (n = 3,430 was followed annually by questionnaire from age 8 yrs. In the endpoint survey (age 18 yrs 2,582 (75% of original responders participated. Incident cases from age 12-18 yrs were identified by two methods: annual questionnaire reports (AR and baseline-endpoint surveys only (BE. Results The cumulative incidence of asthma and wheeze was significantly higher based on AR compared to BE. Compared to the incidence rates based on all the annual surveys, the calculated average annual rates based on BE were in general lower both among the boys and among the girls. There were no differences between boys and girls in incidence rates of asthma or wheeze during the early teen years. However, from the age of 15 years, the annual incidence rates were significantly or borderline significantly higher among girls than boys. At onset, the additional cases of current asthma identified by AR had significantly less severe asthma than those identified in BE (p Conclusion the size of the incidence of asthma and wheeze during the teen ages was influenced by study design. By using the conventional prospective study design with longer follow-up time, the incidence was underestimated.

  7. The Prevalence and Incidence of Glaucoma in Denmark in a Fifteen Year Period: A Nationwide Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Kolko

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to describe the prevalence, incidence and geographic variation of glaucoma in Denmark in the period from 1996 to 2011. Moreover, the aim was to identify the treatment patterns of glaucoma within the studied period.All Danish citizens were included throughout the study period. The National Prescription Registry was used to identify all claimed prescriptions for glaucoma medication.A total of 116,592 incident glaucoma patients were identified. Average age at onset was 66 years (range: 0-105 years, 55% were women. The prevalence of glaucoma increased from 0.79% to 1.72% during the investigated period. In 2011 glaucoma affected 3.76% of the population above 50 years and 10% in patients above 80 years. The age-specific incidence rate of glaucoma seemed to be constant and the increasing prevalence was primarily attributed to an aging population. We found the highest prevalence of glaucoma in the capital region of Denmark. Within the studied period the use of prostaglandin analogs and combination drugs increased, whereas the use of β-blockers, carbon anhydrase inhibitors and parasympathomimetic drugs decreased (p<0.001. Finally, the use of α2-adrenergic agonists remained unchanged. A total of 75% of the patients were treated with two or more glaucoma medications.Over all, the present study is the first to assess the frequency and the development of glaucoma in Denmark over a 15-year period. We find that glaucoma affects a little less than 2% of the total population and increases with age to reach a prevalence of more than 10% amongst people above 80 years. Generally, the present study is the largest nation-wide study ever made and must be a close-to-real-life-picture of the utilization of glaucoma medication on a national scale. Our findings confirm other recent estimations on an increasing burden of glaucoma globally.

  8. The Prevalence and Incidence of Glaucoma in Denmark in a Fifteen Year Period: A Nationwide Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thygesen, John; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to describe the prevalence, incidence and geographic variation of glaucoma in Denmark in the period from 1996 to 2011. Moreover, the aim was to identify the treatment patterns of glaucoma within the studied period. Methods All Danish citizens were included throughout the study period. The National Prescription Registry was used to identify all claimed prescriptions for glaucoma medication. Results A total of 116,592 incident glaucoma patients were identified. Average age at onset was 66 years (range: 0–105 years), 55% were women. The prevalence of glaucoma increased from 0.79% to 1.72% during the investigated period. In 2011 glaucoma affected 3.76% of the population above 50 years and 10% in patients above 80 years. The age-specific incidence rate of glaucoma seemed to be constant and the increasing prevalence was primarily attributed to an aging population. We found the highest prevalence of glaucoma in the capital region of Denmark. Within the studied period the use of prostaglandin analogs and combination drugs increased, whereas the use of β-blockers, carbon anhydrase inhibitors and parasympathomimetic drugs decreased (p<0.001). Finally, the use of α2-adrenergic agonists remained unchanged. A total of 75% of the patients were treated with two or more glaucoma medications. Conclusions Over all, the present study is the first to assess the frequency and the development of glaucoma in Denmark over a 15-year period. We find that glaucoma affects a little less than 2% of the total population and increases with age to reach a prevalence of more than 10% amongst people above 80 years. Generally, the present study is the largest nation-wide study ever made and must be a close-to-real-life-picture of the utilization of glaucoma medication on a national scale. Our findings confirm other recent estimations on an increasing burden of glaucoma globally. PMID:26182236

  9. General and abdominal obesity and incident asthma in adults: the HUNT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumpton, Ben; Langhammer, Arnulf; Romundstad, Pål; Chen, Yue; Mai, Xiao-Mei

    2013-02-01

    Measures of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference define general obesity and abdominal obesity respectively. While high BMI has been established as a risk factor for asthma in adults, waist circumference has seldom been investigated. To determine the association between BMI, waist circumference and incident asthma in adults, we conducted a prospective study (n=23,245) in a population living in Nord-Trøndelag, Norway in 1995-2008. Baseline BMI and waist circumference were measured and categorised as general obesity (BMI ≥30.0 kg·m(2)) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥88 cm in females and ≥102 cm in males). Incident asthma was self-reported new-onset cases during an 11-yr follow-up period. Odds ratios for asthma associated with obesity were calculated using multivariable logistic regression. General obesity was a risk factor for asthma in females (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.52-2.52) and males (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.30-2.59). In females, after additional adjustment for BMI, abdominal obesity remained a risk factor for asthma development (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.04-2.05). Abdominal obesity seems to increase the risk of incident asthma in females in addition to BMI, indicating that using both measures of BMI and waist circumference in females may be a superior clinical assessment for asthma risk than any measure alone.

  10. The incidence of venous thromboembolism in commercial airline pilots: a cohort study of 2630 pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, S; Venemans-Jellema, A; Cannegieter, S C; van Haften, M; Middeldorp, S; Büller, H R; Rosendaal, F R

    2014-08-01

    Airline pilots may be at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) because air travel has recently been established as a risk factor for VTE. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of VTE in a cohort of Dutch airline pilots. Airline pilots who had been active members of the Dutch aviation society (VNV) were questioned for the occurrence of VTE, presence of risk factors for VTE and number of flight hours per year and rank. Incidence rates among pilots were compared with those of the general Dutch population and with a population of frequently flying employees of multinational organizations. A total of 2630 male pilots were followed-up for a total of 20420 person-years (py). Six venous thromboses were reported, yielding an incidence rate of 0.3 per 1000 py. The standardized morbidity ratio, comparing these pilots with the general Dutch population adjusted for age, was 0.8. Compared with the international employee cohort, the standardized morbidity ratio was 0.7 when all employees were included and 0.6 when only the frequently travelling employees were included. The incidence rate did not increase with number of flight hours per year and did not clearly vary by rank. We conclude that the risk of VTE is not increased amongst airline pilots. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  11. Incidence of Clavicular Rhomboid Fossa in Northeastern Thais: An Anthropological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampannang, Apichakan; Tuamsuk, Panya; Kanpittaya, Jaturat

    2016-01-01

    The rhomboid fossa of clavicle is used to determine the age and sex in anthropology and forensic sciences. The variant types of rhomboid fossa on inferior surface have been reported in many races except in Thais. This study therefore was aimed at classifying the types of the rhomboid fossa in Northeastern Thais. The identified 476 Northeastern Thais dried clavicles (270 males and 206 females) were observed and recorded for the types of rhomboid fossa. The results showed that Thai-rhomboid fossa could be classified into 4 types: Type 1: smooth; Type 2: flat; Type 3: elevated; and Type 4: depressed, respectively. The incidences of rhomboid fossa were as follows: Type 1: 0.21%; Type 2: 19.75%; Type 3: 76.26%; and Type 4: 3.78%, respectively. Additionally, it was found that the percentage of Type 4 (11.84%) was much greater than that of female (1.94%) compared to other types. This incidence of rhomboid fossa types especially Type 4 may be a basic knowledge to be used in sex identification. The high incidence of rhomboid fossa in both sexes of Northeastern Thai clavicles was Type 3 (elevated type). PMID:27648305

  12. Neighborhood Environments and Incident Hypertension in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Paulina; Diez Roux, Ana V; Mujahid, Mahasin; Carnethon, Mercedes; Bertoni, Alain; Adar, Sara D; Shea, Steven; McClelland, Robyn; Lisabeth, Lynda

    2016-06-01

    We examined relationships between neighborhood physical and social environments and incidence of hypertension in a cohort of 3,382 adults at 6 sites in the United States over 10 years of follow-up (2000-2011), using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. The sample was aged 45-84 years (mean = 59 years) and free of clinical cardiovascular disease and hypertension at baseline. Of the participants, 51% were female, 44% white, 23% Hispanic, 21% black, and 13% Chinese-American; 39% of participants developed hypertension during an average of 7.2 years of follow-up. Cox models were used to estimate associations of time-varying cumulative average neighborhood features (survey-based healthy food availability, walking environment, social cohesion, safety, and geographic information system-based density of favorable food stores and recreational resources) with incident hypertension. After adjustment for individual and neighborhood-level covariates, a 1-standard-deviation increase in healthy food availability was associated with a 12% lower rate of hypertension (hazard ratio = 0.88, 95% confidence interval: 0.82, 0.95). Other neighborhood features were not related to incidence of hypertension. The neighborhood food environment is related to the risk of hypertension. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Incidence and recurrence of common mental disorders after abortion: Results from a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ditzhuijzen, Jenneke; Ten Have, Margreet; de Graaf, Ron; Lugtig, Peter; van Nijnatten, Carolus H C J; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2017-01-01

    Research in the field of mental health consequences of abortion is characterized by methodological limitations. We used exact matching on carefully selected confounders in a prospective cohort study of 325 women who had an abortion of an unwanted pregnancy and compared them 1-to-1 to controls who did not have this experience. Outcome measures were incidence and recurrence of common DSM-IV mental disorders (mood, anxiety, substance use disorders, and the aggregate measure 'any mental disorder') as measured with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) version 3.0, in the 2.5-3 years after the abortion. Although non-matched data suggested otherwise, women in the abortion group did not show significantly higher odds for incidence of 'any mental disorder', or mood, anxiety and substance use disorders, compared to matched controls who were similar in background variables but did not have an this experience. Having an abortion did not increase the odds for recurrence of the three disorder categories, but for any mental disorder the higher odds in the abortion group remained significant after matching. It is unlikely that termination of an unwanted pregnancy increases the risk on incidence of common mental disorders in women without a psychiatric history. However, it might increase the risk of recurrence among women with a history of mental disorders.

  14. Waterpipe smoking associated with multiple sclerosis: A population-based incident case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahpour, Ibrahim; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Otahal, Petr; van der Mei, Ingrid

    2017-09-01

    While cigarette and passive smoking have been identified as modifiable risk factors for multiple sclerosis (MS), there is no report regarding Waterpipe smoking-MS association. We examined the association of Waterpipe, tobacco, and passive smoking with MS. Population-based incident case-control study in Iran with 547 incident cases and 1057 general population controls (7 August 2013-17 February 2015). Logistic regression model was used. Multiplicative along with additive interaction was assessed using product term and Synergy Index (SI), respectively, and the population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated. Having ever smoked Waterpipe, tobacco, or being exposed to passive smoking were all significantly associated with MS (odds ratio (OR) = 1.77 (1.36-2.31), OR = 1.69 (1.24-2.31), and OR = 1.85 (1.48-2.32), respectively). Clear dose-response associations were observed with the duration exposed ( p Waterpipe and tobacco). Those who had all three types of smoking had an odds that was 4.1 times higher than those without any type. The three types of smoking jointly contributed to 30.9% of the MS incidence. We identified Waterpipe smoking as a novel risk factor for MS. Given the global increase in Waterpipe smoking, especially among young adults, this finding reinforces the need for public health interventional and educational programs to combat this global increase.

  15. [Congenital syphilis incidence disparities in Colombia 2005 to 2011: an ecological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzate-Granados, Juan P; Sánchez-Bello, Nubia F; Amaya-Arias, Ana C; Peralta-Pizza, Fernando; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier

    2012-10-01

    Syphilis is a systemic, infecto-contagious, sexually-transmitted disease caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum. Interventions reducing congenital syphilis incidence represent two of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). Diagnostic and treatment methods are available for managing congenital syphilis; even so, variations occur in seroprevalence and the number of annual cases worldwide, so the situation continues to be worrying. This study was aimed at describing disparities per department regarding congenital syphilis incidence in Colombia from 2005 to 2011. Colombian Institute of Health (Instituto Nacional de Salud-INS) surveillance system records and Colombian Statistics Department (Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística-DANE) records of live births (LB) and basic unsatisfied needs (BUN) from 2005 to 2011 were analyzed. Results Overall incidence in Colombia rose from 2.15 cases per 1,000 LB in 2005, (1,550 cases) to 3.28 cases per 1,000 LB in 2011 (2,078 cases), thereby moving further away from the MDG (0.5 per 1,000 LB). The growing number of cases of congenital syphilis indicates that this continues being a priority problem for public health and that the Overall Healthcare-related Social Security System (OHSSS) has not been able to resolve it, in spite of increased coverage and the resources which this entity has received during the last few years. Such situation demands a re-evaluation of the OHSSS's real impact on public healthcare results.

  16. Acromegaly incidence, prevalence, complications and long-term prognosis: a nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal, Jakob; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Andersen, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    remained stable. The prevalence in 2010 was 85 cases/10(6) persons. The patients were at increased risk of diabetes mellitus (HR: 4.0 (95% CI: 2.7-5.8)), heart failure (HR: 2.5 (95% CI: 1.4-4.5)), venous thromboembolism (HR: 2.3 (95% CI: 1.1-5.0)), sleep apnoea (HR: 11.7 (95% CI: 7.0-19.4)) and arthropathy......-based cohort study. METHOD: All incident cases of acromegaly in Denmark (1991-2010) were identified from health registries and validated by chart review. We estimated the annual incidence rate of acromegaly per 10(6) person-years (py) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). For every patient, 10 persons were...... sampled from the general population as a comparison cohort. Cox regression and hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used. RESULTS: Mean age at diagnosis (48.7 years (CI: 95%: 47.2-50.1)) and annual incidence rate (3.8 cases/10(6) persons (95% CI: 3.6-4.1)) among the 405 cases...

  17. Longitudinal change in hip fracture incidence after starting risedronate or raloxifene: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Serge; Nakamura, Toshitaka; Hagino, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Lange, Jeffrey L; Watts, Nelson B

    2011-09-01

    This study examined patients' risk profiles and adherence to treatment in relation to the effect of risedronate and raloxifene on hip fracture incidence. Administrative billing data were used to follow two cohorts of women aged 65 and older after starting therapy with either risedronate (n = 86,735) or raloxifene (n = 37,726). The fracture risk profile was described using a 6-month history period before starting therapy. Effectiveness of each therapy was evaluated by comparing the incidence of hip fractures during the first 3 months with the subsequent 12 months among women adherent (medication possession ratio >80%) compared with those non-adherent to treatment. At the start of therapy, the raloxifene cohort was younger than the risedronate cohort (median age 73 vs. 76 years) and had fewer prior fractures (p < 0.01 for both). In the first 3 months of therapy, hip fracture incidence was lower in the raloxifene group (0.51 per 100 person-years) compared with the risedronate group (0.94 per 100 person-years). In the subsequent 12 months, the incidence of hip fractures decreased among patients adherent to the risedronate regimen [relative risk (RR) 0.70, 95% CI 0.59-0.84, p < 0.01] and did not change significantly among patients adherent to the raloxifene regimen (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.73-1.44). In poorly adherent patients, neither drug decreased hip fracture risk. Risedronate treatment in adherent patients rapidly decreased the risk of hip fractures, whereas raloxifene treatment did not.

  18. Incidence of dental caries in primary dentition and risk factors: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia CORRÊA-FARIA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objectives of this prospective, longitudinal, population-based study were to estimate the incidence of dental caries in the primary dentition, identify risk factors and determine the proportion of children receiving dental treatment, through a two-year follow up. The first dental exam was conducted with 381 children aged one to five years, at health centers during immunization campaigns; 184 of them had dental caries and 197 had no caries experience. The second exam was carried out two years later at a nursery or at home with the same individuals who participated in the first exam. The diagnosis of dental caries was performed using the dmft criteria. Parents were interviewed regarding socioeconomic indicators. Descriptive, bivariate and adjusted Poisson regression analyses were performed. Among the 381 children, 234 were reexamined after two years (non-exposed: 139; exposed: 95. The overall incidence of dental caries was 46.6%. The greatest incidence of dental caries was found in the group of children with previous caries experience (61.1%. Among the children without dental caries in the first exam, 36.7% exhibited caries in the second exam. The majority of children (72.6% received no treatment for carious lesions in the two-year interval between examinations. Children with previous dental caries (RR: 1.52, 95%CI: 1.12–2.05 had a greater risk of developing new lesions, compared with the children without previous dental caries. The incidence of dental caries was high and most of children’s caries were untreated. Previous caries experience is a risk factor for developing new carious lesions in children.

  19. Incidence of dental caries in primary dentition and risk factors: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Paixão-Gonçalves, Suzane; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2016-05-20

    The objectives of this prospective, longitudinal, population-based study were to estimate the incidence of dental caries in the primary dentition, identify risk factors and determine the proportion of children receiving dental treatment, through a two-year follow up. The first dental exam was conducted with 381 children aged one to five years, at health centers during immunization campaigns; 184 of them had dental caries and 197 had no caries experience. The second exam was carried out two years later at a nursery or at home with the same individuals who participated in the first exam. The diagnosis of dental caries was performed using the dmft criteria. Parents were interviewed regarding socioeconomic indicators. Descriptive, bivariate and adjusted Poisson regression analyses were performed. Among the 381 children, 234 were reexamined after two years (non-exposed: 139; exposed: 95). The overall incidence of dental caries was 46.6%. The greatest incidence of dental caries was found in the group of children with previous caries experience (61.1%). Among the children without dental caries in the first exam, 36.7% exhibited caries in the second exam. The majority of children (72.6%) received no treatment for carious lesions in the two-year interval between examinations. Children with previous dental caries (RR: 1.52, 95%CI: 1.12-2.05) had a greater risk of developing new lesions, compared with the children without previous dental caries. The incidence of dental caries was high and most of children's caries were untreated. Previous caries experience is a risk factor for developing new carious lesions in children.

  20. Cancer incidence and mortality: A cohort study in China, 2008-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Rui; Zhu, Meng; Yu, Canqing; Lv, Jun; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Yang, Ling; Chen, Yiping; Hu, Zhibin; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming; Shen, Hongbing

    2017-10-01

    The National Central Cancer Registry of China (NCCR) was the only available source of cancer monitoring in China, even though only about 70% of cancer registration sites were qualified by now. In this study, based on a national large prospective cohort-the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB), we aimed to provide additional cancer statistics and compare the difference of cancer burden between urban and rural areas of China. A total of 497,693 cancer-free participants aged 35-74 years were recruited and successfully followed up from 2004 to 2013 in 5 urban and 5 rural areas across China. Except for traditional registration systems, the national health insurance system and active follow-up were used to determine new cancer incidents and related deaths. The mortality-to-incidence ratio (MIR) was used to compare the differences of cancer burden between urban and rural areas of China. We found that cancer mortality coincided well between our cohort and NCCR, while the incidence was much higher in our cohort. Based on CKB, we found the MIR of all cancers was 0.54 in rural areas, which was approximately one-third higher than that in urban areas with 0.39. Cancer profiles in urban areas were transiting to Western distributions, which were characterized with high incidences of breast cancer and colorectal cancer; while cancers of the esophagus, liver and cervix uteri were still common in rural areas of China. Our results provide additional cancer statistics of China and demonstrate the differences of cancer burden between urban and rural areas of China. © 2017 UICC.

  1. SCORE Study Report #11: Incidences of Neovascular Events in Eyes with Retinal Vein Occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Clement K.; Ip, Michael S.; VanVeldhuisen, Paul C.; Oden, Neal L.; Scott, Ingrid U.; Tolentino, Michael J.; Blodi, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To investigate in The Standard Care versus COrticosteroid for REtinal Vein Occlusion (SCORE) Study: 1) incidences of neovascular events and retinal capillary nonperfusion (abbreviated as “nonperfusion”), and their relationship with treatment groups; 2) neovascular incidences by nonperfusion status; and 3) pertinent baseline factors for their potential risk for neovascular events. Design Two multi-center, randomized clinical trials: one evaluating participants with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and the other evaluating participants with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Participants At 36 months, data were available for 81 participants with CRVO and 128 with BRVO. Intervention Standard care (observation or grid photocoagulation) versus 1 mg or 4 mg intravitreal triamcinolone. Main Outcome Measures Neovascularization of the iris (NVI), neovascular glaucoma (NVG), disc or retinal neovascularization (NVD/NVE), pre-retinal or vitreous hemorrhage (PRH/VH), and nonperfusion. Results Cumulative 36-month incidences for CRVO and BRVO eyes, respectively, were: 8.5% and 2.4% for NVI or NVG; 8.8 % and 7.6% for NVD/NVE or PRH/VH. There were no differences in incidences of neovascular events or risk of nonperfusion when comparing the 3 treatment groups within diseases. For CRVO at 36 months, 16.6% of eyes with ≥ 5.5 disc areas of nonperfusion vs. 4.0% of eyes with retinal capillary details caused by dense hemorrhage at baseline for CRVO eyes. Increased risk of neovascularization was noted below the historical threshold of 10 disc areas of nonperfusion for retinal vein occlusion. PMID:21440942

  2. Predictors of intra-operative recall of awareness: Thai Anesthesia Incidents Study (THAI Study): a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungreungvanich, Mali; Thienthong, Somboon; Charuluxananan, Somrat; Lekprasert, Varinee; Pulnitiporn, Aksorn; Prakanrattana, Ungkab

    2007-08-01

    The authors determined predictors of intra-operative recall of awareness in the Thai Anesthesia Incidents Study (THAI Study). To study a multi-centered registry of anesthesia in 20 hospitals across Thailand. Structured data collection forms of patients who underwent general anesthesia and experienced intra-operative recall of awareness between March 1, 2003 and February 28, 2004, were reviewed by three independent anesthesiologists. One case of awareness was matched to four controls by age, gender, and level of hospitals. Univariate analysis (p recall of awareness. Eighty-one cases were matched with 324 controls in the nested case control study. From univariate analysis, risk factors were cardiac surgery, cesarean delivery, upper abdominal surgery, i.v. anesthetics, depolarizing muscle relaxant, non-depolarizing muscle relaxant, and nitrous oxide (p recall of awareness were cesarean delivery and cardiac surgery. Use of nitrous oxide attenuates the risk of awareness.

  3. Are incident gallstones associated to sex-dependent changes with age? A cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, D M; Holmboe, S A; Sørensen, L T

    2017-01-01

    Age and female sex have repeatedly been identified as gallstone determinants but the underlying mechanisms are not clarified. The objectives of this study were to determine if changes with age in physiology, lifestyle, or reproductive hormones were associated with incident gallstones. A cohort...... study of a general population random sample (N = 2366) aged 30-60 years was performed. Participants were ultrasound screened for gallstones in 1982-84 and again in 1993-94. Lifestyle data and blood samples were obtained and re-analyzed in 2004. Changes with age in physiology (body mass index, blood...

  4. Novel inflammatory markers for incident pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes: the Rotterdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahimaj, Adela; Ligthart, Symen; Ghanbari, Mohsen; Ikram, Mohammad Arfan; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Kavousi, Maryam; Dehghan, Abbas

    2017-03-01

    The immune response involved in each phase of type 2 diabetes (T2D) development might be different. We aimed to identify novel inflammatory markers that predict progression from normoglycemia to pre-diabetes, incident T2D and insulin therapy. We used plasma levels of 26 inflammatory markers in 971 subjects from the Rotterdam Study. Among them 17 are novel and 9 previously studied. Cox regression models were built to perform survival analysis. During a follow-up of up to 14.7 years (between April 1, 1997, and Jan 1, 2012) 139 cases of pre-diabetes, 110 cases of T2D and 26 cases of insulin initiation were identified. In age and sex adjusted Cox models, IL13 (HR = 0.78), EN-RAGE (1.30), CFH (1.24), IL18 (1.22) and CRP (1.32) were associated with incident pre-diabetes. IL13 (0.62), IL17 (0.75), EN-RAGE (1.25), complement 3 (1.44), IL18 (1.35), TNFRII (1.27), IL1ra (1.24) and CRP (1.64) were associated with incident T2D. In multivariate models, IL13 (0.77), EN-RAGE (1.23) and CRP (1.26) remained associated with pre-diabetes. IL13 (0.67), IL17 (0.76) and CRP (1.32) remained associated with T2D. IL13 (0.55) was the only marker associated with initiation of insulin therapy in diabetics. Various inflammatory markers are associated with progression from normoglycemia to pre-diabetes (IL13, EN-RAGE, CRP), T2D (IL13, IL17, CRP) or insulin therapy start (IL13). Among them, EN-RAGE is a novel inflammatory marker for pre-diabetes, IL17 for incident T2D and IL13 for pre-diabetes, incident T2D and insulin therapy start.

  5. Endogenous estradiol and the risk of incident fracture in postmenopausal women: the OPUS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finigan, J; Gossiel, F; Glüer, C C; Felsenberg, D; Reid, D M; Roux, C; Eastell, R

    2012-07-01

    Some, but not all, studies have found that low endogenous estradiol levels in postmenopausal women are predictive of fractures. The aim of this study was to examine the roles of endogenous estradiol (E(2)), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) in the prediction of incident vertebral and nonvertebral fractures. The study subjects were 797 postmenopausal women from the population-based OPUS (Osteoporosis and Ultrasound Study) study. Spine radiographs and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans were obtained for all subjects at baseline and 6-year follow-up. Nonfasting blood samples were taken at baseline for E(2), SHBG, DHEAS, and bone turnover markers. Incident nonvertebral fractures were self-reported and verified; vertebral fractures were diagnosed at a single center from spinal radiographs. Medical and lifestyle data were obtained by questionnaire at each visit. Thirty-nine subjects had an incident vertebral fracture and 119 a nonvertebral fracture. Estradiol in the lowest quartile predicted vertebral fracture independent of confounders including age, body mass index, bone mineral density, bone turnover, fracture history, and use of antiresorptive therapy, with an OR of 2.97 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.52-5.82) by logistic regression. A calculated free estradiol index was not a stronger predictor than total E(2). Higher SHBG predicted vertebral fracture independently of age and body mass index, but not independently of E(2), bone mineral density, or prevalent fracture. Low DHEAS did not predict vertebral fracture. Nonvertebral fractures were not predicted by any of E(2), SHBG, or DHEAS, either in univariate or multivariate analyses. These findings suggest that there may be mechanistic differences in the protective effect of E(2) at vertebral compared with nonvertebral sites.

  6. Obesity and prostate cancer incidence and mortality: a systematic review of prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golabek, Tomasz; Bukowczan, Jakub; Chłosta, Piotr; Powroźnik, Jan; Dobruch, Jakub; Borówka, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    There has been a large body of research on obesity and the risk of prostate cancer (PCa) that has been published recently. However, the epidemiological evidence for such an association has not been consistent. This may be attributed to the nature of case-control and retrospective studies, which generally are more prone to biases. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of prospective cohort studies to assess the association between obesity and the risk of PCa incidence and death. A search of the PubMed database and references of published studies (from inception until March 2013) was conducted. Twenty-three eligible studies were identified and included in the systematic review. The evidence from the prospective cohort studies linking obesity with PCa incidence has not been consistent. However, cumulative data is compelling for a strong positive association between obesity and fatal PCa. Obesity is a significant diet-related risk factor for fatal PCa. Further well-constructed, large cohort studies on the potential association between obesity and PCa, as well as on underlying mechanisms, are needed. 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. Cuban Ocular Toxoplasmosis Epidemiology Study (COTES): incidence and prevalence of ocular toxoplasmosis in Central Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillo, Jorge L; Diaz, Jose D; Pacheco, Idarmes C; Gritz, David C

    2015-03-01

    Serological studies indicate that rates of ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) vary geographically, with higher rates in tropical regions. Little is known about population-based rates of active OT. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of OT in Central Cuba. This large-population, cross-sectional cohort study used a prospective database at a large regional referral centre in Central Cuba. The patient database was searched for all patients who presented with OT during the 12-month study period from 1 April 2011 to 31 March 2012. Inclusion criteria were the clinical diagnosis of OT, characterised by focal retinochoroidal inflammation and a response to therapy as expected. Gender-stratified and age-stratified study population data from the 2012 Cuban Census were used to calculate incidence rates and prevalence ratios. Among 279 identified patients with OT, 158 presented with active OT. Of these, 122 new-onset and 36 prior-onset cases were confirmed. Based on the total population in the Sancti Spiritus province (466,106 persons), the overall incidence of active OT was 26.2 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 21.7 to 31.3) with an annual prevalence ratio of 33.9 per 100,000 persons (95% CI 28.8 to 39.6). The incidence of active OT was lowest in the oldest age group and highest in patients aged 25-44 years (4.5 and 42.1 per 100,000 person-years, respectively). This first report describing population-based rates of OT in the Cuban population highlights the importance of patient age as a likely risk factor for OT. Disease rates were found to be highest in females and young to middle-aged adults. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. A Prospective Study of the Association Between Dispositional Optimism and Incident Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eric S.; Smith, Jacqui; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although higher optimism has been linked with an array of positive health behaviors, biological processes, and cardiovascular outcomes, the relationship between optimism and heart failure has not been examined. In the United States, 80% of heart failures occur in adults aged 65+. Therefore, we examined whether higher optimism was linked with a reduced incidence of heart failure among older adults. Methods and Results Prospective data were from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative study of older U.S adults. Our sample included 6,808 participants who were followed for four years. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess if optimism was independently associated with incident heart failure. We adjusted for sociodemographic, behavioral, biological, and psychological covariates. Higher optimism was associated with a lower risk of incident heart failure over the follow-up period. In a model that adjusted for sociodemographic factors, each standard deviation increase in optimism had an odds ratio of 0.74 (95% CI, 0.63–0.85) for heart failure. Effects of optimism persisted even after adjusting for a wide range of covariates. There was also evidence of a dose-response relationship. As optimism increased, risk of developing heart failure decreased monotonically, with a 48% reduced odds among people with the highest versus lowest optimism. Conclusions This is the first study to suggest that optimism is associated with a lower risk of heart failure. If future studies confirm these findings, they may be used to inform new strategies for preventing or delaying the onset of heart failure. PMID:24647117

  9. Incidence of Awareness with Recall under General Anesthesia in Rural India: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Deepak; Mangla, Mishu

    2017-01-01

    Context: Awareness under anesthesia is a rare but extremely unpleasant phenomenon. There are very few studies in the developing world and none from rural areas where incidence of intraoperative awareness may be higher due to increased patient load, limited patient knowledge and lack of trained hospital staff, reliance on older, cheaper but less effective drugs, and lack of proper equipment both for providing anesthesia, as well as monitoring the patient. Aims: To assess the incidence of intraoperative awareness during general anesthesia among patients in rural India and any factors associated with the same. Settings and Design: Prospective, nonrandomized, observational study. Subjects and Methods: Patients undergoing elective surgical procedures in various specialties under general anesthesia from over a period of 1 year were considered for this study. Approximately, after 1 h of arrival in postanaesthesia care unit, anesthesiologist (not involved in administering anesthesia) assessed intraoperative awareness using a modified form of Brice questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were collected on a Microsoft Excel® sheet and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences® version 23 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) for windows. Results: A total of 896 patients completed the questionnaire. Postoperatively, in response to the questionnaire, seven patients reported to have remembered something under anesthesia. Out of these, three patients described events that were confirmed by operation theater staff to have occurred whereas they were under anesthesia. Conclusions: Incidence of definite awareness under anesthesia with postoperative recall was found to be 0.33% (three patients out of total 896) in our study. PMID:28663647

  10. The NLstart2run study : Incidence and risk factors of running-related injuries in novice runners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluitenberg, B; van Middelkoop, M; Smits, D W; Verhagen, E; Hartgens, F; Diercks, R; van der Worp, H

    2015-01-01

    Running is a popular form of physical activity, despite of the high incidence of running-related injuries (RRIs). Because of methodological issues, the etiology of RRIs remains unclear. Therefore, the purposes of the study were to assess the incidence of RRIs and to identify risk factors for RRIs in

  11. Time trends in the incidence of acute lymphoblastic leukemia among children 1976-2002: a population-based Nordic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anne Louise; Feychting, Maria; Klaeboe, Lars

    2007-01-01

    We studied the incidence of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden during 1976-2002, on the basis of data from national cancer registries. The incidence of acute lymphoblastic leukemia increased with the calendar period until 1983, and with the birth cohort...

  12. The gender specific frequency of risk factor and CHD diagnoses prior to incident MI: a community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yawn, Barbara P; Wollan, Peter C; Yawn, Roy A; Jacobsen, Steven J; Roger, Veronique

    2007-04-04

    CHD is a chronic disease often present years prior to incident AMI. Earlier recognition of CHD may be associated with higher levels of recognition and treatment of CHD risk factors that may delay incident AMI. To assess timing of CHD and CHD risk factor diagnoses prior to incident AMI. This is a 10-year population based medical record review study that included all medical care providers in Olmsted County, Minnesota for all women and a sample of men residing in Olmsted County, MN with confirmed incident AMI between 1995 and 2000. All medical care for the 10 years prior to incident AMI was reviewed for 150 women and 148 men (38% sample) in Olmsted County, MN. On average, women were older than men at the time of incident AMI (74.7 versus 65.9 years, p < 0.0001). 30.4% of the men and 52.0% of the women received diagnoses of CHD prior to incident AMI (p = 0.0002). Unrecognized and untreated CHD risk factors were present in both men (45% of men 5 years prior to AMI) and women (22% of women 5 years prior to first AMI), more common in men and those without a diagnosis of CHD prior to incident AMI (p < 0.0001). A CHD diagnosis prior to incident AMI is associated with higher rates of recognition and treatment of CHD risk factors suggesting that diagnosing CHD prior to AMI enhances opportunities to lower the risk of future CHD events.

  13. Rheumatoid arthritis and the incidence of influenza and influenza-related complications: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blumentals William A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA are known to be at increased risk of infection, particularly if they are taking drugs with immunomodulatory effects. There is a need for more information on the risk of influenza in patients with RA. Methods A retrospective cohort study was carried out using data gathered from a large US commercial health insurance database (Thomson Reuters Medstat MarketScan from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2007. Patients were ≥18 years of age, with at least two RA claims diagnoses. The database was scanned for incidence of seasonal influenza and its complications on or up to 30 days after an influenza diagnosis in RA patients and matched controls. Other factors accounted for included medical conditions, use of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs, use of biological agents, influenza vaccination and high- or low-dose corticosteroids. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs were calculated for influenza and its complications in patients with RA. Results 46,030 patients with RA and a matching number of controls had a median age of 57 years. The incidence of influenza was higher in RA patients than in controls (409.33 vs 306.12 cases per 100,000 patient-years, and there was a 2.75-fold increase in incidence of complications in RA. Presence or absence of DMARDs or biologics had no significant effect. The adjusted IRR of influenza was statistically significant in patients aged 60–69 years, and especially among men. A significantly increased rate of influenza complications was observed in women and in both genders combined (but not in men only when all age groups were combined. In general, the risk of influenza complications was similar in RA patients not receiving DMARDs or biologics to that in all RA patients. Pneumonia rates were significantly higher in women with RA. Rates of stroke/myocardial infarction (MI were higher in men, although statistical significance was borderline. Conclusions RA is

  14. Incidence and predictors for delirium in hospitalized elderly patients: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isfandiaty, Ratih; Harimurti, Kuntjoro; Setiati, Siti; Roosheroe, Arya G

    2012-10-01

    to determine the incidence and predictors for delirium and to develop a prediction model for delirium in hospitalized elderly patient in Indonesia. a retrospective cohort study was conducted in elderly patients (aged 60 years and older) who were hospitalized in Internal Medicine Ward and Acute Geriatric Ward Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital from January 2008 until December 2010. Patients were not delirious on admission. Twelve predefined predictors for development of delirium during hospitalization were identified on admission. Independent predictors for delirium were identified by Cox's proportional hazard regression analysis and each independent predictor was quantified to develop delirium prediction model. The calibration performance of the model was tested by Hosmer-Lameshow test and its discrimination ability was determined by calculating area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). subjects consist of 457 patients, predominantly male (52.5%) and were in 60-69 age group (55.8%), with mean age of 69.6 (SD 7.09) years old. Delirium developed in 86 patients (cumulative incidence 18.8%, incidence density 0.021 per person-days) during first fourteen-days of hospitalization. Three independent predictors for delirium were identified, including: infection (without sepsis, adjusted HR1.83 (95% CI 0.82-4.10); with sepsis, adjusted HR 4.86, 95% CI 2.14-11.04), cognitive impairment (adjusted HR 3.12; 95%CI 1.89-5.13) and decrease of functional status (adjusted HR 1.74; 95% CI 1.07-2.82). Predictive model was performed using the final model of multivariate analysis and stratified into three levels: low- (rate of delirium 4.4%), intermediate- (32.8%), and high-risk (54.7%) groups.The Hosmer-Lemeshow test revealed good precision (p-value 0,066) and the AUC showed good discrimination ability (0.82, 95% CI 0.78-0.88). incidence of delirium is 18.8% in hospitalized elderly patients, with incidence density of 0.021 per person days. Infections, cognitive impairment

  15. A remotely piloted aircraft system in major incident management: concept and pilot, feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsen, Håkon B

    2015-06-10

    Major incidents are complex, dynamic and bewildering task environments characterised by simultaneous, rapidly changing events, uncertainty and ill-structured problems. Efficient management, communication, decision-making and allocation of scarce medical resources at the chaotic scene of a major incident is challenging and often relies on sparse information and data. Communication and information sharing is primarily voice-to-voice through phone or radio on specified radio frequencies. Visual cues are abundant and difficult to communicate between teams and team members that are not co-located. The aim was to assess the concept and feasibility of using a remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) system to support remote sensing in simulated major incident exercises. We carried out an experimental, pilot feasibility study. A custom-made, remotely controlled, multirotor unmanned aerial vehicle with vertical take-off and landing was equipped with digital colour- and thermal imaging cameras, a laser beam, a mechanical gripper arm and an avalanche transceiver. We collected data in five simulated exercises: 1) mass casualty traffic accident, 2) mountain rescue, 3) avalanche with buried victims, 4) fisherman through thin ice and 5) search for casualties in the dark. The unmanned aerial vehicle was remotely controlled, with high precision, in close proximity to air space obstacles at very low levels without compromising work on the ground. Payload capacity and tolerance to wind and turbulence were limited. Aerial video, shot from different altitudes, and remote aerial avalanche beacon search were streamed wirelessly in real time to a monitor at a ground base. Electromagnetic interference disturbed signal reception in the ground monitor. A small remotely piloted aircraft can be used as an effective tool carrier, although limited by its payload capacity, wind speed and flight endurance. Remote sensing using already existing remotely piloted aircraft technology in pre

  16. A concept for major incident triage: full-scaled simulation feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehn Marius

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient management of major incidents involves triage, treatment and transport. In the absence of a standardised interdisciplinary major incident management approach, the Norwegian Air Ambulance Foundation developed Interdisciplinary Emergency Service Cooperation Course (TAS. The TAS-program was established in 1998 and by 2009, approximately 15 500 emergency service professionals have participated in one of more than 500 no-cost courses. The TAS-triage concept is based on the established triage Sieve and Paediatric Triage Tape models but modified with slap-wrap reflective triage tags and paediatric triage stretchers. We evaluated the feasibility and accuracy of the TAS-triage concept in full-scale simulated major incidents. Methods The learners participated in two standardised bus crash simulations: without and with competence of TAS-triage and access to TAS-triage equipment. The instructors calculated triage accuracy and measured time consumption while the learners participated in a self-reported before-after study. Each question was scored on a 7-point Likert scale with points labelled "Did not work" (1 through "Worked excellent" (7. Results Among the 93 (85% participating emergency service professionals, 48% confirmed the existence of a major incident triage system in their service, whereas 27% had access to triage tags. The simulations without TAS-triage resulted in a mean over- and undertriage of 12%. When TAS-Triage was used, no mistriage was found. The average time from "scene secured to all patients triaged" was 22 minutes (range 15-32 without TAS-triage vs. 10 minutes (range 5-21 with TAS-triage. The participants replied to "How did interdisciplinary cooperation of triage work?" with mean 4,9 (95% CI 4,7-5,2 before the course vs. mean 5,8 (95% CI 5,6-6,0 after the course, p Conclusions Our modified triage Sieve tool is feasible, time-efficient and accurate in allocating priority during simulated bus accidents and

  17. Low incidence but poor prognosis of complicated coeliac disease: a retrospective multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, Federico; Gobbi, Paolo; Marchese, Alessandra; Borsotti, Edoardo; Zingone, Fabiana; Ciacci, Carolina; Volta, Umberto; Caio, Giacomo; Carroccio, Antonio; Ambrosiano, Giuseppe; Mansueto, Pasquale; Corazza, Gino R

    2014-03-01

    Coeliac disease is a chronic enteropathy characterized by an increased mortality caused by its complications, mainly refractory coeliac disease, small bowel carcinoma and abdominal lymphoma. Aim of the study was to study the epidemiology of complications in patients with coeliac disease. Retrospective multicenter case-control study based on collection of clinical and laboratory data. The incidence of complicated coeliac disease was studied among coeliac patients directly diagnosed in four Italian centres. Patients referred to these centres after a diagnosis of coeliac disease and/or complicated coeliac disease in other hospitals were therefore excluded. Between 1/1999 and 10/2011, 1840 adult coeliac patients were followed up for 7364.3 person-years. Fourteen developed complications. Since five patients died, at the end of the observation period (10/2011), the prevalence of complicated coeliac disease was 9/1835 (1/204, 0.49%, 95% CI 0.2-0.9%). The annual incidence of complicated coeliac disease in the study period was 14/7364 (0.2%, 95% CI 0.1-0.31%). Although complications tend to occur soon after the diagnosis of coeliac disease, Kaplan-Meier curve analysis showed that they can actually occur at any time after the diagnosis of coeliac disease. Complications of coeliac disease in our cohort were quite rare, though characterised by a very high mortality. Copyright © 2013 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Incidence and clinicopathologic features of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcheselli Luigi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the diagnostic criteria and pathogenesis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST have recently been elucidated, knowledge of the epidemiology of this malignancy is still limited. This study examined the incidence of GIST in the province of Modena, including pathologic features and clinical outcome. Methods Gastrointestinal mesenchymal tumors identified by the Modena Cancer Registry between 1991 and 2004 were analyzed with an immunohistochemical panel that included staining for CD-117 and PDGFRα. Size, mitotic rate, and other pathologic parameters were recorded. Each tumor was categorized into National Institutes of Health risk categories (very low, low, intermediate, and high risk. Results One hundred twenty-four cases were classified as GIST. The age-adjusted incidence rate was 6.6 per million. Seventy-five percent of patients were symptomatic; 34% had a previous or concomitant history of cancer. High-risk features were present in 47% of cases. Seventy-eight percent were submitted to radical surgery. After complete resection, the 5-year disease-free survival rates were 94%, 92%, 100%, and 40% for patients at very low, low, intermediate, and high risk, respectively. In multivariate analysis, high risk was the main predictor of recurrence. Conclusion This population-based study shows that the incidence of GIST in Northern Italy is comparable to that reported in other European countries. Survival was favorable in lower risk categories and in most of the resected cases. In our study, resected patients at very low, low, and intermediate risk had a similar outcome. Our data support the need to consider high-risk patients after complete surgical resection for treatment with the best available approach.

  19. Pulmonary tuberculosis incidence and risk factors in rural areas of China: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Shu, Wen; Wang, Min; Hou, Yongchun; Xia, Yinyin; Xu, Weiguo; Bai, Liqiong; Nie, Shaofa; Cheng, Shiming; Xu, Yihua

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) and its risk factors in China remains unclear. This study examined TB incidence and relative risk factors in rural areas of China. Participants (n = 177,529) were recruited in Xiangtan County (in the central area of China) and in Danyang County (in the eastern area of China) in 2009 and a followed-up study was conducted for one year. The incidence density of pulmonary TB and smear-positive TB were 91.6 (95% CI: 78.7, 106.0) per 100,000 person-year and 36.7 (95% CI: 33.1, 52.4) per 100,000 person-year respectively in Xiangtan, and 47.3 (95% CI: 38.2, 57.5) per 100,000 person-year and 22.7 (95% CI: 16.5, 30.8) per 100,000 person-year in Danyang. The medical history of TB was associated with TB, with the relative risk (RR) of 7.00 (95% CI: 2.76, 17.18) in Xiangtan and that of 31.08 (95% CI: 13.22, 73.10) in Danyang. The association between TB and per capita living space over median was found in Xiangtan, with the RR of 1.86 (95% CI: 1.15, 3.01). No association was found between TB and the insurance status, the contact history with TB, the history of diabetes, smoking, or per capita annual income. The host genetic susceptibility, and social factors such as education and income could be considered in future studies.

  20. The incidence of eating disorders in a Danish register study: Associations with suicide risk and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zerwas, Stephanie; Tidselbak Larsen, Janne; Petersen, Liselotte

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to characterize the incidence rates and cumulative incidence of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS), and examine associations among eating disorder diagnoses, suicide attempts, and mortality. Individuals born in Denmark...

  1. Incidence and Etiology of Surgical Site Infections in Appendectomies: A 3-Year Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcell, Humberto Guanche; Arias, Ariadna Villanueva; Sandoval, Cristobal A. Pancorbo; García, Elias Guilarte; Gamboa, Moraima E. Valle; Sado, Adam Bode; Serrano, Ramón N. Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Surgical site infections (SSIs) constitute a threat, especially in complicated appendicitis, and are commonly due to gram-negative organisms. We sought to describe the incidence of SSIs in appendectomies performed during a three-year period (January 2013 to December 2015) in a community hospital in Qatar, and compare this with external benchmarks. Methods We conducted a longitudinal study at The Cuban Hospital, Qatar. We used the standardized surveillance criteria to define SSI developed by the Centers for Disease Control. Information about age, sex, smoking habits, diabetes mellitus status, body mass index, and the result of bacteriologic studies were collected. Results Of a total 603 patients, 22 (3.6%) cases of SSI were reported, with an infection rate of 13.6%, 4.5%, and 1.0% in 2013, 2014, and 2015, respectively. SSIs were observed more frequently in patients with contaminated/dirty wounds (6.6%). About 65% of isolates from the surgical site were multidrug-resistant organisms (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp.). Conclusions This study describes the incidence of SSI in appendectomy, which could be used as a benchmark for the facility improvement program. The high frequency of multidrug-resistant organisms in SSIs requires additional studies focused on evaluating the effectiveness of the current preventive practices with a particular reference to antimicrobial prophylaxis. PMID:28042400

  2. Childhood cancer incidence by ethnic group in England, 2001-2007: a descriptive epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayeed, Shameq; Barnes, Isobel; Ali, Raghib

    2017-08-25

    After the first year of life, cancers are the commonest cause of death in children. Incidence rates vary between ethnic groups, and recent advances in data linkage allow for a more accurate estimation of these variations. Identifying such differences may help identify potential risk or protective factors for certain childhood cancers. This study thus aims to ascertain whether such differences do indeed exist using nationwide data across seven years, as have previously been described in adult cancers. We obtained data for all cancer registrations for children (aged 0-14) in England from January 2001 to December 2007. Ethnicity (self-assigned) was established through record linkage to the Hospital Episodes Statistics database or cancer registry data. Cancers were classified morphologically according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer into four groups - leukaemias; lymphomas; central nervous system; and other solid tumours. Age standardised incidence rates were estimated for each ethnic group, as well as incidence rate ratios comparing each individual ethnic group (Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Black African, Black Carribean, Chinese) to Whites, adjusting for sex, age and deprivation. The majority of children in the study are UK born. Black children (RR = 1.18, 99% CI: 1.01-1.39), and amongst South Asians, Pakistani children (RR = 1.19, 99% CI: 1.02-1.39) appear to have an increased risk of all cancers. There is an increased risk of leukaemia in South Asians (RR = 1.31, 99% CI: 1.08-1.58), and of lymphoma in Black (RR = 1.72, 99% CI: 1.13-2.63) and South Asian children (RR = 1.51, 99% CI: 1.10-2.06). South Asians appear to have a decreased risk of CNS cancers (RR = 0.71, 99% CI: 0.54-0.95). In the tradition of past migrant studies, such descriptive studies within ethnic minority groups permit a better understanding of disease incidence within the population, but also allow for the generation of hypotheses to begin to understand why

  3. Study on environmental etiology of high incidence areas of liver cancer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nian-Feng Lin; Jie Tang; Hoteyi S. Mohamed Ismael

    2000-01-01

    China is a country with a high incidence of liver cancer in some areas[1]. Liver cancer has a wide distribution and threatens human health seriously. A rough estimation shows that out of a population of 1.2 × 108 in liver cancer areas patients are more than 1.0 × 105. The environment of the liver cancer area is very complicated and has different characteristics in different regions. But the epidemic regularity of liver cancer is obvious, and the environment in the cancer areas has also distinct characteristics that contribute to the study on the environmental etiology of liver cancer[2-5].

  4. INCIDENCE AND RISK FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO ROP: STUDY FROM NEONATAL CARE UNIT- SOUTH INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthiyaeni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to identify the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity among the preterm neonates treated at neonatal unit and to evaluate the associated risk factors for ROP. DESIGN Prospective observational study. SETTING Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU of Department of Paediatrics at Chengalpattu Medical College. During the study period, 159 babies were treated at the NICU and 111 babies were discharged from the unit. Among those babies who were discharged, 14 neonates were lost for followup for ROP screening. This lost to followup was 12.6% of the study population. In this study 97 infants were screened, out of which 18 infants had ROP. The rate of ROP is 18.6% in our institution and 2 out of 18 babies had threshold ROP (11.1%, who were treated with Laser therapy

  5. A Nationwide Population-Based Study of Corrosive Ingestion in Taiwan: Incidence, Gender Differences, and Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Mei Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosive injury results from the intake of corrosive-acid-based chemicals. However, this phenomenon is limited to a small number of cases and cannot be extrapolated to the epidemiology of corrosive injuries in actual situations. This study focuses on the annual incidence of corrosive injury and its connection to gender, risk factors, and in-hospital mortality. All patients with corrosive injury (ICD-9 947.0–947.3 were identified using a nationwide inpatient sample from 1996 until 2010. Chi-squared tests and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine risk factors of gender differences and in-hospital mortality of corrosive injury. Young adults comprised the majority of patients (71.2%, and mean age was 44.6 ± 20.9 years. Women showed a higher incidence rate of corrosive injuries, age, suicide, psychiatric disorder, and systemic complications compared with men (p<0.001. The present study demonstrated that age (OR = 10.93; 95% CI 5.37–22.27, systemic complications (OR = 5.43; 95% CI 4.61–6.41, malignant neoplasms (OR = 2.23; 95% CI 1.37–3.62, gastrointestinal complications (OR = 2.02; 95% CI 1.63–2.51, chronic disease (OR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.08–1.56, and suicide (OR = 1.23; 95% CI 1.05–1.44 were strongly associated with in-hospital mortality. Educational programs may be helpful for reducing the incidence of ingestion of corrosive chemicals.

  6. Incidence and risk of hypertension in patients newly treated for multiple myeloma: a retrospective cohort study.

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    Chari, Ajai; Mezzi, Khalid; Zhu, Shao; Werther, Winifred; Felici, Diana; Lyon, Alexander R

    2016-11-22

    Hypertension is commonly reported in multiple myeloma (MM) patients and may be associated with older age, disease-related complications and consequences of MM treatments. This study evaluated the incidence rates of and risk factors for hypertension and malignant hypertension in newly-treated MM patients in the United States. Newly-treated adult MM patients were identified from Truven MarketScan claims database from 1/1/05 to 3/31/14. Inclusion criteria were new diagnosis of MM with start of MM treatment, ≥12 months continuous enrollment prior to diagnosis, ≥30 days of continuous enrollment following initial diagnosis, and prescription drug coverage. Non-MM patients were matched for age (within +/- 5 years), sex and distribution of index dates to MM patients. Baseline cardiovascular (CV) comorbidities, incidence rate of hypertension and malignant hypertension in the follow-up period, and risk of hypertension and malignant hypertension based on existing baseline CV comorbidities were evaluated. A total of 7895 MM patients (38% with hypertension history) and 23,685 non-MM patients (24% with hypertension history) were included in the study. Twenty-two percent of MM patients versus 3% of non-MM patients had baseline renal failure. A higher percentage of MM versus non-MM patients had baseline hypertension in combination with renal failure, congestive heart failure or both. The incidence rate of hypertension in MM and non-MM patients was 260 and 178 per 1000 person-years, respectively. There was a 30% increase in the risk of hypertension for MM versus non-MM patients: hazard ratio (HR) 1.30 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22, 1.37). In MM patients with a history of hypertension, the risk of malignant hypertension was significantly increased with the following comorbid conditions: cardiomyopathy, HR 2.79 (95% CI 1.20, 6.48); renal failure, HR 2.13 (95% CI 1.36, 3.34); and diabetes mellitus, HR 1.59 (95% CI 1.05, 2.39). This study confirms that the incidence of

  7. Ten-year cumulative incidence of diabetic retinopathy. The Beijing Eye Study 2001/2011.

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    Jie Xu

    Full Text Available To assess the cumulative 10-year incidence of diabetic retinopathy (DR and its associated factors in a population living in Greater Beijing.The population-based longitudinal Beijing Eye Study, which included 4439 subjects (age in 2001: 40+years in 2001, was repeated in 2011 with 2695 subjects participating (66.4% of the survivors. The study participants underwent a detailed ophthalmic examination. Fundus photographs were examined for the new development of DR.After excluding individuals with DR at baseline (n = 87 or no sufficient fundus photographs in 2011 (n = 6, the study included 2602 subjects with a mean age of 64.6±9.7 years (median: 64.0 years; range: 50 to 93 years. In the 10-year period, 109 subjects (39 men developed new DR with an incidence of 4.2% (95% confidence interval (CI: 3.45,5.03. In multiple logistic regression analysis, incident DR was significantly associated with higher HbA1c value (P<0.001; Odds Ratio (OR: 1.73; 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.35,2.21, longer duration of diabetes mellitus (P<0.001; OR: 1.16; 95% CI: 1.10,1.22, higher serum concentration of creatinine (P = 0.02; OR: 1.01; 95% CI: 1.002,1.022, lower educational level (P = 0.049; OR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.55,0.99, higher estimated cerebrospinal fluid pressure (P = 0.038; OR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.01,1.22, and shorter axial length (P<0.001; OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.33,0.71.The cumulative 10-year incidence (mean: 4.2% of DR in a North Chinese population was significantly associated with a higher HbA1c value, longer known duration of diabetes mellitus, higher estimated CSFP and shorter axial length (P<0.001. Shorter axial length (or hyperopia and, potentially, higher CSFP may be additional risk factors to be taken into account when counseling and treating patients with diabetes mellitus.

  8. Historical Study of Radiation Exposures and the Incidence of Cataracts in Astronauts

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    Cucinotta, F. A.; Manuel, F. K.; Iszard, G.; Feiveson, A.; Peterson, L. E.; Hardy, D.; Marak, L.; Tung, W.; Wear, M.; Chylack, L. T., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    For over 35 years, astronauts in low Earth orbit or on missions to the moon have been exposed to space radiation comprised of high-energy protons, heavy ions, and secondary neutrons. We reviewed the radiation exposures received by astronauts in space and on Earth, and presented results from the first epidemiological study of cataract incidence in the astronauts. Our data suggested an increased risk for cataracts from space radiation exposures*. Using parametric survival analysis and the maximum likelihood method, we estimated the dose-response and age distribution for cataract incidence in astronauts by space radiation. Considering the high-LET dose contributions on specific space missions as well as data from animal studies with neutrons and heavy ions, suggested a linear response with no dose-threshold for cataracts. However, there are unanswered questions related to the importance and the definition of "clinically significant" cataracts commonly used in radiation protection, especially in light of epidemiological data suggesting that the probability that "sub-clinical" cataracts will progress is highly dependent on the age at which cataracts appear. We briefly describe a new study that will address the measurement of cataract progression-rates in astronauts and a ground-based comparison group.

  9. Incidence of impacted mandibular third molars in population of Bosnia and Herzegovina: a retrospective radiographic study

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    Sadeta Šečić

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Impaction may be defined as the failure of complete eruption into a normal functional position of one tooth within normal time due to lack of space in the dental arch, caused by obstruction byanother tooth or development in an abnormal position. The mandibular third molar is the most frequently impacted tooth. The incidence varies from 9.5% to 68% in different populations.Methods: The study was conducted in Department of Oral Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, University in Sarajevo. Study represents retrospective analysis of panoramic radiographs (orthopantomograms of patientsreferred to Department of Oral Surgery from January 2010 to February 2013 with indication for surgical removal of impacted third molars.Results: Of the 2000 radiographs, 761 presented with at least one impacted third molar (38%. A total of 1034 impacted mandibular third molars were present (51.7%. The most common age group was thirddecade (61.2%. Signifi cant statistical difference in incidence of third molar impaction was found between females and males (ppopulation (p=0.374. Vertical angulation was the most common pattern of impaction (65%. Frequency of third molars erupted into their normal position (class IA was 42%. Impacted mandibular molars wereassociated with periodontal pockets in 134 (6.5% cases and with dentigerous cysts in 5 cases (0.2%.Conclusion: The present study provides useful data regarding the clinical status of third molars in population of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  10. Impact of Histopathological Diagnosis with Ancillary Immunohistochemical Studies on Lung Cancer Subtypes Incidence and Survival: A Population-Based Study

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    Andrea Bordoni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of immunohistochemical- (IHC- studies on incidence and survival of lung cancer histotypes. Patients and Methods. Lung cancers occurred in southern Switzerland between 1996 and 2010 were selected by the Ticino Cancer Registry and categorised into adenocarcinoma (AC, squamous-cell-carcinoma (SqCC, small-cell-carcinoma (SmCC, and large-cell carcinoma/non-small-cell lung cancer (LCC/NSCLC. Incidence rates, annual-percentage-change (APC, and two-year overall survival (OS (follow-up: 31.12.2010 were performed. Results. 2467 cases were selected: 997 (40.4% AC; 522 (21.2% LCC/NSCLC, 378 (15.3% SmCC, and 570 (23.1% SqCC. Trend-analysis showed significant increase in AC (APC: 4.6; 95% CI: 3.1; 6.0 and decrease of LCC/NSCLC, with significant joinpoint in 2003 (APC: −14.7; 95% CI: −21.6; −7.1. Improved OS and decreased OS were detected in SqCC and LCC/NSCLC, respectively. Conclusions. This study highlights that diagnosis with ancillary immunohistochemical studies will change incidence and survival of precisely defined lung cancer subtypes. It calls attention to the need for cautious interpretation of studies and clinical trials, where the diagnosis was based on histology unaccompanied by IHC studies, and to the need of standardised diagnostic procedures.

  11. Sunlight and the 10-year incidence of age-related maculopathy: the Beaver Dam Eye Study.

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    Tomany, Sandra C; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E K; Knudtson, Michael D

    2004-05-01

    To examine the association of sunlight exposure and indicators of sun sensitivity with the 10-year incidence of age-related maculopathy (ARM). Population-based cohort study. We included persons aged 43 to 86 years at the baseline examination from 1988 to 1990, living in Beaver Dam, Wis, of whom 3684 persons underwent 5-year follow-up and 2764 underwent 10-year follow-up. Data on sun exposure and indicators of sun sensitivity were obtained from a standardized questionnaire administered at baseline and/or follow-up. We determined ARM status by grading stereoscopic color fundus photographs using the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. Incidence and progression of ARM. While controlling for age and sex, we found that participants exposed to the summer sun for more than 5 hours a day during their teens, in their 30s, and at the baseline examination were at a higher risk of developing increased retinal pigment (risk ratio [RR], 2.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-7.60; P =.02) and early ARM (RR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.02-4.73; P =.04) [corrected] by 10 years than those exposed less than 2 hours per day during the same periods. In participants reporting the highest summer sun exposure levels in their teens and 30s, the use of hats and sunglasses at least half the time during the same periods was associated with a decreased risk of developing soft indistinct drusen (RR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.33-0.90; P =.02) and retinal pigment epithelial depigmentation (RR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.29-0.91; P =.02). Participants who experienced more than 10 severe sunburns during their youth were more likely than those who experienced 1 or no burn to develop drusen with a 250-microm diameter or larger (RR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.29-4.94 [corrected] P =.01) by the 10-year examination. No relationships were found between UV-B exposure, winter leisure time spent outdoors, skin sun sensitivity, or number of bad sunburns experienced by the time of the baseline examination and the 10-year incidence and

  12. Changes in somatic disease incidents during opioid maintenance treatment: results from a Norwegian cohort study

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    Brekke, Mette; Gossop, Michael; Lindbaek, Morten; Reinertsen, Even; Thoresen, Magne; Waal, Helge

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To examine the effect of opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) on somatic morbidity in a cohort of OMT patients. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting OMT programme in two Norwegian counties. Participants 200 OMT patients, participation rate 71.2%. Main outcome measures Incidence rates (IR) before, during and after OMT for acute/subacute hospital-treated somatic disease incidents (drug-related, non-drug-related, injuries) and rates for inpatient days and outpatient treatment contacts. Results IR for drug-related hospital treatment episodes were 76% lower during compared to before OMT (before versus during incidence rate ratio (IRR) 4.2 (95% CI 2.9 to 6.2), pOMT (after versus during IRR 11.1 (6.6 to 18.5), pOMT (before versus during IRR 0.7 (0.6 to 1.0), p=0.02) and 32% higher after compared to during OMT (IRR 1.4 (0.9 to 2.2), p=0.15), while injuries showed little change according to OMT status. Although patients with on-going drug-taking during OMT showed less reduction in drug-related hospital-treated incidents during treatment than patients not using illicit drugs, the quartile with most drug-taking showed a significant reduction (before versus during IRR 3.6 (2.4 to 5.3)). Patients who had experienced cessation of OMT showed a significant reduction in drug-related treatment episodes during OMT (before versus during IRR 1.7 (1.0 to 2.9)), although less than patients without OMT interruptions (before versus during IRR 6.1 (3.6 to 10.6)), and a significant increase after OMT cessation compared with during OMT (IRR 5.4 (3.0 to 9.7)). Conclusion Acute/subacute drug-related somatic morbidity is reduced during compared to before OMT. This was also found for patients with on-going drug-taking during OMT. However, acute drug-related health problems show an increase after OMT cessation, and this is a matter of concern. Further studies on somatic morbidity after OMT cessation should be carried out. PMID:22021771

  13. Cardiovascular Health and Incident Hypertension in Blacks: JHS (The Jackson Heart Study).

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    Booth, John N; Abdalla, Marwah; Tanner, Rikki M; Diaz, Keith M; Bromfield, Samantha G; Tajeu, Gabriel S; Correa, Adolfo; Sims, Mario; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Bress, Adam P; Spruill, Tanya M; Shimbo, Daichi; Muntner, Paul

    2017-08-01

    Several modifiable health behaviors and health factors that comprise the Life's Simple 7-a cardiovascular health metric-have been associated with hypertension risk. We determined the association between cardiovascular health and incident hypertension in JHS (the Jackson Heart Study)-a cohort of blacks. We analyzed participants without hypertension or cardiovascular disease at baseline (2000-2004) who attended ≥1 follow-up visit in 2005 to 2008 or 2009 to 2012 (n=1878). Body mass index, physical activity, diet, cigarette smoking, blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol, and fasting glucose were assessed at baseline and categorized as ideal, intermediate, or poor using the American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7 definitions. Incident hypertension was defined at the first visit wherein a participant had systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg, or self-reported taking antihypertensive medication. The percentage of participants with ≤1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 ideal Life's Simple 7 components was 6.5%, 22.4%, 34.4%, 25.2%, 10.0%, and 1.4%, respectively. No participants had 7 ideal components. During follow-up (median, 8.0 years), 944 (50.3%) participants developed hypertension, including 81.3% with ≤1 and 11.1% with 6 ideal components. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for incident hypertension comparing participants with 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 versus ≤1 ideal component were 0.80 (0.61-1.03), 0.58 (0.45-0.74), 0.30 (0.23-0.40), 0.26 (0.18-0.37), and 0.10 (0.03-0.31), respectively (Ptrend hypertension risk. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Studying the effect of some factors on the high incidence of uterine fibroid in Libyan women

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    Fathia M. Ben Ashour

    2015-12-01

    Methods: The Factors implicated in this case are analyzed using questionnaire on a random patient sample (152 cases within (2010-2014 from the archive of Aljalaa hospital. Results: Results show that, UF could affect women in young ages and above 40 years as well (P = 0.14. Marital status and the race of the patients significantly affect the rate of UF. The number of UF increased among married and white women comparing with single one and black one (P = 0.00 respectively. UF cases in the women holding O+ blood group were significantly higher than other groups (P=0.00. The educated women exhibit significant decrease in the UF incidence compared with less education status (P=0.00. Both normal delivered mode women and those received contraception pills showed a significant high rate of UF comparing with caesarian cut and with non-treated group (P=0.00, respectively. Menorrhagia was significantly higher than abdominal pain and infertility. Recurrent and family history was invaluable in UF incidence. Its ratio was significantly higher among women with no previous history and who have no family history (P=0.00. Myomectomy was significantly different from other choices; trans-abdominal hysterectomy and others (P=0.00. Conclusions: According to our results, marital status, hormones disturbances, life style including stress factors, race and knowledge about the case are the most implicated causes in the incidence of the case. Further studies on the ultra-structural level (Model are needed to verify the possible role/s for genes. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(6.000: 1954-1960

  15. Patient and carer identified factors which contribute to safety incidents in primary care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernan, Andrea L; Giles, Sally J; Fuller, Jeffrey; Johnson, Julie K; Walker, Christine; Dunbar, James A

    2015-09-01

    Patients can have an important role in reducing harm in primary-care settings. Learning from patient experience and feedback could improve patient safety. Evidence that captures patients' views of the various contributory factors to creating safe primary care is largely absent. The aim of this study was to address this evidence gap. Four focus groups and eight semistructured interviews were conducted with 34 patients and carers from south-east Australia. Participants were asked to describe their experiences of primary care. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and specific factors that contribute to safety incidents were identified in the analysis using the Yorkshire Contributory Factors Framework (YCFF). Other factors emerging from the data were also ascertained and added to the analytical framework. Thirteen factors that contribute to safety incidents in primary care were ascertained. Five unique factors for the primary-care setting were discovered in conjunction with eight factors present in the YCFF from hospital settings. The five unique primary care contributing factors to safety incidents represented a range of levels within the primary-care system from local working conditions to the upstream organisational level and the external policy context. The 13 factors included communication, access, patient factors, external policy context, dignity and respect, primary-secondary interface, continuity of care, task performance, task characteristics, time in the consultation, safety culture, team factors and the physical environment. Patient and carer feedback of this type could help primary-care professionals better understand and identify potential safety concerns and make appropriate service improvements. The comprehensive range of factors identified provides the groundwork for developing tools that systematically capture the multiple contributory factors to patient safety. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  16. Socioeconomic factors and incidence of erectile dysfunction: findings of the longitudinal Massachussetts Male Aging Study.

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    Aytaç, I A; Araujo, A B; Johannes, C B; Kleinman, K P; McKinlay, J B

    2000-09-01

    Despite the well-documented relationship of socioeconomic factors (SEF) to various health problems, the relationship of SEF to erectile dysfunction (ED) is not well understood. As such, the goals of this paper are: (1) to determine whether incident ED is more likely to occur among men with low SEF; and (2) to determine whether incident ED varies by SEF after taking into consideration other well-established ED risk factors that are also associated with SEF such as smoking, diabetes, and high blood pressure. We used data from 797 participants in the longitudinal population-based Massachusetts Male Aging Study (baseline 1987-1989, follow-up 1995-1997) who were free of ED at baseline and had complete data on ED and all risk factors. ED was determined by a self-administered questionnaire and its relationship to SEF was assessed using logistic regression. We first analyzed the age-adjusted relationship of education, income, and occupation to incidence of ED. The results show that men with low education (O.R. = 1.46, 95% C.I. = 1.02-2.08) or men in blue-collar occupations (O.R. = 1.68, 95% C.I. = 1.16-2.43) are significantly more likely to develop ED. For the multivariate model, due to multicollinearity among education, income, and occupation, we ran three separate models. After taking into consideration all the other risk factors--age, lifestyle and medical conditions--the effect of occupation remained significant. Men who worked in blue-collar occupations were one and a half times more likely to develop ED compared to men in white-collar occupations (O.R. = 1.55, 95% C.I. = 1.06-2.28).

  17. Modeled traffic noise at the residence and colorectal cancer incidence: a cohort study.

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    Roswall, Nina; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Ketzel, Matthias; Overvad, Kim; Halkjær, Jytte; Sørensen, Mette

    2017-07-01

    Traffic noise has become an increasing public health concern, associated with pervasive negative health effects, most likely through pathways of sleep disruption and stress. Both sleep disruption and stress have been associated with colorectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between residential traffic noise and colorectal cancer incidence. Traffic noise was calculated for all residential addresses from 1987 to 2012 for 51,283 Danes in the Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort. We used Cox proportional hazard models to investigate the association between residential traffic noise 5 and 10 years before diagnosis, and overall colorectal cancer incidence, as well as subtypes (rectal, proximal, and distal colon). Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated as crude and adjusted for potential confounders. During follow-up, 1,134 colorectal cancers developed (737 colon, 397 rectal). We found no association between residential road traffic noise and rectal cancer. We observed an association with distal colon cancer: HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.00-1.40, but not for proximal colon cancer: 0.99 (0.83-1.18), per 10 dB, 10 years preceding diagnosis. There was no association between railway noise and colorectal cancer, or any subtype. The present study suggested that long-term exposure to residential road traffic noise might increase the risk for colon cancer, especially distal colon cancer.

  18. Incidence of Alpha-Globin Gene Defect in the Lebanese Population: A Pilot Study

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    Chantal Farra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is well established that the Mediterranean and Arab populations are at high risk for thalassemias in general and for alpha-thalassemia in particular. Yet, reports on alpha-thalassemia in Lebanon are still lacking. In this study, we aim at assessing the incidence of alpha-thalassemia in the Lebanese population. Methods. 230 newborns’ dried blood cards remaining from routine neonatal screening at the American University of Beirut Medical Center were collected for DNA extraction. Samples were screened for the 21 most common α-globin deletions and point mutations reported worldwide, through multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR and Reverse-Hybridization technique. Results. Upon analyses, the carrier rate of α-thalassemia was found to be 8%. Two mutations detected the −α3,7 single gene deletion found in 75% of cases and the nongene deletion α2 IVS1 [−5nt] in the remaining samples. Conclusion. This study is the first dedicated to investigate α-thalassemia trait incidence in Lebanon. Data obtained demonstrates a high carrier rate in a relatively, highly consanguineous population; it also highlighted the presence of two common mutations. These results may be of an important impact on premarital and newborn screening policies in our country.

  19. Study on the incidence of testicular and epididymal appendages in patients with cryptorchidism

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    Favorito Luciano A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the incidence of testicular and epididymal appendages in patients with cryptorchidism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 65 patients with cryptorchidism, totalizing 83 testes and 40 patients who had prostate adenocarcinoma and hydrocele (control group, totalizing 55 testes. The following situations were analyzed: I absence of testicular and epididymal appendages, II presence of testicular appendage only, III presence of epididymal appendage, IV presence of testicular and epididymal appendage, V presence of 2 epididymal appendages and 1 testicular appendage and VI presence of paradidymis or vas aberrans of Haller. RESULTS: In patients with cryptorchidism we found testicular appendages in 23 cases (41.8%, epididymal appendages in 9 (16.3%, testicular and epididymal appendage in 8 (14.5%, 2 epididymal appendages and 1 testicular in 1 (1.8% and absence of appendages in 14 (25.4%. In the control group, we found testicular appendages in 29 (34.9%, epididymal appendages in 19 (22.8%, testicular and epididymal appendage in 7 (8.4%, and absence of appendages in 28 (33.7%, we did not find 2 epididymal appendages in this group, and none of the patients in the 2 groups presented paradidymis or vas aberrans of Haller. CONCLUSION: The occurrence of testicular and epididymal appendages is quite variable. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence and distribution of the testicular and epididymal appendages between patients with cryptorchidism and those from the control group.

  20. Spousal smoking and incidence of first stroke: the Health and Retirement Study.

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    Glymour, M Maria; Defries, Triveni B; Kawachi, Ichiro; Avendano, Mauricio

    2008-09-01

    Few prospective studies have investigated the relationship between spousal cigarette smoking and the risk of incident stroke. Stroke-free participants in the U.S.-based Health and Retirement Study (HRS) aged >or=50 years and married at baseline (n=16,225) were followed, on average, 9.1 years between 1992 and 2006) for proxy or self-report of first stroke (1,130 events). Participants were stratified by gender and own smoking status (never-smokers, former smokers, or current smokers), and the relationship assessed between the spouse's smoking status and the risk of incident stroke. Analyses were conducted in 2007 with Cox proportional hazards models. All models were adjusted for age; race; Hispanic ethnicity; Southern birthstate; parental education; paternal occupation class; years of education; baseline income; baseline wealth; obesity; overweight; alcohol use; and diagnosed hypertension, diabetes, or heart disease. Having a spouse who currently smoked was associated with an increased risk of first stroke among never-smokers (hazard ratio=1.42, 95% CI=1.05, 1.93) and former smokers (hazard ratio=1.72, 95% CI=1.33, 2.22). Former smokers married to current smokers had a stroke risk similar to respondents who themselves smoked. Spousal smoking poses important stroke risks for never-smokers and former smokers. The health benefits of quitting smoking likely extend to both the individual smoker and his or her spouse.

  1. Emphysema predicts hospitalisation and incident airflow obstruction among older smokers: a prospective cohort study.

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    David A McAllister

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emphysema on CT is common in older smokers. We hypothesised that emphysema on CT predicts acute episodes of care for chronic lower respiratory disease among older smokers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants in a lung cancer screening study age ≥ 60 years were recruited into a prospective cohort study in 2001-02. Two radiologists independently visually assessed the severity of emphysema as absent, mild, moderate or severe. Percent emphysema was defined as the proportion of voxels ≤ -910 Hounsfield Units. Participants completed a median of 5 visits over a median of 6 years of follow-up. The primary outcome was hospitalization, emergency room or urgent office visit for chronic lower respiratory disease. Spirometry was performed following ATS/ERS guidelines. Airflow obstruction was defined as FEV1/FVC ratio <0.70 and FEV1<80% predicted. RESULTS: Of 521 participants, 4% had moderate or severe emphysema, which was associated with acute episodes of care (rate ratio 1.89; 95% CI: 1.01-3.52 adjusting for age, sex and race/ethnicity, as was percent emphysema, with similar associations for hospitalisation. Emphysema on visual assessment also predicted incident airflow obstruction (HR 5.14; 95% CI 2.19-21.1. CONCLUSION: Visually assessed emphysema and percent emphysema on CT predicted acute episodes of care for chronic lower respiratory disease, with the former predicting incident airflow obstruction among older smokers.

  2. Diabetes and risk of incident cancer: a large population-based cohort study in Israel.

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    Chodick, Gabriel; Heymann, Anthony D; Rosenmann, Lena; Green, Manfred S; Flash, Shira; Porath, Avi; Kokia, Ehud; Shalev, Varda

    2010-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus has been associated with an increased risk of a variety of cancers in observational studies, but few have reported the relationship between diabetes and cancer risk in men and women separately. The main goal of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate the sex-specific risk of incident overall and site-specific cancer among people with DM compared with those without, who had no reported history of cancer at the start of the follow-up in January 2000. During an average of 8 years of follow-up (SD = 2.5), we documented 1,639 and 7,945 incident cases of cancer among 16,721 people with DM and 83,874 free of DM, respectively. In women, DM was associated with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.96 (95% CI: 1.53-2.50) and 1.41 (95% CI: 1.20-1.66) for cancers of genital organs and digestive organs, respectively. A significantly reduced HR was observed for skin cancer (0.38; 95% CI: 0.22-0.66). In men with DM, there was no significant increase in overall risk of cancer. DM was related with a 47% reduction in the risk of prostate cancer. These findings suggest that the nature of the association between DM and cancer depends on sex and specific cancer site.

  3. Age Related Incidence and Early Outcomes of Hip Fractures: A Prospective Cohort Study of 1177 patients

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    Shenoy Ravikiran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Associated with the increase in the aging population, there is an increase in the incidence of hip fractures worldwide. Outcome following such fractures is affected by age of the patient. This study aims to assess the incidence and early outcome of hip fractures, comparing between different age groups. Methods Data of hip fractures collected over a period of five years was analysed. Patients were divided into three groups, group A (patients under the age of 64, group B (patients between 65 and 84 years of age, and group C (patients over the age of 85. Results Of the 1177 patients included in the study, there were 90 patients in group A, 702 patients in group B and 385 patients in group C. There was a female preponderance across all age groups, and this increased as age advanced (p Conclusions Hip fractures are more common among females irrespective of age group. Older patients have a higher mortality and a greater deterioration of walking ability after such injuries. Internal fixation of intracapsular fractures have demonstrated satisfactory early outcome in the immediate period. This could be attributed to retention of native bone, better propioception and shorter operation time.

  4. Variations in Incidence and Prevalence of Parkinson’s Disease in Taiwan: A Population-Based Nationwide Study

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    Chih-Ching Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Demographic, socioeconomic, and urbanization level variations in Parkinson’s disease (PD are rarely investigated, especially in Asia. This study describes an eight-year trend in PD incidence and prevalence in Taiwan as well as assessing the effects of sociodemographics and urbanization on the incidence and prevalence of PD. The data analyzed were acquired from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD entries between 2002 and 2009. The calendar year, sex, and age-specific rates were standardized, and the effects of the sociodemographics and urbanization on PD were assessed using Poisson regression analysis. PD incidence and prevalence showed a significantly increasing trend, with a greater magnitude noted for prevalence than for incidence (87.3% versus 9.2%. The PD incidence and prevalence increased with age and were slightly higher in men than in women. The people who were not under the labor force (i.e., dependents or with lower monthly incomes were at significantly increased adjusted incidence rate ratio (1.50–1.56 and adjusted prevalence rate ratio (1.66–1.71 of PD. Moreover, significantly higher PD incidence and prevalence were noted in areas with lesser urbanization. This information emphasizes the need for preventive and clinical care strategies targeting the segment of Taiwanese population that exhibited a greater incidence and prevalence of PD.

  5. Determining child maltreatment incidence in Saudi Arabia using the ICAST-CH: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eissa, Majid A; AlBuhairan, Fadia S; Qayad, Mohammed; Saleheen, Hassan; Runyan, Desmond; Almuneef, Maha

    2015-04-01

    Studies in other countries, including countries with mandated reporting by professionals and a long history of recognition of the problem, have found child abuse to be seriously under reported. This population-based pilot study was conducted to determine the magnitude of adolescents' exposure to CAN at home, and to identify ethical and methodological challenges to conducting a survey on a culturally sensitive subject. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Al-Kharj city in 2011-2012. Through a stratified multistage cluster random sampling of schools, a sample of adolescents (15-18 years) were identified and invited to participate. The ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool-Child: Home version (ICAST-CH) was used for data collection. The previous year's incidence of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, neglect, and exposure to violence were assessed. A total of 2,043 students participated in the study (mean age, 16.6 years; 58%, female). The incidence of psychological abuse, physical abuse, exposure to violence, neglect, and sexual abuse were 74.9%, 57.5%, 50.7%, 50.2%, and 14.0%, respectively. Female participants were at higher risk for psychological and physical abuse, exposure to violence, and neglect, but not for sexual abuse. The rates and gender distribution of CAN at home differ from findings of health-based records. Our results are comparable to other regional population-based studies. Thus, population-based data are necessary to inform and guide professionals and decision makers for prevention policies and resource allocation. Insights to ethical and methodological challenges surrounding the sensitive nature of this type of study are discussed.

  6. Alcohol consumption and prostate cancer incidence and progression: A Mendelian randomisation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Clair; Davies, Neil M; Martin, Richard M; Eeles, Rosalind; Easton, Doug; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Benlloch, Sara; Muir, Kenneth; Giles, Graham; Wiklund, Fredrik; Gronberg, Henrik; Haiman, Christopher A; Schleutker, Johanna; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Travis, Ruth C; Neal, David; Donovan, Jenny; Hamdy, Freddie C; Pashayan, Nora; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Stanford, Janet L; Blot, William J; Thibodeau, Stephen; Maier, Christiane; Kibel, Adam S; Cybulski, Cezary; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Brenner, Hermann; Park, Jong; Kaneva, Radka; Batra, Jyotsna; Teixeira, Manuel R; Pandha, Hardev; Zuccolo, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in developed countries, and is a target for risk reduction strategies. The effects of alcohol consumption on prostate cancer incidence and survival remain unclear, potentially due to methodological limitations of observational studies. In this study, we investigated the associations of genetic variants in alcohol-metabolising genes with prostate cancer incidence and survival. We analysed data from 23,868 men with prostate cancer and 23,051 controls from 25 studies within the international PRACTICAL Consortium. Study-specific associations of 68 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 8 alcohol-metabolising genes (Alcohol Dehydrogenases (ADHs) and Aldehyde Dehydrogenases (ALDHs)) with prostate cancer diagnosis and prostate cancer-specific mortality, by grade, were assessed using logistic and Cox regression models, respectively. The data across the 25 studies were meta-analysed using fixed-effect and random-effects models. We found little evidence that variants in alcohol metabolising genes were associated with prostate cancer diagnosis. Four variants in two genes exceeded the multiple testing threshold for associations with prostate cancer mortality in fixed-effect meta-analyses. SNPs within ALDH1A2 associated with prostate cancer mortality were rs1441817 (fixed effects hazard ratio, HRfixed  = 0.78; 95% confidence interval (95%CI):0.66,0.91; p values = 0.002); rs12910509, HRfixed  = 0.76; 95%CI:0.64,0.91; p values = 0.003); and rs8041922 (HRfixed  = 0.76; 95%CI:0.64,0.91; p values = 0.002). These SNPs were in linkage disequilibrium with each other. In ALDH1B1, rs10973794 (HRfixed  = 1.43; 95%CI:1.14,1.79; p values = 0.002) was associated with prostate cancer mortality in men with low-grade prostate cancer. These results suggest that alcohol consumption is unlikely to affect prostate cancer incidence, but it may influence disease progression.

  7. Occupational Noise Frequencies and the Incidence of Hypertension in a Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiu-Shong; Young, Li-Hao; Yu, Tzu-Yi; Bao, Bo-Ying; Chang, Ta-Yuan

    2016-07-15

    Occupational noise exposure is associated with cardiovascular disease, but little is known about the contributions of noise frequency components. This retrospective study investigated the relationship between exposure to different noise frequencies and the incidence of hypertension. A cohort of 1,002 volunteers from 4 machinery and equipment manufacturing companies in Taichung, Taiwan, was followed from 1973 to 2012. Personal noise measurements and environmental octave-band analyses were performed to divide subjects into different exposure groups. Cox regression models were used to estimate the relative risk of hypertension. Participants exposed to ≥80 A-weighted decibels (dBA) over 8 years had a higher relative risk of hypertension (relative risk = 1.38, 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 1.85) compared with those exposed to <75 dBA. Significant exposure-response patterns were observed between incident hypertension and stratum of noise exposure at frequencies of 250 Hz, 1 kHz, 2 kHz, 4 kHz, and 8 kHz. The strongest effect was found at 4 kHz; a 20-dBA increase in noise exposure at 4 kHz was associated with a 34% higher risk of hypertension (relative risk = 1.34, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.77). Occupational noise exposure may be associated with an increased risk of hypertension, and the 4 kHz component of occupational noise exposure may have the strongest relationship with hypertension.

  8. Specular reflectance of soiled glass mirrors - Study on the impact of incidence angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimsath, Anna; Lindner, Philip; Klimm, Elisabeth; Schmid, Tobias; Moreno, Karolina Ordonez; Elon, Yehonatan; Am-Shallem, Morag; Nitz, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The accumulation of dust and soil on the surface of solar reflectors is an important factor reducing the power output of solar power plants. Therefore the effect of accumulated dust on the specular reflectance of solar mirrors should be understood well in order to improve the site-dependent performance prediction. Furthermore, an optimization of the CSP System maintenance, in particular the cleaning cycles, can be achieved. Our measurements show a noticeable decrease of specular reflectance when the angle of incidence is increased. This effect may be explained by shading and blocking mechanisms caused by dirt particles. The main physical causes of radiation loss being absorption and scattering, the near-angle scattering leads to a further decrease of specular reflectance for smaller angles of acceptance. Within this study mirror samples were both outdoor exposed and indoor artificially soiled. For indoor soiling, the mirror samples were artificially soiled in an in-house developed dusting device using both artificial-standardized dust and real dust collected from an arid outdoor test field at the Negev desert. A model function is proposed that approximates the observed reduction of specular reflectance with the incidence angle with a sufficient accuracy and by simple means for this soil type. Hence a first step towards a new approach to improve site dependent performance prediction of solar power plants is taken.

  9. Experimental study on hydrodynamic coefficients for high-incidence-angle maneuver of a submarine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Yong Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Snap rolling during hard turning and instability during emergency rising are important features of submarine operation. Hydrodynamics modeling using a high incidence flow angle is required to predict these phenomena. In the present study, a quasi-steady dynamics model of a submarine suitable for high-incidence-angle maneuvering applications is developed. To determine the hydrodynamic coefficients of the model, static tests, dynamic tests, and control surface tests were conducted in a towing tank and wind tunnel. The towing tank test is conducted utilizing a Reynolds number of 3.12 × 106, and the wind tunnel test is performed utilizing a Reynolds number of 5.11 × 106. In addition, least squares, golden section search, and surface fitting using polynomial models were used to analyze the experimental results. The obtained coefficients are presented in tabular form and can be used for various purposes such as hard turning simulation, emergency rising simulation, and controller design.

  10. Comparative study of four time series methods in forecasting typhoid fever incidence in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingyu; Liu, Yuanyuan; Yang, Min; Zhang, Tao; Young, Alistair A; Li, Xiaosong

    2013-01-01

    Accurate incidence forecasting of infectious disease is critical for early prevention and for better government strategic planning. In this paper, we present a comprehensive study of different forecasting methods based on the monthly incidence of typhoid fever. The seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model and three different models inspired by neural networks, namely, back propagation neural networks (BPNN), radial basis function neural networks (RBFNN), and Elman recurrent neural networks (ERNN) were compared. The differences as well as the advantages and disadvantages, among the SARIMA model and the neural networks were summarized and discussed. The data obtained for 2005 to 2009 and for 2010 from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention were used as modeling and forecasting samples, respectively. The performances were evaluated based on three metrics: mean absolute error (MAE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), and mean square error (MSE). The results showed that RBFNN obtained the smallest MAE, MAPE and MSE in both the modeling and forecasting processes. The performances of the four models ranked in descending order were: RBFNN, ERNN, BPNN and the SARIMA model.

  11. Comparative study of four time series methods in forecasting typhoid fever incidence in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingyu Zhang

    Full Text Available Accurate incidence forecasting of infectious disease is critical for early prevention and for better government strategic planning. In this paper, we present a comprehensive study of different forecasting methods based on the monthly incidence of typhoid fever. The seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA model and three different models inspired by neural networks, namely, back propagation neural networks (BPNN, radial basis function neural networks (RBFNN, and Elman recurrent neural networks (ERNN were compared. The differences as well as the advantages and disadvantages, among the SARIMA model and the neural networks were summarized and discussed. The data obtained for 2005 to 2009 and for 2010 from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention were used as modeling and forecasting samples, respectively. The performances were evaluated based on three metrics: mean absolute error (MAE, mean absolute percentage error (MAPE, and mean square error (MSE. The results showed that RBFNN obtained the smallest MAE, MAPE and MSE in both the modeling and forecasting processes. The performances of the four models ranked in descending order were: RBFNN, ERNN, BPNN and the SARIMA model.

  12. The Mediterranean diet and incidence of hypertension: the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Córdoba, Jorge M; Valencia-Serrano, Félix; Toledo, Estefanía; Alonso, Alvaro; Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2009-02-01

    The Mediterranean diet is receiving increasing attention in cardiovascular epidemiology. The association of adherence to the Mediterranean diet with the incidence of hypertension was evaluated among 9,408 men and women enrolled in a dynamic Spanish prospective cohort study during 1999-2005. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline with a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, and a 9-point Mediterranean diet score was constructed. During a median follow-up period of 4.2 years (range, 1.9-7.9), 501 incident cases of hypertension were identified. After adjustment for major hypertension risk factors and nutritional covariates, adherence to the Mediterranean diet was not associated with hypertension (the hazard ratio was 1.10 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81, 1.41) for moderate adherence and 1.12 (95% CI: 0.79, 1.60) for high adherence). However, it was associated with reduced changes in mean levels of systolic blood pressure (moderate adherence, -2.4 mm Hg (95% CI: -4.0, -0.8); high adherence, -3.1 mm Hg (95% CI: -5.4, -0.8)) and diastolic blood pressure (moderate adherence, -1.3 mm Hg (95% CI: -2.5, -0.1); high adherence, -1.9 mm Hg (95% CI: -3.6, -0.1)) after 6 years of follow-up. These results suggest that adhering to a Mediterranean-type diet could contribute to the prevention of age-related changes in blood pressure.

  13. Road traffic noise and incident myocardial infarction: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Sørensen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Both road traffic noise and ambient air pollution have been associated with risk for ischemic heart disease, but only few inconsistent studies include both exposures. METHODS: In a population-based cohort of 57 053 people aged 50 to 64 years at enrolment in 1993-1997, we identified 1600 cases of first-ever MI between enrolment and 2006. The mean follow-up time was 9.8 years. Exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution from 1988 to 2006 was estimated for all cohort members from residential address history. Associations between exposure to road traffic noise and incident MI were analysed in a Cox regression model with adjustment for air pollution (NO(x and other potential confounders: age, sex, education, lifestyle confounders, railway and airport noise. RESULTS: We found that residential exposure to road traffic noise (L(den was significantly associated with MI, with an incidence rate ratio IRR of 1.12 per 10 dB for both of the two exposure windows: yearly exposure at the time of diagnosis (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.02-1.22 and 5-years time-weighted mean (95% CI: 1.02-1.23 preceding the diagnosis. Visualizing of the results using restricted cubic splines showed a linear dose-response relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to long-term residential road traffic noise was associated with a higher risk for MI, in a dose-dependent manner.

  14. Factors affecting incidence of dry socket: a prospective community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathi, Krishnan; Smith, Andrew; Chandu, Arun

    2011-07-01

    Dry socket, or alveolar osteitis, can occur because of the removal of teeth. No clear etiology has been acknowledged; however, numerous risk factors have been proposed and tested. We report on the results of a prospective, multicenter study of the incidence and factors affecting the occurrence of alveolar osteitis at the Royal Dental Hospital of Melbourne and Community Dental Clinics in Melbourne, Australia. Ethics approval was gained from the University of Melbourne and Dental Health Services Victoria. The data were analyzed in a descriptive fashion, and the factors affecting alveolar osteitis were assessed using logistic regression analysis. The incidence of alveolar osteitis was 2.3% of all teeth extracted, with 4.2% of all patients experiencing alveolar osteitis in a public dental setting. Multivariate analysis revealed operator experience, perioperative crown and root fractures, periodontal disease, posterior teeth, and, interestingly, the use of mental health medications to be significant independent risk factors for the development of alveolar osteitis. No alveolar osteitis was reported in patients taking antibiotics, the oral contraceptive pill, bisphosphonates, or oral steroid drugs. Smoking and extraction technique (either operative or nonoperative) were also not found to significantly affect the development of alveolar osteitis.

  15. Insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome, and risk of incident cardiovascular disease: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jørgen; Hansen, Tine W; Rasmussen, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    , and NCEP-HOMA-IR as belonging to the highest 16% of the HOMA-IR distribution. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 9.4 years, the incidence of CV end points (CV death, nonfatal ischemic heart disease, and nonfatal stroke) amounted to 233 cases. In proportional hazard models, adjusting for age, gender......, smoking, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and with IDF-HOMA-IR and IDF-MetSyn included in the same model, the relative risk of an end point was 1.67 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22 to 2.29) for IDF-HOMA-IR and 1.16 (95% CI 0.84 to 1.60) for IDF-MetSyn. The corresponding figures for NCEP......-HOMA-IR and NCEP-MetSyn included in the same model were 1.49 (95% CI 1.07 to 2.07) and 1.56 (95% CI 1.12 to 2.17). CONCLUSIONS: In this Danish study, both HOMA-IR and NCEP-MetSyn were independent predictors of incident CVD....

  16. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Incidence, But Not Mortality, Has Decreased Nationwide: A National Trauma Data Bank Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahr, Michael; Jones, Glenn; O'Neal, Hollis; Duchesne, Juan; Tatum, Danielle

    2017-04-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) incidence is reported to have decreased in recent years. However, no large-scale study to date has exclusively examined ARDS in the critically injured. We sought to examine the national incidence of ARDS and its associated outcomes exclusively in adult trauma patients. The National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) was queried to evaluate the incidence of ARDS and associated outcomes over a 6-year study period (2007-2012). Included patients were ≥18 years old, with at least one ventilator day, and complications recorded. ARDS-associated outcomes and complications were also analyzed. Mean age increased over the study period (48.1-51.4 years, P < 0.003). ARDS incidence decreased from 21.5 to 8.5 per cent (P < 0.001). Length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit LOS (ICU LOS), and ventilator days decreased over time. Mortality increased from 21.3 to 24.9 per cent (P < 0.002). Incidence of pneumonia and acute kidney injury increased marginally (39.5-40.9% and 11.4-12.3%, respectively). Sepsis trended down from 2007 to 2010, after which comparable NTDB data were not available. ARDS incidence in mechanically ventilated adult trauma patients has decreased significantly in recent years. We theorize this is likely attributable to improved critical care strategies. Unlike ARDS incidence, mortality in this patient population has not improved despite these advancements.

  17. Adherence to diet, physical activity and body weight recommendations and breast cancer incidence in the Black Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Sarah J O; Dash, Chiranjeev; Rosenberg, Lynn; Yu, Jeffrey; Palmer, Julie R; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L

    2016-12-15

    Adherence to cancer prevention recommendations has been associated with lower incidence of breast cancer in previous studies, but evidence in African American women is limited. This project evaluated the association between adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) cancer prevention recommendations and breast cancer incidence among African American women. The Black Women's Health Study (analytic cohort = 49,103) is an ongoing prospective cohort study of African American women, ages 21-69 years at baseline (1995). Adherence scores for seven WCRF/AICR recommendations (adherent = 1, partial adherence = 0.5, non-adherence = 0) were calculated using questionnaire data and summed for overall (maximum = 7) and diet only (maximum = 5) scores. Associations between baseline and time-varying adherence scores and breast cancer incidence (N = 1,827 incident cases through 2011) were evaluated using proportional hazards regression. In this cohort, 8.5% adhered >4 recommendations. Adherence at baseline was not associated with breast cancer incidence. Higher overall time-varying adherence (per 0.5 point increase) was associated with lower breast cancer incidence (HR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.84-0.96). Adherence to physical activity, sugar beverage and red and processed meat recommendations were also associated with reduced risk. Adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations was low and may be associated with lower breast cancer incidence in African American women. © 2016 UICC.

  18. Incidence of cardiovascular events after kidney transplantation and cardiovascular risk scores: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo-Aguiar Dolores

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the major cause of death after renal transplantation. Not only conventional CVD risk factors, but also transplant-specific risk factors can influence the development of CVD in kidney transplant recipients. The main objective of this study will be to determine the incidence of post-transplant CVD after renal transplantation and related factors. A secondary objective will be to examine the ability of standard cardiovascular risk scores (Framingham, Regicor, SCORE, and DORICA to predict post-transplantation cardiovascular events in renal transplant recipients, and to develop a new score for predicting the risk of CVD after kidney transplantation. Methods/Design Observational prospective cohort study of all kidney transplant recipients in the A Coruña Hospital (Spain in the period 1981-2008 (2059 transplants corresponding to 1794 patients. The variables included will be: donor and recipient characteristics, chronic kidney disease-related risk factors, pre-transplant and post-transplant cardiovascular risk factors, routine biochemistry, and immunosuppressive, antihypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment. The events studied in the follow-up will be: patient and graft survival, acute rejection episodes and cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, invasive coronary artery therapy, cerebral vascular events, new-onset angina, congestive heart failure, rhythm disturbances and peripheral vascular disease. Four cardiovascular risk scores were calculated at the time of transplantation: the Framingham score, the European Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE equation, and the REGICOR (Registre Gironí del COR (Gerona Heart Registry, and DORICA (Dyslipidemia, Obesity, and Cardiovascular Risk functions. The cumulative incidence of cardiovascular events will be analyzed by competing risk survival methods. The clinical relevance of different variables will be calculated using the ARR (Absolute Risk

  19. Alcohol consumption and prostate cancer incidence and progression: A Mendelian randomisation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Clair; Davies, Neil M.; Martin, Richard M.; Eeles, Rosalind; Easton, Doug; Kote‐Jarai, Zsofia; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Benlloch, Sara; Muir, Kenneth; Giles, Graham; Wiklund, Fredrik; Gronberg, Henrik; Haiman, Christopher A.; Schleutker, Johanna; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Travis, Ruth C.; Neal, David; Donovan, Jenny; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Pashayan, Nora; Khaw, Kay‐Tee; Stanford, Janet L.; Blot, William J.; Thibodeau, Stephen; Maier, Christiane; Kibel, Adam S.; Cybulski, Cezary; Cannon‐Albright, Lisa; Brenner, Hermann; Park, Jong; Kaneva, Radka; Batra, Jyotsna; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Pandha, Hardev

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in developed countries, and is a target for risk reduction strategies. The effects of alcohol consumption on prostate cancer incidence and survival remain unclear, potentially due to methodological limitations of observational studies. In this study, we investigated the associations of genetic variants in alcohol‐metabolising genes with prostate cancer incidence and survival. We analysed data from 23,868 men with prostate cancer and 23,051 controls from 25 studies within the international PRACTICAL Consortium. Study‐specific associations of 68 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 8 alcohol‐metabolising genes (Alcohol Dehydrogenases (ADHs) and Aldehyde Dehydrogenases (ALDHs)) with prostate cancer diagnosis and prostate cancer‐specific mortality, by grade, were assessed using logistic and Cox regression models, respectively. The data across the 25 studies were meta‐analysed using fixed‐effect and random‐effects models. We found little evidence that variants in alcohol metabolising genes were associated with prostate cancer diagnosis. Four variants in two genes exceeded the multiple testing threshold for associations with prostate cancer mortality in fixed‐effect meta‐analyses. SNPs within ALDH1A2 associated with prostate cancer mortality were rs1441817 (fixed effects hazard ratio, HRfixed = 0.78; 95% confidence interval (95%CI):0.66,0.91; p values = 0.002); rs12910509, HRfixed = 0.76; 95%CI:0.64,0.91; p values = 0.003); and rs8041922 (HRfixed = 0.76; 95%CI:0.64,0.91; p values = 0.002). These SNPs were in linkage disequilibrium with each other. In ALDH1B1, rs10973794 (HRfixed = 1.43; 95%CI:1.14,1.79; p values = 0.002) was associated with prostate cancer mortality in men with low‐grade prostate cancer. These results suggest that alcohol consumption is unlikely to affect prostate cancer incidence, but it may influence disease progression. PMID:27643404

  20. Water protection after tympanostomy (Shepard) tubes does not decrease otorrhea incidence - retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subtil, João; Jardim, Ana; Peralta Santos, André; Araújo, João; Saraiva, José; Paço, João

    2017-07-17

    Myringotomy for tube insertion is the most common otologic surgery. Otorrhea is a frequent complication of this procedure and, to prevent it, most surgeons strongly recommend avoiding contact with water as this is thought to adversely impact on post-operative quality of life. To understand the benefit of this recommendation. Observational study - retrospective cohort study comparing the incidence of post-operative otorrhea and its impact on patients' quality of life, in two groups of patients comprising children under 10 years of age who underwent bilateral myringotomy and tube placement for chronic otitis media with effusion between May 2011 and May 2012. One group received water protection care after surgery, the other did not. Data was collected through telephonic interview, after one year of follow up (one year after the procedure). Water exposure without protection was considered the exposure event. Incidence of otorrhea and perceived impact on quality of life were the outcome measures. Results were compared after logistic regression. We included 143 children: 116 were not exposed to water without protection and 27 were exposed. In the not exposed group 36.2% had at least one episode of otorrhea, compared to 40.0% of the exposed group. Odds ratio for otorrhea on exposed was 1.21 (95% CI 0.51-2.85, p=0.6). Negative impact on quality of life was reported by parents of 48.2% on the not exposed children, compared to 40.7% on the exposed group. This difference was not significant (p=0.5). We found that recommending water protection did not have beneficial effect on the incidence of otorrhea after myringotomy with tubes on chronic otitis media with effusion. However, such measures did not appear to have a negative impact on quality of life. This is a populational observational study with few cases (143 cases); these final statements would be better stated by a very large populational study with another large control group. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira

  1. Risk factors for incident delirium in an acute general medical setting: a retrospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Emily Jane; Phillips, Nicole M; Mohebbi, Mohammadreza; Hutchinson, Alison M

    2017-03-01

    To determine predisposing and precipitating risk factors for incident delirium in medical patients during an acute hospital admission. Incident delirium is the most common complication of hospital admission for older patients. Up to 30% of hospitalised medical patients experience incident delirium. Determining risk factors for delirium is important for identifying patients who are most susceptible to incident delirium. Retrospective case-control study with two controls per case. An audit tool was used to review medical records of patients admitted to acute medical units for data regarding potential risk factors for delirium. Data were collected between August 2013 and March 2014 at three hospital sites of a healthcare organisation in Melbourne, Australia. Cases were 161 patients admitted to an acute medical ward and diagnosed with incident delirium between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2013. Controls were 321 patients sampled from the acute medical population admitted within the same time range, stratified for admission location and who did not develop incident delirium during hospitalisation. Identified using logistic regression modelling, predisposing risk factors for incident delirium were dementia, cognitive impairment, functional impairment, previous delirium and fracture on admission. Precipitating risk factors for incident delirium were use of an indwelling catheter, adding more than three medications during admission and having an abnormal sodium level during admission. Multiple risk factors for incident delirium exist; patients with a history of delirium, dementia and cognitive impairment are at greatest risk of developing delirium during hospitalisation. Nurses and other healthcare professionals should be aware of patients who have one or more risk factors for incident delirium. Knowledge of risk factors for delirium has the potential to increase the recognition and understanding of patients who are vulnerable to delirium. Early recognition and

  2. Cancer incidence in parents who lost a child: a nationwide study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jiong; Johansen, Christoffer; Hansen, Dorthe

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been debated whether psychological stress causes cancer, but the scientific evidence remains contradictory. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the death of a child is related to cancer risk in bereaved parents. METHODS: The authors undertook a follow-up study...... based on national registers. All 21,062 parents who lost a child from 1980 to 1996 were recruited for the exposed cohort together with 293,745 randomly selected, unexposed parents. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the relative risk of cancer incidence up to 18 years after....../immune-related malignancies (ICD7 codes 155, 171, 191, 200-202, and 204), lymphatic/hematopoietic malignancies (ICD7 codes 200-205), and hormone related malignancies (ICD7 codes 170, 172, 175, and 177). RESULTS: The authors observed a slightly increased overall cancer risk in bereaved mothers (relative risk [RR], 1.18; 95...

  3. Clinico-functional study on the incidence of physical deficiencies in teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius NECULĂEȘ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the incidence of static disorders of the spine among teenagers. The study also aims at demonstrating the degree of correlation between functional evaluation of posture – through posturography – and the imagistic evaluation of the spine. The study sample comprised 250 teenagers aged between 12 and 18, who addressed to the medical clinic for a set of tests, including postural evaluation. The investigation comprised 250 teenagers aged between 12 and 18, who addressed the medical clinic for a set of tests, including postural evaluation. From among them, 63.20 % were male and 36.8% female; the age mean of the entire sample was 14.8. The statistical analysis conducted on the sample of posturally assessed subjects has found that the most common deviations are those manifested by vicious attitudes; the first are scoliotic attitudes, with 67.2% of the 84% of vicious attitudes encountered during the investigation.

  4. Incidence of otitis externa following swimming pool attendance--a case study in 6 indoor pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borneff, M.; Geyer, G.

    1982-08-01

    A bacteriological study of the microflora in the auditory meatus of patients with otitis externa after swimming in correlation to the water flora was done during winter 80/81. Six indoor-pools (monthly controls ahead had proven unobjectionable water quality) were analyzed daily, while all swimmers were asked to come for otologic examination whenever symptoms of otitis externa appeared. In a control group without otitis externa the auditory canal was inspected and swabs were taken immediately after swimming. The results indicate, that a short term contamination of the ear canal is possible by swimming in water of unobjectionable quality; this however does not necessarily lead to clinical appearances. Since the incidence of otitis externa in our study (0.01%) was not higher than the morbidity rate in nonswimmers, the data support the concept of the multiplex etiology for otitis externa.

  5. Room transfers and the risk of delirium incidence amongst hospitalized elderly medical patients: a case?control study

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, Amanda; Sharon E Straus; Hamid, Jemila S; Wong, Camilla L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Room transfers are suspected to promote the development of delirium in hospitalized elderly patients, but no studies have systematically examined the relationship between room transfers and delirium incidence. We used a case?control study to determine if the number of room transfers per patient days is associated with an increased incidence of delirium amongst hospitalized elderly medical patients, controlling for baseline risk factors. Methods We included patients 70?years of age ...

  6. Metal Emissions and Urban Incident Parkinson Disease: A Community Health Study of Medicare Beneficiaries by Using Geographic Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Willis, Allison W.; Evanoff, Bradley A.; Lian, Min; Galarza, Aiden; Wegrzyn, Andrew; Schootman, Mario; Racette, Brad A.

    2010-01-01

    Parkinson disease associated with farming and exposure to agricultural chemicals has been reported in numerous studies; little is known about Parkinson disease risk factors for those living in urban areas. The authors investigated the relation between copper, lead, or manganese emissions and Parkinson disease incidence in the urban United States, studying 29 million Medicare beneficiaries in the year 2003. Parkinson disease incidence was determined by using beneficiaries who had not changed r...

  7. Value of orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, and medications in prospective population studies of incident heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekundayo, O James; Howard, Virginia J; Safford, Monika M; McClure, Leslie A; Arnett, Donna; Allman, Richard M; Howard, George; Ahmed, Ali

    2009-07-15

    Prospective population studies of incident heart failure (HF) are often limited by difficulties in assembling HF-free cohorts. In this study, public-use copies of the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) data sets were used to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of orthopnea and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (PND), with and without the use of medications used in CHS HF criteria (diuretics plus digoxin or vasodilators), in the diagnosis of prevalent HF and in the assembly of a relatively HF-free population. Of the 5,771 community-dwelling older adults aged > or =65 years, 803 had orthopnea, 660 had PND, 1,075 had either symptom, 388 had both symptoms, 547 were using HF medications, and 4,315 had neither symptom and were not using HF medications. Definite HF was centrally adjudicated in 272 participants. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for either orthopnea or PND were 52% (95% confidence interval [CI] 46% to 58%), 83% (95% CI 82% to 84%), 13% (95% CI 11% to 15%), and 97% (95% CI 97% to 98%), respectively, and those for either orthopnea or PND or the use of HF medications were 77% (95% CI 72% to 82%), 77% (95% CI 76% to 79%), 14% (95% CI 13% to 16%), and 99% (95% CI 98% to 99%), respectively. In conclusion, only medications also did not have HF, which may be useful as a simple and inexpensive tool in assembling relatively HF-free cohorts for prospective population studies of incident HF.

  8. Type 2 diabetes, glucose homeostasis and incident atrial fibrillation: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley, Rachel R.; Alonso, Alvaro; Lopez, Faye L.; Filion, Kristian B.; Agarwal, Sunil K.; Loehr, Laura R.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Pankow, James S.; Selvin, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Objective Type 2 diabetes has been inconsistently associated with risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) in previous studies that have frequently been beset by methodological challenges. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Participants Detailed medical histories were obtained on 13025 participants. Individuals were categorized as having no diabetes, pre-diabetes or diabetes based on the 2010 American Diabetes Association criteria at study baseline (1990–92). Main Outcome Measures Diagnoses of incident AF were obtained through 2007. Associations between type 2 diabetes and markers of glucose homeostasis with the incidence of AF were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models after adjusting for possible confounders. Results Type 2 diabetes was associated with a significant increase in risk of AF (HR 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14–1.60) after adjustment for confounders. There was no indication that individuals with pre-diabetes or those with undiagnosed diabetes were at increased risk of AF compared to those without diabetes. We observed a positive linear association between HbA1c and risk of AF in those with and without diabetes: 1.13 (1.07–1.20) and 1.05 (0.96–1.15) per 1% point increase, respectively. There was no association between fasting glucose or insulin (p>0.05) in those without diabetes but a significant association with fasting glucose in those with the condition (p=0.0002). Results were similar in whites and African Americans. Conclusions Diabetes, HbA1c level and poor glycemic control are independently associated with increased risk of AF, but the underlying mechanisms governing the relationship are unknown and warrant further investigation. PMID:21930722

  9. Altered renal sodium handling and risk of incident hypertension: Results of the Olivetti Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Elia, Lanfranco; Cappuccio, Francesco P.; Iacone, Roberto; Russo, Ornella; Galletti, Ferruccio; Strazzullo, Pasquale

    2017-01-01

    Renal tubular sodium (Na) handling plays a key role in blood pressure (BP) regulation. Several cross-sectional studies reported a positive association between higher proximal tubule fractional reabsorption of Na and BP, but no prospective investigation has been reported of this possible association. Hence, the purpose of this study was to estimate the predictive role of renal Na handling on the risk of incident hypertension and the changes in BP occurring in the 8-year follow-up observation of a sample of initially normotensive men (The Olivetti Heart Study). The study included 294 untreated normotensive non-diabetic men with normal renal function examined twice (1994–95 and 2002–04). Renal tubular Na handling was estimated by exogenous lithium clearance. Fractional reabsorption of Na in proximal and distal tubules was calculated and included in the analysis. At baseline, there was no association between BP and either proximal or distal fractional reabsorption of Na. At the end of the 8-year follow-up, direct associations were observed between baseline proximal (but not distal) Na fractional reabsorption and the changes occurred in systolic and diastolic BP over time (+2.79 and +1.53 mmHg, respectively, per 1SD difference in proximal Na-FR; phypertension, independently of potential confounders (OR: 1.34, 95%CI:1.06–1.70). The results of this prospective investigation strongly suggest a causal relationship between an enhanced rate of Na reabsorption in the proximal tubule and the risk of incident hypertension in initially normotensive men. PMID:28196131

  10. A STUDY OF INCID ENCE OF AWARENESS IN GENERAL AN ESTHESIA WITH INHALATIONAL AGENT (HALOTHANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeraghu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES : A wareness during general anesthesia is a frightening experience , which may result in serious emotional injury and post - traumatic disorders. Awareness have been reported with many anesthetic techniques , particularly surgical patient populations such as thos e requiring anesthesia for Obstetrics , Major trauma , and cardiac surgery are known to experience a high incidence ( 7 - 43% of awareness. In our study we have made an attempt to evaluate the incidence of awareness in surgical patients under general anesthesi a using inhalational agent ( Halothane with Nitrous oxide . In this study we have evaluated the incidence of awareness by using Blood Pressure , Heart Rate , Sweating , Tears score intraoperatively and interviewing patients post - operatively by standard questio nnaire . MATERIALS AND METHODS : Hundred patients undergoing surgical procedures under general Anesthesia were randomly selected for the study . They were posted to undergo surgery from November 2011 to July 2013 . Parameters observed : Intra - operatively Blood Pressure , Heart Rate , Sweating , Tears scoring was done at 0 minutes in the operation theatre before induction and 10 minutes after intubation and monitored every 10 minutes till the end of surgery. All the patients were interviewed in the post - operative pe riod soon after complete recovery and 24 hours later again with a set of 10 questions ( Questionnaire method . RESULTS : In our study we have a standard interview questionnaire in the post operative period to study the incidence of awareness. We found that n one of the patients had conscious recall of the events during surgery. In our study of 100 patients none of the patients had awareness. Injection atropine 20 mcg/kg body weight and injection pethidine 1mg/kg body weight were given as premedication. Inducti on agent used was injection thiopental sodium 5mg/kg body weight and maintained with Nitrous oxide , Halothane as

  11. Effects of Human Development Index and Its Components on Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality: a Global Ecological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Salman; Rezaeian, Shahab; Khazaei, Somayeh; Mansori, Kamyar; Sanjari Moghaddam, Ali; Ayubi, Erfan

    2016-01-01

    Geographic disparity for colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality according to the human development index (HDI) might be expected. This study aimed at quantifying the effect measure of association HDI and its components on the CRC incidence and mortality. In this ecological study, CRC incidence and mortality was obtained from GLOBOCAN, the global cancer project for 172 countries. Data were extracted about HDI 2013 for 169 countries from the World Bank report. Linear regression was constructed to measure effects of HDI and its components on CRC incidence and mortality. A positive trend between increasing HDI of countries and age-standardized rates per 100,000 of CRC incidence and mortality was observed. Among HDI components education was the strongest effect measure of association on CRC incidence and mortality, regression coefficients (95% confidence intervals) being 2.8 (2.4, 3.2) and 0.9 (0.8, 1), respectively. HDI and its components were positively related with CRC incidence and mortality and can be considered as targets for prevention and treatment intervention or tracking geographic disparities.

  12. Incidence of HIV and Syphilis among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM in Beijing: An Open Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowu Liu

    Full Text Available This study investigated HIV and syphilis incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM in Beijing, China.An open cohort was established from September 2009 to April 2012. Participants were followed up with every three to four months after recruitment and for thirty-one months in total. Chi-square tests were used to compare demographic and behavioral characteristics between participants who were followed up with and those lost to follow up. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to examine demographic and behavioral associations with HIV and syphilis incidence.69.7% (699/1,003 of the participants finished at least two follow-up surveys during the study period. Variables which corresponded to increased loss to follow-up included younger age, less education, non-identification of homosexual identity, and migrant status. A total of 1,045 person-years (PYs and 1,016.4 PYs were followed up for HIV and syphilis incidence estimation, respectively. The HIV incidence was 5.9 per 100 PYs and 7.8 per 100 PYs for syphilis. The predictors for the high HIV incidence included unsafe anal sex, sex after drinking alcohol and STI infection.HIV incidence increased rapidly within the cohort, but syphilis incidence remained stable and decreased. More research is needed to provide multi-pronged HIV prevention interventions among MSM in order to reduce the increasing burden of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs in China.

  13. Molecular dynamics study of radiation damage and microstructure evolution of zigzag single-walled carbon nanotubes under carbon ion incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Huan [Department of Nuclear Science & Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing (China); Tang, Xiaobin, E-mail: tangxiaobin@nuaa.edu.cn [Department of Nuclear Science & Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Equipment Materials Engineering, Nanjing (China); Chen, Feida; Huang, Hai; Liu, Jian [Department of Nuclear Science & Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing (China); Chen, Da [Department of Nuclear Science & Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Equipment Materials Engineering, Nanjing (China)

    2016-07-01

    Highlights: • Various incident sites of CNTs are classified into three types for the first time. • Different ion energies and fluences are considered to study the radiation damage. • CNTs have ability to heal the radiation-induced damage at higher temperature. • Stability of a large-diameter tube excels in a slim one under the same conditions. - Abstract: The radiation damage and microstructure evolution of different zigzag single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were investigated under incident carbon ion by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The radiation damage of SWCNTs under incident carbon ion with energy ranging from 25 eV to 1 keV at 300 K showed many differences at different incident sites, and the defect production increased to the maximum value with the increase in incident ion energy, and slightly decreased but stayed fairly stable within the majority of the energy range. The maximum damage of SWCNTs appeared when the incident ion energy reached 200 eV and the level of damage was directly proportional to incident ion fluence. The radiation damage was also studied at 100 K and 700 K and the defect production decreased distinctly with rising temperature because radiation-induced defects would anneal and recombine by saturating dangling bonds and reconstructing carbon network at the higher temperature. Furthermore, the stability of a large-diameter tube surpassed that of a thin one under the same radiation environments.

  14. Increasing incidence of multiple sclerosis among women in Buenos Aires: a 22 year health maintenance organization based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristiano, E; Patrucco, L; Miguez, J; Giunta, D; Peroni, J; Rojas, J I

    2016-10-01

    Studies in multiple sclerosis (MS) suggest a trend of increasing disease prevalence and incidence, and especially, a disproportional increase in the incidence of multiple sclerosis in women. The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of MS over 22 years and to determine the ratio in incidence of men to women in a health maintenance organization from Buenos Aires, Argentina. The population was made up of all members of a hospital-based HMO affiliated between January 1992 and December 2013. Each person was followed contributing time at risk. Cases with definite diagnosis of MS were included. Incidence density was calculated with 95 % confidence intervals and compared between women and men. 165,456 subjects were followed for a total of 1,488,575 person-years, of whom 42 developed MS. Incidence density was 3/100,000 person-years (95 % CI 2.1-3.5/100,000 person-years). During this period (1992-2013), the incidence rate in women increased from 1/100,000 (95 % CI 0.8-1.6) to 4.9/100,000 (95 % CI 4.1-5.4) (p incidence ranged from 1.4/100,000 (95 % CI 1-1.7) to 1.8 (1.3-2.1) (p = 0.16). Incidence density during the study period increased significantly in women but not in men. This is the first report of this phenomenon in Latin America region.

  15. Incidence and predictive factors of depressive symptoms in Alzheimer's disease: the REAL.FR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbus, C; Gardette, V; Cantet, C E; Andrieu, S; Nourhashémi, F; Schmitt, L; Vellas, B

    2011-08-01

    Many patients develop psychiatric and behavioral disturbances in the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Among these disturbances, depressive symptoms are frequent and affect nearly 40% of patients. The natural history and course of such symptoms in AD, and in particular the predictive factors, are little known. We studied the incidence and risk factors for the development of the first depressive symptoms in AD. Multicenter prospective study. Three hundred twelve AD patients from the French Network on AD (REAL.FR) without depression and without antidepressant treatment at baseline were followed up and assessed every 6 months for 4 years. During follow-up, all events occurring between two visits were carefully recorded. We used the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) for comprehensive evaluation of behavioral and psychological symptoms and depressive symptoms in particular. A multivariate analysis was performed using a backward stepwise Cox proportional hazards model. The incidence of depressive symptoms was 17.45% person/years, 95%CI (13.88-21.02). Among non-time dependent variables, duration of disease (RR=0.51; 95%CI: 0.30-0.85, p=0.0102) and the number of comorbid conditions (RR=0.45; 95%CI: 0.24-0.83, p=0.0115) were protective factors against the development of depressive symptoms. Agitation/aggression (RR=1.96; 95%CI: 1.19-3.23, p=0.0078) and sleep disturbances (RR=2.65; 95%CI: 1.40-5.00, p=0.0026) were time-dependent variables predictive of depressive symptoms. Better knowledge of predictive factors of mood disturbances in AD will enable clinicians to set up appropriate management of their patients. As published longitudinal studies are few, further works should be carried out to improve knowledge of the pattern and course of depression and depressive symptoms in AD.

  16. Incidence and risk factors for surgically acquired pressure ulcers: a prospective cohort study investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Joan; Lister, Carolyn; Corry, Jean; Holland, Michelle; Coleman, Kerrie; Marquart, Louise

    2015-01-01

    To assess the incidence of hospital-acquired, surgery-related pressure injury (ulcers) and identify risk factors for these injuries. We used a prospective cohort study to investigate the research question. The study was conducted at a major metropolitan hospital in Brisbane, Australia. Five hundred thirty-four adult patients booked for any surgical procedure expected to last more than 30 minutes were eligible for inclusion. Patients who provided informed consent for study participation were assessed for pressure ulcers, using the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel and National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel Guidelines, before entering the operating room and again in the post-anesthetic care unit (PACU). Research nurses and all PACU nurses were trained in skin assessment and in pressure ulcer staging. Patients were not assessed again after their discharge from the PACU. Seven patients (1.3%) had existing pressure injuries (ulcers) and a further 6 (1.3%) developed a surgery-related pressure ulcer. Risk factors associated with surgery-related pressure injuries were similar to non-surgically related risks and included older age, skin condition, and being admitted from a location other than one's own home. Length of surgery was not associated with pressure ulcer development in this cohort. Perioperative nurses play an important role in identifying existing or new pressure injuries. However, many of these nurses are unfamiliar with pressure ulcer classification, so education in this area is essential. Although the incidence of surgically acquired pressure ulcers was low in this cohort, careful skin inspection before and after surgery provides an opportunity for early treatment and may prevent existing lesions progressing to higher stages.

  17. Occupational Exposure to Pesticides and the Incidence of Lung Cancer in the Agricultural Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Matthew R; Freeman, Laura E Beane; Hoppin, Jane A; Koutros, Stella; Sandler, Dale P; Lynch, Charles F; Hines, Cynthia J; Thomas, Kent; Blair, Aaron; Alavanja, Michael C R

    2017-04-01

    Occupational pesticide use is associated with lung cancer in some, but not all, epidemiologic studies. In the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), we previously reported positive associations between several pesticides and lung cancer incidence. We evaluated use of 43 pesticides and 654 lung cancer cases after 10 years of additional follow-up in the AHS, a prospective cohort study comprising 57,310 pesticide applicators from Iowa and North Carolina. Information about lifetime pesticide use and other factors was ascertained at enrollment (1993-1997) and updated with a follow-up questionnaire (1999-2005). Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for smoking (smoking status and pack-years), sex, and lifetime days of use of any pesticides. Hazard ratios were elevated in the highest exposure category of lifetime days of use for pendimethalin (1.50; 95% CI: 0.98, 2.31), dieldrin (1.93; 95% CI: 0.70, 5.30), and chlorimuron ethyl (1.74; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.96), although monotonic exposure-response gradients were not evident. The HRs for intensity-weighted lifetime days of use of these pesticides were similar. For parathion, the trend was statistically significant for intensity-weighted lifetime days (p = 0.049) and borderline for lifetime days (p = 0.073). None of the remaining pesticides evaluated was associated with lung cancer incidence. These analyses provide additional evidence for an association between pendimethalin, dieldrin, and parathion use and lung cancer risk. We found an association between chlorimuron ethyl, a herbicide introduced in 1986, and lung cancer that has not been previously reported. Continued follow-up is warranted.

  18. Micronutrient Intakes and Incidence of Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Farhadnejad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between micronutrient intakes and the 3.6-year incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD in adults. This cohort study was conducted, within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, on 1692 subjects, aged ≥30 years, without CKD at the baseline. Dietary intakes were collected using a valid and reliable food-frequency questionnaire. Anthropometrics and biochemical measurements were taken. Chronic kidney disease was defined as eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. The mean age of participants was 43.3 ± 11.4 years. In the fully adjusted model, individuals in the top quintile of folate (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.24–0.80, cobalamin (OR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.34–0.93, vitamin C (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.21–0.69, vitamin E (OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.22–0.92, vitamin D (OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.21–0.70, potassium (OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.23–0.97 and magnesium (OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.22–0.76 had decreased risk of CKD, and in the top quintile of sodium (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.03–2.61, subjects had increased risk of CKD, in comparison to the bottom quintile. No significant associations were found between the intakes of other micronutrients. High intake of several micronutrients including vitamins C, E, D, cobalamin, folate, magnesium, and potassium was associated with a decreased risk, while sodium was associated with an increased risk of incident CKD.

  19. Vitamin D status and incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality: a general population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Pisinger, Charlotta; Jørgensen, Torben; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk; Fenger, Mogens; Linneberg, Allan

    2013-06-01

    Low vitamin D status has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality primarily in selected groups, smaller studies, or with self-reported vitamin D intake. We investigated the association of serum vitamin D status with the incidence of a registry-based diagnosis of ischemic heart disease (IHD), stroke, and all-cause mortality in a large sample of the general population. A total of 9,146 individuals from the two population-based studies, Monica10 and Inter99, were included. Measurements of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D at baseline were carried out using the IDS ISYS immunoassay system in Monica10 and High-performance liquid chromatography in Inter99. Information on CVDs and causes of death was obtained from Danish registries until 31 December 2008. There were 478 cases of IHD, 316 cases of stroke, and 633 deaths during follow-up (mean follow-up 10 years). Cox regression analyses with age as underlying time axis showed a significant association between vitamin D status and all-cause mortality with a HR = 0.95 (P = 0.005) per 10 nmol/l higher vitamin D level. We found no association between vitamin D status and incidence of IHD or stroke (HR = 1.01, P = 0.442 and HR = 1.00, P = 0.920, respectively). In this large general population study, the observed inverse association between serum vitamin D status and all-cause mortality was not explained by a similar inverse association with IHD or stroke.

  20. Cholesteatoma in Danish children - A national study of changes in the incidence rate over 34 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djurhuus, Bjarki Ditlev; Skytthe, Axel; Christensen, Kaare;

    2015-01-01

    was examined using Poisson regression analysis, while the cumulative incidence proportion was estimated using life-tables. RESULTS: A total of 5850 cases of surgically treated middle ear cholesteatoma distributed among 3874 children aged 0-15 years were identified. From 1977 to 2002 the age...... of 5.4% (95% CI 3.2-7.5%). Age-specific incidence rates were at maximum around the age of 9 years during the whole period. The estimated cumulative incidence proportion at age 16 years based on the 2010 age-specific incidence rates was 0.16% (95% CI 0.09-0.32%) compared with 0.20% (95% CI 0...

  1. Incidence of pain flare following palliative radiotherapy for symptomatic bone metastases: multicenter prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Iturriaga, Alfonso; Cacicedo, Jon; Navarro, Arturo; Morillo, Virginia; Willisch, Patricia; Carvajal, Claudia; Hortelano, Eduardo; Lopez-Guerra, Jose Luis; Illescas, Ana; Casquero, Francisco; Del Hoyo, Olga; Ciervide, Raquel; Irasarri, Ana; Pijoan, Jose Ignacio; Bilbao, Pedro

    2015-10-01

    Palliative radiotherapy (RT) is an effective treatment for symptomatic bone metastases. Pain flare, a transient worsening of the bone pain after RT, has been described in previous reports with different incidence rates. The aim of the study was to prospectively evaluate the incidence of pain flare following RT for painful bone metastases and evaluate its effects on pain control and functionality of the patients. Between June 2010 and June 2014, 204 patients were enrolled in this study and 135 patients with complete data were evaluable. Pain flare was defined as a 2- point increase in worst pain score as compared with baseline with no decrease in analgesic intake or a 25% increase in analgesic intake as compared with baseline with no decrease in worst pain score. All pain medications and worst pain scores were collected before, daily during, and for 10 days after RT. The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) was filled out on the pretreatment and at the 4 weeks follow-up visit. There were 90 men (66.7%) and 45 women (33.3%). Mean age was 66 years (SD 9.8). The most common primary cancer site was lung in 42 patients (31.1%), followed by prostate in 27 patients (20.0%). Forty-two patients (31.1%) patients received a single fraction of 8 Gy and 83 (61.5%) received 20 Gy in five fractions. The overall pain flare incidence across all centers was 51/135 (37.7%). The majority of pain flares occurred on days 1-5 (88.2%). The mean duration of the pain flare was 3 days (SD: 3). There were no significant relationships between the occurrence of pain flare and collected variables. All BPI items measured four weeks after end of RT showed significant improvement as compared with pretreatment scores (p < 0.001). No significant differences in BPI time trends were found between patients with and without flare pain. Pain flare is a common event, occurring in nearly 40% of the patients that receive palliative RT for symptomatic bone metastases. This phenomenon is not a predictor for pain

  2. Incidence of carbapenem-resistant gram negatives in Italian transplant recipients: a nationwide surveillance study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Lanini

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections remain a challenge to solid organ transplantation. Due to the alarming spread of carbapenem-resistant gram negative bacteria, these organisms have been frequently recognized as cause of severe infections in solid organ transplant recipients.Between 15 May and 30 September 2012 we enrolled 887 solid organ transplant recipients in Italy with the aim to describe the epidemiology of gram negative bacteria spreading, to explore potential risk factors and to assess the effect of early isolation of gram negative bacteria on recipients' mortality during the first 90 days after transplantation. During the study period 185 clinical isolates of gram negative bacteria were reported, for an incidence of 2.39 per 1000 recipient-days. Positive cultures for gram negative bacteria occurred early after transplantation (median time 26 days; incidence rate 4.33, 1.67 and 1.14 per 1,000 recipient-days in the first, second and third month after SOT, respectively. Forty-nine of these clinical isolates were due to carbapenem-resistant gram negative bacteria (26.5%; incidence 0.63 per 1000 recipient-days. Carbapenems resistance was particularly frequent among Klebsiella spp. isolates (49.1%. Recipients with longer hospital stay and those who received either heart or lung graft were at the highest risk of testing positive for any gram negative bacteria. Moreover recipients with longer hospital stay, lung recipients and those admitted to hospital for more than 48h before transplantation had the highest probability to have culture(s positive for carbapenem-resistant gram negative bacteria. Forty-four organ recipients died (0.57 per 1000 recipient-days during the study period. Recipients with at least one positive culture for carbapenem-resistant gram negative bacteria had a 10.23-fold higher mortality rate than those who did not.The isolation of gram-negative bacteria is most frequent among recipient with hospital stays >48 hours prior to transplant

  3. Pesticide Use and Myocardial Infarction Incidence Among Farm Women in the Agricultural Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, Shile B.; Sandler, Dale P.; Blair, Aaron; Alavanja, Michael; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Hoppin, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the relationship between pesticide use and myocardial infarction (MI) among farm women. Background Little is known about the potential association between pesticide use and cardiovascular outcomes. Methods We used logistic regression to evaluate pesticide use and self-reported incident non-fatal MI among women in the Agricultural Health Study. Results Of those MI-free at enrollment (n=22,425), 168 reported an MI after enrollment. We saw no association with pesticide use overall. Six of 27 individual pesticides evaluated were significantly associated with non-fatal MI, including chlorpyrifos, coumaphos, carbofuran, metalaxyl, pendimethalin and trifluralin, which all had odds ratios greater than 1.7. These chemicals were used by <10% of the cases and their use was correlated, making it difficult to attribute the risk elevation to a specific pesticide. Conclusion Pesticides may contribute to MI risk among farm women. PMID:20595914

  4. Incidence of basilar invagination in patients with tonsillar herniation ? a case control craniometrical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei F Joaquim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective case-control study based on craniometrical evaluation was performed to evaluate the incidence of basilar invagination (BI. Patients with symptomatic tonsillar herniation treated surgically had craniometrical parameters evaluated based on CT scan reconstructions before surgery. BI was diagnosed when the tip of the odontoid trespassed the Chamberlain’s line in three different thresholds found in the literature: 2, 5 or 6.6 mm. In the surgical group (SU, the mean distance of the tip of the odontoid process above the Chamberlain’s line was 12 mm versus 1.2 mm in the control (CO group (p<0.0001. The number of patients with BI according to the threshold used (2, 5 or 6.6 mm in the SU group was respectively 19 (95%, 16 (80% and 15 (75% and in the CO group it was 15 (37%, 4 (10% and 2 (5%.

  5. The gender specific frequency of risk factor and CHD diagnoses prior to incident MI: A community study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobsen Steven J

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CHD is a chronic disease often present years prior to incident AMI. Earlier recognition of CHD may be associated with higher levels of recognition and treatment of CHD risk factors that may delay incident AMI. To assess timing of CHD and CHD risk factor diagnoses prior to incident AMI. Methods This is a 10-year population based medical record review study that included all medical care providers in Olmsted County, Minnesota for all women and a sample of men residing in Olmsted County, MN with confirmed incident AMI between 1995 and 2000. Results All medical care for the 10 years prior to incident AMI was reviewed for 150 women and 148 men (38% sample in Olmsted County, MN. On average, women were older than men at the time of incident AMI (74.7 versus 65.9 years, p Conclusion A CHD diagnosis prior to incident AMI is associated with higher rates of recognition and treatment of CHD risk factors suggesting that diagnosing CHD prior to AMI enhances opportunities to lower the risk of future CHD events.

  6. Pulmonary function and incident bronchitis and asthma in children: a community-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yungling Leo; Hwang, Bing-Fang; Chen, Yu-An; Chen, Jer-Min; Wu, Yi-Fan

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies revealed that reduction of airway caliber in infancy might increase the risks for wheezing and asthma. However, the evidence for the predictive effects of pulmonary function on respiratory health in children was still inconsistent. We conducted a population-based prospective cohort study among children in 14 Taiwanese communities. There were 3,160 children completed pulmonary function tests in 2007 and follow-up questionnaire in 2009. Poisson regression models were performed to estimate the effect of pulmonary function on the development of bronchitis and asthma. After adjustment for potential confounders, pulmonary function indices consistently showed protective effects on respiratory diseases in children. The incidence rate ratios of bronchitis and asthma were 0.86 (95% CI 0.79-0.95) and 0.91 (95% CI 0.82-0.99) for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV₁). Similar adverse effects of maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF) were also observed on bronchitis (RR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.67-0.81) and asthma (RR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.77-0.93). We found significant decreasing trends in categorized FEV₁ (p for trend = 0.02) and categories of MMEF (p for trend = 0.01) for incident bronchitis. Significant modification effects of traffic-related air pollution were noted for FEV₁ and MMEF on bronchitis and also for MMEF on asthma. Children with high pulmonary function would have lower risks on the development of bronchitis and asthma. The protective effect of high pulmonary function would be modified by traffic-related air pollution exposure.

  7. Newly diagnosed incident dizziness of older patients: a follow-up study in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hummers-Pradier Eva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dizziness is a common complaint of older patients in primary care, yet not much is known about the course of incident dizziness. The aim of the study was to follow-up symptoms, subjective impairments and needs of older patients (≥65 with incident dizziness and to determine predictors of chronic dizziness. Furthermore, we analysed general practitioners' (GPs' initial diagnoses, referrals and revised diagnoses after six months. Methods An observational study was performed in 21 primary care practices in Germany, including a four-week and six-month follow-up. A questionnaire comprising characteristic matters of dizziness and a series of validated instruments was completed by 66 participants during enrolment and follow-up (after 1 month and 6 months. After six months, chart reviews and face-to-face interviews were also performed with the GPs. Results Mean scores of dizziness handicap, depression and quality of life were not or only slightly affected, and did not deteriorate during follow-up; however, 24 patients (34.8% showed a moderate or severe dizziness handicap, and 43 (62.3% showed a certain disability in terms of quality of life at the time of enrolment. In multivariate analysis, n = 44 patients suffering from chronic dizziness (dependent variable, i.e. relapsing or persistent at six months initially had a greater dizziness handicap (OR 1.42, 95%CI 1.05-1.47 than patients with transient dizziness. GPs referred 47.8% of the patients to specialists who detected two additional cases of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV. Conclusions New-onset dizziness relapsed or persisted in a considerable number of patients within six months. This was difficult to predict due to the patients' heterogeneous complaints and characteristics. Symptom persistence does not seem to be associated with deterioration of the psychological status in older primary care patients. Management strategies should routinely consider BPPV as

  8. Incidence and Simple Prediction Model of Hyperuricemia for Urban Han Chinese Adults: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jin; Wang, Chunxia; Zhang, Guang; Ji, Xiang; Liu, Yanxun; Sun, Xiubin; Yuan, Zhongshang; Jiang, Zheng; Xue, Fuzhong

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hyperuricemia (HUA) contributes to gout and many other diseases. Many hyperuricemia-related risk factors have been discovered, which provided the possibility for building the hyperuricemia prediction model. In this study we aimed to explore the incidence of hyperuricemia and develop hyperuricemia prediction models based on the routine biomarkers for both males and females in urban Han Chinese adults. Methods: A cohort of 58,542 members of the urban population (34,980 males and 23,562 females) aged 20–80 years old, free of hyperuricemia at baseline examination, was followed up for a median 2.5 years. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to develop gender-specific prediction models. Harrell’s C-statistics was used to evaluate the discrimination ability of the models, and the 10-fold cross-validation was used to validate the models. Results: In 7139 subjects (5585 males and 1554 females), hyperuricemia occurred during a median of 2.5 years of follow-up, leading to a total incidence density of 49.63/1000 person years (64.62/1000 person years for males and 27.12/1000 person years for females). The predictors of hyperuricemia were age, body mass index (BMI) systolic blood pressure, serum uric acid for males, and BMI, systolic blood pressure, serum uric acid, triglycerides for females. The models’ C statistics were 0.783 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.779–0.786) for males and 0.784 (95% CI, 0.778–0.789) for females. After 10-fold cross-validation, the C statistics were still steady, with 0.782 for males and 0.783 for females. Conclusions: In this study, gender-specific prediction models for hyperuricemia for urban Han Chinese adults were developed and performed well.

  9. Incidence of complications in bronchoscopy. Multicentre prospective study of 20,986 bronchoscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facciolongo, N; Patelli, M; Gasparini, S; Lazzari Agli, L; Salio, M; Simonassi, C; Del Prato, B; Zanoni, P

    2009-03-01

    To evaluate the frequency of complications in bronchoscopy from data compiled between 1/2/2002 to 1/2/2003. Nineteen Italian centres of thoracic endoscopy participated in the study, for a total of 20,986 bronchoscopies (FBS), including 10,658 explorative bronchoscopies (EB) (50.79%), 5,520 bronchial biopsies (BB) (26.30%), 1,660 transbronchial biopsies (TBB) (7.91%), 1,127 broncho-alveolar lavages (BAL) (5.37%), 930 transbronchial needle-aspirates (TBNA) (4.43%), 1.091 therapeutic bronchoscopies (TB), comprising ND-YAG Laser, argon-plasma, electrocautery knife, stent insertion (5.20%). 82.4% of the procedures involved the use of a flexible bronchoscope, 16.3% were carried out using a rigid bronchoscope and 1.3% using the mixed technique. The total number of complications recorded was 227 (1.08% of the cases examined), including 20 (0.09%) during local anesthesia and pre-medication, 195 (0.92%) during the endoscopic procedures and 12 (0.05%) in the two hours following FBS. The total number of deaths was 4 (0.02%), due to cardiac arrest, pulmonary edema, delayed respiratory failure and shock in pre-medication, respectively. 68.28% of the complications were treated medically, 25.99% by means of endoscopy and 5.72% with surgery. The healing percentage was 98.2%. This study has shown that bronchoscopy is a safe method with low incidence of mortality and complications. The preparation, experience and continuous training of the operators of the medical and nursing team seem to play a fundamental role in reducing the incidence of complications at least in certain procedures such as BB and TBB.

  10. Incidence and risk factors of injuries in Brazilian elite handball players: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroto, N; Hespanhol Junior, L C; Gomes, M R C; Lopes, A D

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and risk factors for handball injuries in Brazilian elite handball players. Overall, 339 athletes from 21 handball teams who participated in the two main Brazilian championships were followed up during a season. In total, 312 injuries were reported by 201 athletes. The injury incidence rate during training was 3.7/1000 h, and during matches was 20.3/1000 matches. Ankle (19.4%, n = 46) and knee (13.5%, n = 32) were the body regions most affected by traumatic injuries. Shoulders (44.0%, n = 33) and knee (26.7%, n = 20) were the body regions most affected by overuse injuries. Muscle injuries (27.1%, n = 68) was the traumatic injury type most reported. Tendinopathy (91.8%, n = 56) was the overuse injury type most observed. Previous injury (OR: 2.42, CI 95%: 1.51-3.89) and an additional match per week (OR: 1.31, CI 95%: 1.05-1.62) were associated with a higher risk of overuse injury. Female athletes (OR: 1.56, CI 95%: 1.08-2.25) and an additional hour of training per week (OR: 1.09, CI 95%: 1.02-1.15) were associated with a higher risk of traumatic injury. This study showed that athletes with previous injury have shown a high risk of developing an overuse injury.

  11. Incidence of nutritional support complications in patient hospitalized in wards. multicentric study

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    Gloria María Agudelo Ochoa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutritional support generates complications that must be detected and treated on time. Objective: To estimate the incidence of some complications of nutritional support in patients admitted to general hospital wards who received nutritional support in six high-complexity institutions. Methods: Prospective, descriptive and multicentric study in patients with nutritional support; the variables studied were medical diagnosis, nutritional condition, nutritional support duration, approach, kind of formula, and eight complications. Results: A total of 277 patients were evaluated; 83% received enteral nutrition and 17% received parenteral nutrition. Some 69.3% presented risk of malnourishment or severe malnourishment at admittance. About 35.4% of those receiving enteral nutrition and 39.6% of the ones who received parenteral nutrition had complications; no significant difference per support was found (p = 0.363. For the enteral nutrition, the most significant complication was the removal of the catheter (14%, followed by diarrhea (8.3%; an association between the duration of the enteral support with diarrhea, constipation and removal of the catheter was found (p < 0.05. For parenteral nutrition, hyperglycemia was the complication of highest inci­dence (22.9%, followed by hypophosphatemia (12.5%; all complications were associated with the duration of the support (p < 0.05. Nutritional support was suspended in 24.2% of the patients. Conclusions: Complications with nutritional support in hospital-ward patients were frequent, with the removal of the catheter and hyperglycemia showing the highest incidence. Duration of the support was the variable that revealed an asso­ciation with complications. Strict application of protocols could decrease the risk for complications and boost nutritional support benefits.

  12. Galactomannan Testing and the Incidence of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis: A 10-Year Nationwide Population-Based Study in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Shao Sun

    Full Text Available The clinical impact of the galactomannan (GM test for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA is controversial. Our study evaluated the incidence and trends of IPA and GM testing in patients with aspergillus infections.We conducted a nationwide inpatient population study using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A total of 346 IPA (62.14% male patients from the years 2002 to 2011 were identified for inclusion in the study.The average incidence of IPA was 1.51 per million person-years. Over the study period, we observed an increasing trend from 0.94 to 2.06 per million person-years (P < 0.0001. We observed male predominance in IPA incidence (M/F: 1.85/1.15. Both males and females showed significantly increasing trends of IPA incidence over time (0.87 to 4.55 and 0.36 to 2.07 per million person-years for the males and females, respectively. GM testing for IPA significantly increased from 2002 to 2011, and the GM test was utilized more frequently for males than females. The increase in the incidence of IPA might be positively associated with the increase in GM testing over the past decade.The incidence rates of both IPA and GM testing have increased over time. GM testing is recommended for the early diagnosis of patients with suspected aspergillosis.

  13. Prevalence and incidence of pituitary adenomas: a population based study in Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppetta, Mark; Mercieca, Cecilia; Vassallo, Josanne

    2013-12-01

    Epidemiological data is important to correctly quantify the extent of disease and needed health care resources. The aim of the study was to establish the prevalence and incidence of pituitary adenomas (PAs) in the same well defined population, with in-depth analysis of the various subtypes. The design involved a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of PA patients diagnosed prior to 31 July 2011 for prevalence estimates and those diagnosed between July 2000 and July 2011 for incidence estimation. A thorough search for patients with PAs was carried out in central hospital registries including outpatients departments, surgical registries, radiological department and specialty clinic databases. Prevalence rates/100,000 and Standardised incidence ratios (SIR)/100,000/year were worked out. The respective prevalence rates and SIR for PAs overall were 75.7/100,000, and 4.27/100,000/year, for Prolactinomas 35.0/100,000 and 2.05/100,000/year, for nonfunctioning PA 25.9/100,000 and 1.79/100,000/year and for GH-secreting PAs 12.5/100,000 and 0.31/100,000/year. The overall prevalence for macroadenomas was 32.8/100,000 and SIR was 1.49/100,000/year. The prevalence rate in males for PAs overall was 46.3/100,000 and SIR was 2.08/100,000/year and in females 104.8/100,000 and SIR was 6.58/100,000/year. Females had a lower proportion of macroadenomas than males (29.5 vs. 75.0%; P < 0.001) and macroadenomas tended to present at a later age compared to microadenomas (48 vs. 34.5; P < 0.001). The highest SIR was reached in the 30-39 age group at 7.42/100,000/year. Our data confirm the considerable disease burden that PAs bear on health care resources. Males and females have similar prevalence and SIR rates for macroadenomas but there is a significant increase in SIR in females of child bearing age compared to males. These observations may have important implications in terms of the economic burden and need for early intervention.

  14. Incidence and Survival Analysis of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors in Shanghai: A Population-Based Study from 2001 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Minzhi Lv; Chunxiao Wu; Ying Zheng; Naiqing Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. A population-based study was undertaken to investigate the epidemiological features of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) in Shanghai, especially the incidence and the preliminary exploration of survival. Methods. A total of 1923 patients with GISTs diagnosed from 2001 to 2010 in Shanghai were reviewed. The annual incidence and overall survival of GISTs were calculated; Cox proportional hazards’ regression was used to analyze several prognostic factors. Results. The average...

  15. Lifetime physical activity and cancer incidence--a cohort study of male former elite athletes in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Jorma; Bäckmand, Heli M; Sarna, Seppo; Kujala, Urho M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Dyba, Tadeusz; Pukkala, Eero

    2014-09-01

    Physical activity has been shown to decrease the risk of certain cancers. Objective of this study was to assess the effect of physical activity on cancer incidence in former male athletes in older age. A cohort of 2448 elite male athletes and 1712 referents was followed-up for cancer incidence during 1986-2010 through the Finnish Cancer Registry. Standardised incidence ratios were calculated with the general male population as the reference. Self-reported questionnaire-based data on covariates were used in Cox regression analyses comparing the risk of cancer in athletes and referents. The overall cancer incidence was lower in athletes than in the general population, standardised incidence ratio 0.89 (95% confidence interval 0.81-0.97). It was lowest among middle-distance runners (standardised incidence ratio 0.51, 95% confidence interval 0.22-1.01), long-distance runners (standardised incidence ratio 0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.35-0.88) and jumpers (standardised incidence ratio 0.60, 95% confidence interval 0.37-0.92). The standardised incidence ratio of lung cancer among athletes was 0.40 (95% confidence interval 0.27-0.55) and that of kidney cancer 0.23 (95% confidence interval 0.06-0.57). The hazard ratio for lung cancer between athletes and referents increased from the unadjusted ratio of 0.29 (95% confidence interval: 0.18-0.48) to 0.61 (95% confidence interval: 0.30-1.26) after adjustment for smoking status and pack-years of smoking. Former male elite athletes evidently have less cancer than men on the average. The lesser risk can be attributed to lifestyle factors, notably less frequent smoking among the athletes. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Three-year prospective study to improve the management of blood-exposure incidents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, P.T. van; Pelk-Jongen, M.; Wijkmans, C.; Voss, A.; Schneeberger, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Throughout 2003-2005, all blood-exposure incidents registered by an expert counseling center in The Netherlands accessible by telephone 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, were analyzed to assess quality improvement in the center's management of such incidents. The expert center was

  17. Incidence of zoonotic Salmonella species bacteraemia: a multi-national population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laupland, Kevin; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Lyytikäinen, Outi

    2009-01-01

    , Canada; combined population 7.5 million residents annually) during 2000-2007. Results: A total of 480 zoonotic Salmonella species bacteraemias were identified for an overall annual incidence of 8.1 per million population. The incidence was lowest in the spring and highest in the summer, and progressively...

  18. Three-year prospective study to improve the management of blood-exposure incidents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, P.T. van; Pelk-Jongen, M.; Wijkmans, C.; Voss, A.; Schneeberger, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Throughout 2003-2005, all blood-exposure incidents registered by an expert counseling center in The Netherlands accessible by telephone 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, were analyzed to assess quality improvement in the center's management of such incidents. The expert center was establishe

  19. Comparative Study of Prenatal Care Value in Incidence of Maternal and Fetal Complication in Preeclampsia and Eclampsia

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    M Aghahoseini

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The preeclampsia/eclampsia is one of the most serious condition peculiar to pregnancy, which defined as occurrence of hypertension, proteinuria in pregnancy and convulsion in eclamptic women. There are major risk for eclamptic and pre eclamptic women due to maternal and fetal complications. Materials and Methods: In a prospective study, preeclamptic and eclamptic patients who were visited at Shariati hospital were divided into two groups due to having proper prenatal care or not. Maternal and fetal complication were studied in that two group. Maternal variables were included: incidence of preterm labor, eclampsia, mode of delivery, long term hospitalization, need for ICU, need to antihypertensive drugs over postportum, insistence of hypertension up to 6 weeks, postpartum trombocytosis, incidence of cesarean section due to abruptio placenta and IUGR, elevation of serum creatinine, incidence of HELLP syndrome and death of mother fetal variables were included incidence of IUGR and IUFD, pre term delivery and for need NICU. Relationship of demographic characteristics such as maternal age, parity, educational level, mode of delivery, presence of underlying disease, and educational level of person who referred the patient were studied. Results: These variables except of educational level, and referral level were there was statistically significant difference between incidence of all of variables, in exception of mode of delivery. That means incidence of complications is lower in group with adequate prenatal care. Conclusion: It seems that adequate pernatal care can reduce or obligate maternal and fetal complication in hypertensive disorders in pregnancy.

  20. Incidence of type 2 diabetes by place of birth in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza-Frank, Reena; Chan, Cheeling; Liu, Kiang; Burke, Gregory; Kanaya, Alka M

    2013-10-01

    Incidence of diabetes among US foreign-born individuals is not well studied. Data were from the Multi Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine diabetes risk by race/ethnicity, place of birth, and duration of residence among foreign-born. Foreign-born Latinos had a higher risk of incident diabetes compared to US-born Latinos (hazard ratio (HR) 1.79 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.00-3.21]). Latinos born in Mexico (HR, 2.26 [95 % CI, 1.18-4.33]) had higher risk of incident diabetes compared to US-born Latinos. Foreign-born living in the US ≥20 years had a higher adjusted risk of incident diabetes compared to those in the US for <20 years (HR, 1.60 [95 % CI, 1.05-2.55]). Incident diabetes may be higher among foreign-born compared to native born; incident diabetes may also be higher among those immigrants who have lived in the US for longer periods of time. Future studies should characterize individuals by race/ethnicity and place of birth to account for differences in biology and time spent in the US.

  1. The effects of synoptic weather on influenza infection incidences: a retrospective study utilizing digital disease surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Naizhuo; Cao, Guofeng; Vanos, Jennifer K.; Vecellio, Daniel J.

    2017-02-01

    The environmental drivers and mechanisms of influenza dynamics remain unclear. The recent development of influenza surveillance-particularly the emergence of digital epidemiology-provides an opportunity to further understand this puzzle as an area within applied human biometeorology. This paper investigates the short-term weather effects on human influenza activity at a synoptic scale during cold seasons. Using 10 years (2005-2014) of municipal level influenza surveillance data (an adjustment of the Google Flu Trends estimation from the Centers for Disease Control's virologic surveillance data) and daily spatial synoptic classification weather types, we explore and compare the effects of weather exposure on the influenza infection incidences in 79 cities across the USA. We find that during the cold seasons the presence of the polar [i.e., dry polar (DP) and moist polar (MP)] weather types is significantly associated with increasing influenza likelihood in 62 and 68% of the studied cities, respectively, while the presence of tropical [i.e., dry tropical (DT) and moist tropical (MT)] weather types is associated with a significantly decreasing occurrence of influenza in 56 and 43% of the cities, respectively. The MP and the DP weather types exhibit similar close positive correlations with influenza infection incidences, indicating that both cold-dry and cold-moist air provide favorable conditions for the occurrence of influenza in the cold seasons. Additionally, when tropical weather types are present, the humid (MT) and the dry (DT) weather types have similar strong impacts to inhibit the occurrence of influenza. These findings suggest that temperature is a more dominating atmospheric factor than moisture that impacts the occurrences of influenza in cold seasons.

  2. Monitoring Clostridium difficile infection in an acute hospital: prevalence or incidence studies?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lavan, A H

    2012-02-15

    BACKGROUND: Surveillance of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is an essential component of a CDI preventative programme. AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate two methods of CDI surveillance. METHODS: Prevalence of CDI, antibiotic use and associated co-morbidity was assessed weekly on two wards over 6 weeks. In addition, CDI incidence surveillance was performed on all new CDI cases over a 13-week period. Cases were assessed for CDI risk factors, disease severity, response to treatment and outcome at 6 months. RESULTS: Clostridium difficile infection prevalence was 3.5% (range 2.9-6.1%) on the medical ward and 1.1% (range 0-3.5%) on the surgical ward. Patients on the medical ward were older and more likely to be colonised with MRSA; however, recent antibiotic use was more prevalent among surgical patients. Sixty-one new CDI cases were audited. Patients were elderly (mean age 71 years) with significant co-morbidity (median age adjusted Charlson co-morbidity score 5). CDI ribotypes included 027 (29 cases) 078 (5) and 106 (4). Eight patients developed severe CDI, seven due to 027. Antibiotic use was common with 56% receiving three or more antibiotics in the preceding 8 weeks. Twenty-four patients had died at 6 months, five due to CDI. CONCLUSION: Clostridium difficile infection prevalence gives a broad overview of CDI and points to areas that require more detailed surveillance and requires little time. However, patient-based CDI incidence surveillance provides a more useful analysis of CDI risk factors, disease and outcome for planning preventative programmes and focusing antibiotic stewardship efforts.

  3. The Incidence of Japanese Encephalitis in Taiwan—A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Li-Ching; Chen, Yu-Ju; Hsu, Feng-Kuang; Huang, Jyh-Hsiung; Chang, Chi-Ming; Chou, Pesus; Lin, I-Feng; Chang, Feng-Yee

    2014-01-01

    Background A mass Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccination program targeting children was launched in Taiwan in 1968, and the number of pediatric JE cases substantially decreased thereafter. The aim of this study was to elucidate the long-term trend of JE incidence, and to investigate the age-specific seroprevalence of JE-neutralizing antibodies. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 2,948 laboratory-confirmed JE cases that occurred between 1966 and 2012 were analyzed using a mandatory notification system managed by the Centers for Disease Control, Taiwan. A total of 6,594 randomly-sampled serum specimens obtained in a nationwide population-based survey in 2002 were analyzed to estimate the seroprevalence of JE-neutralizing antibodies in the general population. The average annual JE incidence rate of the group aged 30 years and older was 0.167 cases per 100,000 people between 2001 and 2012, which was higher than the 0.052 cases per 100,000 people among those aged under 30 years. These seroepidemiological findings indicate that the cohort born between 1963 and 1975, who generally received two or three doses of the vaccine and were administered the last booster dose more than 20 years ago, exhibited the lowest positive rate of JE-neutralizing antibodies (54%). The highest and second highest antibody rates were observed, respectively, in the oldest unvaccinated cohort (86%) and in the youngest cohort born between 1981 and 1986, who received four doses 10–15 years ago (74%). Conclusion/Significance Over the past decade, the main age group of the confirmed JE cases in Taiwan shifted from young children to adults over 30 years of age. People who were born between 1963 and 1975 exhibited the lowest seroprevalence of JE-neutralizing antibodies. Thus, the key issue for JE control in Taiwan is to reduce adult JE cases through a cost-effective analysis of various immunization strategies. PMID:25058573

  4. Lipoprotein particles and incident type 2 diabetes in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Rachel H; Mora, Samia; Bertoni, Alain G; Wassel, Christina L; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Sibley, Christopher T; Goff, David C

    2015-04-01

    In the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), we evaluated associations of baseline levels of a lipoprotein-based insulin resistance (IR) index (LP-IR), IR-related lipoprotein particles, mean particle sizes, and lipids, with incident type 2 diabetes, independent of confounders, glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR. Among 5,314 adults aged 45-84 years without baseline diabetes or cardiovascular disease, 656 cases of diabetes were identified during a mean follow-up of 7.7 years. Lipoprotein particle concentrations, size, and LP-IR were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of stored baseline plasma. Potential effect modification, by race/ethnicity, sex, baseline use of lipid-lowering medications or hormone therapy, or glucose strata (diabetes adjusted for confounders and glucose or insulin. These also were similar by race/ethnicity, sex, and treatment group. Associations were similar for LP-IR, large VLDL-P, mean VLDL size, TG, and TG-to-HDL-C ratio; they persisted for LP-IR, large VLDL-P, or mean VLDL size adjusted for HOMA-IR or TG-to-HDL-C ratio and glucose but not for the TG-to-HDL-C ratio adjusted for LP-IR or for HOMA-IR or insulin if adjusted for LP-IR and glucose. Among ethnically diverse men and women, LP-IR, large VLDL-P, large VLDL size, TG, and TG-to-HDL-C ratio were associated with incident diabetes independent of established risk factors, glucose, insulin, or HOMA-IR, as well as the use of lipid-lowering medications or hormone therapy. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  5. Comparative study on the incidence and outcomes of pigmented versus non pigmented keratomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabyasachi Sengupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the incidence, outcomes and establish factors determining visual prognosis of keratomycosis due to pigmented fungi in comparison with nonpigmented fungi. Materials and Methods: All culture-proven cases of fungal keratitis from January 2006 to August 2008 were drawn from a computerized database and cases with adequate documentation were analyzed for predisposing factors, clinical characteristics, microbiology and treatment methods. Outcomes of keratitis due to pigmented and nonpigmented fungi were compared using t-test and χ2 test. Results: Of 373 cases of keratomycosis during the study period, pigmented fungi were etiological agents in 117 eyes (31.3% and nonpigmented fungi in 256 eyes (68.7%. Eyes with nonpigmented keratitis had significantly larger ulcers (14.96 mm 2 and poorer vision (1.42 logMAR at presentation compared to those with keratomycosis due to pigmented fungi (P=0.01. The characteristic macroscopic pigmentation was seen in only 14.5% in the pigmented keratitis group. Both groups responded favorably to medical therapy (78.1% vs. 69.1% with scar formation (P=0.32 and showed a significant improvement in mean visual acuity compared with that at presentation (P<0.01. Visual improvement in terms of line gainers and losers in the subgroup of eyes that experienced healing was also similar. Location of the ulcer was the only factor that had significant predictive value for visual outcome (P=0.021. Conclusion: Incidence of keratomycosis due to pigmented fungi may be increasing as compared to previous data. These eyes have similar response to medical therapy and similar visual outcome compared to nonpigmented keratitis. Central ulcers have a poor visual outcome.

  6. ADAMTS13 activity as a novel risk factor for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Paul S; van Herpt, Thijs T W; Ligthart, Symen; Hofman, Albert; Ikram, M Arfan; van Hoek, Mandy; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Franco, Oscar H; de Maat, Moniek P M; Leebeek, Frank W G; Dehghan, Abbas

    2017-02-01

    ADAMTS13 is a protease that breaks down von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimers into smaller, less active particles. VWF has been associated with an increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here, we determine whether ADAMTS13 activity and VWF antigen are associated with incident diabetes. This study included 5176 participants from the Rotterdam Study, a prospective population-based cohort study. Participants were free of diabetes at baseline and followed up for more than 20 years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association of ADAMTS13 activity and VWF antigen with incident diabetes. ADAMTS13 activity was associated with an increased risk of incident diabetes (HR 1.17 [95% CI 1.08, 1.27]) after adjustment for known risk factors and VWF antigen levels. Although ADAMTS13 activity was positively associated with fasting glucose and insulin, the association with incident diabetes did not change when we adjusted for these covariates. ADAMTS13 activity was also associated with incident prediabetes (defined on the basis of both fasting and non-fasting blood glucose) after adjustment for known risk factors (HR 1.11 [95% CI 1.03, 1.19]), while the VWF antigen level was not. VWF antigen was associated with incident diabetes, but this association was attenuated after adjustment for known risk factors. ADAMTS13 activity appears to be an independent risk factor for incident prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. As the association between ADAMTS13 and diabetes did not appear to be explained by its cleavage of VWF, ADAMTS13 may have an independent role in the development of diabetes.

  7. A prospective study of physician-observed concussions during junior ice hockey: implications for incidence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echlin, Paul Sean; Tator, Charles H; Cusimano, Michael D; Cantu, Robert C; Taunton, Jack E; Upshur, Ross E G; Hall, Craig R; Johnson, Andrew M; Forwell, Lorie A; Skopelja, Elaine N

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the incidence of concussion (scaled relative to number of athlete exposures) and recurrent concussion within 2 teams of fourth-tier junior ice hockey players (16-21 years old) during 1 regular season. A prospective cohort study called the Hockey Concussion Education Project was conducted during 1 junior ice hockey regular season (2009-2010) involving 67 male fourth-tier ice hockey players (mean age 18.2 ± 1.2 years, range 16-21 years) from 2 teams. Prior to the start of the season, every player underwent baseline assessments using the Sideline Concussion Assessment Tool 2 (SCAT2) and the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT). The study protocol also required players who entered the study during the season to complete baseline SCAT2 and ImPACT testing. If the protocol was not followed, the postinjury test results of a player without true baseline test results would be compared against previously established age and gender group normative levels. Each regular season game was observed by a qualified physician and at least 1 other neutral nonphysician observer. Players who suffered a suspected concussion were evaluated at the game. If a concussion diagnosis was made, the player was subsequently examined in the physician's office for a full clinical evaluation and the SCAT2 and ImPACT were repeated. Based on these evaluations, players were counseled on the decision of when to return to play. Athlete exposure was defined as 1 game played by 1 athlete. Twenty-one concussions occurred during the 52 physician-observed games (incidence 21.5 concussions per 1000 athlete exposures). Five players experienced repeat concussions. No concussions were reported during practice sessions. A concussion was diagnosed by the physician in 19 (36.5%) of the 52 observed games. One of the 5 individuals who suffered a repeat concussion sustained his initial concussion in a regular season game that was not observed by a

  8. Incident venous thromboembolic events in the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford Ian

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Venous thromboembolic events (VTE, including deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, are common in older age. It has been suggested that statins might reduce the risk of VTE however positive results from studies of middle aged subjects may not be generalisable to elderly people. We aimed to determine the effect of pravastatin on incident VTE in older people; we also studied the impact of clinical and plasma risk variables. Methods This study was an analysis of incident VTE using data from the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pravastatin in men and women aged 70-82. Mean follow-up was 3.2 years. Risk for VTE was examined in non-warfarin treated pravastatin (n = 2834 and placebo (n = 2865 patients using a Cox's proportional hazard model, and the impact of other risk factors assessed in a multivariate forward stepwise regression analysis. Baseline clinical characteristics, blood biochemistry and hematology variables, plasma levels of lipids and lipoproteins, and plasma markers of inflammation and adiposity were compared. Plasma markers of thrombosis and hemostasis were assessed in a nested case (n = 48 control (n = 93 study where the cohort was those participants, not on warfarin, for whom data were available. Results There were 28 definite cases (1.0% of incident VTE in the pravastatin group recipients and 20 cases (0.70% in placebo recipients. Pravastatin did not reduce VTE in PROSPER compared to placebo [unadjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval 1.42 (0.80, 2.52 p = 0.23]. Higher body mass index (BMI [1.09 (1.02, 1.15 p = 0.0075], country [Scotland vs Netherlands 4.26 (1.00, 18.21 p = 0.050 and Ireland vs Netherlands 6.16 (1.46, 26.00 p = 0.013], lower systolic blood pressure [1.35 (1.03, 1.75 p = 0.027] and lower baseline Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE score [1.19 (1.01, 1.41 p = 0.034] were associated with an

  9. Incidence of adult Huntington's disease in the UK: a UK-based primary care study and a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Nancy S; Collett, Laura; Wexler, Alice R; Rawlins, Michael D; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Douglas, Ian; Smeeth, Liam; Evans, Stephen J

    2016-02-23

    The prevalence of Huntington's disease (HD) recorded in the UK primary care records has increased twofold between 1990 and 2010. This investigation was undertaken to assess whether this might be due to an increased incidence. We have also undertaken a systematic review of published estimates of the incidence of HD. Incident patients with a new diagnosis of HD were identified from the primary care records of the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). The systematic review included all published estimates of the incidence of HD in defined populations. A total of 393 incident cases of HD were identified from the CPRD database between 1990 and 2010 from a total population of 9,282,126 persons. The incidence of HD per million person-years was estimated. From the systematic review, the extent of heterogeneity of published estimates of the incidence of HD was examined using the I(2) statistic. The data showed that the incidence of HD has remained constant between 1990 and 2010 with an overall rate of 7.2 (95% CI 6.5 to 7.9) per million person-years. The systematic review identified 14 independent estimates of incidence with substantial heterogeneity and consistently lower rates reported in studies from East Asia compared with those from Australia, North America and some--though not all--those from Europe. Differences in incidence estimates did not appear to be explained solely by differences in case ascertainment or diagnostic methods. The rise in the prevalence of diagnosed HD in the UK, between 1990 and 2010, cannot be attributed to an increase in incidence. Globally, estimates of the incidence of HD show evidence of substantial heterogeneity with consistently lower rates in East Asia and parts of Europe. Modifiers may play an important role in determining the vulnerability of different populations to expansions of the HD allele. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Tracking Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) after an incident along a river system - Case study Elbe River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleisinger, Carmen; Dietrich, Stephan; Kehl, Nora; Claus, Evelyn; Schubert, Birgit

    2017-04-01

    In spring 2015, extremely high concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) well above the long-term average were detected in suspended particulate matter (SPM) within the River Elbe. They were released due to abrasive blasting of the old coating from a bridge in the upper part of the River, approximately 50 km upstream of the first measurement site. PCBs are persistent organic pollutants, preferentially bound to fine-grained fractions of the SPM. Results from monitoring of contaminants in SPM along the Elbe indicate the further dispersal of the PCB-contaminated sediments. These measurements include yearly investigations on PCB concentrations in sediments in the inner reaches of the Elbe, an additional longitudinal survey in 2015 and monthly monitoring of PCBs in SPM at stations along the river including the Elbe estuary (Germany). The Elbe estuary is of major economic importance since Hamburg harbour, one of the largest harbours in Europe, is located there. Maintaining the harbour includes dredging and, i.a., relocating large amounts of the dredged material within the water body. High PCB concentrations in sediments could lead to restrictions on the relocation of these sediments. This study aims at tracking the fate of PCB contaminated material released from the point source of the incident site along the whole river stretch and at estimating its impact on the quality of sediments and consequently on dredging activities in the estuary. The ratio of high (PCB 138, 152 and 180) versus low (PCB 28, 52, 101) chlorinated PCB congeners proved to be a suitable tracer to distinguish the PCB load released by the incident from the long-term background signals. As Delor 106/Clophen A60, which contains approx. 90% hexa- to decachloric congeners, was an additive in the coating of the bridge, the pattern of PCBs released by the incident is dominated by the highly chlorinated PCB-congeners PCB 138, 153 and 180. At the tidal weir Geesthacht, the entrance to the estuary, an

  11. Patient-reported safety incidents in older patients with long-term conditions: a large cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagioti, Maria; Blakeman, Thomas; Hann, Mark; Bower, Peter

    2017-05-30

    Increasing evidence suggests that patient safety is a serious concern for older patients with long-term conditions. Despite this, there is a lack of research on safety incidents encountered by this patient group. In this study, we sought to examine patient reports of safety incidents and factors associated with reports of safety incidents in older patients with long-term conditions. The baseline cross-sectional data from a longitudinal cohort study were analysed. Older patients (n=3378 aged 65 years and over) with a long-term condition registered in general practices were included in the study. The main outcome was patient-reported safety incidents including availability and appropriateness of medical tests and prescription of wrong types or doses of medication. Binary univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were undertaken to examine factors associated with patient-reported safety incidents. Safety incidents were reported by 11% of the patients. Four factors were significantly associated with patient-reported safety incidents in multivariate analyses. The experience of multiple long-term conditions (OR=1.09, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.13), a probable diagnosis of depression (OR=1.36, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.74) and greater relational continuity of care (OR=1.28, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.52) were associated with increased odds for patient-reported safety incidents. Perceived greater support and involvement in self-management was associated with lower odds for patient-reported safety incidents (OR=0.95, 95% CI 0.93 to 0.97). We found that older patients with multimorbidity and depression are more likely to report experiences of patient safety incidents. Improving perceived support and involvement of patients in their care may help prevent patient-reported safety incidents. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Periodontal Disease and Incident Lung Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xian-Tao; Xia, Ling-Yun; Zhang, Yong-Gang; Li, Sheng; Leng, Wei-Dong; Kwong, Joey S W

    2016-10-01

    Periodontal disease is linked to a number of systemic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. Recent evidence has suggested periodontal disease might be associated with lung cancer. However, their precise relationship is yet to be explored. Hence, this study aims to investigate the association of periodontal disease and risk of incident lung cancer using a meta-analytic approach. PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect were searched up to June 10, 2015. Cohort and nested case-control studies investigating risk of lung cancer in patients with periodontal disease were included. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated, as were their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a fixed-effect inverse-variance model. Statistical heterogeneity was explored using the Q test as well as the I(2) statistic. Publication bias was assessed by visual inspection of funnel plots symmetry and Egger's test. Five cohort studies were included, involving 321,420 participants in this meta-analysis. Summary estimates based on adjusted data showed that periodontal disease was associated with a significant risk of lung cancer (HR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.13 to 1.36; I(2) = 30%). No publication bias was detected. Subgroup analysis indicated that the association of periodontal disease and lung cancer remained significant in the female population. Evidence from cohort studies suggests that patients with periodontal disease are at increased risk of developing lung cancer.

  13. The use of virtual reality in the study of people's responses to violent incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitor Rovira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews experimental methods for the study of the responses of people to violence in digital media, and in particular considers the issues of internal validity on the one hand and ecological validity or generalisability of results to events in the real world. Experimental methods typically involve a significant level of abstraction from reality, with participants required to carry out tasks that are far removed from violence in real life, and hence their ecological validity is questionable. On the other hand studies based on field data, while having ecological validity, cannot control multiple confounding variables that may have an impact on observed results, so that their internal validity is questionable. It is argued that immersive virtual reality may provide a unification of these two approaches. Since people tend to respond realistically to situations and events that occur in virtual reality, and since virtual reality simulations can be completely controlled for experimental purposes, studies of responses to violence within virtual reality are likely to have both ecological and internal validity. This depends on a property that we call ‘plausibility’ – including the fidelity of the depicted situation with prior knowledge and expectations. We illustrate this with data from a previously published experiment, a virtual reprise of Stanley Milgram’s 1960s obedience experiment, and also with pilot data from a new study being developed that looks at bystander responses to violent incidents.

  14. The Use of Virtual Reality in the Study of People's Responses to Violent Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, Aitor; Swapp, David; Spanlang, Bernhard; Slater, Mel

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews experimental methods for the study of the responses of people to violence in digital media, and in particular considers the issues of internal validity and ecological validity or generalisability of results to events in the real world. Experimental methods typically involve a significant level of abstraction from reality, with participants required to carry out tasks that are far removed from violence in real life, and hence their ecological validity is questionable. On the other hand studies based on field data, while having ecological validity, cannot control multiple confounding variables that may have an impact on observed results, so that their internal validity is questionable. It is argued that immersive virtual reality may provide a unification of these two approaches. Since people tend to respond realistically to situations and events that occur in virtual reality, and since virtual reality simulations can be completely controlled for experimental purposes, studies of responses to violence within virtual reality are likely to have both ecological and internal validity. This depends on a property that we call ‘plausibility’ – including the fidelity of the depicted situation with prior knowledge and expectations. We illustrate this with data from a previously published experiment, a virtual reprise of Stanley Milgram's 1960s obedience experiment, and also with pilot data from a new study being developed that looks at bystander responses to violent incidents. PMID:20076762

  15. The incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus and related atherosclerotic complications in Korea: a National Health Insurance Database Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Kyung Koo

    Full Text Available The incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and related macrovascular complications in Korea were estimated using the Health Insurance Review and Assessment (HIRA database from 2007-2011, which covers the claim data of 97.0% of the Korean population.T2DM, coronary artery disease (CAD, cerebrovascular disease (CVD, and peripheral artery disease (PAD were defined according to ICD-10 codes. We used the Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System codes provided by HIRA to identify associated procedures or surgeries. When calculating incidence, we excluded cases with preexisting T2DM within two years before the index year. A Poisson distribution was assumed when calculating 95% confidence intervals for prevalence and incidence rates.The prevalence of T2DM in Korean adults aged 20-89 years was 6.1-6.9% and the annual incidence rates of T2DM ranged from 9.5-9.8/1,000 person-year (PY during the study period. The incidence rates of T2DM in men and women aged 20-49 years showed decreasing patterns from 2009 to 2011 (P<0.001; by contrast, the incidence in subjects aged 70-79 years showed increased patterns from 2009 to 2011 (P<0.001. The incidence rates of CAD and CVD in patients newly diagnosed with T2DM were 18.84/1,000 PY and 11.32/1,000 PY, respectively, in the year of diagnosis. Among newly diagnosed individuals with T2DM who were undergoing treatment for PAD, 14.6% underwent angioplasty for CAD during the same period.Our study measured the national incidences of T2DM, CAD, CVD, and PAD, which are of great concern for public health. We also confirmed the relatively higher risk of CAD and CVD newly detected T2DM patients compared to the general population in Korea.

  16. The incidence of tardive dyskinesia in the study of pharmacotherapy for psychotic depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberger, Daniel M; Mulsant, Benoit H; Kanellopoulos, Dora; Whyte, Ellen M; Rothschild, Anthony J; Flint, Alastair J; Meyers, Barnett S

    2013-06-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a debilitating adverse effect associated with antipsychotic treatment. Older age and the presence of mood disorder have been identified as risk factors for the development of TD. Thus, we assessed the incidence of TD in younger and older patients with major depressive disorder with psychotic features who participated in a 12-week clinical trial comparing olanzapine plus sertraline versus olanzapine plus placebo. All subjects (n = 259) were assessed with the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale at baseline and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment (or at termination). We used 7 different published criteria to estimate the prevalence of TD at baseline and the incidence over the duration of the trial. We compared the incidence of TD in subjects 60 years or older and those younger than 60 years. The overall prevalence and incidence of TD varied almost 10-fold, depending on the criteria (prevalence range, 1.2%-8.9%; incidence range, 0.0%-5.9%). Tardive dyskinesia was observed as a clinical adverse event in only 1 subject (0.4%). Whereas older subjects had a higher prevalence of TD at baseline, the incidence in younger and older subjects did not differ significantly. The incidence of TD was relatively low in both younger and older patients with major depressive disorder with psychotic features treated acutely with olanzapine. However, the estimate of the risk of TD varies widely, depending on the criteria used to define TD.

  17. Incidence of Cancer in ANCA-Associated Vasculitis: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

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    Weifeng Shang

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine cancer incidence in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis (AASV derived from population-based cohort studies by means of meta-analysis.Relevant electronic databases were searched for studies characterizing the associated risk of overall malignancy in patients with AASV. Standardized incidence rates (SIRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used to evaluate the strength of association. We tested for publication bias and heterogeneity and stratified for site-specific cancers.Six studies (n = 2,578 were eventually identified, of which six provided the SIR for overall malignancy, five reported the SIR for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC, four for leukemia, five for bladder cancer, three for lymphoma, three for liver cancer, four for lung cancer, three for kidney cancer, four for prostate cancer, four for colon cancer and four for breast cancer. Overall, the pooled SIR of cancer in AASV patients was 1.74 (95%CI = 1.37-2.21, with moderate heterogeneity among these studies (I(2 = 65.8%, P = 0.012. In sub-analyses for site-specific cancers, NMSC, leukemia and bladder cancer were more frequently observed in patients with AASV with SIR of 5.18 (95%CI = 3.47-7.73, 4.89 (95%CI = 2.93-8.16 and 3.84 (95%CI = 2.72-5.42 respectively. There was no significant increase in the risk of kidney cancer (SIR = 2.12, 95%CI = 0.66-6.85, prostate cancer (SIR = 1.45, 95%CI = 0.87-2.42, colon cancer (SIR = 1.26, 95%CI = 0.70-2.27, and breast cancer (SIR = 0.95, 95%CI = 0.50-1.79. Among these site-specific cancers, only NMSC showed moderate heterogeneity (I2 = 55.8%, P = 0.06. No publication bias was found by using the Begg's test and Egger's test.This meta-analysis shows that AASV patients treatment with cyclophosphamide (CYC are at increased risk of late-occurring malignancies, particularly of the NMSC, leukemia and bladder cancer. However, there is no significant association between AASV and kidney cancer, prostate cancer

  18. Low-level arsenic in drinking water and risk of incident myocardial infarction: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monrad, Maria; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Sørensen, Mette; Baastrup, Rikke; Hansen, Birgitte; Gammelmark, Anders; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2017-04-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that intake of drinking water with high levels of arsenic (>100μg/L) is associated with risk for cardiovascular diseases, but studies on lower levels of arsenic show inconsistent results. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between exposure to low level arsenic in drinking water and risk of myocardial infarction in Denmark. From the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort of 57,053 people aged 50-64 years at enrolment in 1993-1997, we identified 2707 cases of incident myocardial infarction from enrolment to end of follow-up in February 2012. Cohort participants were enrolled in the Copenhagen and Aarhus areas. We geocoded residential addresses of the cohort members and used a geographic information system to link addresses with water supply areas. Arsenic in tap water at each cohort members address from 1973 to 2012 was estimated for all cohort members. Poisson regression was used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for myocardial infarction after adjustment for lifestyle factors and educational level. Arsenic levels in drinking water at baseline addresses ranged from 0.03 to 25.34μg/L, with the highest concentrations in the Aarhus area. We found no overall association between 20-years average concentration of arsenic and risk of myocardial infarction. However, in the Aarhus area, fourth arsenic quartile (2.21-25.34μg/L) was associated with an IRR of 1.48 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19-1.83) when compared with first quartile (0.05-1.83μg/L). An IRR of 1.26 (95% CI: 0.89-1.79) was found for ever (versus never) having lived at an address with 10μg/L or more arsenic in the drinking water. This study provides some support for an association between low levels of arsenic in drinking water and the risk of myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Serum Calcium and the Risk of Incident Metabolic Syndrome: A 4.3-Year Retrospective Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jong Ha; Jin, Sang-Man; Bae, Ji Cheol; Jee, Jae Hwan; Yu, Tae Yang; Kim, Soo Kyoung; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Lee, Moon-Kyu

    2017-01-01

    Background An association between serum calcium level and risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been suggested in cross-sectional studies. This study aimed to evaluate the association between baseline serum calcium level and risk of incident MetS in a longitudinal study. Methods We conducted a retrospective longitudinal study of 12,706 participants without MetS who participated in a health screening program, had normal range serum calcium level at baseline (mean age, 51 years), and were followed up for 4.3 years (18,925 person-years). The risk of developing MetS was analyzed according to the baseline serum calcium levels. Results A total of 3,448 incident cases (27.1%) of MetS developed during the follow-up period. The hazard ratio (HR) for incident MetS did not increase with increasing tertile of serum calcium level in an age- and sex-matched model (P for trend=0.915). The HRs (95% confidence interval [CI]) for incident MetS comparing the second and the third tertiles to the first tertile of baseline serum calcium level were 0.91 (95% CI, 0.84 to 0.99) and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.78 to 0.92) in a fully adjusted model, respectively (P for trend=0.001). A decreased risk of incident MetS in higher tertiles of serum calcium level was observed in subjects with central obesity and/or a metabolically unhealthy state at baseline. Conclusion There was no positive correlation between baseline serum calcium levels and incident risk of MetS in this longitudinal study. There was an association between higher serum calcium levels and decreased incident MetS in individuals with central obesity or two components of MetS at baseline. PMID:28029017

  20. Occupation and three-year incidence of respiratory symptoms and lung function decline: the ARIC Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabelli, Maria C; London, Stephanie J; Charles, Luenda E; Pompeii, Lisa A; Wagenknecht, Lynne E

    2012-03-20

    Specific occupations are associated with adverse respiratory health. Inhalation exposures encountered in these jobs may place workers at risk of new-onset respiratory disease. We analyzed data from 8,967 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, a longitudinal cohort study. Participants included in this analysis were free of chronic cough and phlegm, wheezing, asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and other chronic lung conditions at the baseline examination, when they were aged 45-64 years. Using data collected in the baseline and first follow-up examination, we evaluated associations between occupation and the three-year incidence of cough, phlegm, wheezing, and airway obstruction and changes in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) measured by spirometry. All associations were adjusted for age, cigarettes per day, race, smoking status, and study center. During the approximately three-year follow-up, the percentage of participants developing chronic cough was 3%; chronic phlegm, 3%; wheezing, 3%; and airway obstruction, defined as FEV1 < lower limit of normal (LLN) and FEV1/FVC < LLN, 2%. The average annual declines in FEV1 and FVC were 56 mL and 66 mL, respectively, among men and 40 mL and 52 mL, respectively, among women. Relative to a referent category of managerial and administrative support occupations, elevated risks of new-onset chronic cough and chronic phlegm were observed for mechanics and repairers (chronic cough: RR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.02, 3.21; chronic phlegm: RR: 2.10, 95% CI: 1.23, 3.57) and cleaning and building service workers (chronic cough: RR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.01, 3.37; chronic phlegm: RR: 2.28, 95% CI: 1.27, 4.08). Despite the elevated risk of new-onset symptoms, employment in cleaning and building services was associated with attenuated lung function decline, particularly among men, who averaged annual declines in FEV1 and FVC of 14 mL and 23 mL, respectively, less than the

  1. Occupation and three-year incidence of respiratory symptoms and lung function decline: the ARIC Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirabelli Maria C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Specific occupations are associated with adverse respiratory health. Inhalation exposures encountered in these jobs may place workers at risk of new-onset respiratory disease. Methods We analyzed data from 8,967 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study, a longitudinal cohort study. Participants included in this analysis were free of chronic cough and phlegm, wheezing, asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and other chronic lung conditions at the baseline examination, when they were aged 45-64 years. Using data collected in the baseline and first follow-up examination, we evaluated associations between occupation and the three-year incidence of cough, phlegm, wheezing, and airway obstruction and changes in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC measured by spirometry. All associations were adjusted for age, cigarettes per day, race, smoking status, and study center. Results During the approximately three-year follow-up, the percentage of participants developing chronic cough was 3%; chronic phlegm, 3%; wheezing, 3%; and airway obstruction, defined as FEV1 1/FVC 1 and FVC were 56 mL and 66 mL, respectively, among men and 40 mL and 52 mL, respectively, among women. Relative to a referent category of managerial and administrative support occupations, elevated risks of new-onset chronic cough and chronic phlegm were observed for mechanics and repairers (chronic cough: RR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.02, 3.21; chronic phlegm: RR: 2.10, 95% CI: 1.23, 3.57 and cleaning and building service workers (chronic cough: RR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.01, 3.37; chronic phlegm: RR: 2.28, 95% CI: 1.27, 4.08. Despite the elevated risk of new-onset symptoms, employment in cleaning and building services was associated with attenuated lung function decline, particularly among men, who averaged annual declines in FEV1 and FVC of 14 mL and 23 mL, respectively, less than the declines observed in the

  2. Increasing incidence of club foot with higher population density: incidence and geographical variation in Denmark over a 16-year period--an epidemiological study of 936,525 births

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, MR; Jensen, PK; Kjær, I

    2006-01-01

    Institute and from the Danish Population Register. Results The incidence of isolated CF was 1.2/1,000 live births. It increased significantly during the study period, and the incidence of CF and the standardized morbidity ratio for CF were significantly positively correlated to population densities...

  3. Incidence of tinnitus, impaired hearing and musculoskeletal disorders among students enrolled in academic music education--a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, Mats; Thiringer, Gunnar; Brandström, Lars

    2005-08-01

    The aim was to determine the incidence of tinnitus, impaired hearing and musculoskeletal disorders among musicians and the relation to the number of practicing hours and/or the instrument type before the onset of symptoms. The study base consisted of students enrolled in the School of Music and Music Education at Göteborg University between the years 1980 and 1995. There were 407 of the 602 original students that answered a questionnaire (response rate of 68%). The questionnaire concerned exposure before and after the enrollment in the Music Academy, as well as onset of symptoms. The highest incidence of symptoms was found for reported tinnitus with a rate of 10.6 per 1000 years of instrumental practice. There was a relationship between exposure to the number of hours of instrumental practice and incidence of impaired hearing. Among the musculoskeletal symptoms the highest incidences per 1000 years of instrumental practice were pain in the neck and in the left shoulder with a rate of 4.4 and 4.6 disorders per 1000 years of instrumental practice, respectively. There was 2.4 times higher incidence for musculoskeletal disorders in the right hand/wrist and a 2.2 times higher incidence in the left elbow/forearm for musicians who practiced for 20 h or more per week before the onset of disorders compared to those who practiced fewer than 20 h per week when controlling for age and gender. Musicians with a violin or a viola as the main instrument had four times the incidence for right elbow/forearm disorder and twice the incidence of neck pain, pain in the right shoulder and the left elbow/forearm compared to those who had piano as the main instrument.

  4. Association between Coffee Consumption and Incident Risk of Disabling Dementia in Elderly Japanese: The Ohsaki Cohort 2006 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Kemmyo; Tomata, Yasutake; Kaiho, Yu; Honkura, Kenji; Sugawara, Yumi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of the association between coffee consumption and dementia have yielded inconsistent results. Therefore, we investigated the association between coffee consumption and incident risk of dementia in an elderly Japanese population. 23,091 subjects aged ≥65 y living in Ohsaki City, northeastern Japan, responded to the baseline survey in 2006. Of these, we analyzed 13,137 subjects who gave informed consent and were not disabled at baseline. The outcome was the incidence of disabling dementia defined by usage of the Long-term Care Insurance database. We used the Cox proportional hazards regression model for multivariate analysis. During 5.7 y of follow-up period, we identified 1,107 cases of incident dementia. Overall, coffee consumption was significantly associated with a lower risk of incident dementia. The multivariate-adjusted HRs for the incidence of dementia according to coffee consumption categories (never, occasionally, 1-2 cups/d, and ≥3 cups/d) were 1.00, 0.73 (95% CI, 0.62-0.86), 0.72 (95% CI, 0.61-0.84), and 0.82 (95% CI, 0.65-1.02; p for trend = 0.009), respectively. In addition, this significant inverse association was more remarkable among women, non-smokers, and non-drinkers. Coffee consumption is significantly associated with a lower risk of incident dementia.

  5. Fusing moving average model and stationary wavelet decomposition for automatic incident detection: case study of Tokyo Expressway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Liu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a growing problem in urban areas all over the world. The transport sector has been in full swing event study on intelligent transportation system for automatic detection. The functionality of automatic incident detection on expressways is a primary objective of advanced traffic management system. In order to save lives and prevent secondary incidents, accurate and prompt incident detection is necessary. This paper presents a methodology that integrates moving average (MA model with stationary wavelet decomposition for automatic incident detection, in which parameters of layer coefficient are extracted from the difference between the upstream and downstream occupancy. Unlike other wavelet-based method presented before, firstly it smooths the raw data with MA model. Then it uses stationary wavelet to decompose, which can achieve accurate reconstruction of the signal, and does not shift the signal transfer coefficients. Thus, it can detect the incidents more accurately. The threshold to trigger incident alarm is also adjusted according to normal traffic condition with congestion. The methodology is validated with real data from Tokyo Expressway ultrasonic sensors. Experimental results show that it is accurate and effective, and that it can differentiate traffic accident from other condition such as recurring traffic congestion.

  6. Molecular dynamics study of radiation damage and microstructure evolution of zigzag single-walled carbon nanotubes under carbon ion incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan; Tang, Xiaobin; Chen, Feida; Huang, Hai; Liu, Jian; Chen, Da

    2016-07-01

    The radiation damage and microstructure evolution of different zigzag single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were investigated under incident carbon ion by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The radiation damage of SWCNTs under incident carbon ion with energy ranging from 25 eV to 1 keV at 300 K showed many differences at different incident sites, and the defect production increased to the maximum value with the increase in incident ion energy, and slightly decreased but stayed fairly stable within the majority of the energy range. The maximum damage of SWCNTs appeared when the incident ion energy reached 200 eV and the level of damage was directly proportional to incident ion fluence. The radiation damage was also studied at 100 K and 700 K and the defect production decreased distinctly with rising temperature because radiation-induced defects would anneal and recombine by saturating dangling bonds and reconstructing carbon network at the higher temperature. Furthermore, the stability of a large-diameter tube surpassed that of a thin one under the same radiation environments.

  7. Four-Year Incidence and Progression of Visual Impairment in Latinos: The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study (LALES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Rohit; Chung, Jessica; Foong, Althena W.P.; Torres, Mina; Choudhury, Farzana; Azen, Stanley P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine the 4-year incidence of visual impairment (VI) and blindness and worsening of visual acuity in adult Latinos/Hispanics aged 40 years and older. Design Population-based, longitudinal study. Methods Participants underwent a detailed ophthalmologic examination including assessing both presenting binocular (PVA) and best-corrected distance visual acuity (BCVA) in both eyes using a standard ETDRS protocol. The main outcome measures are 4-year incidence of visual impairment and blindness based on PVA or BCVA in the better seeing eye and defined as 1) baseline visual acuity (PVA or BCVA)≥20/40 and a follow-up PVA or BCVA20/200 and a follow-up PVA≤20/200 respectively. Monocular worsening was defined as a decrease of ≥5, 10, and 15 letters in either eye. Results Four thousand six hundred and fifty eight participants were examined at baseline and the 4-year follow-up. The 4-year incidence of presenting binocular VI and blindness was 2.9% and 0.3%. The 4-year incidence of best corrected VI and blindness was 1.2% and 0.3%. The 4-year incidence of monocular worsening by ≥5, 10, and 15 letters was 24.8%, 8.5% and 3.1% respectively. The incidence of VI and blindness increased with age at baseline (Pvisual impairment and blindness should focus on the older Latino population. PMID:20399925

  8. Inverse association of tea and flavonoid intakes with incident myocardial infarction: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Geleijnse (Marianne); L.J. Launer (Lenore); D.A. van der Kuip (Deirdre); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); A. Hofman (Albert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Dietary flavonoids may protect against cardiovascular disease, but evidence is still conflicting. Tea is the major source of flavonoids in Western populations. OBJECTIVE: The association of tea and flavonoid intake with incident myocardial infarction was

  9. Inverse association of tea and flavonoid intakes with incident myocardial infarction: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Geleijnse (Marianne); L.J. Launer (Lenore); D.A. van der Kuip (Deirdre); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); A. Hofman (Albert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Dietary flavonoids may protect against cardiovascular disease, but evidence is still conflicting. Tea is the major source of flavonoids in Western populations. OBJECTIVE: The association of tea and flavonoid intake with incident myocardial infarction was exa

  10. Vitamin K dependent protein activity and incident ischemic cardiovascular disease: The multi ethnic study of atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVE: Vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDPs), which require post-translational modification to achieve biological activity, seem to contribute to thrombus formation, vascular calcification, and vessel stiffness. Whether VKDP activity is prospectively associated with incident cardiovascular diseas...

  11. Predictors of Plasmodium falciparum malaria incidence in Chano Mille, South Ethiopia: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loha, Eskindir; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2012-09-01

    We assessed potential effects of local meteorological and environmental conditions, indoor residual spraying with insecticides, insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) use at individual and community levels, and individual factors on Plasmodium falciparum malaria incidence in a village in south Ethiopia. A cohort of 8,121 people was followed for 101 weeks with active and passive surveillance. Among 317 microscopically confirmed P. falciparum malaria episodes, 29.3% occurred among temporary residents. The incidence density was 3.6/10,000 person-weeks of observation. We observed higher malaria incidence among males, children 5-14 years of age, ITNs non-users, the poor, and people who lived closer to vector breeding places. Rainfall increased and indoor residual spraying with Deltamethrin reduced falciparum incidence. Although ITNs prevented falciparum malaria for the users, we did not find that free mass ITNs distribution reduced falciparum malaria on a village level.

  12. Thymic epithelial turnours : A population-based study of the incidence, diagnostic procedures and therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Wouter K.; Blaauwgeers, Johannes L. G.; Schaapveld, Michael; Timens, Wim; Klinkenberg, Theo J.; Groen, Harry J. M.

    2008-01-01

    The population-based incidence, diagnostic procedures, therapy and survival of thymic epithelial tumours were determined using the Netherlands National Pathological Archives and the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Excess mortality compared to the Netherlands standard population was estimated by relativ

  13. Thymic epithelial turnours : A population-based study of the incidence, diagnostic procedures and therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Wouter K.; Blaauwgeers, Johannes L. G.; Schaapveld, Michael; Timens, Wim; Klinkenberg, Theo J.; Groen, Harry J. M.

    2008-01-01

    The population-based incidence, diagnostic procedures, therapy and survival of thymic epithelial tumours were determined using the Netherlands National Pathological Archives and the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Excess mortality compared to the Netherlands standard population was estimated by relativ

  14. The natural history of idiopathic scoliosis. A study of the incidence of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, F; Willner, S

    1988-04-01

    The natural history of idiopathic scoliosis has been studied between 1969 and 1985 in a well-controlled population of school children, 66,200 cases, between 7 and 16 years of age. The incidence of scoliosis needing treatment (25 degrees or more in progress in growing children) was studied with a cross-sectional as well as a longitudinal survey. When using a cross-sectional technique, a decrease of cases being treated was seen after the introduction of a conventional screening program--thus indicating a change in the natural history of moderate scoliosis. This could, however, be explained by the consequence of an accumulation of treated cases, formerly diagnosed and treated later on, seen immediately after the introduction of screening. When the longitudinal method was used, this trend could not be observed. And finally, when taking changes of indication of treatment and of the population into consideration, no tendency at all toward a change in the natural history could be seen.

  15. Dietary Inflammatory Index and Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease in the PREDIMED Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Garcia-Arellano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported an association between a more pro-inflammatory diet profile and various chronic metabolic diseases. The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII was used to assess the inflammatory potential of nutrients and foods in the context of a dietary pattern. We prospectively examined the association between the DII and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD: myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death in the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea study including 7216 high-risk participants. The DII was computed based on a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals of CVD risk were computed across  quartiles of the DII where the lowest (most anti-inflammatory quartile is the referent. Risk increased across the quartiles (i.e., with increasing inflammatory potential: HRquartile2 = 1.42 (95%CI = 0.97–2.09;  HRquartile3 = 1.85 (1.27–2.71; and HRquartile4 = 1.73 (1.15–2.60. When fit as continuous the multiple-adjusted hazard ratio for each additional standard deviation of the DII was 1.22 (1.06–1.40. Our results provide direct prospective evidence that a pro-inflammatory diet is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular clinical events.

  16. Study of Incidence of Pediatric Central Nervous System Tumors as Per Age Group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi S. Soni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: CNS tumors are the most common solid tumors in children. Tumors of the central nervous system can be divided into primary intracranial tumours that arise from parenchyma of brain, pituitary gland, covering of brain & secondary intracranial tumours which represent local extension from regional tumours or metastasis from primary malignancy in the body. The most common location of the brain tumours in childhood is below the tentorium within the posterior cranial fossa. Materials and methods: Surgical specimen of central nervous system of children (0 to 14 year of age group received from August 2013 to November 2015, in the Tertiary care center, Ahmedabad were studied with keeping the following features in mind: Age, Sex and site of tumours. Results: Fifty eight cases of central Nervous system Tumours between the age of 0 to 14 years over a period of 2.5 years at civil hospital, Ahmedabad were studied. Incidence were more common in male (60.34% than female(39.66% 89.65% were intracranial to 10.35% were intraspinal tumours.Commonly encountered tumour in descending order of frequency were Medulloblastoma (27.58%, astrocytoma (24.13%, Ependymoma (20.68%. All medulloblastomas arose infratentorial, schwannomas arose intraspinal and meningiomas in cranial cavity are supratentorial. Conclusion: CNS Tumors constitute a large proportion of cancers in childhood. They differ from adult CNS tumors both histologically and location wise. Site of the tumor is significant as it can lead to fatal consequences

  17. Oxidative balance scores and risk of incident colorectal cancer in a US prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Chiranjeev; Bostick, Roberd M; Goodman, Michael; Flanders, W Dana; Patel, Roshni; Shah, Roma; Campbell, Peter T; McCullough, Marjorie L

    2015-04-15

    Although oxidative stress is implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis, human studies on associations of individual prooxidants and antioxidants with colorectal cancer (CRC) have been inconclusive. We incorporated individual environmental factors known to affect oxidative stress into 4 oxidative balance scores (OBS) and investigated their associations with CRC in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. During 1999-2009, a total of 1,109 incident CRC cases were identified among 80,063 participants in the Nutrition Cohort who had completed detailed questionnaires. Four OBS with different weighting methods (equal weights, literature review-based, a posteriori data-based, and weights based on Bayesian analysis) were created by combining 16 dietary and nondietary lifestyle factors. Higher values for all 4 OBS, representing more antioxidant exposures than prooxidant exposures, were associated with 41%-53% lower risks of CRC; for example, the relative risk for the highest OBS quartile versus the lowest in the Bayesian analysis was 0.50 (95% confidence interval: 0.41, 0.61). The associations were more modest when OBS was restricted to either dietary or nondietary components. These results, obtained using comprehensive summary measures of oxidative balance-especially considering the similarity of the findings derived using the different weighting methods-support the hypothesis that a predominance of antioxidant lifestyle exposures (both dietary and nondietary) over prooxidant lifestyle exposures reduces risk of CRC.

  18. Experimental studies on wave interactions of partially perforated wall under obliquely incident waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-In; Kim, Young-Taek; Shin, Sungwon

    2014-01-01

    This study presents wave height distribution in terms of stem wave evolution phenomena on partially perforated wall structures through three-dimensional laboratory experiments. The plain and partially perforated walls were tested to understand their effects on the stem wave evolution under the monochromatic and random wave cases with the various wave conditions, incident angle (from 10 to 40 degrees), and configurations of front and side walls. The partially perforated wall reduced the relative wave heights more effectively compared to the plain wall structure. Partially perforated walls with side walls showed a better performance in terms of wave height reduction compared to the structure without the side wall. Moreover, the relative wave heights along the wall were relatively small when the relative chamber width is large, within the range of the chamber width in this study. The wave spectra showed a frequency dependency of the wave energy dissipation. In most cases, the existence of side wall is a more important factor than the porosity of the front wall in terms of the wave height reduction even if the partially perforated wall was still effective compared to the plain wall.

  19. Experimental study of the stress effect on attenuation of normally incident P-wave through coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Junjun; Wang, Enyuan; Chen, Liang; Li, Xuelong; Xu, Zhaoyong; Li, Guoai

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to experimentally investigate the stress effect on normally incident P-wave attenuation through coal specimens. Laboratory tests were carried out using a Split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system, and a modified method was proposed to determine the quality factor (Q) of P-waves through coal specimens. Larger quality factor denotes less energy attenuated during P-wave propagating through coal. Experimental results indicate that the quality factor and stress (σ) within coal specimens are positively correlated. The P-wave propagation through coal specimens causes crack closure at the beginning of the coal fracture process in SHPB tests, an innovative model was thus proposed to describe the relationship between the crack closure length and the dynamic stress induced by P-wave. Finally, the stress effect on P-wave attenuation through coal was quantitatively represented by a power function Q = a(c-bσ)- 6, and the material constants a, b, and c were determined as 1.227, 1.314, and 0.005, respectively. The results obtained in this study would be helpful for engineers to estimate seismic energy attenuation and coal mass instability in coal mines.

  20. Effects of sugammadex on incidence of postoperative residual neuromuscular blockade: a randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueckmann, B; Sasaki, N; Grobara, P; Li, M K; Woo, T; de Bie, J; Maktabi, M; Lee, J; Kwo, J; Pino, R; Sabouri, A S; McGovern, F; Staehr-Rye, A K; Eikermann, M

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade with sugammadex reduced the incidence of residual blockade and facilitated operating room discharge readiness. Adult patients undergoing abdominal surgery received rocuronium, followed by randomized allocation to sugammadex (2 or 4 mg kg(-1)) or usual care (neostigmine/glycopyrrolate, dosing per usual care practice) for reversal of neuromuscular blockade. Timing of reversal agent administration was based on the providers' clinical judgement. Primary endpoint was the presence of residual neuromuscular blockade at PACU admission, defined as a train-of-four (TOF) ratio sugammadex patients and 33 out of 76 (43.4%) usual care patients had TOF-Watch SX-assessed residual neuromuscular blockade at PACU admission (odds ratio 0.0, 95% CI [0-0.06], Psugammadex vs usual care (14.7 vs. 18.6 min respectively; P=0.02). After abdominal surgery, sugammadex reversal eliminated residual neuromuscular blockade in the PACU, and shortened the time from start of study medication administration to the time the patient was ready for discharge from the operating room. Clinicaltrials.gov:NCT01479764. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Clostridium difficile pilot study: effects of probiotic supplementation on the incidence of C. difficile diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Sue; Weaver, Mark A; Harris, Janine C; Dee, Phillipa; Hunter, John

    2004-03-01

    Colonic infection with Clostridium difficile, leading to pseudomembranous colitis, is a common complication of antibiotic therapy, especially in elderly patients. It has been suggested that non-pathogenic probiotic bacteria might prevent the development and recurrence of C. difficile infection. This double-blind, placebo-controlled study examines the role of probiotic administration in the prevention of C. difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD) in elderly patients receiving antibiotic therapy. Consecutive patients (150) receiving antibiotic therapy were randomised to receive either a probiotic containing both Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium or placebo for 20 days. Upon admission to hospital, bowel habit was recorded and a faecal sample taken. Trial probiotic or placebo was taken within 72 h of prescription of antibiotics, and a second stool sample was taken in the event of development of diarrhoea during hospitalisation or after discharge. Of the randomised patients, 138 completed the study, 69 with probiotics in conjunction with antibiotics and 69 with antibiotics alone. On the basis of development of diarrhoea, the incidence of samples positive for C. difficile-associated toxins was 2.9% in the probiotic group compared with 7.25% in the placebo-control group. When samples from all patients were tested (rather than just those developing diarrhoea) 46% of probiotic patients were toxin-positive compared with 78% of the placebo group.

  2. The incidence of venous thromboembolism in cervical cancer: a nationwide population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Shiang-Jiun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Venous thromboembolism (VTE is a life-threatening condition that occurs as a complication of cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of VTE in cervical cancer patients during a 5-year follow-up. Methods The study analyzed data deposited between 2003 and 2008 in the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD, provided by the National Health Research Institutes in Taiwan. Totally, 1013 cervical cancer patients after treatment and 2026 appendectomy patients were eligible. The Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazards model were used to assess the VTE risk. Results The 5-year cumulative risk for VTE was significantly higher in the cervical cancer group than in the control group (3.3% vs 0.3%, p vs 30.3%, p  Conclusions The cumulative risk of VTE was significantly higher in cervical cancer patients, and these patients also had lower survival rates. Strategies to reduce these risks need to be examined.

  3. Dietary Inflammatory Index and Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease in the PREDIMED Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Arellano, Ana; Ramallal, Raul; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Corella, Dolores; Shivappa, Nitin; Schröder, Helmut; Hébert, James R.; Ros, Emilio; Gómez-Garcia, Enrique; Estruch, Ramon; Lapetra, José; Arós, Fernando; Fiol, Miquel; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Pintó, Xavier; Babio, Nancy; González, José I.; Fitó, Montse; Martínez, J. Alfredo; Martínez-González, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported an association between a more pro-inflammatory diet profile and various chronic metabolic diseases. The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) was used to assess the inflammatory potential of nutrients and foods in the context of a dietary pattern. We prospectively examined the association between the DII and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD: myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death) in the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study including 7216 high-risk participants. The DII was computed based on a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals of CVD risk were computed across  quartiles of the DII where the lowest (most anti-inflammatory) quartile is the referent. Risk increased across the quartiles (i.e., with increasing inflammatory potential): HRquartile2 = 1.42 (95%CI = 0.97–2.09); HRquartile3 = 1.85 (1.27–2.71); and HRquartile4 = 1.73 (1.15–2.60). When fit as continuous the multiple-adjusted hazard ratio for each additional standard deviation of the DII was 1.22 (1.06–1.40). Our results provide direct prospective evidence that a pro-inflammatory diet is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular clinical events. PMID:26035241

  4. Occupational noise exposure and incident hypertension in men: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ta-Yuan; Hwang, Bing-Fang; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Chen, Ren-Yin; Wang, Ven-Shing; Bao, Bo-Ying; Lai, Jim-Shoung

    2013-04-15

    The associations between occupational noise exposure and hypertension remain controversial because of the differences in study designs, exposure assessments, and confounding controls. This prospective study investigated the relationship between noise exposure and the 10-year risk of hypertension. A cohort of 578 male workers in Taiwan was followed from 1998 to 2008. All subjects were divided into high-, intermediate-, and low-exposure groups on the basis of noise exposure assessment. Cox regression models were used to estimate the relative risks of hypertension after adjustment for potential confounders. During the 7,805 person-years of follow-up, 141 hypertension cases were identified. Significant increases of 3.2 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2, 6.2) mm Hg in systolic blood pressure and 2.5 (95% CI: 0.1, 4.8) mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure between the baseline and follow-up measurements were observed in the high-exposure group. Participants exposed to ≥85 A-weighted decibels (dBA) had a 1.93-fold (95% CI: 1.15, 3.22) risk of hypertension compared with those exposed to risk of hypertension and the stratum of noise exposure. Prolonged exposure to noise levels ≥85 dBA may increase males' systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels. This association may translate into a higher incidence of hypertension.

  5. Incidence of non-lung solid cancers in Czech uranium miners: A case-cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulich, M., E-mail: kulich@karlin.mff.cuni.cz [Department of Statistics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Sokolovska 83, CZ-186 75 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Rericha, V. [Regional Hospital Pribram (Czech Republic); Rericha, R. [Center of Epidemiological Studies, Pribram (Czech Republic); Shore, D.L. [Westat, Inc., Durham, NC (United States); Sandler, D.P. [Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, NIH, DHHS, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Objectives: Uranium miners are chronically exposed to radon and its progeny, which are known to cause lung cancer and may be associated with leukemia. This study was undertaken to evaluate risk of non-lung solid cancers among uranium miners in Pribram region, Czech Republic. Methods: A retrospective stratified case-cohort study in a cohort of 22,816 underground miners who were employed between 1949 and 1975. All incident non-lung solid cancers were ascertained among miners who worked underground for at least 12 months (n=1020). A subcohort of 1707 subjects was randomly drawn from the same population by random sampling stratified on age. The follow-up period lasted from 1977 to 1996. Results: Relative risks comparing 180 WLM (90th percentile) of cumulative lifetime radon exposure to 3 WLM (10th percentile) were 0.88 for all non-lung solid cancers combined (95% CI 0.73-1.04, n=1020), 0.87 for all digestive cancers (95% CI 0.69-1.09, n=561), 2.39 for gallbladder cancer (95% CI 0.52-10.98, n=13), 0.79 for larynx cancer (95% CI 0.38-1.64, n=62), 2.92 for malignant melanoma (95% CI 0.91-9.42, n=23), 0.84 for bladder cancer (95% CI 0.43-1.65, n=73), and 1.13 for kidney cancer (95% CI 0.62-2.04, n=66). No cancer type was significantly associated with radon exposure; only malignant melanoma and gallbladder cancer showed elevated but non-significant association with radon. Conclusions: Radon was not significantly associated with incidence of any cancer of interest, although a positive association of radon with malignant melanoma and gallbladder cancer cannot be entirely ruled out. - Research highlights: {yields} Uranium miners are chronically exposed to radon. {yields} We evaluate risk of non-lung solid cancers among uranium miners. {yields} No cancer type was significantly associated with radon exposure. {yields} Malignant melanoma and gallbladder cancer showed non-significant elevated risk.

  6. Incidence of injury in Gaelic football: a 4-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John C; O'Malley, Edwenia; Gissane, Conor; Blake, Catherine

    2012-09-01

    Gaelic football is a national sport of Ireland. While predominantly played in Ireland, it is recognized in North America, the United Kingdom, Europe, and Australasia. Its high-velocity, multidirectional, and high physical contact elements expose players to a risk of injury. To date, prospective injury data for Gaelic football has been of short duration. To describe the incidence and nature of sport-related injuries in elite male Gaelic football players over 4 consecutive seasons. Descriptive epidemiology study. Over the period 2007 to 2010, a total of 851 Gaelic football players were tracked. Players were members of county-level teams who volunteered to be included in the study. Team injury, training, and match play data were submitted by the team physiotherapist on a weekly basis through a dedicated web portal to the National Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) injury database. Injury was defined using a time loss criterion, in accordance with consensus statements in sports applicable to Gaelic games. A total of 1014 Gaelic football injuries were recorded. Incidence of injury was 4.05 per 1000 hours of football training. Match-play injury rates were 61.86 per 1000 hours. Muscle was the most frequently injured tissue (42.6%) and fractures accounted for 4.4% of Gaelic football injuries. Lower extremity injuries predominated (76.0%). Hamstring injuries were the single most common injury overall, representing almost one quarter (24%) of all injuries and over half of muscle injuries. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries accounted for 13% of knee injuries. The majority of injuries were defined as new injuries (74.7%), with recurrent injuries constituting 23% of all injuries. The majority (59%) of match play injuries occurred in the second half of the match. Eighty six percent of injuries caused over one week's absence from play. These findings illustrate injury patterns in Gaelic football using a prospective methodology, over 4 consecutive seasons. Comparison with

  7. Incidence of and risk factors for motor neurone disease in UK women: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Pat; Brown, Anna; Beral, Valerie; Reeves, Gillian; Green, Jane

    2012-05-06

    Motor neuron disease (MND) is a severe neurodegenerative disease with largely unknown etiology. Most epidemiological studies are hampered by small sample sizes and/or the retrospective collection of information on behavioural and lifestyle factors. 1.3 million women from the UK Million Women Study, aged 56 years on average at recruitment, were followed up for incident and/or fatal MND using NHS hospital admission and mortality data. Adjusted relative risks were calculated using Cox regression models. During follow-up for an average of 9·2 years, 752 women had a new diagnosis of MND. Age-specific rates increased with age, from 1·9 (95% CI 1·3 - 2·7) to 12·5 (95% CI 10·2 - 15·3) per 100,000 women aged 50-54 to 70-74, respectively, giving a cumulative risk of diagnosis with the disease of 1·74 per 1000 women between the ages of 50 and 75 years. There was no significant variation in risk of MND with region of residence, socio-economic status, education, height, alcohol use, parity, use of oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy. Ever-smokers had about a 20% greater risk than never smokers (RR 1·19 95% CI 1·02 to 1·38, p = 0·03). There was a statistically significant reduction in risk of MND with increasing body mass index (p(for trend) = 0·009): obese women (body mass index, 30 kg/m(2) or more) had a 20% lower risk than women of normal body mass index (20 to <25 Kg/m(2))(RR 0·78 95% CI 0·65-0·94; p = 0·03). This effect persisted after exclusion of the first three years of follow-up. MND incidence in UK women rises rapidly with age, and an estimated 1 in 575 women are likely to be affected between the ages of 50 and 75 years. Smoking slightly increases the risk of MND, and adiposity in middle age is associated with a lower risk of the disease.

  8. Incidence of and risk factors for Motor Neurone Disease in UK women: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doyle Pat

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motor neuron disease (MND is a severe neurodegenerative disease with largely unknown etiology. Most epidemiological studies are hampered by small sample sizes and/or the retrospective collection of information on behavioural and lifestyle factors. Methods 1.3 million women from the UK Million Women Study, aged 56 years on average at recruitment, were followed up for incident and/or fatal MND using NHS hospital admission and mortality data. Adjusted relative risks were calculated using Cox regression models. Findings During follow-up for an average of 9·2 years, 752 women had a new diagnosis of MND. Age-specific rates increased with age, from 1·9 (95% CI 1·3 – 2·7 to 12·5 (95% CI 10·2 – 15·3 per 100,000 women aged 50–54 to 70–74, respectively, giving a cumulative risk of diagnosis with the disease of 1·74 per 1000 women between the ages of 50 and 75 years. There was no significant variation in risk of MND with region of residence, socio-economic status, education, height, alcohol use, parity, use of oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy. Ever-smokers had about a 20% greater risk than never smokers (RR 1·19 95% CI 1·02 to 1·38, p = 0·03. There was a statistically significant reduction in risk of MND with increasing body mass index (pfor trend = 0·009: obese women (body mass index, 30 kg/m2 or more had a 20% lower risk than women of normal body mass index (20 to 2(RR 0·78 95% CI 0·65-0·94; p = 0·03. This effect persisted after exclusion of the first three years of follow-up. Interpretation MND incidence in UK women rises rapidly with age, and an estimated 1 in 575 women are likely to be affected between the ages of 50 and 75 years. Smoking slightly increases the risk of MND, and adiposity in middle age is associated with a lower risk of the disease.

  9. Whole grain, dietary fiber, and incidence of endometrial cancer in a danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Julie; Kyrø, Cecilie; Christensen, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Whole grains and dietary fiber might be inversely associated with endometrial cancer risk through their effects on sex hormone metabolism and body fat. We investigated whether a higher intake of whole grains and dietary fiber was associated with a lower incidence of endometrial cancer in the Diet...... included as cohort members, 217 had a diagnosis of endometrial cancer. No clear associations were found between intake of whole grains or dietary fiber and the incidence of endometrial cancer....

  10. Numerical Simulated Study on the Separation of Oblique Incident and Reflected Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵利民; 俞聿修

    2001-01-01

    The Goda's method of separating the frequency spectrum of the unidirectional incident and reflected waves is improved. The proposed method can be applied to the separation of oblique incident and reflected waves and the two wave gauges can be arranged in an arbitrary angle in front of a structure. When the projected distance of the two probes on the incident wave direction is the multiple ofthe half length of the incident waves, the singular problem will emerge by using the method. It is advised that when the projected distance of the two measured points on the incident wave direction is 0.05~0.45 times the wave length of peak frequency wave, good results can be obtained. The simulated resultant waves are separated by the method of numerical simulation and the separated wave spectra are basically corresponding to the target spectra input. The wave trains calculated by the separated incident and reflected wave frequency spectrum are approximated to the input wave trains and the reflected coefficient can be derived correctly. Therefore, the method proposed in this paper is reliable.

  11. The association between HDL particle concentration and incident metabolic syndrome in the multi-ethnic Dallas Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Preethi; Ren, Hao-Yu; Neeland, Ian J; McGuire, Darren K; Ayers, Colby R; Khera, Amit; Rohatgi, Anand

    2016-12-12

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) increases atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk. Low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) is a diagnostic criterion of MetS and a major ASCVD risk factor. HDL particle concentration (HDL-P) associates with incident ASCVD independent of HDL-C, but its association with incident MetS has not been studied. We hypothesized that HDL-P would be inversely associated with incident metabolic syndrome independent of HDL-C and markers of adiposity and insulin resistance. HDL-P was measured by NMR and visceral fat by MRI in participants of the Dallas Heart Study, a probability-based population sample of adults age 30-65. Participants with prevalent MetS, DM, CVD, and any systemic illlness were excluded. Incident MetS as defined by NCEP ATPIII criteria was determined in all participants after median follow-up period of 7.0 years. Among 1120 participants without DM or MetS at baseline (57% women, 45% Black, mean age 43), 22.8% had incident MetS at follow-up. HDL-P and HDL-C were modestly correlated (r=0.54, pHDL-C ratio, and HOMA-IR, the lowest quartile of HDL-P was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of incident MetS (OR 2.1, 95%CI 1.4-3.1; p=0.0003). Low HDL-P is independently associated with incident MetS after adjustment for traditional risk factors, lipid parameters, adiposity, inflammation, and markers of insulin resistance. Further studies are warranted to validate these findings and elucidate the mechanisms underpinning this association. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and the Incidence of Hypertension in Three Prospective Cohort Studies.

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    Borgi, Lea; Muraki, Isao; Satija, Ambika; Willett, Walter C; Rimm, Eric B; Forman, John P

    2016-02-01

    Increased fruit and vegetable intake lowers blood pressure in short-term interventional studies. However, data on the association of long-term intake of fruits and vegetables with hypertension risk are scarce. We prospectively examined the independent association of whole fruit (excluding juices) and vegetable intake, as well as the change in consumption of whole fruits and vegetables, with incident hypertension in 3 large longitudinal cohort studies: Nurses' Health Study (n=62 175), Nurses' Health Study II (n=88 475), and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (n=36 803). We calculated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for fruit and vegetable consumption while controlling for hypertension risk factors. Compared with participants whose consumption was ≤4 servings/week, the pooled hazard ratios among those whose intake was ≥4 servings/day were 0.92(0.87-0.97) for total whole fruit intake and 0.95(0.86-1.04) for total vegetable intake. Similarly, compared with participants who did not increase their fruit or vegetable consumption, the pooled hazard ratios for those whose intake increased by ≥7 servings/week were 0.94(0.90-0.97) for total whole fruit intake and 0.98(0.94-1.01) for total vegetable. Analyses of individual fruits and vegetables yielded different results. Consumption levels of ≥4 servings/week (as opposed to hypertension risk. In conclusion, our results suggest that greater long-term intake and increased consumption of whole fruits may reduce the risk of developing hypertension.

  13. [Multicenter study on incidence of total parenteral nutrition complications in the critically-ill patient. ICOMEP study. Part II].

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    Grau, T; Bonet, A

    2005-01-01

    To assess enteral nutrition complications in a prospective cohort of patients admitted to the ICU. Prospective, multicenter study of patients admitted to the ICU and that received enteral nutrition (EN). Demographical data, main diagnosis, and nutritional and severity indexes were included. Complications were previously defined and were categorized as gastrointestinal or infectious. An independent group managed the databases and performed the statistical analysis. Data were expressed in absolute values or by their median and percentile (25-75). The rate and incidence density of complications and the odds ratio for complications were determined. 544 out of 3409 patients received enteral nutrition. Three hundred and three patients were admitted for medical causes, 149 for surgical causes and 92 for trauma. Ninety nine patients were underfed, and the nutritional risk index was 69.7. The incidence of gastrointestinal complications was 6 episodes per 100 days of nutrition, and in 89 patient they resulted in enteral nutrition withdrawal. Early enteral nutrition did not yield more complications than late EN. Vomiting was more frequent in late EN (OR 0.4; 95%CI: 0.2-0.7). Temporary withdrawal of diet in 140 patients was the most used procedure, which resulted in a lower caloric intake (median of 2 kcal/kg/d) than programmed. Nosocomial infection rates were 7.47% for catheter-induced sepsis and 51% for other nosocomial infections, and 35% developed pneumonia. Gastrointestinal complications with enteral nutrition are frequent, result in insufficient caloric intake and definitive withdrawal of diet in a significant number of cases. Early enteral nutrition is not associated with an increased number of complications. Episodes of increase of the gastric residue do not increase the incidence of pneumonia. Other infectious complications are within the range of what has been published and seem to be little modified by the use of enteral nutrition.

  14. A longitudinal study of adult-onset asthma incidence among HMO members

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    Rosiello Richard A

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HMO databases offer an opportunity for community based epidemiologic studies of asthma incidence, etiology and treatment. The incidence of asthma in HMO populations and the utility of HMO data, including use of computerized algorithms and manual review of medical charts for determining etiologic factors has not been fully explored. Methods We identified adult-onset asthma, using computerized record searches in a New England HMO. Monthly, our software applied exclusion and inclusion criteria to identify an "at-risk" population and "potential cases". Electronic and paper medical records from the past year were then reviewed for each potential case. Persons with other respiratory diseases or insignificant treatment for asthma were excluded. Confirmed adult-onset asthma (AOA cases were defined as those potential cases with either new-onset asthma or reactivated mild intermittent asthma that had been quiescent for at least one year. We validated the methods by reviewing charts of selected subjects rejected by the algorithm. Results The algorithm was 93 to 99.3% sensitive and 99.6% specific. Sixty-three percent (n = 469 of potential cases were confirmed as AOA. Two thirds of confirmed cases were women with an average age of 34.8 (SD 11.8, and 45% had no evidence of previous asthma diagnosis. The annualized monthly rate of AOA ranged from 4.1 to 11.4 per 1000 at-risk members. Physicians most commonly attribute asthma to infection (59% and allergy (14%. New-onset cases were more likely attributed to infection, while reactivated cases were more associated with allergies. Medical charts included a discussion of work exposures in relation to asthma in only 32 (7% cases. Twenty-three of these (72% indicated there was an association between asthma and workplace exposures for an overall rate of work-related asthma of 4.9%. Conclusion Computerized HMO records can be successfully used to identify AOA. Manual review of these records is

  15. Vegetarian diets and incidence of diabetes in the Adventist Health Study-2.

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    Tonstad, S; Stewart, K; Oda, K; Batech, M; Herring, R P; Fraser, G E

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the relationship of diet to incident diabetes among non-Black and Black participants in the Adventist Health Study-2. Participants were 15,200 men and 26,187 women (17.3% Blacks) across the U.S. and Canada who were free of diabetes and who provided demographic, anthropometric, lifestyle and dietary data. Participants were grouped as vegan, lacto ovo vegetarian, pesco vegetarian, semi-vegetarian or non-vegetarian (reference group). A follow-up questionnaire after two years elicited information on the development of diabetes. Cases of diabetes developed in 0.54% of vegans, 1.08% of lacto ovo vegetarians, 1.29% of pesco vegetarians, 0.92% of semi-vegetarians and 2.12% of non-vegetarians. Blacks had an increased risk compared to non-Blacks (odds ratio [OR] 1.364; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.093-1.702). In multiple logistic regression analysis controlling for age, gender, education, income, television watching, physical activity, sleep, alcohol use, smoking and BMI, vegans (OR 0.381; 95% CI 0.236-0.617), lacto ovo vegetarians (OR 0.618; 95% CI 0.503-0.760) and semi-vegetarians (OR 0.486, 95% CI 0.312-0.755) had a lower risk of diabetes than non-vegetarians. In non-Blacks vegan, lacto ovo and semi-vegetarian diets were protective against diabetes (OR 0.429, 95% CI 0.249-0.740; OR 0.684, 95% CI 0.542-0.862; OR 0.501, 95% CI 0.303-0.827); among Blacks vegan and lacto ovo vegetarian diets were protective (OR 0.304, 95% CI 0.110-0.842; OR 0.472, 95% CI 0.270-0.825). These associations were strengthened when BMI was removed from the analyses. Vegetarian diets (vegan, lacto ovo, semi-) were associated with a substantial and independent reduction in diabetes incidence. In Blacks the dimension of the protection associated with vegetarian diets was as great as the excess risk associated with Black ethnicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Vegetarian diets and incidence of diabetes in the Adventist Health Study-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonstad, S.; Stewart, K.; Oda, K.; Batech, M.; Herring, R.P.; Fraser, G.E.

    2012-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the relationship of diet to incident diabetes among non-Black and Black participants in the Adventist Health Study-2. Methods and Results Participants were 15,200 men and 26,187 women (17.3% Blacks) across the U.S. and Canada who were free of diabetes and who provided demographic, anthropometric, lifestyle and dietary data. Participants were grouped as vegan, lacto ovo vegetarian, pesco vegetarian, semi-vegetarian or non-vegetarian (reference group). A follow-up questionnaire after two years elicited information on the development of diabetes. Cases of diabetes developed in 0.54% of vegans, 1.08% of lacto ovo vegetarians, 1.29% of pesco vegetarians, 0.92% of semi-vegetarians and 2.12% of non-vegetarians. Blacks had an increased risk compared to non-Blacks (odds ratio [OR] 1.364; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.093–1.702). In multiple logistic regression analysis controlling for age, gender, education, income, television watching, physical activity, sleep, alcohol use, smoking and BMI, vegans (OR 0.381; 95% CI 0.236–0.617), lacto ovo vegetarians (OR 0.618; 95% CI 0.503–0.760) and semi-vegetarians (OR 0.486, 95% CI 0.312–0.755) had a lower risk of diabetes than non-vegetarians. In non-Blacks vegan, lacto ovo and semi-vegetarian diets were protective against diabetes (OR 0.429, 95% CI 0.249–0.740; OR 0.684, 95% CI 0.542–0.862; OR 0.501, 95% CI 0.303–0.827); among Blacks vegan and lacto ovo vegetarian diets were protective (OR 0.304, 95% CI 0.110–0.842; OR 0.472, 95% CI 0.270–0.825). These associations were strengthened when BMI was removed from the analyses. Conclusion Vegetarian diets (vegan, lacto ovo, semi-) were associated with a substantial and independent reduction in diabetes incidence. In Blacks the dimension of the protection associated with vegetarian diets was as great as the excess risk associated with Black ethnicity. PMID:21983060

  17. Poor mobilizer: a retrospective study on proven and predicted incidence according to GITMO criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccirillo, Nicola; Vacca, Michele; Lanti, Alessandro; Ipsevich, Francesco; Maresca, Maddalena; Fiorelli, Elena; Bianchi, Maria; Adorno, Gaspare; Pierelli, Luca; Majolino, Ignazio; Leone, Giuseppe; Zini, Gina

    2012-10-01

    The Italian Group for Bone Marrow Transplantation (Gruppo Italiano Trapianto di Midollo Osseo, GITMO) recently formalized criteria for a shared definition of poor mobilizer in order to facilitate randomized clinical trials and study comparison focusing on the efficacy of current mobilizing regimens. The availability of a standardized tool for poor mobilizer definition suggested us to retrospectively test GITMO criteria feasibility and applicability. Therefore we analyzed medical and laboratory records of adult patients affected by myeloma (MM) or lymphoma undergoing mobilization for autologous peripheral blood HSC collection from January 2010 to June 2011, at Servizio di Emotrasfusione, Istituto di Ematologia, Università Cattolica Del Sacro Cuore, Roma, UOC SIMT AO S. Camillo Forlanini Roma and SIMT Fondazione Policlinico Tor Vergata Roma. We collected data about 227 patients (134 male, 93 female) affected by MM (31.3%) NHL (58.6%) e HD (10.1%). Thirty-nine patients, 21 male and 18 female met proven poor mobilizer criteria definition resulting in a incidence of 17.2% (12.7% in MM, 21.8% in NHL and 4.3% in HD). Eleven patients, seven affected by lymphoma and four affected by myeloma, were defined predicted PM according to major criteria. Eight patients, seven affected by lymphoma and one affected by myeloma, were define predicted PM according to minor criteria. Sixteen out of 39 patients defined as poor mobilizer either according to major or minor criteria underwent collection procedures and eight (20.5%) achieved a cell dose ⩾2×10(6)/kg CD34(+) cells. GITMO criteria application was easy and resulted in poor mobilizer incidence comparable to current literature. Definitions of proven poor mobilizer and predicted poor mobilizer according to major criteria were very effective while minor criteria were less predictive. These results came from a retrospective analysis and therefore should be validated in future prospective trial. On the other hand these data could be

  18. Incidence of cancer in the area around Amsterdam Airport Schiphol in 1988–2003: a population-based ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Leeuwen Flora E

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is a major source of complaints about aircraft noise, safety risks and concerns about long term adverse health effects, including cancer. We investigated whether residents of the area around Schiphol are at higher risk of developing cancer than the general Dutch population. Methods In a population-based study using the regional cancer registry, we estimated the cancer incidence during 1988–2003 in residents of the area surrounding Schiphol. We defined a study area based on aircraft noise contours and 4-digit postal code areas, since historical data on ambient air pollution were not available and recent emission data did not differ from the background urban air quality. Results In residents of the study area 13 207 cancer cases were diagnosed, which was close to the expected number, using national incidence rates as a reference (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] 1.02. We found a statistically significantly increased incidence of hematological malignancies (SIR 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05, 1.19, mainly due to high rates for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR 1.22, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.33 and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (SIR 1.34, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.83. The incidence of cancer of the respiratory system was statistically significantly decreased (SIR 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90, 0.99, due to the low rate in males (SIR 0.89. In the core zone of the study area, cancer incidence was slightly higher than in the remaining ring zone (rate ratio of the core zone compared to the ring zone 1.05, 95% CI 1.01, 1.10. This was caused by the higher incidence of cancer of the respiratory system, prostate and the female genital organs in the core zone in comparison to the ring zone. Conclusion The overall cancer incidence in the Schiphol area was similar to the national incidence. The moderately increased risk of hematological malignancies could not be explained by higher levels of ambient air pollution in the Schiphol area

  19. Incidence and risk factors of homicide-suicide in Swiss households: National Cohort study.

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    Radoslaw Panczak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Homicide-suicides are rare but catastrophic events. This study examined the epidemiology of homicide-suicide in Switzerland. METHODS: The study identified homicide-suicide events 1991-2008 in persons from the same household in the Swiss National Cohort, which links census and mortality records. The analysis examined the association of the risk of dying in a homicide-suicide event with socio-demographic variables, measured at the individual-level, household composition variables and area-level variables. Proportional hazards regression models were calculated for male perpetrators and female victims. Results are presented as age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI. RESULTS: The study identified 158 deaths from homicide-suicide events, including 85 murder victims (62 women, 4 men, 19 children and adolescents and 68 male and 5 female perpetrators. The incidence was 3 events per million households and year. Firearms were the most prominent method for both homicides and suicides. The risk of perpetrating homicide-suicide was higher in divorced than in married men (HR 3.64; 95%CI 1.56-8.49, in foreigners without permanent residency compared to Swiss citizens (HR 3.95; 1.52-10.2, higher in men without religious affiliations than in Catholics (HR 2.23; 1.14-4.36 and higher in crowded households (HR 4.85; 1.72-13.6 comparing ≥2 with <1 persons/room. There was no association with education, occupation or nationality, the number of children, the language region or degree of urbanicity. Associations were similar for female victims. CONCLUSIONS: This national longitudinal study shows that living conditions associated with psychological stress and lower levels of social support are associated with homicide-suicide events in Switzerland.

  20. Associations between serum uric acid levels and the incidence of nonfatal stroke: a nationwide community-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Keita; Konta, Tsuneo; Hirayama, Atsushi; Ichikawa, Kazunobu; Kubota, Isao; Fujimoto, Shouichi; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Moriyama, Toshiki; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Narita, Ichiei; Kondo, Masahide; Shibagaki, Yugo; Kasahara, Masato; Asahi, Koichi; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2017-06-01

    Hyperuricemia is an established risk factor for cardiovascular events and mortality. This study investigated the association between serum uric acid and the incidence of nonfatal stroke in a Japanese community-based population. We used a nationwide database of 155,322 subjects (aged 40-73, male 39 %) who participated in the annual "Specific Health Check and Guidance in Japan" checkup from 2008 to 2010. We examined the relationship between the quintiles of serum uric acid levels at baseline and the incidence of nonfatal stroke during a 2-year study period using self-reported data. The crude incidence of nonfatal stroke was significantly associated with serum uric acid levels at baseline, showing the lowest values in subjects with the 3rd quintile (Q3: men, 5.0-5.6; women, 3.8-4.3) of uric acid levels (mg/dL) and the highest values in subjects with the highest quintile (Q5: men ≥7.1, women ≥5.5) both in men and women (P uric acid levels for incident stroke was high, irrespective of characteristics such as age, sex, and renal function. This study has shown that serum uric acid is independently associated with the incidence of nonfatal stroke in the general Japanese population.

  1. Lactate and risk of incident diabetes in a case-cohort of the atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC study.

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    Stephen P Juraschek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxidative capacity is decreased in type 2 diabetes. Whether decreased oxidative capacity is a cause or consequence of diabetes is unknown. Our purpose is to evaluate whether lactate, a marker of oxidative capacity, is associated with incident diabetes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a case-cohort study in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study at year 9 of follow-up. We evaluated lactate's association with diabetes risk factors at baseline and estimated the hazard ratio for incident diabetes by quartiles of plasma lactate in 544 incident diabetic cases and 533 non-cases. Plasma lactate showed a graded positive relationship with fasting glucose and insulin (P<0.001. The relative hazard for incident diabetes increased across lactate quartiles (P-trend ≤0.001. Following adjustment for demographic factors, medical history, physical activity, adiposity, and serum lipids, the hazard ratio in the highest quartile was 2.05 times the hazard in the lowest quartile (95% CI: 1.28, 3.28. After including fasting glucose and insulin the association became non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: Lactate, an indicator of oxidative capacity, predicts incident diabetes independent of many other risk factors and is strongly related to markers of insulin resistance. Future studies should evaluate the temporal relationship between elevated lactate and impaired fasting glucose and insulin resistance.

  2. Longitudinal association between toenail zinc levels and the incidence of diabetes among American young adults: The CARDIA Trace Element Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Suk; Xun, Pengcheng; Li, Jing; Morris, Steve J; Jacobs, David R; Liu, Kiang; He, Ka

    2016-03-16

    Data on primary prevention of zinc status and diabetes risk are sparse and inconsistent. Of note, the previous studies measured either dietary zinc intake with questionnaire or zinc status in serum or hair. Toenail zinc levels are reliable biomarkers of a relatively long-term exposure. A total of 3,960 American young adults, aged 20-32 years, free of diabetes at baseline in 1987 when toenail clippings were collected, were examined for incident diabetes through 2010. Toenail zinc levels were measured with an inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectroscopy method. Incident diabetes cases were identified by fasting or non-fasting plasma glucose levels, oral glucose tolerance tests, hemoglobin A1C levels, and/or antidiabetic medications. During the 23-year follow-up, 418 incident diabetes occurred. After adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, study center, body mass index, education, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history of diabetes, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and other dietary and non-dietary potential confounders, the hazard ratio of incident diabetes comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of toenail zinc levels was 1.21 (95% CI: 0.90-1.63; Ptrend = 0.20). Findings from this study do not support the hypothesis that zinc status is inversely and longitudinally associated with the incidence of diabetes in American young adults.

  3. Long-term risk of falls in an incident Parkinson's disease cohort: the Norwegian ParkWest study.

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    Hiorth, Ylva Hivand; Alves, Guido; Larsen, Jan Petter; Schulz, Jörn; Tysnes, Ole-Bjørn; Pedersen, Kenn Freddy

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the frequency, development, concomitants, and risk factors of falls in a population-based incident Parkinson's disease (PD) cohort. One hundred eighty-one drug-naïve patients with incident PD and 173 normal controls recruited from the Norwegian ParkWest study were prospectively monitored over 7 years. Information on falls was obtained biannually from patients, and at baseline and after 1, 3, 5, and 7 years of follow-up in control subjects. Generalized estimating equation models for correlated data were applied to investigate concomitant features of falls and risk factors for incident falls during 7 years of follow-up in PD. Overall, 64.1% of patients reported falling during the study period. The 7-year cumulative incidence of falls in non-falling patients at baseline (n = 153) was 57.5%, with a relative risk to controls of at least 3.1 (95% confidence interval 1.5-6.3; p risk factors for incident falls during follow-up. Nearly two-thirds of patients in the general PD population experience falls within 7 years of diagnosis, representing a more than threefold increased risk compared to age- and gender-matched controls. Patients with higher age at baseline and early PIGD have the greatest risk of falling and may, therefore, be the prime target of specialized assessment and treatment interventions.

  4. Difficulties in collaboration: a critical incident study of interprofessional healthcare teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvarnström, Susanne

    2008-03-01

    The challenge for members of interprofessional teams is to manage the team processes that occur in all teamwork while simultaneously managing their individual professional identities. The aim of this study was to identify and describe difficulties perceived by health professionals in interprofessional teamwork. Utterances on verbal actions and resolutions were also explored to enable a discussion of the implications for interprofessional learning. Individual interviews using a Critical Incident Technique were performed with 18 Swedish professionals working in healthcare teams, and examined with qualitative content analysis. The main findings show difficulties related to the team dynamic that arose when team members acted towards one another as representatives of their professions, difficulties that occurred when the members' various knowledge contributions interacted in the team, and difficulties related to the influence of the surrounding organization. The perceived consequences of the difficulties, beyond individual consequences, were restrictions on the use of collaborative resources to arrive at a holistic view of the patient's problem, and barriers to providing patient care and service in the desired manner. This paper also discusses how experiences of managing difficulties entailed various forms of interprofessional learning situations.

  5. Incidence of myofascial pain syndrome in breast cancer surgery: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Lacomba, María; Mayoral del Moral, Orlando; Coperias Zazo, José Luís; Gerwin, Robert D; Goñí, Alvaro Zapico

    2010-05-01

    Pain after breast cancer therapy is a recognized complication found to have an adverse impact on patient's quality of life, increasing psychosocial distress. In recent years, case reports about myofascial pain syndrome are emerging in thoracic surgery as a cause of postsurgery pain. Myofascial pain syndrome is a regional pain syndrome characterized by myofascial trigger points in palpable taut bands of skeletal muscle that refers pain a distance, and that can cause distant motor and autonomic effects. The objective of this study was to assess the incidence of myofascial pain syndrome prospectively 12 months after breast cancer surgery. Each participant was assessed preoperatively, postoperatively between day 3 and day 5, and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. A physical therapist, expert in the diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome, performed follow-up assessments. Pain descriptions by the patients and pain pattern drawings in body forms guided the physical examination. The patients were not given any information concerning myofascial pain or other muscle pain syndromes. One year follow-up was completed by 116 women. Of these, 52 women developed myofascial pain syndrome (44.8%, 95% confidence interval: 35.6, 54.3). Myofascial pain syndrome is a common source of pain in women undergoing breast cancer surgery that includes axillary lymph node dissection at least during the first year after surgery. Myofascial pain syndrome is one potential cause of chronic pain in breast cancer survivors who have undergone this kind of surgery.

  6. Experience With a Novel, Global, Open-Access Template for Major Incidents: Qualitative Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, Sabina; Agledahl, Kari Milch; Rehn, Marius; Wisborg, Torben

    2017-08-01

    The transfer of experiences gained after prehospital medical responses to major incidents has largely been nonsystematic, and better-structured reporting methods have been advocated. A consensus-based template was recently created and implemented as an open-access website. This qualitative study assessed the feasibility of using the template and reporting site. Informants who had used or who had been asked to use the template were interviewed. The semi-structured interviews were transcribed verbatim, and the transcripts were analyzed by using an inductive approach based on grounded theory methodology. The major theme identified was a need for "defining purpose" as explained by the minor themes "relevance," "scope," "resources," and "usefulness." Informants reported that the template content needed to be revised and that the scope and rationale behind each question should be conveyed to the user. Resources necessary for reporting and clarity regarding the aim and outcome also need to be communicated to users and policy-makers. The interface between informants and the template is critical. Informants considered the template and website useful but reported that the workload exceeded their expectations. Despite pilot testing of the template before implementation, early revision of the template is recommended. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:403-406).

  7. Association between obesity phenotypes and incident hypertension among Chinese adults: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Z K; Huang, Y; Yu, H J; Yuan, S; Tang, B W; Li, Q X; Li, X T; Yang, X H; He, Q Q

    2017-08-01

    To explore the association between obesity phenotype and the risk of hypertension among Chinese adults. A prospective cohort study. Two waves of data were collected in 2009 and 2011 by the China Health Nutrition Survey. According to International Diabetes Federation and Chinese obesity criteria, participants were divided into four groups: metabolically healthy non-overweight/obesity (MHNO), metabolically healthy overweight/obesity (MHO), metabolically abnormal non-overweight/obesity (MANO), and metabolically abnormal overweight/obesity (MAO). Logistic regression model was performed to estimate the risk of hypertension with obesity phenotype. Among a total of 4604 adults aged 18-65 years at baseline, 467 developed hypertension during the 2-year follow-up period. After adjusting for several potential confounders, significantly increased risks for hypertension were found for participants in MHO (odd ratio [OR]: 1.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.39-2.27), MANO (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.02-2.86), and MAO (OR: 3.35, 95% CI: 2.54-4.42) group compared with the MHNO group. Metabolically abnormal individuals, regardless of their body weight status, showed significantly higher risks for hypertension compared with healthy non-overweight/obese group. Furthermore, MHO individuals had significantly increased risk of incident hypertension. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ethnic and demographic incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in Brazil: A population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Mirian Conceicao; Casulari, Luiz Augusto; Carvalho Garbi Novaes, Maria Rita

    2016-01-01

    Our objectives were to examine demographic and ethnic factors associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Brazil. The method used was a retrospective study of death certificates performed in June 2015, identifying the incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis over 10 years, from January 2004 to December 2013, related to gender, age and race. Results revealed 8942 death certificates with 8152 as the underlying cause and 790 as a secondary cause. The average age was 62.7 ± 13.2 years, with a predominance of males (1·3:1). The adjusted mortality rate over 20 years was 0.61 to 0.89/100,000 person-years, and over 45 years was 1.77 to 2.3/100,000 person-years. There was a predominance of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Caucasians compared to the general population above 20 years (2010 Census), with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.92 (95% CI 2.78-3.07). The OR in blacks was 0.04 (95% CI: 0.03-0.04), in mestizos was 0.05 (0.04-0.07), and in Indians was 0.02 (0.01-0.04). The mean age was lower than in European populations (48.5 ± 12.3 years) (p amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Brazil is close to other Latin American populations, with a lower age at death and clear predominance in Caucasians.

  9. Effects of sex on the incidence and prognosis of spinal meningiomas: a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwick, Harrison J; Shamji, Mohammed F

    2015-09-01

    Most spinal meningiomas are intradural lesions in the thoracic spine that present with both local pain and myelopathy. By using the large prospective Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, the authors studied the incidence of spinal meningiomas and examined demographic and treatment factors predictive of death. Using SEER*Stat software, the authors queried the SEER database for cases of spinal meningioma between 2000 and 2010. From the results, tumor incidence and demographic statistics were computed; incidence was analyzed as a function of tumor location, pathology, age, sex, and malignancy code. Survival was analyzed by using a Cox proportional hazards ratio in SPSS for age, sex, marital status, primary site, size quartile, treatment modality, and malignancy code. In this analysis, significance was set at a p value of 0.05. The 1709 spinal meningiomas reported in the SEER database represented 30.7% of all primary intradural spinal tumors and 7.9% of all meningiomas. These meningiomas occurred at an age-adjusted incidence of 0.193 (95% CI 0.183-0.202) per 100,000 population and were closely related to sex (337 [19.7%] male patients and 1372 [80.3%] female patients). The Cox hazard function for mortality in males was higher (2.4 [95% CI1.7-3.5]) and statistically significant, despite the lower lesion incidence in males. All-cause survival was lowest in patients older than 80 years. Primary site and treatment modality were not significant predictors of mortality. Spinal meningiomas represent a significant fraction of all primary intradural spinal tumors and of all meningiomas. The results of this study establish the association of lesion incidence and survival with sex, with a less frequent incidence in but greater mortality among males.

  10. Self-reported incident type 2 diabetes in the Ibadan study of ageing: relationship with urban residence and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Williams O; Gureje, Oye

    2013-01-01

    There is no incident study of diabetes among elderly Nigerians and it is unclear what factors may constitute risks for the condition in this society undergoing rapid social changes. This study explores the link between urban residence and socioeconomic status, and incident diabetes among community-dwelling elderly Nigerians. A cohort of 2,149 persons, aged 65 years and above, were recruited through a clustered multistage sampling in eight contiguous predominantly Yoruba-speaking states in south-western and north-central regions of Nigeria. Follow-up evaluation was conducted approximately 39 months after the baseline assessments. Face-to-face assessments obtained self-report of chronic medical conditions, including diabetes, using a standardized checklist as well as information on social factors, including residence. Incident diabetes was determined among persons who were free of the problem at baseline (n = 1,330). At follow-up, 38 subjects had developed diabetes giving an incidence rate of 8.87% [95% confidence interval (CI): 6.45-12.19] per 1,000 person-years. A stepwise relationship was found between incident diabetes and urbanicity as well as increasing economic status. The highest incidence of diabetes (13.57%; 95% CI: 8.75-21.03 per 1,000 person-years) occurred among subjects residing in urban areas, representing an adjusted relative risk of 4.25 (95% CI: 1.81-9.94) compared to those residing in rural areas. Also, compared with persons in the lowest economic group, those in the highest group had about a 3-fold elevated risk of having incident diabetes. Urban residence and increasing socioeconomic status are risk factors for new onset diabetes among elderly Nigerians. These social factors may be proxies for lifestyles that increase the likelihood of developing the disorder. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Incidence and course of child malnutrition according to clinical or anthropometrical assessment: a longitudinal study from rural DR Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Longitudinal studies describing incidence and natural course of malnutrition are scarce. Studies defining malnutrition clinically [moderate clinical malnutrition (McM) marasmus, kwashiorkor] rather than anthropometrically are rare. Our aim was to address incidence and course of malnutrition among pre-schoolers and to compare patterns and course of clinically and anthropometrically defined malnutrition. Methods Using a historical, longitudinal study from Bwamanda, DR Congo, we studied incidence of clinical versus anthropometrical malnutrition in 5 657 preschool children followed 3-monthly during 15 months. Results Incidence rates were highest in the rainy season for all indices except McM. Incidence rates of McM and marasmus tended to be higher for boys than for girls in the dry season. Malnutrition rates increased from the 0–5 to the 6 – 11 months age category. McM and marasmus had in general a higher incidence at all ages than their anthropometrical counterparts, moderate and severe wasting. Shifts back to normal nutritional status within 3 months were more frequent for clinical than for anthropometrical malnutrition (62.2-80.3% compared to 3.4-66.4.5%). Only a minority of moderately stunted (30.9%) and severely stunted children (3.4%) shifted back to normal status. Alteration from severe to mild malnutrition was more characteristic for anthropometrically than for clinically defined malnutrition. Conclusions Our data on age distribution of incidence and course of malnutrition underline the importance of early life intervention to ward off malnutrition. In principle, looking at incidence may yield different findings from those obtained by looking at prevalence, since incidence and prevalence differ approximately differ by a factor “duration”. Our findings show the occurrence dynamics of general malnutrition, demonstrating that patterns can differ according to nutritional assessment method. They suggest the importance of applying a mix of clinical

  12. [Relation between waist circumference and risk of male lung cancer incidence: a prospective cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, S H; Wang, G; Guo, L W; Chen, S H; Su, K; Li, F; Chang, S; Feng, X S; Lyu, Z Y; Chen, Y H; Ren, J S; Cui, H; Li, N; Wu, S L; Dai, M; He, J

    2017-02-10

    Objective: To investigate the association between waist circumference and risk of male lung cancer incidence. Methods: Since May 1, 2006, all the male employees including the retirees in Kailuan Group had been recruited into a Chinese Kailuan Male Cohort study. Information on anthropometries including body weight, height and waist circumference were collected at the baseline investigation, as well as information on newly-diagnosed lung cancer cases during the follow-up period. Waist circumference was grouped by quintiles of the population waist circumference distribution and categorized into the following five groups: waist circumference and risk of lung cancer. Results: A total of 105 386 males were recruited in the study, with 739 651.13 person-years of follow-up and an average follow-up period of 7.00 years. By the end of 2014, a total of 707 lung cancer cases were identified in the cohort study. Compared with males having the 80-cm of waist circumference, the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of lung cancer were 1.17(0.90-1.52), 0.96(0.74-1.23), 0.94(0.72-1.21) and 0.80(0.63-1.03) for the waist circumference, after adjustment for potential confounding factors including age, education level, smoking status and pack-year amount, alcohol consumption, physical activities, environment for working place and the prevalence on diabetes. The inverse association existed in smokers (≥95 cm compared to 80-cm of waist circumference: HR=0.69, 95%CI: 0.48-0.99) and alcohol drinkers (≥95 cm compared to 80-cm of waist circumference: HR=0.65, 95%CI: 0.45-0.94) when analysis was conducted in subgroups stratified by smoking or alcohol drinking status. Conclusion: Waist circumference might be inversely associated with male lung cancer risk.

  13. Incidence of impacted mandibular and maxillary third molars: a radiographic study in a Southeast Iran population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Mehrnaz; Fahimi-Hanzaei, Farnaz

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the position of impacted third molars based on the classifications of Pell & Gregory and Winter in a sample of Iranian patients. Study design: In this retrospective study, up to 1020 orthopantomograms (OPG) of the patients who were referred to the radiology clinics from October 2007 to January 2011 were evaluated. Data including the age, gender, the angulation type, width and depth of impaction were evaluated by statistical tests. Results: Among 1020 patients, 380(27.3%) were male and 640(62.7%) were female with the sex ratio was 1:1.7. Of the 1020 OPGs, 585 cases showed at least one impacted third molar, with significant difference between males (205; 35.1%) and females (380; 64.9%) (P = 0.0311). Data analysis showed that impacted third molars were 1.9 times more likely to occur in the mandible than in the maxilla (P =0.000). The most common angulation of impaction in the mandible was mesioangular impaction (48.3%) and the most common angulation of impaction in the maxilla was the vertical (45.3%). Impaction in the level IIA was the most common in both maxilla and mandible. There was no significant diffe-rence between the right and left sides in both the maxilla and the mandible. Conclusion: The pattern of third molar impaction in the southeast region of Iran is characterized by a high prevalence of impaction, especially in the mandible. Female more than male have teeth impaction. The most common angulation was the mesioangular in the mandible, and the vertical angulation in the maxilla. The most common level of impaction was the A and there was no any significant difference between the right and left sides in both jaws. Key words:Third molar, impaction, incidence, Iran. PMID:23229243

  14. Common mental disorders associated with 2-year diabetes incidence : The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atlantis, Evan; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Cashman, Kara; Penninx, Brenda J. W. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Few prospective cohort studies describe the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus associated with depression or anxiety. The aim of this study was to determine the 2-year diabetes incidence and pattern of explanatory factors associated with depressive and/or anxiety disorders. Methods: A pros

  15. Epidemiological study of paediatric germ cell tumours revealed the incidence and distribution that was expected, but a low mortality rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evers, Madeline; Rechnitzer, Catherine; Graem, Niels

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Germ cell tumours (GCTs) are a rare heterogeneous tumour group derived from primordial germ cells, which can be benign or malignant and occur in the gonads or extragonadally. This study mapped the paediatric GCTs in Denmark from 1984-2013 to study the incidence and outcome. METHODS: We ident...

  16. The Potentially Modifiable Burden of Incident Heart Failure Due to Obesity: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    OpenAIRE

    Loehr, Laura R; Rosamond, Wayne D.; Poole, Charles; McNeill, Ann Marie; Chang, Patricia P.; Deswal, Anita; Aaron R. Folsom; Heiss, Gerardo

    2010-01-01

    The authors estimated the generalized impact fraction (GIF) for heart failure (HF) related to obesity, representing the proportion of incident HF events that could be prevented from reductions in obesity and/or overweight. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study is a biracial population-based cohort study of persons aged 45–64 years from 4 US communities with a median 14 ye...

  17. Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes by Place of Birth in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    OpenAIRE

    OZA-FRANK, REENA; Chan, Cheeling; Liu, Kiang; Burke, Gregory; Kanaya, Alka M.

    2013-01-01

    Incidence of diabetes among US foreign-born individuals is not well studied. Data were from the Multi Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine diabetes risk by race/ethnicity, place of birth, and duration of residence among foreign-born. Foreign-born Latinos had a higher risk of incident diabetes compared to US-born Latinos (hazard ratio (HR) 1.79 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.00–3.21]). Latinos born in Mexico (HR, 2.26 [95 % CI, 1.18–4.33]) ...

  18. Age-based prediction of incidence of complications during inpatient stroke rehabilitation: a retrospective longitudinal cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Stroke complications can occur not only in the acute ward but also during the subsequent rehabilitation period. However, existing studies have not adequately addressed the incidence of various complications among stroke in patients undergoing rehabilitation using a longitudinal method. We aimed to investigate the longitudinal impact of age on complication rates in patients undergoing inpatient stroke rehabilitation at different disease stages. Methods Five hundred and sixty-eight first-time stroke patients transferred to the rehabilitation ward between July 2002 and June 2012 were included in the study. Patients were stratified into age groups for comparison: rehabilitation ward, and incidence was >10% in all three age groups. The frequency of incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) was higher in the younger old (17.9%) and older old (20.6%) groups than in the young group (4.1%) during initial stay in the rehabilitation ward (p rehabilitation ward (p = 0.011). The incidence of symptomatic UTI was higher in the younger old (21.0%) and older old (20.0%) groups than in the young group (11.5%) during initial stay in the rehabilitation ward (p = 0.019). The incidence of symptomatic UTI was higher in the older old group (29.17%) than in the younger old (9.21%) and young (3.14%) groups during subsequent stay in the rehabilitation ward (p stroke patients aged ≥65 years during their stay in the rehabilitation ward. PMID:24684939

  19. An open cohort study of bone metastasis incidence following surgery in breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimoto Masataka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To help design clinical trials of adjuvant bisphosphonate therapy for breast cancer, the temporal incidence of bone metastasis was investigated in a cohort of patients. We have tried to draw the criteria to use adjuvant bisphosphonate. Methods Consecutive breast cancer patients undergoing surgery between 1988 and 1998 (5459 patients were followed up regarding bone metastasis until December 2006. Patients' characteristics at the time of surgery were analyzed by Cox's method, with bone metastasis as events. Patient groups were assigned according to Cox's analysis, and were judged either to require the adjuvant bisphosphonate or not, using the tentative criteria: high risk (>3% person-year, medium risk (1-3%, and low risk ( Results Bone metastasis incidence was constant between 1.0 and 2.8% per person-year more than 10 years. Non-invasive cancer was associated with a very low incidence of bone metastasis (1/436. Multivariate Cox's analysis indicated important factors for bone metastasis were tumor grade (T, nodal grade (pN, and histology. Because T and pN were important factors for bone metastasis prediction, subgroups were made by pTNM stage. Patients at stages IIIA, IIIB and IV had an incidence of >3% per person-year, patients with stage I Conclusions Bone metastasis incidence remained constant for many years. Using pN, T, and histopathology, patients could be classified into high, medium, and low risk groups.

  20. Experimental study on the incident-angle-dependent laser coupling features of polystyrene targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yunsong; Huang, Chengwu; Zhu, Tuo; Song, Tianming; Yang, Jiamin; Wei, Huiyue; Du, Huabing; Che, Xingsen; Mei, Yu

    2016-11-01

    Laser-produced plasmas have attracted great interest due to their potential utility in wide-ranging applications, especially in the field of inertial confinement fusion (ICF). For direct-driven ICF, laser coupling with polystyrene targets is a crucial and fundamental problem. In addition, oblique incidence is also a common phenomenon for laser facilities with multiple beams. It is necessary to evaluate the effects of oblique incidence on the laser coupling features relevant to the direct-driven ICF. Experiments using an intense nanosecond flat-top laser at around 4× {10}14 W cm-2 to irradiate polystyrene planar targets from three different incidence angles have been performed on the Shenguang-III prototype laser facility. The time-integrated absolute values of the full aperture backscatter (FABS), near backscatter scattering (NBS), and the x-ray conversion efficiency (CE) have been measured quantitatively. According to the experimental results, with the increase of the incidence angle, the percentage of the stimulated Brillouin backscatter and the overall x-ray CE decreased while the stimulated Raman backscatter fraction rose. Theoretical analyses based on hydrodynamic simulations and linear theory were qualitatively consistent with the experimental results. In addition, the specularly reflected light was also observed at 30° laser oblique incidence.

  1. The Incidence Characteristics of Second Primary Malignancy after Diagnosis of Primary Colon and Rectal Cancer: A Population Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Guan

    Full Text Available With the expanding population of colorectal cancer (CRC survivors in the United States, one concerning issue is the risk of developing second primary malignancies (SPMs for these CRC survivors. The present study attempts to identify the incidence characteristics of SPMs after diagnosis of first primary colon cancer (CC and rectal cancer (RC.189,890 CC and 83,802 RC cases were identified from Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER database. We performed rate analysis on incidence trend of SPMs in both CC and RC. Expected incidence rates were stratified by age, race and stage, calendar year of first CRC diagnosis and latency period since first CRC diagnosis. The standardized incidence ratios (SIRs, measure for estimating risk of SPMs, were calculated for CC and RC respectively.The trends of incidence of SPMs in both CC and RC were decreasing from 1992 to 2012. Both CC and RC survivors had higher risk of developing SPMs (SIRCC = 1.13; SIRRC = 1.05. For CC patients, the highest risks of SPM were cancers of small intestine (SIR = 4.03, colon (SIR = 1.87 and rectum (SIR = 1.80. For RC patients, the highest risks of SPMs were cancers of rectum (SIR = 2.88, small intestine (SIR = 2.16 and thyroid (SIR = 1.46. According to stratified analyses, we also identified incidence characteristics which were contributed to higher risk of developing SPMs, including the age between 20 and 40, American Indian/Alaska Native, localized stage, diagnosed at calendar year from 2002 to 2012 and the latency between 12 and 59 months.Both CC and RC survivors remain at higher risk of developing SPMs. The identification of incidence characteristics of SPMs is extremely essential for continuous cancer surveillance among CRC survivors.

  2. [Incidence of obesity and its modifiable risk factors in Chinese adults aged 35-74 years: a prospective cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianxin; Fan, Sen; Li, Ying; Chen, Jichun; Cao, Jie; Huang, Jianfeng; Zhao, Liancheng; Liu, Xiaoqing; Yu, Ling; Deng, Ying; Chen, Naying; Guo, Dongshuang; Ruan, Liansheng; Gu, Dongfeng

    2014-04-01

    To examine the incidence of obesity and its modifiable risk factors in Chinese adults aged 35-74 years. A total of 27 020 participants aged 35 to 74 years from two prospective cohort studies in China were followed up in the years of 2007 and 2008. Obesity and overweight were defined as body mass index ≥ 28.0, and 24.0-27.9 kg/m(2), respectively. Relative risks of obesity for risk factors were computed by using logistic regression. The annual incidence rates of obesity and overweight were 6.97 ‰ and 24.83 ‰ in Chinese adults aged 35-74 years, respectively. Women had a higher incidence of obesity than men (7.74 ‰ vs. 6.10 ‰). Participants in northern China had a higher incidence than those in southern (9.29 ‰ vs. 5.10 ‰) part of the country. Adults in rural had a higher incidence than those in urban (7.28 ‰ vs. 6.52 ‰). After adjusting for the baseline variables, such as gender, age, geographic region, degree of urbanization, the relative risk for obesity was 0.82 (95% CI:0.68-0.99) for participants with ≥ 12 years' education, compared with those risk of incidence of obesity. Participants who consumed milk and moderate amount of fruits, would show a lower risk of obesity. The incidence of obesity was 6.97 ‰ in Chinese middle and older adults. Our results underscored that the promotion of healthy lifestyle which include issues as increasing physical activity, consuming moderate amount of fruits and milk but less red meat, drinking less scented tea etc, could play key roles in obesity prevention and control among the Chinese adults, especially among people with low education level or with middle income.

  3. Molecular dynamics study of the interactions of incident N or Ti atoms with the TiN(001) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhenhai [National Key Laboratory for Precision Hot Processing of Metals & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Centre for Precision Manufacturing, Department of Design, Manufacture and Engineering Management, The University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom); Zeng, Quanren [Centre for Precision Manufacturing, Department of Design, Manufacture and Engineering Management, The University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom); Yuan, Lin [National Key Laboratory for Precision Hot Processing of Metals & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Qin, Yi [Centre for Precision Manufacturing, Department of Design, Manufacture and Engineering Management, The University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom); Chen, Mingjun [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Shan, Debin, E-mail: d.b.shan@gmail.com [National Key Laboratory for Precision Hot Processing of Metals & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Interactions of incident N or Ti atoms with TiN(001) surface are studied by CMD. • The impact position of incident N on the surface determines the interaction modes. • Adsorption could occur due to the atomic exchange process. • Resputtering and reflection may simultaneously occur. • The initial sticking coefficient of N on TiN(001) is much smaller than that of Ti. - Abstract: The interaction processes between incident N or Ti atoms and the TiN(001) surface are simulated by classical molecular dynamics based on the second nearest-neighbor modified embedded-atom method potentials. The simulations are carried out for substrate temperatures between 300 and 700 K and kinetic energies of the incident atoms within the range of 0.5–10 eV. When N atoms impact against the surface, adsorption, resputtering and reflection of particles are observed; several unique atomic mechanisms are identified to account for these interactions, in which the adsorption could occur due to the atomic exchange process while the resputtering and reflection may simultaneously occur. The impact position of incident N atoms on the surface plays an important role in determining the interaction modes. Their occurrence probabilities are dependent on the kinetic energy of incident N atoms but independent on the substrate temperature. When Ti atoms are the incident particles, adsorption is the predominant interaction mode between particles and the surface. This results in the much smaller initial sticking coefficient of N atoms on the TiN(001) surface compared with that of Ti atoms. Stoichiometric TiN is promoted by N/Ti flux ratios larger than one.

  4. Incidence of end-stage renal disease in the Turkish-Cypriot population of Northern Cyprus: a population based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M F Connor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This is the first report of the incidence and causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD of the Turkish-Cypriot population in Northern Cyprus. METHODS: Data were collected over eight consecutive years (2004-2011 from all those starting renal replacement therapy (RRT in this population. Crude and age-standardised incidence at 90 days was calculated and comparisons made with other national registries. We collected DNA from the entire prevalent population. As an initial experiment we looked for two genetic causes of ESRD that have been reported in Greek Cypriots. RESULTS: Crude and age-standardised incidence at 90 days was 234 and 327 per million population (pmp per year, respectively. The mean age was 63, and 62% were male. The age-adjusted prevalence of RRT in Turkish-Cypriots was 1543 pmp on 01/01/2011. The incidence of RRT is higher than other countries reporting to the European Renal Association - European Dialysis and Transplant Association, with the exception of Turkey. Diabetes is a major cause of ESRD in those under 65, accounting for 36% of incident cases followed by 30% with uncertain aetiology. 18% of the incident population had a family history of ESRD. We identified two families with thin basement membrane nephropathy caused by a mutation in COL4A3, but no new cases of CFHR5 nephropathy. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first estimate of RRT incidence in the Turkish-Cypriot population, describes the contribution of different underlying diagnoses to ESRD, and provides a basis for healthcare policy planning.

  5. Reactions to adverse incidents in the health services on Twitter: a mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Meaney

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Participation in social networking is commonplace and social media is transforming both health and health related research. Of the various social media platforms, Twitter must be considered a platform for rapid and immediate communication. There has been considerable national and international media coverage reporting a number of adverse incidents in the Irish maternity services. The media coverage of these adverse incidents, most recently about a cluster of perinatal deaths, stimulated much public debate including debate online. Aim: Our study aimed to explore the Twitter status updates, and subsequent responses, relating to a number of perinatal deaths which occurred in a maternity unit with approximately 2,000 births per year. Method: As this study examined Twitter status updates in relation to reported perinatal death a mixed methods approach was adopted. Firstly, status updates in English were searched utilising the Twitter search function on its website. A search was undertaken on all public status updates from January 29th 2014 to March 31st 2014 relating to the perinatal deaths. Data were quantitatively analysed in order to assess the frequency of status updates, the demographic profiles of users and to ascertain the potential reach of the status updates. Secondly qualitative analysis was employed to generate themes from the content that twitter users shared publically. Results: From January 29th 2014 to March 31st 2014, 3,577 Twitter status updates from 1,276 profiles relating to the perinatal deaths were identified. Of these, 54.1% (n=1615 were tweets, 38.9% (n=1392 were retweets and 15.9% (n=570 were replies. Over one third of all updates (36.8%; n=1317 were from profiles which identified the user as either a media outlet or media personnel. One in 10 (11.8%; 424 status updates were by those who self-identified as a parent. Twitter was not utilised as a platform by any healthcare authority to release a statement in

  6. [Body mass index and the risk of lung cancer incidence in smokers: a prospective cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F; Xie, S H; Wang, G; Su, K; Feng, X S; Lyu, Z Y; Guo, L W; Chen, S H; Chang, S; Chen, Y H; Ren, J S; Shi, J F; Yang, W J; Cui, H; Wu, S L; Dai, M; Li, N; He, J

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the effect of baseline body mass index (BMI) on the risk of lung cancer incidence in male smokers. All the male employees and retirees of the Kailuan Group were recruited in the Chinese Kailuan Male Cohort Study, and they had been experienced routine physical examinations every two years since May, 2006. Up to 31st December 2011, a total of 3 rounds physical examinations had been completed. A total of 42 718 male smokers candidates from the Chinese Kailuan Male Cohort Study were enrolled in the present study. The date of entering this study was defined as that of taking first check-up, and the date of end-of-observation was defined as that of cancer diagnosis, death or end of follow-up (31 December 2011). Information on demographics, lifestyle such as smoking, alcohol consumption, anthropometries such as height and weight, as well as the information of newly-diagnosed cancer cases, were collected at the baseline investigation. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to investigate the association between levels of the baseline BMI and risk of lung cancer. Of the 42 718 male smokers, there were 181 998.09 person-years of follow-up, taking 4.26 years of average follow-up period. During follow-up, 234 new lung cancer cases were identified among the 42 718 male smokers and the crude incidence density was 128.57/100 000. After the factors adjustment for age, education level, alcohol consumption, physical activity, work environment and cumulative smoking levels (pack-years), compared with subjects of normal BMI group, hazard ratio and 95% confidence intervals of lung cancer for subjects of underweight, overweight, and obesity were 1.63 (0.79-3.37), 0.79 (0.57-1.09) and 0.50 (0.27-0.91), respectively. After the facotors adjustment for age, education level, alcohol consumption, physical activity, work environment and cumulative smoking levels (pack-years), compared with subjects of normal BMI, hazard ratio and 95% confidence

  7. Plasma Ascorbic Acid, A Priori Diet Quality Score, and Incident Hypertension: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijsse, Brian; Jacobs, David R; Steffen, Lyn M; Kromhout, Daan; Gross, Myron D

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin C may reduce risk of hypertension, either in itself or by marking a healthy diet pattern. We assessed whether plasma ascorbic acid and the a priori diet quality score relate to incident hypertension and whether they explain each other's predictive abilities. Data were from 2884 black and white adults (43% black, mean age 35 years) initially hypertension-free in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (study year 10, 1995-1996). Plasma ascorbic acid was assessed at year 10 and the diet quality score at year 7. Eight-hundred-and-forty cases of hypertension were documented between years 10 and 25. After multiple adjustments, each 12-point (1 SD) higher diet quality score at year 7 related to mean 3.7 μmol/L (95% CI 2.9 to 4.6) higher plasma ascorbic acid at year 10. In separate multiple-adjusted Cox regression models, the hazard ratio of hypertension per 19.6-μmol/L (1 SD) higher ascorbic acid was 0.85 (95% CI 0.79-0.92) and per 12-points higher diet score 0.86 (95% CI 0.79-0.94). These hazard ratios changed little with mutual adjustment of ascorbic acid and diet quality score for each other, or when adjusted for anthropometric variables, diabetes, and systolic blood pressure at year 10. Intake of dietary vitamin C and several food groups high in vitamin C content were inversely related to hypertension, whereas supplemental vitamin C was not. In conclusion, plasma ascorbic acid and the a priori diet quality score independently predict hypertension. This suggests that hypertension risk is reduced by improving overall diet quality and/or vitamin C status. The inverse association seen for dietary but not for supplemental vitamin C suggests that vitamin C status is preferably improved by eating foods rich in vitamin C, in addition to not smoking and other dietary habits that prevent ascorbic acid from depletion.

  8. Genome-Wide Association Study for Incident Myocardial Infarction and Coronary Heart Disease in Prospective Cohort Studies: The CHARGE Consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Dehghan

    Full Text Available Data are limited on genome-wide association studies (GWAS for incident coronary heart disease (CHD. Moreover, it is not known whether genetic variants identified to date also associate with risk of CHD in a prospective setting.We performed a two-stage GWAS analysis of incident myocardial infarction (MI and CHD in a total of 64,297 individuals (including 3898 MI cases, 5465 CHD cases. SNPs that passed an arbitrary threshold of 5×10-6 in Stage I were taken to Stage II for further discovery. Furthermore, in an analysis of prognosis, we studied whether known SNPs from former GWAS were associated with total mortality in individuals who experienced MI during follow-up.In Stage I 15 loci passed the threshold of 5×10-6; 8 loci for MI and 8 loci for CHD, for which one locus overlapped and none were reported in previous GWAS meta-analyses. We took 60 SNPs representing these 15 loci to Stage II of discovery. Four SNPs near QKI showed nominally significant association with MI (p-value<8.8×10-3 and three exceeded the genome-wide significance threshold when Stage I and Stage II results were combined (top SNP rs6941513: p = 6.2×10-9. Despite excellent power, the 9p21 locus SNP (rs1333049 was only modestly associated with MI (HR = 1.09, p-value = 0.02 and marginally with CHD (HR = 1.06, p-value = 0.08. Among an inception cohort of those who experienced MI during follow-up, the risk allele of rs1333049 was associated with a decreased risk of subsequent mortality (HR = 0.90, p-value = 3.2×10-3.QKI represents a novel locus that may serve as a predictor of incident CHD in prospective studies. The association of the 9p21 locus both with increased risk of first myocardial infarction and longer survival after MI highlights the importance of study design in investigating genetic determinants of complex disorders.

  9. Solid Cancer Incidence among the Life Span Study of Atomic Bomb Survivors: 1958-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Eric J; Brenner, Alina; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Sakata, Ritsu; Sadakane, Atsuko; Utada, Mai; Cahoon, Elizabeth K; Milder, Caitlin M; Soda, Midori; Cullings, Harry M; Preston, Dale L; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2017-05-01

    This is the third analysis of solid cancer incidence among the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, adding eleven years of follow-up data since the previously reported analysis. For this analysis, several changes and improvements were implemented, including updated dose estimates (DS02R1) and adjustment for smoking. Here, we focus on all solid cancers in aggregate. The eligible cohort included 105,444 subjects who were alive and had no known history of cancer at the start of follow-up. A total of 80,205 subjects had individual dose estimates and 25,239 were not in either city at the time of the bombings. The follow-up period was 1958-2009, providing 3,079,484 person-years of follow-up. Cases were identified by linkage with population-based Hiroshima and Nagasaki Cancer Registries. Poisson regression methods were used to elucidate the nature of the radiation-associated risks per Gy of weighted absorbed colon dose using both excess relative risk (ERR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) models adjusted for smoking. Risk estimates were reported for a person exposed at age 30 years with attained age of 70 years. In this study, 22,538 incident first primary solid cancer cases were identified, of which 992 were associated with radiation exposure. There were 5,918 cases (26%) that occurred in the 11 years (1999-2009) since the previously reported study. For females, the dose response was consistent with linearity with an estimated ERR of 0.64 per Gy (95% CI: 0.52 to 0.77). For males, significant upward curvature over the full dose range as well as restricted dose ranges was observed and therefore, a linear-quadratic model was used, which resulted in an ERR of 0.20 (95% CI: 0.12 to 0.28) at 1 Gy and an ERR of 0.010 (95% CI: -0.0003 to 0.021) at 0.1 Gy. The shape of the ERR dose response was significantly different among males and females (P = 0.02). While there was a significant decrease in the ERR with increasing attained age, this

  10. A prospective study of lifetime physical activity and prostate cancer incidence and mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Orsini, N.; Bellocco, R; Bottai, M; Pagano, M; Andersson, S-O; Johansson, J-E; Giovannucci, E; Wolk, A

    2009-01-01

    Background: The possible benefit of lifetime physical activity (PA) in reducing prostate cancer incidence and mortality is unclear. Methods: A prospective cohort of 45 887 men aged 45–79 years was followed up from January 1998 to December 2007 for prostate cancer incidence (n=2735) and to December 2006 for its subtypes and for fatal (n=190) prostate cancer. Results: We observed an inverse association between lifetime (average of age 30 and 50 years, and baseline age) total PA levels and prost...

  11. Experimental Study of Single- and Double-Electron Detachment for Negative Carbon Ions Incident on Helium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yong-Yi; WU Shi-Min; ZHANG Xue-Mei; LI Guang-Wu; LU Fu-Quan; YANG Fu-Jia

    2004-01-01

    Using the growth rate method, we obtain the single-electron detachment (SED) cross-sections for 5-30keV C-+He, and double-electron detachment (DED) cross-sections for 5-15keV C--+He. The SED cross-sections first increase with the increasing incident ion energy, and then decrease with further increase of the energy. The DED cross-sections increase with the increasing incident energy in the 5-15keV region.

  12. Fast Food Intake Increases the Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Golaleh; Yuzbashian, Emad; Mirmiran, Parvin; Mahmoodi, Behnaz; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between fast food consumption and incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components among children and adolescents over a 3.6 year follow-up. Dietary data of 424 healthy subjects, aged 6–18 years, was collected using a valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Cook et al criteria. Consumption of fast foods including hamburgers, sausages, bologna (beef), and fried potatoes was calculated and further categorized to quartiles. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the incidence of MetS and its components in each quartile of fast food intake. The incidence of MetS was 11.3% after a 3.6 year follow up. In the fully adjusted model, compared to the lowest quartile of fast food intake, individuals in the highest had odds ratios of 2.96 (95% CI: 1.02–8.63; P for trendtrend = 0.037), and 2.58 (95% CI: 1.01–6.61; P for trend = 0.009) for incidence of MetS, hypertriglyceridemia, and abdominal obesity, respectively. No significant association was found between fast food intakes and other components of MetS. Fast food consumption is associated with the incidence of MetS, abdominal obesity, and hypertriglyceridemia in Tehranian children and adolescents. PMID:26447855

  13. Fast Food Intake Increases the Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golaleh Asghari

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between fast food consumption and incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components among children and adolescents over a 3.6 year follow-up. Dietary data of 424 healthy subjects, aged 6-18 years, was collected using a valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Cook et al criteria. Consumption of fast foods including hamburgers, sausages, bologna (beef, and fried potatoes was calculated and further categorized to quartiles. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the incidence of MetS and its components in each quartile of fast food intake. The incidence of MetS was 11.3% after a 3.6 year follow up. In the fully adjusted model, compared to the lowest quartile of fast food intake, individuals in the highest had odds ratios of 2.96 (95% CI: 1.02-8.63; P for trend<0.001, 2.82 (95% CI: 1.01-7.87; P for trend = 0.037, and 2.58 (95% CI: 1.01-6.61; P for trend = 0.009 for incidence of MetS, hypertriglyceridemia, and abdominal obesity, respectively. No significant association was found between fast food intakes and other components of MetS. Fast food consumption is associated with the incidence of MetS, abdominal obesity, and hypertriglyceridemia in Tehranian children and adolescents.

  14. Continued cannabis use and risk of incidence and persistence of psychotic symptoms: 10 year follow-up cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuepper, Rebecca; Lieb, Roselind; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Höfler, Michael; Henquet, Cécile

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether use of cannabis in adolescence increases the risk for psychotic outcomes by affecting the incidence and persistence of subclinical expression of psychosis in the general population (that is, expression of psychosis below the level required for a clinical diagnosis). Design Analysis of data from a prospective population based cohort study in Germany (early developmental stages of psychopathology study). Setting Population based cohort study in Germany. Participants 1923 individuals from the general population, aged 14-24 at baseline. Main outcome measure Incidence and persistence of subthreshold psychotic symptoms after use of cannabis in adolescence. Cannabis use and psychotic symptoms were assessed at three time points (baseline, T2 (3.5 years), T3 (8.4 years)) over a 10 year follow-up period with the Munich version of the composite international diagnostic interview (M-CIDI). Results In individuals who had no reported lifetime psychotic symptoms and no reported lifetime cannabis use at baseline, incident cannabis use over the period from baseline to T2 increased the risk of later incident psychotic symptoms over the period from T2 to T3 (adjusted odds ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 3.1; P=0.021). Furthermore, continued use of cannabis increased the risk of persistent psychotic symptoms over the period from T2 to T3 (2.2, 1.2 to 4.2; P=0.016). The incidence rate of psychotic symptoms over the period from baseline to T2 was 31% (152) in exposed individuals versus 20% (284) in non-exposed individuals; over the period from T2 to T3 these rates were 14% (108) and 8% (49), respectively. Conclusion Cannabis use is a risk factor for the development of incident psychotic symptoms. Continued cannabis use might increase the risk for psychotic disorder by impacting on the persistence of symptoms. PMID:21363868

  15. A Population-Based Study of the Incidence and Case Fatality of Intracerebral Hemorrhage of Undetermined Etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Adnan I; Afzal, Mohammad R; Malik, Ahmed A; Qureshi, Mushtaq H; Jahangir, Nauman; Suri, M Fareed K

    2015-10-01

    There is a paucity of reliable recent data regarding epidemiology of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) of undetermined etiology in population-based studies. To determine the incidence and case fatality of ICH of undetermined etiology using a population-based design. Medical records and neuroimaging data of all patients with ICH from Stearns and Benton Counties, Minnesota, between June 1st, 2012 and June 30th, 2014 were reviewed. Patients with a first-time diagnosis of ICH were categorized as of undetermined etiology if ICH was without features typical of hypertensive etiology with normal or no magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/angiograms. We calculated the incidences of [1] probable and possible hypertensive ICH; [2] related to arteriovenous malformation, cavernous malformation, or aneurysmal rupture (angiographic or MRI diagnoses); [3] secondary to anticoagulation; and [4] of undetermined etiology adjusted for age and sex based on the 2010 US census. Of the 50 identified ICHs among 136,654 resident populations, seven were true incident cases of ICH of undetermined etiology in this population-based study. The age- and sex-adjusted incidence of ICH of undetermined etiology was 2.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-4.9] per 100, 000 person-years, which was lower than probable and possible hypertensive ICH incidence of 12.8 [95% CI 8.4-17.2] per 100,000 person-years. The age-adjusted case fatality rate at 1 month was 8.14 and 0.4 per 100,000 persons for probable and possible hypertensive ICHs and ICHs of undetermined etiology, respectively. Our results should prompt further studies into identification of causes in ICH patients presently classified as ICH of undetermined etiology to reduce the incidence and case fatality of such ICHs.

  16. Incidence and predictors of suicide attempts in bipolar I and II disorders: A 5-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallaskorpi, Sanna; Suominen, Kirsi; Ketokivi, Mikko; Valtonen, Hanna; Arvilommi, Petri; Mantere, Outi; Leppämäki, Sami; Isometsä, Erkki

    2017-02-01

    Few long-term studies on bipolar disorder (BD) have investigated the incidence and risk factors of suicide attempts (SAs) specifically related to illness phases. We examined the incidence of SAs during different phases of BD in a long-term prospective cohort of bipolar I (BD-I) and bipolar II (BD-II) patients, and risk factors specifically for SAs during major depressive episodes (MDEs). In the Jorvi Bipolar Study (JoBS), 191 BD-I and BD-II patients were followed using life-chart methodology. Prospective information on SAs of 177 patients (92.7%) during different illness phases was available up to 5 years. The incidence of SAs and their predictors were investigated using logistic and Poisson regression models. Analyses of risk factors for SAs occurring during MDEs were conducted using two-level random-intercept logistic regression models. During the 5 years of follow-up, 90 SAs per 718 patient-years occurred. The incidence was highest, over 120-fold higher than in euthymia, during mixed states (765/1000 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI] 461-1269 person-years), and also very high in MDEs, almost 60-fold higher than in euthymia (354/1000 person-years; 95% CI 277-451 person-years). For risk of SAs during MDEs, the duration of MDEs, severity of depression, and cluster C personality disorders were significant predictors. We confirmed in this long-term study that the highest incidences of SAs occur in mixed and major depressive illness phases. The variations in incidence rates between euthymia and illness phases were remarkably large, suggesting that the question "when" rather than "who" may be more relevant for suicide risk in BD. However, risk during MDEs is likely also influenced by personality factors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Television viewing and incident cardiovascular disease: prospective associations and mediation analysis in the EPIC Norfolk Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrien Wijndaele

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although television viewing time is detrimentally associated with intermediate cardiovascular risk factors, the relationship with incident total (i.e. combined fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD, non-fatal CVD and coronary heart disease is largely unknown. This study examined whether television viewing time is associated with these three outcomes, independently of physical activity energy expenditure and other confounding variables. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A population-based cohort of 12,608 men and women (aged 61.4±9.0, free from stroke, myocardial infarction and cancer at baseline in 1998-2000 were followed up until 2007 (6.9±1.9 years. Participants self-reported education, smoking, alcohol use, antihypertensive, lipid lowering and antidepressant medication, disease history, total energy intake, sleep duration, physical activity and television viewing. BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c were measured by standardized procedures; a clustered metabolic risk score was constructed. Every one hour/day increase in television viewing was associated with an increased hazard for total (HR = 1.06, 95%CI = 1.03-1.08; 2,620 cases, non-fatal CVD (HR = 1.06, 95%CI = 1.03-1.09; 2,134 cases, and coronary heart disease (HR = 1.08, 95%CI = 1.03-1.13; 940 cases, independent of gender, age, education, smoking, alcohol, medication, diabetes status, CVD family history, sleep duration and physical activity energy expenditure. Energy intake, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, HbA(1c and the clustered metabolic risk score only partially mediated these associations. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the most prevalent leisure time (sedentary behaviour, television viewing, independently contributes to increased CVD risk. Recommendations on reducing television viewing time should be considered.

  18. [INCIDENCE AND SURGICAL IMPORTANCE OF PYRAMIDAL LOBE AND TUBERCLE OF THE THYROID GLAND: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacić, Marijan; Kovadcić, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The pyramidal lobe and tubercles are common anatomic variations of the thyroid gland, and their frequency is highly represented. While pyramidal lobe requires additional seriousness in identifying and its removal, especially in patients with hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer, the presence of tubercles is desirable. Tubercle is covered by recurrent laryngeal nerve and directs the surgeon in his search and besides this, serves to facilitate detection of the upper parathyroid glands. In this prospective study we analysed 342 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy in the period from January 2009 to March 2015. We looked at the incidence and anatomic characteristics of pyramidal lobe and tubercles of the thyroid gland. The pyramidal lobe was present in 52.3% of the patients with more frequent central and left placement. Bilateral tubercles were present in 14.9%, while position right-sided phenomenon was represented in 39.5% and 18.5% in lower left (64.3% patients). Their prevalence by gender showed no significant difference (p = 0.59; p = 0.2). Associated presence of pyramidal lobe and tubercles on one or both sides is highly represented in our group of patients (34%), also with no differences by gender (p = 0.29). Length of the pyramidal lobe ranged from 1.3 to 4.7 cm (average 2.3 cm), and the size of tubercles in 36% of patients was over 1 cm. Recurrent laryngeal nerve was only in 1.8% placed laterally of tubercles, and the upper parathyroid gland in 95.4% was located above tubercle. Considering that only 16.5% of our patients did not have any of these anatomical variations, their presence during surgery is the rule, not the exception.

  19. Ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients undergoing major heart surgery: an incidence study in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortal, Javier; Muñoz, Patricia; Cuerpo, Gregorio; Litvan, Hector; Rosseel, Peter M; Bouza, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    Patients undergoing major heart surgery (MHS) represent a special subpopulation at risk for nosocomial infections. Postoperative infection is the main non-cardiac complication after MHS and has been clearly related to increased morbidity, use of hospital resources and mortality. Our aim was to determine the incidence, aetiology, risk factors and outcome of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in patients who have undergone MHS in Europe. Our study was a prospective study of patients undergoing MHS in Europe who developed suspicion of VAP. During a one-month period, participating units submitted a protocol of all patients admitted to their units who had undergone MHS. Overall, 25 hospitals in eight different European countries participated in the study. The number of patients intervened for MHS was 986. Fifteen patients were excluded because of protocol violations. One or more nosocomial infections were detected in 43 (4.4%) patients. VAP was the most frequent nosocomial infection (2.1%; 13.9 episodes per 1000 days of mechanical ventilation). The microorganisms responsible for VAP in this study were: Enterobacteriaceae (45%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20%), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (10%) and a range of other microorganisms. We identified the following significant independent risk factors for VAP: ascending aorta surgery (odds ratio (OR) = 6.22; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.69 to 22.89), number of blood units transfused (OR = 1.08 per unit transfused; 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.13) and need for re-intervention (OR = 6.65; 95% CI = 2.10 to 21.01). The median length of stay in the intensive care unit was significantly longer (P < 0.001) in patients with VAP than in patients without VAP (23 days versus 2 days). Death was significantly more frequent (P < 0.001) in patients with VAP (35% versus 2.3%). Patients undergoing aortic surgery and those with complicated post-intervention courses, requiring multiple transfusions or re-intervention, constitute a high

  20. Plasma resistin, adiponectin, and risk of incident atrial fibrillation : The Framingham Offspring Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, Michel; Sun, Jenny X.; Lubitz, Steven A.; Frankel, David S.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Levy, Daniel; Magnani, Jared W.; Sullivan, Lisa M.; Meigs, James B.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Benjamin, Emelia J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We sought to investigate whether higher concentrations of resistin and lower concentrations of adiponectin relate to incident atrial fibrillation (AF) and whether this association is mediated by AF risk factors and inflammation. Resistin and adiponectin are adipokines that have been asso

  1. Smartphone Apps for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training and Real Incident Support: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco; Lenssen, Niklas; Felzen, Marco; Rossaint, Rolf; Tabuenca, Bernardo; Specht, Marcus; Skorning, Max

    2014-01-01

    Background: No systematic evaluation of smartphone/mobile apps for resuscitation training and real incident support is available to date. To provide medical, usability, and additional quality criteria for the development of apps, we conducted a mixed-methods sequential evaluation combining the persp

  2. Inverse association of tea and flavonoid intakes with incident myocardial infarction : the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geleijnse, J.M.; Launer, L.J.; Kuip, van der D.A.M.; Hofman, A.; Witteman, J.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Dietary flavonoids may protect against cardiovascular disease, but evidence is still conflicting. Tea is the major source of flavonoids in Western populations. Objective: The association of tea and flavonoid intake with incident myocardial infarction was examined in the general Dutch pop

  3. Incidence and predictors of multimorbidity in the elderly: a population-based longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Melis

    Full Text Available We aimed to calculate 3-year incidence of multimorbidity, defined as the development of two or more chronic diseases in a population of older people free from multimorbidity at baseline. Secondly, we aimed to identify predictors of incident multimorbidity amongst life-style related indicators, medical conditions and biomarkers.Data were gathered from 418 participants in the first follow up of the Kungsholmen Project (Stockholm, Sweden, 1991-1993, 78+ years old who were not affected by multimorbidity (149 had none disease and 269 one disease, including a social interview, a neuropsychological battery and a medical examination.After 3 years, 33.6% of participants who were without disease and 66.4% of those with one disease at baseline, developed multimorbidity: the incidence rate was 12.6 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 9.2-16.7 and 32.9 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 28.1-38.3, respectively. After adjustments, worse cognitive function (OR, 95% CI, for 1 point lower Mini-Mental State Examination: 1.22, 1.00-1.48 was associated with increased risk of multimorbidity among subjects with no disease at baseline. Higher age was the only predictor of multimorbidity in persons with one disease at baseline.Multimorbidity has a high incidence at old age. Mental health-related symptoms are likely predictors of multimorbidity, suggesting a strong impact of mental disorders on the health of older people.

  4. Applications of Oblique-Incidence Reflectivity Difference Method in Primary Study of Protein Biomolecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-Yan; LIANG Ru-Qiang; JIN Kui-Juan; L(U) Hui-Bin; ZHU Xiang-Dong; ZHOU Yue-Liang; RUAN Kang-Cheng; YANG Guo-Zhen

    2006-01-01

    @@ Oblique-incidence reftectivity difference (OI-RD) analysis is applied to detect the immunoglobulin-G and cytochrome biomolecules on standard glass substrates without fluorescence labelling. The OI-RD intensities not only depend on the protein structure, but also vary with the protein concentration. The results indicate that this method should have potential applications in detection of biochemical processes.

  5. Breast cancer incidence and survival: registry-based studies of long-term trends and determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W.J. Louwman (Marieke)

    2007-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer among women in the Netherlands, and it is the most important cause of cancer death. Between age 35 and 55 about 20% of all deaths among women is due to breast cancer.1 The age-standardised incidence rate is among the highest in

  6. Incidence and prognostic factors for postoperative frozen shoulder after shoulder surgery : a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koorevaar, Rinco C T; Van't Riet, Esther; Ipskamp, Marcel; Bulstra, Sjoerd K

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Frozen shoulder is a potential complication after shoulder surgery. It is a clinical condition that is often associated with marked disability and can have a profound effect on the patient's quality of life. The incidence, etiology, pathology and prognostic factors of postoperative frozen s

  7. Breast cancer incidence and survival: registry-based studies of long-term trends and determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W.J. Louwman (Marieke)

    2007-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer among women in the Netherlands, and it is the most important cause of cancer death. Between age 35 and 55 about 20% of all deaths among women is due to breast cancer.1 The age-standardised incidence rate is among the highest in

  8. Spatial-Temporal Dynamics of Urban Fire Incidents: a Case Study of Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, J.; Zhang, X.

    2016-06-01

    Fire and rescue service is one of the fundamental public services provided by government in order to protect people, properties and environment from fires and other disasters, and thus promote a safer living environment. Well understanding spatial-temporal dynamics of fire incidents can offer insights for potential determinants of various fire events and enable better fire risk estimation, assisting future allocation of prevention resources and strategic planning of mitigation programs. Using a 12-year (2002-2013) dataset containing the urban fire events in Nanjing, China, this research explores the spatial-temporal dynamics of urban fire incidents. A range of exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) approaches and tools, such as spatial kernel density and co-maps, are employed to examine the spatial, temporal and spatial-temporal variations of the fire events. Particular attention has been paid to two types of fire incidents: residential properties and local facilities, due to their relatively higher occurrence frequencies. The results demonstrated that the amount of urban fire has greatly increased in the last decade and spatial-temporal distribution of fire events vary among different incident types, which implies varying impact of potential influencing factors for further investigation.

  9. Smartphone Apps for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training and Real Incident Support: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco; Lenssen, Niklas; Felzen, Marco; Rossaint, Rolf; Tabuenca, Bernardo; Specht, Marcus; Skorning, Max

    2014-01-01

    Background: No systematic evaluation of smartphone/mobile apps for resuscitation training and real incident support is available to date. To provide medical, usability, and additional quality criteria for the development of apps, we conducted a mixed-methods sequential evaluation combining the

  10. SPATIAL-TEMPORAL DYNAMICS OF URBAN FIRE INCIDENTS: A CASE STUDY OF NANJING, CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fire and rescue service is one of the fundamental public services provided by government in order to protect people, properties and environment from fires and other disasters, and thus promote a safer living environment. Well understanding spatial-temporal dynamics of fire incidents can offer insights for potential determinants of various fire events and enable better fire risk estimation, assisting future allocation of prevention resources and strategic planning of mitigation programs. Using a 12-year (2002-2013 dataset containing the urban fire events in Nanjing, China, this research explores the spatial-temporal dynamics of urban fire incidents. A range of exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA approaches and tools, such as spatial kernel density and co-maps, are employed to examine the spatial, temporal and spatial-temporal variations of the fire events. Particular attention has been paid to two types of fire incidents: residential properties and local facilities, due to their relatively higher occurrence frequencies. The results demonstrated that the amount of urban fire has greatly increased in the last decade and spatial-temporal distribution of fire events vary among different incident types, which implies varying impact of potential influencing factors for further investigation.

  11. Incidence of acquired demyelinating syndromes of the CNS in Dutch children : a nationwide study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelslegers, I. A.; Catsman-Berrevoets, C. E.; Neuteboom, R. F.; Boon, M.; van Dijk, K. G. J.; Eikelenboom, M. J.; Gooskens, R. H. J. M.; Niks, E. H.; Overweg-Plandsoen, W. C. G.; Peeters, E. A. J.; Peeters-Scholte, C. M. P. C. D.; Poll-The, B. T.; de Rijk-van Andel, J. F.; Samijn, J. P. A.; Snoeck, I. N.; Stroink, H.; Vermeulen, R. J.; Verrips, A.; Vles, J. S. H.; Willemsen, M. A. A. P.; Pereira, R. Rodrigues; Hintzen, R. Q.

    2012-01-01

    Acquired demyelinating syndromes (ADS) can be a first presentation of multiple sclerosis (MS) in children. The incidence of these disorders in Europe is currently unknown. Children (<18 years old) living in the Netherlands who presented with ADS were included from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 201

  12. Incidence of acquired demyelinating syndromes of the CNS in Dutch children: A nationwide study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelslegers, I.A.; Catsman-Berrevoets, C.E.; Neuteboom, R.F.; Boon, M.; Dijk, K.G.J. van; Eikelenboom, M.J.; Gooskens, R.H.J.M.; Niks, E.H.; Overweg-Plandsoen, W.C.G.; Peeters, E.A.J.; Peeters-Scholte, C.M.P.C.D.; Poll-The, B.T.; Rijk-Van Andel, J.F. de; Samijn, J.P.A.; Snoeck, I.N.; Stroink, H.; Vermeulen, R.J.; Verrips, A.; Vles, J.S.H.; Willemsen, M.A.A.P.; Rodrigues Pereira, R.; Hintzen, R.Q.

    2012-01-01

    Acquired demyelinating syndromes (ADS) can be a first presentation of multiple sclerosis (MS) in children. The incidence of these disorders in Europe is currently unknown. Children (<18 years old) living in the Netherlands who presented with ADS were included from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 201

  13. Incidence of acquired demyelinating syndromes of the CNS in Dutch children: a nationwide study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelslegers, I.A.; Catsman-Berrevoets, C.E.; Neuteboom, R.F.; Boon, M.; Dijk, K.G.; Eikelenboom, M.J.; Gooskens, R.H.; Niks, E.H.; Overweg-Plandsoen, W.C.; Peeters, E.A.; Peeters-Scholte, C.M.; Poll-The, B.T.; Rijk-van Andel, J.F. de; Samijn, J.P.; Snoeck, I.N.; Stroink, H.; Vermeulen, R.J.; Verrips, A.; Vles, J.S.; Willemsen, M.A.A.P.; Rodrigues Pereira, R.; Hintzen, R.Q.

    2012-01-01

    Acquired demyelinating syndromes (ADS) can be a first presentation of multiple sclerosis (MS) in children. The incidence of these disorders in Europe is currently unknown. Children (<18 years old) living in the Netherlands who presented with ADS were included from January 1, 2007 to December 31,

  14. Incidence of acquired demyelinating syndromes of the CNS in Dutch children: A nationwide study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A. Ketelslegers (Immy); C.E. Catsman-Berrevoets (Coriene); R.F. Neuteboom (Rinze); M. Boon (Martin); K.G.J. van Dijk (K. G J); M.J. Eikelenboom (Merijn Judith); R.H.J.M. Gooskens (Rob); E.H. Niks (Erik); W.C.G. Overweg-Plandsoen; E.A. Peeters (Els); C.M.P.C.D. Peeters-Scholte (C. M P C D); B.T. Poll-The; J. De Rijk-Van Andel (Johanneke); J.P. Samijn (Johnny); M.M.J. Snoeck (M. M J); H. Stroink (Hans); R.J. Vermeulen (Jeroen); A. Verrips (Aad); J.S.H. Vles (Johannes); M.A. Willemsen (Michél); R. Rodrigues Pereira; R.Q. Hintzen (Rogier)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAcquired demyelinating syndromes (ADS) can be a first presentation of multiple sclerosis (MS) in children. The incidence of these disorders in Europe is currently unknown. Children (<18 years old) living in the Netherlands who presented with ADS were included from January 1, 2007 to Dece

  15. Novel inflammatory markers for incident pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Brahimaj (Adela); S. Ligthart (Symen); M. Ghanbari (Mohsen); M.K. Ikram (Kamran); A. Hofman (Albert); O.H. Franco (Oscar); M. Kavousi (Maryam); A. Dehghan (Abbas)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe immune response involved in each phase of type 2 diabetes (T2D) development might be different. We aimed to identify novel inflammatory markers that predict progression from normoglycemia to pre-diabetes, incident T2D and insulin therapy. We used plasma levels of 26 inflammatory

  16. Incidence and Outcomes of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Nationwide Registry-Based Study in Taiwan, 1997 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Chen, Yih-Yuan; Tsai, Ching-Fang; Chen, Solomon Chih-Cheng; Lin, Ming-Shian; Ware, Lorraine B; Chen, Chuan-Mu

    2015-10-01

    Most epidemiological studies of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have been conducted in western countries, and studies in Asia are limited. The aim of our study was to evaluate the incidence, in-hospital mortality, and 1-year mortality of ARDS in Taiwan.We conducted a nationwide inpatient cohort study based on the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database between 1997 and 2011. A total of 40,876 ARDS patients (68% male; mean age 66 years) were identified by International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition coding and further analyzed for clinical characteristics, medical costs, and mortality.The overall crude incidence of ARDS was 15.74 per 100,000 person-years, and increased from 2.53 to 19.26 per 100,000 person-years during the study period. The age-adjusted incidence of ARDS was 15.19 per 100,000 person-years. The overall in-hospital mortality was 57.8%. In-hospital mortality decreased from 59.7% in 1997 to 47.5% in 2011 (P rate was lowest (33.5%) in the youngest patients (age 18-29 years) and highest (68.2%) in the oldest patients (>80 years, P year mortality rate was 72.1%, and decreased from 75.8% to 54.7% during the study period. Patients who died during hospitalization were older (69 ± 17 versus 62 ± 19, P incidence and outcomes in Asia. Although the overall incidence was lower than has been reported in a prospective US study, this may reflect underdiagnosis by International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition code and identification of only patients with more severe ARDS in this analysis. Overall, there has been a decreasing trend in in-hospital and 1-year mortality rates in recent years, likely because of the implementation of lung-protective ventilation.

  17. Childhood osteomyelitis-incidence and differentiation from other acute onset musculoskeletal features in a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiseter Tor

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteomyelitis can be difficult to diagnose and there has previously not been a prospective approach to identify all children in a defined geographic area. The aim of this study was to assess the annual incidence of osteomyelitis in children, describe the patient and disease characteristics in those with acute ( Methods In a population-based Norwegian study physicians were asked to refer all children with suspected osteomyelitis. Children with osteomyelitis received follow-up at six weeks, six months and thereafter as long as clinically needed. Results The total annual incidence rate of osteomyelitis was 13 per 100 000 (acute osteomyelitis 8 and subacute osteomyelitis 5 per 100 000. The incidence was higher in patients under the age of 3 than in older children (OR 2.9, 95%: CI 2.3–3.7. The incidence of non-vertebral osteomyelitis was higher than the incidence of vertebral osteomyelitis (10 vs. 3 per 100 000; p = .002. Vertebral osteomyelitis was more frequent in girls than in boys (OR 7.0, 95%: CI 3.3–14.7. ESR ≥ 40 mm/hr had the highest positive predictive laboratory value to identify osteomyelitis patients at 26% and MRI had a positive predictive value of 85%. Long-bone infection was found in 16 (43% patients. ESR, CRP, white blood cell count, neutrophils and platelet count were higher for patients with acute osteomyelitis than for patients with subacute osteomyelitis. Subacute findings on MRI and doctor's delay were more common in subacute osteomyelitis than in acute osteomyelitis patients. Blood culture was positive in 26% of the acute osteomyelitis patients and was negative in all the subacute osteomyelitis patients. Conclusion The annual incidence of osteomyelitis in Norway remains high. ESR values and MRI scan may help to identify osteomyelitis patients and differentiate acute and subacute osteomyelitis.

  18. High blood pressure as a risk factor for incident stroke among very old people: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörnsten, Carl; Weidung, Bodil; Littbrand, Håkan; Carlberg, Bo; Nordström, Peter; Lövheim, Hugo; Gustafson, Yngve

    2016-10-01

    High blood pressure (BP) increases the risk of stroke, but there is limited evidence from studies including very old people. The aim was to investigate risk factors for incident stroke among very old people. A prospective population-based cohort study was performed among participants aged at least 85 years in northern Sweden. The 955 participants were tested at their homes. BP was measured manually after 5-min supine rest. Incident stroke data were collected from medical charts guided by hospital registry, death records, and 5-year reassessments. Cox proportional hazards models were used. The stroke incidence was 33.8/1000 person-years (94 stroke events) during a mean follow-up period of 2.9 years. In a comprehensive multivariate model, atrial fibrillation [hazard ratio 1.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-3.19] and higher SBP (hazard ratio 1.19, 95% CI 1.08-1.30 per 10-mmHg increase) were associated with incident stroke overall. However, higher SBP was not associated with incident stroke in participants with SBP less than 140 mmHg (hazard ratio 0.90, 95% CI 0.53-1.53 per 10-mmHg increase). In additional multivariate models, DBP at least 90 mmHg (hazard ratio 2.45, 95% CI 1.47-4.08) and SBP at least 160 mmHg (vs. High SBP (≥160 mmHg) and DBP (≥90 mmHg) and atrial fibrillation appeared to be risk factors for incident stroke among very old people.

  19. Metabolic syndrome and risk of incident diabetes: findings from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost Hans-Georg

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several aspects concerning the relationship between the metabolic syndrome and incident diabetes are incompletely understood including the magnitude of the risk estimate, potential gender differences in the associations between the metabolic syndrome and incident diabetes, the associations between the components of the metabolic syndrome and incident diabetes, and whether the metabolic syndrome provides additional prediction beyond its components. To shed light on these issues, we examined the prospective association between the metabolic syndrome defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP and International Diabetes Federation (IDF and diabetes. Methods We used data for 2796 men and women aged 35–65 years from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam Study followed for an average of 6.9 years. This analysis employed a case-cohort design that included 697 participants who developed diabetes and 2099 participants who did not. Incident diabetes was identified on the basis of self-reports and verified by contacting the patient's attending physician. Results The adjusted hazard ratio for the NCEP definition was 4.62 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.90–5.48 and that for the IDF definition was 4.59 (95% CI: 3.84–5.50. The adjusted hazard ratios for the NCEP but not IDF definition were higher for women than men. When participants who had no cardiometabolic abnormalities were used as the reference group for the NCEP definition, the adjusted hazard ratio for having 3 or more abnormalities increased to 22.50 (95% CI: 11.21–45.19. Of the five components, abdominal obesity and hyperglycemia were most strongly associated with incident diabetes. Conclusion In this study population, both definitions of the metabolic syndrome provided similar estimates of relative risk for incident diabetes. The increase in risk for participants with the metabolic syndrome according to the NCEP

  20. Five year prognosis in patients with angina identified in primary care: incident cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Buckley, Brian S

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the risk of acute myocardial infarction, invasive cardiac procedures, and mortality among patients with newly diagnosed angina over five years. DESIGN: Incident cohort study of patients with primary care data linked to secondary care and mortality data. SETTING: 40 primary care practices in Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: 1785 patients with a diagnosis of angina as their first manifestation of ischaemic heart disease, 1 January 1998 to 31 December 2001. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adjusted hazard ratios for acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass grafting, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, death from ischaemic heart disease, and all cause mortality, adjusted for demographics, lifestyle risk factors, and comorbidity at cohort entry. RESULTS: Mean age was 62.3 (SD 11.3). Male sex was associated with an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (hazard ratio 2.01, 95% confidence interval 1.35 to 2.97), death from ischaemic heart disease (2.80, 1.73 to 4.53), and all cause mortality (1.82, 1.33 to 2.49). Increasing age was associated with acute myocardial infarction (1.04, 1.02 to 1.06, per year of age increase), death from ischaemic heart disease (1.09, 1.06 to 1.11, per year of age increase), and all cause mortality (1.09, 1.07 to 1.11, per year of age increase). Smoking was associated with subsequent acute myocardial infarction (1.94, 1.31 to 2.89), death from ischaemic heart disease (2.12, 1.32 to 3.39), and all cause mortality (2.11, 1.52 to 2.95). Obesity was associated with death from ischaemic heart disease (2.01, 1.17 to 3.45) and all cause mortality (2.20, 1.52 to 3.19). Previous stroke was associated with all cause mortality (1.78, 1.13 to 2.80) and chronic kidney disease with death from ischaemic heart disease (5.72, 1.74 to 18.79). Men were more likely than women to have coronary artery bypass grafting or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty after a diagnosis of angina; older people were less likely to

  1. Occupational exposures contribute to educational inequalities in lung cancer incidence among men: Evidence from the EPIC prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Menvielle (Gwenn); H.C. Boshuizen (Hendriek); A.E. Kunst (Anton); P. Vineis (Paolo); S.O. Dalton (Susanne); M.M. Bergmann (Manuela); S. Hermann (Silke); F. Veglia (Fabrizio); P. Ferrari (Pietro); K. Overvad (Kim); O. Raaschou-Nielsen (Ole); A. Tjønneland (Anne); R. Kaaks (Rudolf); J. Linseisen (Jakob); D. Palli (Domenico); V. Krogh (Vittorio); R. Tumino (Rosario); L. Rodriguez (Laudina); A. Agudo (Antonio); M.J. Sánchez; J.M.A. Arozena; L. Cirera (Lluis); E. Ardanaz (Eva); S. Bingham (Sheila); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); P. Boffetta (Paolo); E.J. Duell (Eric); N. Slimani (Nadia); V. Gallo (Valentina); E. Riboli (Elio); H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study is to investigate to what extent occupational exposures may explain socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer incidence after adjusting for smoking and dietary factors. Analyses were based on a subsampie of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and

  2. Childhood brain tumours and use of mobile phones: comparison of a case–control study with incidence data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydin Denis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The first case–control study on mobile phone use and brain tumour risk among children and adolescents (CEFALO study has recently been published. In a commentary published in Environmental Health, Söderqvist and colleagues argued that CEFALO suggests an increased brain tumour risk in relation to wireless phone use. In this article, we respond and show why consistency checks of case–control study results with observed time trends of incidence rates are essential, given the well described limitations of case–control studies and the steep increase of mobile phone use among children and adolescents during the last decade. There is no plausible explanation of how a notably increased risk from use of wireless phones would correspond to the relatively stable incidence time trends for brain tumours among children and adolescents observed in the Nordic countries. Nevertheless, an increased risk restricted to heavy mobile phone use, to very early life exposure, or to rare subtypes of brain tumours may be compatible with stable incidence trends at this time and thus further monitoring of childhood brain tumour incidence rate time trends is warranted.

  3. Consumption of dairy foods and diabetes incidence: a dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, L.; Ding, E.L.; Malik, Vasanti; Goede, de J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A growing number of cohort studies suggest a potential role of dairy consumption in type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevention. The strength of this association and the amount of dairy needed is not clear. OBJECTIVE: We performed a meta-analysis to quantify the associations of incident T2D with da

  4. Consumption of dairy foods and diabetes incidence: a dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, L.; Ding, E.L.; Malik, Vasanti; Goede, de J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A growing number of cohort studies suggest a potential role of dairy consumption in type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevention. The strength of this association and the amount of dairy needed is not clear. OBJECTIVE: We performed a meta-analysis to quantify the associations of incident T2D with da

  5. Dairy Consumption and Incidence of Hypertension : A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Verberne, L.D.M.; Ding, E.L.; Engberink, M.F.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Dairy Consumption and Incidence of Hypertension : A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis Prospective Cohort Studies Sabita S. Soedamah-Muthu, Lisa D.M. Verberne, Eric L. Ding, Mariëlle F. Engberink and Johanna M. Geleijnse Hypertension. published online September 17, 2012; Hypertension is published by the Am

  6. The incidence rates of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer: a four-year population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Sung Yuk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this study was to determine the incidence rates of endometrial hyperplasia (EH and endometrial cancer (EC in the Republic of Korea using national insurance claim data generated from 2009 to 2012. Materials and Methods Data that were generated from 2009 to 2012 were sourced from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service-National Inpatients Sample database. The data from women who were assigned diagnosis codes representing EH or EC within 1 month of being assigned codes that corresponded to procedures that included endometrial biopsies and several types of gynecologic surgeries to obtain endometrial pathology samples, were selected for analysis. Results Data from 2,477,424 women were entered into the database between 2009 and 2012, and the data from 1,868 women with EH and 868 women with EC were extracted for analysis. The mean ages of the patients were 44.1 ± 0.4 years for those with EH and 52.7 ± 0.6 years for those with EC. The EH and EC incidence rates were 37 per 100,000 woman-years and 8 per 100,000 woman-years, respectively. The EH and EC incidence rates peaked when the women were in their late forties and fifties, respectively. Conclusions The EH and EC incidence rates determined in this study were somewhat lower than those determined from previous studies. Further studies are required that adjust the data for race, menopausal hormone therapy, and obesity.

  7. Time Trends in the Incidence and Treatment of Extra-Abdominal and Abdominal Aggressive Fibromatosis: A Population-Based Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.L.M. van Broekhoven (Danique); D.J. Grunhagen (Dirk Jan); M.A. den Bakker (Michael); T. van Dalen (Thijs); C. Verhoef (Kees)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) is a locally infiltrating soft-tissue tumor. In a population-based study in the Netherlands, we evaluated time trends for the incidence and treatment of AF. Methods: In PALGA: Dutch Pathology Registry, all patients diagnosed between 1993 and 2013

  8. Adherence to predefined dietary patterns and incident type 2 diabetes in European populations: EPIC-InterAct Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kröger, J.; Schulze, M.B.; Romaguera, D.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis - Few studies have investigated the relationship between predefined dietary patterns and type 2 diabetes incidence; little is known about the generalisability of these associations. We aimed to assess the association between predefined dietary patterns and type 2 diabetes risk in Eur

  9. Prospective follow-up of 2,065 young unscreened women to study human papillomavirus incidence and clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmeink, C.E.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Lenselink, C.H.; Quint, W.G.V.; Witte, B.I.; Berkhof, J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Bekkers, R.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary factor in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer. However, HPV is also a very common sexually transmitted virus and many women clear their infection. To study HPV incidence and clearance, 2,065 women, aged 18-29 years, were

  10. Room transfers and the risk of delirium incidence amongst hospitalized elderly medical patients: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Amanda; Straus, Sharon E; Hamid, Jemila S; Wong, Camilla L

    2015-06-25

    Room transfers are suspected to promote the development of delirium in hospitalized elderly patients, but no studies have systematically examined the relationship between room transfers and delirium incidence. We used a case-control study to determine if the number of room transfers per patient days is associated with an increased incidence of delirium amongst hospitalized elderly medical patients, controlling for baseline risk factors. We included patients 70 years of age or older who were admitted to the internal medicine or geriatric medicine services at St. Michael's Hospital between October 2009 and September 2010 for more than 24 h. The cases consisted of patients who developed delirium during the first week of hospital stay. The controls consisted of patients who did not develop delirium during the first week of hospital stay. Patients with evidence of delirium at admission were excluded from the analysis. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to determine the relationship between room transfers and delirium development within the first week of hospital stay. 994 patients were included in the study, of which 126 developed delirium during the first week of hospital stay. Using a multivariable logistic regression model which controlled for age, gender, cognitive impairment, vision impairment, dehydration, and severe illness, room transfers per patient days were associated with delirium incidence (OR: 9.69, 95 % CI (6.20 to15.16), P patient days is associated with an increased incidence of delirium amongst hospitalized elderly medical patients. This is an exploratory analysis and needs confirmation with larger studies.

  11. Low incidence of deep vein thrombosis after knee arthroscopy without thromboprophylaxis - A prospective cohort study of 335 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R. Hoppener; H.B. Ettema; C.P. Henny; C.C.P.M. Verheyen; H.R. Buller

    2006-01-01

    Background There is little data on the risk of deep vein thrombosis after knee arthroscopy. Patients and methods We performed a prospective cohort study to establish the incidence of venous thrombo-embolic (VTE) complications after knee arthroscopy in daycare, as detected by bilateral complete compr

  12. Incidence and distribution of congenital malformations clinically detected at birth: a prospective study at tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad K. Gandhi

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: From present study we conclude that incidence of congenital anomalies of CNS was highest amongst all types of congenital anomalies (meningomyelocele being the commonest. More emphasis should be given on prevention by regular antenatal care and avoidance of known teratogens and probable teratogenic agents. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(4.000: 1136-1139

  13. The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study : Design and first results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunekreef, B; Smit, J; de Jongste, J; Neijens, H; Gerritsen, J; Postma, D; Aalberse, R; Koopman, L; Kerkhof, M; Wijga, A; van Strien, R

    2002-01-01

    The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study was initiated in 1996. Children born to allergic mothers were enrolled in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial for evaluating the use of mite-impermeable mattress and pillow covers. Children born to allergic and no

  14. Incidence of Hospitalization Due to Child Maltreatment in Taiwan, 1996-2007: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Wan-Lin; Huang, Yu-Tung; Feng, Jui-Ying; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Little is known regarding the epidemiology of child maltreatment in Asian countries. This study aimed to examine the incidence of hospitalization coded as due to child maltreatment in Taiwan. Methods: We used inpatient claims data of the National Health Insurance for the years 1996 through 2007 for estimation. Hospitalization of…

  15. Incidence and time trends of Herpes zoster in rheumatoid arthritis: a population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veetil, Bharath Manu Akkara; Myasoedova, Elena; Matteson, Eric L.; Gabriel, Sherine E.; Green, Abigail B.; Crowson, Cynthia S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence, time trends, risk factors and severity of herpes zoster (HZ) in a population-based incidence cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared to a group of individuals without RA from the same population. Methods All residents of Olmsted County, MN who first fulfilled 1987 American College of Rheumatology criteria for RA between 1/1/1980 and 12/31/2007 and a cohort of similar residents without RA were assembled and followed by retrospective chart review until death, migration, or 12/31/2008. Results There was no difference in the presence of HZ prior to RA incidence/index date between the cohorts (p=0.85). During follow-up 84 patients with RA (rate: 12.1 per 1000 person-years) and 44 subjects without RA (rate: 5.4 per 1000 person-years) developed HZ. Patients with RA were more likely to develop HZ than those without RA (hazard ratio: 2.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.7, 3.5). Patients diagnosed with RA in 1995–2007 had a higher likelihood of developing HZ than those diagnosed in 1980–1994. Erosive disease, previous joint surgery, use of hydroxychloroquine and corticosteroids were significantly associated with the development of HZ in RA, while the use of methotrexate or biologic agents was not. Complications of HZ occurred at a similar rate in both cohorts. Conclusion The incidence of HZ is increased in RA and has risen in recent years. The increasing incidence of HZ in more recent years is also noted in the general population. RA disease severity is associated with development of HZ. PMID:23281295

  16. Safe incident reporting in out-of-hours primary care: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyns, Nele; Lesaffer, Caroline; Teughels, Stefan; Philips, Hilde; Remmen, Roy

    2016-12-01

    The goal of safe incident reporting (SIR) is to recognize avoidable incidents to prevent future harm. Data on the use of SIR in Belgium's out-of-hours primary care (OOHC) services are lacking. We investigated a priori attitudes of managers and GPs, and their willingness to report in OOHC services. We mapped which methods are used. A telephone questionnaire was conducted with the managers of all 27 OOHC centers in Flanders. It assessed the design of used reporting systems and the attitudes towards SIR. A paper survey was administered to assess GPs' attitudes in two large out-of-hours primary care centers. All managers participated (N = 23). Seventy percent used some form of incident reporting system, with a large design variation. All managers thought SIR is important to improve quality and safety. Seven managers predicted that GPs would be hesitant to use SIR. In the GPs' survey (response rate 58%), 69.7% of responders had experienced an incident and 74.5% would tend to report it. 81.1% agreed that an incident has to be analyzed, discussed, and should lead to an improvement plan. The majority believed SIR could create openness about adverse events and would improve job satisfaction. One out of five feared that it would make their job more difficult, and 39% were afraid the report could be used against the reporter. OOHC center managers and GPs show positive attitudes towards SIR. There is a large variation in the currently used methods. Future projects could focus on interventions of implementation of SIR in OOHC.

  17. Increasing Incidence of Melanoma among Middle-Aged Adults: An Epidemiologic Study in Olmsted County, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Garrett C.; Saavedra, Alexandra; Reed, Kurtis B.; Velazquez, Ana I.; Dronca, Roxana S.; Markovic, Svetomir N.; Lohse, Christine M.; Brewer, Jerry D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify changes in incidence of cutaneous melanoma over time in the fastest-growing segment of the US population, middle-aged adults. Patients and Methods Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project resource, we identified patients aged 40 to 60 years who had a first lifetime diagnosis of melanoma between January 1, 1970, and December 31, 2009, in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Incidence of melanoma and overall and disease-specific survival rates were compared by age, sex, year of diagnosis, and stage of disease. Results From 1970 through 2009, age- and sex-adjusted incidence increased significantly over time (P<.001) from 7.9 to 60.0 per 100,000 person-years, with a 24-fold increase in women and a 4.5-fold increase in men. Although not significant (P=.06), incidence of melanoma increased with age. Overall and disease-specific survival improved over time, with hazard ratios of 0.94 (P<.001) and 0.93 (P<.001) for each 1-year increase in year of diagnosis, respectively. Each 1-year increase in age at diagnosis was associated with increased risk of death from any cause (hazard ratio, 1.07; P=.01) but was not significantly associated with disease-specific death. Sex was not significantly associated with death from any cause or death from disease. No patient with malignant melanoma in situ died from disease. Patients with stage II, III, and IV disease were over 14 times more likely to die from disease compared with patients with stage 0 or I disease (P<.001). Conclusion The incidence of cutaneous melanoma among middle-aged adults increased over the past 4 decades, especially in middle-aged women, while mortality decreased. PMID:24388022

  18. Nephrocalcinosis in pre-term neonates: A study of incidence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal B Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors of nephrocalcinosis (NC in pre-term neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU at the Al-Minya University, Egypt. The study included 97 pre-term neonates with a gestational age 34 weeks. Data on duration of hospitalization, sex, gestation, birth weight, family history of renal stone, need for respiratory support, intake of calcium and use of total parenteral nutrition (TPN and nephrotoxic drugs were collected. Blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, sodium, potassium, calcium and phosphate were measured within the first week of life and again at term. Blood gases, urinary pH, urinary calcium/creatinine (U Ca/Cr ratio and urinary oxalate/creatinine (U Ox/Cr ratio were measured once at term. Three renal ultrasound (US scans were performed; one before the first week of life, the second at term and the third at a corrected age of one year. Of the 97 infants studied, 14 (14.4% developed NC diagnosed by renal US at term. NC was bilateral in 11 infants. Factors significantly associated with NC were gestational age, need for respiratory support, high calcium intake, TPN, use of post-natal dexamethasone, furosemide, theophylline, and/or aminoglycosides and U Ca/Cr ratio and U Ox/Cr ratio (all P < 0.05. Low gestational age (P = 0.004, use of respiratory support (P = 0.005, furosemide therapy (P = 0.002 and increased U Ca/Cr ratio (P = 0.001 were the strongest independent risk factors after logistic regression analysis. Eight of the 14 infants (57.1% with NC had spontaneous resolution of calcification at a corrected age of one year. Screening at term with a renal US scan and long-term follow-up of renal function is needed for early diagnosis and better management of NC. Future research pertaining to prevention of NC in pre-term neonates is required.

  19. Incidence of maternal near miss in hospital childbirth and postpartum: data from the Birth in Brazil study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Marcos Augusto Bastos; Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Schilithz, Arthur Orlando Corrêa; Nakamura-Pereira, Marcos; Diniz, Carmen Simone Grilo; Brum, Ione Rodrigues; Martins, Alaerte Leandro; Theme Filha, Mariza Miranda; Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira da; Carmo Leal, Maria do

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated data on the incidence of maternal near miss identified on World Health Organization (WHO) criteria from the Birth in Brazil survey. The study was conducted between February 2011 and October 2012. The results presented are estimates for the study population (2,337,476 births), based on a sample of 23,894 women interviewed. The results showed an incidence of maternal near miss of 10.21 per 1,000 live births and a near-miss-to-mortality ratio of 30.8 maternal near miss to every maternal death. Maternal near miss was identified most prevalently by clinical criteria, at incidence of 5.2 per 1,000 live births. Maternal near miss was associated with maternal age 35 or more years (RR=1.6; 95%CI: 1.1-2.5), a history of previous cesarean delivery (RR=1.9; 95%CI: 1.1-3.4) and high-risk pregnancy (RR=4.5; 95%CI: 2.8-7.0). incidence of maternal near miss was also higher at hospitals in capital cities (RR=2.2; 95%CI: 1.3-3.8) and those belonging to Brazil's national health service, the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) (RR=3.2; 95%CI: 1.6-6.6). Improved quality of childbirth care services can help reduce maternal mortality in Brazil.

  20. A nationwide epidemiologic study of breast cancer incidence following breast reduction surgery in a large cohort of Swedish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryzek, Jon P; Ye, Weimin; Nyrén, Olof; Tarone, Robert E; Lipworth, Loren; McLaughlin, Joseph K

    2006-05-01

    While it has been demonstrated that prophylactic mastectomy reduces breast cancer incidence among women at high risk, many women often consider this disfiguring surgery unacceptable. One alternative approach may be breast reduction surgery. In order to evaluate the long-term incidence of breast cancer following surgical removal of breast tissue, we have extended by 9 years the follow-up period of our earlier retrospective cohort study of Swedish women electing cosmetic breast reduction surgery (n=30,444) between 1965 and 1993, yielding an average of nearly 16 years of follow-up. Cancer incidence through 2002 was ascertained via the Swedish Cancer Registry. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated comparing women who underwent breast reduction surgery with women in the general Swedish population. Breast cancer was observed in 443 women versus 624 expected for a statistically significant reduced SIR of 0.71 (95% CI=0.65-0.78). Analyses by age at surgery, time since surgery or calendar year of surgery revealed similar reductions in risk. Our study of over 30,000 women with long-term follow-up offers further evidence that women undergoing breast reduction surgery have reduced breast cancer risk. As the evidence from large-scale cohort studies accumulates, direct testing of this reduction in risk through clinical trials should be considered.

  1. Incident acute pseudogout and prior bisphosphonate use: Matched case–control study in the UK-Clinical Practice Research Datalink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roddy, Edward; Muller, Sara; Paskins, Zoe; Hider, Samantha L.; Blagojevic-Bucknall, Milisa; Mallen, Christian D.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Oral bisphosphonates are the most commonly used drugs to treat postmenopausal osteoporosis. Acute pseudogout is anecdotally reported to occur following bisphosphonate initiation but empirical data are lacking. We investigated whether treatment with oral bisphosphonates is a risk factor for incident acute pseudogout. A matched case–control study was undertaken using data from the UK-Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Adults who consulted for incident acute pseudogout between 1987 and 2012 were each matched for gender, age at pseudogout diagnosis, and general practice to up to 4 control subjects without pseudogout. The exposure of interest was a prescription for an oral bisphosphonate issued within the 60-day period prior to the date of incident acute pseudogout. Associations between incident acute pseudogout and prior bisphosphonate prescription were examined using conditional logistic regression, adjusting for hyperparathyroidism, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, hemochromatosis, hypophosphatasia, and prescriptions for diuretics and oral corticosteroids. Two thousand eleven acute pseudogout cases were compared with 8013 matched controls without acute pseudogout (mean age [standard deviation] 72 years [14]; 52% male). One hundred twenty-three cases (6.1%) had received an oral bisphosphonate prescription in the 60-day exposure period compared with 305 controls (3.8%) (adjusted incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–1.69). This association was stronger in females (adjusted IRR 1.49; 95% CI 1.15–1.94) and was nonsignificant in males (0.83; 0.48–1.44). Incident acute pseudogout was associated with prescription of an oral bisphosphonate in the preceding 60 days. Prescribers should be aware of acute pseudogout as a possible side effect of bisphosphonate treatment. Further research is needed to explore the risks conferred by different bisphosphonates and the mechanism underlying this association. PMID:28328803

  2. Usual choline and betaine dietary intake and incident coronary heart disease: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeisel Steven H

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low dietary intake of the essential nutrient choline and its metabolite betaine may increase atherogenesis both through effects on homocysteine methylation pathways as well as through choline's antioxidants properties. Nutrient values for many common foods for choline and betaine have recently become available in the U.S. nutrient composition database. Our objective was to assess the association of dietary intake of choline and betaine with incident coronary heart disease (CHD, adjusting for dietary intake measurement error. Methods We conducted a prospective investigation of the relation between usual intake of choline and betaine with the risk of CHD in 14,430 middle-aged men and women of the biethnic Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess nutrient intake. Proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the risk of incident CHD. A regression calibration method was used to adjust for measurement error. Results During an average 14 years of follow-up (1987–2002, 1,072 incident CHD events were documented. Compared with the lowest quartile of intake, incident CHD risk was slightly and non-significantly higher in the highest quartile of choline and choline plus betaine, HR = 1.22 (0.91, 1.64 and HR = 1.14 (0.85, 1.53, controlling for age, sex, education, total energy intake, dietary intakes of folate, methionine and vitamin B6. No association was found between dietary choline intake and incident CHD when correcting for measurement error. Conclusion Higher intakes of choline and betaine were not protective for incident CHD. Similar investigations in other populations are of interest.