Leng, Yue; Stone, Katie; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Covinsky, Kenneth; Yaffe, Kristine
Despite the widespread belief that napping is common among older adults, little is known about the correlates of napping. We examined the prevalence and correlates of self-reported and objectively measured napping among very old women. We studied 2,675 community-dwelling women (mean age 84.5 ± 3.7 years; range 79-96). Self-reported napping was defined as a report of regular napping for ≥1 hour per day. Individual objective naps were defined as ≥5 consecutive minutes of inactivity as measured by actigraphy and women were characterized as "objective nappers" if they had at least 60 minutes of naps per day. Seven percent of the women only had self-reported napping, 29% only had objective napping, and 14% met the criteria for both. Multinomial logistic regression showed that the independent correlates of "both subjective and objective napping" were age (per 5 year odds ratio [OR] = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.31-1.93), depressive symptoms (per SD of score, OR = 1.53; 1.32-1.77), obesity (OR =1.93; 1.42-2.61), current smoking (OR = 3.37; 1.56-7.30), heavier alcohol drinking (OR = 0.49; 0.34-0.71), history of stroke (OR = 1.56; 1.08-2.26), diabetes (OR = 2.40; 1.61-3.57), dementia (OR = 3.31; 1.27-8.62), and Parkinson's disease (OR = 7.43; 1.87-29.50). Besides, having objective napping alone was associated with age and diabetes, whereas subjective napping was associated with stroke and myocardial infarction. These associations were independent of nighttime sleep duration and fragmentation. Daytime napping is very common in women living in their ninth decade and both subjective and objective napping were significantly related to age and comorbidities. Future studies are needed to better understand napping and its health implications. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Hsieh, Cheng-Fang; Riha, Renata L; Morrison, Ian; Hsu, Chung-Yao
To assess the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on napping behavior in adults aged 60 and older with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Retrospective cohort study using questionnaires. Sleep center. Individuals starting CPAP treatment between April 2010 and March 2012 (mean age 65.2 ± 4.7; M:F = 3.9:1; N = 107). All subjects underwent sleep studies, clinical reviews, and CPAP adherence checks and completed a questionnaire regarding CPAP adherence, current employment status, sleep patterns before and after CPAP, and factors affecting their current sleep patterns. CPAP treatment duration was 82.7 ± 30.0 weeks, and objective adherence was 5.4 ± 2.0 hours per night overall. Daytime nap frequency before CPAP treatment was higher in those with a history of stroke or cardiovascular disease. Both sexes had a significant reduction in daytime napping (men, P napping (men, P nap duration (men, P nap duration was associated with younger age (odds ratio (OR) = 0.86, P = .04), a decrease in ESS score (OR = 1.20, P = .03), and longer self-reported daily nap duration at baseline (OR = 31.52, P nap frequency and daily nap duration. Aging or shorter baseline daily nap duration may attenuate this effect. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.
Duggan, Katherine A; McDevitt, Elizabeth A; Whitehurst, Lauren N; Mednick, Sara C
Although napping has received attention because of its associations with health and use as a method to understand the function of sleep, to our knowledge no study has systematically and statistically assessed reasons for napping. Using factor analysis, we determined the underlying structure of reasons for napping in diverse undergraduates (N = 430, 59% female) and examined their relationships with self-reported sleep, psychological health, and physical health. The five reasons for napping can be summarized using the acronym DREAM (Dysregulative, Restorative, Emotional, Appetitive, and Mindful). Only Emotional reasons for napping were uniformly related to lower well-being. The use of factor analysis raises possibilities for future research, including examining the stability, structure, and psychological and physical health processes related to napping throughout the lifespan.
Duggan, Katherine A.; McDevitt, Elizabeth A.; Whitehurst, Lauren N.; Mednick, Sara C.
Although napping has received attention because of its associations with health and use as a method to understand the function of sleep, to our knowledge no study has systematically and statistically assessed reasons for napping. Using factor analysis, we determined the underlying structure of reasons for napping in diverse undergraduates (N=430, 59% female) and examined their relationships with self-reported sleep, psychological, and physical health. The 5 reasons for napping can be summarized using the acronym DREAM (Dysregulative, Restorative, Emotional, Appetitive, and Mindful). Only Emotional reasons for napping were uniformly related to lower well-being. The use of factor analysis raises possibilities for future research, including examining the stability, structure, and psychological and physical health processes related to napping throughout the lifespan. PMID:27347727
Stone, Katie L; Ewing, Susan K; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Ensrud, Kristine E; Redline, Susan; Bauer, Douglas C; Cauley, Jane A; Hillier, Teresa A; Cummings, Steven R
To determine the association between self-reported sleep and nap habits and mortality in a large cohort of older women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures prospective cohort study. Four communities within the United States. Eight thousand one hundred one Caucasian women aged 69 and older (mean age 77.0). Sleep and nap habits were assessed using a questionnaire at the fourth clinic visit (1993/94). Deaths during 7 years of follow-up were confirmed with death certificates. Underlying cause of death was assigned according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. In multivariate models, women who reported napping daily were 44% more likely to die from any cause (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.23-1.67), 58% more likely to die from cardiovascular causes (95% CI=1.25-2.00), and 59% more likely to die from noncardiovascular noncancer causes (95% CI=1.24-2.03) than women who did not nap daily. This relationship remained significant in relatively healthy women (those who reported no comorbidities). Women who slept 9 to 10 hours per 24 hours were at greater risk of death from cardiovascular and other (noncardiovascular, noncancer) causes than those who reported sleeping 8 to 9 hours. Older women who reported napping daily or sleeping at least 9 hours per 24 hours are at greater risk of death from all causes except cancer. Future research could determine whether specific sleep disorders contribute to these relationships.
Crosby, Brian; LeBourgeois, Monique K.; Harsh, John
Objectives The objectives of this study were to examine racial differences in reported napping and nighttime sleep of 2- to 8-year-old children, to identify factors accounting for these differences, and to determine if variability in napping was related to psychosocial functioning. Methods Caretakers of 1043 children (73.5% non-Hispanic white; 50.4% male) 2 to 8 years old from a community sample reported on their children’s napping behavior and nighttime sleep. Caretakers of 255 preschool children (3–5 years old) also completed the Behavior Assessment System for Children. Results A more gradual age-related decline in napping was found for black children. At age 8, 39.1% of black children were reported to nap, compared with only 4.9% of white children. Black children also napped significantly more days per week, had shorter average nocturnal sleep durations, and slept significantly less on weekdays than on weekend nights. Despite differences in sleep distribution, total weekly sleep duration (diurnal and nocturnal) was nearly identical for the 2 racial groups at each year of age. Logistic regression analysis revealed that demographic variables were related to but did not fully explain napping differences. Napping in a subset of preschoolers was not significantly related to psychosocial functioning. Conclusions There are remarkable racial differences in reported napping and nighttime sleep patterns beginning as early as age 3 and extending to at least 8 years of age. These differences are independent of commonly investigated demographic factors. Differences in napping behavior do not seem to have psychosocial significance in a sample of preschool children. PMID:15866856
This study represents a collaborative effort between the Federal Aviation Administrations Civil Aeromedical Institute and the US Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory to investigate the effects of napping on the midnight shift as a potential counte...
Jones, Caroline Helen Dorothy; Ball, Helen Louise
Age-independent variability in childrens' napping duration may be influenced by parental preference and attitudes and childrens' availability or lack of opportunity to nap. Our study examined English preschool childrens' napping duration, frequency and location, and the association of daily nap duration with parents' attitudes towards napping. Parents of three-year-old children in deprived and nondeprived areas of a town in North-East England were interviewed regarding their attitudes towards child napping and completed four-day and five night sleep diaries documenting their childrens' daytime and nighttime sleep. Of 84 children, half had at least one nap during the four-day study period (median [interquartile range] daily nap duration across all children was 1  min; for nappers only was 21  min). Naps tended to be infrequent and short and few (6%) occurred in a bedroom. Children whose parents allowed or encouraged napping had significantly longer daily nap duration (n=25, median [interquartile range] daily nap duration 21  min) compared to those whose parents tried to prevent them from napping (n=29, 1  min), and those whose parents reported that children did not want to nap (n=30, 0  min) (U=23.21; pnapping was associated with longer child nap duration. Napping appeared to be mainly sporadic and opportunistic and was negatively perceived and prevented by one-third of parents. The consequences of premature nap cessation are not known; given the importance of sufficient sleep in childhood, we should possibly consider enabling young children to nap more freely. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Liu, Xiaokun; Zhang, Qi; Shang, Xiaoming
Whether self-reported daytime napping is an independent predictor of cardiovascular or all-cause mortality remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate self-reported daytime napping and risk of cardiovascular or all-cause mortality by conducting a meta-analysis. A computerized literature search of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library was conducted up to May 2014. Only prospective studies reporting risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) of cardiovascular or all-cause mortality with respect to baseline self-reported daytime napping were included. Seven studies with 98,163 subjects were included. Self-reported daytime napping was associated with a greater risk of all-cause mortality (RR 1.15; 95% CI 1.07-1.24) compared with non-nappers. Risk of all-cause mortality appeared to be more pronounced among persons with nap duration >60 min (RR 1.15; 95% CI 1.04-1.27) than persons with nap duration napping is a mild but statistically significant predictor for all-cause mortality, but not for cardiovascular mortality. However, whether the risk is attributable to excessive sleep duration or napping alone remains controversial. More prospective studies stratified by sleep duration, napping periods, or age are needed.
Picarsic, Jennifer L; Glynn, Nancy W; Taylor, Christopher A; Katula, Jeffrey A; Goldman, Suzanne E; Studenski, Stephanie A; Newman, Anne B
To determine the prevalence of self-reported napping and its association with subjective nighttime sleep duration and quality, as measured according to sleep-onset latency and sleep efficiency. Cross-sectional study. Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot Study. Community-dwelling older adults (N=414) aged 70 to 89. Self-report questionnaire on napping and sleep derived from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scale. Fifty-four percent of participants reported napping, with mean nap duration of 55.0+/-41.2 minutes. Nappers were more likely to be male (37.3% vs 23.8%, P=.003) and African American (20.4% vs 14.4%, P=.06) and to have diabetes mellitus (28% vs 14.3%, P=.007) than non-nappers. Nappers and non-nappers had similar nighttime sleep duration and quality, but nappers spent approximately 10% of their 24-hour sleep occupied in napping. In a multivariate model, the odds of napping were higher for subjects with diabetes mellitus (odds ratio (OR)=1.9, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.2-3.0) and men (OR=1.9, 95% CI=1.2-3.0). In nappers, diabetes mellitus (beta=12.3 minutes, P=.005), male sex (beta=9.0 minutes, P=.04), higher body mass index (beta=0.8 minutes, P=.02), and lower Mini-Mental State Examination score (beta=2.2 minutes, P=.03) were independently associated with longer nap duration. Napping was a common practice in community-dwelling older adults and did not detract from nighttime sleep duration or quality. Given its high prevalence and association with diabetes mellitus, napping behavior should be assessed as part of sleep behavior in future research and in clinical practice.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the self-reported sleep and napping behaviour of Australian university students and the relationship between napping and daytime functioning. A sample of 280 university first-year psychology students (median age = 19.00 years completed a 6-item napping behaviour questionnaire, a 12-item Daytime Feelings and Functioning Scale, the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Results indicated that 53.6% of students reported napping with 34% napping at least 1-2 times per week, and 17% napping three or more occasions per week. Long naps, those over 30 minutes, were taken by 77% of the napping students. Sixty-one percent of students reported they took long naps during the post-lunch dip period, from 2-4 pm. Students who nap at least once per week reported significantly more problems organizing their thoughts, gaining motivation, concentrating, and finishing tasks than students who did not nap. Students who napped also felt significantly more sleepy and depressed when compared to students who did not nap. The results also indicated that nap frequency increased with daytime sleepiness. The majority of students (51% reported sleeping 6-7 hours per night or less. Overall, the results from this study suggest that among this population of Australian first-year university students habitual napping is common and may be used in an attempt to compensate for the detrimental effects of excessive sleepiness.
Lovato, Nicole; Lack, Leon; Wright, Helen
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the self-reported sleep and napping behaviour of Australian university students and the relationship between napping and daytime functioning. A sample of 280 university first-year psychology students (median age = 19.00 years) completed a 6-item napping behaviour questionnaire, a 12-item Daytime Feelings and Functioning Scale, the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Results indicated that 53.6% of students reported napping with 34% napping at least 1-2 times per week, and 17% napping three or more occasions per week. Long naps, those over 30 minutes, were taken by 77% of the napping students. Sixty-one percent of students reported they took long naps during the post-lunch dip period, from 2-4 pm. Students who nap at least once per week reported significantly more problems organizing their thoughts, gaining motivation, concentrating, and finishing tasks than students who did not nap. Students who napped also felt significantly more sleepy and depressed when compared to students who did not nap. The results also indicated that nap frequency increased with daytime sleepiness. The majority of students (51%) reported sleeping 6-7 hours per night or less. Overall, the results from this study suggest that among this population of Australian first-year university students habitual napping is common and may be used in an attempt to compensate for the detrimental effects of excessive sleepiness.
Full Text Available Clostridium difficile NAP1/ribotype 027 is associated with severe disease and high mortality rates. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of NAP1/ribotype 027 among C. difficile isolates in a tertiary care hospital, and review the main clinical data.We included 106 stool samples from 106 patients. Samples were tested for A&B toxins and were cultured on CCFA agar. The genes tcdA, tcdB, tcdC, cdtA, and cdtB were amplified using PCR in clinical isolates. The tcdA 3'-end deletion analysis, PCR-ribotyping, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE were also performed. Stool samples that were positive for culture were tested by the GeneXpert C. difficile assay. Clinical data were collected.Thirty-six patients tested positive for A&B toxins; and 22 patients had positive culture for C. difficile, 14 of which tested positive for the A&B toxins and all 22 patients tested positive by the GeneXpert C. difficile assay. Risk factors included an average hospital stay of 16.1 days prior to toxin detection, average antibiotic use for 16.2 days, and a median of 3 antibiotics used. The 30-day crude mortality rate was 8.4%. Six of the 22 patients died, and 3 of those deaths were directly attributed to C. difficile infection. The majority of isolates, 90.9% (20/22, carried genes tcdB, tcdA, cdtA, and cdtB; and these strains carried the corresponding downregulator gene tcdC, with an 18-bp deletion. PFGE was performed on 17 isolates, and one main pattern was observed. Analysis of the ribotyping data showed similar results.The above findings represent the clonal spread of C. difficile in our institution, which mainly includes the NAP1/027 strain. This is the first report of C. difficile ribotype NAP1/027 in Mexico.
Rotenberg, Lúcia; Silva-Costa, Aline; Vasconcellos-Silva, Paulo Roberto; Griep, Rosane Härter
Data on the association between shift work and hypertension are controversial. Sleep restriction is hypothesized to be involved in this relationship. Since on-shift nap can partly compensate for sleep deprivation among night workers, this investigation is aimed at (i) comparing the prevalence of hypertension among workers considering both current and former night work, (ii) testing the association between on-shift naps and hypertension among night workers, and (iii) analyzing the influence of sleep complaints in the association between on-shift nap and hypertension. Nap was defined as a sleep episode with duration shorter than the average nighttime sleep. A cross-sectional study was performed at the 18 largest public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2010-2011 (N = 2588 female registered nurses). Nurses were informally allowed to nap for up to three consecutive hours during working nights. Workers completed a multidimensional questionnaire including self-reported information on physician diagnosis of hypertension, napping, and sleep complaints (insomnia, diurnal sleepiness, and non-satisfactory sleep). Epidemiological and statistical treatment of data included binomial logistic regression and interaction tests. Higher chances of hypertension were observed for both current and former night workers compared with workers with no previous experience in night work, i.e. exclusive day workers (OR = 1.68; CI95% 1.22-2.33 and OR = 1.40; CI95% 1.01-1.96, respectively) after adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, insomnia, weekly work hours, and BMI. Compared with exclusive day workers, both non-nappers and nappers were at a higher likelihood of reporting hypertension (OR = 1.93 CI95% 1.35-2.79 and OR = 1.41 CI95% 1.08-2.20, respectively). An interaction was observed between napping behavior and insomnia (p = 0.037). In the whole sample of night workers, the lower OR for nappers was confirmed when they were directly
Lin, Miao; Su, Qing; Wen, Junping; Wei, Shichao; Yao, Jin; Huang, Huibin; Liang, Jixing; Li, Liantao; Lin, Wei; Lin, Lixiang; Lu, Jieli; Bi, Yufang; Wang, Weiqing; Ning, Guang; Chen, Gang
Renal hyperfiltration (RHF) has emerged as a novel marker of early renal damage in various conditions such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Aberrant sleep duration and excessive daytime napping may affect the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study, the association between sleep duration, daytime napping, and renal hyperfiltration was assessed. This study was conducted in three communities in China. A total of 16,119 community volunteers (5735 males and 10,384 females) aged 40-65 years without CKD were included for the study. Participants with short sleep duration (naps longer than 1.5 h per day had a higher risk of renal hyperfiltration compared with those without napping (OR 1.400, 95% CI 1.018-1.924). Further joint analysis indicated that participants with long sleep duration (≥10 h/day) had a more than twofold increased risk of RHF regardless of nap status compared with those who slept 8-9 h per day without daytime napping. The association between sleep duration or daytime napping and RHF could not be explained by the influence of sleep quality. Additional subgroup analysis showed long sleep duration (≥9 h/day) and long daytime napping (≥1.5 h) were associated with an increased risk of RHF among individuals with good sleep quality. Sleep duration less than 6 h/day or more than 10 h/day and long daytime napping tend to be associated with an increased risk of renal hyperfiltration in middle-aged general population, and this relationship was independent of diabetes, hypertension, obesity, or poor sleep quality.
Wannamethee, S Goya; Papacosta, Olia; Lennon, Lucy; Whincup, Peter H
To examine the associations between self-reported nighttime sleep duration and daytime sleep and incident heart failure (HF) in men with and without preexisting cardiovascular disease (CVD). Population-based prospective study. General practices in 24 British towns. Men aged 60-79 without prevalent HF followed for 9 years (N = 3,723). Information on incident HF cases was obtained from primary care records. Assessment of sleep was based on self-reported sleep duration at night and daytime napping. Self-reported short nighttime sleep duration and daytime sleep of longer than 1 hour were associated with preexisting CVD, breathlessness, depression, poor health, physical inactivity, and manual social class. In all men, self-reported daytime sleep of longer than 1 hour duration was associated with significantly greater risk of HF after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.06-2.71) than in those who reported no daytime napping. Self-reported nighttime sleep duration was not associated with HF risk except in men with preexisting CVD (napping of longer than 1 hour is associated with greater risk of HF in older men. Self-reported short sleep (<6 hours) in men with CVD is associated with particularly high risk of developing HF. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of the American Geriatrics Society published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American Geriatrics Society.
Picarsic, Jennifer L.; Glynn, Nancy W.; Taylor, Christopher A.; Katula, Jeffery; Goldman, Suzanne E.; Studenski, Stephanie; Newman, Anne B.
OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence of self-reported napping and its association with subjective nighttime sleep duration and quality, as measured by sleep-onset latency and sleep efficiency. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elder’s Pilot Study. PARTICIPANTS Community-dwelling older adults (N=414), aged 70 to 89 years. MEASUREMENTS Self-report questionnaire on napping and sleep, derived from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scale. RESULTS A total of 54 percent of participants reported napping with mean nap duration of 55 minutes, (SD 41.2 minutes). Compared to non-nappers, nappers were more often men (37.3% vs. 23.8%, P = .003), African American (20.4% vs.14.4%, P = .06), or diabetic (28% vs. 14.3%, P = .007). Nappers and non-nappers had similar nighttime sleep duration and quality, but nappers spent about 10 percent of their 24-hour sleep occupied in napping. In a multivariate model, the odds of napping were higher for diabetics (OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2–3.0) and men (OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2–3.0)). In nappers, diabetes mellitus (β = 12.3 minutes, P =.005), male gender (β = 9.0 minutes, P = .04), higher BMI (β = 0.8 minutes, P = .02), and lower MMSE (β = 2.2, P = .03) were independently associated with longer nap duration. CONCLUSION Napping was a common practice in community-dwelling older adults and did not detract from nighttime sleep duration or quality. Given its high prevalence and association with diabetes, napping behavior should be assessed as part of sleep behavior, both in future research and in clinical practice. PMID:18662202
Li, Junxin; Cacchione, Pamela Z; Hodgson, Nancy; Riegel, Barbara; Keenan, Brendan T; Scharf, Mathew T; Richards, Kathy C; Gooneratne, Nalaka S
To examine the cross-sectional associations between self-reported postlunch napping and structured cognitive assessments in Chinese older adults. Cross-sectional cohort study. China. Individuals aged 65 and older from the baseline national wave of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) (N = 2,974). Interview-based cognitive assessments of orientation and attention, episodic memory, visuospatial abilities, and a combined global cognition score incorporating these assessments. Other self-reported or interview-based assessments included postlunch napping duration, nighttime sleep duration, demographic characteristics, health habits, comorbidities, functional status and social activities. According to reported napping duration, older adults were categorized as non-nappers (0 minutes), short nappers (90 minutes). Postlunch napping was reporting in 57.7% of participants for a mean of 63 minutes. Cognitive function was significantly associated with napping (P napping was significantly associated with better cognition than non- (P = .004), short (P = .04), and extended napping (P = .002), after controlling for demographic characteristics, body mass index, depression, instrumental activities of daily living, social activities, and nighttime sleep duration. A cross-sectional association was found between moderate postlunch napping and better cognition in Chinese older adults. The cross-sectional design and self-reported measures of sleep limited the findings. Longitudinal studies with objective napping measures are needed to further test this hypothesis. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.
Theadom, Alice; Cropley, Mark; Kantermann, Thomas
Previous qualitative research has revealed that people with fibromyalgia use daytime napping as a coping strategy for managing symptoms against clinical advice. Yet there is no evidence to suggest whether daytime napping is beneficial or detrimental for people with fibromyalgia. The purpose of this study was to explore how people use daytime naps and to determine the links between daytime napping and symptom severity in fibromyalgia syndrome. A community based sample of 1044 adults who had been diagnosed with fibromyalgia syndrome by a clinician completed an online questionnaire. Associations between napping behavior, sleep quality and fibromyalgia symptoms were explored using Spearman correlations, with possible predictors of napping behaviour entered into a logistic regression model. Differences between participants who napped on a daily basis and those who napped less regularly, as well as nap duration were explored. Daytime napping was significantly associated with increased pain, depression, anxiety, fatigue, memory difficulties and sleep problems. Sleep problems and fatigue explained the greatest amount of variance in napping behaviour, p naps for >30 minutes had higher memory difficulties (t = -3.45) and levels of depression (t = -2.50) than those who napped for shorter periods (napping was linked with greater symptom severity in people with fibromyalgia. Given the common use of daytime napping in people with fibromyalgia evidence based guidelines on the use of daytime napping in people with chronic pain are urgently needed.
Lam, Kin-Bong Hubert; Jiang, Chao Qiang; Thomas, G Neil; Arora, Teresa; Zhang, Wei Sen; Taheri, Shahrad; Adab, Peymané; Lam, Tai Hing; Cheng, Kar Keung
Intentional napping is very common, particularly in China. However, there are limited data regarding its potential health effects. We therefore examined the possible relationship between napping and type 2 diabetes. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study. Community-based elderly association in Guangzhou, China. 19,567 Chinese men and women aged 50 years or older. Self-reported frequency of napping was obtained by questionnaire and type 2 diabetes was assessed by fasting blood glucose and/or self-reports of physician diagnosis or treatment. Participants reporting frequent naps (4-6 days/week and daily) were 42% to 52% more likely to have diabetes. The relationships remained essentially unchanged after adjustments were made for demographics, lifestyle and sleep habits, health status, adiposity, and metabolic markers (odds ratio for diabetes 1.36 [95% CI 1.17-1.57] in 4-6 days/week, 1.28 [1.15-1.44] in daily nappers). Similar associations were found between napping and impaired fasting glucose. Removal of those with potential ill health and daytime sleepiness did not alter the observed associations. Napping is associated with elevated prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in this older Chinese sample. Our finding suggests that it is less likely that diabetes leads to daytime sleepiness. This raises the possibility that napping may increase the risk of diabetes. Confirmation by longitudinal studies is needed.
Modelling and SimulationANP3 introductionNAP2 introductionThe Exended Node EquationsThe input languages of ANP3 and NAP2The output from ANP3 and NAP2Literature......Modelling and SimulationANP3 introductionNAP2 introductionThe Exended Node EquationsThe input languages of ANP3 and NAP2The output from ANP3 and NAP2Literature...
Alberta Education, 2008
The intent of the Daily Physical Activity (DPA) Survey was to gather school-level information from teachers and principals regarding their perceptions of DPA, thus providing a greater understanding of DPA implementation in grades 1 to 9. This study aimed to help identify the many variables that influence the attainment of the DPA outcomes and…
Graeber, R. Curtis; Rosekind, Mark R.; Connell, Linda J.; Dinges, David F.
The results of a NASA-sponsored study examining the effectiveness of a brief, preplanned cockpit rest period to improve pilot alertness and performance in nonaugmented long-haul flight operations are discussed. Four regularly scheduled trans-Pacific flight legs were studied. The shortest flight legs were about 7 h and the longest about 9.5 h, with duty periods averaging about 11 h and layovers about 25 h. Three-person B747 crews were divided randomly into two volunteer pilot groups. These crews were nonaugmented, and therefore no relief pilots were available. The rest group, consisting of four crews, was allowed a 40 min opportunity to rest during the overwater cruise portion of the flight. On a preplanned, rotating basis, individual crew members were allowed to nap. It is concluded that a preplanned cockpit nap is associated with significantly better behavioral performance and higher levels of physiological alertness and that this can be accomplished without disrupting normal flight operations or compromising safety.
A survey of Texas daily newspapers yielded a picture of newspaper reporters as relatively young men who do not stay in one place very long, suggesting that the stereotype of the itinerant reporter may have its basis in fact. (GW)
Vaclav Klaus, upon returning from Bavaria, observed in front of a TV camera that negotiations with Sudeten Germans could be entrusted, for instance...the partner declares, "Enough dialogue, let’s begin negotiat- ing." After all, Franz Neubauer , also, commented on Thursday on the setting up of the...asked whether a report had been prepared regarding the events on Kolumbusz Street, because eyewit- nesses had seen video cameras on persons believed to
Jakubowski, Karen P; Hall, Martica H; Marsland, Anna L; Matthews, Karen A
Daytime napping has been associated with poor health outcomes in adults. It is not known whether daytime napping is similarly linked to adverse health in adolescents, although many report napping. The present study evaluated associations between daytime napping and 2 markers of increased inflammation, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 (IL-6), in healthy high school students. Two hundred thirty-four Black and White high school students completed a week of actigraph and diary measures of sleep and napping and provided a fasting blood sample. Napping measures were the proportion of days napped and the average minutes napped across 1 week during the school year. Linear regressions adjusted for age, sex, race, average nocturnal sleep duration, time between sleep protocol and blood draw, and body mass index percentile demonstrated that proportion of days napped measured by actigraphy, B(SE) = .41(.19), p napped between 2 p.m. and 6 p.m., B(SE) = .40(.20), p nap duration and either study outcome. Diary-reported napping was unrelated to either study outcome. Actigraphy-assessed napping and IL-6 are associated but the direction of the relationship remains to be determined. Overall, napping is an important factor to consider to better understand the relationship between short sleep and cardiovascular health in adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Yin, Xin; Liu, Qi; Wei, Jiate; Meng, Xin; Jia, Chongqi
Only a few studies have investigated the effects of daytime napping on diabetes, and these studies have reported conflicting results. The aim of the present study was to examine whether daytime napping is associated with a higher risk of prediabetes and diabetes. The present cross-sectional study of napping duration in relation to prediabetes and diabetes was conducted in 12 277 participants. Data from the first wave (2011) of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study were used. Daytime napping was divided into four groups: no napping (reference) and napping for 1-30, 31-90, and >90 min. Multinomial logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Individuals who reported taking daily afternoon naps accounted for 53.39% of all participants. Nappers had a higher prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes than non-nappers. Compared with the reference group, the weighted fully adjusted ORs (95% CI) were 1.36 (1.10-1.68) and 1.61 (1.22-2.13) for napping >90 min in prediabetic and diabetic patients, respectively. Long daytime napping duration was positively associated with prediabetes and diabetes. Further physiological and cohort studies are needed to confirm these results and elucidate potential mechanisms. © 2017 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Sandra Milena Gualtero
Conclusion: Clostridium difficile infection should be suspected in patients with diarrhea and traditional risk factors associated with this disease. We report the circulation of the hypervirulent strain serotype NAP1/027 in Colombia, which should be countered with epidemiological surveillance and a prompt diagnosis.
Ye, Lichuan; Hutton Johnson, Stacy; Keane, Kathleen; Manasia, Michael; Gregas, Matt
Abstract. To examine the habit of napping and its relationship with nighttime sleep in college students. Four hundred and forty undergraduate students who responded to an anonymous online survey in April 2010. Three questions were asked to determine the frequency, length, and timing of napping during the past month. Sleep quality was measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The PSQI score significantly differed among self-reported nap-frequency (p=.047) and nap-length (p=.017) groups, with those who napped more than 3 times per week and those who napped more than 2 hours having the poorest sleep quality. Students who napped between 6 and 9 pm had shorter sleep on school nights compared with students in other nap-timing groups (p=.002). College students who are self-reported frequent, long, and late nappers may have a higher risk of poor nighttime sleep quality and more severe sleep deprivation.
Leland, Natalie E; Fogelberg, Donald; Sleight, Alix; Mallinson, Trudy; Vigen, Cheryl; Blanchard, Jeanine; Carlson, Mike; Clark, Florence
To describe sleeping behaviors and trends over time among an ethnically diverse group of community-living older adults. A descriptive secondary data analysis of a subsample (n = 217) from the Lifestyle Redesign randomized controlled trial was done to explore baseline napping and sleeping patterns as well as 6-mo changes in these outcomes. At baseline, the average time sleeping was 8.2 hr daily (standard deviation = 1.7). Among all participants, 29% reported daytime napping at baseline, of which 36% no longer napped at follow-up. Among participants who stopped napping, those who received an occupation-based intervention (n = 98) replaced napping time with nighttime sleep, and those not receiving an intervention (n = 119) experienced a net loss of total sleep (p napping, the occupation-based intervention may be related to enhanced sleep. More research examining the role of occupation-based interventions in improving sleep is warranted. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Woods, Diana Lynn; Kim, Haesook; Yefimova, Maria
Alterations in the sleep-wake cycle, including daytime napping, are consistently reported in persons with dementia (PWD). A dysregulation in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, indexed by elevated evening cortisol, may offer one explanation for these alterations. Alternatively, excessive daytime sleeping may alter cortisol rhythm and increase intraindividual variability, potentially contributing to increased environmental reactivity and behavioral symptoms. The purpose of this substudy (N = 12) was to examine the association between daytime napping and basal cortisol diurnal rhythm in nursing home residents with dementia. In this within-individual longitudinal design, saliva samples were obtained daily for 5 consecutive days upon waking and 30-45 min, 6 hr, and 12 hr after waking to obtain a cortisol diurnal rhythm. Behavior and sleep-wake state (nap/no nap) were observed and recorded every 20 min for 12 hr per day for 5 days. Participants were categorized as high nappers (HNs) or low nappers (LNs). There was a significant difference in evening cortisol levels (t = -2.38, p = .032) and continence (t = 3.37, p = .007) between groups, with HNs exhibiting higher evening cortisol levels. There were no other significant differences in resident characteristics between the two groups. These data suggest a link between excessive daytime napping and elevated evening cortisol in PWD consistent with findings in children. Elevated evening cortisol is an indication of a dysregulation in the HPA axis. These preliminary data support a close association between the sleep-wake cycle and HPA-axis regulation in PWD.
Miller, Nita; Shattuck, Lawrence G.; Matsangas, Panagiotis
Objectives: In support of a four-year longitudinal study of the Class of 2007, at United States Military Academy (USMA), West Point, NY, this work focuses on: Cadet napping patterns during the second year of their stay at the Academy, napping effect on daily sleep, and frequency of napping versus gender, and seasonality issues.
Brown, Jeanne Geiger; Sagherian, Knar; Zhu, Shijun; Wieroniey, Margaret; Blair, Lori; Warren, Joan; Hinds, Pamela; Szeles, Rose
Some nurses who work the night shift experience high levels of sleepiness. Napping has been adopted as an effective countermeasure to sleepiness and fatigue in other safety-sensitive industries but has not had widespread acceptance in nursing. In this two-hospital implementation project, napping was offered to six nursing units where nurse executives had previously approved nap implementation for the night shift as a pilot project. Successful implementation occurred in only one of the six units with partial success in a second unit. Barriers primarily occurred at the point of seeking unit-based nursing leadership approval. On the successful unit, one hundred fifty three 30-minutes naps were taken during the 3-month pilot period. A Nap Experience Survey measured sleepiness prior to the nap, the nap duration and perceived sleep, sleep inertia after the nap, and the perceived helpfulness of the nap. A high level of sleepiness was present at the beginning of 44% of naps. For over half of naps, nurses reported sleeping slightly (43%) or deeply (14%). Sleep inertia was rare (very groggy or sluggish on arising, 1.3%). The average score of helpfulness of napping was high (7.3 on a 1–10 scale). Nurses who napped reported being less drowsy while driving home after their shift. These data suggest that when barriers to napping are overcome, napping on the nightshift is feasible and can reduce sleepiness and drowsy driving in nurses. PMID:27082421
Jakubowski, Karen P; Hall, Martica H; Lee, Laisze; Matthews, Karen A
Many adolescents do not achieve the recommended 9 hr of sleep per night and report daytime napping, perhaps because it makes up for short nocturnal sleep. This article tests temporal relationships between daytime naps and nighttime sleep as measured by actigraphy and diary among 236 healthy high school students during one school week. Mixed model analyses adjusted for age, race, and gender demonstrated that shorter actigraphy-assessed nocturnal sleep duration predicted longer napping (measured by actigraphy and diary) the next day. Napping (by actigraphy and diary) predicted shorter nocturnal sleep duration and worse sleep efficiency that night measured by actigraphy. Diary-reported napping also predicted poorer self-reported sleep quality that night. Frequent napping may interfere with nocturnal sleep during adolescence.
Geiger-Brown, Jeanne; Sagherian, Knar; Zhu, Shijun; Wieroniey, Margaret Ann; Blair, Lori; Warren, Joan; Hinds, Pamela S; Szeles, Rose
: Nurses who work the night shift often experience high levels of sleepiness. Napping has been adopted as an effective countermeasure to sleepiness and fatigue in other safety-sensitive industries, but has not had widespread acceptance in nursing. To assess the barriers to successful implementation of night-shift naps and to describe the nap experiences of night-shift nurses who took naps. In this two-hospital pilot implementation project, napping on the night shift was offered to six nursing units for which the executive nursing leadership had given approval. Unit nurse managers' approval was sought, and where granted, further explanation was given to the unit's staff nurses. A nap experience form, which included the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, was used to assess pre-nap sleepiness level, nap duration and perceived sleep experience, post-nap sleep inertia, and the perceived helpfulness of the nap. Nurse managers and staff nurses were also interviewed at the end of the three-month study period. Successful implementation occurred on only one of the six units, with partial success seen on a second unit. Barriers primarily occurred at the point of seeking the unit nurse managers' approval. On the successful unit, 153 30-minutes naps were taken during the study period. A high level of sleepiness was present at the beginning of 44% of the naps. For more than half the naps, nurses reported achieving either light (43%) or deep (14%) sleep. Sleep inertia was rare. The average score of helpfulness of napping was high (7.3 on a 1-to-10 scale). Nurses who napped reported being less drowsy while driving home after their shift. These data suggest that when barriers to napping are overcome, napping on the night shift is feasible and can reduce nurses' workplace sleepiness and drowsy driving on the way home. Addressing nurse managers' perceptions of and concerns about napping may be essential to successful implementation.
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Carr, Michelle; Nielsen, Tore
Differences between nighttime REM and NREM dreams are well-established but only rarely are daytime REM and NREM nap dreams compared with each other or with daydreams. Fifty-one participants took daytime naps (with REM or NREM awakenings) and provided both waking daydream and nap dream reports. They also provided ratings of their bizarreness, sensory experience, and emotion intensity. Recall rates for REM (96%) and NREM (89%) naps were elevated compared to typical recall rates for nighttime dreams (80% and 43% respectively), suggesting an enhanced circadian influence. All attribute ratings were higher for REM than for NREM dreams, replicating findings for nighttime dreams. Compared with daydreams, NREM dreams had lower ratings for emotional intensity and sensory experience while REM dreams had higher ratings for bizarreness and sensory experience. Results support using daytime naps in dream research and suggest that there occurs selective enhancement and inhibition of specific dream attributes by REM, NREM and waking state mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Beneficial effects of napping or bright light exposure on cognitive performance have been reported in participants exposed to sleep loss. Nonetheless, few studies investigated the effect of these potential countermeasures against the temporary drop in performance observed in mid-afternoon, and even less so on cognitive flexibility, a crucial component of executive functions. This study investigated the impact of either an afternoon nap or bright light exposure on post-prandial alterations in task switching performance in well-rested participants. Twenty-five healthy adults participated in two randomized experimental conditions, either wake versus nap (n=15, or bright light versus placebo (n=10. Participants were tested on a switching task three times (morning, post-lunch and late afternoon sessions. The interventions occurred prior to the post-lunch session. In the nap/wake condition, participants either stayed awake watching a 30-minute documentary or had the opportunity to take a nap for 30 minutes. In the bright light/placebo condition, participants watched a documentary under either bright blue light or dim orange light (placebo for 30 minutes. The switch cost estimates cognitive flexibility and measures task-switching efficiency. Increased switch cost scores indicate higher difficulties to switch between tasks. In both control conditions (wake or placebo, accuracy switch-cost score increased post lunch. Both interventions (nap or bright light elicited a decrease in accuracy switch-cost score post lunch, which was associated with diminished fatigue and decreased variability in vigilance. Additionally, there was a trend for a post-lunch benefit of bright light with a decreased latency switch-cost score. In the nap group, improvements in accuracy switch-cost score were associated with more NREM sleep stage N1. Thus, exposure to bright light during the post-lunch dip, a countermeasure easily applicable in daily life, results in similar
Gualtero, Sandra Milena; Abril, Lina Alejandra; Camelo, Nathalia; Sanchez, Susi Daniela; Davila, Fabián Antonio; Arias, Gerson; Silva, Edwin; Bustos, Ingrid Gissel; Josa, Diego Fernando; Torres, Isabel Cristina; Zambrano, Luis Carlos; Pareja, María José
Clostridium difficile is the main pathogen related to healthcare-associated diarrhea and it is the cause of 20 to 30% of diarrhea cases caused by antibiotics. In Colombia and Latin America, the knowledge about the epidemiological behavior of this infection is limited. To describe the characteristics of a series of patients with C. difficile infection. We performed a descriptive case series study of patients with C. difficile infection hospitalized in the Fundación Clínica Shaio from January, 2012, to November, 2015. We analyzed 36 patients. The average age was 65 years. The risk factors associated with the infection were: previous use of antibiotics (94.4%), prior hospitalization in the last three months (66.7%) and use of proton pump inhibitors (50%). The most common comorbidities were chronic kidney disease (41.7%) and diabetes mellitus (30.6%). The most frequent symptoms were more than three loose stools per day (97.1%) and abdominal pain (42.9%). According to the severity of the disease, 44.4% of cases were classified as mild to moderate, 38.9% as severe, and 11.1% as complicated or severe. The detection of the toxin by PCR (GeneXpert) was the most common diagnostic procedure (63.8%). Global mortality during hospitalization was 8%. We identified four strains with serotype NAP1/027 and nine samples positive for binary toxin. Clostridium difficile infection should be suspected in patients with diarrhea and traditional risk factors associated with this disease. We report the circulation of the hypervirulent strain serotype NAP1/027 in Colombia, which should be countered with epidemiological surveillance and a prompt diagnosis.
Owusu, Jocelynn T; Ramsey, Christine M; Tzuang, Marian; Kaufmann, Christopher N; Parisi, Jeanine M; Spira, Adam P
Napping is associated with both positive and negative health outcomes among older adults. However, the association between particular napping characteristics (eg, frequency, duration, and whether naps were intentional) and daytime function is unclear. Participants were 2,739 community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries aged ≥65 years from the nationally representative National Health and Aging Trends Study. Participants reported napping frequency, duration, and whether naps were intentional versus unintentional. Restricted participation in valued activities was measured by self-report. After adjusting for potential confounders and nighttime sleep duration, those who took intentional and unintentional naps had a greater odds of any valued activity restriction (ie, ≥1 valued activity restriction), compared to those who rarely/never napped (unintentional odds ratio [OR] = 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01, 1.79, intentional OR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.09, 2.04). There was no difference between unintentional napping and intentional napping with respect to any valued activity restriction after adjustment for demographics. Compared to participants napping "some days," those napping most days/every day had a greater odds of any valued activity restriction (OR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.30, 2.16). Moreover, each 30-minute increase in average nap duration was associated with a 25% greater odds of any valued activity restriction (OR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.10, 1.43). Older adults who took more frequent or longer naps were more likely to report activity restrictions, as were those who took intentional or unintentional naps. Additional longitudinal studies with objective measures of sleep are needed to further our understanding of associations between napping characteristics and daytime dysfunction. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Ji, Xiaopeng; Li, Junxin; Liu, Jianghong
The impact of midday napping on neurocognitive function in adolescents has not been well established. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between self-reported midday-napping behaviors and neurocognitive function in early adolescents. The sample was comprised of 363 early adolescents (12.00 ± 0.38 years old) from Jintan, China. Midday napping, nighttime sleep duration, and sleep quality were measured by self-reported questionnaires. Neurocognitive function was measured by the Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery (accuracy and reaction times). Generalized linear regression was used to analyze the relationships. Sixty-four percent of our sample took more than 3 naps per week, and 70.11% reported nap durations of over 30 min. Participants with higher frequencies or longer durations of midday napping reported significantly better nighttime sleep quality (p napping duration subgroups, early adolescents who took naps of any length were estimated to have faster reaction speeds on the sustained attention task compared with participants who never napped (ps napping and neurocognitive function in early adolescents, especially in China, where midday napping is a cultural practice.
Sun, Jia-Ling; Lin, Chia-Chin
The relationships among napping and sleep quality, fatigue, and quality of life (QOL) in cancer patients are not clearly understood. The aim of the study was to determine whether daytime napping is associated with nighttime sleep, fatigue, and QOL in cancer patients. In total, 187 cancer patients were recruited. Daytime napping, nighttime self-reported sleep, fatigue, and QOL were assessed using a questionnaire. Objective sleep parameters were collected using a wrist actigraph. According to waking-after-sleep-onset measurements, patients who napped during the day experienced poorer nighttime sleep than did patients who did not (t = -2.44, P = .02). Daytime napping duration was significantly negatively correlated with QOL. Patients who napped after 4 PM had poorer sleep quality (t = -1.93, P = .05) and a poorer Short-Form Health Survey mental component score (t = 2.06, P = .04) than did patients who did not. Fatigue, daytime napping duration, and sleep quality were significant predictors of the mental component score and physical component score, accounting for 45.7% and 39.3% of the variance, respectively. Daytime napping duration was negatively associated with QOL. Napping should be avoided after 4 PM. Daytime napping affects the QOL of cancer patients. Future research can determine the role of napping in the sleep hygiene of cancer patients.
Saletin, Jared M; Hilditch, Cassie J; Dement, William C; Carskadon, Mary A
Napping is a useful countermeasure to the negative effects of acute sleep loss on alertness. The efficacy of naps to recover from chronic sleep loss is less well understood. Following 2 baseline nights (10 hours' time-in-bed), participants were restricted to 7 nights of 5-hour sleep opportunity. Ten adults participated in the No-Nap condition, and a further 9 were assigned to a Nap condition with a daily 45-minute nap opportunity at 1300 h. Sleepiness was assessed using the multiple sleep latency test and a visual analogue scale at 2-hour intervals. Both objective and subjective indexes of sleepiness were normalized within subject as a difference from those at baseline prior to sleep restriction. Mixed-effects models examined how the daytime nap opportunity altered sleepiness across the day and across the protocol. Short daytime naps attenuated sleepiness due to chronic sleep restriction for up to 6-8 hours after the nap. Benefits of the nap did not extend late into evening. Subjective sleepiness demonstrated a similar short-lived benefit that emerged later in the day when objective sleepiness already returned to pre-nap levels. Neither measure showed a benefit of the nap the following morning after the subsequent restriction night. These data indicate a short daytime nap may attenuate sleepiness in chronic sleep restriction, yet subjective and objective benefits emerge at different time scales. Because neither measure showed a benefit the next day, the current study underscores the need for careful consideration before naps are used as routine countermeasures to chronic sleep loss. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail email@example.com.
Reifel, Stuart; Garza, Margaret
Children's knowledge of daily events in full-day child care was assessed. Interviews with 14 children produced spontaneous narratives that revealed script-like knowledge of the child care day, including events such as indoor play, outdoor play, breakfast, lunch, nap, and snack. Younger children reported a smaller number of events in their…
Zheng, Xiaoxuan; Zhang, Lina; Shen, Lijun; Song, Lulu; Li, Hui; Liu, Bingqing; Li, Yuanyuan; Xia, Wei; Zhang, Bin; Xu, Shunqing; Wang, Youjie
Habitual midday napping is a common habit in China, especially for pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to examine whether duration and frequency of maternal habitual midday napping were associated with high birthweight (HBW). A total of 10,482 participants from Healthy Baby Cohort were include in our analysis. The information of the mothers and their infants were abstracted from medical records, or obtained from questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of habitual midday napping duration and frequency with HBW. Of the participants, 8,705 (83.0%) reported having habitual midday napping. Duration and frequency of napping had a positive association with HBW without adjustment. After controlling for potential confounders, increasing risk of HBW was observed in participants who napped 1.5-2 hours (OR, 1.50, 95% CI, 1.14, 1.98), and ≥2 hours (OR, 1.35, 95% CI, 1.03, 1.78) compared with no habitual midday napping. Participants who took naps ≥5 days/week had a higher risk of HBW (OR, 1.37, 95% CI, 1.07, 1.77) compared with the women without naps. This suggests that longer (≥1.5 hours) and more frequent (≥5 days/week) maternal habitual midday napping were associated with an increased risk of HBW.
Xu, Qun; Song, Yiqing; Hollenbeck, Albert; Blair, Aaron; Schatzkin, Arthur; Chen, Honglei
To examine whether day napping or short night sleeping is associated with higher risk of diabetes. This was a prospective study of hours of day napping and night sleeping assessed in 1996-1997 in relation to diabetes diagnosed between 2000 and 2006 (n = 10,143) among 174,542 participants in the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CI were derived from multivariate logistic regression models. Longer day napping was associated with a higher risk of diabetes. After adjustment for potential confounders, ORs were 1.23 (95% CI 1.18-1.29) for those reporting or =1 h of napping compared with individuals who did not nap (P(trend) or =9 h. In both analyses, additional adjustment for BMI only modestly attenuated the associations. Further analysis showed a statistically significant interaction between hours of napping and sleeping on diabetes (P(interaction) napping, only short night sleeping was associated with higher occurrence of diabetes, whereas among those with > or =1 h of napping, both long and short sleeping was associated with higher risk. Day napping and short night sleeping are associated with higher risk of diabetes. The association between sleep duration and diabetes may be modified by napping habit.
Baldwin, Jarret Taylor
The introduction of ultra-long range commercial aircraft and the evolution of the commercial airline industry has provided new opportunities for air carriers to fly longer range international route segments while deregulation, industry consolidation, and the constant drive to reduce costs wherever possible has pressured airline managements to seek more productivity from their pilots. At the same time, advancements in the understanding of human physiology have begun to make their way into flight and duty time regulations and airline scheduling practices. In this complex and ever changing operating environment, there remains an essential need to better understand how these developments, and other daily realities facing commercial airline pilots, are affecting their fatigue management strategies as they go about their rituals of getting to and from their homes to work and performing their flight assignments. Indeed, the need for commercial airline pilots to have access to better and more effective fatigue mitigation tools to combat fatigue and insure that they are well rested and at the top of their game when flying long-range international route segments has never been greater. This study examined to what extent the maximum fatigue states prior to napping, as self-accessed by commercial airline pilots flying international route segments, were affected by a number of other common flight assignment related factors. The study also examined to what extent the availability of scheduled en-route rest opportunities, in an onboard crew rest facility, affected the usage of en-route napping as a fatigue mitigation strategy, and to what extent the duration of such naps affected the perceived benefits of such naps as self-accessed by commercial airline pilots flying international route segments. The study utilized an online survey tool to collect data on crew position, prior flight segments flown in the same duty period, augmentation, commuting, pre-flight rest obtained in the
Milner, Catherine E; Cote, Kimberly A
Napping is a cross-cultural phenomenon which occurs across the lifespan. People vary widely in the frequency with which they nap as well as the improvements in alertness and well-being experienced. The systematic study of daytime napping is important to understand the benefits in alertness and performance that may be accrued from napping. This review paper investigates factors that affect the benefits of napping such as duration and temporal placement of the nap. In addition, the influence of subject characteristics such as age and experience with napping is examined. The focus of the review is on benefits for healthy individuals with regular sleep/wake schedules rather than for people with sleep or medical disorders. The goal of the review is to summarize the type of performance improvements that result from napping, critique the existing studies, and make recommendations for future research.
Lim, Julian; Lo, June C; Chee, Michael W L
Achievement-oriented adolescents often study long hours under conditions of chronic sleep restriction, adversely affecting cognitive function. Here, we studied how napping and rest breaks (interleaved off-task periods) might ameliorate the negative effects of sleep restriction on processing speed. Fifty-seven healthy adolescents (26 female, age = 15-19 years) participated in a 15-day live-in protocol. All participants underwent sleep restriction (5 h time-in-bed), but were then randomized into two groups: one of these groups received a daily 1-h nap opportunity. Data from seven of the study days (sleep restriction days 1-5, and recovery days 1-2) are reported here. The Blocked Symbol Decoding Test, administered once a day, was used to assess time-on-task effects and the effects of rest breaks on processing speed. Controlling for baseline differences, participants who took a nap demonstrated faster speed of processing and greater benefit across testing sessions from practice. These participants were also affected significantly less by time-on-task effects. In contrast, participants who did not receive a nap benefited more from the rest breaks that were permitted between blocks of the test. Our results indicate that napping partially reverses the detrimental effects of sleep restriction on processing speed. However, rest breaks have a greater effect as a countermeasure against poor performance when sleep pressure is higher. These data add to the growing body of evidence showing the importance of sleep for good cognitive functioning in adolescents, and suggest that more frequent rest breaks might be important in situations where sleep loss is unavoidable. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.
Staton, Sally L; Smith, Simon S; Hurst, Cameron; Pattinson, Cassandra L; Thorpe, Karen J
Policy provision for naps is typical in child care settings, but there is variability in the practices employed. One practice that might modify children's early sleep patterns is the allocation of a mandatory nap time in which all children are required to lie on their beds without alternate activity permitted. There is currently limited evidence of the effects of such practices on children's napping patterns. This study examined the association between duration of mandatory nap times and group-level napping patterns in child care settings. Observations were undertaken in a community sample of 113 preschool rooms with a scheduled nap time (N = 2,114 children). Results showed that 83.5% of child care settings implemented a mandatory nap time (range = 15-145 min) while 14.2% provided alternate activities for children throughout the nap time period. Overall, 31% of children napped during nap times. Compared to rooms with ≤ 30 min of mandatory nap time, rooms with 31-60 min and > 60 min of mandatory nap time had a two-and-a-half and fourfold increase, respectively, in the proportion of children napping. Nap onset latency did not significantly differ across groups. Among preschool children, exposure to longer mandatory nap times in child care may increase incidence of napping.
Conwell, Darwin L; Banks, Peter A; Sandhu, Bimaljit S; Sherman, Stuart; Al-Kaade, Samer; Gardner, Timothy B; Anderson, Michelle A; Wilcox, C Mel; Lewis, Michele D; Muniraj, Thiruvengadam; Forsmark, Christopher E; Cote, Gregory A; Guda, Nalini M; Tian, Ye; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Brand, Randall; Gelrud, Andres; Slivka, Adam; Whitcomb, David C; Yadav, Dhiraj
Our aim was to validate recent epidemiologic trends and describe the distribution of TIGAR-O risk factors in chronic pancreatitis (CP) patients. The NAPS-2 Continuation and Validation (NAPS2-CV) study prospectively enrolled 521 CP patients from 13 US centers from 2008 to 2012. CP was defined by definitive changes in imaging, endoscopy, or histology. Data were analyzed after stratification by demographic factors, physician-defined etiology, participating center, and TIGAR-O risk factors. Demographics and physician-defined etiology in the NAPS2-CV study were similar to the original NAPS2 study. Mean age was 53 years (IQR 43, 62) with 55% males and 87% white. Overall, alcohol was the single most common etiology (46%) followed by idiopathic etiology (24%). Alcohol etiology was significantly more common in males, middle-aged (35-65 years), and non-whites. Females and elderly (≥65 years) were more likely to have idiopathic etiology, while younger patients (etiology. Variability in etiology was noted by participating centers (e.g., alcohol etiology ranged from 27 to 67% among centers enrolling ≥25 patients). Smoking was the most commonly identified (59%) risk factor followed by alcohol (53%), idiopathic (30%), obstructive (19%), and hyperlipidemia (13%). The presence of multiple TIGAR-O risk factors was common, with 1, 2, ≥3 risk factors observed in 27.6, 47.6, and 23.6% of the cohort, respectively. Our data validate the current epidemiologic trends in CP. Alcohol remains the most common physician-defined etiology, while smoking was the most commonly identified TIGAR-O risk factor. Identification of multiple risk factors suggests CP to be a complex disease.
Horváth, Klára; Plunkett, Kim
Daytime napping undergoes a remarkable change in early childhood, and research regarding its relationship to cognitive development has recently accelerated. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of this relationship focusing on children aged napping status of children may modulate the relationship between learning and napping. Third, the possible role of sleep spindles, ie, specific electroencephalographic components during sleep, in cognitive development is explored. We conclude that daytime napping is crucial in early memory development.
Rosekind, Mark R.; Gander, Philippa H.; Dinges, David F.
Strategic napping in two different flight operation environments is considered to illustrate its application as a fatigue countermeasure. Data obtained from commercial short-haul and long-haul operations demonstrated the utility and current practices of strategic napping. A preplanned cockpit nap acted as an acute 'safety valve' for the sleep loss, circadian disruption, and fatigue that occurs in long-haul flying.
Jakubowski, Karen P; Boylan, Jennifer M; Cundiff, Jenny M; Matthews, Karen A
To test whether napping was associated with 2 inflammatory markers with known relationships to cardiovascular disease: high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Because IL-6 is known to impact central inflammatory processes that relate to sleep regulation, including subjective fatigue, we tested whether this relationship was moderated by sleep duration, sleep efficiency, and self-reported sleep quality. Cross-sectional. A community sample of Black and White men (N=253) completed a week of actigraphy and diary measures of sleep and napping and provided a fasting blood sample. Napping was measured as the proportion of days with at least 30 minutes napped and the average minutes napped per day. Linear regressions adjusted for race, socioeconomic status, employment, body mass index, smoking, medications that affect sleep or inflammation, working the nightshift, and day-sleeping status, followed by interaction terms between napping and sleep duration, efficiency, and quality, respectively. There were no significant main effects of actigraphy- or diary-measured napping on IL-6 or hsCRP. Moderation analyses indicated elevated IL-6 values among men who napped more days (by actigraphy) and demonstrated short sleep duration (P=.03). Moderation analyses also indicated elevated IL-6 among men who demonstrated greater average minutes napped (by actigraphy) and short sleep duration (Pnapping or hsCRP were not significant. Actigraphy-assessed daytime napping is related to higher IL-6 in men who demonstrate worse sleep characteristics. Daytime napping may pose additional risk for inflammation beyond the known risk conferred by short sleep. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Perach, Rotem
To examine the effect of nighttime sleep duration on mortality and the effect modification of daytime napping on the relationship between nighttime sleep duration and mortality in older persons. Prospective survey with 20-yr mortality follow-up. The Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Aging Study, a multidimensional assessment of a stratified random sample of the older Jewish population in Israel conducted between 1989-1992. There were 1,166 self-respondent, community-dwelling participants age 75-94 yr (mean, 83.40, standard deviation, 5.30). Nighttime sleep duration, napping, functioning (activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, Orientation Memory Concentration Test), health, and mortality. Duration of nighttime sleep of more than 9 hr was significantly related to increased mortality in comparison with sleeping 7-9 hr (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.31, P habits, and mortality in older persons. SLEEP 2012;35(7):1003-1009.
Dautovich, Natalie D; McCrae, Christina S; Rowe, Meredeth
To compare objective and subjective measurements of napping and to examine the relationship between evening napping and nocturnal sleep in older adults. For 12 days, participants wore actigraphs and completed sleep diaries. Community. One hundred individuals who napped, aged 60 to 89 (including good and poor sleepers with typical age-related medical comorbidities). Twelve days of sleep diary and actigraphy provided subjective and objective napping and sleep data. Evening naps (within 2 hours of bedtime) were characteristic of the sample, with peak nap time occurring between 20:30 and 21:00 (average nap time occurred between 14:30 and 15:00). Two categories of nappers were identified: those who took daytime and evening naps and daytime-only. No participants napped during the evening only. Day-and-evening nappers significantly underreported evening napping and demonstrated lower objectively measured sleep onset latencies (20.0 vs 26.5 minutes), less wake after sleep onset (51.4 vs 72.8 minutes), and higher sleep efficiencies (76.8 vs 82%) than daytime-only nappers. Day and evening napping was prevalent in this sample of community-dwelling good and poor sleepers but was not associated with impaired nocturnal sleep. Although the elimination or restriction of napping is a common element of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia, these results suggest that a uniform recommendation to restrict or eliminate napping (particularly evening napping) may not meet the needs of all older individuals with insomnia.
Larson, R; Lampman-Petraitis, C
Hour-to-hour emotional states reported by children, ages 9-15, were examined in order to evaluate the hypothesis that the onset of adolescence is associated with increased emotional variability. These youths carried electronic pagers for 1 week and filled out reports on their emotional states in response to signals received at random times. To evaluate possible age-related response sets, a subset of children was asked to use the same scales to rate the emotions shown in drawings of 6 faces. The expected relation between daily emotional variability and age was not found among the boys and was small among the girls. There was, however, a linear relation between age and average mood states, with the older participants reporting more dysphoric average states, especially more mildly negative states. An absence of age difference in the ratings of the faces indicated that this relation could not be attributed to age differences in response set. Thus, these findings provide little support for the hypothesis that the onset of adolescence is associated with increased emotionality but indicate significant alterations in everyday experience associated with this age period.
Lin, Diaozhu; Sun, Kan; Li, Feng; Qi, Yiqin; Ren, Meng; Huang, Chulin; Tang, Juying; Xue, Shengneng; Li, Yan; Yan, Li
Our objective was to evaluate the association between habitual daytime napping and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. We conducted a population-based study of 8,547 subjects aged 40 years or older. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to a harmonized definition from a joint statement and the recommended thresholds for the Chinese population. Information about sleep duration was self-reported. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the no daytime napping group, the 0 to 1 hour daytime napping group and the more than 1 hour daytime napping group were 35.0%, 36.0% and 44.5% among the females (Pnapping hours were positively associated with parameters of metabolic syndrome in the female subjects, including waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides and fasting plasma glucose (Pnapping females, napping for more than 1 hour was independently associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio 1.39, 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.72). Compared to the female subjects in the no daytime napping group, those habitually napped for more than 1 hour exhibited 46% and 26% increases in the prevalence of central obesity and hypertriglyceridemia (all Pnapping hours and metabolic syndrome among the male subjects. Daytime napping is associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged non-obese Chinese women. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Li, Feng; Sun, Kan; Lin, Diaozhu; Qi, Yiqin; Li, Yan; Yan, Li; Ren, Meng
Menopause can affect the physiological timing system, which could result in circadian rhythm changes and development of napping habits. Whether longtime napping in postmenopausal women is associated with cardiovascular disease is, however, still debated. The present study aims to investigate this association. We conducted a population-based study in 4,616 postmenopausal Chinese women. Information on sleep duration was self-reported. The Framingham General Cardiovascular Risk Score was calculated and used to identify participants at high risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Increased daytime napping hours were positively associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors in postmenopausal women, such as age, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, fasting glucose, postload glucose, and hemoglobin A1C (all P for trend napping hours, and was 3.7%, 4.3%, and 6.9% in the no daytime napping group, the 0.1 to 1 hour group, and the more than 1 hour group, respectively (P for trend = 0.005). Compared with the no daytime napping group, postmenopausal women with daytime napping more than 1 hour had higher risk of CHD in both univariate (odds ratio 1.94, 95% CI, 1.29-2.95) and multivariate (odds ratio 1.61, 95% CI, 1.03-2.52) logistic regression analyses. No statistically significant association was detected between night sleeping hours and high risk of CHD in postmenopausal participants. Daytime napping is positively associated with estimated 10-year CHD risk in postmenopausal Chinese women.
Ujma, Péter P; Bódizs, Róbert; Gombos, Ferenc; Stintzing, Johannes; Konrad, Boris N; Genzel, Lisa; Steiger, Axel; Dresler, Martin
Sleep spindles are thalamocortical oscillations in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, that play an important role in sleep-related neuroplasticity and offline information processing. Several studies with full-night sleep recordings have reported a positive association between sleep spindles and fluid intelligence scores, however more recently it has been shown that only few sleep spindle measures correlate with intelligence in females, and none in males. Sleep spindle regulation underlies a circadian rhythm, however the association between spindles and intelligence has not been investigated in daytime nap sleep so far. In a sample of 86 healthy male human subjects, we investigated the correlation between fluid intelligence and sleep spindle parameters in an afternoon nap of 100 minutes. Mean sleep spindle length, amplitude and density were computed for each subject and for each derivation for both slow and fast spindles. A positive association was found between intelligence and slow spindle duration, but not any other sleep spindle parameter. As a positive correlation between intelligence and slow sleep spindle duration in full-night polysomnography has only been reported in females but not males, our results suggest that the association between intelligence and sleep spindles is more complex than previously assumed.
Full Text Available The advent of the smartphone has dramatically altered how we communicate, navigate, work and entertain ourselves. While the advantages of this new technology are clear, constant use may also bring negative consequences, such as a loss of productivity due to interruptions in work life. A link between smartphone overuse and loss of productivity has often been hypothesized, but empirical evidence on this question is scarce. The present study addressed this question by collecting self-report data from N=262 participants, assessing private and work-related smartphone use, smartphone addiction and self-rated productivity. Our results indicate a moderate relationship between smartphone addiction and a self-reported decrease in productivity due to spending time on the smartphone during work, as well as with the number of work hours lost to smartphone use. Smartphone addiction was also related to a greater amount of leisure time spent on the smartphone and was strongly related to a negative impact of smartphone use on daily non-work related activities. These data support the idea that tendencies towards smartphone addiction and overt checking of the smartphone could result in less productivity both in the workplace and at home. Results are discussed in relation to productivity and technostress.
Duke, Éilish; Montag, Christian
The advent of the smartphone has dramatically altered how we communicate, navigate, work and entertain ourselves. While the advantages of this new technology are clear, constant use may also bring negative consequences, such as a loss of productivity due to interruptions in work life. A link between smartphone overuse and loss of productivity has often been hypothesized, but empirical evidence on this question is scarce. The present study addressed this question by collecting self-report data from N = 262 participants, assessing private and work-related smartphone use, smartphone addiction and self-rated productivity. Our results indicate a moderate relationship between smartphone addiction and a self-reported decrease in productivity due to spending time on the smartphone during work, as well as with the number of work hours lost to smartphone use. Smartphone addiction was also related to a greater amount of leisure time spent on the smartphone and was strongly related to a negative impact of smartphone use on daily non-work related activities. These data support the idea that tendencies towards smartphone addiction and overt checking of the smartphone could result in less productivity both in the workplace and at home. Results are discussed in relation to productivity and technostress.
Healthy Lifestyle Adult health Napping isn't just for children. Understand the pros and cons of napping and the best way to take a nap. ... you might be thinking about taking a nap. Napping at the wrong time of day or for ...
Gao, Jianjun; Huang, Xuemei; Park, Yikyung; Hollenbeck, Albert; Blair, Aaron; Schatzkin, Arthur; Chen, Honglei
Preliminary evidence suggests that daytime sleepiness may predate clinical diagnosis of Parkinson disease. The authors examined daytime napping and nighttime sleeping durations, reported in 1996–1997 by 220,934 US NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study participants, in relation to Parkinson disease diagnoses at 3 clinical stages: established (cases diagnosed before 1995, n = 267), recent (1995–1999, n = 396), and prediagnostic (2000 and after, n = 770). Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were derived from multivariate logistic regression models. Longer daytime napping was associated with higher odds of Parkinson disease at all 3 clinical stages: the odds ratios comparing long nappers (>1 hour/day) with nonnappers were 3.9 (95% confidence interval: 2.8, 5.6) for established cases, 2.2 (95% confidence interval: 1.7, 3.0) for recent cases, and 1.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.2, 1.9) for prediagnostic cases. Further control for health status or nighttime sleeping duration attenuated the association for established cases but made little difference for recent or prediagnostic cases. In the nighttime sleeping analysis, a clear U-shaped association with Parkinson disease was observed for established cases; however, this association was attenuated markedly for recent cases and disappeared for prediagnostic cases. This study supports the notion that daytime sleepiness, but not nighttime sleeping duration, is one of the early nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson disease. PMID:21402730
Shnayder, Michelle M; St Onge, Joan E; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J
Napping has known benefits for fatigue mitigation and improved alertness. However the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) New Common Program Requirements recently removed the 16 h work limit for PGY1 residents and removed any suggestions of napping. We utilized a cross-sectional study design to administer a 44-item questionnaire in June 2016 to 858 residents and fellows at one large urban academic medical center. We assessed: 1) resident physician sentiment of work environment supportiveness for napping at work; and 2) agreement with 2011 ACGME guidelines on workweek hour limitations and strategic napping recommendations. While 89% of residents reported access to an on-call room at work, only 20% felt their work environment supported a culture of napping while at work. Over 76% expressed agreement with the 2011 ACGME work-hour restrictions. Strategies to support napping and well-being within the resident physician workforce and organizational setting are warranted. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Akacem, Lameese D; Simpkin, Charles T; Carskadon, Mary A; Wright, Kenneth P; Jenni, Oskar G; Achermann, Peter; LeBourgeois, Monique K
The timing of the internal circadian clock shows large inter-individual variability across the lifespan. Although the sleep-wakefulness pattern of most toddlers includes an afternoon nap, the association between napping and circadian phase in early childhood remains unexplored. This study examined differences in circadian phase and sleep between napping and non-napping toddlers. Data were collected on 20 toddlers (34.2±2.0 months; 12 females; 15 nappers). Children followed their habitual napp...
Sandoval, Michelle; Leclerc, Julia A.; Gómez, Rebecca L.
A nap soon after encoding leads to better learning in infancy. However, whether napping plays the same role in preschoolers' learning is unclear. In Experiment 1 (N = 39), 3-year-old habitual and nonhabitual nappers learned novel verbs before a nap or a period of wakefulness and received a generalization test examining word extension to novel…
Leng, Yue; Wainwright, Nick W J; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Surtees, Paul G; Hayat, Shabina; Luben, Robert; Brayne, Carol; Khaw, Kay-Tee
We have identified a strong association between daytime napping and increased mortality risk from respiratory diseases, but little is known about the relationship between daytime napping and respiratory morbidity. Data were drawn from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk cohort. Participants reported napping habits during 1998-2000 and were followed up for respiratory disease hospital admissions until March 2009. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association between daytime napping and respiratory disease incidence risk. The study sample included 10,978 men and women with a mean age of 61.9 years, and a total of 946 incident respiratory disease cases were recorded. After adjustment for age, sex, social class, education, marital status, employment status, nightshift work, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, self-reported general health, hypnotic drug use, habitual sleep duration, and preexisting health conditions, daytime napping was associated with an increase in the overall respiratory disease incidence risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15, 1.52 for napping respiratory diseases, especially for the risk of chronic lower respiratory diseases (HR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.96 for napping respiratory disease incidence risk. Further studies are required to confirm these findings and help understand potential mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Liu, Yu; West, Stephen G
Daily diaries and other everyday experience methods are increasingly used to study relationships between two time-varying variables X and Y. Although daily data potentially often have weekly cyclical patterns (e.g., stress may be higher on weekdays and lower on weekends), the majority of daily diary studies have ignored this possibility. In this study, we investigated the effect of ignoring existing weekly cycles. We reanalyzed an empirical dataset (stress and alcohol consumption) and performed Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the impact of omitting weekly cycles. In the empirical dataset, ignoring cycles led to the inference of a significant within-person X-Y relation whereas modeling cycles suggested that this relationship did not exist. Simulation results indicated that ignoring cycles that existed in both X and Y led to bias in the estimated within-person X-Y relationship. The amount and direction of bias depended on the magnitude of the cycles, magnitude of the true within-person X-Y relation, and synchronization of the cycles. We encourage researchers conducting daily diary studies to address potential weekly cycles in their data. We provide guidelines for detecting and modeling cycles to remove their influence and discuss challenges of causal inference in daily experience studies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory daily reporting for cows and bulls. 59.102... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Cattle Reporting § 59.102 Mandatory daily reporting for cows and bulls. (a) In General. The corporate officers or officially designated representatives of each cow and...
Dalky, Heyam F; Raeda, AbuAlRub F; Esraa, Aldalqamouni A
Night-shift work often results in sleep deprivation, and this in turn results in fatigue that jeopardizes both nurse and patient safety. Napping is considered a viable deterrent to fatigue, yet hospital administration has been slow to adopt napping. To identify nurse managers' knowledge and approval of napping practices for nurses on night shifts. Nurse managers at nine Jordanian hospitals (n = 129) were surveyed using an Arabic version of a questionnaire previously used in a Canadian study. Descriptive statistics were used to describe results, and a one-way ANOVA was used to determine if relationships existed among nurse manager's approval of napping and nurse demographic characteristics. The majority of nurse managers (61%) knew nurses were napping during breaks. However, the managers reported there was no written policy for napping. A majority thought there were more benefits to napping than drawbacks. Some 55% of nurse managers recognized fatigue as a cause of errors or incidents regarding patient safety, and 40% perceived fatigue to be a factor in staff injuries. This study supports an urgent need for shared responsibility among nursing administration, and bedside nurses to develop evidence-based programs to counteract the effects of nurse fatigue. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Gotts, Zoe M; Ellis, Jason G; Deary, Vincent; Barclay, Nicola; Newton, Julia L
The precise relationship between sleep and physical and mental functioning in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has not been examined directly, nor has the impact of daytime napping. This study aimed to examine self-reported sleep in patients with CFS and explore whether sleep quality and daytime napping, specific patient characteristics (gender, illness length) and levels of anxiety and depression, predicted daytime fatigue severity, levels of daytime sleepiness and cognitive functioning, all key dimensions of the illness experience. 118 adults meeting the 1994 CDC case criteria for CFS completed a standardised sleep diary over 14 days. Momentary functional assessments of fatigue, sleepiness, cognition and mood were completed by patients as part of usual care. Levels of daytime functioning and disability were quantified using symptom assessment tools, measuring fatigue (Chalder Fatigue Scale), sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale), cognitive functioning (Trail Making Test, Cognitive Failures Questionnaire), and mood (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Hierarchical Regressions demonstrated that a shorter time since diagnosis, higher depression and longer wake time after sleep onset predicted 23.4% of the variance in fatigue severity (p naps predicted 25.6% of the variance in objective cognitive dysfunction (p napping predicted 32.2% of the variance in subjective cognitive dysfunction (p naps, those who mainly napped in the afternoon, and those with higher levels of anxiety, were more likely to be in the moderately sleepy group. Napping, particularly in the afternoon is associated with poorer cognitive functioning and more daytime sleepiness in CFS. These findings have clinical implications for symptom management strategies.
Full Text Available Klára Horváth,1 Kim Plunkett2 12nd Department of Pediatrics, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary; 2Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK Abstract: Daytime napping undergoes a remarkable change in early childhood, and research regarding its relationship to cognitive development has recently accelerated. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of this relationship focusing on children aged <5 years. First, we evaluate different studies on the basis of the experimental design used and the specific cognitive processes they investigate. Second, we analyze how the napping status of children may modulate the relationship between learning and napping. Third, the possible role of sleep spindles, ie, specific electroencephalographic components during sleep, in cognitive development is explored. We conclude that daytime napping is crucial in early memory development. Keywords: napping, children, infants, cognitive development, daytime sleep, memory, language development, sleep spindles
Kota Watanabe; Tsutomu Watanabe
We construct a Törnqvist daily price index using Japanese point of sale (POS) scanner data spanning from 1988 to 2013. We find the following. First, the POS based inflation rate tends to be about 0.5 percentage points lower than the CPI inflation rate, although the difference between the two varies over time. Second, the difference between the two measures is greatest from 1992 to 1994, when, following the burst of bubble economy in 1991, the POS inflation rate drops rapidly and turns negati...
Xiao, Qian; Arem, Hannah; Pfeiffer, Ruth; Matthews, Charles
Prediagnosis lifestyle factors can influence colorectal cancer (CRC) survival. Sleep deficiency is linked to metabolic dysfunction and chronic inflammation, which may contribute to higher mortality from cardiometabolic conditions and promote tumor progression. We hypothesized that prediagnosis sleep deficiency would be associated with poor CRC survival. No previous study has examined either nighttime sleep or daytime napping in relation to survival among men and women diagnosed with CRC. We examined self-reported sleep duration and napping prior to diagnosis in relation to mortality among 4869 CRC survivors in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Vital status was ascertained by linkage to the Social Security Administration Death Master File and the National Death Index. We examined the associations of sleep and napping with mortality using traditional Cox regression (total mortality) and Compositing Risk Regression (cardiovascular disease [CVD] and CRC mortality). Models were adjusted for confounders (demographics, cancer stage, grade and treatment, smoking, physical activity, and sedentary behavior) as well as possible mediators (body mass index and health status) in separate models. Compared to participants reporting 7-8 hours of sleep per day, those who reported napping, napping 1 hr or more per day was associated with significantly higher total and CVD mortality but not CRC mortality. Prediagnosis short sleep and long napping were associated with higher mortality among CRC survivors. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
Bolitho, Samuel J; Naismith, Sharon L; Salahuddin, Pierre; Terpening, Zoe; Grunstein, Ron R; Lewis, Simon J G
Sleep-wake disturbances and concomitant cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD) contribute significantly to morbidity in patients and their carers. Subjectively reported daytime sleep disturbance is observed in over half of all patients with PD and has been linked to executive cognitive dysfunction. The current study used daytime actigraphy, a novel objective measure of napping and related this to neuropsychological performance in a sample of PD patients and healthy, age and gender-matched controls. Furthermore this study aimed to identify patients with PD who may benefit from pharmacologic and behavioural intervention to improve these symptoms. Eighty-five PD patients and 21 healthy, age-matched controls completed 14 days of wrist actigraphy within two weeks of neuropsychological testing. Objective napping measures were derived from actigraphy using a standardised protocol and subjective daytime sleepiness was recorded by the previously validated Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Patients with PD had a 225% increase in the mean nap time per day (minutes) as recorded by actigraphy compared to age matched controls (39.2 ± 35.2 vs. 11.5 ± 11.0 minutes respectively, p napping duration between patients, as recorded by actigraphy were not distinguished by their ratings on the subjective measurement of excessive daytime sleepiness. Finally, those patients with excessive daytime napping showed greater cognitive deficits in the domains of attention, semantic verbal fluency and processing speed. This study confirms increased levels of napping in PD, a finding that is concordant with subjective reports. However, subjective self-report measures of excessive daytime sleepiness do not robustly identify excessive napping in PD. Fronto-subcortical cognitive dysfunction was observed in those patients who napped excessively. Furthermore, this study suggests that daytime actigraphy, a non-invasive and inexpensive objective measure of daytime sleep, can identify patients with PD
Samuel J Bolitho
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Sleep-wake disturbances and concomitant cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD contribute significantly to morbidity in patients and their carers. Subjectively reported daytime sleep disturbance is observed in over half of all patients with PD and has been linked to executive cognitive dysfunction. The current study used daytime actigraphy, a novel objective measure of napping and related this to neuropsychological performance in a sample of PD patients and healthy, age and gender-matched controls. Furthermore this study aimed to identify patients with PD who may benefit from pharmacologic and behavioural intervention to improve these symptoms. METHODS: Eighty-five PD patients and 21 healthy, age-matched controls completed 14 days of wrist actigraphy within two weeks of neuropsychological testing. Objective napping measures were derived from actigraphy using a standardised protocol and subjective daytime sleepiness was recorded by the previously validated Epworth Sleepiness Scale. RESULTS: Patients with PD had a 225% increase in the mean nap time per day (minutes as recorded by actigraphy compared to age matched controls (39.2 ± 35.2 vs. 11.5 ± 11.0 minutes respectively, p < 0.001. Significantly, differences in napping duration between patients, as recorded by actigraphy were not distinguished by their ratings on the subjective measurement of excessive daytime sleepiness. Finally, those patients with excessive daytime napping showed greater cognitive deficits in the domains of attention, semantic verbal fluency and processing speed. CONCLUSION: This study confirms increased levels of napping in PD, a finding that is concordant with subjective reports. However, subjective self-report measures of excessive daytime sleepiness do not robustly identify excessive napping in PD. Fronto-subcortical cognitive dysfunction was observed in those patients who napped excessively. Furthermore, this study suggests that daytime
Bolitho, Samuel J.; Naismith, Sharon L.; Salahuddin, Pierre; Terpening, Zoe; Grunstein, Ron R.; Lewis, Simon J. G.
Introduction Sleep-wake disturbances and concomitant cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease (PD) contribute significantly to morbidity in patients and their carers. Subjectively reported daytime sleep disturbance is observed in over half of all patients with PD and has been linked to executive cognitive dysfunction. The current study used daytime actigraphy, a novel objective measure of napping and related this to neuropsychological performance in a sample of PD patients and healthy, age and gender-matched controls. Furthermore this study aimed to identify patients with PD who may benefit from pharmacologic and behavioural intervention to improve these symptoms. Methods Eighty-five PD patients and 21 healthy, age-matched controls completed 14 days of wrist actigraphy within two weeks of neuropsychological testing. Objective napping measures were derived from actigraphy using a standardised protocol and subjective daytime sleepiness was recorded by the previously validated Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Results Patients with PD had a 225% increase in the mean nap time per day (minutes) as recorded by actigraphy compared to age matched controls (39.2 ± 35.2 vs. 11.5 ± 11.0 minutes respectively, p napping duration between patients, as recorded by actigraphy were not distinguished by their ratings on the subjective measurement of excessive daytime sleepiness. Finally, those patients with excessive daytime napping showed greater cognitive deficits in the domains of attention, semantic verbal fluency and processing speed. Conclusion This study confirms increased levels of napping in PD, a finding that is concordant with subjective reports. However, subjective self-report measures of excessive daytime sleepiness do not robustly identify excessive napping in PD. Fronto-subcortical cognitive dysfunction was observed in those patients who napped excessively. Furthermore, this study suggests that daytime actigraphy, a non-invasive and inexpensive objective measure of
Guo, Vivian Yawei; Cao, Bing; Wong, Carlos King Ho; Yu, Esther Yee Tak
To investigate the association between daytime napping and prevalent/incident diabetes mellitus (DM) based on systematic review and meta-analytic data. The electronic databases of Embase, Medline, Pubmed and Web of Science were searched. Relevant studies were extracted by two reviewers independently. The associations between daytime napping (irrespective of duration), long nap (≥1 h/day) and short nap (napping prevalence of 47%. Nappers were found to have increased risk of DM in both cross-sectional and cohort studies. However, significant heterogeneity was present. Long nap (≥1 h/day) was associated with both prevalent and incident DM; in particular, those with a daily nap over 1 h had a 31% increased risk of developing DM during follow-up (95% confidence interval: 2-67%). Conversely, no such association was found in individuals with short naps (napping over 1 h per day was associated with increased risk of both prevalent and incident DM. Further studies are needed to confirm the findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Akacem, Lameese D; Simpkin, Charles T; Carskadon, Mary A; Wright, Kenneth P; Jenni, Oskar G; Achermann, Peter; LeBourgeois, Monique K
The timing of the internal circadian clock shows large inter-individual variability across the lifespan. Although the sleep-wakefulness pattern of most toddlers includes an afternoon nap, the association between napping and circadian phase in early childhood remains unexplored. This study examined differences in circadian phase and sleep between napping and non-napping toddlers. Data were collected on 20 toddlers (34.2±2.0 months; 12 females; 15 nappers). Children followed their habitual napping and non-napping sleep schedules (monitored with actigraphy) for 5 days before an in-home salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) assessment. On average, napping children fell asleep during their nap opportunities on 3.6±1.2 of the 5 days before the DLMO assessment. For these napping children, melatonin onset time was 38 min later (p = 0.044; d = 0.93), actigraphically-estimated bedtime was 43 min later (p = 0.014; d = 1.24), sleep onset time was 59 min later (p = 0.006; d = 1.46), and sleep onset latency was 16 min longer (p = 0.030; d = 1.03) than those not napping. Midsleep and wake time did not differ by napping status. No difference was observed in the bedtime, sleep onset, or midsleep phase relationships with DLMO; however, the wake time phase difference was 47 min smaller for napping toddlers (p = 0.029; d = 1.23). On average, nappers had 69 min shorter nighttime sleep durations (p = 0.006; d = 1.47) and spent 49 min less time in bed (p = 0.019; d = 1.16) than non-nappers. Number of days napping was correlated with melatonin onset time (r = 0.49; p = 0.014). Our findings indicate that napping influences individual variability in melatonin onset time in early childhood. The delayed bedtimes of napping toddlers likely permits light exposure later in the evening, thereby delaying the timing of the clock and sleep. Whether the early developmental trajectory of circadian phase involves an advance associated with the decline in napping is a question necessitating
Lameese D Akacem
Full Text Available The timing of the internal circadian clock shows large inter-individual variability across the lifespan. Although the sleep-wakefulness pattern of most toddlers includes an afternoon nap, the association between napping and circadian phase in early childhood remains unexplored. This study examined differences in circadian phase and sleep between napping and non-napping toddlers. Data were collected on 20 toddlers (34.2±2.0 months; 12 females; 15 nappers. Children followed their habitual napping and non-napping sleep schedules (monitored with actigraphy for 5 days before an in-home salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO assessment. On average, napping children fell asleep during their nap opportunities on 3.6±1.2 of the 5 days before the DLMO assessment. For these napping children, melatonin onset time was 38 min later (p = 0.044; d = 0.93, actigraphically-estimated bedtime was 43 min later (p = 0.014; d = 1.24, sleep onset time was 59 min later (p = 0.006; d = 1.46, and sleep onset latency was 16 min longer (p = 0.030; d = 1.03 than those not napping. Midsleep and wake time did not differ by napping status. No difference was observed in the bedtime, sleep onset, or midsleep phase relationships with DLMO; however, the wake time phase difference was 47 min smaller for napping toddlers (p = 0.029; d = 1.23. On average, nappers had 69 min shorter nighttime sleep durations (p = 0.006; d = 1.47 and spent 49 min less time in bed (p = 0.019; d = 1.16 than non-nappers. Number of days napping was correlated with melatonin onset time (r = 0.49; p = 0.014. Our findings indicate that napping influences individual variability in melatonin onset time in early childhood. The delayed bedtimes of napping toddlers likely permits light exposure later in the evening, thereby delaying the timing of the clock and sleep. Whether the early developmental trajectory of circadian phase involves an advance associated with the decline in napping is a question
Thorpe, Karen; Staton, Sally; Sawyer, Emily; Pattinson, Cassandra; Haden, Catherine; Smith, Simon
Duration and quality of sleep affect child development and health. Encouragement of napping in preschool children has been suggested as a health-promoting strategy. The aim of this study is to assess evidence regarding the effects of napping on measures of child development and health. This study is a systematic review of published, original research articles of any design. Children aged 0-5 years. Electronic database search was performed following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and assessment of research quality was carried out following a Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) protocol. Twenty-six articles met inclusion criteria. These were of heterogeneous quality; all had observational designs (GRADE-low). Development and health outcomes included salivary cortisol, night sleep, cognition, behaviour, obesity and accidents. The findings regarding cognition, behaviour and health impacts were inconsistent, probably because of variation in age and habitual napping status of the samples. The most consistent finding was an association between napping and later onset, shorter duration and poorer quality of night sleep, with evidence strongest beyond the age of 2 years. Studies were not randomised. Most did not obtain data on the children's habitual napping status or the context of napping. Many were reliant on parent report rather than direct observation or physiological measurement of sleep behaviour. The evidence indicates that beyond the age of 2 years napping is associated with later night sleep onset and both reduced sleep quality and duration. The evidence regarding behaviour, health and cognition is less certain. There is a need for more systematic studies that use stronger designs. In preschool children presenting with sleep problems clinicians should investigate napping patterns. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted
Hupbach, Almut; Gomez, Rebecca L; Bootzin, Richard R; Nadel, Lynn
Sleep has been shown to aid a variety of learning and memory processes in adults (Stickgold, 2005). Recently, we showed that infants' learning also benefits from subsequent sleep such that infants who nap are able to abstract the general grammatical pattern of a briefly presented artificial language (Gomez, Bootzin & Nadel, 2006). In the present study, we demonstrate, for the first time, long-term effects of sleep on memory for an artificial language. Fifteen-month-old infants who had napped within 4 hours of language exposure remembered the general grammatical pattern of the language 24 hours later. In contrast, infants who had not napped shortly after being familiarized with the language showed no evidence of remembering anything about the language. Our findings support the view that infants' frequent napping plays an essential role in establishing long-term memory.
Leng, Yue; Ahmadi-Abhari, Sara; Wainwright, Nick W J; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Surtees, Paul G; Luben, Robert; Brayne, Carol; Khaw, Kay-Tee
To explore whether daytime napping and sleep duration are linked to serum C reactive protein (CRP), a pro-inflammatory marker, in an older aged British population. Cross-sectional study. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk study. A total of 5018 men and women aged 48-92 years reported their sleep habits and had serum CRP levels measured. CRP was measured (mg/L) during 2006-2011 in fresh blood samples using high-sensitivity methods. Participants reported napping habits during 2002-2004, and reported sleep quantity during 2006-2007. Multivariable linear regression models were used to examine the association between napping and log-transformed CRP, and geometric mean CRP levels were calculated. After adjustment for age and sex, those who reported napping had 10% higher CRP levels compared with those not napping. The association was attenuated but remained borderline significant (β=0.05 (95% CI 0.00 to 0.10)) after further adjustment for social class, education, marital status, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, alcohol intake, self-reported health, pre-existing diseases, systolic blood pressure, hypnotic drug use, depression and in women-only hormone replacement therapy use. The geometric means (95% CI) of CRP levels were 2.38 (2.29 to 2.47) mg/L and 2.26 (2.21 to 2.32) mg/L for those who reported napping and no napping, respectively. A U-shaped association was observed between time spent in bed at night and CRP levels, and nighttime sleep duration was not associated with serum CRP levels. The association between napping and CRP was stronger for older participants, and among extremes of time spent in bed at night. Daytime napping was associated with increased CRP levels in an older aged British population. Further studies are needed to determine whether daytime napping is a cause for systemic inflammation, or if it is a symptom or consequence of underlying health problems. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited
Yamada, Tomohide; Hara, Kazuo; Shojima, Nobuhiro; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Kadowaki, Takashi
To summarize evidence about the association between daytime napping and the risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality, and to quantify the potential dose-response relation. Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Electronic databases were searched for articles published up to December 2014 using the terms nap, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. We selected well-adjusted prospective cohort studies reporting risk estimates for cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality related to napping. Eleven prospective cohort studies were identified with 151,588 participants (1,625,012 person-years) and a mean follow-up period of 11 years (60% women, 5,276 cardiovascular events, and 18,966 all-cause deaths). Pooled analysis showed that a long daytime nap (≥ 60 min/day) was associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (rate ratio [RR]: 1.82 [1.22-2.71], P = 0.003, I(2) = 37%) compared with not napping. All-cause mortality was associated with napping for ≥ 60 min/day (RR: 1.27 [1.11-1.45], P napping. In contrast, napping for nap time and cardiovascular disease (P for nonlinearity = 0.01). The RR initially decreased from 0 to 30 min/day. Then it increased slightly until about 45 min/day, followed by a sharp increase at longer nap times. There was also a positive linear relation between nap time and all-cause mortality (P for non-linearity = 0.97). Nap time and cardiovascular disease may be associated via a J-curve relation. Further studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of a short nap. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
Sun, Kan; Li, Feng; Qi, Yiqin; Lin, Diaozhu; Ren, Meng; Xu, Mingtong; Li, Fangping; Li, Yan; Yan, Li
Our objective was to evaluate the associations between habitual daytime napping and diabetes and whether it varies by sex, menopause, and sleep quality. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in 8621 eligible individuals aged 40 years or older. Information on daytime napping hours, night-time sleep duration, history of menstruation, and sleep quality was self-reported. Diabetes was diagnosed according to the 1999 World Health Organization diagnostic criteria. The prevalence of diabetes was 19.4 % in men and 15.6 % in women. Increased daytime napping hours were positively associated with parameters of glycometabolism in women, such as fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 2-h plasma glucose, and Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, all P for trend napping group, 0-1-h daytime napping group, and more than 1-h daytime napping group were 14.5, 15.6, and 20.8 %, respectively (P for trend = 0.0004). A similar trend was detected in postmenopausal women (P for trend = 0.002). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, compared with no-habitual daytime napping postmenopausal women, those with daytime napping more than 1 h had higher prevalent diabetes (odds ratios 1.36, 95 % confidence interval, 1.04-1.77). In subgroup analysis of postmenopausal women, associations of daytime napping levels and prevalent diabetes were detected in older, overweight participants with good sleep quality who have not retired from work. In conclusion, our study suggests that habitual daytime napping is associated with prevalence of diabetes in postmenopausal women.
Cronshey, Raymond W.; Dunklau, M. William
This booklet describes the Daily Production Reports subsystem of the School Food Management System, a computer program package developed as one part of a family of educational management systems. The Daily Production Reports system produces two major types of reports on a daily basis. Business Analysis Reports display all food service costs, as…
López-Ureña, Diana; Quesada-Gómez, Carlos; Montoya-Ramírez, Mónica; del Mar Gamboa-Coronado, María; Somogyi, Teresita; Rodríguez, César; Rodríguez-Cavallini, Evelyn
Clostridium difficile is the major causative agent of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea. In a 2009 outbreak of C. difficile-associated diarrhea that was recorded in a major Costa Rican hospital, the hypervirulent NAP1 strain (45%) predominated together with a local genotype variant (NAPCR1, 31%). Both strains were fluoroquinolone-resistant and the NAPCR1 genotype, in addition, was resistant to clindamycin and rifampicin. We now report on the genotypes and antibiotic susceptibilities of 68 C. difficile isolates from a major Costa Rican hospital over a 2-year period without outbreaks. In contrast to our previous findings, no NAP1 strains were detected, and for the first time in a Costa Rican hospital, a significant fraction of the isolates were NAP9 strains (n=14, 21%). The local NAPCR1 genotype remained prevalent (n=18, 26%) and coexisted with 14 strains (21%) of classic hospital NAP types (NAP2, NAP4, and NAP6), eight new genotypes (12%), four environmental strains classified as NAP10 or NAP11 (6%), three strains without NAP designation (4%) and seven non-toxigenic strains (10%). All 68 strains were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 88% were resistant to clindamycin and 50% were resistant to moxifloxacin and rifampicin. Metronidazole and vancomycin susceptibilities were universal. The NAPCR1 and NAP9 strains, which have been associated with more severe clinical infections, were more resistant to antibiotics than the other strains. Altogether, our results confirm that the epidemiology of C. difficile infection is dynamic and that A(-)B(+) strains from the NAP9 type are on the rise not only in the developed world. Moreover, our results reveal that the local NAPCR1 strains still circulate in the country without causing outbreaks but with equally high antibiotic-resistance rates and levels.
... MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Cattle Reporting § 59.101 Mandatory daily reporting for steers and...
Bennett, Antonia V; Amtmann, Dagmar; Diehr, Paula; Patrick, Donald L
Patient reporting of symptoms in a questionnaire with a 7-day recall period was expected to differ from symptom reporting in a 7-day symptom diary on the basis of cognitive theory of memory processes and several studies of symptoms and health behaviors. A total of 101 adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) completed a daily diary of items measuring symptoms and impacts of COPD for 7 days, and on the seventh day they completed a questionnaire of the same items with a 7-day recall period. The analysis examined concordance of 7-day recall with summary descriptors of the daily responses, examined the magnitude and covariates (patient characteristics and response patterns) of the difference between 7-day recall and mean of daily responses, and compared the discriminant ability and ability to detect change of 7-day recall and mean of daily responses. A 7-day recall was moderately concordant with the mean and maximum of daily responses and was 0.34 to 0.50 SDs higher than the mean of daily responses. Only the weekly report itself was a covariate of the difference. The discriminant ability and ability to detect change were equivalent. In measuring the weeklong experience of COPD symptoms and impacts on groups of patients, the 7-day recall scores were higher than the daily diary scores, but equivalent in detecting change over time. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shadyab, Aladdin H; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Laughlin, Gail A; Wooten, Wilma J; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Araneta, Maria Rosario G
The objective of this study was to evaluate ethnic differences in the associations of nighttime sleep and daytime napping durations with prevalent type 2 diabetes. Samples of White (n = 908), Filipina (n = 330), and Black (n = 371) community-dwelling, postmenopausal women aged 50-86 years were evaluated with cross-sectional data obtained during 1992-1999 including self-reported duration of nighttime sleep and daytime napping, behaviors, medical history, and medication use. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes was evaluated with a 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Overall, 10.9% of White, 37.8% of Filipina, and 17.8% of Black women had type 2 diabetes. Average sleep durations were 7.3, 6.3, and 6.6 h and napping durations were 16.8, 31.7, and 25.9 min for White, Filipina, and Black women, respectively. Sleep duration showed a significant (p napping duration. Daytime napping duration was associated with type 2 diabetes only among White women; those napping ≥ 30 min/day had 74% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 10%, 175%) higher odds of diabetes compared to non-nappers independent of covariates including nighttime sleep duration. Results suggest ethnic-specific associations of nighttime sleep and daytime napping durations with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Longer habitual afternoon napping is associated with a higher risk for impaired fasting plasma glucose and diabetes mellitus in older adults: results from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort of retired workers.
Fang, Weimin; Li, Zhongliang; Wu, Li; Cao, Zhongqiang; Liang, Yuan; Yang, Handong; Wang, Youjie; Wu, Tangchun
Afternoon napping is a common habit in China. We used data obtained from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort to examine if duration of habitual afternoon napping was associated with risks for impaired fasting plasma glucose (IFG) and diabetes mellitus (DM) in a Chinese elderly population. A total of 27,009 participants underwent a physical examination, laboratory tests, and face-to-face interview. They were categorized into four groups according to nap duration (no napping, or =90 min). Logistic regression models were used to examine the odds ratios (ORs) of napping duration with IFG and DM. Of the participants, 18,515 (68.6%) reported regularly taking afternoon naps. Those with longer nap duration had considerably higher prevalence of IFG and DM. Napping duration was associated in a dose-dependent manner with IFG and DM (Pnap duration (>60 min; all Pnap duration (>30 min) was associated with increased risk for DM; however, this finding was not significant in the group with a nap duration of 60-90 min. Longer habitual afternoon napping was associated with a moderate increase for DM risk, independent of several covariates. This finding suggests that longer nap duration may represent a novel risk factor for DM and higher blood glucose levels. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Zoe M Gotts
Full Text Available The precise relationship between sleep and physical and mental functioning in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS has not been examined directly, nor has the impact of daytime napping. This study aimed to examine self-reported sleep in patients with CFS and explore whether sleep quality and daytime napping, specific patient characteristics (gender, illness length and levels of anxiety and depression, predicted daytime fatigue severity, levels of daytime sleepiness and cognitive functioning, all key dimensions of the illness experience.118 adults meeting the 1994 CDC case criteria for CFS completed a standardised sleep diary over 14 days. Momentary functional assessments of fatigue, sleepiness, cognition and mood were completed by patients as part of usual care. Levels of daytime functioning and disability were quantified using symptom assessment tools, measuring fatigue (Chalder Fatigue Scale, sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, cognitive functioning (Trail Making Test, Cognitive Failures Questionnaire, and mood (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.Hierarchical Regressions demonstrated that a shorter time since diagnosis, higher depression and longer wake time after sleep onset predicted 23.4% of the variance in fatigue severity (p <.001. Being male, higher depression and more afternoon naps predicted 25.6% of the variance in objective cognitive dysfunction (p <.001. Higher anxiety and depression and morning napping predicted 32.2% of the variance in subjective cognitive dysfunction (p <.001. When patients were classified into groups of mild and moderate sleepiness, those with longer daytime naps, those who mainly napped in the afternoon, and those with higher levels of anxiety, were more likely to be in the moderately sleepy group.Napping, particularly in the afternoon is associated with poorer cognitive functioning and more daytime sleepiness in CFS. These findings have clinical implications for symptom management strategies.
Miller, Alison L; Seifer, Ronald; Crossin, Rebecca; Lebourgeois, Monique K
Early childhood represents a time of developmental changes in both sleep and self-regulation, a construct reflecting the ability to control one's behaviour, attention and emotions when challenged. Links between sleep and self-regulation processes have been proposed, but experimental evidence with young children is lacking. In the current study, we tested the effects of acute sleep restriction (nap deprivation) on toddlers' self-regulation. Healthy children (n = 12; four males; aged 30-36 months (33.9 ± 1.7)) slept on a strict schedule (verified with actigraphy and sleep diaries) for 5 days before each of two afternoon assessments following a nap and a no-nap condition (~11-day protocol). Children were videotaped while attempting an unsolvable puzzle, and 10 mutually exclusive self-regulation strategies were later coded. On average, children lost ~90 min of sleep on the no-nap versus the nap day. Nap deprivation resulted in moderate-to-large effects on self-regulation strategies, with decreases in scepticism (d = 0.77; 7% change), negative self-appraisal (d = 0.92; 5% change) and increases in physical self-soothing (d = 0.68; 10% change), focus on the puzzle piece that would not fit (perseveration; d = 0.50; 9% change) and insistence on completing the unsolvable puzzle (d = 0.91; 10% change). Results suggest that sleep serves an important role in the way that toddlers respond to challenging events in their daily lives. After losing daytime sleep, toddlers were less able to engage effectively in a difficult task and reverted to less mature self-regulation strategies than when they were well rested. Over time, chronically missed sleep may impair young children's self-regulation abilities, resulting in risk for social-emotional, behavioural and school problems. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.
Miller, Alison L.; Seifer, Ronald; Crossin, Rebecca; LeBourgeois, Monique K.
SUMMARY Early childhood represents a time of developmental changes in both sleep and self-regulation, a construct reflecting the ability to control one’s behavior, attention, and emotion when challenged. Links between sleep and self-regulation processes have been proposed, but experimental evidence with young children is lacking. In the current study, we tested the effects of acute sleep restriction (nap deprivation) on toddlers’ self-regulation. Healthy children (n=12; 4 males; 30–36 months (33.9±1.7) slept on a strict schedule (verified with actigraphy and sleep diaries) for 5 days before each of two afternoon assessments following a Nap and a No-Nap condition (~11-day protocol). Children were videotaped while attempting an unsolvable puzzle, and 10 mutually exclusive self-regulation strategies were later coded. On average, children lost ~90 min of sleep on the No-Nap versus the Nap day. Nap deprivation resulted in moderate-to-large effects on self-regulation strategies, with decreases in skepticism (d=0.77; 7% change), negative self-appraisal (d=0.92; 5% change), and increases in physical self-soothing (d=0.68; 10% change), focus on the puzzle piece that would not fit (perseveration; d=0.50; 9% change), and insistence on completing the unsolvable puzzle (d=0.91; 10% change). Results suggest sleep serves an important role in the way toddlers respond to challenging events in their daily lives. After losing daytime sleep, toddlers were less able to effectively engage in a difficult task and reverted to less mature self-regulation strategies, than when they were well-rested. Over time, chronically missed sleep may impair young children’s self-regulation abilities, resulting in risk for social-emotional, behavioral, and school problems. PMID:25394169
Walter E. Block
Full Text Available Borer (2010 launches a spirited attack on my own promulgation and defense of the non aggression principle (NAP as the lynchpin of libertarianism, as adumbrated in several of my published papers (Block, 2009A, 2010. The two of us, Borer and me, in my opinion, achieve real disagreement, a goal not always reached in the libertarian debates. That is, Borer (2010 is succinct, on point, and offers a real challenge to those of us in the Rothbardian tradition, who see the NAP as the very basis of the libertarian philosophy. The present paper is an attempt to refute each and every one of the challenges offered by Borer
Cremone, Amanda; McDermott, Jennifer M; Spencer, Rebecca M C
Executive attention is impaired following sleep loss in school-aged children, adolescents, and adults. Whether naps improve attention relative to nap deprivation in preschool-aged children is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare executive attention in preschool children following a nap and an interval of wake. Sixty-nine children, 35-70 months of age, completed a Flanker task to assess executive attention following a nap and an equivalent interval of wake. Overall, accuracy was greater after the nap compared with the wake interval. Reaction time(s) did not differ between the nap and wake intervals. Results did not differ between children who napped consistently and those who napped inconsistently, suggesting that naps benefit executive attention of preschoolers regardless of nap habituality. These results indicate that naps enhance attention in preschool children. As executive attention supports executive functioning and learning, nap promotion may improve early education outcomes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
Leng, Y; Cappuccio, F P; Surtees, P G; Luben, R; Brayne, C; Khaw, K-T
Few studies have prospectively examined the relationship between daytime napping and risk of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to study the effects of daytime napping and the joint effects of napping and sleep duration in predicting type 2 diabetes risk in a middle- to older-aged British population. In 1998-2000, 13 465 individuals with no known diabetes participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk study reported daytime napping habit and 24-h sleep duration. Incident type 2 diabetes cases were identified through multiple data sources until 31 July 2006. After adjustment for age and sex, daytime napping was associated with a 58% higher diabetes risk. Further adjustment for education, marital status, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, comorbidities and hypnotic drug use had little influence on the association, but additional adjustment for BMI and Waist Circumference attenuated the Odds ratio (OR) (95% CI) to 1.30 (1.01, 1.69). The adjusted ORs (95% CI) associated with short and long sleep duration were 1.46 (1.10, 1.90) and 1.64 (1.16, 2.32), respectively. When sleep duration and daytime napping were examined together, the risk of developing diabetes more than doubled for those who took day naps and had less than 6 h of sleep, compared to those who did not nap and had 6-8 h of sleep. Daytime napping was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, particularly when combined with short sleep duration. Further physiological studies are needed to confirm the interaction between different domains of sleep in relation to diabetes risk. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chakrabarty, Broto; Parekh, Nita
Traditionally, protein structures have been analysed by the secondary structure architecture and fold arrangement. An alternative approach that has shown promise is modelling proteins as a network of non-covalent interactions between amino acid residues. The network representation of proteins provide a systems approach to topological analysis of complex three-dimensional structures irrespective of secondary structure and fold type and provide insights into structure-function relationship. We have developed a web server for network based analysis of protein structures, NAPS, that facilitates quantitative and qualitative (visual) analysis of residue–residue interactions in: single chains, protein complex, modelled protein structures and trajectories (e.g. from molecular dynamics simulations). The user can specify atom type for network construction, distance range (in Å) and minimal amino acid separation along the sequence. NAPS provides users selection of node(s) and its neighbourhood based on centrality measures, physicochemical properties of amino acids or cluster of well-connected residues (k-cliques) for further analysis. Visual analysis of interacting domains and protein chains, and shortest path lengths between pair of residues are additional features that aid in functional analysis. NAPS support various analyses and visualization views for identifying functional residues, provide insight into mechanisms of protein folding, domain-domain and protein–protein interactions for understanding communication within and between proteins. URL:http://bioinf.iiit.ac.in/NAPS/. PMID:27151201
Hupbach, Almut; Gomez, Rebecca L.; Bootzin, Richard R.; Nadel, Lynn
Sleep has been shown to aid a variety of learning and memory processes in adults (Stickgold, 2005 ). Recently, we showed that infants' learning also benefits from subsequent sleep such that infants who nap are able to abstract the general grammatical pattern of a briefly presented artificial language (Gomez, Bootzin & Nadel, 2006 ). In the present…
Xiao, Qian; Hale, Lauren
Earlier studies have linked neighborhood disadvantage with poor sleep outcomes. However, little is known about the association between changes in one's neighborhood over time and night sleep and napping. In over 300,000 middle-to-old aged Americans, we examined neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and change in neighborhood SES in relation to nocturnal sleep duration and napping. Nocturnal sleep duration and daytime napping were self-reported at baseline (1995-1996). Participants also reported baseline residential addresses, which were linked to US censuses. We derived a neighborhood SES index using census variables and calculated the baseline level and change (1990-2000) in neighborhood SES. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between neighborhood SES over time and nocturnal sleep and napping. Lower baseline neighborhood SES was associated short sleep, long sleep and napping. When compared with the highest quintile of neighborhood SES, the lowest was associated with 46% and 72% increase in relative risk (RR) of reporting very short (nap in men and women, respectively. Moreover, a decrease in neighborhood SES was associated with higher RR of reporting very short sleep in women; while an improvement in neighborhood SES was associated with an increase in RR of long sleep in men. Neighborhood disadvantage and worsening neighborhood conditions were associated with unhealthy sleep behaviors. These results reinforce a growing literature on the potential importance of neighborhood context for understanding sleep health.
Lam, Janet C; Mahone, E Mark; Mason, Thornton; Scharf, Steven M
To determine the relationship between napping and cognitive function in preschool-aged children. Daytime napping, nighttime sleep, and cognitive function were assessed in 59 typically developing children aged 3 to 5 years, who were enrolled in full-time childcare. Participants wore an actigraphy watch for 7 days to measure sleep and napping patterns and completed neuropsychological testing emphasizing attention, response control, and vocabulary. Parents of participants completed behavior ratings and sleep logs during the study. Sleep/wake cycles were scored with the Sadeh algorithm. Children who napped more on weekdays were also more likely to nap during weekends. Weekday napping and nighttime sleep were inversely correlated, such that those who napped more slept less at night, although total weekday sleep remained relatively constant. Weekday napping was significantly (negatively) correlated with vocabulary and auditory attention span, and weekday nighttime sleep was positively correlated with vocabulary. Nighttime sleep was also significantly negatively correlated with performance, such that those who slept less at night made more impulsive errors on a computerized go/no-go test. Daytime napping is actually negatively correlated with neurocognitive function in preschoolers. Nighttime sleep seems to be more critical for development of cognitive performance. Cessation of napping may serve as a developmental milestone of brain maturation. Children who nap less do not appear to be sleep deprived, especially if they compensate with increased nighttime sleep. An alternative explanation is that children who sleep less at night are sleep deprived and require a nap. A randomized trial of nap restriction would be the next step in understanding the relationship between napping and neurocognitive performance.
Yang, D; Li, X; Li, H; Wooten, H; Green, O; Rodriguez, V; Mutic, S
Purpose: Two aims of this work were to develop a method to automatically verify treatment delivery accuracy immediately after patient treatment and to develop a comprehensive daily treatment report to provide all required information for daily MR-IGRT review. Methods: After systematically analyzing the requirements for treatment delivery verification and understanding the available information from a novel MR-IGRT treatment machine, we designed a method to use 1) treatment plan files, 2) delivery log files, and 3) dosimetric calibration information to verify the accuracy and completeness of daily treatment deliveries. The method verifies the correctness of delivered treatment plans and beams, beam segments, and for each segment, the beam-on time and MLC leaf positions. Composite primary fluence maps are calculated from the MLC leaf positions and the beam-on time. Error statistics are calculated on the fluence difference maps between the plan and the delivery. We also designed the daily treatment delivery report by including all required information for MR-IGRT and physics weekly review - the plan and treatment fraction information, dose verification information, daily patient setup screen captures, and the treatment delivery verification results. Results: The parameters in the log files (e.g. MLC positions) were independently verified and deemed accurate and trustable. A computer program was developed to implement the automatic delivery verification and daily report generation. The program was tested and clinically commissioned with sufficient IMRT and 3D treatment delivery data. The final version has been integrated into a commercial MR-IGRT treatment delivery system. Conclusion: A method was developed to automatically verify MR-IGRT treatment deliveries and generate daily treatment reports. Already in clinical use since December 2013, the system is able to facilitate delivery error detection, and expedite physician daily IGRT review and physicist weekly chart
Peng, Kui; Lin, Lin; Wang, Zhengyi; Ding, Lin; Huang, Ya; Wang, Po; Xu, Yu; Lu, Jieli; Xu, Min; Bi, Yufang; Wang, Weiqing; Chen, Yuhong; Ning, Guang
Epidemiologic studies have reported conflicting results on the relationship between short sleep duration and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). There are no previous studies investigating the effect of daytime napping on NAFLD. In the present study we examined the associations between NAFLD and both nightly sleep duration and daytime napping in a middle-aged and elderly Chinese population. This cross-sectional community-based population study was performed on 8559 individuals aged ≥40 years. Sleep duration and the duration of daytime napping were self-reported using a standardized questionnaire; NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasonography. In this study sample, the overall prevalence of NAFLD was 30.4%. There was an inverse association between sleep duration and the risk of prevalent NAFLD. In multivariate analysis, the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of prevalent NAFLD for decreasing sleep duration categories (≥9, 8.1-9, 7.1-8, 6.1-7, and ≤6.1 h) were 1.00 (reference), 1.38 (1.13-1.70), 1.32 (1.08-1.61), 1.29 (1.04-1.60), and 1.66 (1.28-2.15), respectively (P trend = 0.0073). Compared with participants without a daytime napping habit, nap takers with a longer nap duration (>0.5 h) had an increased risk of prevalent NAFLD (OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.06-1.41). The associations of sleep duration and daytime napping duration with NAFLD were generally consistent across different categories of age and obesity, metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance status. Short sleep duration and longer daytime napping were associated with an increased risk of prevalent NAFLD in a middle-aged and elderly Chinese population. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Riden, Benjamin S.; Taylor, Jonte' C.; Lee, David L.; Scheeler, Mary Catherine
Daily behavior report cards (DBRCs) have shown to be effective in addressing academic and behavioral challenges for a variety of students in past literature. The purpose of this literature review and analysis is to update and summarize findings on the use of DBRCs on academic and social behavior for students considered to have disruptive behaviors…
Heutink, Jochem; de Haan, Gera; Melis-Dankers, Bart; Brouwer, Wiebo; Tucha, Oliver
Background: Homonymous visual field defects (HVFDs) are a common consequence of posterior brain injury and may have a substantial influence on ADL and participation in society. In this study we analysed self-reported visionrelated difficulties in daily life in a group of patients with HVFDs.
Vujnovic, Rebecca Kate
Given the deficits associated with ADHD and the significant prevalence, it is important to explore evidence based treatments for ADHD in the classroom and the efficacy with which the classroom teachers implement such interventions. The current investigation is a secondary analysis to investigate the integrity of a Daily Report Card (DRC)…
Schneider, Jonathan D.
In this age of data based decision making and accountability, parent involvement and data collection are paramount. This study represents a significant contribution to educational research by extending the understanding of home-school communication media with specific regard to daily progress reports. The purpose of this study was to compare…
Allen, Jennifer L.; Blatter-Meunier, Judith; Ursprung, Antonia; Schneider, Silvia
The current study evaluated the feasibility and validity of a parent-report measure of separation anxiety, the Separation Anxiety Daily Diary (SADD). Mother and child participants consisted of three groups: 96 children (aged 4-15 years) with separation anxiety disorder, 49 children with "other" anxiety disorders, and 43 healthy controls. The SADD…
Dautovich, Natalie D.; McCrae, Christina S.; Rowe, Meredeth
Objectives To compare objective and subjective measurements of napping, and to examine the relationship between evening napping and nocturnal sleep in older adults. Design For twelve days, participants wore actigraphs and completed sleep diaries. Setting Community Participants 100 individuals who napped, 60–89 years (including good and poor sleepers with typical age-related medical comorbidities). Measurements Twelve days of sleep diary and actigraphy provided subjective and objective napping and sleep data. Results Evening naps (within 2 hours of bedtime) were characteristic of the sample with peak nap time occurring between 20:30–21:00 (average nap time occurred between 14:30–15:00). Two categories of nappers were identified: 1) day/evening – those who took both daytime and evening naps, and 2) daytime-only. Interestingly, no participants napped during the evening only. Day/evening nappers significantly underreported evening napping and demonstrated lower objectively measured sleep onset latencies (20 vs 26.5 minutes), less wake after sleep onset (51.4 vs 72.8 minutes), and higher sleep efficiencies (76.8 vs 82%) than daytime-only nappers. Conclusion Day/evening napping was prevalent amongst this sample of community-dwelling good/poor sleepers, but was not associated with impaired nocturnal sleep. Although the elimination or restriction of napping is a common element of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTi), these results suggest that a uniform recommendation to restrict/eliminate napping (particularly evening napping) may not meet the needs of all older individuals with insomnia. PMID:18691289
Davy, Jonathan; Göbel, Matthias
Extended nap opportunities have been effective in maintaining alertness in the context of extended night shifts (+12 h). However, there is limited evidence of their efficacy during 8-h shifts. Thus, this study explored the effects of extended naps on cognitive, physiological and perceptual responses during four simulated, 8-h night shifts. In a laboratory setting, 32 participants were allocated to one of three conditions. All participants completed four consecutive, 8-h night shifts, with the arrangements differing by condition. The fixed night condition worked from 22h00 to 06h00, while the nap early group worked from 20h00 to 08h00 and napped between 00h00 and 03h20. The nap late group worked from 00h00 to 12h00 and napped between 04h00 and 07h20. Nap length was limited to 3 hours and 20 minutes. Participants performed a simple beading task during each shift, while also completing six to eight test batteries roughly every 2 h. During each shift, six test batteries were completed, in which the following measures were taken. Performance indicators included beading output, eye accommodation time, choice reaction time, visual vigilance, simple reaction time, processing speed and object recognition, working memory, motor response time and tracking performance. Physiological measures included heart rate and tympanic temperature, whereas subjective sleepiness and reported sleep length and quality while outside the laboratory constituted the self reported measures. Both naps reduced subjective sleepiness but did not alter the circadian and homeostatic-related changes in cognitive and physiological measures, relative to the fixed night condition. Additionally, there was evidence of sleep inertia following each nap, which resulted in transient reductions in certain perceptual cognitive performance measures. The present study suggested that there were some benefits associated with including an extended nap during 8-h night shifts. However, the effects of sleep inertia
McLaughlin, Elizabeth; Smith, Jane Ellen; Serier, Kelsey; Smith, Jamie; Santistevan, Dominique; Simmons, Jeremiah
Dieting is often recommended as a means of weight loss, yet research consistently shows that self-reported dieting does not result in weight loss. Toward resolving this discrepancy, this study assessed the daily dietary intake and weight control strategies of people who self-identified as dieting. College women (N = 266) provided a report of their eating pattern (dieting, "watching what I eat," and/or "eating healthy") followed by three daily diaries (24-hour recalls of dietary intake and weight control strategies) elicited on randomly selected days during a one-month period. Dieters were expected to report fewer daily calories, more daily exercise, and more weight control strategies than non-dieters. At baseline, 122 participants (45.9%) endorsed both "watching" and "eating healthy" ("Concerned Eaters") while 55 (20.7%) endorsed current dieting along with "watching" and "eating healthy" ("Dieters"). Just 3 (1.1%) endorsed dieting only, and 31 (11.7%) endorsed no eating pattern ("Unconcerned Eaters"). Dieters' mean BMI was in the overweight range; the mean BMIs of other groups were in the normal weight range. Dieters did not consistently endorse dieting across diaries. Nevertheless, Dieters reported fewer daily calories, and more overall weight control strategies, including more healthy weight control strategies, than Concerned Eaters. Across groups, participants' weights did not change significantly during the study. Dieters appear to engage in weight control strategies which could result in weight loss; however, their reports of whether they are dieting vary across days, suggesting a need for more consistent behavior. These results have clinical and research implications in the area of weight loss. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Jang, Kwang Ho; Lee, Jung Hie; Kim, Seong Jae; Kwon, Hyo Jeong
We aimed to determine napping characteristics of community-dwelling patients with insomnia disorder (ID) compared to characteristics of normal controls (NC), and to examine the effect of napping on nocturnal sleep. Adult volunteers who were more than 18 years old were recruited from three rural public health centers in Korea. Data from actigraphy recording and a sleep diary filled out for seven days were obtained. Finally, 115 ID patients and 80 NC subjects were included in this study. Parameters and timing of nocturnal sleep and nap were compared between the ID and NC groups. Two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed to determine the effect of ID diagnosis and napping on sleep parameters. Sleep efficiency (SE) in the ID group was significantly lower (p = 0.010), and wake time after sleep onset (WASO) was significantly greater (p = 0.023), compared to the NC group. There was no significant difference in nocturnal sleep or nap timing between the two groups. Nap frequency in the ID group was significantly higher than that in the NC group (p = 0.025). Although ID diagnosis and napping had no independent effect on fragmentation index, their interaction had a significant effect on fragmentation index (p = 0.021). Nap frequency was positively correlated with PSQI score (r = 0.166, p = 0.033). Insomnia patients showed no significant difference in nap timing or nap duration compared to NC subjects. However, insomnia patients showed higher nap frequency. Frequent napping was associated with poorer subjective sleep quality. Therefore, although napping might not have a negative impact on nocturnal sleep maintenance in NC subjects, it did have an effect on nocturnal sleep in insomnia patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hublin, Christer; Lehtovirta, Mikko; Partinen, Markku; Koskenvuo, Markku; Kaprio, Jaakko
Some studies indicate an association between napping and increased risk of type 2 diabetes. We studied this prospectively in a sample representative of general population. A questionnaire was administered to the Finnish Twin Cohort in 1990 (response rate 77%, age 33-60 years). The study population included 12,244 subjects who replied to the question "Do you sleep during the daytime (take naps)?" with five response alternatives ranging from "no need" to "every or almost every day." Information on incident cases of diabetes was obtained by linkage to nationwide registers. Logistic regression models were used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals) for incident type 2 diabetes risk in 1991-2004 by napping category. Adjustments were made for 11 socio-demographic and lifestyle covariates. For subjects aged 33-45 years at baseline, a questionnaire in 2011 provided information on prevalent diabetes. Thirty-four per cent had no need for napping, and 15% did so on ≥3 days weekly. There were 356 incident type 2 diabetes cases during the follow-up. Using the 'no need' category as the reference, the risk of type 2 diabetes was significantly increased only among those napping most frequently [OR 1.86 (1.29-2.67), age- and sex-adjusted]. After adjusting for other covariates, the results were essentially the same, but when adjusted for body mass index, the association decreased (to about 1.3) and was statistically non-significant. Analysis of 2011 self-reported type 2 diabetes was in line with the register data. Frequent napping is associated with future risk of type 2 diabetes. This association is largely explained by obesity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
CCP-NAP Operator Instructions at ANL (ANL/TM 435) supplements the CCPGUIDE (Category 26) prepared by the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center (NMFECC), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The instructions in CCP-NAP Operator Instructions at ANL serve as a reference guide for Computing Services operators when operator intervention is necessary for ANL's MFEnet Nodes located in Building 221, Room A-134. Use this document in conjunction with the CCPGUIDE. The CCPGUIDE, a guide for network operators, outlines the procedures for loading the Communications Control Processor (CCP) and monitoring its activity. The CCPGUIDE contains detailed information on Software Loading, System Status, System Monitoring, Command Summary, etc. The material in this document is the result of additional information provided by Jim Morton and Jim Gigliaridi (NMFECC) when our Argonne National Laboratory/Computing Services MFEnet Nodes were installed. This document provides two formats: QUICK instructions and procedures, and detailed general text
Full Text Available South African coal combustion power utilities generate huge amounts of coal fly ash that can be beneficiated into zeolitic products. This chapter reports on the optimization of the presynthesis and synthesis conditions for a pure-phase zeolite Na-P1...
Klára Horváth,1 Kim Plunkett2 12nd Department of Pediatrics, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary; 2Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK Abstract: Daytime napping undergoes a remarkable change in early childhood, and research regarding its relationship to cognitive development has recently accelerated. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of this relationship focusing on children aged <5 years. First, we eva...
Kassardjian, Charles D; Murray, Brian J; Kokokyi, Seint; Jewell, Dana; Barnett, Carolina; Bril, Vera; Katzberg, Hans D
The relationship between sleep and neuromuscular fatigue is understood poorly. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of napping on quantitative measures of neuromuscular fatigue in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG). Eight patients with mild to moderate MG were recruited. Patients underwent maintenance of wakefulness tests (MWT) and multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT). The Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis Score (QMGS) was measured before nap and after each nap to examine the effects of napping and sleep on neuromuscular weakness. Results showed that QMGS improves only after naps where patients slept more than 5 min but not where patients did not sleep or slept less than 5 min. Daytime napping mitigates neuromuscular fatigue in patients with MG, especially if patients slept for more than 5 min. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pereira, Alexandre Alves; Ceolim, Maria Filomena; Neri, Anita Liberalesso
This study focused on associations between insomnia symptoms, daytime napping, and falls in community-dwelling elderly, using a population-based cross-sectional design and probability sample with 689 community-dwelling elders. The protocol consisted of self-reported and physical performance variables. The study used univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis with statistical significance set at p napping were 49.9% (n = 339) and 62.8% (n = 432), respectively. 14.4% reported a single fall and 11.9% reported multiple falls. Falls were associated with female gender (OR = 7.73; 95%CI: 3.03-19.72), age > 80 (OR = 3.48; 95%CI: 1.54-7.85), napping (OR = 2.24; 95%CI: 1.24-4.05), and depressive symptoms (OR = 1.98; 95%CI: 1.11-3.53). The association between daytime napping and falls corroborates data from international research. Identifying modifiable risk factors may help programs to prevent falls in the elderly.
Goldman, Suzanne E.; Hall, Martica; Boudreau, Robert; Matthews, Karen A.; Cauley, Jane A.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Stone, Katie L.; Rubin, Susan M.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Newman, Anne B.
Study Objectives: Napping might indicate deficiencies in nighttime sleep, but the relationship is not well defined. We assessed the association of nighttime sleep duration and fragmentation with subsequent daytime sleep. Design: Cross-sectional study. Participants: 235 individuals (47.5% men, 29.7% black), age 80.1 (2.9) years. Measurements and Results: Nighttime and daytime sleep were measured with wrist actigraphy and sleep diaries for an average of 6.8 (SD 0.7) nights. Sleep parameters included total nighttime sleep (h), movement and fragmentation index (fragmentation), and total daytime sleep (h). The relationship of total nighttime sleep and fragmentation to napping (yes/no) was assessed using logistic regression. In individuals who napped, mixed random effects models were used to determine the association between the previous night sleep duration and fragmentation and nap duration, and nap duration and subsequent night sleep duration. All models were adjusted for age, race, gender, BMI, cognitive status, depression, cardiovascular disease, respiratory symptoms, diabetes, pain, fatigue, and sleep medication use. Naps were recorded in sleep diaries by 178 (75.7%) participants. The odds ratios (95% CI) for napping were higher for individuals with higher levels of nighttime fragmentation (2.1 [0.8, 5.7]), respiratory symptoms (2.4 [1.1, 5.4]), diabetes (6.1 [1.2, 30.7]), and pain (2.2 [1.0, 4.7]). Among nappers, neither sleep duration nor fragmentation the preceding night was associated with nap duration the next day. Conclusion: More sleep fragmentation was associated with higher odds of napping although not with nap duration. Further research is needed to determine the causal association between sleep fragmentation and daytime napping. Citation: Goldman SE; Hall M; Boudreau R; Matthews KA; Cauley JA; Ancoli-Israel S; Stone KL; Rubin SM; Satterfield S; Simonsick EM; Newman AB. Association between nighttime sleep and napping in older adults. SLEEP 2008
Sharma, L.N.; Dube, B.; Varakhedkar, V.K.
Annual tritium (HTO) surface loading has been measured and calculated for the year 1998-99 within 0.8 km distance from 145m high stack of Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) at eight locations in different directions. The technique for measured values consists of the summation of product of tritium concentration (Bq/l) in daily rainfall samples and daily rainfall (mm) whereas that for calculated values having the use of prevailing meteorological conditions and average tritium release rate during a year. The ratios of measured and calculated values of tritium surface loading during the years 1998-99 are found to be in the range of 0.18 to 6.97. Tritium surface loading studies at NAPS reveal that a fraction 1.7E-03 of total annual tritium released through stack gets deposited on the surface due to washout / rainout of plume within 0.8 km radial distance from stack. The range of deposition velocity, V w (m.s - 1 ) i.e the ratio of annual tritium surface loading W(Bq.m - 2 . s - 1 ) and annual mean tritium concentration in air, χo(Bq.m - 3) at three locations for the years 1998-99 is found to be 5.59E-04 to 5.99E-03 ms - 1 . The average value for wet deposition velocity V bar w for NAPS site is estimated as 2.92E-03 m.s - 1. (author)
Gautam, Y.P.; Sharma, Saivajay; Rao, K.S.; Singh, Bhikam; Kumar, Avinash; Ravi, P.M.
Annual tritium (HTO) surface loading has been measured and calculated for the year 2011 within 0.8 km distance from 145 m high stack of Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) at eight locations in different directions. The technique for measured values consists of the summation of product of tritium concentration (Bq/l) in daily rainfall samples and daily rainfall (mm). Tritium surface loading studies at NAPS reveal that a fraction 1.01E-03 of total annual tritium released through stack gets deposited on the surface due to washout/rainout of plume within 0.8 km radial distance from stack. The range of deposition velocity, Vw (m.s -1 ) i.e., the ratio of annual tritium surface loading W (Bq. m -2 .s -1 ) and annual mean tritium concentration in air, c 0 (Bq.m -3 ) at three locations for the years 2011 is found to be 6.12E-04 to 2.89E-03. The average value for wet deposition velocity V w for NAPS site is estimated as 3.17E-03 m.s -1 . (author)
Centofanti, Stephanie; Banks, Siobhan; Colella, Antonietta; Dingle, Caroline; Devine, Lisa; Galindo, Helen; Pantelios, Sophie; Brkic, Gorjana; Dorrian, Jillian
Two of the most ubiquitous fatigue countermeasures used by shift-working nurses are napping and caffeine. This mixed-methods case study investigated the ways nurses and midwives utilised napping and caffeine countermeasures to cope with shift work, and associated sleep, physical health and psychological health outcomes. N = 130 Australian shift-working nurses and midwives (mean age = 44 years, range = 21-67, 115F, 15M) completed the Standard Shiftwork Index. A sub-set of 22 nurses and midwives completed an in-depth interview. Nearly 70% of participants reported napping. Those who napped during night shifts had significantly less total sleep time before (F 2,75 = 5.5, p 400 mg/day) increased from 15% to 33% of the sample and an average of 4 (SD = 2) caffeinated beverages per day was reported. Increased caffeine consumption was associated with greater sleep disturbance (r = 0.26, p napping on night shift was dependent on a number of factors including ability to sleep during the day. This study identified reasons shift workers chose to engage in or abstain from napping and consuming caffeine, and how these strategies related to poor sleep and health outcomes. Further research is required to help develop recommendations for shift workers regarding napping and caffeine consumption as fatigue countermeasures, whilst taking into account the associated hazards of each strategy.
Veremeenko, V.F.; Dikanskij, N.S.; Kalinin, A.S.
Frequency retuning in the accelerating system NAP-M is effected from a Hall transmitter signal proportional to the value of the magnetic field. Fine tuning is accomplished along the radial and phase coordinates of the beam. The control of the beam parameters consists in measuring the position of the equilibrium orbit and the beam current. The beam current is measured during the admission of the particles, in the course of acceleration, and also during the experiment in the absence of beam bunching. The systems use electrostatic transmitters, Rogovsky belts, and a magnetomodulating current transducer
Neste Advanced Power Systems (NAPS) is a renewable energy systems company supplying complete power systems based on photovoltaics, wind turbine generator, diesel generators, or hybrid systems combining two or more of these. Except for a few demonstration systems linked to the electricity grid, these are stand-alone power supplies which include storage batteries. Our present market areas are: Domestic systems for remote houses, largely in the Nordic countries. Systems for developing countries, mostly for lighting, health care and water supply and industrial and professional systems for use anywhere in the world, mainly for telecommunications and navigation aids
Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Thongprayoon, Charat; Srivali, Narat; Vijayvargiya, Priya; Andersen, Carl A; Kittanamongkolchai, Wonngarm; Sathick, Insara J Jaffer; Caples, Sean M; Erickson, Stephen B
The risk of hypertension in adults who regularly take a nap is controversial. The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the associations between napping and hypertension. A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMbase and The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception through October, 2015. Studies that reported relative risks, odd ratios or hazard ratios comparing the risk of hypertension in individuals who regularly take nap were included. Pooled risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using a random-effect, generic inverse variance method. Nine observational studies with 112,267 individuals were included in the analysis to assess the risk of hypertension in nappers. The pooled RR of hypertension in nappers was 1.13 with 95% CI (0.98 to 1.30). When meta-analysis was limited only to studies assessing the risk of hypertension in daytime nappers, the pooled RR of hypertension was 1.19 with 95% CI (1.06 to 1.35). The data on association between nighttime napping in individuals who work night shift and hypertension were limited, only one observational study reported reduced risk of hypertension in nighttime nappers with odds ratio of 0.79 with 95% CI (0.63 to 1.00). Our meta-analysis demonstrates a significant association between daytime napping and hypertension. Future study is needed to assess the potential benefits of HTN screening for daytime nappers. © 2016 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Leng, Yue; Wainwright, Nick W J; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Surtees, Paul G; Hayat, Shabina; Luben, Robert; Brayne, Carol; Khaw, Kay-Tee
Epidemiologic studies have reported conflicting results on the relationship between daytime napping and mortality risk, and there are few data on the potential association in the British population. We investigated the associations between daytime napping and all-cause or cause-specific mortality in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer-Norfolk study, a British population-based cohort study. Among the 16,374 men and women who answered questions on napping habits between 1998 and 2000, a total of 3,251 died during the 13-year follow-up. Daytime napping was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (for napping less than 1 hour per day on average, hazard ratio = 1.14, 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 1.27; for napping 1 hour or longer per day on average, hazard ratio = 1.32, 95% confidence interval: 1.04, 1.68), independent of age, sex, social class, educational level, marital status, employment status, body mass index, physical activity level, smoking status, alcohol intake, depression, self-reported general health, use of hypnotic drugs or other medications, time spent in bed at night, and presence of preexisting health conditions. This association was more pronounced for death from respiratory diseases (for napping less than 1 hour, hazard ratio = 1.40, 95% confidence interval: 0.95, 2.05; for napping 1 hour or more, hazard ratio = 2.56, 95% confidence interval: 1.34, 4.86) and in individuals 65 years of age or younger. Excessive daytime napping might be a useful marker of underlying health risk, particularly of respiratory problems, especially among those 65 years of age or younger. Further research is required to clarify the nature of the observed association.
Zhou, Junmin; Kessler, Asia Sikora; Su, Dejun
To explore the relationship between daytime napping and incidence of chronic diseases over the past 6 months among adults in China. Based on data collected from 13,469 respondents over age 40 in the Chinese Family Panel Studies in 2010, logistic regression models were estimated to examine the association between daytime napping and the incidence of any chronic diseases and 3 specific chronic diseases (hypertension, diabetes, and heart disease) after adjusting for confounders. Differences of risks by sex and age were also investigated. In the sample, 50.8% were women and 32.2% were over 60 years old. Adjusted estimates show respondents with daytime napping had elevated odds of developing any chronic diseases, hypertension, and diabetes compared to those who did not nap; having over 60 minutes of daytime napping had weaker association compared with shorter duration of daytime napping. The association between daytime napping and hypertension was found in women but not in men. Daytime napping appears to be associated with elevated risk of incidence of any chronic diseases, hypertension, and diabetes.
Theadom, Alice; Cropley, Mark; Kantermann, Thomas
Background: Previous qualitative research has revealed that people with fibromyalgia use daytime napping as a coping strategy for managing symptoms against clinical advice. Yet there is no evidence to suggest whether daytime napping is beneficial or detrimental for people with fibromyalgia. The
Ye, Lichuan; Hutton Johnson, Stacy; Keane, Kathleen; Manasia, Michael; Gregas, Matt
Objective: To examine the habit of napping and its relationship with nighttime sleep in college students. Participants: Four hundred and forty undergraduate students who responded to an anonymous online survey in April 2010. Methods: Three questions were asked to determine the frequency, length, and timing of napping during the past month. Sleep…
Horváth, Klára; Myers, Kyle; Foster, Russell; Plunkett, Kim
Little is known about the role that night-time sleep and daytime naps play in early cognitive development. Our aim was to investigate how napping affects word learning in 16-month-olds. Thirty-four typically developing infants were assigned randomly to nap and wake groups. After teaching two novel object-word pairs to infants, we tested their initial performance with an intermodal preferential looking task in which infants are expected to increase their target looking time compared to a distracter after hearing its auditory label. A second test session followed after approximately a 2-h delay. The delay contained sleep for the nap group or no sleep for the wake group. Looking behaviour was measured with an automatic eye-tracker. Vocabulary size was assessed using the Oxford Communicative Development Inventory. A significant interaction between group and session was found in preferential looking towards the target picture. The performance of the nap group increased after the nap, whereas that of the wake group did not change. The gain in performance correlated positively with the expressive vocabulary size in the nap group. These results indicate that daytime napping helps consolidate word learning in infancy. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.
Full Text Available Objective: To describe stroke survivors’ experiences of sensory impairment in the upper limb, the influence of such impairment on daily life, coping strategies used, and sensory training for the affected hand. Design: A qualitative study with a content analysis approach. Subjects: Fifteen post-stroke patients interviewed individually. Results: Five categories emerged from the data: “Changed and varied perception of the sensation”; “Affected movement control”; “Problems using the hand in daily life”; “Various strategies to cope with upper limb disability”; and “Lack of sensory training”. Numbness and tingling, changes in temperature sensitivity, and increased sensitivity to touch and pain were reported. Many subjects had difficulty adjusting their grip force and performing movements with precision. It was problematic and mentally fatiguing managing personal care and carrying out household and leisure activities. Practical adaptations, compensation with vision, increased concentration, and use of the less affected hand were strategies used to overcome difficulties. Despite their problems very few subjects had received any specific sensory training for the hand. Conclusion: Stroke survivors perceive that sensory impairment of the upper limb has a highly negative impact on daily life, but specific rehabilitation for the upper limb is lacking. These findings imply that the clinical management of upper limb sensory impairment after stroke requires more attention.
Jung, Kyu-In; Song, Chan-Hee; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth
Many studies suggest optimal sleep duration for survival is 7-8h/night. We report the gender-specific independent association of all-cause mortality with nighttime sleep and daytime nap duration in older adults who were followed for up to 19years. Between 1984 and 1987, 2001 community-dwelling, mostly retired, adults (1112 women), age 60-96years, answered questions about health, mood, medications, life-style, daytime napping, and nighttime sleep duration. Vital status was confirmed for 96% through July 2001. At baseline, men reported significantly longer nighttime sleep and daytime napping than women. In both men and women, nighttime sleep Napping ⩾30min was associated with prevalent depressed mood, coronary heart disease, and cancer. Of the group, 61% died over the next 19years, at an average age of 85.6years. Mortality risk was lowest among those sleeping 7-7.9h/night in both men and women. Multiple-adjusted analyses showed that increased mortality was associated with nighttime sleep ⩾9h in women (HR 1.51: 95% CI=1.05-2.18), and with daytime napping ⩾30min in men (HR 1.28: 95% CI, 1.00-1.64). Mechanisms for these differences are unknown. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Stawski, Robert S.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Almeida, David M.; Smyth, Joshua M.
A central goal of daily stress research is to identify resilience and vulnerability factors associated with exposure and reactivity to daily stressors. The current study examined how age differences and global perceptions of stress relate to exposure and emotional reactivity to daily stressors. Sixty-seven younger (Mage = 20) and 116 older (Mage = 80) adults completed a daily stress diary and measures of positive and negative affect on 6 days over a 14 day period. Participants also completed a measure of global perceived stress. Results revealed that reported exposure to daily stressors is reduced in old age, but that emotional reactivity to daily stressors did not differ between young and older adults. Global perceived stress was associated with greater reported exposure to daily stressors in old adults, and greater stress-related increases in negative affect in younger adults. Furthermore, across days on which daily stressors were reported, intraindividual variability in the number and severity of stressors reported was associated with increased negative affect, but only among younger adults. PMID:18361654
Stawski, Robert S; Sliwinski, Martin J; Almeida, David M; Smyth, Joshua M
A central goal of daily stress research is to identify resilience and vulnerability factors associated with exposure and reactivity to daily stressors. The present study examined how age differences and global perceptions of stress relate to exposure and emotional reactivity to daily stressors. Sixty-seven younger (M age = 20) and 116 older (M age = 80) adults completed a daily stress diary and measures of positive and negative affect on 6 days over a 14-day period. Participants also completed a measure of global perceived stress. Results revealed that reported exposure to daily stressors is reduced in old age but that emotional reactivity to daily stressors did not differ between younger and older adults. Global perceived stress was associated with greater reported exposure to daily stressors in older adults and greater stress-related increases in negative affect in younger adults. Furthermore, across days on which daily stressors were reported, intraindividual variability in the number and severity of stressors reported was associated with increased negative affect, but only among younger adults. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.
MacLean, Robert Ross; Martino, Steve; Carroll, Kathleen M; Smyth, Joshua M; Pincus, Aaron L; Wilson, Stephen J
Research suggests that a blunted response to nondrug rewards, especially under conditions associated with strong cigarette cravings, is associated with reduced abstinence motivation in daily smokers. One limitation of previous studies is that they have largely focused on monetary rewards as broad representative of nondrug rewards. It remains unclear whether craving dampens responses to more abstract nondrug rewards, such as personal values. Personal values often have a positive valence and are frequently assumed to remain stable across time and situations. However, there may be time-varying and contextual influences on smokers' appraisal of values in daily life. Characterizing fluctuations in value importance in relation to relapse precipitants (eg, craving) may inform interventions that leverage personal values as motivation for cessation. Daily smokers (n = 18) completed ecological momentary assessment surveys measuring the importance of specific personal values and smoking-related variables during 8 days of monetarily reinforced cigarette abstinence. We hypothesized that value ratings would demonstrate adequate within-person heterogeneity for multilevel modeling and that within-person fluctuations in craving would be negatively related to valuing personal health. All values demonstrated adequate within-person variability for multilevel modeling. Within-person craving was negatively related to health valuation (p = .012) and a cross-level interaction (p > .0001) suggested this effect is stronger for individuals who report greater overall craving. Greater craving is associated with decreased importance of personal health in the moment, particularly for those with high average levels of craving. Timely interventions that bolster importance of health during moments of elevated craving can potentially improve cessation outcomes. This study builds on research highlighting the positive influence of personal values in motivating behavior change. Values are an often used
Faraut, Brice; Léger, Damien; Medkour, Terkia; Dubois, Alexandre; Bayon, Virginie; Chennaoui, Mounir; Perrot, Serge
To investigate pain sensitivity after sleep restriction and the restorative effect of napping. A strictly controlled randomized crossover study with continuous polysomnography monitoring was performed. Laboratory-based study. 11 healthy male volunteers. Volunteers attended two three-day sessions: "sleep restriction" alone and "sleep restriction and nap". Each session involved a baseline night of normal sleep, a night of sleep deprivation and a night of free recovery sleep. Participants were allowed to sleep only from 02:00 to 04:00 during the sleep deprivation night. During the "sleep restriction and nap" session, volunteers took two 30-minute naps, one in the morning and one in the afternoon. Quantitative sensory testing was performed with heat, cold and pressure, at 10:00 and 16:00, on three areas: the supraspinatus, lower back and thigh. After sleep restriction, quantitative sensory testing revealed differential changes in pain stimuli thresholds, but not in thermal threshold detection: lower back heat pain threshold decreased, pressure pain threshold increased in the supraspinatus area and no change was observed for the thigh. Napping restored responses to heat pain stimuli in the lower back and to pressure stimuli in the supraspinatus area. Sleep restriction induces different types of hypersensitivity to pain stimuli in different body areas, consistent with multilevel mechanisms, these changes being reversed by napping. The napping restorative effect on pain thresholds result principally from effects on pain mechanisms, since it was independent of vigilance status.
Full Text Available To investigate pain sensitivity after sleep restriction and the restorative effect of napping.A strictly controlled randomized crossover study with continuous polysomnography monitoring was performed.Laboratory-based study.11 healthy male volunteers.Volunteers attended two three-day sessions: "sleep restriction" alone and "sleep restriction and nap". Each session involved a baseline night of normal sleep, a night of sleep deprivation and a night of free recovery sleep. Participants were allowed to sleep only from 02:00 to 04:00 during the sleep deprivation night. During the "sleep restriction and nap" session, volunteers took two 30-minute naps, one in the morning and one in the afternoon.Quantitative sensory testing was performed with heat, cold and pressure, at 10:00 and 16:00, on three areas: the supraspinatus, lower back and thigh. After sleep restriction, quantitative sensory testing revealed differential changes in pain stimuli thresholds, but not in thermal threshold detection: lower back heat pain threshold decreased, pressure pain threshold increased in the supraspinatus area and no change was observed for the thigh. Napping restored responses to heat pain stimuli in the lower back and to pressure stimuli in the supraspinatus area.Sleep restriction induces different types of hypersensitivity to pain stimuli in different body areas, consistent with multilevel mechanisms, these changes being reversed by napping. The napping restorative effect on pain thresholds result principally from effects on pain mechanisms, since it was independent of vigilance status.
Furihata, Ryuji; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Jike, Maki; Ohida, Takashi; Uchiyama, Makoto
The objective of this study was to investigate napping habits and their associated factors in the Japanese adult general population. The cross-sectional survey was conducted in November 2007 for subjects selected randomly from among 300 districts throughout Japan. Data from 7664 people (3527 men and 4137 women), aged 20-99 years, were analyzed. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire on frequency and duration of napping. The percentage of responders for high-frequency napping, four or more days per week, was 21.2% among men and 17.1% among women. The percentage of responders for long-duration napping, 2 h or more per one nap, was 2.9% among men and 2.6% among women. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that men, older age, smoking, insomnia symptoms, long sleep duration, excessive daytime sleepiness, and having sufficient rest obtained by sleep were positively associated with high-frequency napping, whereas alcohol drinking showed a negative association. Older age was negatively associated with long-duration napping whereas living in a large community, smoking, long sleep duration, excessive daytime sleepiness, and psychological stress showed a positive association. These findings provide important data for future studies aimed at improvement of sleep habits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Adelaide H Austin
Full Text Available Negative emotional responses to the daily life stresses have cumulative effects which, in turn, impose wide-ranging negative constraints on emotional well being and neurocognitive performance (Kalueff et al, 2007, Charles et al, 2013, Nadler et al, 2010. Crucial cognitive functions such as memory and problem solving, as well more short term emotional responses (e.g., anticipation of- and response to- monetary rewards or losses are influenced by mood. The negative impact of these behavioural responses is felt at the individual level, but it also imposes major economic burden on modern healthcare systems. Although much research have been undertaken to understand the underlying mechanisms of depressed mood and design efficient treatment pathways, comparatively little was done to characterize mood modulations that remain within the boundaries of a healthy mental functioning. In one placebo-controlled experiments, we applied daily prefrontal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS at five points in time, and found reliable improvements on self-reported mood evaluation. We replicated this finding in an independent double-blinded placebo-controlled experiment and showed that stimulation over a shorter period of time (3 days is sufficient to create detectable mood improvements. Taken together, our data show that repeated bilateral prefrontal tDCS can reduce psychological distress in nondepressed individuals.
Bolvanov, Yu.A.; Kononov, V.I.; Kuper, Eh.A.
A system is considered controlling the proton storage unit of NAP-M. The control system operates on line with ODRA-1325 computer. This enables one to process the data directly in the course of the experiment and to control the operating regime of the storage unit. The authors give a detailed description of the principal units of the control system: digital-to-analog converters, equipment for data conveying, and analog-to-digital converters. They describe the control program, which coordinates interaction of the computer with the control system. The control program provides for the possibility of editing the working programs, which realize the elementary operation in the storage unit control cycle
Basu, A.S.; Chougaonkar, M.P.; Mayya, Y.S.; Sadasivan, S.; Sharma, L.N.
In this report, we present the results of environmental gamma radiation levels monitored around NAPS region using TLDs. The report gives quarterly environmental radiation monitoring data obtained during the period 1989-'99; i.e. during the operating phase of the reactor. Twenty eight TLD locations were selected within a radius of twenty six km. of which six were within the exclusion zone (radius 1.6 km). The mean gamma radiation level within the exclusion zone has been evaluated as 111 ± 6.6 mR/year and that for locations beyond the exclusion zone as 140 ± 14 mR/year. As these values are well within the corresponding pre-operational general background value of 142 ± 30 mR/year (Basu et. al 1989), it is concluded that the reactor operations have not contributed to any increase in the gamma radiation levels in the environs of the NAPS region. (author)
Massenio, Paolo; D'Altilia, Nicola; Sanguedolce, Francesca; Carrieri, Giuseppe; Cormio, Luigi
Recurrent (stuttering) ischemic priapism is a challenging clinical condition. Frequent recurrences result in frequent hospital admissions whereas treatment with a shunting procedure often results in erectile dysfunction. A 22-year-old man with stuttering idiopathic priapism developed erectile dysfunction (IIEF-5 score 12) following a Winter's shunt; he was given tadalafil, 5 mg/daily, for 6 months. This treatment resulted in progressive restoration of erectile function in the 6 months following the shunt as well as in preventing recurrence of priapic episodes over a 24-month follow-up. This is the first report in literature of chronic treatment of stuttering priapism with a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor being able not only to prevent recurrent priapic episodes but also to restore erectile function following a Winter's shunt.
Hilditch, Cassie J; Centofanti, Stephanie A; Dorrian, Jillian; Banks, Siobhan
To assess sleep inertia following 10-min and 30-min naps during a simulated night shift. Thirty-one healthy adults (aged 21-35 y; 18 females) participated in a 3-day laboratory study that included one baseline (BL) sleep (22:00-07:00) and one experimental night involving randomization to either: total sleep deprivation (NO-NAP), a 10-min nap (10-NAP) or a 30-min nap (30-NAP). Nap opportunities ended at 04:00. A 3-min psychomotor vigilance task (PVT-B), digit-symbol substitution task (DSST), fatigue scale, sleepiness scale, and self-rated performance scale were undertaken pre-nap (03:00) and at 2, 17, 32, and 47 min post-nap. The 30-NAP (14.7 ± 5.7 min) had more slow wave sleep than the 10-NAP (0.8 ± 1.5 min; P performance was worse than pre-nap (4.6 ± 0.3 1/sec) at 47 min post-nap (4.1 ± 0.4 1/sec; P performance immediately deteriorated from pre-nap (4.3 ± 0.3 1/sec) and was still worse at 47 min post-nap (4.0 ± 0.5 1/sec; P performance deteriorated in the NO-NAP (worse than pre-nap from 17 to 47 min; P performance as better than pre-nap for all post-nap test points (P performance impairment during a simulated night shift. Self-rated performance did not reflect objective performance following a nap. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
The DRAGON facility at the new intense radioactive beams facility, ISAC, is now operational. It was built to perform studies of radiative alpha and proton capture reactions involving radioactive reactants, and of interest to nuclear astrophysics. The rate of the 21 Na(p, γ) 22 Mg reaction has been measured using inverse kinematics. Resonance strengths have been measured for states of importance for novae explosions. This report will summarize aspects of this study and its impact. (orig.)
Aronson, Keith R; Wagstaff, David A; Farace, Elana; Muscat, Joshua; Belani, Chandra; Almokadem, Salah; Fossum, Thyra
This study examined the day-to-day lives of early stage lung cancer survivors who were discharged from treatment between 2 and 24 months prior to the study. Lung cancer survivors were called on eight consecutive nights and completed an interview about their daily experiences. Repeated measures, multilevel analysis of the phone interview data was conducted. Survivors reported few daily stressor exposures or somatic symptoms. Daily moods were generally positive, and survivors reported living quite independently. Lung cancer survivors did not report experiencing health-related worry on a daily basis. The findings from this study create a much more positive picture of lung cancer survivorship relative to prior studies. © The Author(s) 2015.
van Nooten, Floortje E; Cline, Jennifer; Elash, Celeste A; Paty, Jean; Reaney, Matthew
Endometriosis is a common gynecological disorder that causes inflammation and pelvic pain. Endometriosis-related pain is best captured with patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures, however, assessment of endometriosis-related pain in clinical trials has been difficult in the absence of a reliable and valid PRO instrument. We describe the development of the Endometriosis Pain Daily Diary (EPDD), an electronic PRO developed as a survey instrument to assess endometriosis-related pain and its impact on patients' lives. The EPDD was initially developed on the basis of an existing Endometriosis Pain and Bleeding Diary, a targeted review of relevant literature, clinical expert interviews, and open-ended (concept elicitation) patient interviews in the United States (US) and Japan which captured patients' experience with endometriosis. Cognitive interviews of patients with endometriosis were conducted to evaluate patient comprehension of the EPDD items. A conceptual model of endometriosis was developed, and meetings with US and European regulatory authorities provided feedback for validating the EPDD in the context of clinical trials. Translatability assessments of the EPDD were conducted to confirm its appropriate interpretation and ease of completion across 17 languages. The iterative development progressed through three versions of the instrument. The EPDDv1 included 18 items relating to dysmenorrhea/pelvic pain, dyspareunia and sexual activity, bleeding, hot flashes, daily activities, and use of rescue medication. The EPDDv2 was a larger 43-item survey tested in cognitive interviews and subsequently revised to yield the current 11-item EPDDv3, consisting of five core items relating to dysmenorrhea, non-menstrual pelvic pain, and dyspareunia, and six extension items relating to sexual activity, daily activities, and use of rescue medication. The EPDD is a PRO for the evaluation of endometriosis-related pain and its associated impacts on patients' lives. The EPDD
Woods, Diana Lynn; Yefimova, Maria
Circadian rhythm disruption, reflected in alterations in sleep-wake activity and daytime napping behavior, is consistently reported in nursing home (NH) residents with dementia. This disruption may be reflected in day-to-day instability. The concept of allostatic load (AL), a measure of cumulative biological burden over a lifetime, may be a helpful model for understanding cortisol diurnal rhythm and daytime napping activity in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between intra-individual daytime napping episodes and basal cortisol diurnal rhythm in NH residents with dementia in the context of AL. U sing a within-individual longitudinal design (N = 51), the authors observed and recorded daytime napping activity every 20 min for 10 hr per day across 4 consecutive days. The authors obtained saliva samples 4 times each day (upon participants' waking and within 1 hr, 6 hr, and 12 hr of participants' wake time) for cortisol analysis. The authors categorized participants as high changers (HCs; day-to-day instability in napping activity) or low changers (LCs; day-to-day stability). There were no significant differences in resident characteristics between groups. There was a significant difference between HCs and LCs in napping episodes (F = 4.86, p = .03), with an interaction effect of evening cortisol on napping episodes in the HC group (F = 10.161, p = .001). NH residents with unstable day-to-day napping episodes are more responsive to alterations in evening cortisol, an index of a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. They may also be more amenable to environmental intervention, an avenue for further research.
Faraut, Brice; Andrillon, Thomas; Vecchierini, Marie-Françoise; Leger, Damien
Sleep specialists have proposed measures to counteract the negative short- and long-term consequences of sleep debt, and some have suggested the nap as a potential and powerful "public health tool". Here, we address this countermeasure aspect of napping viewed as an action against sleep deprivation rather than an action associated with poor health. We review the physiological functions that have been associated positively with napping in both public health and clinical settings (sleep-related accidents, work and school, and cardiovascular risk) and in laboratory-based studies with potential public health issues (cognitive performance, stress, immune function and pain sensitivity). We also discuss the circumstances in which napping-depending on several factors, including nap duration, frequency, and age-could be a potential public health tool and a countermeasure for sleep loss in terms of reducing accidents and cardiovascular events and improving sleep-restriction-sensitive working performance. However, the impact of napping and the nature of the sleep stage(s) involved still need to be evaluated, especially from the perspective of coping strategies in populations with chronic sleep debt, such as night and shift workers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Payne, Jessica D.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.; Wamsley, Erin; Spreng, R. Nathan; Alger, Sara; Gibler, Kyle; Schacter, Daniel L.; Stickgold, Robert
After information is encoded into memory, it undergoes an offline period of consolidation that occurs optimally during sleep. The consolidation process not only solidifies memories, but also selectively preserves aspects of experience that are emotionally salient and relevant for future use. Here, we provide evidence that an afternoon nap is sufficient to trigger preferential memory for emotional information contained in complex scenes. Selective memory for negative emotional information was enhanced after a nap compared to wakefulness in two control conditions designed to carefully address interference and time-of-day confounds. Although prior evidence has connected negative emotional memory formation to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep physiology, we found that non-REM delta activity and the amount of slow wave sleep (SWS) in the nap were robustly related to the selective consolidation of negative information. These findings suggest that the mechanisms underlying memory consolidation benefits associated with napping and nighttime sleep are not always the same. Finally, we provide preliminary evidence that the magnitude of the emotional memory benefit conferred by sleep is equivalent following a nap and a full night of sleep, suggesting that selective emotional remembering can be economically achieved by taking a nap. PMID:25706830
Dehlholm, Christian; Brockhoff, Per B.; Meinert, Lene
is a modal restriction of Napping to specific sensory modalities, directing sensation and still allowing a holistic approach to products. The new methods are compared to Flash Profiling, Napping and conventional descriptive sensory profiling. Evaluations are performed by several panels of expert assessors......Two new rapid descriptive sensory evaluation methods are introduced to the field of food sensory evaluation. The first method, free multiple sorting, allows subjects to perform ad libitum free sortings, until they feel that no more relevant dissimilarities among products remain. The second method...... are applied for the graphical validation and comparisons. This allows similar comparisons and is applicable to single-block evaluation designs such as Napping. The partial Napping allows repetitions on multiple sensory modalities, e.g. appearance, taste and mouthfeel, and shows the average...
Lillis, Teresa A; Hamilton, Nancy A; Pressman, Sarah D; Khou, Christina S
This study investigated the relationship of daytime maternal napping, exercise, caffeine, and alcohol intake to objective and subjective sleep indices. Sixty healthy, nondepressed, first-time mothers between 3 and 6 months postpartum. Seven consecutive days of online behavior diaries, sleep diaries, and wrist actigraphy, collecting Total Sleep Time (TST), Sleep Onset Latency (SOL), and Wake After Sleep Onset (WASO). After controlling for infant age, employment status, infant feeding method, and infant sleeping location, mixed linear models showed that longer average exercise durations were associated with longer average TST, and longer average nap durations were associated with longer average WASO durations. Significant within-person differences in TST and SOL were also observed, such that, on days when participants exercised and napped longer than average, their respective TST and SOL durations that night were longer. Shorter nap durations and longer exercise durations were associated with longer TST, shorter SOL, and reduced WASO. Even small changes in daily exercise and napping behaviors could lead to reliable improvements in postpartum maternal sleep.
Monin, Joan K; Poulin, Michael J; Brown, Stephanie L; Langa, Kenneth M
Research shows that active support provision is associated with greater well-being for spouses of individuals with chronic conditions. However, not all instances of support may be equally beneficial for spouses' well-being. The theory of communal responsiveness suggests that because spouses' well-being is interdependent, spouses benefit most from providing support when they believe their support increases their partner's happiness and is appreciated. Two studies tested this hypothesis. Study 1 was a 7-day ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study of 73 spouses of persons with dementia (74%) and other conditions. In Study 1, spouses self-reported active help, perceptions of how happy the help made the partner and how much the help improved the partner's well-being, and spouses' positive and negative affect at EMA time points. Study 2 was a 7-day daily assessment study of 43 spouses of persons with chronic pain in which spouses reported their emotional support provision, perceived partner appreciation, and their own physical symptoms. Study 1 showed that active help was associated with more positive affect for spouses when they perceived the help increased their partner's happiness and improved their partner's well-being. Study 2 showed that emotional support provision was associated with fewer spouse reported physical symptoms when perceptions of partner appreciation were high. Results suggest that interventions for spouses of individuals with chronic conditions take into account spouses' perceptions of their partners' positive emotional responses. Highlighting the positive consequences of helping may increase spouses' well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Nishina, Adrienne; Juvonen, Jaana
Two studies examined daily incidents of peer harassment in urban middle schools. Sixth-grade students (M age=11 years) described their daily personal experiences and witnessed accounts of peer harassment, and rated their negative feelings across a 2-week period. In Study 1 (n=95), within-subject analyses across 4 days revealed that both personally…
Wierzba, Małgorzata; Riegel, Monika; Pucz, Anna; Leśniewska, Zuzanna; Dragan, Wojciech Ł; Gola, Mateusz; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur
Research on the processing of sexual stimuli has proved that such material has high priority in human cognition. Yet, although sex differences in response to sexual stimuli were extensively discussed in the literature, sexual orientation was given relatively little consideration, and material suitable for relevant research is difficult to come by. With this in mind, we present a collection of 200 erotic images, accompanied by their self-report ratings of emotional valence and arousal by homo- and heterosexual males and females (n = 80, divided into four equal-sized subsamples). The collection complements the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS) and is intended to be used as stimulus material in experimental research. The erotic images are divided into five categories, depending on their content: opposite-sex couple (50), male couple (50), female couple (50), male (25) and female (25). Additional 100 control images from the NAPS depicting people in a non-erotic context were also used in the study. We showed that recipient sex and sexual orientation strongly influenced the evaluation of erotic content. Thus, comparisons of valence and arousal ratings in different subject groups will help researchers select stimuli set for the purpose of various experimental designs. To facilitate the use of the dataset, we provide an on-line tool, which allows the user to browse the images interactively and select proper stimuli on the basis of several parameters. The NAPS ERO image collection together with the data are available to the scientific community for non-commercial use at http://naps.nencki.gov.pl.
Full Text Available Research on the processing of sexual stimuli has proved that such material has high priority in human cognition. Yet, although sex differences in response to sexual stimuli were extensively discussed in the literature, sexual orientation was given relatively little consideration, and material suitable for relevant research is difficult to come by. With this in mind, we present a collection of 200 erotic images, accompanied by their self-report ratings of emotional valence and arousal by homo- and heterosexual males and females (n = 80, divided into four equal-sized subsamples. The collection complements the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS and is intended to be used as stimulus material in experimental research. The erotic images are divided into five categories, depending on their content: opposite-sex couple (50, male couple (50, female couple (50, male (25 and female (25. Additional 100 control images from the NAPS depicting people in a non-erotic context were also used in the study. We showed that recipient sex and sexual orientation strongly influenced the evaluation of erotic content. Thus, comparisons of valence and arousal ratings in different subject groups will help researchers select stimuli set for the purpose of various experimental designs. To facilitate the use of the dataset, we provide an on-line tool, which allows the user to browse the images interactively and select proper stimuli on the basis of several parameters. The NAPS ERO image collection together with the data are available to the scientific community for non-commercial use at http://naps.nencki.gov.pl.
Chen, Guo-Chong; Liu, Meng-Meng; Chen, Li-Hua; Xu, Jia-Ying; Hidayat, Khemayanto; Li, Fu-Rong; Qin, Li-Qiang
Prospective studies reported inconsistent findings on the relationship between daytime napping and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Categorized and dose-response meta-analyses were performed to quantify this relation. Potentially eligible studies were identified by searching PubMed and Embase databases. Dose-response effects were assessed by the generalized least squares trend estimation and study-specific summary relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed with a random-effects model. Seven prospective studies including one US, four European, and two Chinese cohorts involving 249,077 participants and 13,237 cases of T2D were included. The overall analyses showed a 17% increased risk of T2D when comparing habitual nappers with non-nappers (RR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.08-1.27). By region, the summary RR was 1.21 (95% CI 1.17-1.26), 1.15 (95% CI 1.03-1.30) and 1.23 (95% CI 0.87-1.73) for the US, European, and Chinese studies, respectively. Limiting to five studies that excluded subjects with known major chronic disorders yielded a summary RR of 1.16 (95% CI 1.03-1.30). A dose-response analysis suggested an 11% (95% CI 7-16%) increased T2D risk for each increment in daytime napping of 30 min/day and, despite no evidence for nonlinearity (P nonlinearity = 0.65), the increased risk of T2D for short nap (napping is associated with an increased risk of T2D. Given the limited number of cohorts and inconsistency in terms of methodological and population characteristics across these cohorts, residual confounders and/or reverse causality cannot be fully addressed, and our findings should be interpreted with great caution. Future well-designed prospective studies are still warranted.
Shetty, P.G.; Takale, R.A.; Swarnkar, M.; Sahu, S.K.; Pandit, G.G.; Puranik, V.D.
As a part of the assessment of the environmental impact of the Indian nuclear power programme, radiation surveys are being carried out on continuous basis in the environs of all the nuclear facilities in India using Thermoluminescent Dosimeters. This paper discusses the environmental gamma radiation levels based on the analysis of data generated for year 1989-2009 at twenty-eight locations currently being monitored in and around the environs of NAPS using passive dosimeter. Of these, six are within the exclusion zone (1.6 km) while the remaining twenty two locations are spread over an aerial distance of twenty six km from reactor stack. The annual background gamma levels for NAPS site beyond 1.6 km exclusion zone based on twenty-two monitoring locations are evaluated and seen to be 1.20 ± 0.15 mGy/a. This is comparable with earlier reported pre-operational value 1.24 ± 0.26 mGy/a. From this it can be said that the reactor operations have not contributed to any increase in the gamma radiation levels in the environs of the NAPS region. (author)
Zacher, Hannes; Wilden, Ruth G.
Ambidextrous leadership involves a combination of behaviours that stimulate employee exploration (opening behaviour') and behaviours that facilitate exploitation of ideas (closing behaviour'). We hypothesized that the interaction between leaders' daily opening and closing behaviours (i.e.,
Hilditch, Cassie J.; Centofanti, Stephanie A.; Dorrian, Jillian; Banks, Siobhan
Study Objectives: To assess sleep inertia following 10-min and 30-min naps during a simulated night shift. Methods: Thirty-one healthy adults (aged 21–35 y; 18 females) participated in a 3-day laboratory study that included one baseline (BL) sleep (22:00–07:00) and one experimental night involving randomization to either: total sleep deprivation (NO-NAP), a 10-min nap (10-NAP) or a 30-min nap (30-NAP). Nap opportunities ended at 04:00. A 3-min psychomotor vigilance task (PVT-B), digit-symbol substitution task (DSST), fatigue scale, sleepiness scale, and self-rated performance scale were undertaken pre-nap (03:00) and at 2, 17, 32, and 47 min post-nap. Results: The 30-NAP (14.7 ± 5.7 min) had more slow wave sleep than the 10-NAP (0.8 ± 1.5 min; P inertia and helped to mitigate short-term performance impairment during a simulated night shift. Self-rated performance did not reflect objective performance following a nap. Citation: Hilditch CJ, Centofanti SA, Dorrian J, Banks S. A 30-minute, but not a 10-minute nighttime nap is associated with sleep inertia. SLEEP 2016;39(3):675–685. PMID:26715234
Angulo, J C; Brenes, F J; Lizarraga, I; Rejas, J; Trillo, S; Ochayta, D; Arumi, D
To explore the impact of urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) on well-being in non-institutionalized patients with overactive bladder (OAB) in a community sample. A cross-sectional web-based study was conducted in the general population, including males and females, >18 years of age. Patients with probable OAB were identified using a validated algorithm together with a score ≥8 on the OAB-V8 scale. Presence of coping behavior was considered determinant for the clinical diagnosis of OAB. Individual well-being was determined through a battery of patient-reported outcomes (PRO) measurements including assessment of health-related quality of life (EQ-5D), sleep disturbances (MOS Sleep), and life satisfaction (LISAT-8). Patients were grouped according to the number of daily UUI episodes (UUI severity): 0 (dry OAB),1, 2-3, or ≥4. Multivariate analysis to evaluate factors independently affecting quality of life was undertaken. A total of 396 patients (52.5% women, mean age: 55.3 [11.1] years, OAB-V8 mean score: 14.5 [7.9]) out of 2035 subjects participating from the general population met the criteria for OAB: 203 (51.3%) with 0episodes, 119 (30.1%) with 1, 52 (13.1%) with 2 or 3, and 22 (5.6%) with ≥4 episodes. A statistically significant linear adjusted association was found between number of UUI episodes and PRO scores. Participants with more episodes had poorer health profiles and self-evaluated quality of life, worse life satisfaction, and more sleep disturbances and fewer hours of sleep per night. Number of incontinence episodes was independent factor to affect quality of life using both LISAT-8 and MOS questionnaires. Severity of UUI was significantly associated with poorer individual well-being in subjects with OAB in a community sample in Spain. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Kusse, Caroline; Shaffii-LE Bourdiec, Anahita; Schrouff, Jessica; Matarazzo, Luca; Maquet, Pierre
This study characterizes hypnagogic hallucinations reported during a polygraphically recorded 90-min daytime nap following or preceding practice of the computer game Tetris. In the experimental group (N = 16), participants played Tetris in the morning for 2 h during three consecutive days, while in a first control group (N = 13, controlling the effect of experience) participants did not play any game, and in a second control group (N = 14, controlling the effect of anticipation) participants played Tetris after the nap. During afternoon naps, participants were repetitively awakened 15, 45, 75, 120 or 180 s after the onset of S1, and were asked to report their mental content. Reports content was scored by three judges (inter-rater reliability 85%). In the experimental group, 48 out of 485 (10%) sleep-onset reports were Tetris-related. They mostly consisted of images and sounds with very little emotional content. They exactly reproduced Tetris elements or mixed them with other mnemonic components. By contrast, in the first control group, only one report out of 107 was scored as Tetris-related (1%), and in the second control group only three reports out of 112 were scored as Tetris-related (3%; between-groups comparison; P = 0.006). Hypnagogic hallucinations were more consistently induced by experience than by anticipation (P = 0.039), and they were predominantly observed during the transition of wakefulness to sleep. The observed attributes of experience-related hypnagogic hallucinations are consistent with the particular organization of regional brain activity at sleep onset, characterized by high activity in sensory cortices and in the default-mode network. © 2011 European Sleep Research Society.
Wilde, Gerald J. S.; Ackersviller, Melody J.
A study examined the potential for development of a traffic accident-reporting form in the Canadian daily press that strengthens concern for road safety in the general population and enhances knowledge, attitudes, and behavior leading to greater safety. The investigation was conducted on three levels: a content analysis, a readership analysis, and…
Moore, Darren A.; Whittaker, Sarah; Ford, Tamsin J.
This paper describes daily report cards and the evidence relating to their use in schools for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This intervention typically involves teachers evaluating a student's behaviour at school against pre-determined targets and parents subsequently providing reinforcement at home for positive…
Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Sassu, Kari A.; LaFrance, Mary J.; Patwa, Shamim S.
In this study, the consistency of on-task data collected across raters using either a Daily Behavior Report Card (DBRC) or systematic direct observation was examined to begin to understand the decision reliability of using DBRCs to monitor student behavior. Results suggested very similar conclusions might be drawn when visually examining data…
The energy spectrum of nuclear active particles (NAP) with energy ΣEsub(γ) greater than 3 TeV is obtained from an analysis of a thick emulsion chamber (140 cu of Pb) exposed on Mount Norikura at 2770 m above sea level and the vertical flux is estimated to be (1.4 +- 0.1) x 10 -10 cm -2 s -1 sr -1 . Assuming that the energy spectrum and the zenith angle distribution of NAP are expressed by power functions proportional to Esup(-(γ + 1)) and cossup(n-2) theta respectively in differential form, the exponents γ and n are obtained as 2.3 +- 0.1 and 7.3 +- 0.5 respectively. The collision mean free path and the ratio of constituents of NAP are discussed. (author)
Gan, Susheng; Guo, Yongfeng
The present invention discloses transgenic plants having an altered level of NAP protein compared to that of a non-transgenic plant, where the transgenic plants display an altered leaf senescence phenotype relative to a non-transgenic plant, as well as mutant plants comprising an inactivated NAP gene, where mutant plants display a delayed leaf senescence phenotype compared to that of a non-mutant plant. The present invention also discloses methods for delaying leaf senescence in a plant, as well as methods of making a mutant plant having a decreased level of NAP protein compared to that of a non-mutant plant, where the mutant plant displays a delayed leaf senescence phenotype relative to a non-mutant plant. Methods for causing precocious leaf senescence or promoting leaf senescence in a plant are also disclosed. Also disclosed are methods of identifying a candidate plant suitable for breeding that displays a delayed leaf senescence and/or enhanced yield phenotype.
Bracci, M; Copertaro, A; Manzella, N; Staffolani, S; Strafella, E; Nocchi, L; Barbaresi, M; Copertaro, B; Rapisarda, V; Valentino, M; Santarelli, L
Night-workers experience disruption of the sleep-wake cycle and light at night which may increase breast cancer risk by suppressing the nocturnal melatonin surge, resulting in higher levels of circulating estrogens. Night-work may also deregulate peripheral clock genes which have been found to be altered in breast cancer. This study investigated urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s), serum 17-beta-estradiol levels in premenopausal shift nurses at the end of the night-shift compared to a control group of daytime nurses. Peripheral clock gene expression in lymphocytes were also investigated. All participants were sampled in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. The effect of nurses ability to take a short nap during the night-shift was also explored. The shift-work group had significantly lower aMT6s levels than daytime nurses independently of a nap. Night-shift napping significantly influences 17-beta-estradiol levels resulting in higher outcomes in nurses who do not take a nap compared to napping group and daytime workers. Peripheral clock genes expression investigated was not significantly different among the groups. Our findings suggest that shift nurses experience changes in aMT6s levels after a night-shift. Napping habits influence 17-beta-estradiol levels at the end of a night-shift. These findings might be related to the increased cancer risk reported in night-shift workers and suggest that a short nap during night-shifts may exert a positive effect.
The study examined aspects of daily living of Swedish children with osteogenesis imperfecta, a mineral deficiency in the skeleton which results in stunted growth and frequent fractures. A questionnaire was administered to 24 families with children under the age of 18 and 3 families were interviewed. The study found the families in great need of…
Full Text Available Background: The neuroendocrine system is known to influence immunity, but the precise interactions between different hormones and autoimmune disorders remain obscure. Aims: The present study aimed to investigate the role of daily serum melatonin concentrations in the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE in women. Study Design: Case-control study Methods: One-hundred and eleven SLE female patients and 46 healthy women were included in the study. Daily serum melatonin levels were investigated in all participants. Results: SLE patients showed significantly lower daily melatonin levels in comparison to healthy women during the short photoperiod (17.75±7.13 pg/mL [16.05] vs. 21.63±6.60 pg/mL [20.10], p=0.012. Hormone concentrations were inversely related to the SLE activity index (SLEDAI (r= -0.268, p=0.004, but they did not correlate to any particular American College Rheumatology (ACR criterion (p>0.05 for all. Conclusion: Daily melatonin levels were decreased in women with systemic lupus erythematosus and correlated inversely to the activity of the autoimmune disease. Further studies are needed to clarify the importance of the pineal and extrapineal melatonin secretion in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus as well as the interrelations between hormones and autoimmunity.
Liu, Ruihua; Li, Yuqian; Mao, Zhenxing; Liu, Xiaotian; Zhang, Haiqing; Yang, Kaili; Zhang, Honglei; Tu, Runqi; Qian, Xinling; Jiang, Jingjing; Bie, Ronghai; Wang, Chongjian
The aim of this study was to explore the independent and combined dose-response association of napping and night sleep duration with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among different genders in the rural Chinese population. For this research, a total of 19,257 participants were enrolled in the Rural Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (RuralDiab) study. Napping and night sleep duration were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Restricted cubic splines and logistic regression were used to estimate the relationship between napping and night sleep duration with T2DM. A linear dose-response relationship between napping duration and T2DM as well as a U-shaped relationship between night sleep duration and T2DM were found. Compared with those who reported no napping, participants who had a napping duration of ≥91 min were associated with a 19% increase in prevalence of T2DM. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals (CIs)) for T2DM were 1.48 (1.03, 2.14) and 1.50 (1.22, 1.85) for shorter (≤5 h) and longer (>9 h) night sleep duration compared with the referential group. Additionally, the combination of longer napping duration (≥91 min) and night sleep duration (>9 h) increased 104% (95% CI: 45%, 128%) prevalence for T2DM. These associations were not found in males but were evident in females. Longer napping duration and extreme night sleep duration increased the prevalence of T2DM. Meanwhile, longer napping and night sleep duration might be jointly associated with a higher prevalence of T2DM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
What Works Clearinghouse, 2012
The study described in this report examined whether the use of "daily report cards" ("DRCs") in elementary school classrooms improved behavior and academic achievement among students diagnosed with combined inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid oppositional defiant…
Lee, Jihye; Hong, Yeon-pyo; Kim, Hyunsook; Hong, Youngtak; Lee, Weonyoung
The mass media play a crucial role in risk communication regarding climate change. The aim of this study was to investigate the trend in journalistic reports on climate change in the daily newspapers of Korea. We selected 9 daily newspapers in Korea, which according to the ABC Association, represented 77% of newspaper circulation, out of a total of 44 Korean daily newspapers. The collected articles were from 2009 to 2011. All of the articles were sorted into the following 8 categories: greenhouse gas, climate change conventions, sea level rise, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change synthesis reports, expected damage and effect, use of fossil fuels, global warming, and mitigation or adaptation. A chi-squared test was done on the articles, which were counted and classified into cause, effect, and measurement of climate change according to the newspaper's majority or minority ownership structure. From the 9 selected newspapers, the number of articles on climate change by month was greatest in December 2009. Generally, the articles vague about climate change (lack of precise data, negative or skeptical tone, and improper use of terminology) were much more common than the articles presenting accurate knowledge. A statistical difference was found based on ownership structure: the majority-owned newspapers addressed the cause of climate change, while the minority-owned newspapers referred more to climate change measurement. Our investigation revealed that generally Korean daily newspapers did not deliver accurate information about climate change. The coverage of the newspapers showed significant differences according to the ownership structure.
Simpson, Philippa J.L.; McKinzie, Audra A.; Codd, Rachel
Research highlights: → Two monomeric 90 kDa nitrate reductase active proteins from Shewanella gelidimarina. → Sequence of napA from napEDABC-type operon and napA from NapDAGHB-type operon. → Isolation of NAP as NapA or NapAB correlated with NapA P47E amino acid substitution. -- Abstract: The reduction of nitrate to nitrite in the bacterial periplasm occurs in the 90 kDa NapA subunit of the periplasmic nitrate reductase (NAP) system. Most Shewanella genomes contain two nap operons: napEDABC and napDAGHB, which is an unusual feature of this genus. Two native, monomeric, 90 kDa nitrate reductase active proteins were resolved by hydrophobic interaction chromatography from aerobic cultures of Shewanella gelidimarina replete with reduced nitrogen compounds. The 90 kDa protein obtained in higher yield was characterized as NapA by electronic absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies and was identified by LC/MS/MS and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS as NapA from the napEDABC-type operon. The other 90 kDa protein, which was unstable and produced in low yields, was posited as NapA from the napDAGHB-type operon. Two napA genes have been sequenced from the napEDABC-type and napDAGHB-type operons of S. gelidimarina. Native NAP from S. putrefaciens was resolved as one NapA monomer and one NapAB heterodimer. Two amino acid substitutions in NapA correlated with the isolation of NAP as a NapA monomer or a NapAB heterodimer. The resolution of native, redox-active NapA isoforms in Shewanella provides new insight into the respiratory versatility of this genus, which has implications in bioremediation and the assembly of microbial fuel cells.
Cremone, Amanda; Kurdziel, Laura B. F.; Fraticelli-Torres, Ada; McDermott, Jennifer M.; Spencer, Rebecca M. C.
Sleep loss alters processing of emotional stimuli in preschool-aged children. However, the mechanism by which sleep modifies emotional processing in early childhood is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that a nap, compared to an equivalent time spent awake, reduces biases in attention allocation to affective information. Children (n = 43;…
Desrochers, Phillip C; Kurdziel, Laura B F; Spencer, Rebecca M C
Sleep benefits memory consolidation across a variety of domains in young adults. However, while declarative memories benefit from sleep in young children, such improvements are not consistently seen for procedural skill learning. Here we examined whether performance improvements on a procedural task, although not immediately observed, are evident after a longer delay when augmented by overnight sleep (24 h after learning). We trained 47 children, aged 33-71 months, on a serial reaction time task and, using a within-subject design, evaluated performance at three time points: immediately after learning, after a daytime nap (nap condition) or equivalent wake opportunity (wake condition), and 24 h after learning. Consistent with previous studies, performance improvements following the nap did not differ from performance improvements following an equivalent interval spent awake. However, significant benefits of the nap were found when performance was assessed 24 h after learning. This research demonstrates that motor skill learning is benefited by sleep, but that this benefit is only evident after an extended period of time.
Verweij, Ilse M; Onuki, Yoshiyuki; Van Someren, Eus J W; Van der Werf, Ysbrand D
Growing evidence suggests that sleep is important for procedural learning, but few studies have investigated the effect of sleep on the temporal aspects of motor skill learning. We assessed the effect of a 90-min day-time nap on learning a motor timing task, using 2 adaptations of a serial
Fallis, Wendy M; McMillan, Diana E; Edwards, Marie P
Nurses working night shifts are at risk for sleep deprivation, which threatens patient and nurse safety. Little nursing research has addressed napping, an effective strategy to improve performance, reduce fatigue, and increase vigilance. To explore nurses' perceptions, experiences, barriers, and safety issues related to napping/not napping during night shift. A convenience sample of critical care nurses working night shift were interviewed to explore demographics, work schedule and environment, and napping/ not napping experiences, perceptions, and barriers. Transcripts were constantly compared, and categories and themes were identified. Participants were 13 critical care nurses with an average of 17 years' experience. Ten nurses napped regularly; 2 avoided napping because of sleep inertia. The need for and benefits of napping or not during night shift break were linked to patient and nurse safety. Ability to nap was affected by the demands of patient care and safety, staffing needs, and organizational and environmental factors. Nurses identified personal health, safety, and patient care issues supporting the need for a restorative nap during night shift. Barriers to napping exist within the organization/work environment.
Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that a period of sleep after a motor learning task is a relevant factor for memory consolidation. However, it is yet open whether this also holds true for language-related learning. Therefore, the present study compared the short- and long-term effects of a daytime nap, rest, or an activity task after vocabulary learning on learning outcome. Thirty healthy subjects were divided into three treatment groups. Each group received a pseudo-word learning task in which pictures of monsters were associated with unique pseudo-word names. At the end of the learning block a first test was administered. Then, one group went for a 90-min nap, one for a waking rest period, and one for a resting session with interfering activity at the end during which a new set of monster names was to be learned. After this block, all groups performed a first re-test of the names that they initially learned. On the morning of the following day, a second re-test was administered to all groups. The nap group showed significant improvement from test to re-test and a stable performance onto the second re-test. In contrast, the rest and the interference groups showed decline in performance from test to re-test, with persistently low performance at re-test 2. The 3 (GROUP × 3 (TIME ANOVA revealed a significant interaction, indicating that the type of activity (nap/rest/interfering action after initial learning actually had an influence on the memory outcome. These data are discussed with respect to translation to clinical settings with suggestions for improvement of intervention outcome after speech-language therapy if it is followed by a nap rather than interfering activity.
Christian D. Wiesner
Full Text Available Sleep helps to protect and renew hippocampus-dependent declarative learning. Less is known about forms of learning that mainly engage the dopaminergic reward system. Animal studies showed that exogenous melatonin modulates the responses of the dopaminergic reward system and acts as a neuroprotectant promoting memory. In humans, melatonin is mainly secreted in darkness during evening hours supporting sleep. In this study, we investigate the effects of a short period of daytime sleep (nap and endogenous melatonin on reward learning. Twenty-seven healthy, adult students took part in an experiment, either taking a 90-min afternoon nap or watching videos (within-subject design. Before and after the sleep vs. wake interval, saliva melatonin levels and reward learning were measured, and in the nap condition, a polysomnogram was obtained. Reward learning was assessed using a two-alternative probabilistic reinforcement-learning task. Sleep itself and subjective arousal or valence had no significant effects on reward learning. However, this study showed for the first time that an afternoon nap can elicit a small but significant melatonin response in about 41% of the participants and that the magnitude of the melatonin response predicts subsequent reward learning. Only in melatonin responders did a short nap improve reward learning. The difference between melatonin-responders and non-responders occurred very early during learning indicating that melatonin might have improved working memory rather than reward learning. Future studies should use paradigms differentiating working memory and reward learning to clarify which aspect of human feedback learning might profit from melatonin.
Gold, Judith E; Rauscher, Kimberly J; Zhu, Motao
Texting is associated with adverse health effects including musculoskeletal disorders, sleep disturbances, and traffic crashes. Many studies have relied on self-reported texting frequency, yet the validity of self-reports is unknown. Our objective was to provide some of the first data on the validity of self-reported texting frequency, cell phone characteristics including input device (e.g. touchscreen), key configuration (e.g., QWERTY), and texting styles including phone orientation (e.g., horizontal) and hands holding the phone while texting. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and observation of a texting task among college students ages 18 to 24. To gauge agreement between self-reported and phone bill-derived categorical number of daily text messages sent, we calculated percent of agreement, Spearman correlation coefficient, and a linear weighted kappa statistic. For agreement between self-reported and observed cell phone characteristics and texting styles we calculated percentages of agreement. We used chi-square tests to detect significant differences (α = 0.05) by gender and study protocol. There were 106 participants; 87 of which had complete data for texting frequency analyses. Among these 87, there was 26% (95% CI: 21-31) agreement between self-reported and phone bill-derived number of daily text messages sent with a Spearman's rho of 0.48 and a weighted kappa of 0.17 (95% CI: 0.06-0.27). Among those who did not accurately report the number of daily texts sent, 81% overestimated this number. Among the full sample (n = 106), there was high agreement between self-reported and observed texting input device (96%, 95% CI: 91-99), key configuration (89%, 95% CI: 81-94), and phone orientation while texting (93%, 95% CI: 86-97). No differences were found by gender or study protocol among any items. While young adults correctly reported their cell phone's characteristics and phone orientation while texting, most incorrectly
Gilad, Gad M; Gilad, Varda H
There is presently a great interest in the therapeutic potential of agmatine, decarboxylated arginine, for various diseases. Recent clinical studies have already shown that oral agmatine sulfate given for up to 3 weeks provides a safe and, as compared with current therapeutics, more effective treatment for neuropathic pain. These studies have ushered in the use of dietary agmatine as a nutraceutical. However, in view of information paucity, assessment of long-term safety of oral agmatine treatment is now clearly required. The authors of this report undertook to assess their own health status during ongoing consumption of a high daily dosage of oral agmatine over a period of 4-5 years. A daily dose of 2.67 g agmatine sulfate was encapsulated in gelatin capsules; the regimen consists of six capsules daily, each containing 445 mg, three in the morning and three in the evening after meals. Clinical follow-up consists of periodic physical examinations and laboratory blood and urine analyses. All measurements thus far remain within normal values and good general health status is sustained throughout the study period, up to 5 years. This case study shows for the first time that the recommended high dosage of agmatine may be consumed for at least 5 years without evidence of any adverse effects. These initial findings are highly important as they provide significant evidence for the extended long-term safety of a high daily dosage of dietary agmatine--a cardinal advantage for its utility as a nutraceutical.
Islas-Marroquín, J; Delgado-Brambila, H A
Afternoon nap sleep was studied in 32 young male medical students who take customary naps to replace loss in nocturnal sleep. From 16 subjects, a group called dreamers was formed, and the other 16 individuals were grouped as non-dreamers. Polygraphic recordings lasting 30 min were done at a fixed time in the afternoon, and the relationship between these data and the occurrence of dreams was investigated. We found that this replacing of nap sleep can adopt different sequences and relative durations of its phases, and can also show individual variations that have a systematic relationship with the occurrence of dreams. It was observed that dreaming was closely related to the appearance, during the first 10 minutes of the nap, of Stage I with Slow Eye Movements, interrupted by Sleep Onset REM Periods (SOREMPs) and, to a lesser degree, to phases IV and III of slow sleep. According to these findings, the existence of dreamers and non-dreamers depends upon the relationship between an internal sleep-waking rhythm, and an external rhythm imposed by the daytime resting-activity schedule on the habit of dreaming, and, to a certain extent, on the mental phenomena occurring between the generation of dreams and the moment of awakening.
... live weight basis; and (iv) The base price and premiums and discounts paid for carcass characteristics... unavailable due to pricing that is determined on a delayed basis. The packer shall report information on such... reporting day, unless such information is unavailable due to pricing that is determined on a delayed basis...
Muza, Rexford; Lykouras, Dimosthenis; Rees, Kate
This is the first study that aimed to look specifically at the utility of the 5(th) nap in the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), a test used to assist in the diagnosis of narcolepsy. Data was retrospectively collected from the Sleep Disorders Centre of a Tertiary Hospital on patients that had a 5(th) nap during their MSLT from the 08(th) November 2011 to 12(th) November 2014. Fifty-three patients had a 5(th) nap performed out of 378 MSLT studies. In 16% of cases a diagnosis of narcolepsy was given directly due to the inclusion of the 5(th) nap on the MSLT. Here a 5(th) nap allowed diagnostic criteria of mean sleep latency 2 SOREMPS to be met. In 53% of cases the mean sleep latency increased due to 5(th) nap inclusion; the mean sleep latency of the first four naps was 5.6 vs. 6.7 after inclusion of the 5(th) nap. The 5(th) nap is not often performed within the MSLT studies. Our study shows that only a few patients may benefit from a 5(th) nap opportunity which also led to increase of the mean sleep latency at the expense of extra time, cost, labour and increased patient anxiety.
Marchewka, Artur; Zurawski, Łukasz; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Grabowska, Anna
Selecting appropriate stimuli to induce emotional states is essential in affective research. Only a few standardized affective stimulus databases have been created for auditory, language, and visual materials. Numerous studies have extensively employed these databases using both behavioral and neuroimaging methods. However, some limitations of the existing databases have recently been reported, including limited numbers of stimuli in specific categories or poor picture quality of the visual stimuli. In the present article, we introduce the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS), which consists of 1,356 realistic, high-quality photographs that are divided into five categories (people, faces, animals, objects, and landscapes). Affective ratings were collected from 204 mostly European participants. The pictures were rated according to the valence, arousal, and approach-avoidance dimensions using computerized bipolar semantic slider scales. Normative ratings for the categories are presented for each dimension. Validation of the ratings was obtained by comparing them to ratings generated using the Self-Assessment Manikin and the International Affective Picture System. In addition, the physical properties of the photographs are reported, including luminance, contrast, and entropy. The new database, with accompanying ratings and image parameters, allows researchers to select a variety of visual stimulus materials specific to their experimental questions of interest. The NAPS system is freely accessible to the scientific community for noncommercial use by request at http://naps.nencki.gov.pl .
McCool, Judith; Cussen, Ashleigh; Ameratunga, Shanthi
In the context of a globalised world, reports on health that extend personal or country borders have increasing relevance. Media can promote opportunities to identify and address gaps in important global health issues. In light of the potential role of media as an advocacy tool for global health, we examined how global health issues are represented in mainstream media in New Zealand. We conducted a content analysis of media reports on global health issues in the four highest circulation newspapers in New Zealand between June 2007 and May 2009. Search terms included 'global health, 'international health' and 'world health'. Communicable disease was the most frequently reported global health issue in New Zealand newspapers, followed by environment (e.g. climate change), general health risks (unsafe pharmaceuticals) and substance use (tobacco and alcohol). Chronic disease, injury or their determinants were less frequently reported. Mainstream media favours health-related reports based on crisis, epidemic or acute conditions over chronic or non-communicable diseases or disability. Health issues facing the Asia Pacific region increasingly include chronic diseases, which would benefit from greater media coverage to increase advocacy and political awareness of global health challenges.
... are associated with health messages. 2. Why Report the AQI? The AQI offers various advantages: a. It... Program” (the Forecasting Guidance) will help you start a forecasting program. You can also issue short... Developing an Ozone Forecasting Program) that explains the steps necessary to start an air pollution...
Boeltzig, Axel; Deboer, Richard James; Macon, Kevin; Wiescher, Michael; Best, Andreas; Imbriani, Gianluca; Gyürky, György; Strieder, Frank
The reaction 23Na(p, γ)24Mg can provide a link from the NeNa to the MgAl cycle in stellar burning and is therefore of interest in nuclear astrophysics. To determine the reaction rates at stellar temperatures, new cross section measurements at low proton energies have been performed recently, and further experiments are underway. The current cross section data implies that the reaction rate up to temperatures of 1 GK is determined by a few narrow resonances and direct capture. Complementary to these experimental efforts at low proton energies, cross section measurements at higher energies can help to constrain the direct capture and broad resonance contributions to the cross section and reduce the uncertainty of the extrapolation towards stellar energies. In this paper we report an experiment to measure the 23Na(p, γ)24Mg cross section with a solid target setup at the St. ANA 5U accelerator at the University of Notre Dame. The experiment and the current status of data analysis will be described. This work benefited from support by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1430152 (JINA-CEE), the Nuclear Science Laboratory (NSL), the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), and the Gran Sasso Science Institute (GSSI).
Full Text Available Multiple studies have established the effects of afternoon naps on cognition. However, relatively few studies have investigated the domain of executive functions. Moreover, the effects of napping on inhibition are far from conclusive. The present study employed adult habitual nappers to investigate the effects of afternoon nap deprivation on response-based inhibition assessed by a Go/No-go task and stimulus-based inhibition assessed by a Flanker task and on alertness assessed by a psychomotor vigilance test (PVT and the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS. The results showed that afternoon nap deprivation significantly decreased participants’ accuracy and reaction speed for the Go/No-go task but not for the Flanker task. In addition, participants’ alertness was significantly impaired after nap deprivation in terms of increased subjective sleepiness and worse PVT performance. Task-specific effects of napping on inhibition were demonstrated. The implications of the results are discussed.
O'Donnell, Shannon; Beaven, Christopher M; Driller, Matthew
To assess the effect of match-day napping and duration of naps on perceptual and performance indices in elite female netball players over two consecutive netball seasons. Fourteen elite female netball athletes (mean ± SD; age = 23 ± 6 yr) participated in an observational study over 26 competition matches. On each match day, athletes provided information on their napping habits, perceived energy levels, and then performed 3 countermovement jumps (CMJ) 3h30 prior to the start of the match. One hour following the match, subjective player performance ratings from the players and two members of the coaching staff were obtained. Naps were characterized into 3 conditions for analysis; No Nap (NN), Nap (SHORT), and ≥20 min Nap (LONG). A significant difference in peak jump velocity was observed between the SHORT and the NN condition in favor of the shorter nap (3.23 ± 0.26 and 3.07 ± 0.36 m.s -1 , respectively, d = 0.34, p nap (<20 min) on the day of competition can enhance jump velocity and improve subjective performance in elite netball players, as assessed by coaching staff.
Hilditch, Cassie J; Dorrian, Jillian; Banks, Siobhan
Napping is a widely used countermeasure to sleepiness and impaired performance caused by sleep loss and circadian pressure. Sleep inertia, the period of grogginess and impaired performance experienced after waking, is a potential side effect of napping. Many industry publications recommend naps of 30 min or less to avoid this side effect. However, the evidence to support this advice is yet to be thoroughly reviewed. Electronic databases were searched, and defined criteria were applied to select articles for review. The review covers literature on naps of 30 min or less regarding (a) sleep inertia, (b) slow-wave sleep (SWS) and (c) the relationship between sleep inertia and SWS. The review found that although the literature on short afternoon naps is relatively comprehensive, there are very few studies on naps of 30 min or less at night. Studies have mixed results regarding the onset of SWS and the duration and severity of sleep inertia following short naps, making guidelines regarding their use unclear. The varying results are likely due to differing sleep/wake profiles before the nap of interest and the time of the day at waking. The review highlights the need to have more detailed guidelines about the implementation of short naps according to the time of the day and prior sleep/wake history. Without this context, such a recommendation is potentially misleading. Further research is required to better understand the interactions between these factors, especially at night, and to provide more specific recommendations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Oriyama, Sanae; Miyakoshi, Yukiko
This study aimed to elucidate the effects of two naps taken at night on morning waking state and performance. The participants were 12 women. The experiment was performed in a laboratory over 2 days (16:00-09:00). In this crossover comparative study, three experimental nap conditions were used (naps from 22:30 to 00:00 and from 02:30 to 03:00 (22:30-NAP), 00:30 to 02:00 and 04:30 to 05:00 (00:30-NAP), and no naps (NO-NAP), respectively). Measurement items were a Visual Analog Scale for sleepiness and fatigue, the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT), and single-digit addition calculations (10 min) every hour for 18 h from 16:00 to 09:00, excluding nap times. Sleep inertia and sleepiness were noted directly after napping. Less sleepiness and fatigue were noted in the nap groups between 06:00 and 09:00 in the morning than in the NO-NAP condition and PVT response times were faster. Since participants in the nap groups were able to conduct more single-digit addition calculations, the performance of these groups appeared to be superior to that of the NO-NAP condition. Furthermore, the performance of calculations was significantly better in the 00:30-NAP than in the 22:30-NAP. Taking two naps during a simulated night shift helps improve sleepiness and fatigue and maintain performance. Taking a nap in the early morning appears to be promising for improving the waking state.
Stawski, Robert S.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Almeida, David M.; Smyth, Joshua M.
A central goal of daily stress research is to identify resilience and vulnerability factors associated with exposure and reactivity to daily stressors. The current study examined how age differences and global perceptions of stress relate to exposure and emotional reactivity to daily stressors. Sixty-seven younger (Mage = 20) and 116 older (Mage = 80) adults completed a daily stress diary and measures of positive and negative affect on 6 days over a 14 day period. Participants also completed ...
Faraut, Brice; Nakib, Samir; Drogou, Catherine; Elbaz, Maxime; Sauvet, Fabien; De Bandt, Jean-Pascal; Léger, Damien
Neuroendocrine and immune stresses imposed by chronic sleep restriction are known to be involved in the harmful cardiovascular effects associated with poor sleep. Despite a well-known beneficial effect of napping on alertness, its effects on neuroendocrine stress and immune responses after sleep restriction are largely unknown. This study was a strictly controlled (sleep-wake status, light environment, caloric intake), crossover, randomized design in continuously polysomnography-monitored subjects. The study was conducted in a laboratory-based study. The subjects were 11 healthy young men. We investigated the effects on neuroendocrine and immune biomarkers of a night of sleep restricted to 2 h followed by a day without naps or with 30 minute morning and afternoon naps, both conditions followed by an ad libitum recovery night starting at 20:00. Salivary interleukin-6 and urinary catecholamines were assessed throughout the daytime study periods. The increase in norepinephrine values seen at the end of the afternoon after the sleep-restricted night was not present when the subjects had the opportunity to take naps. Interleukin-6 changes observed after sleep deprivation were also normalized after napping. During the recovery day in the no-nap condition, there were increased levels of afternoon epinephrine and dopamine, which was not the case in the nap condition. A recovery night after napping was associated with a reduced amount of slow-wave sleep compared to after the no-nap condition. Our data suggest that napping has stress-releasing and immune effects. Napping could be easily applied in real settings as a countermeasure to the detrimental health consequences of sleep debt.
Cairns, B J; Travis, R C; Wang, X-S; Reeves, G K; Green, J; Beral, V
Sleep disturbance, a correlate of which is daytime napping, has been hypothesised to be associated with risk of breast and other cancers. We estimated relative risks (RR) of breast and other invasive cancers by the reported frequency of daytime napping in a large prospective cohort of middle-aged women in the UK. During an average of 7.4 years of follow-up, 20 058 breast cancers and 31 856 other cancers were diagnosed. Over the first 4 years of follow-up, daytime napping (sometimes/usually vs rarely/never) was associated with slightly increased risks of breast cancer (RR=1.10, 95% CI 1.06-1.15) and of other cancers (RR=1.12, 1.08-1.15), but the RRs decreased significantly with increasing follow-up time (P=0.001 and P=0.01, respectively, for trend). Four or more years after baseline, there was no elevated risk of breast cancer (RR=1.00, 0.96-1.05), and only marginally greater risk of other cancers (RR=1.04, 1.01-1.07). The effect of pre-clinical disease is a likely explanation for the short-term increased risk of breast and other cancers associated with daytime napping. © 2012 Cancer Research UK
Rispens, Sietse M; van Schooten, Kimberley S; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Daffertshofer, Andreas; Beek, Peter J; van Dieën, Jaap H
Background. Gait characteristics extracted from trunk accelerations during daily life locomotion are complementary to questionnaire- or laboratory-based gait and balance assessments and may help to improve fall risk prediction. Objective. The aim of this study was to identify gait characteristics that are associated with self-reported fall history and that can be reliably assessed based on ambulatory data collected during a single week. Methods. We analyzed 2 weeks of trunk acceleration data (DynaPort MoveMonitor, McRoberts) collected among 113 older adults (age range, 65-97 years). During episodes of locomotion, various gait characteristics were determined, including local dynamic stability, interstride variability, and several spectral features. For each characteristic, we performed a negative binomial regression analysis with the participants' self-reported number of falls in the preceding year as outcome. Reliability of gait characteristics was assessed in terms of intraclass correlations between both measurement weeks. Results. The percentages of spectral power below 0.7 Hz along the vertical and anteroposterior axes and below 10 Hz along the mediolateral axis, as well as local dynamic stability, local dynamic stability per stride, gait smoothness, and the amplitude and slope of the dominant frequency along the vertical axis, were associated with the number of falls in the preceding year and could be reliably assessed (all P 0.75). Conclusions. Daily life gait characteristics are associated with fall history in older adults and can be reliably estimated from a week of ambulatory trunk acceleration measurements. © The Author(s) 2014.
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Hoekema, A; Stegenga, B; Meinesz, AF; van der Hoeven, JH; Wijkstra, PJ
When treating Obstructive Steep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS) several alternatives for standard (manual) continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) titration are feasible. A practical alternative is titration without polysomnography during an afternoon nap (Nap-titration). The aim of the present
2College of Life Science and Life Engineering, Science and Technology University of ... some assembly protein that belongs to the NAPs family of ... ing the cholesterol balance in the body. .... Similarly, our work also showed that Nap1l4 was.
Mednick, Sara C; Cai, Denise J; Kanady, Jennifer; Drummond, Sean P A
Caffeine, the world's most common psychoactive substance, is used by approximately 90% of North Americans everyday. Little is known, however, about its benefits for memory. Napping has been shown to increase alertness and promote learning on some memory tasks. We directly compared caffeine (200mg) with napping (60-90min) and placebo on three distinct memory processes: declarative verbal memory, procedural motor skills, and perceptual learning. In the verbal task, recall and recognition for unassociated words were tested after a 7h retention period (with a between-session nap or drug intervention). A second, different, word list was administered post-intervention and memory was tested after a 20min retention period. The non-declarative tasks (finger tapping task (FTT) and texture discrimination task (TDT)) were trained before the intervention and then retested afterwards. Naps enhanced recall of words after a 7h and 20min retention interval relative to both caffeine and placebo. Caffeine significantly impaired motor learning compared to placebo and naps. Napping produced robust perceptual learning compared with placebo; however, naps and caffeine were not significantly different. These findings provide evidence of the limited benefits of caffeine for memory improvement compared with napping. We hypothesize that impairment from caffeine may be restricted to tasks that contain explicit information; whereas strictly implicit learning is less compromised.
Vaughan, Leslie; Hogan, Patricia E; Rapp, Stephen R; Dugan, Elizabeth; Marottoli, Richard A; Snively, Beverly M; Shumaker, Sally A; Sink, Kaycee M
To investigate associations between proxy report of cognitive and functional limitations and cognitive performance and current or former driving status in older women with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and all-cause dementia. Cross-sectional data analysis of retrospectively identified older women with adjudicated MCI and all-cause dementia in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study-Epidemiology of Cognitive Health Outcomes (WHIMS-ECHO). Academic medical center. Women (mean age ± standard deviation 83.7 ± 3.5) adjudicated with MCI or dementia during Year 1, 2, 3, or 4 of the WHIMS-ECHO follow-up period (N = 385). The telephone-administered cognitive battery included tests of attention, verbal learning and memory, verbal fluency, executive function, working memory, and global cognitive function plus self-report measures of depressive symptomatology. The Dementia Questionnaire (DQ) was administered to a knowledgeable proxy (family member, friend). Sixty percent of women with MCI and 40% of those with dementia are current drivers. Proxy reports of functional limitations in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) are associated with current driving status in women with MCI, whereas performance-based cognitive tests are not. In women with dementia, proxy reports of functional limitations in IADLs and performance-based cognitive tests are associated with current driving status, as expected. These findings have clinical implications for the importance of evaluating driving concurrently with other instrumental functional abilities in MCI and dementia. Additional work is needed to determine whether proxy report of cognitive and functional impairments should help guide referrals for driving assessment and rehabilitation or counseling for driving transition. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.
Full Text Available Sleep helps the consolidation of declarative memories in the laboratory, but the pro-mnemonic effect of daytime naps in schools is yet to be fully characterized. While a few studies indicate that sleep can indeed benefit school learning, it remains unclear how best to use it. Here we set out to evaluate the influence of daytime naps on the duration of declarative memories learned in school by students of 10-15 years old. A total of 584 students from 6th grade were investigated. Students within a regular classroom were exposed to a 15-minute lecture on new declarative contents, absent from the standard curriculum for this age group. The students were then randomly sorted into nap and non-nap groups. Students in the nap group were conducted to a quiet room with mats, received sleep masks and were invited to sleep. At the same time, students in the non-nap group attended regular school classes given by their usual teacher (Experiment I, or English classes given by another experimenter (Experiment II. In Experiment I (n=371, students were pre-tested on lecture-related contents before the lecture, were invited to nap for up to 2 hours, and after 1, 2 or 5 days received surprise tests with similar content but different wording and question order. In Experiment II (n=213, students were invited to nap for up to 50 minutes (duration of a regular class; surprise tests were applied immediately after the lecture, and repeated after 5, 30 or 110 days. Experiment I showed a significant ~10% gain in test scores for both nap and non-nap groups 1 day after learning, in comparison with pre-test scores. This gain was sustained in the nap group after 2 and 5 days, but in the non-nap group it decayed completely after 5 days. In Experiment II, the nap group showed significantly higher scores than the non-nap group at all times tested, thus precluding specific conclusions. The results suggest that sleep can be used to enhance the duration of memory contents learned in
Full Text Available ABSTRACT On-shift napping can benefit night workers regarding sleep loss, synchronization of circadian rhythms, and alertness. However, few studies on napping can be found in the literature focused on possible health benefits. This cross-sectional study has investigated the role of on-shift napping on the association between night work and BMI in 409 night-shift nursing professionals. The number of working nights and the years of exposure to night work were significantly associated with increased BMI levels among non-nappers, but not among nappers. Results suggest a benefit of napping for weight gain, thus subsidizing occupational health policies on the regulation of on-shift napping among nursing workers.
Silva-Costa, Aline; Griep, Rosane Härter; Rotenberg, Lúcia
On-shift napping can benefit night workers regarding sleep loss, synchronization of circadian rhythms, and alertness. However, few studies on napping can be found in the literature focused on possible health benefits. This cross-sectional study has investigated the role of on-shift napping on the association between night work and BMI in 409 night-shift nursing professionals. The number of working nights and the years of exposure to night work were significantly associated with increased BMI levels among non-nappers, but not among nappers. Results suggest a benefit of napping for weight gain, thus subsidizing occupational health policies on the regulation of on-shift napping among nursing workers.
Centofanti, Stephanie A; Hilditch, Cassie J; Dorrian, Jillian; Banks, Siobhan
Short naps on night shift are recommended in some industries. There is a paucity of evidence to verify the sustained recovery benefits of short naps in the last few hours of the night shift. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the sustained recovery benefits of 30 and 10-min nap opportunities during a simulated night shift. Thirty-one healthy participants (18F, 21-35 y) completed a 3-day, between-groups laboratory study with one baseline night (22:00-07:00 h time in bed), followed by one night awake (time awake from 07:00 h on day two through 10:00 h day three) with random allocation to: a 10-min nap opportunity ending at 04:00 h, a 30-min nap opportunity ending at 04:00 h or no nap (control). A neurobehavioral test bout was administered approximately every 2 h during wake periods. There were no significant differences between nap conditions for post-nap psychomotor vigilance performance after controlling for pre-nap scores (p > 0.05). The 30-min nap significantly improved subjective sleepiness compared to the 10-min nap and no-nap control (p effect.
Yu, L; Wang, H B; Jiang, Q
Objective: To explore the impact of patient reported outcome of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) related side effects on daily life in Chinese patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in the chronic phase (CP). Methods: From May to November in 2014, anonymous questionnaires were distributed to adult CML patients who were receiving TKI treatment in China. The impact of TKI-related side effects on daily life were assessed by the score of 1 (no impact) to 5 (high impact) from patient self-report. Results: Data from 731 respondents in the CP who reported the score of the impact of TKI-related side effects on daily life were collected. 407 (56%) were male. The median age was 41 years (range, 18 to 88 years). 560 (77%) started TKI treatment within 1 year after diagnosis. With a median treatment duration of 3 years (range, effects were edema ( n =323, 44% ), fatigue ( n =277, 38% ), gastrointestinal disorders ( n =235, 32% ), skin color changes ( n =142, 19% ), muscle cramps ( n =137, 19% ), rash ( n =105, 14% ), hepatic function abnormalities ( n =91, 12%), weight gain ( n =86, 12%), and cytopenia ( n =59, 8%). Multivariate analyses showed that TKI treatment duration effects on daily life in 218 (30%)respondents (1 score). 375 (51%)respondents reported their daily life were slightly or moderately decreased (2 or 3 score), while 138 (19%) significantly decreased (4 or 5 score). Multivariate analyses showed that female, ≥40 years old, use of generic TKI, TKI treatment duration negative effect on their daily life. When taking TKI related side-effects into considderation, secondary school and below, use of generic TKI, TKI treatment duration negative effect on their daily life. Conclusion: Edema, fatigue, gastrointestinal disorders, rash, skin color changes and hepatic function abnormalities were common TKI-related side effects and influenced CML patients' daily life in China. In addition, female, older age, lower education level, use of generic TKI and shorter TKI
Signal, Tracey Leigh; van den Berg, Margo J; Mulrine, Hannah M; Gander, Philippa H
Due to the mixed findings of previous studies, it is still difficult to provide guidance on how to best manage sleep inertia after waking from naps in operational settings. One of the few factors that can be manipulated is the duration of the nap opportunity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the magnitude and time course of sleep inertia after waking from short (20-, 40- or 60-min) naps during simulated night work and extended operations. In addition, the effect of sleep stage on awakening and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) on sleep inertia was assessed. Two within-subject protocols were conducted in a controlled laboratory setting. Twenty-four healthy young men (Protocol 1: n = 12, mean age = 25.1 yrs; Protocol 2: n = 12, mean age = 23.2 yrs) were provided with nap opportunities of 20-, 40-, and 60-min (and a control condition of no nap) ending at 02:00 h after ∼20 h of wakefulness (Protocol 1 [P1]: simulated night work) or ending at 12:00 h after ∼30 h of wakefulness (Protocol 2 [P2]: simulated extended operations). A 6-min test battery, including the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) and the 4-min 2-Back Working Memory Task (WMT), was repeated every 15 min the first hour after waking. Nap sleep was recorded polysomnographically, and in all nap opportunities sleep onset latency was short and sleep efficiency high. Mixed-model analyses of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures were calculated and included the factors time (time post-nap), nap opportunity (duration of nap provided), order (order in which the four protocols were completed), and the interaction of these terms. Results showed no test x nap opportunity effect (i.e., no effect of sleep inertia) on KSS. However, WMT performance was impaired (slower reaction time, fewer correct responses, and increased omissions) on the first test post-nap, primarily after a 40- or 60-min nap. In P2 only, performance improvement was evident 45 min post-awakening for naps of 40 min or more. In ANOVAs
Owens, Jane F; Buysse, Daniel J; Hall, Martica; Kamarck, Thomas W; Lee, Laisze; Strollo, Patrick J; Reis, Steven E; Matthews, Karen A
To evaluate the relations between sleep characteristics and cardiovascular risk factors and napping behavior, and to assess whether daytime napping leads to subsequent better or worse sleep. The sample consisted of 224 (African American, Caucasian, and Asian) middle-aged men and women. Sleep measures included nine nights of actigraphy and sleep diaries, sleep questionnaires, and one night of polysomnography to measure sleep disordered breathing. More frequent napping was associated with shorter nighttime sleep duration averaged across the nine nights of actigraphy (especially among African Americans), more daytime sleepiness, more pain and fatigue by diary, and increased body mass index and waist circumference. Shorter nighttime sleep duration was associated with taking a nap during the next day and taking a nap was associated with less efficient sleep the next night. Napping in middle-aged men and women is associated with overall less nighttime sleep in African Americans and lower sleep efficiency as measured by actigraphy, and increased BMI and central adiposity. These findings point to the importance of measuring of napping in understanding associations of sleep with cardiovascular risk.
Byun, Eeeseung; Gay, Caryl L; Portillo, Carmen J; Pullinger, Clive R; Aouizerat, Bradley E; Lee, Kathryn A
Daytime napping longer than one hour has been associated with an increased risk for all-cause mortality. Associations between cytokine polymorphisms and daytime napping in chronic illnesses such as HIV, however, have not been well described. The purpose of this study was to examine cytokine polymorphisms associated with long daytime napping in adults living with HIV. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using a convenience sample of 257 adults living with HIV. Daytime napping was assessed with wrist actigraphy data collected over three days. Participants categorized as long nappers (≥60 min) were compared to short nappers and non-nappers (napping was associated with 12 SNPs from seven genes: 1) IFNG rs2069728; 2) IL1B rs1143642, rs1143627, and rs16944; 3) IL2 rs2069763; 4) IL6 rs4719714, rs1554606, and rs2069845; 5) IL17A rs3819024 and rs8193036; 6) NFKB1 rs4648110; and 7) NFKB2 rs1056890. Cytokine genetic variations may have a role in physiological regulation of daytime napping as well as nocturnal sleep. Cytokine polymorphisms associated with long daytime napping could help identify adults with HIV who may benefit from targeted therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Edwards, Marie P; McMillan, Diana E; Fallis, Wendy M
Fatigue associated with shiftwork can threaten the safety and health of nurses and the patients in their care. Napping during night shift breaks has been shown to be an effective strategy to decrease fatigue and enhance performance in a variety of work environments, but appears to have mixed support within health care. The purpose of this study was to explore critical care unit managers'perceptions of and experiences with their nursing staff's napping practices on night shift, including their perceptions of the benefits and barriers to napping/not napping in terms of patient safety and nurses'personal health and safety. A survey design was used. Forty-seven Canadian critical care unit managers who were members of the Canadian Association of Critical Care Nurses responded to the web-based survey. Data analysis involved calculation of frequencies and percentages for demographic data, use of the Friedman rank test for comparison of managers' perceptions, and content analysis for responses to open-ended questions. The findings of this study offer valuable insights into the complexities and conflicts perceived by managers with respect to napping on night shift breaks by nursing staff Staff and patient health and safety issues, work and break expectations and experiences, and strengths and deficits related to organizational napping resources and policy are considerations that will be instrumental in the development of effective napping strategies and guidelines.
Eckey, Maren; Hong, Wei; Papaioannou, Maria; Baniahmad, Aria
The assembly of nucleosomes into chromatin is essential for the compaction of DNA and inactivation of the DNA template to modulate and repress gene expression. The nucleosome assembly protein 1, NAP1, assembles nucleosomes independent of DNA synthesis and was shown to enhance coactivator-mediated gene expression, suggesting a role for NAP1 in transcriptional regulation. Here, we show that Alien, known to harbor characteristics of a corepressor of nuclear hormone receptors such as of the vitamin D receptor (VDR), binds in vivo and in vitro to NAP1 and modulates its activity by enhancing NAP1-mediated nucleosome assembly on DNA. Furthermore, Alien reduces the accessibility of the histones H3 and H4 for NAP1-promoted assembly reaction. This indicates that Alien sustains and reinforces the formation of nucleosomes. Employing deletion mutants of Alien suggests that different regions of Alien are involved in enhancement of NAP1-mediated nucleosome assembly and in inhibiting the accessibility of the histones H3 and H4. In addition, we provide evidence that Alien is associated with chromatin and with micrococcus nuclease-prepared nucleosome fractions and interacts with the histones H3 and H4. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation and reimmunoprecipitation experiments suggest that NAP1 and Alien localize to the endogenous CYP24 promoter in vivo, a VDR target gene. Based on these findings, we present here a novel pathway linking corepressor function with nucleosome assembly activity.
Sokolowska, P; Passemard, S; Mok, A; Schwendimann, L; Gozes, I; Gressens, P
Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) was shown to be essential for embryogenesis and brain development while NAP, an active motif of ADNP, is neuroprotective in a broad range of neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study, we examined the protective potential of ADNP/NAP in a mouse model of excitotoxic brain lesion mimicking brain damage associated with cerebral palsy. We demonstrated that NAP had a potent neuroprotective effect against ibotenate-induced excitotoxic damage in the cortical plate and the white matter of P5 mice, and moderate against brain lesions of P0 mice. In contrast, endogenous ADNP appears not to be involved in the response to excitotoxic challenge in the studied model. Our findings further show that NAP reduced the number of apoptotic neurons through activation of PI-3K/Akt pathway in the cortical plate or both PI-3K/Akt and MAPK/MEK1 kinases in the white matter. In addition, NAP prevented ibotenate-induced loss of pre-oligodendrocytes without affecting the number of astrocytes or activated microglia around the site of injection. These findings indicate that protective actions of NAP are mediated by triggering transduction pathways that are crucial for neuronal and oligodendroglial survival, thus, NAP might be a promising therapeutic agent for treating developing brain damage. © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pandit, J J; Andrade, J; Bogod, D G; Hitchman, J M; Jonker, W R; Lucas, N; Mackay, J H; Nimmo, A F; O'Connor, K; O'Sullivan, E P; Paul, R G; Palmer, J H M G; Plaat, F; Radcliffe, J J; Sury, M R J; Torevell, H E; Wang, M; Hainsworth, J; Cook, T M
We present the main findings of the 5th National Audit Project (NAP5) on accidental awareness during general anaesthesia (AAGA). Incidences were estimated using reports of accidental awareness as the numerator, and a parallel national anaesthetic activity survey to provide denominator data. The incidence of certain/probable and possible accidental awareness cases was ~1:19,600 anaesthetics (95% confidence interval 1:16,700-23,450). However, there was considerable variation across subtypes of techniques or subspecialities. The incidence with neuromuscular block (NMB) was ~1:8200 (1:7030-9700), and without, it was ~1:135,900 (1:78,600-299,000). The cases of AAGA reported to NAP5 were overwhelmingly cases of unintended awareness during NMB. The incidence of accidental awareness during Caesarean section was ~1:670 (1:380-1300). Two-thirds (82, 66%) of cases of accidental awareness experiences arose in the dynamic phases of anaesthesia, namely induction of and emergence from anaesthesia. During induction of anaesthesia, contributory factors included: use of thiopental, rapid sequence induction, obesity, difficult airway management, NMB, and interruptions of anaesthetic delivery during movement from anaesthetic room to theatre. During emergence from anaesthesia, residual paralysis was perceived by patients as accidental awareness, and commonly related to a failure to ensure full return of motor capacity. One-third (43, 33%) of accidental awareness events arose during the maintenance phase of anaesthesia, mostly due to problems at induction or towards the end of anaesthesia. Factors increasing the risk of accidental awareness included: female sex, age (younger adults, but not children), obesity, anaesthetist seniority (junior trainees), previous awareness, out-of-hours operating, emergencies, type of surgery (obstetric, cardiac, thoracic), and use of NMB. The following factors were not risk factors for accidental awareness: ASA physical status, race, and use or omission
Verweij, Ilse M; Onuki, Yoshiyuki; Van Someren, Eus J W; Van der Werf, Ysbrand D
Growing evidence suggests that sleep is important for procedural learning, but few studies have investigated the effect of sleep on the temporal aspects of motor skill learning. We assessed the effect of a 90-min day-time nap on learning a motor timing task, using 2 adaptations of a serial interception sequence learning (SISL) task. Forty-two right-handed participants performed the task before and after a 90-min period of sleep or wake. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded throughout. The motor task consisted of a sequential spatial pattern and was performed according to 2 different timing conditions, that is, either following a sequential or a random temporal pattern. The increase in accuracy was compared between groups using a mixed linear regression model. Within the sleep group, performance improvement was modeled based on sleep characteristics, including spindle- and slow-wave density. The sleep group, but not the wake group, showed improvement in the random temporal, but especially and significantly more strongly in the sequential temporal condition. None of the sleep characteristics predicted improvement on either general of the timing conditions. In conclusion, a daytime nap improves performance on a timing task. We show that performance on the task with a sequential timing sequence benefits more from sleep than motor timing. More important, the temporal sequence did not benefit initial learning, because differences arose only after an offline period and specifically when this period contained sleep. Sleep appears to aid in the extraction of regularities for optimal subsequent performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Nguyen, Allison M; Arbuckle, Rob; Korver, Tjeerd; Chen, Fang; Taylor, Beverley; Turnbull, Alice; Norquist, Josephine M
The objective of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Dysmenorrhea Daily Diary (DysDD), an electronic patient-reported outcome, in a sample of 355 women with primary dysmenorrhea enrolled in a phase IIb, multicenter, randomized, partially blinded, placebo-controlled trial for treatment of dysmenorrhea. Subjects completed the DysDD over three menstrual cycles, one pre-treatment baseline cycle and two treatment cycles. The DysDD was administered alongside the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ), the Short-Form 36 Version 2.0 (SF-36v2), and a Global Assessment of Change (GAC). Item response distributions, test-retest reliability, concurrent and known groups validity, responsiveness, and minimally important difference (MID) were evaluated for the DysDD. As expected, item response distributions varied throughout the menstrual period for all items, with the response scales fully utilized. Within-cycle test-retest reliability was adequate (weighted kappa: 0.5-0.7), although between-cycle test-retest was poor (weighted kappa: 0.1-0.5), most likely due to the highly variable nature of dysmenorrhea between cycles rather than limitations of the measure. Correlations with the MDQ and SF-36v2 were low-moderate, but in the predicted direction, supporting concurrent validity. There were significant differences in DysDD scores across severity groups based on pain medication use. The DysDD was responsive to changes in patients' dysmenorrhea with significantly different changes in scores between change groups (p dysmenorrhea.
Hilditch, Cassie J; Dorrian, Jillian; Centofanti, Stephanie A; Van Dongen, Hans P; Banks, Siobhan
Night shift workers are at risk of road accidents due to sleepiness on the commute home. A brief nap at the end of the night shift, before the commute, may serve as a sleepiness countermeasure. However, there is potential for sleep inertia, i.e. transient impairment immediately after awakening from the nap. We investigated whether sleep inertia diminishes the effectiveness of napping as a sleepiness countermeasure before a simulated commute after a simulated night shift. N=21 healthy subjects (aged 21-35 y; 12 females) participated in a 3-day laboratory study. After a baseline night, subjects were kept awake for 27h for a simulated night shift. They were randomised to either receive a 10-min nap ending at 04:00 plus a 10-min pre-drive nap ending at 07:10 (10-NAP) or total sleep deprivation (NO-NAP). A 40-min York highway driving task was performed at 07:15 to simulate the commute. A 3-min psychomotor vigilance test (PVT-B) and the Samn-Perelli Fatigue Scale (SP-Fatigue) were administered at 06:30 (pre-nap), 07:12 (post-nap), and 07:55 (post-drive). In the 10-NAP condition, total pre-drive nap sleep time was 9.1±1.2min (mean±SD), with 1.3±1.9min spent in slow wave sleep, as determined polysomnographically. There was no difference between conditions in PVT-B performance at 06:30 (before the nap). In the 10-NAP condition, PVT-B performance was worse after the nap (07:12) compared to before the nap (06:30); no change across time was found in the NO-NAP condition. There was no significant difference between conditions in PVT-B performance after the drive. SP-Fatigue and driving performance did not differ significantly between conditions. In conclusion, the pre-drive nap showed objective, but not subjective, evidence of sleep inertia immediately after awakening. The 10-min nap did not affect driving performance during the simulated commute home, and was not effective as a sleepiness countermeasure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Natália Tonon Monteiro
Full Text Available The practice of physical activities contributes to reducing the risk of chronic diseases and improves sleep patterns in the elderly. This research aimed to investigate the association between insomnia symptoms and daytime nap and the participation in physical leisure activities in elderly community residents. Data from the Studies Network of the Fragility in Brazilian Elderly (Campinas site, were used. Information from 689 elderly was analyzed, regarding sociodemographic characterization, physical leisure activity, occurrence of daytime napping and its duration, symptoms of insomnia and use of sleep medication. A significant association was found between the practice of walking and the daytime nap of short duration. Studies indicate that a short nap can benefit the quality of sleep and health of the elderly. Therefore, promoting the practice of walking can be a nursing intervention that favors the sleep patterns of the elderly.
June C Lo
Full Text Available Nocturnal sleep and daytime napping facilitate memory consolidation for semantically related and unrelated word pairs. We contrasted forgetting of both kinds of materials across a 12-hour interval involving either nocturnal sleep or daytime wakefulness (experiment 1 and a 2-hour interval involving either daytime napping or wakefulness (experiment 2. Beneficial effects of post-learning nocturnal sleep and daytime napping were greater for unrelated word pairs (Cohen's d=0.71 and 0.68 than for related ones (Cohen's d=0.58 and 0.15. While the size of nocturnal sleep and daytime napping effects was similar for unrelated word pairs, for related pairs, the effect of nocturnal sleep was more prominent. Together, these findings suggest that sleep preferentially facilitates offline memory processing of materials that are more susceptible to forgetting.
Lo, June C; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Groeger, John A
Nocturnal sleep and daytime napping facilitate memory consolidation for semantically related and unrelated word pairs. We contrasted forgetting of both kinds of materials across a 12-hour interval involving either nocturnal sleep or daytime wakefulness (experiment 1) and a 2-hour interval involving either daytime napping or wakefulness (experiment 2). Beneficial effects of post-learning nocturnal sleep and daytime napping were greater for unrelated word pairs (Cohen's d=0.71 and 0.68) than for related ones (Cohen's d=0.58 and 0.15). While the size of nocturnal sleep and daytime napping effects was similar for unrelated word pairs, for related pairs, the effect of nocturnal sleep was more prominent. Together, these findings suggest that sleep preferentially facilitates offline memory processing of materials that are more susceptible to forgetting.
Tumiran, Mohd Amzari; Rahman, Noor Naemah Abdul; Saat, Rohaida Mohd; Kabir, Nurul; Zulkifli, Mohd Yakub; Adli, Durriyyah Sharifah Hasan
Napping/siesta during the day is a phenomenon, which is widely practised in the world. However, the timing, frequency, and duration may vary. The basis of napping is also diverse, but it is mainly done for improvement in alertness and general well-being. Neuroscience reveals that midday napping improves memory, enhances alertness, boosts wakefulness and performance, and recovers certain qualities of lost night sleep. Interestingly, Islam, the religion of the Muslims, advocates midday napping primarily because it was a practice preferred by Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). The objectives of this review were to investigate and compare identical key points on focused topic from both neuroscientific and Islamic perspectives and make recommendations for future researches.
Gupta, J.P.; Vinod Kumar; Sen, S.K.; Malhotra, S.
Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) is the first standardized Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor in India commissioned in the year 1989. Many new Radiation Monitoring Systems like Portal Monitors and Ventilation Exhaust Activity Monitors were first time introduced at NAPS. All the Personnel Contamination Monitors and Area Radiation Monitors used at NAPS were designed and developed by Electronics Division, BARC. Only the Portal Monitor was supplied by M/S Herfurth, Germany. The paper highlights the operation and maintenance experiences on Radiation Monitoring Instrumentation at NAPS in the last 15 years of operation. The paper also highlights the different problems faced in Radiation Instruments and our suggestions for improvement in their design for their better availability and long term reliability. (author)
Lavallee, Loraine F.; Hatch, P. Maurine; Michalos, Alex C.; McKinley, Tara
On average, Anglo-Americans report that they are satisfied with their lives, but their global evaluations tend to deviate from their daily experiences (e.g., Oishi [2002, "Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin" 28(10), 1398-1406]). We explored the hypothesis that the average life satisfaction of Anglo-Americans is better characterized as…
Patrick, Megan E; Yeomans-Maldonado, Gloria; Griffin, Jamie
Daily affect and substance use covary among college students, but little is known about these associations among young adults not in college. The current pilot study examines associations between positive and negative affect and alcohol and marijuana use, with a focus on differences between college student and nonstudent young adults. High school seniors completed a baseline survey during the spring of 2012 and were then randomly selected to participate in an intensive measurement follow-up. Participants in the follow-up (N = 72, 40.3% men, 77.8% White, 66.7% full-time college students) completed up to 14 consecutive web-based daily surveys during the fall after high school completion. Multilevel models in which days (Level 1) were nested in persons (Level 2) were estimated. Weekend days were associated with increased alcohol use among all young adults, increased marijuana use among college students, and decreased marijuana use among nonstudents. For young adults not in college, greater daily positive affect was associated with increased likelihood of binge drinking, consuming a greater number of drinks, and lower odds of marijuana use; greater daily negative affect was associated with lower odds of alcohol use and lower odds of binge drinking for non-students. For college students, greater daily negative affect was associated with lower odds of marijuana use. Daily affect and alcohol and marijuana use covary among young adults, though these associations differ between students and non-students. Results highlight the need to examine predictors of alcohol and marijuana use among young adults who do not attend college.
Mednick, Sara C.; Cai, Denise J.; Kanady, Jennifer; Drummond, Sean P.A.
Caffeine, the world’s most common psychoactive substance, is used by approximately 90% of North Americans everyday. Little is known, however, about its benefits for memory. Napping has been shown to increase alertness and promote learning on some memory tasks. We directly compared caffeine (200mg) with napping (60–90 minutes) and placebo on three distinct memory processes: declarative verbal memory, procedural motor skills, and perceptual learning. In the verbal task, recall and recognition f...
Eckey, Maren; Hong, Wei; Papaioannou, Maria; Baniahmad, Aria
The assembly of nucleosomes into chromatin is essential for the compaction of DNA and inactivation of the DNA template to modulate and repress gene expression. The nucleosome assembly protein 1, NAP1, assembles nucleosomes independent of DNA synthesis and was shown to enhance coactivator-mediated gene expression, suggesting a role for NAP1 in transcriptional regulation. Here, we show that Alien, known to harbor characteristics of a corepressor of nuclear hormone receptors such as of the vitam...
Riigikaitse arengukavas (a. 2013-2022) on ette nähtud võimalused 1. jalaväebrigaadile hankida tänapäevased liikursuurtükid. Ülevaade liikursuurtükkide loomisest, kasutamisest sõdades ja tänapäevase liikursuurtüki iseloomustus. Näiteid erinevtest liikursuurtükkidest: Archer (Rootsi), Panzerhaubitze 2000 (Saksamaa), Caesar (Prantsusmaa), M777 (USA). Lisatud tabel tehniliste andmetega
Son, Ora [Department of Biological Science, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sunghan [Department of Biological Science, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Plant Science, Plant Genomics and Breeding Institute, Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Yun-jeong [Department of Biological Science, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo-Young [College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Hee-Jong, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Plant Science, Plant Genomics and Breeding Institute, Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Choong-Ill, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Biological Science, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of)
The ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6) is a downstream component of the signaling mediated by the target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase that acts as a central regulator of the key metabolic processes, such as protein translation and ribosome biogenesis, in response to various environmental cues. In our previous study, we identified a novel role of plant RPS6, which negatively regulates rDNA transcription, forming a complex with a plant-specific histone deacetylase, AtHD2B. Here we report that the Arabidopsis RPS6 interacts additionally with a histone chaperone, nucleosome assembly protein 1(AtNAP1;1). The interaction does not appear to preclude the association of RPS6 with AtHD2B, as the AtNAP1 was also able to interact with AtHD2B as well as with an RPS6-AtHD2B fusion protein in the BiFC assay and pulldown experiment. Similar to a positive effect of the ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (AtS6K1) on rDNA transcription observed in this study, overexpression or down regulation of the AtNAP1;1 resulted in concomitant increase and decrease, respectively, in rDNA transcription suggesting a positive regulatory role played by AtNAP1 in plant rDNA transcription, possibly through derepression of the negative effect of the RPS6-AtHD2B complex. - Highlights: • Nucleosome assembly protein 1 (AtNAP1) interacts with RPS6 as well as with AtHD2B. • rDNA transcription is regulated S6K1. • Overexpression or down regulation of AtNAP1 results in concomitant increase or decrease in rDNA transcription.
Baron, R.; Manniën, J.; de Jonge, J.; Heijmans, M.W.; Klomp, T.; Hutton, E.K.; Brug, J.
Smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor for various adverse birth outcomes. In order to develop effective interventions, insight is needed into the characteristics associated with pregnant women who smoke. Unknown is whether these characteristics differ for women who smoke daily and women who
Baron, Ruth; Manniën, Judith; de Jonge, Ank; Heymans, Martijn W; Klomp, Trudy; Hutton, Eileen K; Brug, Johannes
Smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor for various adverse birth outcomes. In order to develop effective interventions, insight is needed into the characteristics associated with pregnant women who smoke. Unknown is whether these characteristics differ for women who smoke daily and women who smoke occasionally. Our study sample, drawn from the DELIVER study (Sept 2009-March 2011), consisted of 6107 pregnant women in primary care in the Netherlands who were up to 34 weeks pregnant. The associations of thirteen socio-demographic or lifestyle-related characteristics with 'any smoking', 'daily smoking' and 'occasional smoking' during pregnancy were tested using multiple binary logistic regression with general estimating equations (GEE). Characteristics most strongly associated with any smoking were low education (OR 10.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 7.0-15.4), being of Turkish ethnicity (OR 3.9; 95%CI 2.3-6.7) and having no partner (OR 3.7; 95%CI 2.3-6.0). Women of Dutch ethnicity were three times more likely to smoke than those from Dutch-speaking Caribbean countries and non-religious women were much more likely to smoke than religious women. Low education was markedly more strongly associated with daily smoking than with occasional smoking (OR 20.3; 95%CI 13.2-31.3 versus OR 6.0; 95%CI 3.4-10.5). Daily smokers were more likely to be associated with other unfavorable lifestyle-related characteristics, such as not taking folic acid, being underweight, and having had an unplanned pregnancy. There is still much potential for health gain with respect to smoking during pregnancy in the Netherlands. Daily and occasional smokers appear to differ in characteristics, and therefore possibly require different interventions.
Full Text Available Smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor for various adverse birth outcomes. In order to develop effective interventions, insight is needed into the characteristics associated with pregnant women who smoke. Unknown is whether these characteristics differ for women who smoke daily and women who smoke occasionally. Our study sample, drawn from the DELIVER study (Sept 2009-March 2011, consisted of 6107 pregnant women in primary care in the Netherlands who were up to 34 weeks pregnant. The associations of thirteen socio-demographic or lifestyle-related characteristics with 'any smoking', 'daily smoking' and 'occasional smoking' during pregnancy were tested using multiple binary logistic regression with general estimating equations (GEE. Characteristics most strongly associated with any smoking were low education (OR 10.3; 95% confidence interval (CI 7.0-15.4, being of Turkish ethnicity (OR 3.9; 95%CI 2.3-6.7 and having no partner (OR 3.7; 95%CI 2.3-6.0. Women of Dutch ethnicity were three times more likely to smoke than those from Dutch-speaking Caribbean countries and non-religious women were much more likely to smoke than religious women. Low education was markedly more strongly associated with daily smoking than with occasional smoking (OR 20.3; 95%CI 13.2-31.3 versus OR 6.0; 95%CI 3.4-10.5. Daily smokers were more likely to be associated with other unfavorable lifestyle-related characteristics, such as not taking folic acid, being underweight, and having had an unplanned pregnancy. There is still much potential for health gain with respect to smoking during pregnancy in the Netherlands. Daily and occasional smokers appear to differ in characteristics, and therefore possibly require different interventions.
Baron, Ruth; Manni?n, Judith; de Jonge, Ank; Heymans, Martijn W.; Klomp, Trudy; Hutton, Eileen K.; Brug, Johannes
Smoking during pregnancy is a risk factor for various adverse birth outcomes. In order to develop effective interventions, insight is needed into the characteristics associated with pregnant women who smoke. Unknown is whether these characteristics differ for women who smoke daily and women who smoke occasionally. Our study sample, drawn from the DELIVER study (Sept 2009-March 2011), consisted of 6107 pregnant women in primary care in the Netherlands who were up to 34 weeks pregnant. The asso...
Derbenev, Ya.S.; Dikanskij, N.S.; Kudelajnen, V.I.; Lebedev, V.A.; Meshkov, I.N.; Parkhomchuk, V.V.; Pestrikov, D.V.; Skrinskij, A.N.; Sukhina, B.N.
Experimental results on the study of thermalization processes in a magnetized electron beam are presented. The experiments are carried out on the NAP-M storage ring in which electron beam, formed by three-electrode gun, is transported in a longitudinal magnetic field with the intensity 1.4 kGf and, having passed a three meter drift space, entered the analyzer. Conclusion is made on the possibility of preservation of low level of electron beam longitudinal spread at high enough intensity and considerable cooling length. Magnetic field, accompanying electron beam, prevent energy transfer from transverse degrees of freedom to longitudinal one, having a very low energy as a result of electrostatic acceleration. Gradient of longitudinal velocity over electron beam cross section, conditioned by its electric field, is eliminated by ion compensation of electron space charge. Under conditions, characteristic for electron cooling, the compensated beam preserves stability at high intensities. At considerable homogeneity of magnetic field and precise matching of average particle velocities the low level of electron longitudinal temperature can be used for rapid cooling of heavy particle beams to rather low temperatures
Full Text Available Both longer habitual day napping and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD are associated with diabetes and inflammation, but the association between day napping and NAFLD remains unexplored.To investigate the association between the duration of habitual day napping and NAFLD in an elderly Chinese population and to gain insight into the role of inflammatory cytokines in this association.We conducted a series of cross-sectional studies of the community population in Chongqing, China, from 2011 to 2012.Among 6998 participants aged 40 to 75 years, 6438 eligible participants were included in the first study and analyzed to observe the association between day napping duration and NAFLD. In a separate study, 80 non-nappers and 90 nappers were selected to identify the role of inflammatory cytokines in this association. Logistic regression models were used to examine the odds ratios (ORs of day nap duration with NAFLD.Day nappers had a significantly higher prevalence of NAFLD (P1 h of day napping compared with individuals who did not take day naps (all P0.05.Longer day napping duration is associated with a higher prevalence of NAFLD, and inflammatory cytokines may be an essential link between day napping and NAFLD.
Qu, Hua; Wang, Hang; Deng, Min; Wei, Huili; Deng, Huacong
Both longer habitual day napping and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) are associated with diabetes and inflammation, but the association between day napping and NAFLD remains unexplored. To investigate the association between the duration of habitual day napping and NAFLD in an elderly Chinese population and to gain insight into the role of inflammatory cytokines in this association. We conducted a series of cross-sectional studies of the community population in Chongqing, China, from 2011 to 2012. Among 6998 participants aged 40 to 75 years, 6438 eligible participants were included in the first study and analyzed to observe the association between day napping duration and NAFLD. In a separate study, 80 non-nappers and 90 nappers were selected to identify the role of inflammatory cytokines in this association. Logistic regression models were used to examine the odds ratios (ORs) of day nap duration with NAFLD. Day nappers had a significantly higher prevalence of NAFLD (Pnapping duration was associated in a dose-dependent manner with NAFLD (P trend 1 h of day napping compared with individuals who did not take day naps (all Pnapping duration and NAFLD disappeared (all P>0.05). Longer day napping duration is associated with a higher prevalence of NAFLD, and inflammatory cytokines may be an essential link between day napping and NAFLD.
David A Burns
Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and a major burden to healthcare services worldwide. In recent years, C. difficile strains belonging to the BI/NAP1/027 type have become highly represented among clinical isolates. These so-called 'hypervirulent' strains are associated with outbreaks of increased disease severity, higher relapse rates and an expanded repertoire of antibiotic resistance. Spores, formed during sporulation, play a pivotal role in disease transmission and it has been suggested that BI/NAP1/027 strains are more prolific in terms of sporulation in vitro than 'non-epidemic' C. difficile types. Work in our laboratory has since provided credible evidence to the contrary suggesting that the strain-to-strain variation in C. difficile sporulation characteristics is not type-associated. However, the BI/NAP1/027 type is still widely stated to have an increased rate of sporulation. In this study, we analysed the sporulation rates of 53 C. difficile strains, the largest sample size used to-date in such a study, including 28 BI/NAP1/027 isolates. Our data confirm that significant variation exists in the rate at which different C. difficile strains form spores. However, we clearly show that the sporulation rate of the BI/NAP1/027 type was no higher than that of non-BI/NAP1/027 strains. In addition, we observed substantial variation in sporulation characteristics within the BI/NAP1/027 type. This work highlights the danger of assuming that all strains of one type behave similarly without studying adequate sample sizes. Furthermore, we stress the need for more rigorous experimental procedures in order to quantify C. difficile sporulation more accurately in the future.
Silva-Costa, Aline; Fischer, Frida Marina; Griep, Rosane Harter; Rotenberg, Lúcia
Night shift employment involves displacing sleep to the daytime. For female workers, the opportunity for daytime sleep is influenced by routine housework demands, which aggravates sleep deprivation. Allowing naps to be taken during the night shift of work is a frequent practice at some hospitals and can help reduce the effects of sleep deprivation. We hypothesize that an association between domestic work and the length of naps during night work exists for nursing professionals. To test this hypothesis, two cross-sectional studies were conducted in two different hospitals. In Study 1, female workers answered questionnaires regarding sleeping habits, professional work, and housework demands. In Study 2, data regarding napping during shifts was obtained by actigraphy, a noninvasive method of monitoring the human sleep-wake cycle. The demand for the performance of housework was measured by (i) domestic work hours (total time spent performing domestic work per week), and (ii) domestic workload, which considers the degree of sharing domestic tasks and the number of people living at home. The populations from the two studies were subdivided into groups, based on the duration of napping at work. Data on naps were analyzed according to domestic demands, using the Mann-Whitney and Chi-squared tests. Among the two study populations (Studies 1 and 2), those in Study 2 were older, had shorter professional weekly work hours, worked more night shifts, and dedicated more time to housework. significant associations were only found in Study 2, where greater time napping at work was associated with both greater time spent doing housework and greater domestic workload. The known benefits of napping during night shifts seem to be especially relevant for female workers who are more sleep-deprived from working more night shifts and who have higher demands for housework.
Jonathan M. Lassonde
Full Text Available The shift from a biphasic to a monophasic sleep schedule is a fundamental milestone in early childhood. This transition, however, may result in periods of acute sleep loss as children may nap on some but not all days. Although data indicating the behavioral consequences of nap deprivation in young children are accumulating, little is known about changes to sleep neurophysiology following daytime sleep loss. This study addresses this gap in knowledge by examining the effects of acute nap deprivation on subsequent nighttime sleep electroencephalographic (EEG parameters in toddlers. Healthy children (n=25; 11 males; ages 30–36 months followed a strict sleep schedule for ≥5 days before sleep EEG recordings performed on 2 non-consecutive days: one after 13 h of prior wakefulness and another at the same clock time but preceded by a daytime nap. Total slow-wave energy (SWE was computed as cumulative slow-wave activity (SWA; EEG power in 0.75–4.5 Hz range over time. Nap and subsequent night SWE were added and compared to SWE of the night after a missed nap. During the night following a missed nap, children fell asleep faster (11.9±8.7 min versus 37.3±22.1 min; d=1.6, p=0.01, slept longer (10.1±0.7 h versus 9.6±0.6 h; d=0.7, p<0.01 and exhibited greater SWA (133.3±37.5% versus 93.0±4.7%; d=0.9, p<0.01 compared to a night after a daytime nap. SWE for combined nap and subsequent night sleep did not significantly differ from the night following nap deprivation (12141.1±3872.9 μV²*h versus 11,588±3270.8 μV²*h; d=0.6, p=0.12. However, compared to a night following a missed nap, children experienced greater time in bed (13.0±0.8 h versus 10.9±0.5 h; d=3.1, p<0.01 and total sleep time (11.2±0.8 h versus 10.1±0.7 h; d=1.4, p<0.01. Shorter sleep latency, longer sleep duration, and increased SWA in the night following a missed nap indicate that toddlers experience a physiologically meaningful homeostatic challenge after prolonged
Full Text Available The impact of sleep on motor learning in the aging brain was investigated using an experimental diurnal nap setup. As the brain ages several components of learning as well as motor performance change. In addition, aging is also related to sleep architectural changes. This combination of slowed learning processes and impaired sleep behavior raises the question of whether sleep can enhance learning and specifically performance of procedural tasks in healthy, older adults. Previous research was able to show sleep-dependent consolidation overnight for numerous tasks in young adults. Some of these study findings can also be replicated for older adults. This study aims to clarify whether sleep-dependent consolidation can also be found during shorter periods of diurnal sleep. The impact of midday naps on motor consolidation was analyzed by comparing procedural learning using a sequence and a motor adaptation task, in a crossover fashion in healthy, non-sleep deprived, older adults randomly subjected to wake (45 min, short nap (10-20 min sleep or long nap (50-70 min sleep conditions. Older adults exhibited learning gains, these were not found to be sleep-dependent in either task. The results suggest that daytime naps do not have an impact on performance and motor learning in an aging population.
Tanabe, Naohito; Iso, Hiroyasu; Seki, Nao; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Tamakoshi, Akiko
Daytime napping is associated with elevated risk of all-cause mortality in the elderly. However, the association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is inconsistent. From 1988 to 1990, a total of 67 129 Japanese non-workers or daytime workers (27 755 men and 39 374 women) aged 40-79 years, without a history of stroke, heart disease or cancer, completed a lifestyle questionnaire. They were followed for mortality until the end of 2003. During the 879 244 person-year follow-up, 9643 deaths (2852 from CVD, 3643 from cancer, 2392 from other internal causes, 738 from external causes and 18 from unspecified causes) were observed. After adjustment for possible confounders, subjects with a daytime napping habit had elevated hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality from all causes [HR 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-1.24, P napping was diminished among overweight subjects, but pronounced in those with weight loss after age 20 years, with non-regular employment, with lower education level and with a follow-up period napping is associated with elevated risk of CVD mortality as well as non-cardiovascular/non-cancer and external deaths. Daytime napping may elevate risk of CVD death through some biological effects but, to a larger extent, some comorbid disorders causing weight loss or associated with non-regular employment and low education level could explain this association.
Riegel, Monika; Żurawski, Łukasz; Wierzba, Małgorzata; Moslehi, Abnoss; Klocek, Łukasz; Horvat, Marko; Grabowska, Anna; Michałowski, Jarosław; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur
The Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS; Marchewka, Żurawski, Jednoróg, & Grabowska, Behavior Research Methods, 2014) is a standardized set of 1,356 realistic, high-quality photographs divided into five categories (people, faces, animals, objects, and landscapes). NAPS has been primarily standardized along the affective dimensions of valence, arousal, and approach-avoidance, yet the characteristics of discrete emotions expressed by the images have not been investigated thus far. The aim of the present study was to collect normative ratings according to categorical models of emotions. A subset of 510 images from the original NAPS set was selected in order to proportionally cover the whole dimensional affective space. Among these, using three available classification methods, we identified images eliciting distinguishable discrete emotions. We introduce the basic-emotion normative ratings for the Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS BE), which will allow researchers to control and manipulate stimulus properties specifically for their experimental questions of interest. The NAPS BE system is freely accessible to the scientific community for noncommercial use as supplementary materials to this article.
Nagai, Yoshiko; Itabashi, Mitsuyo; Mizutani, Mayuko; Ogawa, Tetsuya; Yumura, Wako; Tsuchiya, Ken; Nitta, Kosaku
Plasmapheresis (PP) is widely known as the standard therapy for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Citrate is used as an anticoagulant in fresh frozen plasma, and the large amount of citrate infused during PP induces metabolic alkalosis. A 29-year-old woman was diagnosed with TTP associated with systemic lupus erythematosus, and was treated by daily PP in addition to a steroid, an immunosuppressant, vincristine, and cyclophosphamide. Uncompensated alkalosis caused by a combination of metabolic and respiratory alkalosis developed after artificial ventilation was discontinued. Her metabolic status improved after controlling her respiratory status and the activity of the TTP. Metabolic alkalosis is a common complication in TTP patients treated by frequent PP, but several factors that affect metabolic status may aggravate the alkalosis and induce uncompensated alkalosis.
Dupont, Nana Hee; Fertner, Mette Ely; Kristensen, Charlotte Sonne
Transparent calculation methods are crucial when investigating trends in antimicrobial consumption over time and between populations. Until 2011, one single standardized method was applied when quantifying the Danish pig antimicrobial consumption with the unit "Animal Daily Dose" (ADD). However...... assignment methods, Denmark has also experienced a shift in the production pattern, towards a larger export of live pigs. The aims of this paper were to (1) describe previous and current ADD assignment methods used by the major Danish institutions and (2) to illustrate how ADD assignment method and choice...... DANMAP and DVFA were only identical for 48 % of antimicrobial products approved for use in pigs. From 2007 to 2013, the total number of ADDs per year increased by 9 % when using the new DVFA ADD-values, but decreased by 2 and 7 % when using the new DANMAP ADD-values or the old VetStat ADD...
Wang, Yang; Naylor, Graham; Kramer, Sophia E; Zekveld, Adriana A; Wendt, Dorothea; Ohlenforst, Barbara; Lunner, Thomas
People with hearing impairment are likely to experience higher levels of fatigue because of effortful listening in daily communication. This hearing-related fatigue might not only constrain their work performance but also result in withdrawal from major social roles. Therefore, it is important to understand the relationships between fatigue, listening effort, and hearing impairment by examining the evidence from both subjective and objective measurements. The aim of the present study was to investigate these relationships by assessing subjectively measured daily-life fatigue (self-report questionnaires) and objectively measured listening effort (pupillometry) in both normally hearing and hearing-impaired participants. Twenty-seven normally hearing and 19 age-matched participants with hearing impairment were included in this study. Two self-report fatigue questionnaires Need For Recovery and Checklist Individual Strength were given to the participants before the test session to evaluate the subjectively measured daily fatigue. Participants were asked to perform a speech reception threshold test with single-talker masker targeting a 50% correct response criterion. The pupil diameter was recorded during the speech processing, and we used peak pupil dilation (PPD) as the main outcome measure of the pupillometry. No correlation was found between subjectively measured fatigue and hearing acuity, nor was a group difference found between the normally hearing and the hearing-impaired participants on the fatigue scores. A significant negative correlation was found between self-reported fatigue and PPD. A similar correlation was also found between Speech Intelligibility Index required for 50% correct and PPD. Multiple regression analysis showed that factors representing "hearing acuity" and "self-reported fatigue" had equal and independent associations with the PPD during the speech in noise test. Less fatigue and better hearing acuity were associated with a larger pupil
Arzilli, Cinzia; Cerasuolo, Mariangela; Conte, Francesca; Bittoni, Valentina; Gatteschi, Claudia; Albinni, Benedetta; Giganti, Fiorenza; Ficca, Gianluca
The aim of this study is to assess the effects of a learning task on the characteristics of a subsequent daytime nap. Thirty-eight subjects were administered a control nap (C) and one preceded by a cognitive training session (TR). Relative to C, TR naps showed significantly increased sleep duration with decreased sleep latency, as well as significantly increased sleep efficiency due to reduced awakening frequency. Meaningful trends were also found toward an increase of Stage 2 sleep proportion and a reduction of Stage 1 sleep, percentage of wake after sleep onset (WASO), and frequency of state transitions. Our results indicate that presleep learning favors sleep propensity and maintenance, offering the possibility to explore planned cognitive training as a low-cost treatment for sleep impairments.
Mittal, S.; Mehta, H.C.; Roy, S.K.
NAPS is the indigenously designed, constructed and commissioned, first PHWR station of standardized design for 220 MWe station of NPCIL. At NAPS, radiation fields started building up after first start up due to Cobalt-60 and this was a major concern, from collective dose point of view, for carrying out any activity specially around and with in the moderator system. Apart from this system, PHT and fueling machine areas are also vulnerable areas from radiation point of view. To reduce and control the high collective dose consumption, various design modifications; like moderator purification system modifications, changes in heavy water recovery arrangements and FT system, have been carried out at NAPS and these are discussed in this paper. (author)
Watling, Christopher N; Smith, Simon S; Horswill, Mark S
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two commonly utilized sleepiness countermeasures: a nap break and an active rest break. The effects of the countermeasures were evaluated by physiological (EEG), subjective, and driving performance measures. Participants completed 2 h of simulated driving, followed by a 15-min nap break or a 15-min active rest break, then completed the final hour of simulated driving. The nap break reduced EEG and subjective sleepiness. The active rest break did not reduce EEG sleepiness, with sleepiness levels eventually increasing, and resulted in an immediate reduction of subjective sleepiness. No difference was found between the two breaks for the driving performance measure. The immediate reduction of subjective sleepiness after the active rest break could leave drivers with erroneous perceptions of their sleepiness, particularly with increases of physiological sleepiness after the break. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Esther Yuet Ying Lau
Full Text Available The main objective was to study the impact of a daytime sleep opportunity on working memory and the mechanism behind such impact. This study adopted an experimental design in a sleep research laboratory. Eighty healthy college students (Age:17-23, 36 males were randomized to either have a polysomnography-monitored daytime sleep opportunity (Nap-group, n=40 or stay awake (Wake-group, n=40 between the two assessment sessions. All participants completed a sleep diary and wore an actigraph-watch for 5 days before and one day after the assessment sessions. They completed the state-measurement of sleepiness and affect, in addition to a psychomotor vigilance test and a working memory task before and after the nap/wake sessions. The two groups did not differ in their sleep characteristics prior to and after the lab visit. The Nap-group had higher accuracy on the working memory task, fewer lapses on the psychomotor vigilance test and lower state-sleepiness than the Wake-group. Within the Nap-group, working memory accuracy was positively correlated with duration of rapid eye movement sleep (REM and total sleep time during the nap. Our findings suggested that "sleep gain" during a daytime sleep opportunity had significant positive impact on working memory performance, without affecting subsequent nighttime sleep in young adult, and such impact was associated with the duration of REM. While REM abnormality has long been noted in pathological conditions (e.g. depression, which are also presented with cognitive dysfunctions (e.g. working memory deficits, this was the first evidence showing working memory enhancement associated with REM in daytime napping in college students, who likely had habitual short sleep duration but were otherwise generally healthy.
Lau, Kristy Nga Ting; Hui, Florence Wai Ying; Tseng, Chia-huei
The main objective was to study the impact of a daytime sleep opportunity on working memory and the mechanism behind such impact. This study adopted an experimental design in a sleep research laboratory. Eighty healthy college students (Age:17-23, 36 males) were randomized to either have a polysomnography-monitored daytime sleep opportunity (Nap-group, n=40) or stay awake (Wake-group, n=40) between the two assessment sessions. All participants completed a sleep diary and wore an actigraph-watch for 5 days before and one day after the assessment sessions. They completed the state-measurement of sleepiness and affect, in addition to a psychomotor vigilance test and a working memory task before and after the nap/wake sessions. The two groups did not differ in their sleep characteristics prior to and after the lab visit. The Nap-group had higher accuracy on the working memory task, fewer lapses on the psychomotor vigilance test and lower state-sleepiness than the Wake-group. Within the Nap-group, working memory accuracy was positively correlated with duration of rapid eye movement sleep (REM) and total sleep time during the nap. Our findings suggested that “sleep gain” during a daytime sleep opportunity had significant positive impact on working memory performance, without affecting subsequent nighttime sleep in young adult, and such impact was associated with the duration of REM. While REM abnormality has long been noted in pathological conditions (e.g. depression), which are also presented with cognitive dysfunctions (e.g. working memory deficits), this was the first evidence showing working memory enhancement associated with REM in daytime napping in college students, who likely had habitual short sleep duration but were otherwise generally healthy. PMID:25970511
Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric
Chlorophyll degradation is an important part of leaf senescence, but the underlying regulatory mechanisms are largely unknown. Excised leaves of an Arabidopsis thaliana NAC-LIKE, ACTIVATED BY AP3/PI (NAP) transcription factor mutant (nap) exhibited lower transcript levels of known chlorophyll degradation genes, STAY-GREEN1 (SGR1), NON-YELLOW COLORING1 (NYC1), PHEOPHYTINASE (PPH), and PHEIDE a OXYGENASE (PaO), and higher chlorophyll retention than the wild type during dark-induced senescence. Transcriptome coexpression analysis revealed that abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism/signaling genes were disproportionately represented among those positively correlated with NAP expression. ABA levels were abnormally low in nap leaves during extended darkness. The ABA biosynthetic genes 9-CIS-EPOXYCAROTENOID DIOXYGENASE2, ABA DEFICIENT3, and ABSCISIC ALDEHYDE OXIDASE3 (AAO3) exhibited abnormally low transcript levels in dark-treated nap leaves. NAP transactivated the promoter of AAO3 in mesophyll cell protoplasts, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that NAP can bind directly to a segment (−196 to −162 relative to the ATG start codon) of the AAO3 promoter. Exogenous application of ABA increased the transcript levels of SGR1, NYC1, PPH, and PaO and suppressed the stay-green phenotype of nap leaves during extended darkness. Overexpression of AAO3 in nap leaves also suppressed the stay-green phenotype under extended darkness. Collectively, the results show that NAP promotes chlorophyll degradation by enhancing transcription of AAO3, which leads to increased levels of the senescence-inducing hormone ABA. PMID:25516602
Chen, Yiping; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Clarke, Robert; Guo, Yu; Yu, Canqing; Bian, Zheng; Jiang, Qilian; Li, Shanpeng; Chen, Junshi; Li, Liming; Chen, Zhengming
Inadequate sleep duration and insomnia can affect both physical and mental health. There is limited evidence, however, on characteristics and correlates of sleep patterns and insomnia in urban and rural China. This cross-sectional study, involving 512,891 adults aged 30-79 years from ten (five urban and five rural) diverse areas in China, recorded detailed information, using interviewer-administered laptop-based questionnaires, on sleep patterns (duration, daytime napping and snoring) and insomnia symptoms. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations of sleep patterns and insomnia symptoms with a range of socio-economic, lifestyle, behaviour and health-related factors. Overall, the mean (SD) sleep duration was 7.38 (1.37) h, with 23% reporting short (≤6 h) and 16% reporting long (≥9 h) sleep duration, 21% taking daytime naps and 22% having frequent snoring. Overall, 17% reported having insomnia symptoms, with a higher proportion in women than in men (19% vs 13%), in rural than in urban residents (19% vs 15%), and in individuals who were living alone (23%). The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of having insomnia symptoms were significantly higher among people with major depressive episodes (6.10, 95% CI: 5.69-6.55), generalised anxiety disorders (7.46, 6.65-8.37) and any chronic diseases (1.46; 1.44-1.49). In contrast, the ORs of insomnia symptoms were significantly lower among those reporting napping (0.77, 0.75-0.78) and frequent snoring (0.86, 0.84-0.87). Among Chinese adults, sleep patterns varied greatly by socio-economic, lifestyle and health-related factors. The risk of insomnia symptoms was associated with both poor mental and physical health status. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lin, Lan-Ping; Hsia, Yi-Chen; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Loh, Ching-Hui; Wu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Jin-Ding
This study was conducted to describe the functioning of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and to examine socio-economic effects on ADL functioning among adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) aged 45 years and older (N=480) in Taiwan. The Barthel Index (BI) was used to determine a baseline level of ADL functioning in the study participants. There are five categories of functional impairment using the following cut-off values in Taiwan: total dependence (BI score 0-20), severe (BI score 21-60), moderate (BI score 61-90), mild (BI score 91-99), and total independence (BI score 100) (Taiwan Department of Health, 2012). The results revealed that 2.3% of adults with ID were in total dependence, 11.9% were in severe dependence, 27.9% were in moderate dependence, 8.1% had a mild dependence, and 49.8% were totally independent. In the multiple linear regression model of the ADL score, we determined that educational level, comorbid Down's syndrome, and disability level are the variables able to significantly predict ADL score (R(2)=0.190) after controlling for the factors of age, marital status, and other comorbidity conditions. Those ID adults with a lower education level (primary vs. literate, β=4.780, p=0.031; intermediate vs. literate, β=6.642, p=0.030), with comorbid Down's syndrome (β=-7.135, p=0.063), and with a more severe disability condition (severe vs. mild, β=-7.650, p=0.007; profound vs. mild, β=-19.169, p<0.001) had significantly lower ADL scores. The present study highlights the need to support mobility in older adults with ID as much as possible to optimize independence in this group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of the length and timing of nighttime naps on performance and physiological functions, an experimental study was carried out under simulated night shift schedules. METHODS: Six students were recruited for this study that was composed of 5 experiments. Each experiment involved 3 consecutive days with one night shift (22:00-8:00 followed by daytime sleep and night sleep. The experiments had 5 conditions in which the length and timing of naps were manipulated: 0:00-1:00 (E60, 0:00-2:00 (E120, 4:00-5:00 (L60, 4:00-6:00 (L120, and no nap (No-nap. During the night shifts, participants underwent performance tests. A questionnaire on subjective fatigue and a critical flicker fusion frequency test were administered after the performance tests. Heart rate variability and rectal temperature were recorded continuously during the experiments. Polysomnography was also recorded during the nap. RESULTS: Sleep latency was shorter and sleep efficiency was higher in the nap in L60 and L120 than that in E60 and E120. Slow wave sleep in the naps in E120 and L120 was longer than that in E60 and L60. The mean reaction time in L60 became longer after the nap, and faster in E60 and E120. Earlier naps serve to counteract the decrement in performance and physiological functions during night shifts. Performance was somewhat improved by taking a 2-hour nap later in the shift, but deteriorated after a one-hour nap. CONCLUSIONS: Naps in the latter half of the night shift were superior to earlier naps in terms of sleep quality. However performance declined after a 1-hour nap taken later in the night shift due to sleep inertia. This study suggests that appropriate timing of a short nap must be carefully considered, such as a 60-min nap during the night shift.OBJETIVO: Para investigar os efeitos da duração e horário de cochilos noturnos sobre o desempenho e as funções fisiológicas foi realizado um estudo experimental por meio do trabalho
Min, Yul Ha; Lee, Jong Won; Shin, Yong-Wook; Jo, Min-Woo; Sohn, Guiyun; Lee, Jae-Ho; Lee, Guna; Jung, Kyung Hae; Sung, Joohon; Ko, Beom Seok; Yu, Jong-Han; Kim, Hee Jeong; Son, Byung Ho; Ahn, Sei Hyun
Improvements in mobile telecommunication technologies have enabled clinicians to collect patient-reported outcome (PRO) data more frequently, but there is as yet limited evidence regarding the frequency with which PRO data can be collected via smartphone applications (apps) in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. The primary objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of an app for sleep disturbance-related data collection from breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. A secondary objective was to identify the variables associated with better compliance in order to identify the optimal subgroups to include in future studies of smartphone-based interventions. Between March 2013 and July 2013, patients who planned to receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer at Asan Medical Center who had access to a smartphone app were enrolled just before the start of their chemotherapy and asked to self-report their sleep patterns, anxiety severity, and mood status via a smartphone app on a daily basis during the 90-day study period. Push notifications were sent to participants daily at 9 am and 7 pm. Data regarding the patients' demographics, interval from enrollment to first self-report, baseline Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) score, and health-related quality of life score (as assessed using the EuroQol Five Dimensional [EQ5D-3L] questionnaire) were collected to ascertain the factors associated with compliance with the self-reporting process. A total of 30 participants (mean age 45 years, SD 6; range 35-65 years) were analyzed in this study. In total, 2700 daily push notifications were sent to these 30 participants over the 90-day study period via their smartphones, resulting in the collection of 1215 self-reporting sleep-disturbance data items (overall compliance rate=45.0%, 1215/2700). The median value of individual patient-level reporting rates was 41.1% (range 6.7-95.6%). The longitudinal day-level compliance curve fell to 50.0% at
Kris Moor, pseud.
Sisu: Imagine an actor saying following ; algus ; korralikud tüdrukud ; Provokatsioon ; absoluutselt täiuslik ; sigaret ; best friends ; probleem ; Tere Kris ; kirjutis ; armastus ; Elluastuja ; oeh ; klishee ; happy neverending story ; tungid ja tungisaatused ; noh ; lohe ; the art of noise ; latentsus ; Lühikokkuvõte tänapäeva muinasjutust: (ilma ilukirjandusliku liialduseta)
Francis Ford Coppola suurfilmi "Tänapäeva apokalüpsis" autoriversioon "Apocalypse Now Redux" (Ameerika Ühendriigid 2001/1979) lõpetab USA kultusfilmide festivali kinos "Sõprus". Lisa : Jaan Ruusi "Apocalypse Now Redux" selgitab autoriversiooni - director's cut - mõistet
Devon M Fitzgerald
Full Text Available The neural cell adhesion molecule L1 is critical for brain development and plays a role in learning and memory in the adult. Ethanol inhibits L1-mediated cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth in cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs, and these actions might underlie the cerebellar dysmorphology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. The peptide NAP potently blocks ethanol inhibition of L1 adhesion and prevents ethanol teratogenesis. We used quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting of extracts of cerebellar slices, CGNs, and astrocytes from postnatal day 7 (PD7 rats to investigate whether ethanol and NAP act in part by regulating the expression of L1. Treatment of cerebellar slices with 20 mM ethanol, 10(-12 M NAP, or both for 4 hours, 24 hours, and 10 days did not significantly affect L1 mRNA and protein levels. Similar treatment for 4 or 24 hours did not regulate L1 expression in primary cultures of CGNs and astrocytes, the predominant cerebellar cell types. Because ethanol also damages the adult cerebellum, we studied the effects of chronic ethanol exposure in adult rats. One year of binge drinking did not alter L1 gene and protein expression in extracts from whole cerebellum. Thus, ethanol does not alter L1 expression in the developing or adult cerebellum; more likely, ethanol disrupts L1 function by modifying its conformation and signaling. Likewise, NAP antagonizes the actions of ethanol without altering L1 expression.
Berezko, S.N.; Zarichnyak, Yu.P.; Korenev, P.A.
We propose a model of the structure of a napped composite. Characteristic trends in the structure of the material are delineated, and the effective thermal conductivity of the model structure is calculated for these trends with allowance for conduction and radiation
Silva Costa A
Full Text Available Aline Silva-Costa,1,2 Frida Marina Fischer,1 Rosane Harter Griep,2 Lúcia Rotenberg2 1School of Public Health, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Laboratory of Health, Environment and Education, Oswaldo Cruz Institute (Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Abstract: Night shift employment involves displacing sleep to the daytime. For female workers, the opportunity for daytime sleep is influenced by routine housework demands, which aggravates sleep deprivation. Allowing naps to be taken during the night shift of work is a frequent practice at some hospitals and can help reduce the effects of sleep deprivation. We hypothesize that an association between domestic work and the length of naps during night work exists for nursing professionals. To test this hypothesis, two cross-sectional studies were conducted in two different hospitals. In Study 1, female workers answered questionnaires regarding sleeping habits, professional work, and housework demands. In Study 2, data regarding napping during shifts was obtained by actigraphy, a noninvasive method of monitoring the human sleep–wake cycle. The demand for the performance of housework was measured by (i domestic work hours (total time spent performing domestic work per week, and (ii domestic workload, which considers the degree of sharing domestic tasks and the number of people living at home. The populations from the two studies were subdivided into groups, based on the duration of napping at work. Data on naps were analyzed according to domestic demands, using the Mann–Whitney and Chi-squared tests. Among the two study populations (Studies 1 and 2, those in Study 2 were older, had shorter professional weekly work hours, worked more night shifts, and dedicated more time to housework. Significant associations were only found in Study 2, where greater time napping at work was associated with both greater time spent doing housework and greater domestic workload. The known benefits of
Wang, Yang; Naylor, Graham; Kramer, Sophia E
during the speech processing, and we used peak pupil dilation (PPD) as the main outcome measure of the pupillometry. No correlation was found between subjectively measured fatigue and hearing acuity, nor was a group difference found between the normally hearing and the hearing-impaired participants...... on the fatigue scores. A significant negative correlation was found between self-reported fatigue and PPD. A similar correlation was also found between Speech Intelligibility Index required for 50% correct and PPD. Multiple regression analysis showed that factors representing "hearing acuity" and "self......-reported fatigue" had equal and independent associations with the PPD during the speech in noise test. Less fatigue and better hearing acuity were associated with a larger pupil dilation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the relationship between a subjective measure of daily...
Sukhanov, V B; Kovalev, A A; Rezchikov, A V; Sukhanova, L G; Vyazenkin, S N; Zakolyuzhnyy, V D
It is suggested that a computer be used for processing technological information of data reports on drilling. This will permit solution in the future to the task of monitoring the observation of the assigned regime-technological parameters of drilling wells by compiling planning recommendations and factual information about their fulfillment. Comprehensive analysis of the factual data regarding the regimes of making wells based on the information of daily reports on drilling using a computer in the OAIS system of drilling of the Ministry of the Gas Industry at the existing stage of technical support of the associations with a computer will permit in the near future production of exhaustive regime-technological information regarding the operation of bits in each well and development of RTK for drilling future wells by intervals of the same drillability.
Carlson, Eve B; Field, Nigel P; Ruzek, Josef I; Bryant, Richard A; Dalenberg, Constance J; Keane, Terrence M; Spain, David A
Ambulatory assessment data collection methods are increasingly used to study behavior, experiences, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs), such as emotions, cognitions, and symptoms in clinical samples. Data collected close in time at frequent and fixed intervals can assess PROs that are discrete or changing rapidly and provide information about temporal dynamics or mechanisms of change in clinical samples and individuals, but clinical researchers have not yet routinely and systematically investigated the reliability and validity of such measures or their potential added value over conventional measures. The present study provides a comprehensive, systematic evaluation of the psychometrics of several proximal intensive assessment (PIA) measures in a clinical sample and investigates whether PIA appears to assess meaningful differences in phenomena over time. Data were collected on a variety of psychopathology constructs on handheld devices every 4 h for 7 days from 62 adults recently exposed to traumatic injury of themselves or a family member. Data were also collected on standard self-report measures of the same constructs at the time of enrollment, 1 week after enrollment, and 2 months after injury. For all measure scores, results showed good internal consistency across items and within persons over time, provided evidence of convergent, divergent, and construct validity, and showed significant between- and within-subject variability. Results indicate that PIA measures can provide valid measurement of psychopathology in a clinical sample. PIA may be useful to study mechanisms of change in clinical contexts, identify targets for change, and gauge treatment progress.
Pickup, William; Bremer, Phil; Peng, Mei
The extensive time and cost associated with conventional sensory profiling methods has spurred sensory researchers to develop rapid method alternatives, such as Napping® with Ultra-Flash Profiling (UFP). Napping®-UFP generates sensory maps by requiring untrained panellists to separate samples based on perceived sensory similarities. Evaluations of this method have been restrained to manufactured/formulated food models, and predominantly structured on comparisons against the conventional descriptive method. The present study aims to extend the validation of Napping®-UFP (N = 72) to natural biological products; and to evaluate this method against Descriptive Analysis (DA; N = 8) with physiochemical measurements as an additional evaluative criterion. The results revealed that sample configurations generated by DA and Napping®-UFP were not significantly correlated (RV = 0.425, P = 0.077); however, they were both correlated with the product map generated based on the instrumental measures (P Napping®-UFP were driven by different sensory attributes, indicating potential structural differences between these two methods in configuring samples. Overall, these findings lent support for the extended use of Napping®-UFP for evaluations of natural biological products. Although DA was shown to be a better method for establishing sensory-instrumental relationships, Napping®-UFP exhibited strengths in generating informative sample configurations based on holistic perception of products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Cross, Nathan; Terpening, Zoe; Rogers, Naomi L; Duffy, Shantel L; Hickie, Ian B; Lewis, Simon J G; Naismith, Sharon L
Sleep disturbance is prevalent in older adults, particularly so in those at a greater risk of dementia. However, so far the clinical, medical and neuropsychological correlates of daytime sleep have not been examined. The aims of this study were to investigate the characteristics and effects of napping using actigraphy in older people, particularly in those 'at risk' of dementia. The study used actigraphy and sleep diaries to measure napping habits in 133 older adults 'at risk' of dementia (mean age = 65.5 years, SD = 8.4 years), who also underwent comprehensive medical, psychiatric and neuropsychological assessment. When defined by actigraphy, napping was present in 83.5% (111/133) of participants; however, duration and timing varied significantly among subjects. Nappers had significantly greater medical burden and body mass index, and higher rates of mild cognitive impairment. Longer and more frequent naps were associated with poorer cognitive functioning, as well as higher levels of depressive symptoms, while the timing of naps was associated with poorer nocturnal sleep quality (i.e. sleep latency and wake after sleep onset). This study highlights that in older adults 'at risk' of dementia, napping is associated with underlying neurobiological changes such as depression and cognition. Napping characteristics should be more routinely monitored in older individuals to elucidate their relationship with psychological and cognitive outcomes. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.
Yamada, Tomohide; Shojima, Nobuhiro; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Kadowaki, Takashi
Adequate sleep is important for good health, but it is not always easy to achieve because of social factors. Daytime napping is widely prevalent around the world. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the association between napping (or excessive daytime sleepiness: EDS) and the risk of type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome, and to quantify the potential dose-response relation using cubic spline models. Electronic databases were searched for articles published up to 2016, with 288,883 Asian and Western subjects. Pooled analysis revealed that a long nap (≥60 min/day) and EDS were each significantly associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes versus no nap or no EDS (odds ratio 1.46 (95% CI 1.23–1.74, p nap and 2.00 (1.58–2.53) for EDS). In contrast, a short nap (nap time and the risk of diabetes or metabolic syndrome, with no effect of napping up to about 40 minutes/day, followed by a sharp increase in risk at longer nap times. In summary, longer napping is associated with an increased risk of metabolic disease. Further studies are needed to confirm the benefit of a short nap. PMID:27909305
Reaney, Matthew; Mathieu, Chantal; Ostenson, Claes-Göran
who did not meet this endpoint) and Diabetes Health Profile-18 scores (versus the main cohorts). High levels of missing data were observed for all PRO measures in both cohorts compared with those for clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: These data from a clinical practice study support those from clinical...... clinical practice are lacking. We examined PROs in patients initiating injectable treatment in the CHOICE (CHanges to treatment and Outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes initiating InjeCtablE therapy) study. METHODS: CHOICE was a 24-month, prospective observational study conducted in six European......BACKGROUND: Improvements in the clinical condition of patients with type 2 diabetes are often accompanied by improvements in health-related quality of life and other patient-reported outcomes (PROs), but data assessing injectable treatment initiation from the patient's perspective in routine...
Bauer, Karri A; Johnston, Jessica E W; Wenzler, Eric; Goff, Debra A; Cook, Charles H; Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel; Pancholi, Preeti; Mangino, Julie E
Studies are conflicting regarding the association of the North American pulsed-field gel electrophoresis type 1 (NAP1) strain in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and outcomes. We evaluated the association of NAP1 with healthcare-associated CDI disease severity, mortality, and recurrence at our academic medical center. Healthcare-associated CDI cases were identified from November 1, 2011 through January 31, 2013. Multivariable regression models were used to evaluate the associations of NAP1 with severe disease (based on the Hines VA severity score index), mortality, and recurrence. Among 5424 stool specimens submitted to the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, 292 (5.4%) were positive for C. difficile by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on or after hospital day 4; 70 (24%) of these specimens also tested positive for NAP1. During the study period, 247 (85%) patients had non-severe disease and 45 (15%) patients had severe disease. Among patients with non-severe disease, 65 (26%) had NAP1 and among patients with severe disease, 5 (11%) had NAP1. After controlling for potential confounders, NAP1 was not associated with an increased likelihood of severe disease (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13-0.93), in-hospital mortality (aOR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.53-1.96), or recurrence (aOR = 1.16, 95% CI, 0.36-3.77). The NAP1 strain did not increase disease severity, mortality, or recurrence in this study, although the incidence of NAP1-positive healthcare associated-CDI was low. The role of strain typing in outcomes and treatment selection in patients with healthcare-associated CDI remains uncertain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Palmer, Douglas E.; United States. Bonneville Power Administration; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; National Fishery Research Center (U.S.)
This report summarizes activities in 1985 to determine the extent of predation on juvenile salmonids in John Day Reservoir. To estimate consumption of juvenile salmonids we used the composition of the natural diet of predators and in the laboratory determined rate of gastric evacuation by predators. Salmonids were the single most important food item for northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) at McNary tailrace during all sampling periods and at John Day forebay during July. Salmonids accounted for 11.6% of the diet of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) in 1985 which was about twice that found in previous years. Salmonids contributed little to smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) diet but comprised about 25% of the diet of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Composition of prey taxa in beach seine catches in 1985 was similar to 1983 and 1984 with chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha), northern squawfish, largescale sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus), and sand roller (Percopsis transmontana) dominating the catch at main channel stations and crappies (Pomoxis spp.) and largescale sucker dominating at backwater stations. Preliminary results of beach seine efficiency studies suggest that seine efficiency varied significantly among prey species and between substrate types in 1985. Results of digestion rate experiments indicate that gastric evacuation in northern squawfish can be predicted using water temperature, prey weight, predator weight and time. 19 refs., 19 figs., 13 tabs.
Ariann E. Mendoza-Martínez
Full Text Available The redox-regulated transcription factors (TFs of the bZIP AP1 family, such as yeast Yap1 and fission yeast Pap1, are activated by peroxiredoxin proteins (Prxs to regulate the antioxidant response. Previously, Aspergillus nidulans mutants lacking the Yap1 ortholog NapA have been characterized as sensitive to H2O2 and menadione. Here we study NapA roles in relation to TFs SrrA and AtfA, also involved in oxidant detoxification, showing that these TFs play different roles in oxidative stress resistance, catalase gene regulation and development, during A. nidulans life cycle. We also uncover novel NapA roles in repression of sexual development, normal conidiation, conidial mRNA accumulation, and carbon utilization. The phenotypic characterization of ΔgpxA, ΔtpxA, and ΔtpxB single, double and triple peroxiredoxin mutants in wild type or ΔnapA backgrounds shows that none of these Prxs is required for NapA function in H2O2 and menadione resistance. However, these Prxs participate in a minor NapA-independent H2O2 resistance pathway and NapA and TpxA appear to regulate conidiation along the same route. Using transcriptomic analysis we show that during conidial development NapA-dependent gene expression pattern is different from canonical oxidative stress patterns. In the course of conidiation, NapA is required for regulation of at least 214 genes, including ethanol utilization genes alcR, alcA and aldA, and large sets of genes encoding proteins involved in transcriptional regulation, drug detoxification, carbohydrate utilization and secondary metabolism, comprising multiple oxidoreductases, membrane transporters and hydrolases. In agreement with this, ΔnapA mutants fail to grow or grow very poorly in ethanol, arabinose or fructose as sole carbon sources. Moreover, we show that NapA nuclear localization is induced not only by oxidative stress but also by growth in ethanol and by carbon starvation. Together with our previous work, these results show
Clough, Alan R; MacLaren, David J; Robertson, Jan A; Ivers, Rowena G; Conigrave, Katherine M
In remote Indigenous Australian communities measuring individual tobacco use can be confounded by cultural expectations, including sharing. We compared self-reported tobacco consumption with community-level estimates in Arnhem Land (Northern Territory). In a cross-sectional survey in three communities (population 2319 Indigenous residents, aged ≥16 years), 400 Indigenous residents were interviewed (206 men, 194 women). Eight community stores provided information about tobacco sold during the survey. To gauge the impact of 255 non-Indigenous residents on tobacco turnover, 10 were interviewed (five men, five women). Breath carbon monoxide levels confirmed self-reported smoking. Self-reported number of cigarettes smoked per day was compared with daily tobacco consumption per user estimated using amounts of tobacco sold during 12 months before the survey (2007-2008). 'Lighter smokers' (Indigenous study participants, 305 (76%) used tobacco; four chewed tobacco. Of 301 Indigenous smokers, 177 (58%) provided self-reported consumption information; a median of 11-11.5 cigarettes per day in men and 5.5-10 cigarettes per day in women. Men were three times (odds ratio=2.9) more likely to be 'heavier smokers'. Store turnover data indicated that Indigenous tobacco users consumed the equivalent of 9.2-13.1 cigarettes per day; very similar to self-reported levels. Sixty per cent (=6/10) of non-Indigenous residents interviewed were smokers, but with little impact on tobacco turnover overall (2-6%). Smoking levels reported by Indigenous Australians in this study, when sharing tobacco was considered, closely reflected quantities of tobacco sold in community stores. © 2010 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Conclusions: C. difficile NAP1/BI/027 strain and non-027 strains are established pathogens in our hospital. Accordingly, surveillance of C. difficile infections is now part of our nosocomial prevention program.
...) and mood data from the Profile of Mood States (POMS) were analyzed for this comparison. Eighteen subjects' data from the Napping study were merged with six subjects' data from the Modafinil study...
Liu, Jing; Grønbeck, Marlene Schou; Di Monaco, Rosella
. In this study different variations of two rapid sensory methods, one based on holistic assessment – Napping, and one based on attribute evaluation – Flash Profile, were tested for the evaluation of the flavour in wine. Model wines were developed with control over the sensory differences in terms of sensory...... to arrange samples on the sheet) or the product (familiarisation with the sensory properties of the wines) improved the outcome compared to the classical Napping protocol. The classical Flash Profile protocol and its modified version including a Napping with subsequent attributes generation as the word...... generation step and limiting the number of attributes for ranking gave a similar sample space. The Napping method could best highlight qualitative sample differences, whereas the Flash Profile provided a more precise product mapping on quantitative differences between model wines....
corporate income tax , which the finance minister has promised, will have no economy-stimulating effect whatsoever. [J.E.] In your opinion, will it...not followed the more optimistic forecasts. But the cut in the rate of corporate income tax , and in the case of individual income tax the higher... corporate income tax will probably fall short of the estimate. Momentarily, rev- enue from corporate income tax is higher this year than it was
Partial Contents: Future Prospects, Employers, Business Associations, Socialists, Political Opportunities, Community, Property Settlement, Communists, Film Industry, Commentary, Industrial Reconstruction, Ethnic...
Czech 30 Jan 93 p 1 [Editorial by Karel Kriz: "Without Paternalism "] [Text] From the legal standpoint, the joint state split apart on 1 January...insurance—the embodiment of social security itself. Beyond this, it would be appropriate to develop a peculiar sick pay and maternity pay system...the danger of an authoritarian regime taking power? [Patriciu] There is such a risk. But even this perception of an opposition that does not impose
Department of Transportation — Displays a breakdown of vessel transit through Eisenhower lock in Massena, NY by different types of vessels and comparing current year transits to the year previous....
ecological standards. 4. The State Fund for the Support and Development of Czech Cinematography The budget of this fund does not anticipate making any...martial arts in civilian life; we currently have some in the company. Also, the majority graduated from high school. The required physical stamina...It was announced nation- wide that the action forces will be equipped with these state-of-the- art armored carriers. What do I see instead? The
about Travnik freely. Islamic fanatics have even changed the names of butcher shops and stores and written them out in Arabic. Over the past two...trying to discover a method by which contagious diseases like foot-and-mouth disease, equine flu, and pig and poultry plague, etc., could be spread as
science, technological strategic research, and humanistic , regional, innovative research for the needs of the Federal Assembly and federal...histories (Swedish, Danish, Nor- wegian...), but through certain " existential " characteris- tics. For example, how time was determined, what the family
heard "speaking" person. A speaker is judged by the extent to which he can change the mood of his audience. Did you ever have such feelings after a...specialized equipment had been acquired for that purpose at Labedy; the operation can be likened to converting a chocolate factory to a television plant or...anyone who is willing to elevate every anti-Slovak manifestation to a European action. In England after every performance in the theater the audience
Ruggiero, Jeanne S; Redeker, Nancy S
Night-shift workers are prone to sleep deprivation, misalignment of circadian rhythms, and subsequent sleepiness and sleep-related performance deficits. The purpose of this narrative systematic review is to critically review and synthesize the scientific literature regarding improvements in sleepiness and sleep-related performance deficits following planned naps taken during work-shift hours by night workers and to recommend directions for future research and practice. We conducted a literature search using the Medline, PsychInfo, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and Health and Safety Science Abstracts databases and included English-language quasi-experimental and experimental studies that evaluated the effects of a nighttime nap taken during a simulated or actual night-work shift. We identified 13 relevant studies, which consisted primarily of small samples and mixed designs. Most investigators found that, despite short periods of sleep inertia immediately following naps, night-shift napping led to decreased sleepiness and improved sleep-related performance. None of the studies examined the effects of naps on safety outcomes in the workplace. Larger-scale randomized clinical trials of night-shift napping and direct safety outcomes are needed prior to wider implementation.
Rajesh Kumar, K.; Vani, K.; Chakraborty, G.; Venkat Raj, V.
A dynamic analysis code to predict the time dependent behaviour of the reactor coolant system flow following the tripping and starting of Primary Circulating Pumps in the different operating modes has been developed for Indian Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) type power plants. The model is comprised of reactor coolant momentum equation, Primary Heat Transport (PHT) pump dynamic equation and pump characteristics. This model forms one of the modules of the integrated system code being developed for transient analysis of 220 MWe PHWR power plants. The Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) PHT system flow transient results for different combinations of pump operation predicted by the model have been compared with the experimental data obtained from a test carried out in NAPS-2 for validation of the model. The predicted results are in good agreement with the experimental data. (author). 3 refs., 5 figs
Tsuruta, Osamu; Yokoyama, Hideshi; Fujii, Satoshi
A new crystal lattice structure of H. pylori neutrophil-activating protein has been determined. Iron loading causes a series of conformational changes at the ferroxidase centre. A new crystal lattice structure of Helicobacter pylori neutrophil-activating protein (HP-NAP) has been determined in two forms: the native state (Apo) at 2.20 Å resolution and an iron-loaded form (Fe-load) at 2.50 Å resolution. The highly solvated packing of the dodecameric shell is suitable for crystallographic study of the metal ion-uptake pathway. Like other bacterioferritins, HP-NAP forms a spherical dodecamer with 23 symmetry including two kinds of channels. Iron loading causes a series of conformational changes of amino-acid residues (Trp26, Asp52 and Glu56) at the ferroxidase centre
Mattingly, Julie A; Andresen, Pamela A
Low-income American Indian preschoolers are at greatest risk for overweight and obesity among children aged 2-5 years. The Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) program is an evidence-based intervention that promotes healthy weight development for children enrolled in child care centers. The goal of this continuous quality improvement program is for the child care staff to establish environmental policies and practices that positively influence nutrition and physical activity-related behaviors. A community needs assessment of a Head Start program on an American Indian reservation identified obesity as a priority issue. This project implemented NAP SACC at 15 Head Start sites on the reservation.
Zhang, Qian; Giebler, Holli A; Isaacson, Marisa K; Nyborg, Jennifer K
In the Metazoan nucleus, core histones assemble the genomic DNA to form nucleosome arrays, which are further compacted into dense chromatin structures by the linker histone H1. The extraordinary density of chromatin creates an obstacle for accessing the genetic information. Regulation of chromatin dynamics is therefore critical to cellular homeostasis, and histone chaperones serve as prominent players in these processes. In the current study, we examined the role of specific histone chaperones in negotiating the inherently repressive chromatin structure during transcriptional activation. Using a model promoter, we demonstrate that the human nucleosome assembly protein family members hNap1 and SET/Taf1β stimulate transcription in vitro during pre-initiation complex formation, prior to elongation. This stimulatory effect is dependent upon the presence of activators, p300, and Acetyl-CoA. We show that transcription from our chromatin template is strongly repressed by H1, and that both histone chaperones enhance RNA synthesis by overcoming H1-induced repression. Importantly, both hNap1 and SET/Taf1β directly bind H1, and function to enhance transcription by evicting the linker histone from chromatin reconstituted with H1. In vivo studies demonstrate that SET/Taf1β, but not hNap1, strongly stimulates activated transcription from the chromosomally-integrated model promoter, consistent with the observation that SET/Taf1β is nuclear, whereas hNap1 is primarily cytoplasmic. Together, these observations indicate that SET/Taf1β may serve as a critical regulator of H1 dynamics and gene activation in vivo. These studies uncover a novel function for SET that mechanistically couples transcriptional derepression with H1 dynamics. Furthermore, they underscore the significance of chaperone-dependent H1 displacement as an essential early step in the transition of a promoter from a dense chromatin state into one that is permissive to transcription factor binding and robust
Uuritakse illustratsiooni funktsioone tänapäevases eesti ilukirjanduses, kas ja kuidas on need seotud tekstiga, on sellest inspireeritud või ei, kuivõrd annavad edasi tekstis peituvat või iseseisvat informatsiooni või on pelgalt kaunistavad, nagu peamiselt luulekogudes esinevad illustratsioonid. Praktilise tööna on Birk Rohelennu "Alexander ja Belle" raamatu kujundus, küljendus ja illustratsioonid
Sara E Alger
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Learning followed by a period of sleep, even as little as a nap, promotes memory consolidation. It is now generally recognized that sleep facilitates the stabilization of information acquired prior to sleep. However, the temporal nature of the effect of sleep on retention of declarative memory is yet to be understood. We examined the impact of a delayed nap onset on the recognition of neutral pictorial stimuli with an added spatial component. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants completed an initial study session involving 150 neutral pictures of people, places, and objects. Immediately following the picture presentation, participants were asked to make recognition judgments on a subset of "old", previously seen, pictures versus intermixed "new" pictures. Participants were then divided into one of four groups who either took a 90-minute nap immediately, 2 hours, or 4 hours after learning, or remained awake for the duration of the experiment. 6 hours after initial learning, participants were again tested on the remaining "old" pictures, with "new" pictures intermixed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Interestingly, we found a stabilizing benefit of sleep on the memory trace reflected as a significant negative correlation between the average time elapsed before napping and decline in performance from test to retest (p = .001. We found a significant interaction between the groups and their performance from test to retest (p = .010, with the 4-hour delay group performing significantly better than both those who slept immediately and those who remained awake (p = .044, p = .010, respectively. Analysis of sleep data revealed a significant positive correlation between amount of slow wave sleep (SWS achieved and length of the delay before sleep onset (p = .048. The findings add to the understanding of memory processing in humans, suggesting that factors such as waking processing and homeostatic increases in need for sleep over time modulate
Zagorodnikov, E.I.; Kalinin, A.S.; Medvedko, A.S.
A system for measuring an equilibrium orbit of the beam with beam position electrostatic sensors in the NAP-M storage is described. Sensor signals are processed at the first harmonic of the beam rotation frequency measured in the range of 0.36-2.5 MHz. The respective equipment is described. The system operates in case the number of particles in the beam exceeds (1-2)x10 8
Conroy, Pauline C; Saladino, Chiara; Dantas, Tiago J; Lalor, Pierce; Dockery, Peter; Morrison, Ciaran G
Cilia are found on most human cells and exist as motile cilia or non-motile primary cilia. Primary cilia play sensory roles in transducing various extracellular signals, and defective ciliary functions are involved in a wide range of human diseases. Centrosomes are the principal microtubule-organizing centers of animal cells and contain two centrioles. We observed that DNA damage causes centriole splitting in non-transformed human cells, with isolated centrioles carrying the mother centriole markers CEP170 and ninein but not kizuna or cenexin. Loss of centriole cohesion through siRNA depletion of C-NAP1 or rootletin increased radiation-induced centriole splitting, with C-NAP1-depleted isolated centrioles losing mother markers. As the mother centriole forms the basal body in primary cilia, we tested whether centriole splitting affected ciliogenesis. While irradiated cells formed apparently normal primary cilia, most cilia arose from centriolar clusters, not from isolated centrioles. Furthermore, C-NAP1 or rootletin knockdown reduced primary cilium formation. Therefore, the centriole cohesion apparatus at the proximal end of centrioles may provide a target that can affect primary cilium formation as part of the DNA damage response.
Fu, Da-Qi; Meng, Lan-Huan; Zhu, Ben-Zhong; Zhu, Hong-Liang; Yan, Hua-Xue; Luo, Yun-Bo
Ripening is an important stage of fruit development. To screen the genes associated with pigment formation in tomato fruit, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library was constructed by using tomato fruit in the green ripe and break ripe stages, and 129 differential genes were obtained. Using redness as a screening marker, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of the differential genes was performed with a sprout vacuum-infiltration system (SVI). The results showed that silencing the SlNAP7 gene affected the chloroplast development of tomato leaves, manifesting as a photo-bleaching phenotype, and silenced fruit significantly affected the accumulation of lycopene, manifested as a yellow phenotype. In our study, we found that silencing the SlNAP7 gene downregulates the expression of the POR and PORA genes and destroys the normal development of the chloroplast. The expression of related genes included in the lycopene biosynthesis pathway was not significantly changed, but lycopene accumulation was significantly reduced in tomato fruit. Perhaps it was caused by the destruction of the chromoplast, which leads to the oxidation of lycopene. The results show that the SlNAP7 gene influences chloroplast development and lycopene accumulation in tomato.
Woud, Marcella L; Cwik, Jan C; Blackwell, Simon E; Kleim, Birgit; Holmes, Emily A; Adolph, Dirk; Zhang, Hui; Margraf, Jürgen
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is characterised by dysfunctional appraisals of the trauma and its consequences including one's own symptoms. Experimental studies have shown that Cognitive Bias Modification-Appraisal (CBM-App) training can reduce dysfunctional interpretations and analog trauma symptoms. One important question is how to enhance the effects of CBM-App. Following work suggesting that sleep has beneficial effects on consolidation processes and can thus improve learning, the present study investigated whether a brief period of sleep (i.e., a nap) enhances the effects of CBM-App. All participants watched a stressful movie as an analogue trauma induction. After that, participants received either positive or negative CBM-App training. Within each training, half of the participants then had a 90-minute nap or watched a neutral movie. Results showed that the CBM training induced training-congruent appraisals. Sleep did not enhance this effect. Participants who slept, however, experienced fewer intrusive memories of the analogue trauma, but this effect was independent of the CBM condition. These results provide valuable information about the effects of sleep during a 90-minute nap period on encoding of analogue trauma and emotional learning in the context of appraisal, and highlight the importance of sleep as a focus for continued research.
Marcella L Woud
Full Text Available Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD is characterised by dysfunctional appraisals of the trauma and its consequences including one's own symptoms. Experimental studies have shown that Cognitive Bias Modification-Appraisal (CBM-App training can reduce dysfunctional interpretations and analog trauma symptoms. One important question is how to enhance the effects of CBM-App. Following work suggesting that sleep has beneficial effects on consolidation processes and can thus improve learning, the present study investigated whether a brief period of sleep (i.e., a nap enhances the effects of CBM-App. All participants watched a stressful movie as an analogue trauma induction. After that, participants received either positive or negative CBM-App training. Within each training, half of the participants then had a 90-minute nap or watched a neutral movie. Results showed that the CBM training induced training-congruent appraisals. Sleep did not enhance this effect. Participants who slept, however, experienced fewer intrusive memories of the analogue trauma, but this effect was independent of the CBM condition. These results provide valuable information about the effects of sleep during a 90-minute nap period on encoding of analogue trauma and emotional learning in the context of appraisal, and highlight the importance of sleep as a focus for continued research.
Ramakrishna, V.; Lal Chand
Unit 1 of NAPS achieved first criticality on 12.3.1989 and Unit 2 achieved on 24.10.1991. Till the end of Feb-2000 these units have completed 1890 and 1811 full power days respectively. The performance of NAPS was expected to be better than the earlier Indian reactors in respect of safe production as well as cumulative radiation exposures. This is because of the major design improvements like: fully double containment system, elimination of 41 Ar by introducing light water in calandria vault, reduction of core based fuel failure rate, separation of high radiation equipment to no occupancy areas during normal operation, a separate purification building for the purification of both moderator and PHT systems, a better layout of equipment and plant areas, elimination of unnecessary equipment in various systems besides ensuring the reliability of equipment for safe operation, selection of materials with low corrosion and activation characteristics etc. In this paper, the operational health physics experiences at NAPS to achieve ALARA exposures to plant personnel are described briefly. (author)
Bennion, Kelly A; Payne, Jessica D; Kensinger, Elizabeth A
Prior research has demonstrated that sleep enhances memory for future-relevant information, including memory for information that is salient due to emotion, reward, or knowledge of a later memory test. Although sleep has been shown to prioritize information with any of these characteristics, the present study investigates the novel question of how sleep prioritizes information when multiple salience cues exist. Participants encoded scenes that were future-relevant based on emotion (emotional vs. neutral), reward (rewarded vs. unrewarded), and instructed learning (intentionally vs. incidentally encoded), preceding a delay consisting of a nap, an equivalent time period spent awake, or a nap followed by wakefulness (to control for effects of interference). Recognition testing revealed that when multiple dimensions of future relevance co-occur, sleep prioritizes top-down, goal-directed cues (instructed learning, and to a lesser degree, reward) over bottom-up, stimulus-driven characteristics (emotion). Further, results showed that these factors interact; the effect of a nap on intentionally encoded information was especially strong for neutral (relative to emotional) information, suggesting that once one cue for future relevance is present, there are diminishing returns with additional cues. Sleep may binarize information based on whether it is future-relevant or not, preferentially consolidating memory for the former category. Potential neural mechanisms underlying these selective effects and the implications of this research for educational and vocational domains are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Li, Xue; Pang, Xiuyu; Zhang, Qiao; Qu, Qiannuo; Hou, Zhigang; Liu, Zhipeng; Lv, Lin; Na, Guanqiong; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Changhao; Li, Ying
Abstract This prospective cohort study was conducted to assess the duration of daytime napping and its effect combined with night sleep deprivation on the risk of developing high HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) index and disadvantageous changes in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. A total of 5845 diabetes-free subjects (2736 women and 3109 men), 30 to 65 years of age, were targeted for this cohort study since 2008. Multiple adjusted Cox regression models were performed to evaluate the single and joint effects of daytime napping on the risk of an elevated HbA1c level and high HOMA-IR index. After an average of 4.5 years of follow-up, >30 minutes of daytime napping was significantly associated with an increased risk of an elevated HbA1c level (>6.5%) in men and women (all P trend HOMA-IR index in the entire cohort, men, and women were 1.33 (1.10–1.62), 1.46 (1.08–1.98), and 1.47 (1.12–1.91), respectively. The combination of sleep deprivation with no naps or >30 minutes napping and the combination of no sleep deprivation with >30 minutes daytime napping were all associated with an HbA1c level >6.5% (HR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.24–3.51; HR = 4.00, 95% CI = 2.03–7.90; and HR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.29–3.27, respectively). No sleep deprivation combined with >30 minutes daytime napping correlated with a high risk of an HbA1c level between 5.7% and 6.4% and high HOMA-IR index (HR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.48–3.02; and HR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.10–1.65, respectively). Daytime napping >30 minutes was associated with a high risk of an elevated HbA1c level and high HOMA-IR index. No sleep deprivation combined with napping >30 minutes carries a risk of abnormal glucose metabolism. Sleep deprivation combined with brief daytime napping HOMA-IR index. PMID:26844520
Zhong, Guochao; Wang, Yi; Tao, TieHong; Ying, Jun; Zhao, Yong
The association between daytime napping and mortality remains controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the associations between daytime napping and the risks of death from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer. PubMed and Embase databases were searched through 19 September 2014. Prospective cohort studies that provided risk estimates of daytime napping and mortality were eligible for our meta-analysis. Two investigators independently performed study screening and data extraction. A random-effects model was used to estimate the combined effect size. Subgroup analyses were conducted to identify potential effect modifiers. Twelve studies, involving 130,068 subjects, 49,791 nappers, and 19,059 deaths, were included. Our meta-analysis showed that daytime napping was associated with an increased risk of death from all causes [n = 9 studies; hazard ratio (HR), 1.22; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.14-1.31; I(2) = 42.5%]. No significant associations between daytime napping and the risks of death from CVD (n = 6 studies; HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.96-1.50; I(2) = 75.0%) and cancer (n = 4 studies; HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.99-1.15; I(2) = 8.9%) were found. There were no significant differences in risks of all-cause and CVD mortality between subgroups stratified by the prevalence of napping, follow-up duration, outcome assessment, age, and sex. Daytime napping is a predictor of increased all-cause mortality but not of CVD and cancer mortality. However, our findings should be treated with caution because of limited numbers of included studies and potential biases. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Egner, W; Cook, T M; Garcez, T; Marinho, S; Kemp, H; Lucas, D N; Floss, K; Farooque, S; Torevell, H; Thomas, M; Ferguson, K; Nasser, S; Karanam, S; Kong, K-L; McGuire, N; Bellamy, M; Warner, A; Hitchman, J; Farmer, L; Harper, N J N
The Royal College of Anaesthetists 6th National Audit Project examined Grade 3-5 perioperative anaphylaxis for one year in the UK. To describe the causes and investigation of anaphylaxis in the NAP6 cohort, in relation to published guidance and previous baseline survey results. We used a secure registry to gather details of Grade 3-5 perioperative anaphylaxis. Anonymous reports were aggregated for analysis and reviewed in detail. Panel consensus diagnosis, reaction grade, review of investigations and clinic assessment are reported and compared to the prior NAP6 baseline clinic survey. 266 cases met inclusion criteria between November 2015 and 2016, detailing reactions and investigations. 192/266 (72%) had anaphylaxis with a trigger identified, of which 140/192(75%) met NAP6 criteria for IgE-mediated allergic anaphylaxis, 13% lacking evidence of positive IgE tests were labelled "non-allergic anaphylaxis". 3% were non-IgE mediated anaphylaxis. Adherence to guidance was similar to the baseline survey for waiting time for clinic assessment. However, lack of testing for chlorhexidine and latex, non-harmonised testing practices and poor coverage of all possible culprits was confirmed. Challenge testing may be under-used and many have unacceptably delayed assessments, even in urgent cases. Communication or information provision for patients was insufficient, especially for avoidance advice and communication of test results. Insufficient detail regarding skin test methods was available to draw conclusions regarding techniques. Current clinical assessment in the UK is effective but harmonisation of approach to testing, access to services and MHRA reporting is needed. Expert anaesthetist involvement should increase to optimise diagnostic yield and advice for future anaesthesia. Dynamic tryptase evaluation improves detection of tryptase release where peak tryptase is <14mcg/L and should be adopted. Standardised clinic reports containing appropriate details of tests
.... This report presents the results of model simulations predicting the individual daily water requirements under a broad range of energy expenditures and weather conditions when wearing battle dress...
... Duchenne / Managing Daily Life Print Email Managing Daily Life Environmental accessibility As the person with Duchenne starts ... such as wider doorways and ramps, can make life easier once the person with Duchenne cannot climb ...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These daily weather records were compiled from a subset of stations in the Global Historical Climatological Network (GHCN)-Daily dataset. A weather record is...
Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that emotion and affect modulate the relation between sleep and cognition. In the present study, we investigated the role of rapid-eye movement (REM sleep in mood regulation and memory consolidation for sad stories. In a counterbalanced design, participants (n = 24 listened to either a neutral or a sad story during two sessions, spaced one week apart. After listening to the story, half of the participants had a short (45 min morning nap. The other half had a long (90 min morning nap, richer in REM and N2 sleep. Story recall, mood evolution and changes in emotional response to the re-exposure to the story were assessed after the nap. Although recall performance was similar for sad and neutral stories irrespective of nap duration, sleep measures were correlated with recall performance in the sad story condition only. After the long nap, REM sleep density positively correlated with retrieval performance, while re-exposure to the sad story led to diminished mood and increased skin conductance levels. Our results suggest that REM sleep may not only be associated with the consolidation of intrinsically sad material, but also enhances mood reactivity, at least on the short term.
Gilson, Médhi; Deliens, Gaétane; Leproult, Rachel; Bodart, Alice; Nonclercq, Antoine; Ercek, Rudy; Peigneux, Philippe
Emerging evidence suggests that emotion and affect modulate the relation between sleep and cognition. In the present study, we investigated the role of rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep in mood regulation and memory consolidation for sad stories. In a counterbalanced design, participants (n = 24) listened to either a neutral or a sad story during two sessions, spaced one week apart. After listening to the story, half of the participants had a short (45 min) morning nap. The other half had a long (90 min) morning nap, richer in REM and N2 sleep. Story recall, mood evolution and changes in emotional response to the re-exposure to the story were assessed after the nap. Although recall performance was similar for sad and neutral stories irrespective of nap duration, sleep measures were correlated with recall performance in the sad story condition only. After the long nap, REM sleep density positively correlated with retrieval performance, while re-exposure to the sad story led to diminished mood and increased skin conductance levels. Our results suggest that REM sleep may not only be associated with the consolidation of intrinsically sad material, but also enhances mood reactivity, at least on the short term.
Sugawara, Sho K; Koike, Takahiko; Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Makita, Kai; Hamano, Yuki H; Takahashi, Haruka K; Nakagawa, Eri; Sadato, Norihiro
Daytime napping offers various benefits for healthy adults, including enhancement of motor skill learning. It remains controversial whether napping can provide the same enhancement as overnight sleep, and if so, whether the same neural underpinning is recruited. To investigate this issue, we conducted functional MRI during motor skill learning, before and after a short day-nap, in 13 participants, and compared them with a larger group (n=47) who were tested following regular overnight sleep. Training in a sequential finger-tapping task required participants to press a keyboard in the MRI scanner with their non-dominant left hand as quickly and accurately as possible. The nap group slept for 60min in the scanner after the training run, and the previously trained skill was subsequently re-tested. The whole-night sleep group went home after the training, and was tested the next day. Offline improvement of speed was observed in both groups, whereas accuracy was significantly improved only in the whole-night sleep group. Correspondingly, the offline increment in task-related activation was significant in the putamen of the whole-night group. This finding reveals a qualitative difference in the offline improvement effect between daytime napping and overnight sleep. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Baoying, Huang; Hongjie, Chen; Changsheng, Qiu; Peijian, Wu; Qingfei, Lin; Yinghua, Lin; Huibin, Huang; Jixing, Liang; Liantao, Li; Ling, Chen; Kaka, Tang; Zichun, Chen; Lixiang, Lin; Jieli, Lu; Yufang, Bi; Guang, Ning; Penli, Zhu; Junping, Wen; Gang, Chen
To assess associations between napping and night-time sleep duration with impaired glucose regulation, insulin resistance (IR) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Cross-sectional study. Fujian Province, China, from June 2011 to January 2012. This study enrolled 9028 participants aged 40-65 years. Data of 7568 participants with no diabetes were included for analysis. Type 2 diabetes was defined applying WHO criteria. Participants' daytime napping and night-time sleep duration data were collected using a standardised self-reported Chinese-language questionnaire about sleep frequency and quality. Anthropometric and laboratory parameters were also measured. IR was defined as a HOMA-IR index value >2.50. ORs and 95% CIs were derived from multivariate logistic regression models. Participants (mean age 51.1±7.0 years) included 3060 males and 4508 females with average night-time sleep of 7.9 h. A higher proportion of males napped than females. After adjustment for potential confounders, ORs for HbA1c >6.0% were 1.28 and 1.26 for those napping ≤1 h and >1 h (p=0.002 and p=0.018), respectively. Statistically significant differences in IR between nappers and non-nappers were only marginal clinically. Odds for HbA1c >6.0% were significantly lower in participants with longer night-time sleep durations than in the reference group (>8 h vs 6-8 h). Odds for IR were significantly lower in participants whose night-time sleep hours deviated from the reference group (8 h vs 6-8 h) Chinese middle-aged adults with no diabetes who napped had higher HbA1c and IR; those with shorter night-time sleep durations had increased HbA1c. Night-time sleep hours that are either 8 tend to be associated with lower odds for IR. Further studies are necessary to determine the underlying clinical significance and mechanisms behind these associations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Menon, P. K. A.; Cheng, V. H. L.; Kim, E.
Two approaches for studying the pursuit-evasion problem between rotorcraft executing nap-of-the-earth flight are presented. The first of these employs a constant speed kinematic helicopter model, while the second approach uses a three degree of freedom point-mass model. The candidate solutions to the first differential game are generated by integrating the state-costate equations backward in time. The second problem employs feedback linearization to obtain guidance laws in nonlinear feedback form. Both approaches explicitly use the terrain profile data. Sample extremals are presented.
Pradhan, A.S.; Kumar, A.N.
Extensive radiation field surveys were conducted in NAPS and KAPS reactor buildings as a part of commissioning checks on radiation shielding. During such surveys, dose rate higher than the expected values were noticed in fuelling machine service areas. A movable shield, separating high field area fuelling machine vault and low field area fuelling machine service area, known as roll-on shield was identified as one of the causes of high field in fuelling machine service area along with weaker end-shield. This paper discusses systematic approach adopted in bringing down the dose rates in fuelling machine service area by augmentation of roll-on shield. (author)
Sands, Amanda L. P.; Higgins, Laurie A.; Mehta, Sanjeev N.; Nansel, Tonja R.; Lipsky, Leah M.; Laffel, Lori M. B.
Background The epidemic of overweight/obesity affects youth with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and their families. In youth with T1DM and their parents, we examined weight status with reported and expected energy intake and with youth hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Methods In 243 youth (48% female, 13 ± 3 years) and their parents (84% female, 45 ± 6 years), we assessed body mass index (BMI), prevalence of overweight/obesity, reported energy intake (REI), and youth glycemic control (HbA1c). The REI was compared with predicted daily energy requirements (DER; based on age, weight, sex, and physical activity). Results Youth had diabetes duration of 6.3 ± 3.4 years and HbA1c of 8.5% ± 1.3%; 69% used insulin pump therapy. Overweight and obesity affected 23% and 11% of youth and 30% and 24% of parents, respectively. Youth and parent BMI (r = 0.38; p obese; p obese compared with underweight/normal weight parents (1.0 ± 0.4 versus 1.2 ± 0.5; p = .001) but did not differ among youth by weight status. Both youth and parent BMI were positively correlated with youth HbA1c (r = 0.14, p = .02; r = 0.16, p = .01, respectively). Hemoglobin A1c tended to be higher in obese than in overweight and normal weight youth (mean ± standard deviation [SD] 8.4 ± 1.4, 8.4 ± 1.3, and 8.8 ± 1.0, respectively; p = .06) and was significantly higher in youth whose parents were obese versus overweight or underweight/normal weight (mean ± SD 8.2 ± 1.2, 8.5 ± 1.4, and 8.9 ± 1.5, respectively; p obesity are prevalent among families of youth with T1DM. Weight status appears to influence self-REI in parents and glycemic control in youth with T1DM, suggesting the need for family-based dietary interventions. PMID:23439184
Neville, Kathleen; Velmer, Gillian; Brown, Shari; Robol, Nancy
The aim of this study is to explore the relationship of night-shift napping on fatigue. Nurses' fatigue, especially at night, interferes with quality of life and job performance and impacts safety and health. Night-shift nurses completed the Brief Fatigue Inventory and a demographic information sheet to determine differences in fatigue between nurses who napped during their night shift as compared with nurses who did not nap. No statistically significant differences in global fatigue were found; differences in rotating shift, age, and, gender were identified. Rotating shifts, a 2nd job, and caring for family predicted fatigue. Based on this pilot study, further investigations of fatigue among night-shift nurses are needed as well as evidence-based support to promote sleep.
Background: Scheduled napping during work shifts may be an effective way to mitigate fatigue-related risk. This study aimed to critically review and synthesize existing literature on the impact of scheduled naps on fatigue-related outcomes for EMS pe...
Agatha N. Jassem
Full Text Available Background. Clostridium difficile is a major cause of gastrointestinal illness. Epidemic NAP1 strains contain toxins A and B, a deletion in repressor tcdC, and a binary toxin. Objectives. To determine the molecular epidemiology of C. difficile in British Columbia and compare between two time points in one region. Methods. C. difficile isolates from hospital and community laboratories (2008 and one Island Health hospital laboratory (2013 were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, PCR-ribotyping, toxin possession, tcdC genotype, and antimicrobial susceptibility. Results. In 2008, 42.7% of isolates had NAP1 designation. Hospital-collected isolates were associated with older patients and more NAP1 types. Unlike other isolates, most NAP1 isolates possessed binary toxin and a 19 bp loss in tcdC. All isolates were susceptible to metronidazole and vancomycin. A 2013 follow-up revealed a 28.9% decrease in NAP1 isolates and 20.0% increase in isolates without NAP designation in one region. Then, community-associated cases were seen in younger patients, while NAP types were evenly distributed. Isolates without NAP designation did not cluster with a PFGE pattern or ribotype. Conclusions. Evaluation of C. difficile infections within British Columbia revealed demographic associations, epidemiological shifts, and characteristics of strain types. Continuous surveillance of C. difficile will enable detection of emerging strains.
Ludimila D’Avila e Silva Allemand
Full Text Available Previous studies have observed worse sleep quality in patients undergoing conventional dialysis as compared to daily dialysis. Our aim was to compare the sleep parameters of patients undergoing daily or conventional dialysis using an objective measure (actigraphy. This cross-sectional study was performed in three dialysis centers, including a convenience sample (nonprobability sampling of 73 patients (36 patients on daily hemodialysis and 37 patients on conventional hemodialysis. The following parameters were evaluated: nocturnal total sleep time (NTST, expressed in minutes; wake time after sleep onset (WASO, expressed in minutes; number of nighttime awakenings; daytime total sleep time (DTST, expressed in minutes; number of daytime naps; and nighttime percentage of sleep (% sleep. The Mini-Mental State Examination and the Beck Depression Inventory were also administered. The mean age was 53.4 ± 17.0 years. After adjustment of confounding factors using multiple linear regression analysis, no difference in actigraphy parameters was detected between the groups: NTST (p=0.468, WASO (p=0.88, % sleep (p=0.754, awakenings (p=0.648, naps (p=0.414, and DTST (p=0.805. Different from previous studies employing qualitative analysis, the present assessment did not observe an influence of hemodialysis modality on objective sleep parameters in chronic renal patients.
Hildebrando, Edemarino Araujo, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Universidae Federal do Para (UFPA), Maraba, PA (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia de Materias. Lab. de Materiais Ceramicos; Andrade, Christiano Gianesi Bastos; Valenzuela-Diaz, Francisco Rolando [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Metalurgia e Engenharia de Materiais; Rocha Junior, Carlos Augusto Ferreira da; Neves, Roberto de Freitas [Universidae Federal do Para (UFPA), Maraba, PA (Brazil). Int. de Tecnologia. Fac. de Engenharia Quimica; Angelica, Romulo Simoes [Universidae Federal do Para (UFPA), Maraba, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Fac. de Geologia
The synthesis of zeolite NaP using kaolin waste, from the Amazon region, as a predominant source of silicon and aluminum has been studied. The zeolitisation process occurred in hydrothermal conditions using static autoclaving and the effects of time, temperature, and the Si/Al ratio were investigated. The starting material and the phases formed as reaction products were characterized by XRD, SEM and FTIR. The results showed that pure zeolite NaP is hydrothermally synthesized, at 100 °C for 20 hours, using meta kaolin waste material in alkaline medium in presence of additional silica. The XRD and SEM analyses indicate that the synthesized zeolite presents good crystallinity. (author)
Kosmadopoulos, Anastasi; Zhou, Xuan; Roach, Gregory D; Darwent, David; Sargent, Charli
Neurobehavioural impairment on the first night shift is often greater than on subsequent night shifts due to extended wakefulness. The aim of the study was to determine whether a 1-h afternoon nap prior to the first night shift is sufficient to produce neurobehavioural performance at levels comparable to the second night shift. Twelve male volunteers (mean age 22.9 years) participated in a laboratory protocol that simulated two 12-h night shifts. A nap preceded the first shift and a 7-h daytime sleep was scheduled between shifts. Neurobehavioural performance and subjective sleepiness measured across each night did not significantly differ between first and second shifts.
Hildebrando, Edemarino Araujo; Andrade, Christiano Gianesi Bastos; Valenzuela-Diaz, Francisco Rolando; Rocha Junior, Carlos Augusto Ferreira da; Neves, Roberto de Freitas; Angelica, Romulo Simoes
The synthesis of zeolite NaP using kaolin waste, from the Amazon region, as a predominant source of silicon and aluminum has been studied. The zeolitisation process occurred in hydrothermal conditions using static autoclaving and the effects of time, temperature, and the Si/Al ratio were investigated. The starting material and the phases formed as reaction products were characterized by XRD, SEM and FTIR. The results showed that pure zeolite NaP is hydrothermally synthesized, at 100 °C for 20 hours, using meta kaolin waste material in alkaline medium in presence of additional silica. The XRD and SEM analyses indicate that the synthesized zeolite presents good crystallinity. (author)
Barthe, Béatrice; Tirilly, Ghislaine; Gentil, Catherine; Toupin, Cathy
The aim of this field study is to describe night shift resting and napping strategies and to examine their beneficial effects on sleepiness and quality of work. The study was carried out with 16 nurses working in an intensive care unit. Data collected during 20 night shifts were related to job demands (systematic observations), to the duration and timing of rests and naps taken by nurses (systematic observations, sleep diaries), to sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale), and to quality of work scores (visual analog scale). The results showed that the number of rests and naps depended on the job demands. Resting and napping lowered the levels of sleepiness at the end of the shift. There was no direct relationship between sleepiness and the quality of work score. Discussions about the choice of indicators for the quality of work are necessary. Suggestions for implementing regulations for prescribed napping during night shifts are presented.
Liu, Ruihua; Li, Yuqian; Wang, Fang; Liu, Xiaotian; Zhou, Hao; Wang, Panpan; Fan, Jingjing; Xu, Fei; Yang, Kaili; Hu, Dongsheng; Bie, Ronghai; Wang, Chongjian
The consistency and strength of the relationship between napping duration and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remained uncertain, especially in the rural population. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between napping duration and T2DM in a Chinese rural population. A total of 12663 participants (4365 males and 8298 females) were derived from the RuralDiab study in China. Napping duration was obtained through a standardized questionnaire, and was divided into five categories: no napping (reference), 1∼, 31∼, 61∼, and ≥91 min. Fasting blood glucose was measured. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A meta-analysis including seven studies was conducted to validate the result of the RuralDiab study. The crude and age-standardized prevalence of T2DM were 10.31% and 8.14%, respectively. Compared with no napping, the adjusted OR (95%CI) for napping duration ≥91 min was 1.23 (1.05-1.45). A similar relationship was found only in females aged 45-54 years, but not in males and other age group females. In addition, napping duration was associated with T2DM in a positive dose-dependent manner among females aged 45-54 years (P for trend napping duration compared with no napping was 1.28 (1.22-1.35). Longer napping duration is associated with higher risk of T2DM in the Chinese rural population, and this association varies across gender and age. Further multi-center prospective researches are needed to confirm the relationship and reveal underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Han, Xu; Liu, Bing; Wang, Jing; Pan, An; Li, Yaru; Hu, Hua; Li, Xiulou; Yang, Kun; Yuan, Jing; Yao, Ping; Miao, Xiaoping; Wei, Sheng; Wang, Youjie; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaomin; Guo, Huan; Yang, Handong; Hu, Frank B; Wu, Tangchun; He, Meian
In this study, we investigated the independent and combined effects of sleep duration and afternoon napping on the risk of incident diabetes among a cohort of middle-aged and older Chinese adults. Information of sleep and napping was obtained by questionnaires during face-to-face interviews. We categorized sleep duration into napping was divided into no napping (0 min) (reference), 1-30 min, 31-60 min, 61-90 min, and > 90 min. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used. Compared with referential sleeping group, subjects sleeping ≥10 h had a 42% higher risk of developing diabetes. The HR was 1.28 for napping > 90 min when compared with no napping. These associations were more pronounced in individuals without hypertension. Combined effects of long sleep duration and afternoon napping were further identified. Individuals with both sleep duration ≥ 10 h and napping > 60 min had a 72% higher risk of incident diabetes than those with sleeping 7∼napping 0 min (all above p napping were independently and jointly associated with higher risk of incident diabetes. Key messages Sleep duration was associated with diabetes, but whether it is a real cause of incident diabetes especially in Chinese still remains to be elucidated. The association of afternoon napping and diabetes was not consistent and definite, we clarified this association in a large prospective study. Long sleep duration and afternoon napping were independently and jointly associated with higher risk of incident diabetes.
Thaís Aparecida de Castro Palermo
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between the length of napping during the night shift and the recovery after work among nurses.METHOD: Cross-sectional epidemiological study involving 1940 nurses from 18 public hospitals in the City of Rio de Janeiro. A multidimensional and self-applied questionnaire was used with information about health, sociodemographic and occupational characteristics, health-related behaviors and housework. Multiple logistic regression was applied to identify the association, adjusted for confounding variables.RESULTS: The gross analyses showed 44%, 127% and 66% higher chances of a high level of recovery after work for nurses who sleep up to two hours, between 2.1 and 3 hours and 3.1 hours or more, respectively, when compared to the nurses who do not sleep. After adjusting for confounding variables, the association only continues significant for the group that sleeps 2.1 to 3 hours during the night shift (OR=1.79; 95%CI=1.33-2.41.CONCLUSION: The association between the length of napping and the high level of recovery after work, confirmed in the present results, can be included in the studies that aim to support more appropriate policies aimed at improving the workers' work, life and health conditions, not only in nursing, but night-shift workers in general.
Mitra, S.R.; Lal Chand
Tritium-in-air activity is an important parameter in PHW reactors from the point of view of internal exposure and heavy water escape from the system. The sampling technique in vogue in PHWRs, for measurement of tritium-in-air activity, requires collection of on the spot sample from different areas using a portable sampler. This sampler uses the bubbler method of sampling. As the areas of sampling are numerous, this technique is time consuming, laborious and can lead to significant internal exposure in areas where tritium-in-air activity is high. This technique is also error prone due to the heavy workload involved. A new scheme, in which the sampling of all the areas of reactor building is done through a sampling station, has been introduced for the first time in NAPS. This sampling station facilitates collection of samples from all the areas of reactor building, remotely and simultaneously at one place thereby reducing time, labour, exposure and error. This paper gives the details of the sampling system installed at NAPS. (author)
Palermo, Thaís Aparecida de Castro; Rotenberg, Lúcia; Zeitoune, Regina Célia Gollner; Silva-Costa, Aline; Souto, Ester Paiva; Griep, Rosane Härter
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between the length of napping during the night shift and the recovery after work among nurses. METHOD: Cross-sectional epidemiological study involving 1940 nurses from 18 public hospitals in the City of Rio de Janeiro. A multidimensional and self-applied questionnaire was used with information about health, sociodemographic and occupational characteristics, health-related behaviors and housework. Multiple logistic regression was applied to identify the association, adjusted for confounding variables. RESULTS: The gross analyses showed 44%, 127% and 66% higher chances of a high level of recovery after work for nurses who sleep up to two hours, between 2.1 and 3 hours and 3.1 hours or more, respectively, when compared to the nurses who do not sleep. After adjusting for confounding variables, the association only continues significant for the group that sleeps 2.1 to 3 hours during the night shift (OR=1.79; 95%CI=1.33-2.41). CONCLUSION: The association between the length of napping and the high level of recovery after work, confirmed in the present results, can be included in the studies that aim to support more appropriate policies aimed at improving the workers' work, life and health conditions, not only in nursing, but night-shift workers in general. PMID:25806639
Hummel, T; Leifker, K; Klämbt, C
In Drosophila, the correct formation of the segmental commissures depends on neuron-glial interactions at the midline. The VUM midline neurons extend axons along which glial cells migrate in between anterior and posterior commissures. Here, we show that the gene kette is required for the normal projection of the VUM axons and subsequently disrupts glial migration. Axonal projection defects are also found for many other moto- and interneurons. In addition, kette affects the cell morphology of mesodermal and epidermal derivatives, which show an abnormal actin cytoskeleton. The KETTE protein is homologous to the transmembrane protein HEM-2/NAP1 evolutionary conserved from worms to vertebrates. In vitro analysis has shown a specific interaction of the vertebrate HEM-2/NAP1 with the SH2-SH3 adapter protein NCK and the small GTPase RAC1, which both have been implicated in regulating cytoskeleton organization and axonal growth. Hypomorphic kette mutations lead to axonal defects similar to mutations in the Drosophila NCK homolog dreadlocks. Furthermore, we show that kette and dock mutants genetically interact. NCK is thought to interact with the small G proteins RAC1 and CDC42, which play a role in axonal growth. In line with these observations, a kette phenocopy can be obtained following directed expression of mutant DCDC42 or DRAC1 in the CNS midline. In addition, the kette mutant phenotype can be partially rescued by expression of an activated DRAC1 transgene. Our data suggest an important role of the HEM-2 protein in cytoskeletal organization during axonal pathfinding.
Mackert, Michael; Lazard, Allison; Guadagno, Marie; Hughes Wagner, Jessica
Objective: Lack of sleep among college students negatively impacts health and academic outcomes. Building on research that implied motion imagery increases brain activity, this project tested visual design strategies to increase viewers' engagement with a health communication campaign promoting napping to improve sleep habits. Participants:…
Vela-Bueno, Antonio; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Olavarrieta-Bernardino, Sara; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Bixler, Edward O.; de la Cruz-Troca, Juan Jose; Rodriguez-Munoz, Alfredo; Olivan-Palacios, Jesus
Objective: Between November 2002 and March 2003, the authors assessed the prevalence and correlates of napping among Spanish university students. Participants: The sample comprised 1,276 first-year university students; the mean age was 18.74 [plus or minus] 1.24 years, and 35.45% were men. Methods: The study was cross-sectional, and the students…
Wang, Pan; Ren, Fang-Mei; Lin, Ying; Su, Feng-Xi; Jia, Wei-Hua; Su, Xue-Fen; Tang, Lu-Ying; Ren, Ze-Fang
Sleep habits vary among different countries, and sleep problems may cause various health problems. The aim of our study was to evaluate the separate and combined associations of night-shift work, sleep duration, and daytime napping with breast cancer risk among the Chinese population. This study conducted face-to-face interviews with 712 women diagnosed with incident invasive breast cancer before treatment and 742 age-matched controls. Information on sleep habits, demographic characteristics, and suspected or established risk factors of breast cancer were collected from the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Night-shift work was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer [OR (95% CI): 1.34 (1.05-1.72)]. Compared to women with a sleep duration of 6.1-8.9 h/day, women who had shorter [(≤6.0 h/day) (OR (95% CI): 1.53 (1.10-2.12)] and longer (≥9.0 h/day) sleep duration [(OR (95% CI): 1.59 (1.17-2.17)] had an increased risk of breast cancer. In addition, daytime napping was associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer among night-shift workers [OR (95% CI): 0.57 (0.36-0.90)], but no association was found among women who never had night-shift work [OR (95% CI): 1.01 (0.75-1.35)] (P for interaction = 0.054). Night-shift work and longer sleep duration also synergistically increased breast cancer risk [OR (95% CI): 3.69 (1.94-7.02)] (P for interaction = 0.009). Sleep problems, including night-shift work, and shorter and longer sleep duration, are associated with an increased breast cancer risk. In particular, the combined effects of night-shift work with no daytime napping or longer sleep duration are greater than the independent effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Waterhouse, J; Atkinson, G; Edwards, B; Reilly, T
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a post-lunch nap on subjective alertness and performance following partial sleep loss. Ten healthy males (mean age 23.3 years, s = 3.4) either napped or sat quietly from 13:00 to 13:30 h after a night of shortened sleep (sleep 23:00-03:00 h only). Thirty minutes after the afternoon nap or control (no-nap) condition, alertness, short-term memory, intra-aural temperature, heart rate, choice reaction time, grip strength, and times for 2-m and 20-m sprints were recorded. The afternoon nap lowered heart rate and intra-aural temperature. Alertness, sleepiness, short-term memory, and accuracy at the 8-choice reaction time test were improved by napping (P 0.05). Sprint times were improved. Mean time for the 2-m sprints fell from 1.060 s (s(x) = 0.018) to 1.019 s (s(x) = 0.019) (P = 0.031 paired t-test); mean time for the 20-m sprints fell from 3.971 s (s(x) = 0.054) to 3.878 s (s(x) = 0.047) (P = 0.013). These results indicate that a post-lunch nap improves alertness and aspects of mental and physical performance following partial sleep loss, and have implications for athletes with restricted sleep during training or before competition.
Yang, Liangle; Xu, Zengguang; He, Meian; Yang, Handong; Li, Xiulou; Min, Xinwen; Zhang, Ce; Xu, Chengwei; Angileri, Francesca; Légaré, Sébastien; Yuan, Jing; Miao, Xiaoping; Guo, Huan; Yao, Ping; Wu, Tangchun; Zhang, Xiaomin
Prospective evidence on the association of sleep duration and midday napping with metabolic syndrome (MetS) is limited. We aimed to examine the associations of sleep duration and midday napping with risk of incidence and reversion of MetS and its components among a middle-aged and older Chinese population. We included 14,399 subjects from the Dongfeng-Tongji (DFTJ) Cohort Study (2008-2013) who were free of coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer at baseline. Baseline data were obtained by questionnaires and health examinations. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were derived from multivariate logistic regression models. After controlling for potential covariates, longer sleep duration (≥ 9 h) was associated with a higher risk of MetS incidence (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.08-1.55) and lower reversion of MetS (OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.66-0.96) compared with sleep duration of 7 to napping, subjects with longer napping (≥ 90 min) was also associated with a higher risk of MetS incidence and a lower risk of MetS reversion compared with those with napping of 1 to napping categories. Both longer sleep duration and longer midday napping were potential risk factors for MetS incidence, and concurrently exert adverse effects on MetS reversion. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
Yang, Liangle; Yang, Handong; He, Meian; Pan, An; Li, Xiulou; Min, Xinwen; Zhang, Ce; Xu, Chengwei; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Yuan, Jing; Wei, Sheng; Miao, Xiaoping; Hu, Frank B; Wu, Tangchun; Zhang, Xiaomin
To analyze the independent and combined relations of sleep duration and midday napping with coronary heart diseases (CHD) incidence along with the underlying changes of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among Chinese adults. We included 19,370 individuals aged 62.8 years at baseline from September 2008 to June 2010, and they were followed until October 2013. Cox proportional hazards models and general linear models were used for multivariate longitudinal analyses. Compared with sleeping 7- napping > 90 min compared with 1-30 min. When sleep duration and midday napping were combined, individuals having sleep duration ≥ 10 h and midday napping > 90 min were at a greater risk of CHD than those with sleeping 7- napping 1-30 min: the HR was 1.67 (95% CI = 1.04 to 2.66; P for trend = 0.017). In addition, longer sleep duration ≥ 10 h was significantly associated with increases in triglycerides and waist circumference, and a reduction in HDL-cholesterol; while longer midday napping > 90 min was related to increased waist circumference. Both longer sleep duration and midday napping were independently and jointly associated with a higher risk of CHD incidence, and altered lipid profile and waist circumference may partially explain the relationships. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
Mayhew, Emily; Schmidt, Shelly; Lee, Soo-Yeun
In a novel approach to formulation, the flash descriptive profiling technique Napping-Ultra Flash Profile (Napping-UFP) was used to characterize a wide range of commercial caramel corn products. The objectives were to identify product categories, develop model systems based on product categories, and correlate analytical parameters with sensory terms generated through the Napping-UFP exercise. In one 2 h session, 12 panelists participated in 4 Napping-UFP exercises, describing and grouping, on a 43×56 cm paper sheet, 12 commercial caramel corn samples by degree of similarity, globally and in terms of aroma-by-mouth, texture, and taste. The coordinates of each sample's placement on the paper sheet and descriptive terms generated by the panelists were used to conduct Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA) and hierarchical clustering of the samples. Strong trends in the clustering of samples across the 4 Napping-UFP exercises resulted in the determination of 3 overarching types of commercial caramel corn: "small-scale dark" (typified by burnt, rich caramel corn), "large-scale light" (typified by light and buttery caramel corn), and "large-scale dark" (typified by sweet and molasses-like caramel corn). Representative samples that best exemplified the properties of each category were used as guides in the formulation of 3 model systems that represent the spread of commercial caramel corn products. Analytical testing of the commercial products, including aw measurement, moisture content determination, and thermal characterization via differential scanning calorimetry, were conducted and results related to sensory descriptors using Spearman's correlation. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®
van Schie, Mojca K M; Alblas, Eva E; Thijs, Roland D; Fronczek, Rolf; Lammers, Gert Jan; van Dijk, J Gert
The Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) helps to quantify vigilance impairments.Previous studies, in which five SART sessions on one day were administered, demonstrated worse performance during the first session than during the others. The present study comprises two experiments to identify a cause of this phenomenon. Experiment 1, counting eighty healthy participants, assessed effects of repetition,napping, and time of day on SART performance through a between-groups design. The SART was performed twice in the morning or twice in the afternoon; half of the participants took a 20-minute nap before the second SART. A strong correlation between error count and reaction time (RT) suggested effects of test instruction. Participants gave equal weight to speed and accuracy in Experiment 1; therefore, results of 20 participants were compared to those of 20 additional participants who were told to prefer accuracy (Experiment 2). The average SART error count in Experiment 1 was 10.1; the median RT was 280 ms. Neither repetition nor napping influenced error count or RT. Time of day did not influence error count, but RT was significantly longer for morning than for afternoon SARTs. The additional participants in Experiment 2 had a 49% lower error count and a 14% higher RT than the participants in Experiment 1. Error counts reduced by 50% from the first to the second session of Experiment 2, irrespective of napping or time of day. Preferring accuracy over speed was associated with a significantly lower error count. The data suggest that a worse performance in the first SART session only occurs when instructing participants to prefer accuracy, which is caused by repetition, not by napping or time of day. We advise that participants are instructed to prefer accuracy over speed when performing the SART and that a full practice session is included.
Martin-Gill, Christian; Barger, Laura K; Moore, Charity G; Higgins, J Stephen; Teasley, Ellen M; Weiss, Patricia M; Condle, Joseph P; Flickinger, Katharyn L; Coppler, Patrick J; Sequeira, Denisse J; Divecha, Ayushi A; Matthews, Margaret E; Lang, Eddy S; Patterson, P Daniel
Scheduled napping during work shifts may be an effective way to mitigate fatigue-related risk. This study aimed to critically review and synthesize existing literature on the impact of scheduled naps on fatigue-related outcomes for EMS personnel and similar shift worker groups. A systematic literature review was performed of the impact of a scheduled nap during shift work on EMS personnel or similar shift workers. The primary (critical) outcome of interest was EMS personnel safety. Secondary (important) outcomes were patient safety; personnel performance; acute states of fatigue, alertness, and sleepiness; indicators of sleep duration and/or quality; employee retention/turnover; indicators of long-term health; and cost to the system. Meta-analyses were performed to evaluate the impact of napping on a measure of personnel performance (the psychomotor vigilance test [PVT]) and measures of acute fatigue. Of 4,660 unique records identified, 13 experimental studies were determined relevant and summarized. The effect of napping on reaction time measured at the end of shift was small and non-significant (SMD 0.12, 95% CI -0.13 to 0.36; p = 0.34). Napping during work did not change reaction time from the beginning to the end of the shift (SMD -0.01, 95% CI -25.0 to 0.24; p = 0.96). Naps had a moderate, significant effect on sleepiness measured at the end of shift (SMD 0.40, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.72; p = 0.01). The difference in sleepiness from the start to the end of shift was moderate and statistically significant (SMD 0.41, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.72; p = 0.01). Reviewed literature indicated that scheduled naps at work improved performance and decreased fatigue in shift workers. Further research is required to identify the optimal timing and duration of scheduled naps to maximize the beneficial outcomes.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations taken on board lightships along the United States coasts from 1936 - 1983. Generally 4-6 observations daily. Also includes deck logs, which give...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — DailyMed provides high quality information about marketed drugs. This information includes FDA labels (package inserts). This Web site provides health information...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Several different government offices have published the Daily weather maps over its history. The publication has also gone by different names over time. The U.S....
Yadav, C.L.R.; Mitra, S.R.; Pawar, S.K.; Lal Chand
Narora Atomic Power Station, the first of Indian standardized Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor, is faced with a problem of 60 Co contamination in moderator and its associated system. This contamination has resulted in increase of collective dose contribution. As a part of ALARA campaign in NAPS it was decided to decontaminate the moderator and associated systems and also incorporate modification which will further control the 60 Co contamination. As a part of decontamination program several experiments to determine the effectiveness of the chemical formulation on SS and cupro-nickel surfaces were carried out on various moderator system equipment before finalizing the formulation for full scale decontamination of moderator system. This paper gives an overview of various modifications in system and decontamination efficiency of various chemical formulation which were used for decontamination of moderator system (excluding calandria) and associated equipment. (author)
Bobić Lucić, Lana; Grazio, Simeon
The objective of this study was to explore the impact of balance confidence on different activities of daily living (ADL) in older people with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Forty-seven consecutive participants with knee OA were included in this cross-sectional study. They were divided according to the results of the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale into a group with a low level of confidence in physical functioning (ABC balance measurements. Older people with knee OA who were less confident in their daily physical activities had more physical difficulties and a greater effect of pain on ADL, lower quality of life, and a higher physician's global assessment, but no differences were obtained in balance tests. In people with knee OA, decreased balance confidence is associated with more physical difficulties, an increased effect of pain on ADL, and lower quality of life. An improved awareness of decreased balance confidence may lead to more effective management of older people with knee OA by improving their mobility and QOL through rehabilitation. Furthermore, future research in that direction is warranted.
Klompstra, Leonie Verheijden; Jaarsma, Tiny; Strömberg, Anna
To explore the influence of the Nintendo Wii on the daily physical activity of a patient with chronic heart failure at home. A 74-year-old Swedish patient with heart failure had access to a Nintendo Wii at home for 12 weeks. Exercise motivation, exercise self-efficacy and exercise capacity were assessed before and after the intervention. Data on perceived physical effort, global well-being and expended energy were collected every day during the intervention. During the 12 weeks of access to the Nintendo Wii, daily physical activity increased by 200% on weekdays and 57% on weekends, compared with baseline. The patient's exercise motivation and exercise self-efficacy increased during the study, whereas perceived physical effort and global well-being did not change. The patient had no difficulties in using the system and did not suffer any major harm. The results of this case study suggest that providing patients with heart failure access to a Nintendo Wii is a promising and safe intervention. The energy expended by the patient per day increased, as did exercise capacity. Playing the Nintendo Wii did not increase the perceived physical effort, but increased motivation to exercise and decreased barriers to exercising.
... Surveillance System. The report may be accessed, for free, at: http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12962... the framework to include those required by regulation, those desired by the user, and those that...
Full Text Available Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCN-Daily) dataset integrates daily climate observations from approximately 30 different data sources. Version 3...
Quantitative Electroencephalographic (QEEG) Data Analysis for the Performance Sustainment of Two Man Crews Throughout 87 Hours of Extended Wakefulness with Stimulants (Dextroamphetamine, Caffeine, Modafinil) and Napping
...) and nap combined with the sleep deprivation factor. In regards to sleep deprivation effects, results indicate that by the end of the study all groups experienced increases in slow-waves (mainly delta...
Identification of genomic differences between Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni and C. jejuni subsp. doylei at the nap locus leads to the development of a C. jejuni subspeciation multiplex PCR method
Full Text Available Abstract Background The human bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni contains two subspecies: C. jejuni subsp. jejuni (Cjj and C. jejuni subsp. doylei (Cjd. Although Cjd strains are isolated infrequently in many parts of the world, they are obtained primarily from human clinical samples and result in an unusual clinical symptomatology in that, in addition to gastroenteritis, they are associated often with bacteremia. In this study, we describe a novel multiplex PCR method, based on the nitrate reductase (nap locus, that can be used to unambiguously subspeciate C. jejuni isolates. Results Internal and flanking napA and napB primer sets were designed, based on existing C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli genome sequences to create two multiplex PCR primer sets, nap mpx1 and nap mpx2. Genomic DNA from 161 C. jejuni subsp. jejuni (Cjj and 27 C. jejuni subsp. doylei (Cjd strains were amplified with these multiplex primer sets. The Cjd strains could be distinguished clearly from the Cjj strains using either nap mpx1 or mpx2. In addition, combination of either nap multiplex method with an existing lpxA speciation multiplex method resulted in the unambiguous and simultaneous speciation and subspeciation of the thermophilic Campylobacters. The Cjd nap amplicons were also sequenced: all Cjd strains tested contained identical 2761 bp deletions in napA and several Cjd strains contained deletions in napB. Conclusion The nap multiplex PCR primer sets are robust and give a 100% discrimination of C. jejuni subspecies. The ability to rapidly subspeciate C. jejuni as well as speciate thermophilic Campylobacter species, most of which are pathogenic in humans, in a single amplification will be of value to clinical laboratories in strain identification and the determination of the environmental source of campylobacterioses caused by Cjd. Finally, the sequences of the Cjd napA and napB loci suggest that Cjd strains arose from a common ancestor, providing clues as to
Lubner, Sam J.; Mahoney, Michelle R.; Kolesar, Jill L.; LoConte, Noelle K.; Kim, George P.; Pitot, Henry C.; Philip, Philip A.; Picus, Joel; Yong, Wei-Peng; Horvath, Lisa; Van Hazel, Guy; Erlichman, Charles E.; Holen, Kyle D.
Purpose Biliary cancers overexpress epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and angiogenesis has been correlated with poor outcome. Erlotinib, an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and bevacizumab, a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor have each been shown to have activity in biliary cancer. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the response rate by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST). Secondary end points included overall survival (OS), time to progression (TTP), VEGF levels, and molecular studies of EGFR and k-ras. Patients and Methods Eligible patients had advanced cholangiocarcinoma or gallbladder cancer. Patients were treated with bevacizumab 5 mg/kg intravenously on days 1 and 15 and erlotinib 150 mg by mouth daily on days 1 through 28. Responses were evaluated by RECIST. VEGF levels were collected, and samples were analyzed for EGFR mutation by polymerase chain reaction. Results Fifty-three eligible patients were enrolled at eight sites. Of 49 evaluable patients, six (12%; 95% CI, 6% to 27%) had a confirmed partial response. Stable disease was documented in another 25 patients (51%). Rash was the most common grade 3 toxicity. Four patients had grade 4 toxicities. Median OS was 9.9 months, and TTP was 4.4 months. Low repeats (G k-ras Q38 genotype (wild type) were associated with improved outcomes. Conclusion Combination chemotherapy with bevacizumab and erlotinib showed clinical activity with infrequent grade 3 and 4 adverse effects in patients with advanced biliary cancers. On the basis of preliminary molecular analysis, presence of a k-ras mutation may alter erlotinib efficacy. The combination of bevacizumab and erlotinib may be a therapeutic alternative in patients with advanced biliary cancer. PMID:20530271
Li, Xue; Pang, Xiuyu; Zhang, Qiao; Qu, Qiannuo; Hou, Zhigang; Liu, Zhipeng; Lv, Lin; Na, Guanqiong; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Changhao; Li, Ying
This prospective cohort study was conducted to assess the duration of daytime napping and its effect combined with night sleep deprivation on the risk of developing high HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) index and disadvantageous changes in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels.A total of 5845 diabetes-free subjects (2736 women and 3109 men), 30 to 65 years of age, were targeted for this cohort study since 2008. Multiple adjusted Cox regression models were performed to evaluate the single and joint effects of daytime napping on the risk of an elevated HbA1c level and high HOMA-IR index.After an average of 4.5 years of follow-up, >30 minutes of daytime napping was significantly associated with an increased risk of an elevated HbA1c level (>6.5%) in men and women (all P trend HOMA-IR index in the entire cohort, men, and women were 1.33 (1.10-1.62), 1.46 (1.08-1.98), and 1.47 (1.12-1.91), respectively. The combination of sleep deprivation with no naps or >30 minutes napping and the combination of no sleep deprivation with >30 minutes daytime napping were all associated with an HbA1c level >6.5% (HR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.24-3.51; HR = 4.00, 95% CI = 2.03-7.90; and HR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.29-3.27, respectively). No sleep deprivation combined with >30 minutes daytime napping correlated with a high risk of an HbA1c level between 5.7% and 6.4% and high HOMA-IR index (HR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.48-3.02; and HR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.10-1.65, respectively).Daytime napping >30 minutes was associated with a high risk of an elevated HbA1c level and high HOMA-IR index. No sleep deprivation combined with napping >30 minutes carries a risk of abnormal glucose metabolism. Sleep deprivation combined with brief daytime napping HOMA-IR index.
Teixeira, Liliane Reis; Fischer, Frida Marina; Nagai, Roberta; Turte, Samantha Lemos
The purpose of this study was to the evaluate time spent by working and nonworking adolescents on daily activities (work, home duties, school, transportation, other activities, leisure, sleep, and naps). Twenty-seven students, 8 male workers, 8 female workers, 5 male nonworkers, and 6 female nonworkers, ages 14-18 yrs participated in the study. They attended evening classes Monday-Friday (19:00-22:30h) in a public school in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The students answered a comprehensive questionnaire on the characterization of their life, work, and health conditions. Simultaneously, they wore actigraphs (Ambulatory Monitoring, Inc.) and completed a diary of their daily activities (time spent at work, on home duties, commuting, leisure, other activities) for a minimum of 10 to a maximum of 17 consecutive days. The means of the variables were tested for differences by a two-factor (work and sex) ANOVA and Student-t test applied to pair-wise samples (weekdays and weekends). The average duration during weekdays of working time was 7 h 09 min and home duties 0 h 48 min. As for commuting time, there was a work effect [F(1,23) = 4.9; p = 0.04]; mean commuting time was 2 h 22 min for workers (males and females) and 1 h 25 min for nonworkers. There was a significant difference between workers and nonworkers [F(1,23) = 4.6; p = 0.04] regarding extra-cirricular class activities; workers spent a mean of 3 min/day on them as opposed to 1 h 14 min by nonworkers. The average daily time spent on leisure activities by workers was 6h 31 min; whereas, for nonworkers it was 7h 38min. Time spent in school amounted to 2h 47min for workers in comparison to 3h 22min by nonworkers. There was a significant work effect upon sleep [F(1,23)= 10.0; p sleep duration was significant [F(1,23)= 16.7; p sleep of 6 h 57 min and female workers 07h 15min. The average nighttime sleep duration for nonworkers was 9 h 06 min. There was a significant interactive effect between work and sex [F(1,23)= 5
Zagorodnikov, E.I.; Kalinin, A.S.; Medvedko, A.S.
The equipment for measurement of the beam equilibrium orbit position in the NAP-M accumulator is described. The measurements are taken by the electrostatic transducers. The signals are delivered from the transducer electrodes to the source followers. At the output of the followers the signals are subtracted by the transformer with a volumetric coil. The total signal is picked off the common load of the followers. The further processing of the total and differential signals is performed with the 1st beam frequency harmonic and consists in rating of the differential signal for the beam current with subsequent synchronous detection. For discrimination of the 1st harmonic, a frequency converter employing field transistors has been designed. The problem of the increasing the accuracy of coincidence of the transmitter electric and geometric centers is discussed. The measuring system operates at the number of the particles on the orbit amounting to (1-2)x10 9 and the beam revesal frequency band within 0.36 - 2.5 MHz. The system has the beam displacement resolution of about 1 mm
Dement'ev, E.N.; Dikanskij, N.S.; Medvedko, A.S.; Parkhomchuk, V.V.; Pestrikov, D.V.
The data on experimental investigation of thermal noises of an asimuthally homogeneous proton beam on the NAP-M storage ring are given. The noise spectra are measured at the 5th and 8th harmonics of the ciculation frequency using pick-up electrodes. The dependencies of the noise power on the proton current for noncooled and cooled beams are presented. It is shown that as a result of electron cooling the noise power decreases by two orders and in the 0.5-10 μA current range the noise power of the cooled beam does not depend on the proton current. The noise power of the noncooled beam linearly increases with the proton current. It is also shown that with the modulation growth the noise power increases. The conclusions are made that while analyzing noises of the continuous beam in the storage ring the changes of the noise spectra due to particle interaction in the beam should be taken into account
Dement'ev, E.N.; Zinevich, N.I.; Medvedko, A.S.; Parkhomchuk, V.V.; Pestrikov, D.V.
Results of experiments on stochastic cooling of proton beam energy spread at NAP-M storage ring are given. Dependences of dampling decrements on beam phase density, numbers of working harmonics and values of amplification factor of feedback circuit have been studied. A differential sensor made in the form of two end-disengaged strip lines is used as a signal source for the feedback circuit. Two cooling systems were investigated: a wide-band system consisting of a sensor and correcting element and a system with a resonance filter at the input. The correcting element is made in the form of four 50 Ohm consistent strip lines. Coaxial cable sections forming with sensor strip lines two resonance lines end-closed with low input resistances of amplifiers were used as a filter. Stable spread in the beam was determined with electronics hums. Coherent beam stability related to its shift in measuring pick up electrode is detected. Method limitations due to electronics noise and collective effects in intense beams are discussed. Cooling time of low-intense particle beam equal to 150 s when decreasing spread from 3x10 - 4 to 2x10 - 4 has been determined
Dement'ev, E.N.; Zinevich, N.I.; Medvedko, A.S.; Parkhomchuk, V.V.; Pestrikov, D.V.
Experimental results on stochastic cooling of a proton beam in the NAP-M are presented. The estimation of the possibility or the cooling method usage in antiproton accumulator rings and also for the study of the cooling peculiarities is the aim of the experiments. Two systems for stochastic cooling have been studied: the wide-band width one and the system with a resonance filter at the input. The experiments are conducted at the energy of 62 MeV. The experiments conducted have shown the possibility of antiproton accumulation. Thermal noises of the feedback system limit the cooling time to approximately 150 s for the single channel system. To attain the cooling time of approximately 1s about one hundred systems operating in parallel connection is required. Mutual effect of particles and coherent instabilities limit the maximum intensity of the particle beam cooled during approximately 1s with the value of approximately 10 7 particles at technically attainable values of the frequency bandwidth
Yamashita, Takuma; Kino, Yasushi
A positronic alkali atom would be the first step to investigate behavior of a positronium(Ps) in an external field from atoms/molecules because the system can be regarded as a simple three-body system using model potentials reflecting electron orbitals of the ion core. In order to precisely determine binding energies and structures of positronic alkali atoms (LiPs + and NaPs + ), we improve the model potential so as to reproduce highly excited atomic energy levels of alkali atoms (Li and Na). The polarization potential included by the model potential is expanded in terms of Gaussian functions to finely determine a short range part of the potential which has been assumed to be a simple form. We find better reproducibility not only of atomic levels of the alkali atoms but also of the dipole polarizability of the core ion than previous works. We construct a model potential between a positron and an ion core based on the model potential between the valence electron and ion core. Binding energies associated with a dissociation of the alkali ion core and positronium, and interparticle distances are recalculated. Our results show slightly deeper bound than other previous studies. (paper)
Stawski, Robert S; Cichy, Kelly E; Piazza, Jennifer R; Almeida, David M
While much research has focused on linking stressful experiences to emotional and biological reactions in laboratory settings, there is an emerging interest in extending these examinations to field studies of daily life. The current study examined day-to-day associations among naturally occurring daily stressors and salivary cortisol in a national sample of adults from the second wave of the National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE). A sample of 1694 adults (age=57, range=33-84; 44% male) completed telephone interviews detailing their stressors and emotions on eight consecutive evenings. Participants also provided saliva samples upon waking, 30min post-waking, before lunch and before bed, on four consecutive interview days resulting in 5995 days of interview/cortisol data. Analyses revealed three main findings. First, cortisol AUC was significantly higher on stressor days compared to stressor-free days, particularly for arguments and overloads at home, suggesting that daily stressors are associated with increased cortisol output, but that not all daily stressors have such an influence. Second, individuals reporting a greater frequency of stressor days also exhibited a steeper diurnal cortisol slope. Finally, daily stressor-cortisol associations were unaltered after adjustment for daily negative affect and physical symptoms. Our discussion focuses on the influence of naturally occurring daily stressors on daily cortisol and the role of daily diary approaches for studying healthy cortisol responses to psychosocial stressors outside of traditional laboratory settings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stawski, Robert S.; Cichy, Kelly E.; Piazza, Jennifer R.; Almeida, David M.
While much research has focused on linking stressful experiences to emotional and biological reactions in laboratory settings, there is an emerging interest in extending these examinations to field studies of daily life. The current study examined day-to-day associations among naturally-occurring daily stressors and salivary cortisol in a national sample of adults from the second wave of the National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE). A sample of 1,694 adults (Age=57, Range=33–84; 44% male) completed telephone interviews detailing their stressors and emotions on eight consecutive evenings. Participants also provided saliva samples upon waking, 30 minutes post-waking, before lunch and before bed, on four consecutive interview days resulting in 5,995 days of interview/cortisol data. Analyses revealed three main findings. First, cortisol AUC was significantly higher on stressor days compared to stressor-free days, particularly for arguments and overloads at home, suggesting that daily stressors are associated with increased cortisol output, but that not all daily stressors have such an influence. Second, individuals reporting a greater frequency of stressor days also exhibited a steeper diurnal cortisol slope. Finally, daily stressor-cortisol associations were unaltered after adjustment for daily negative affect and physical symptoms. Our discussion focuses on the influence of naturally-occurring daily stressors on daily cortisol and the role of daily diary approaches for studying healthy cortisol responses to psychosocial stressors outside of traditional laboratory settings. PMID:23856186
In this PhD thesis, The Daily Selection, I will be addressing the overall question of how research on wardrobes can contribute to a more effective connection between the production and the consumption of dress objects. The thesis builds on exemplary studies of people in their wardrobes....... As such, the parts, when taken as a whole, represent an evolving process through which my overall research questions are being filtered and reflected. My scholarly approach builds on the fusing of fashion and dress research and design research, in this way closing a gap between dress practice as...
Mora Rodriguez, P.
The medical community benefits on a daily basis from the ionizing radiations used in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. The doses received in the medical field are only a small fraction of the total radiation received in a year. This bibliographic review has several objectives. The first one is to present the different components of natural radiation (background radiation). Secondly, it will introduce many consumer products that contain radioactive sources and expose our bodies. Third, arguments to diminish the radiation phobia will be presented and finally an easy to understand dosimetric magnitude will be introduced for the physician, the technologist and the patient. (author) [es
Cichy, Kelly E.; Stawski, Robert S.; Almeida, David M.
Using data from the National Study of Daily Experiences, the authors examined racial differences in exposure and reactivity to daily stressors involving family members. Respondents included African American and European American adults age 34 to 84 (N = 1,931) who participated in 8 days of daily interviews during which they reported on daily…
Carr, Michelle; Nielsen, Tore
The goal of the study was to assess semantic priming to emotion and nonemotion cue words using a novel measure of associational breadth for participants who either took rapid eye movement (REM) or nonrapid eye movement (NREM) naps or who remained awake; assess relation of priming to REM sleep consolidation and REM sleep inertia effects. The associational breadth task was applied in both a priming condition, where cue-words were signaled to be memorized prior to sleep (primed), and a nonpriming condition, where cue words were not memorized (nonprimed). Cue words were either emotional (positive, negative) or nonemotional. Participants were randomly assigned to either an awake (WAKE) or a sleep condition, which was subsequently split into NREM or REM groups depending on stage at awakening. Hospital-based sleep laboratory. Fifty-eight healthy participants (22 male) ages 18 to 35 y (Mage = 23.3 ± 4.08 y). The REM group scored higher than the NREM or WAKE groups on primed, but not nonprimed emotional cue words; the effect was stronger for positive than for negative cue words. However, REM time and percent correlated negatively with degree of emotional priming. Priming occurred for REM awakenings but not for NREM awakenings, even when the latter sleep episodes contained some REM sleep. Associational breadth may be selectively consolidated during REM sleep for stimuli that have been tagged as important for future memory retrieval. That priming decreased with REM time and was higher only for REM sleep awakenings is consistent with two explanatory REM sleep processes: REM sleep consolidation serving emotional downregulation and REM sleep inertia. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
Full Text Available The side effects of a zaleplon-induced nap as a countermeasure in the reduction of impulse inhibition function decline following 30 h of sleep deprivation (SD were examined by event-related brain potentials. Sixteen adult participants performed a Go/NoGo task at five time points: (1 baseline; (2 after 30 h of SD; (3 upon sudden awakening, also called 2 h post-drug; (4 4 h post-drug; and (5 6 h post-drug. Behavior results show an increase in both reaction time and false alarm rates after SD and sudden awakening, and a marked decrease at 4 h and 6 h post-drug in zaleplon and placebo conditions. However, no difference was observed between the zaleplon condition and the placebo condition. In event-related potential (ERP reults compared with results obtained under control conditions, NoGo-P3 latencies significantly increased, whereas the Nogo-P3 amplitude decreased after 30 h of SD and sudden awakening in both the zaleplon condition and the placebo condition. These results indicate that SD attenuates resource allocation and error monitoring for NoGo stimuli. In addition, NoGo-P3 latencies were longer in the zaleplon condition compared with the placebo condition at sudden awakening. Additionally, the NoGo-P3 latencies were shorter in the zaleplon condition than in the placebo condition at 4 h and 6 h post-drug. These results indicate that zaleplon at a dose of 10 mg/day may help subjects achieve a better recovery or maintain better impulse inhibition function, although the side effects of zaleplon last at least 2 h post-drug.
Full Text Available New daily persistent headache (NDPH is a chronic headache developing in a person who does not have a past history of headaches. The headache begins acutely and reaches its peak within 3 days. It is important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pressure and volume. A significant proportion of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment. The condition is best viewed as a syndrome rather than a diagnosis. The headache can mimic chronic migraine and chronic tension-type headache, and it is also important to exclude secondary causes, particularly headaches due to alterations in CSF pressure and volume. A large proportion of NDPH sufferers have migrainous features to their headache and should be managed with treatments used for treating migraine. A small group of NDPH sufferers may have intractable headaches that are refractory to treatment.
Jensen, Ole B.; Wind, Simon
elucidate aspects of urban everyday mobility that can be utilized in policy and planning perspectives. This knowledge can aid construction of generalized qualitative scenarios that together with quantitative transport models can serve as wider knowledge foundation in decision making process.......In 2012 the average daily transportation distance for every Dane were 40 km (TU Data). Realising how much of life is spend thinking about, planning and performing mobility practices it becomes evident that it is much more than an instrumental physical phenomenon – it has great repercussions on life......, social networks, understanding of places and ultimately ourselves and others. To successfully accomplish everyday life, households have to cope with large number of different activities and mobility in relation to their children, work, social life, obligations, expectations, needs and wishes. Drawing...
This book provides answers to everyday questions that any curious mind would ask, like : Why is water blue ? What makes ice so slippery ? How do we localize sound ? How do we keep our body temperature so nice and constant ? How do we survive the sauna at 90 C ? Why do large raindrops fall faster than small ones, and what exactly is their speed ? The answers are given in an accessible and playful way, and are illustrated with funny cartoons. In this book forty "Physics in Daily Life" columns, which appeared earlier in Europhysics News, are brought together in one inspiring volume. As well as being a source of enjoyment and satisfying insights for anyone with some physics background, it also serves as a very good teaching tool for science students. This booklet is a feast of erudition and humour.
Theodosiou, Theodosios; Efstathiou, Georgios; Papanikolaou, Nikolas; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Bagos, Pantelis G; Iliopoulos, Ioannis; Pavlopoulos, Georgios A
Nowadays, due to the technological advances of high-throughput techniques, Systems Biology has seen a tremendous growth of data generation. With network analysis, looking at biological systems at a higher level in order to better understand a system, its topology and the relationships between its components is of a great importance. Gene expression, signal transduction, protein/chemical interactions, biomedical literature co-occurrences, are few of the examples captured in biological network representations where nodes represent certain bioentities and edges represent the connections between them. Today, many tools for network visualization and analysis are available. Nevertheless, most of them are standalone applications that often (i) burden users with computing and calculation time depending on the network's size and (ii) focus on handling, editing and exploring a network interactively. While such functionality is of great importance, limited efforts have been made towards the comparison of the topological analysis of multiple networks. Network Analysis Provider (NAP) is a comprehensive web tool to automate network profiling and intra/inter-network topology comparison. It is designed to bridge the gap between network analysis, statistics, graph theory and partially visualization in a user-friendly way. It is freely available and aims to become a very appealing tool for the broader community. It hosts a great plethora of topological analysis methods such as node and edge rankings. Few of its powerful characteristics are: its ability to enable easy profile comparisons across multiple networks, find their intersection and provide users with simplified, high quality plots of any of the offered topological characteristics against any other within the same network. It is written in R and Shiny, it is based on the igraph library and it is able to handle medium-scale weighted/unweighted, directed/undirected and bipartite graphs. NAP is available at http://bioinformatics.med.uoc.gr/NAP .
Louch, Gemma; O'Hara, Jane; Gardner, Peter; O'Connor, Daryl B
Stress is a significant concern for individuals and organisations. Few studies have explored stress, burnout and patient safety in hospital nursing on a daily basis at the individual level. This study aimed to examine the effects of chronic stress and daily hassles on safety perceptions, the effect of chronic stress on daily hassles experienced and chronic stress as a potential moderator. Utilising a daily diary design, 83 UK hospital nurses completed three end-of-shift diaries, yielding 324 person days. Hassles, safety perceptions and workplace cognitive failure were measured daily, and a baseline questionnaire included a measure of chronic stress. Hierarchical multivariate linear modelling was used to analyse the data. Higher chronic stress was associated with more daily hassles, poorer perceptions of safety and being less able to practise safely, but not more workplace cognitive failure. Reporting more daily hassles was associated with poorer perceptions of safety, being less able to practise safely and more workplace cognitive failure. Chronic stress did not moderate daily associations. The hassles reported illustrate the wide-ranging hassles nurses experienced. The findings demonstrate, in addition to chronic stress, the importance of daily hassles for nurses' perceptions of safety and the hassles experienced by hospital nurses on a daily basis. Nurses perceive chronic stress and daily hassles to contribute to their perceptions of safety. Measuring the number of daily hassles experienced could proactively highlight when patient safety threats may arise, and as a result, interventions could usefully focus on the management of daily hassles.
Full Text Available The building has 18 levels. The Press occupies the 4 basement floors. The ground floor is taken up with the entrance hall, and an indoor carriage way. A snack bar and the telephone operators are situated on the second floor. The production department and the medical services are located on the third storey, whilst the fourth is occupied by the offices and library. The fifth floor is the beginning of the higher section of the building. This floor and up to including the 11th floor are devoted to office space, except for the 10th storey, which contains the office apartments of the directors and the Council Chamber. Equipment related to various services of the building is housed on the 12th storey. Finally, this tall building constitutes a fine landmark in the London skyline. The Daily Mirror building is outstanding for the appropriate nature, the completeness and the quality of its installations, which thus provide the most widely read paper in the world with outstandingly efficient offices.Este edificio consta de 18 plantas. El cuerpo de Prensa se aloja en los cuatro sótanos; los vestíbulos de entrada y una calzada interior para vehículos se hallan en la planta baja; la primera alberga un snack-bar y centralita telefónica; la segunda, el departamento de producción y centro de asistencia médica, y la tercera, las oficinas y biblioteca principales. La cuarta planta señala el comienzo del bloque alto; esta planta, junto con las quinta, sexta, séptima, octava y décima, están dedicadas a oficinas. La novena contiene las oficinas-apartamentos de los directores y salas de Consejo, y la undécima, la maquinaria para las diversas instalaciones del edificio. La elevada torre constituye un grandioso hito de referencia en esta zona de Londres. El «Daily Mirror» se distingue por el acierto, número y perfección de sus instalaciones, que proporcionan, al periódico de mayor actualidad mundial, las más adecuadas y amplias oficinas modernas.
Intervjuu Hiina arhitektuuribüroo Standardarchitecture arhitektide Zhang Ke ja Zhang Hongiga ning arhitektuuribüroo Urbanus arhitekti Xiaodu Liuga Hollandis Hiina tänapäeva tutvustaval näitusel. Hiina arhitektide haridusest, oma arhitektuuribüroode töödest, tänapäeva hiina arhitektuurist, põhiprobleemidest
van Delden, Robertus Wilhelmus; Bruijnes, Merijn
Mobile remote presence systems (MRPs) are the logical next step in telepresence, but what are the ethical, social, legal, and technical implications of such systems going into the wide wild world? We explored these potential issues by immersing ourselves in a range of possible applications by
Breevaart, K.; Bakker, A.B.; Demerouti, E.
The present study adopts a bottom-up approach to work engagement by examining how self-management is related to employees' work engagement on a daily basis. Specifically, we hypothesized that on days that employees use more self-management strategies, they report higher resources at work and in
Breevaart, K.; Bakker, A.B.; Hetland, Jorn; Demerouti, E.; Olsen, O.K.; Espevik, R.
This diary study adds to the leadership literature by examining the daily influence of transformational leadership, contingent reward, and active management-by-exception (MBE active) on followers' daily work engagement. We compare the unique contribution of these leadership behaviours and focus on
Yang, Jun; Adamian, Michael; Li, Tiansen
Rootletin, a major structural component of the ciliary rootlet, is located at the basal bodies and centrosomes in ciliated and nonciliated cells, respectively. Here we investigated its potential role in the linkage of basal bodies/centrioles and the mechanism involved in such linkages. We show that rootletin interacts with C-Nap1, a protein restricted at the ends of centrioles and functioning in centrosome cohesion in interphase cells. Their interaction in vivo is supported by their colocalization at the basal bodies/centrioles and coordinated association with the centrioles during the cell cycle. Ultrastructural examinations demonstrate that rootletin fibers connect the basal bodies in ciliated cells and are present both at the ends of and in between the pair of centrioles in nonciliated cells. The latter finding stands in contrast with C-Nap1, which is present only at the ends of the centrioles. Transient expression of C-Nap1 fragments dissociated rootletin fibers from the centrioles, resulting in centrosome separation in interphase. Overexpression of rootletin in cells caused multinucleation, micronucleation, and irregularity of nuclear shape and size, indicative of defects in chromosome separation. These data suggest that rootletin may function as a physical linker between the pair of basal bodies/centrioles by binding to C-Nap1.
Full Text Available Zeolites are currently one of the most important classes of inorganic materials because of their multiple applications not only as ions exchangers and molecular sieves, but also as catalysts. This works focus the synthesis and the characterization of Zeolite Na-P1 using halloysite (collected near Ain Khemouda, western Tunisia as the starting material. Two parameters, such as the host materials type (natural or treated and the reaction time, involved in the synthesis process are investigated. The intermediate phases and final products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Infrared IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR. Obtained results show that the hydrothermal synthesis from natural and heated-halloysite leads to formation of homogenous Zeolite Na-P1. The difference in the crystallization/transformation time process is explained by the effect of the dissolution rate of the starting materials in sodium hydroxide solution. In the case of heated halloysite, the synthesis reaction with alkali solution occurs very readily and achieved without prior thermal activation at high temperature. The optimal conditions of Zeolite Na-P1 crystallization, from heated-halloysite, are reached at 120 °C. Keywords: Zeolite Na-P1, Halloysite, X-ray, FTIR spectroscopy, SEM, 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR spectroscopy
Kangur, Paavo, 1966-
Sügisel ostis Leedu endise majandusministri Valetntinas Milaknise firma Daily Service ära kõik bürootarvetemüüja Reval Impexi aktsiad. 300 miljoni kroonise aastakäibega firma Eesti tütarettevõte prognoosib oma tänavuseks käibeks 31,2 miljonit krooni. Lisa: Daily Service'i struktuur
Kowall, Bernd; Lehnich, Anna-Therese; Strucksberg, Karl-Heinz; Führer, Dagmar; Erbel, Raimund; Jankovic, Nicole; Moebus, Susanne; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Stang, Andreas
Poor sleep quality as well as short and long sleep duration has been linked to type 2 diabetes. In addition to confirmational analyses, we examined the impact of daytime napping on incident diabetes, and we assessed associations between sleep characteristics and incident prediabetes. In a subgroup of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study, a population-based cohort study in Germany (N = 2962; age 45-75 years, without history of cancer, stroke, or cardiovascular diseases), diabetes at baseline and at 5-year follow-up was assessed by self-report and measurement of serum glucose levels. Prediabetes was defined as impaired fasting glucose (6.1-6.9 mmol/L). A sleep questionnaire was used to assess difficulties falling asleep, difficulties maintaining sleep, early morning arousal, and duration of nocturnal and daytime sleep. In adjusted regression models, short (≤5 hours) and long (≥7.5 hours) sleepers were at greater risk for diabetes (relative risk [RR] = 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-2.39, and 1.40, 95% CI = 1.01-1.96, respectively [reference: 7 hours]). Moreover, the prevalence of any regular sleep disorder was associated with incident diabetes (RR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.01-1.68), and with incident prediabetes (RR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.00-1.72). Regular daytime nappers had no increased risk of incident diabetes (RR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.70-1.41). This study shows that people with regular sleep disorders, people with short and long sleep duration, but not regular daytime nappers are at increased risk of diabetes. Furthermore, regular sleep disorders are associated with an increased risk of prediabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rinkel, Rico N; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M; Doornaert, Patricia; Buter, Jan; de Bree, Remco; Langendijk, Johannes A; Aaronson, Neil K; Leemans, C René
The objective of this study is to assess swallowing and speech outcome after chemoradiation therapy for head and neck cancer, based on the patient-reported outcome measures Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) and Speech Handicap Index (SHI), both provided with cut-off scores. This is a cross-sectional study. Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery of a University Medical Center. Sixty patients, 6 months to 5 years after chemoradiation for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) and SHI, both validated in Dutch and provided with cut-off scores. Associations were tested between the outcome measures and independent variables (age, gender, tumor stage and site, and radiotherapy technique, time since treatment, comorbidity and food intake). Fifty-two patients returned the SWAL-QOL and 47 the SHI (response rate 87 and 78 %, respectively). Swallowing and speech problems were present in 79 and 55 %, respectively. Normal food intake was noticed in 45, 35 % had a soft diet and 20 % tube feeding. Patients with soft diet and tube feeding reported more swallowing problems compared to patients with normal oral intake. Tumor subsite was significantly associated with swallowing outcome (less problems in larynx/hypopharynx compared to oral/oropharynx). Radiation technique was significantly associated with psychosocial speech problems (less problems in patients treated with IMRT). Swallowing and (to a lesser extent) speech problems in daily life are frequently present after chemoradiation therapy for head and neck cancer. Future prospective studies will give more insight into the course of speech and swallowing problems after chemoradiation and into efficacy of new radiation techniques and swallowing and speech rehabilitation programs.
Komulainen, Emma; Meskanen, Katarina; Lipsanen, Jari; Lahti, Jari Marko; Jylhä, Pekka; Melartin, Tarja; Wichers, Marieke; Isometsä, Erkki; Ekelund, Jesper
Personality features are associated with individual differences in daily emotional life, such as negative and positive affectivity, affect variability and affect reactivity. The existing literature is somewhat mixed and inconclusive about the nature of these associations. The aim of this study was to shed light on what personality features represent in daily life by investigating the effect of the Five Factor traits on different daily emotional processes using an ecologically valid method. The Experience Sampling Method was used to collect repeated reports of daily affect and experiences from 104 healthy university students during one week of their normal lives. Personality traits of the Five Factor model were assessed using NEO Five Factor Inventory. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze the effect of the personality traits on daily emotional processes. Neuroticism predicted higher negative and lower positive affect, higher affect variability, more negative subjective evaluations of daily incidents, and higher reactivity to stressors. Conscientiousness, by contrast, predicted lower average level, variability, and reactivity of negative affect. Agreeableness was associated with higher positive and lower negative affect, lower variability of sadness, and more positive subjective evaluations of daily incidents. Extraversion predicted higher positive affect and more positive subjective evaluations of daily activities. Openness had no effect on average level of affect, but predicted higher reactivity to daily stressors. The results show that the personality features independently predict different aspects of daily emotional processes. Neuroticism was associated with all of the processes. Identifying these processes can help us to better understand individual differences in daily emotional life.
Recently it became necessary to assess the dietary intake of both stable and radioactive elements for non-radiation workers. But data of mineral intake in the literature are not good enough for this assessment. ICRP Pub. 23 in 'Reference Man' is one of the best references in this field. ICRP Reference Man was selected as the standard for Caucasian by using values reported during early 1970s or before. Moreover it seems not to be suitable for Japanese (Mongolian). In this report, analytical methods of minerals in total diet samples for Japanese were described. Furthermore, daily intakes for Japanese (Reference Japanese Man) and ICRP Reference Man were compared. After collected by a duplicate portion study and a model diet study, diet samples were dry-ashed followed by wet-digestion with a mixture of HNO 3 and HClO 4 . Diet sample solutions thus prepared were analysed by using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), inductively-coupled plasma atomic-emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Matrix effects of major elements (Na, K, P, Ca and Mg) in diet samples were compensated by a matrix-matching method. About 20 elements were simultaneously determined by ICP-AES and ICP-MS, more easily than by AAS. Most of dietary mineral intakes, except for Na, Mn, and Sr, for Japanese were lower than those of ICRP Reference Man. But, dietary intakes were found to be different depending on countries, even among European and American countries. New representative data for as many elements as possible are necessary now. (author)
Vreede, P.L. de
Ageing is characterised by a reduction in physical reserve, the physiological capacity in excess of that needed for daily activities, that provides a margin of safety that absorbs age- or disease-related changes without a loss in function. When physical capacity falls below the ability required for the performance of daily tasks, functional limitations and a loss of independence may occur. Approximately 20% of people between 65 and 75 years of age report problems with activities of daily livi...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The product contains the 1-degree by 1-degree daily mean outgoing longwave radiation flux at the top of the atmosphere derived from HIRS radiance observations...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of in situ daily and hourly meteorological observations for the former USSR initially obtained within the framework of several joint...
Mackert, Michael; Lazard, Allison; Guadagno, Marie; Hughes Wagner, Jessica
Lack of sleep among college students negatively impacts health and academic outcomes. Building on research that implied motion imagery increases brain activity, this project tested visual design strategies to increase viewers' engagement with a health communication campaign promoting napping to improve sleep habits. PARTICIPANTS (N = 194) were recruited from a large southwestern university in October 2012. Utilizing an experimental design, participants were assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: an implied motion superhero spokes-character, a static superhero spokes-character, and a control group. The use of implied motion did not achieve the hypothesized effect on message elaboration, but superheroes are a promising persuasive tool for health promotion campaigns for college audiences. Implications for sleep health promotion campaigns and the role of implied motion in message design strategies are discussed, as well as future directions for research on the depiction of implied motion as it relates to theoretical development.
Whitcomb, David C.; Yadav, Dhiraj; Adam, Slivka; Hawes, Robert H.; Brand, Randall E.; Anderson, Michelle A.; Money, Mary E.; Banks, Peter A.; Bishop, Michele D.; Baillie, John; Sherman, Stuart; DiSario, James; Burton, Frank R.; Gardner, Timothy B.; Amann, Stephen T.; Gelrud, Andres; Lo, Simon K.; DeMeo, Mark T.; Steinberg, William M.; Kochman, Michael L.; Etemad, Babak; Forsmark, Christopher E.; Elinoff, Beth; Greer, Julia B.; O’Connell, Michael; Lamb, Janette; Barmada, M. Michael
Background Recurrent acute pancreatitis (RAP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP) are complex syndromes associated with numerous etiologies, clinical variables and complications. We developed the North American Pancreatitis Study 2 (NAPS2) to be sufficiently powered to understand the complex environmental, metabolic and genetic mechanisms underlying RAP and CP. Methods Between August 2000 and September 2006, a consortium of 20 expert academic and private sites prospectively ascertained 1,000 human subjects with RAP or CP, plus 695 controls (spouse, family, friend or unrelated). Standardized questionnaires were completed by both the physicians and study subjects and blood was drawn for genomic DNA and biomarker studies. All data were double-entered into a database and systematically reviewed to minimize errors and include missing data. Results A total of 1,000 subjects (460 RAP, 540 CP) and 695 controls who completed consent forms and questionnaires and donated blood samples comprised the final dataset. Data were organized according to diagnosis, supporting documentation, etiological classification, clinical signs and symptoms (including pain patterns and duration, and quality of life), past medical history, family history, environmental exposures (including alcohol and tobacco use), medication use and therapeutic interventions. Upon achieving the target enrollment, data were organized and classified to facilitate future analysis. The approaches, rationale and datasets are described, along with final demographic results. Conclusion The NAPS2 consortium has successfully completed a prospective ascertainment of 1,000 subjects with RAP and CP from the USA. These data will be useful in elucidating the environmental, metabolic and genetic conditions, and to investigate the complex interactions that underlie RAP and CP. PMID:18765957
McDonald, Jennifer; Potyk, Darryl; Fischer, David; Parmenter, Brett; Lillis, Teresa; Tompkins, Lindsey; Bowen, Angela; Grant, Devon; Lamp, Amanda; Belenky, Gregory
Physicians in training experience fatigue from sleep loss, high workload, and working at an adverse phase of the circadian rhythm, which collectively degrades task performance and the ability to learn and remember. To minimize fatigue and sustain performance, learning, and memory, humans generally need 7 to 8 hours of sleep in every 24-hour period. In a naturalistic, within-subjects design, we studied 17 first- and second-year internal medicine residents working in a tertiary care medical center, rotating between day shift and night float every 4 weeks. We studied each resident for 2 weeks while he/she worked the day shift and for 2 weeks while he/she worked the night float, objectively measuring sleep by wrist actigraphy, vigilance by the Psychomotor Vigilance Task test, and visual-spatial and verbal learning and memory by the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised and the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test. Residents, whether working day shift or night float, slept approximately 7 hours in every 24-hour period. Residents, when working day shift, consolidated their sleep into 1 main sleep period at night. Residents working night float split their sleep, supplementing their truncated daytime sleep with nighttime on-duty naps. There was no difference in vigilance or learning and memory, whether residents worked day shift or night float. Off-duty sleep supplemented with naps while on duty appears to be an effective strategy for sustaining vigilance, learning, and memory when working night float.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations taken on board lightships along the United States coasts from 1893 - 1943. Generally 4-6 observations daily. Also includes deck logs, which give...
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A daily census of the inmates at the Allegheny County Jail (ACJ). Includes gender, race, age at booking, and current age. The records for each month contain a...
Passini Christina Moses; Pihet Sandrine; Favez Nicolas; Schoebi Dominik
The use of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) for studying parenting has been rare. We examined the psychometric properties and structural validity of an EMA Parenting Scale based on 32 mothers' reports of their parenting over a period of 10 consecutive days and explored the acceptance of the scale and compliance with the procedure. The results suggested that the EMA Parenting Scale was well accepted for the assessment of daily parenting and that it consistently captured the overreactive a...
Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Roos, Ewa M.; Olesen, Jens Lykkegaard
Daily pain and multi-site pain are both associated with reduction in work ability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among adults. However, no population-based studies have yet investigated the prevalence of daily and multi-site pain among adolescents and how these are associated...... with respondent characteristics. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported daily and multi-site pain among adolescents aged 12--19 years and associations of almost daily pain and multi-site pain with respondent characteristics (sex, age, body mass index (BMI), HRQoL and sports...
Blaxton, Jessica M; Bergeman, Cindy S; Whitehead, Brenda R; Braun, Marcia E; Payne, Jessic D
We explored the prospective, microlevel relationship between nightly sleep quality (SQ) and the subsequent day's stress on positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) as well as the moderating relationships between nightly SQ, subsequent stress, and subsequent PA on NA. We investigated whether age moderated these relationships. We collected 56 days of sleep, stress, and affect data using daily diary questionnaires (N = 552). We used multilevel modeling to assess relationships at the between- and within-person levels. Daily increases in SQ and decreases in stress interacted to predict higher daily PA and lower daily NA. Better SQ in older adults enhanced the benefits of PA on the stress-NA relationship more during times of low stress, whereas better sleep in younger adults enhanced the benefits of PA more during times of high stress. Between-person effects were stronger predictors of well-being outcomes than within-person variability. The combination of good SQ and higher PA buffered the impact of stress on NA. The moderating impact of age suggests that sleep and stress play different roles across adulthood. Targeting intervention and prevention strategies to improve SQ and enhance PA could disrupt the detrimental relationship between daily stress and NA. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Curran, Melissa A.; McDaniel, Brandon T.; Pollitt, Amanda M.; Totenhagen, Casey J.
We use the gender relations perspective from feminist theorizing to investigate how gender and daily emotion work predict daily relationship quality in 74 couples (148 individuals in dating, cohabiting, or married relationships) primarily from the southwest U.S. Emotion work is characterized by activities that enhance others’ emotional well-being. We examined emotion work two ways: trait (individuals’ average levels) and state (individuals’ daily fluctuations). We examined actor and partner effects of emotion work and tested for gender differences. As outcome variables, we included six types of daily relationship quality: love, commitment, satisfaction, closeness, ambivalence, and conflict. This approach allowed us to predict three aspects of relationship quality: average levels, daily fluctuations, and volatility (overall daily variability across a week). Three patterns emerged. First, emotion work predicted relationship quality in this diverse set of couples. Second, gender differences were minimal for fixed effects: Trait and state emotion work predicted higher average scores on, and positive daily increases in, individuals’ own positive relationship quality and lower average ambivalence. Third, gender differences were more robust for volatility: For partner effects, having a partner who reported higher average emotion work predicted lower volatility in love, satisfaction, and closeness for women versus greater volatility in love and commitment for men. Neither gender nor emotion work predicted average levels, daily fluctuations, or volatility in conflict. We discuss implications and future directions pertaining to the unique role of gender in understanding the associations between daily emotion work and volatility in daily relationship quality for relational partners. PMID:26508808
Bai, Yansen; Li, Xiaoliang; Wang, Ke; Chen, Shi; Wang, Suhan; Chen, Zhuowang; Wu, Xiulong; Fu, Wenshan; Wei, Sheng; Yuan, Jing; Yao, Ping; Miao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xiaomin; He, Meian; Yang, Handong; Wu, Tangchun; Guo, Huan
Few studies investigated the combined effects of night-shift work, daytime napping, and nighttime sleep on cancer incidence and mortality. A total of 25,377 participants were included in this study. Information on sleep habits, cancer incidences, and mortalities were collected. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate the adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (HRs, 95%CIs). Male subjects experienced ≥20 years of night-shift work, or without daytime napping had an increased risk of cancer, when compared with males who did not have night-shift work or napped for 1-30 min [HR (95%CI) = 1.27 (1.01-1.59) and 2.03 (1.01-4.13), respectively]. Nighttime sleep for ≥10 h was associated with a separate 40% and 59% increased risk of cancer [HR (95%CI) = 1.40 (1.04-1.88)] and cancer-caused mortality [HR (95%CI) = 1.59 (1.01-2.49)] than sleep for 7-8 h/night. Combined effects of three sleep habits were further identified. Male participants with at least two above risk sleep habits had a 43% increased risk of cancer [HR (95%CI) = 1.43 (1.07-2.01)] and a 2.07-fold increased cancer-caused mortality [HR (95%CI) = 2.07 (1.25-3.29)] than those who did not have any above risk sleep habits. However, no significant associations were observed among women. Long night-shift work history, without daytime napping, and long nighttime sleep duration were independently and jointly associated with higher cancer incidence among males. KEY MESSAGES Night-shift work of ≥20 years, without napping, and nighttime sleep of ≥10 h were associated with increased cancer incidence. Nighttime sleep ≥10 h was associated with a 2.07-fold increased cancer-caused mortality among males. Combined effects of night-shift work ≥20 years, without napping, and nighttime sleep ≥10 h on increasing cancer incidence were existed among males.
Pandit, J J; Andrade, J; Bogod, D G; Hitchman, J M; Jonker, W R; Lucas, N; Mackay, J H; Nimmo, A F; O'Connor, K; O'Sullivan, E P; Paul, R G; Palmer, J H MacG; Plaat, F; Radcliffe, J J; Sury, M R J; Torevell, H E; Wang, M; Hainsworth, J; Cook, T M
not risk factors for accidental awareness: ASA physical status; race; and use or omission of nitrous oxide. We recommend that an anaesthetic checklist, to be an integral part of the World Health Organization Safer Surgery checklist, is introduced as an aid to preventing accidental awareness. This paper is a shortened version describing the main findings from 5th National Audit Project - the full report can be found at http://www.nationalauditprojects.org.uk/NAP5_home#pt. © 2014 by the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland. This article is being published jointly in Anaesthesia and the British Journal of Anaesthesia.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observational reports of daily precipitation (1200 UTC to 1200 UTC) are made by members of the NWS Automated Surface Observing Systems (ASOS) network; NWS...
Meftah, Mahdi; Oueslati, Walid; Chorfi, Nejmeddine; Ben Haj Amara, Abdesslem
Zeolites are currently one of the most important classes of inorganic materials because of their multiple applications not only as ions exchangers and molecular sieves, but also as catalysts. This works focus the synthesis and the characterization of Zeolite Na-P1 using halloysite (collected near Ain Khemouda, western Tunisia) as the starting material. Two parameters, such as the host materials type (natural or treated) and the reaction time, involved in the synthesis process are investigated. The intermediate phases and final products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Infrared IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR. Obtained results show that the hydrothermal synthesis from natural and heated-halloysite leads to formation of homogenous Zeolite Na-P1. The difference in the crystallization/transformation time process is explained by the effect of the dissolution rate of the starting materials in sodium hydroxide solution. In the case of heated halloysite, the synthesis reaction with alkali solution occurs very readily and achieved without prior thermal activation at high temperature. The optimal conditions of Zeolite Na-P1 crystallization, from heated-halloysite, are reached at 120 °C.
Chang, Yu-San; Wu, Yu-Hsuan; Lu, Mei Rou; Hsu, Chung-Yao; Liu, Ching-Kuan; Hsu, Chin
Shift workers frequently experience acute sleep deprivation on first night shift. This study compared the efficacy of 30-min nap (between 2 and 3 a.m.) on the visual attention ability of the nurses working at first 8-h night shift at the time of maximum fatigue (between 3 and 4 a.m.). In addition, we measured cognitive function (between 9 and 10 a.m.) in nurses working on daytime shift, which we defined as baseline wakefulness. The results showed that working on the night shift groups was associated with sleep loss, leading to a decrease in visual attention performance compared to the daytime shift group. There was no statistically significant difference in the visual attention performance between those taking and not taking a nap during the night shift, however the effect size was medium in the information process. It was still needed increase sample size to draw the conclusion regarding a 30-min nap break have positive benefits on perceptual speed during the first night shift. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Jiang Jinyuan; Qi Liang
Based on the comparative analysis and study on 10 profiles of telluric electromagnetic sounding (MT) and regional gravimetric, magnetic data and Moho surface, the deep geological-tectonic pattern of the central-southern Jiangxi is discussed. It is suggested that: the studied region belongs to the Soyth-China block; in the area along Pingxiang-Guangfeng, at the border with Yangzi block an approximately EW-trending mantle concave-mantle slope zone occurs; the NNE-NE trending mantle uplift-mantle slope-mantle concave structure is developed within the South-China block; deep fault zones are represented by variation sites of Moho surface. Then, a series of deep structures is inferred including the approximately EW-striking Pingxian-Guangfeng deep fault zone, the NNE-striking Fuzhou-Anyuan deep fault zone, the NNE-trending Fengcheng-Dayu deep fault zone, as well as the NE-striking Yudu-Ningdu over thrust napped and sliding thrust structural systems, the approximately E W-trending Le'an-Nancheng over thrust napped structural systems etc. According to the distribution of known uranium mineralizations it is confirmed that close time-space relation exists between the uranium metallogenesis and variations of Moho surface, and over thrust napped structures, providing clues for locating concealed uranium deposits
Paola De Michelis
Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate the nature of the daily magnetic field perturbations produced by ionospheric and magnetospheric currents at high latitudes. We analyse the hourly means of the X and Y geomagnetic field components recorded by a meridian chain of permanent geomagnetic observatories in the polar region of the Northern Hemisphere during a period of four years (1995-1998 around the solar minimum. We apply a mathematical method, known as natural orthogonal component (NOC, which is capable of characterizing the dominant modes of the geomagnetic field daily variability through a set of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs. Using the first two modes we reconstruct a two-dimensional equivalent current representation of the ionospheric electric currents, which contribute substantially to the geomagnetic daily variations. The obtained current structures resemble the equivalent current patterns of DP2 and DP1. We characterize these currents by studying their evolution with the geomagnetic activity level and by analysing their dependence on the interplanetary magnetic field. The obtained results support the idea of a coexistence of two main processes during all analysed period although one of them, the directly driven process, represents the dominant component of the geomagnetic daily variation.
Timmons, Adela C.; Margolin, Gayla
Using daily diary data, this study examined cross-day associations between family conflict and school problems and tested mediating effects of daily negative mood and moderating effects of psychological symptoms. For 2 weeks, parents and adolescents (N = 106; M[subscript age] = 15.4) reported daily conflict; adolescents reported daily negative…
Ramin, Pedram; Baz Lomba, J. A.; Reid, M.
It is a common approach to report daily community-wide drug consumption, based on single daily measurements of the influent from a treatment plant. This article suggests that neglecting diurnal variations of loads and flow can result in misestimating daily drug consumption.......It is a common approach to report daily community-wide drug consumption, based on single daily measurements of the influent from a treatment plant. This article suggests that neglecting diurnal variations of loads and flow can result in misestimating daily drug consumption....
Wen, Ye; Pi, Fu-Hua; Guo, Pi; Dong, Wen-Ya; Xie, Yu-Qing; Wang, Xiang-Yu; Xia, Fang-Fang; Pang, Shao-Jie; Wu, Yan-Chun; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Qing-Ying
Sleep habits are associated with stroke in western populations, but this relation has been rarely investigated in China. Moreover, the differences among stroke subtypes remain unclear. This study aimed to explore the associations of total stroke, including ischemic and hemorrhagic type, with sleep habits of a population in southern China. We performed a case-control study in patients admitted to the hospital with first stroke and community control subjects. A total of 333 patients (n = 223, 67.0%, with ischemic stroke; n = 110, 23.0%, with hemorrhagic stroke) and 547 controls were enrolled in the study. Participants completed a structured questionnaire to identify sleep habits and other stroke risk factors. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) and multiple logistic regression were performed to identify risk factors of disease. Incidence of stroke, and its subtypes, was significantly associated with snorting/gasping, snoring, sleep duration, and daytime napping. Snorting/gasping was identified as an important risk factor in the Lasso logistic regression model (Lasso’ β = 0.84), and the result was proven to be robust. This study showed the association between stroke and sleep habits in the southern Chinese population and might help in better detecting important sleep-related factors for stroke risk. PMID:27698374
Studte, Sara; Bridger, Emma; Mecklinger, Axel
The consolidation of new associations is thought to depend in part on physiological processes engaged during non-REM (NREM) sleep, such as slow oscillations and sleep spindles. Moreover, NREM sleep is thought to selectively benefit associations that are adaptive for the future. In line with this, the current study investigated whether different reward cues at encoding are associated with changes in sleep physiology and memory retention. Participants' associative memory was tested after learning a list of arbitrarily paired words both before and after taking a 90-min nap. During learning, word-pairs were preceded by a cue indicating either a high or a low reward for correct memory performance at test. The motivation manipulation successfully impacted retention such that memory declined to a greater extent from pre- to post sleep for low rewarded than for high rewarded word-pairs. In line with previous studies, positive correlations between spindle density during NREM sleep and general memory performance pre- and post-sleep were found. In addition to this, however, a selective positive relationship between memory performance for highly rewarded word-pairs at posttest and spindle density during NREM sleep was also observed. These results support the view that motivationally salient memories are preferentially consolidated and that sleep spindles may be an important underlying mechanism for selective consolidation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This 60 second public service announcement (PSA) is based on the November 24, 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Preexposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, is a daily medicine that can be used to prevent getting HIV. PrEP is for people who donât have HIV but who are at very high risk for getting it from sex or injection drug use. Unfortunately, many people who can benefit from PrEP arenât taking it.
Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio
We study the price dynamics of 65 stocks from the Dow Jones Composite Average from 1973 to 2014. We show that it is possible to define a Daily Market Volatility σ(t) which is directly observable from data. This quantity is usually indirectly defined by r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) where the r(t) are the daily returns of the market index and the ω(t) are i.i.d. random variables with vanishing average and unitary variance. The relation r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) alone is unable to give an operative definition of the index volatility, which remains unobservable. On the contrary, we show that using the whole information available in the market, the index volatility can be operatively defined and detected.
This report presents the test plan for collecting and analyzing safety data for the Atlanta Congestion Reduction Demonstration (CRD) under the United States Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) Urban Partnership Agreement (UPA) and CRD Programs. T...
Full Text Available This article titled "Dayak and Daily Life" This paper aims to reveal the Dayak and in their daily life. Dayak is a native of Borneo has its own characteristics. Dayak, divided into 405 sub-sub clans . Each sub Dayak both Indonesia and Malaysia are identical. Dayak customs and culture comes from the word "Power" which means upstream, to refer to people who live in inland areas or in the interior of Borneo. In the arsenal of art and culture, Dayak has many similarities such as; saber, chopsticks, beliong, betang, cupai, renjung, empajang and others. Dayak indigenous religion is Kaharingan which is the original religion born of the cultural ancestors of the Dayaks. Most of the Dayak people still adhere to the belief of the existence of unseen objects in certain places such as rocks, large trees, planting gardens in the forest, lakes, pools, and others are believed to have "magical powers". Daily life of the Dayaks in general farming, farming. When will open farming land, farming they held ritual.
Refinetti, R; Piccione, G
Research over the past 50 years has demonstrated the existence of circadian or daily rhythmicity in the body core temperature of a large number of mammalian species. However, previous studies have failed to identify daily rhythmicity of body temperature in dogs. We report here the successful recording of daily rhythms of rectal temperature in female Beagle dogs. The low robustness of the rhythms (41% of maximal robustness) and the small range of excursion (0.5 degrees C) are probably responsible for previous failures in detecting rhythmicity in dogs.
The daily distribution of food intake can influence the regulation of energy balance and, in consequence, the control of body weight. Two aspects of this question must be considered: the daily number of eating occasions and their temporal distribution. Since the 1960s, epidemiological studies have reported an inverse relationship between frequency of eating and body weight, suggesting that a ‘‘nibbling’’ pattern could help to prevent obesity. This notion has later been...
Hartsell, Elizabeth N; Neupert, Shevaun D
The present study examines the within-person relationship of daily stressors and tiredness and whether this depends on daily negative affect and individual differences in chronic stress. One hundred sixteen older adult participants were recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk for a 9-day daily diary study. Daily tiredness, daily stressors, and negative affect were measured each day, and chronic stress was measured at baseline. Daily stressors, daily negative affect, and chronic stress interacted to predict daily tiredness. People with high chronic stress who experienced an increase in daily negative affect were the most reactive to daily stressors in terms of experiencing an increase in daily tiredness. We also found that people with low levels of chronic stress were the most reactive to daily stressors when they experienced low levels of daily negative affect. Our results highlight the need for individualized and contextualized approaches to combating daily tiredness in older adults.
Aledavood, Talayeh; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Saramäki, Jari
Humans, like almost all animals, are phase-locked to the diurnal cycle. Most of us sleep at night and are active through the day. Because we have evolved to function with this cycle, the circadian rhythm is deeply ingrained and even detectable at the biochemical level. However, within the broader...... day-night pattern, there are individual differences: e.g., some of us are intrinsically morning-active, while others prefer evenings. In this article, we look at digital daily cycles: circadian patterns of activity viewed through the lens of auto-recorded data of communication and online activity. We...
Jordi M Lanis
Full Text Available The Clostridium difficile exotoxin, TcdB, which is a major virulence factor, varies between strains of this pathogen. Herein, we show that TcdB from the epidemic BI/NAP1/027 strain of C. difficile is more lethal, causes more extensive brain hemorrhage, and is antigenically variable from TcdB produced by previously studied strains of this pathogen (TcdB003. In mouse intoxication assays, TcdB from a ribotype 027 strain (TcdB027 was at least four fold more lethal than TcdB003. TcdB027 caused a previously undescribed brain hemorrhage in mice and this correlated with a heightened sensitivity of brain microvascular endothelial cells to the toxin. TcdB003 and TcdB027 also differed in their antigenic profiles and did not share cross-neutralizing epitopes in a major immunogenic region of the protein. Solid phase humoral mapping of epitopes in the carboxy-terminal domains (CTD of TcdB027 and TcdB003 identified 11 reactive epitopes that varied between the two forms of TcdB, and 13 epitopes that were shared or overlapping. Despite the epitope differences and absence of neutralizing epitopes in the CTD of TcdB027, a toxoid form of this toxin primed a strong protective response. These findings indicate TcdB027 is a more potent toxin than TcdB003 as measured by lethality assays and pathology, moreover the sequence differences between the two forms of TcdB alter antigenic epitopes and reduce cross-neutralization by antibodies targeting the CTD.
Seité, Sophie; Fourtanier, Anny M A
It is now recognized that both ultraviolet (UV)-A and UVB wavelengths participate in the generation of photodamaged human skin during sun exposure. During usual daily activities, an appropriate protection against solar UV exposure should prevent clinical, cellular, and molecular changes potentially leading to photoaging. This study was designed to evaluate in human beings the protection afforded by a day cream containing a photostable combination of UVB and UVA filters and thus protect against the UV-induced skin alterations. In solar-simulated radiation exposed and unprotected skin sites we observed melanization. The epidermis revealed a significant increase in stratum corneum and stratum granulosum thickness. In the dermis, an enhanced expression of tenascin and a reduced expression of type I procollagen were evidenced just below the dermoepidermal junction. Although no change in elastic fibers in exposed buttock skin was seen, a slightly increased deposit of lysozyme and alpha-1 antitrypsin on elastin fibers was observed using immunofluorescence techniques. A day cream with photoprotection properties was shown to prevent all of the above-described alterations. This study was performed on a limited number of patients (n = 12) with specific characteristics (20-35 years old and skin type II and III). Two dermal alterations were evaluated by visual assessment and not by computer-assisted image analysis quantification. Our in vivo results demonstrate the benefits of daily photoprotection using a day cream containing appropriate broad-spectrum sunscreens, which prevent solar UV-induced skin damages.
Chung, Grace H.; Flook, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.
Using a daily diary method, this study assessed daily episodes of family and peer conflict among 578 adolescents in the 9th grade to examine potential bidirectional associations between the family and peer domains. Adolescents completed a daily diary checklist at the end of each day over a 14-day period to report events of conflict and their…
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Precipitation reports submitted on many form types, including tabular and autographic charts. Reports are almost exclusively from the US Cooperative Observer Network.
Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.
Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…
Full Text Available Regular daytime napping behavior, also known as siesta culture, is influenced by circadian, cultural and environmental factors. This research analyzes characteristics of regular daytime napping in Brazilian Native Terenas. We evaluared 65 adults ( 32 M; 33 F from 18 to 75 years, with a mean age of 37.2, from the Indian Reservation village Córrego do Meio, in the central region of Mato Grosso do Sul. Daytime napping characteristics were evaluated by means of a standard questionnaire applied to each individual. It was observed that weekly daytime napping (at least once a week was present in 72.3% of the population. There was a tendency to occur in males. The effects of weekends was mild. Mean onset time of daytime sleep was 12.2 h, remarkably earlier than usually described in urban populations. This data stresses the need to consider ethnic influences in order to understand sleep habits.O comportamento de dormir regularmente durante o dia, denominado cultura de sesta, é influenciado por fatores circadianos, culturais e ambientais.Esta pesquisa buscou verificar as características do sono diurno regular em indígenas Terena. Avaliamos 65 adultos (32 M; 33 F de 18 a 75 anos de idade (média 37,2 anos da aldeia Córrego do Meio, situada em reserva indígena na região central de Mato Grosso do Sul. As características do sono diurno foram avaliadas por meio de questionário padronizado. Como resultado, verificamos que 72,3% dos indivíduos apresentavam sesta, pelo menos uma vez por semana. Este hábito tendeu a ser mais encontrado no sexo masculino. Apenas 9,2% referiram sesta só nos fins de semana. O horário de sesta foi acentuadamente mais cedo do que o descrito em populações urbanas, iniciando a sesta em média às 12,2 h. É necessário ponderar as influências étnicas para compreender as características do dormir.
Narváez Samaniego, Xavier Guillermo
La evolución que han tenido las telecomunicaciones en los últimos años, así como la necesidad de interconexión entre redes con costos accesibles, nos enfrenta al requerimiento de desarrollar proyectos que busquen suplir estas situaciones. De esta manera el presente trabajo representa un estudio de la implementación de un Centro de Datos para la empresa municipal ETAPA de la ciudad de Cuenca en lo que respecta al Punto de Acceso a Redes NAP. Magíster en Telemática Cuenca
Full Text Available We propose an integrated Mixed Reality methodology for recreating ancient daily life that features realistic simulations of animated virtual human actors (clothes, body, skin, face who augment real environments and re-enact staged storytelling dramas. We aim to go further from traditional concepts of static cultural artifacts or rigid geometrical and 2D textual augmentations and allow for 3D, interactive, augmented historical character-based event representations in a mobile and wearable setup. This is the main contribution of the described work as well as the proposed extensions to AR Enabling technologies: a VR/AR character simulation kernel framework with real-time, clothed virtual humans that are dynamically superimposed on live camera input, animated and acting based on a predefined, historically correct scenario. We demonstrate such a real-time case study on the actual site of ancient Pompeii.
Lindahl-Jacobsen, Line; Hansen, Dorte Gilså; Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen
and characterize ADL task performance problems among a group of adult disabled hospitalized cancer patients using interview and questionnaire data. METHODS: Cross-sectional study on prevalence of ADL task performance problems experienced by disabled hospitalized cancer patients using the Activities of Daily Living...... Questionnaire (ADL-Q) (n = 118) and the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) (n = 55). RESULTS: All 118 patients reported problems with ADL task performance. Based on the ADL-Q patients reported more problems within instrumental (I-)ADL than personal (P-)ADL. In both I-ADL and P-ADL the results......BACKGROUND: Many cancer patients report unmet rehabilitation needs. Rehabilitation may include activities of daily living (ADL) tasks, but little is known about how cancer patients perform these tasks and how they prioritize their daily activities. Hence, this study aims to identify...
A study was carried out in 12 previously untreated hypertensive patients to assess the efficacy of sotalol given in a once-daily dosage regimen. After an initial dosage titration period (mean 3 weeks) during which diastolic pressure was stabilized at less than 100 mmHg, all patients were satisfactorily maintained on a constant once-daily dose of sotalol for 3 months. Eight of the 12 patients required 320 mg or less daily (mean dose 190 mg). Whilst blood pressure remained controlled for at least 26 hours after daily doses the pulse rate, counted at the same time, showed escape from beta-blockade. Side-effects (vivid dreams) were reported in only 1 patient.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Daily Fine Particulate Matter data available on CDC WONDER are geographically aggregated daily measures of fine particulate matter in the outdoor air, spanning...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of in situ daily meteorological observations for Kazakhstan within the framework of joint efforts to create Global Daily Climatology...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA 1/4° daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (or daily OISST) is an analysis constructed by combining observations from different platforms...
Objectives. Widowhood may result in declines in health and potentially stressful changes to daily routines. However, little research has examined how daily stressors contribute to physical and emotional well-being in widowhood. The objectives of the current study were to examine daily stressor exposure and reactivity in widowed versus married older adults. Method. Participants included all 100 widowed and 342 married adults aged 65 and older from the National Study of Daily Experiences, a daily diary study from the second wave of the Midlife in the United States. Daily stressors were measured using the Daily Inventory of Stressful Events; multilevel modeling assessed daily reactivity to stressors using daily negative affect (emotional reactivity) and daily physical symptoms (physical reactivity) as outcomes. Results. Married participants reported more stressors in general, and specifically more interpersonal stressors (e.g., arguments). Both married and widowed participants were reactive to daily stressors. Married participants were physically and emotionally reactive to interpersonal stressors. Widowed participants were more physically reactive to home-related stressors. Discussion. Attention to the types of daily stressors that widowed older adults experience in daily life and the potential physical effects of daily stressors during widowhood may help to alleviate some of the physical distress that widowed older adults may experience. PMID:23685921
Hahn, Elizabeth A; Cichy, Kelly E; Small, Brent J; Almeida, David M
Widowhood may result in declines in health and potentially stressful changes to daily routines. However, little research has examined how daily stressors contribute to physical and emotional well-being in widowhood. The objectives of the current study were to examine daily stressor exposure and reactivity in widowed versus married older adults. Participants included all 100 widowed and 342 married adults aged 65 and older from the National Study of Daily Experiences, a daily diary study from the second wave of the Midlife in the United States. Daily stressors were measured using the Daily Inventory of Stressful Events; multilevel modeling assessed daily reactivity to stressors using daily negative affect (emotional reactivity) and daily physical symptoms (physical reactivity) as outcomes. Married participants reported more stressors in general, and specifically more interpersonal stressors (e.g., arguments). Both married and widowed participants were reactive to daily stressors. Married participants were physically and emotionally reactive to interpersonal stressors. Widowed participants were more physically reactive to home-related stressors. Attention to the types of daily stressors that widowed older adults experience in daily life and the potential physical effects of daily stressors during widowhood may help to alleviate some of the physical distress that widowed older adults may experience.
This 60 second public service announcement (PSA) is based on the November 24, 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Preexposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, is a daily medicine that can be used to prevent getting HIV. PrEP is for people who donât have HIV but who are at very high risk for getting it from sex or injection drug use. Unfortunately, many people who can benefit from PrEP arenât taking it. Created: 11/24/2015 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP). Date Released: 11/24/2015.
Mansouri, Sheila; Wang, Shan; Frappier, Lori
The reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) from latent to lytic infection begins with the expression of the viral BZLF1 gene, leading to a subsequent cascade of viral gene expression and amplification of the EBV genome. Using RNA interference, we show that nucleosome assembly proteins NAP1 and TAF-I positively contribute to EBV reactivation in epithelial cells through the induction of BZLF1 expression. In addition, overexpression of NAP1 or the β isoform of TAF-I (TAF-Iβ) in AGS cells latently infected with EBV was sufficient to induce BZLF1 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments performed in AGS-EBV cells showed that TAF-I associated with the BZLF1 promoter upon lytic induction and affected local histone modifications by increasing H3K4 dimethylation and H4K8 acetylation. MLL1, the host protein known to dimethylate H3K4, was found to associate with the BZLF1 promoter upon lytic induction in a TAF-I-dependent manner, and MLL1 depletion decreased BZLF1 expression, confirming its contribution to lytic reactivation. The results indicate that TAF-Iβ promotes BZLF1 expression and subsequent lytic infection by affecting chromatin at the BZLF1 promoter.
Full Text Available We examined the question whether the role of EEG oscillations in predicting presence/absence of dream recall (DR is explained by state- or trait-like factors. Six healthy subjects were awakened from REM sleep in a within-subjects design with multiple naps, until a recall (REC and a non-recall (NREC condition were obtained. Naps were scheduled in the early afternoon and were separated by one week. Topographical EEG data of the 5-min of REM sleep preceding each awakening were analyzed by power spectral analysis [Fast Fourier Transform (FFT] and by a method to detect oscillatory activity [Better OSCillations (BOSC].Both analyses show that REC is associated to higher frontal theta activity (5-7 Hz and theta oscillations (6.06 Hz compared to NREC condition, but only the second comparison reached significance. Our pilot study provides support to the notion that sleep and wakefulness share similar EEG correlates of encoding in episodic memories, and supports the state-like hypothesis: dream recall may depend on the physiological state related to the sleep stage from which the subject is awakened rather than on a stable individual EEG pattern.
Choppin, G.R.; Wall, D.E.
Stability constants (log β 101 ) of Th 4+ , UO 2 2+ , NpO 2 + and Am 3+ with [NaP 5 W 30 O 110 ] 14- were determined by solvent extraction (μ = 0.1M NaCl) and found to be 6.18 ± 0.07, 3.80 ± 0.06, 2.98 ± 0.04, and 5.85 ± 0.05, respectively. The order of stability constants: Th 4+ > Am 3+ > UO 2 2+ > NpO 2 + is due to electrostatic repulsion between the actinyl oxygens and oxygens on the polyoxometalate surface. The order of stability constants for metal complexes with [P 2 W 18 O 62 ] 6- is Th 4+ > UO 2 2+ > Eu 3+ >NpO 2 + because the steric repulsion between actinyl oxygens and oxygens on polyoxometalate are less important. Enthalpies of complexation were measured by calorimetric titration of Th 4+ , UO 2 2+ , Nd 3+ with [NaP 5 W 30 O 110 ] 14- and [P 2 W 18 O 62 ] 6- . The results indicate that the conformation and charge distribution of the microscopic surface structures are important factors in the formation of pseudocolloids. (author)
Slobbe, D. C.; Klees, R.; Verlaan, M.; Zijl, F.; Alberts, B.; Farahani, H. H.
We present an efficient and flexible alternative method to connect islands and offshore tide gauges with the height system on land. The method uses a regional, high-resolution hydrodynamic model that provides total water levels. From the model, we obtain the differences in mean water level (MWL) between tide gauges at the mainland and at the islands or offshore platforms. Adding them to the MWL relative to the national height system at the mainland's tide gauges realizes a connection of the island and offshore platforms with the height system on the mainland. Numerical results are presented for the connection of the Dutch Wadden islands with the national height system (Normaal Amsterdams Peil, NAP). Several choices of the period over which the MWLs are computed are tested and validated. The best results were obtained when we computed the MWL only over the summer months of our 19-year simulation period. Based on this strategy, the percentage of connections for which the absolute differences between the observation- and model-derived MWL differences are ≤ 1 cm is about 34% (46 out of 135 possible leveling connections). In this case, for each Wadden island we can find several connections that allow the transfer of NAP with (sub-)centimeter accuracy.
Singh, A.K.; Mehta, H.R.; Bhattacharya, S.
Acoustic Emission data is very weak and passive in nature that leads to a challenging task to separate AE data from noise. This paper illuminates the work done of post analysis of acoustic emission data of seal plug leakage of operating PHWR, NAPS-2, Narora and Fatigue Crack initiation of three-point bend sample using cluster analysis and artificial neural network (ANN). First the known AE data generated in lab by PCB debonding and pencil leak break were analyzed using ANN to get the confidence. After that the AE data acquired by scanning all 306-coolant channels at NAPS-2 was sorted out in five separate clusters for different leakage rate and background noise. Fatigue crack initiation, AE data generated in MSD lab on three-point bend sample was clustered in ten separate clusters in which one cluster was having 98% AE data of crack initiation period noted with the help of travelling microscope but remaining clusters indicating AE data of different sources and noise. The above data was further analysed with self organizing map of Artificial Neural Network. (author)
Rabbitts, Jennifer A; Zhou, Chuan; Narayanan, Arthi; Palermo, Tonya M
Approximately 20% of children develop persistent pain after major surgery. Sleep disruption has been implicated as a predictor of children's acute postsurgical pain. However, perioperative sleep patterns have not been longitudinally assessed, and the role of sleep in persistence of postsurgical pain has not been explored. We aimed to examine sleep patterns over 4 months in children having major surgery, and temporal relationships between daily sleep and pain. Sixty children age 10 to 18 (mean = 14.7) years having major surgery completed 7 days of actigraphy sleep monitoring (sleep duration, efficiency), twice daily electronic diaries (sleep quality, pain intensity, medication use), and validated questionnaires at presurgery, 2 weeks, and 4 months postsurgery. Generalized linear models, controlling for age, sex, naps, and medication, showed sleep quality (β [B] = -.88, P sleep quality was significantly associated with greater next day pain intensity (B = -.15, P = .005). Sleep duration and efficiency were not associated with subsequent pain; daytime pain was not associated with subsequent sleep. Findings suggest sleep quality may be an important target for intervention after surgery in children; research is needed to understand how other sleep parameters may relate to recovery. This study assessed longitudinal sleep patterns over 4 months after major pediatric surgery using actigraphy, diaries, and validated measures. Sleep quality and efficiency were significantly reduced at 2 weeks. Poorer sleep quality was associated with greater next day pain intensity suggesting that sleep quality may be an important target for intervention. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chung, Jane; Ozkaynak, Mustafa; Demiris, George
We evaluated the value of workflow analysis supported by a novel visualization technique to better understand the daily routines of older adults and highlight their patterns of daily activities and normal variability in physical functions. We used a self-reported activity diary to obtain data from six community-dwelling older adults for 14 consecutive days. Workflow for daily routine was analyzed using the EventFlow tool, which aggregates workflow information to highlight patterns and variabilities. A total of 1453 events were included in the data analysis. To demonstrate the patterns and variability of each individual's daily activities, participant activity workflows were visualized and compared. The workflow analysis revealed great variability in activity types, regularity, frequency, duration, and timing of performing certain activities across individuals. Also, when workflow approach was applied to spatial information of activities, the analysis revealed the ability to provide meaningful data on individuals' mobility in different levels of life spaces from home to community. Results suggest that using workflows to characterize the daily activities of older adults will be helpful for clinicians and researchers in understanding their daily routines and preparing education and prevention strategies tailored to each individual's activity level. This tool also has the potential to be integrated into consumer informatics technologies, such as patient portals or personal health records, so that consumers may be encouraged to become actively involved in monitoring and managing their health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Timmons, Adela C.; Margolin, Gayla
Using daily diary data, this study examined cross-day associations between family conflict and school problems and tested mediating effects of daily negative mood and moderating effects of psychological symptoms. For 2 weeks, parents and adolescents (N = 106; mean age = 15.4) reported daily conflict; adolescents reported daily negative mood and school problems. Results indicated bidirectional, multi-day spillover between parent-adolescent conflict and school problems with daily negative mood statistically accounting for spillover both within and across days. Externalizing symptoms strengthened links between father-adolescent conflict and school problems, whereas depressive and anxious symptoms strengthened links between parent-adolescent conflict and daily negative mood. By demonstrating cross-domain transmission of daily problems, these findings highlight the salience of everyday events as possible intervention targets. PMID:25346538
Timmons, Adela C; Margolin, Gayla
Using daily diary data, this study examined cross-day associations between family conflict and school problems and tested mediating effects of daily negative mood and moderating effects of psychological symptoms. For 2 weeks, parents and adolescents (N = 106; Mage = 15.4) reported daily conflict; adolescents reported daily negative mood and school problems. Results indicated bidirectional, multiday spillover between parent-adolescent conflict and school problems with daily negative mood statistically accounting for spillover both within and across days. Externalizing symptoms strengthened links between father-adolescent conflict and school problems, whereas depressive and anxious symptoms strengthened links between parent-adolescent conflict and daily negative mood. By demonstrating cross-domain transmission of daily problems, these findings highlight the salience of everyday events as possible intervention targets. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
... Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... during a 24-hour period. For example, one toddler may sleep 13 hours at night with only ...
Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Dowswell, Therese; Viteri, Fernando E
). Although the difference between groups did not reach statistical significance, women who received iron supplements were more likely than controls to report side effects (25.3% versus 9.91%) (RR 2.36; 95% CI 0.96 to 5.82, 11 trials, 4418 women), particularly at doses 60 mg of elemental iron or higher. Women receiving iron were on average more likely to have higher haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations at term and in the postpartum period, but were at increased risk of Hb concentrations greater than 130g/L during pregnancy and at term. Twenty-three studies were conducted in countries that in 2011 had some malaria risk in parts of the country. In some of these countries/territories, malaria is present only in certain areas or up to a particular altitude. Only two of these reported malaria outcomes. There is no evidence that iron supplementation increases placental malaria. For some outcomes heterogeneity was higher than 50%. Authors’ conclusions Prenatal supplementation with daily iron are effective to reduce the risk of low birthweight, and to prevent maternal anaemia and iron deficiency in pregnancy. Associated maternal side effects and particularly high Hb concentrations during pregnancy at currently used doses suggest the need to update recommendations on doses and regimens for routine iron supplementation. PMID:23235616
Balter, James M.; Brock, Kristy K.; Litzenberg, Dale W.; McShan, Daniel L.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Haken, Randall Ten; McGinn, Cornelius J.; Lam, Kwok L.; Dawson, Laura A.
Introduction: A system has been developed for daily targeting of intrahepatic tumors using a combination of ventilatory immobilization, in-room diagnostic imaging, and on-line setup adjustment. By reducing geometric position uncertainty, as well as organ movement, this system permits reduction of margins and thus potentially higher treatment doses. This paper reports our initial experience treating 8 patients with focal liver tumors using this system. Methods and Materials: The system includes diagnostic X-ray tubes mounted on the wall and ceiling of a treatment room, an active matrix flat panel imager, in-room control for image acquisition and setup adjustment, and a ventilatory immobilization system via active breathing control (ABC). Eight patients participated in the study, two using an early prototype ABC unit, and the remaining six with a commercial ABC system and improved setup measurement tools. Treatment margins were reduced, and dose consequently increased because of increased confidence in target position under this protocol. After daily setup via skin marks, orthogonal radiographs were acquired at suspended ventilation. The images were aligned to the CT model using the diaphragm for inferior-superior (IS) alignment, and the skeleton for left-right (LR) and anterior-posterior (AP) alignment. Adjustments were made for positioning errors greater than a threshold (3 or 5 mm). After treatment, retrospective analysis determined the final setup accuracy, as well as the error in initial setup measurement performed before setup adjustment. Results: Two hundred sixty-two treatment fractions were delivered on eight patients, with 171 treatments requiring repositioning. Typical treatment times were 25-30 min. Patients were able to tolerate ABC throughout the course of treatment. Breath holds up to 35 s long were used for treatment. The use of on-line imaging and setup adjustment reduced setup errors (σ) from 4.0 mm (LR), 6.7 mm (IS), and 3.8 mm (AP) to 2.1 mm (LR
Clegg, Herbert W; Ryan, Amy G; Dallas, Steven D; Kaplan, Edward L; Johnson, Dwight R; Norton, H James; Roddey, Oliver F; Martin, Edward S; Swetenburg, Raymond L; Koonce, Elizabeth W; Felkner, Mary M; Giftos, P Michael
Two relatively small previous studies comparing once-daily amoxicillin with conventional therapy for group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis reported similar rates of bacteriologic success for each treatment group. The purpose of this study was to further evaluate once-daily amoxicillin for GAS pharyngitis in a larger study. In a single pediatric practice, from October through May for 2 consecutive years (2001-2003), we recruited children 3 to 18 years of age who had symptoms and signs suggestive of GAS pharyngitis. Patients with a positive rapid test for GAS were stratified by weight (or=40 kg) and then randomly assigned to receive once-daily (750 mg or 1000 mg) or twice-daily (2 doses of 375 mg or 500 mg) amoxicillin for 10 days. We determined bacteriologic failure rates for GAS in the pharynx from subsequent swabs taken at 14 to 21 (visit 2) and 28 to 35 (visit 3) days after treatment initiation. We conducted a randomized, controlled, investigator-blinded, noninferiority trial to evaluate whether amoxicillin given once daily would have a bacteriologic failure rate no worse than that of amoxicillin given twice daily within a prespecified margin of 10%. GAS isolates were characterized to distinguish bacteriologic failures from new acquisitions. Adverse events were described and adherence was evaluated by review of returned daily logs and dosage bottles. Of 2139 potential study patients during the 2-year period, we enrolled 652 patients, 326 into each treatment group. Children in the 2 groups were comparable with respect to all demographic and clinical characteristics except that children <40 kg more often presented with rash in each treatment group. At visit 2, failure rates were 20.1% (59 of 294) for the once-daily group and 15.5% (46 of 296) for the twice-daily group (difference, 4.53%; 90% confidence interval [CI], -0.6 to 9.7). At visit 3, failure rates were 2.8% (6 of 216) for the once-daily group and 7.1% (16 of 225) for the twice-daily group (difference, -4
Raffle, Holly; Ware, Lezlee J.; Ruhil, Anirudh V. S.; Hamel-Lambert, Jane; Denham, Sharon A.
Objective: To determine factors contributing to successful diabetes self-management in Appalachia, as evidenced by daily blood glucose monitoring. Methods: A telephone survey (N = 3841) was conducted to assess health status and health care access. The current investigation is limited to the subset of this sample who report having diabetes (N =…
DePree, Chauncey M., Jr.; Jude, Rebecca K.
The classic question, "Should business schools teach ethics?" is not often asked anymore given the drip, drip, drip of business corruption reported in the news. Even skeptics allow that business ethics education could not hurt and might improve the ethics of business leaders. Furthermore, universities, colleges, and business accrediting…
Kollektiivne töö, rohujuuredemokraatia ja opositsioonikultuuri visuaalsed vormid tänapäeva Eestis = Collective work, grassroots democracy and visual forms of opposition culture in contemporary Estonia / Airi Triisberg
Triisberg, Airi, 1982-
Kokkupuutepunktidest sotsiaalsete liikumiste ja kaasaegse kunsti vahel tänapäeva Eestis, keskendudes kollektiivse ja sekkuva iseloomuga praktikatele avalikus ruumis. Prussakovi nimelise jalgrattaühingu Vabaduse väljaku aktsioonist Tallinnas, Linnalabori katuseaia jt. projektidest, "vabaduse plakati" aktsioonist, Johnson&Johnson "Paldiski projektist" jm.
Kühnhausen, Jan; Leonhardt, Anja; Dirk, Judith; Schmiedek, Florian
A positive influence of physical activity (PA) on affect has been shown in numerous studies. However, this relationship has not yet been studied in the daily life of children. We present a part of the FLUX study that attempts to contribute to filling that gap. To this end, a proper way to measure PA and affect in the daily life of children is needed. In pre-studies of the FLUX study, we were able to show that affect can be measured in children with self-report items that are answered using sm...
Department of Homeland Security — Daily activity of Public Assistance Grant Awards, including FEMA Region, State, Disaster Declaration Number, Event description, Mission Assigned agency, Assistance...
... Age: ____ 2 years old___ Weight: ___ 30 pounds ___ Daily Medicine Record Child’s name: ___________________ Today’s date: _________________ Age: ____________ Weight: ________________ (pounds) Time Problem ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis is the most widely consumed illicit substance in America, with increasing rates of use. Some theorists tend to link frequency of use with cannabis dependence. Nevertheless, fewer than half of daily cannabis users meet DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis dependence. This study seeks to determine whether the negative aspects associated with cannabis use can be explained by a proxy measure of dependence instead of by frequency of use. Results Over 2500 adult daily cannabis users completed an Internet survey consisting of measures of cannabis and other drug use, in addition to measures of commonly reported negative problems resulting from cannabis use. We compared those who met a proxy measure of DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis dependence (N = 1111 to those who did not meet the criteria (N = 1770. Cannabis dependent subjects consumed greater amounts of cannabis, alcohol, and a variety of other drugs. They also had lower levels of motivation, happiness, and satisfaction with life, with higher levels of depression and respiratory symptoms. Conclusion Although all of our subjects reported daily use, only those meeting proxy criteria for cannabis dependence reported significant associated problems. Our data suggest that dependence need not arise from daily use, but consuming larger amounts of cannabis and other drugs undoubtedly increases problems.
Huo, Meng; Graham, Jamie L; Kim, Kyungmin; Birditt, Kira S; Fingerman, Karen L
When adult children incur life problems (e.g., divorce, job loss, health problems), aging parents generally report providing more frequent support and experiencing poorer well-being. Yet, it is unclear how adult children's problems may influence aging parents' daily support exchanges with these children or the parents' daily mood. Aging parents from the Family Exchanges Study Wave 2 (N = 207, Mage = 79.86) reported providing and receiving emotional support, practical support, and advice from each adult child each day for 7 days. Parents also rated daily positive and negative mood. Multilevel models showed that aging parents were more likely to provide emotional and practical support to adult children incurring life problems than children not suffering problems. Parents were also more likely to receive emotional support and advice from these children with problems. Further, parents reported less negative mood on days when providing practical support to children with problems. Examining daily support exchanges adds to our understanding of how children's problems influence parent-child ties in late life. Prior research suggests that children's problems upset parents. In this study, however, it appears that supporting adult children who suffer problems may alleviate aging parents' distress regarding such children. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Ng, Sor Tho; Tengku-Aizan, Hamid; Tey, Nai Peng
This article investigates the influence of perceived health status on the daily activity participation of older Malaysians. Data from the Survey on Perceptions of Needs and Problems of the Elderly, which was conducted in 1999, were used. The negative binomial regression results show that older persons with good perceived health status reported more varieties of daily activity participation, especially among the uneducated and those with below-average self-esteem. The multinomial logistic regression model suggests that older persons with good perceived health status tended to engage daily in paid work only or with leisure activities, whereas those perceived to have poor health were more likely to engage in leisure activities only or leisure and family role activities. Promotion of a healthy lifestyle at a younger age encourages every person to monitor and take responsibility for their own health, which is a necessary strategy to ensure active participation at an older age, and thus improve their well-being.
Machell, Kyla A; Kashdan, Todd B; Short, Jerome L; Nezlek, John B
Research on meaning in life has generally focused on global meaning judgments. This study examined how people's daily experiences, represented by events that occur in daily life, influence their perceived sense of meaning on a daily basis. One hundred sixty-two college students completed daily reports for 2 weeks. We examined the relationships among daily social and achievement events, daily positive and negative affect, and daily meaning in life. In addition, we tested the possible moderating influence of depressive symptoms on these relationships. Positive daily social and achievement events were related to greater daily meaning, above and beyond the contributions of daily positive and negative affect. Negative social and achievement events were related to less daily meaning, and negative achievement events covaried with daily meaning above and beyond positive and negative affect. Depression moderated the relationships between positive events and meaning, such that people who reported more depressive symptoms had greater increases in daily meaning in response to positive social and achievement events than individuals who reported fewer symptoms. These findings suggest the important role that daily events may play in fluctuations in people's affective experiences and sense of meaning in life. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Larrose, C; Le Carrer, D
Legislation set by GBEA (Guide de bonne exécution des analyses) requires that, before performing analysis, the laboratory directors have to check both the nature of the samples and the patients identity. The data processing of requisition forms, which identifies key errors, was established in 2000 and in 2002 by the specialized biochemistry laboratory, also with the contribution of the reception centre for biological samples. The laboratories follow a strict criteria of defining acceptability as a starting point for the reception to then check requisition forms and biological samples. All errors are logged into the laboratory database and analysis report are sent to the care unit specifying the problems and the consequences they have on the analysis. The data is then assessed by the laboratory directors to produce monthly or annual statistical reports. This indicates the number of errors, which are then indexed to patient files to reveal the specific problem areas, therefore allowing the laboratory directors to teach the nurses and enable corrective action.
... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Daily publication. 5.6 Section 5.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL § 5.6 Daily publication. There shall be an edition of the Federal Register published for each official Federal working day...
1977-01-01Rainfall series of different climatic regions were analysed with the aim of generating daily rainfall sequences. A survey of the data is given in I, 1. When analysing daily rainfall sequences one must be aware of the following points:
Fernández-Baena, F. Javier; Trianes, María V.; Escobar, Milagros; Blanca, María J.; Muñoz, Ángela M.
Daily stress can have a bearing on children's emotional and academic development. This study aimed to assess daily stressors and to determine their prevalence among primary education students, taking into account their gender, academic year, social adaptation, and the school location. A sample of 7,354 Spanish schoolchildren aged between 6 and 13…
Kato, Daisuke; Tabuchi, Hiromi; Uno, Satoshi
To report interim 1-year results from a 3-year surveillance study evaluating safety, efficacy, and persistence of long-term mirabegron for overactive bladder (OAB). Patients starting treatment with mirabegron for urinary urgency, daytime frequency, and urgency incontinence associated with OAB were registered and followed up for 3 years. Data were collected on adverse drug reactions (ADR), changes in OAB symptoms, changes in Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS), and treatment discontinuations. Treatment persistence rates were calculated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Eighty-one ADR were observed in 72/1139 patients (6.3%) through 1 year of mirabegron treatment, with the incidence highest during the first month. No significant change in residual urine volume was observed at any observation point up to 1 year of mirabegron treatment. Mirabegron was deemed "effective" in 883/1091 patients (80.9%) at 1 year/discontinuation. Total OABSS was decreased with statistical significance at 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year, or at discontinuation (P similar for male and female patients but significantly higher for patients aged ≥65 years (67.3%; n = 908) compared with those aged <65 years (59.8%; n = 231; log-rank test: P = 0.032). Long-term OAB treatment with mirabegron was well-tolerated, with effectiveness maintained through 1 year. Mirabegron treatment persistence was higher than has been previously reported, and was greater in patients aged ≥65 years compared with those aged <65 years. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Reports an error in "Self-critical perfectionism, daily stress, and disclosure of daily emotional events" by Clarissa M. E. Richardson and Kenneth G. Rice (Journal of Counseling Psychology, 2015[Oct], Vol 62, 694-702). In the article, the labels of the two lines in Figure 1 were inadvertently transposed. The dotted line should be labeled High SCP and the solid line should be labeled Low SCP. The correct version is present in the erratum. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-30890-001.) Although disclosure of stressful events can alleviate distress, self-critical perfectionism may pose an especially strong impediment to disclosure during stress, likely contributing to poorer psychological well-being. In the current study, after completing a measure of self-critical perfectionism (the Discrepancy subscale of the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised; Slaney, Rice, Mobley, Trippi, & Ashby, 2001), 396 undergraduates completed measures of stress and disclosure at the end of each day for 1 week. Consistent with hypotheses and previous research, multilevel modeling results indicated significant intraindividual coupling of daily stress and daily disclosure where disclosure was more likely when experiencing high stress than low stress. As hypothesized, Discrepancy moderated the relationship between daily stress and daily disclosure. Individuals higher in self-critical perfectionism (Discrepancy) were less likely to engage in disclosure under high stress, when disclosure is often most beneficial, than those with lower Discrepancy scores. These results have implications for understanding the role of stress and coping in the daily lives of self-critical perfectionists. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald
Ultra-endurance performance is of increasing popularity. We investigated the associations between anthropometry, training and support during racing, with race performance in 67 male recreational ultra-endurance cyclists participating in the 'Swiss Cycling Marathon' over 600 kilometres, an official qualifier for the cycling ultra-marathon 'Paris-Brest-Paris'. The 54 finishers showed no differences in anthropometry and did not train differently compared to the 13 non-finishers. During the race, the finishers were significantly more frequently racing alone than being followed by a support crew. After bivariate analysis, percent body fat (r = 0.43), the cycling distance per training unit (r = -0.36), the duration per training unit (r = -0.31) and the sleep time during the race (r = 0.50) were related to overall race time. The 23 non-sleepers in the finisher group completed the race within (mean and IQR) 1,567 (1,453-1,606) min, highly significantly faster than the 31 sleepers with 1,934 (1,615-2,033) min (P = 0.0003). No variable of support during the race was associated with race time. After multivariate analysis, percent body fat (P = 0.026) and duration per training unit (P = 0.005) remained predictor variables for race time. To summarize, for a successful finish in a cycling ultra-marathon over 600 kilometres such as the 'Swiss Cycling Marathon', percent body fat and duration per training unit were related to race time whereas equipment and support during the race showed no association. Athletes with naps were highly significantly slower than athletes without naps.
Fish, Laura J; Pollak, Kathryn I; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Mathur, Charu; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S
An increasing proportion of daily smokers are light smokers (≤10 cigarettes per day). Some light smokers have never smoked more than 10 cigarettes per day (native light smokers) and others smoked at higher levels but have cut down (converted light smokers). It is important that we expand our understanding of these distinct subgroups of light smokers in order to develop effective interventions. Data for this report come from a larger sample of smokers who completed a cross-sectional survey administered through an online panel survey service. The sample of 522 light smokers included 256 native light smokers and 266 as converted light smokers. The goal of the analysis was to examine demographic, smoking, and psychosocial factors that differentiate between native and converted light smokers. Multivariable logistic regression results showed 4 variables that differentiated between native and converted light smokers. Native light smokers were more likely to be Black than White, smoke fewer cigarettes per day, smoked fewer total years, and had higher perceived risk of heart disease than converted light smokers. Native and converted light smokers are similar in many ways and also differ on some important characteristics. Further exploration of group difference is needed and could help to inform for cessation strategies for daily light smokers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Rickenbach, Elizabeth Hahn; Condeelis, Kristen L; Haley, William E
Daily experiences of stress are common and have been associated with worse affect among older adults. People with mild cognitive impairment (PWMCI) have measurable memory deficits in between normal cognition and dementia and have been identified as having greater psychological distress than cognitively healthy older adults (CHOAs). Little is known about whether daily stressors contribute to distress among PWMCI. We hypothesized that compared with CHOAs, PWMCI would have higher daily negative affect and lower daily positive affect, report greater numbers and severity of daily stressors, and experience greater emotional reactivity to daily stressors. Fifteen clinically diagnosed PWMCI and 25 CHOAs completed daily reports of stressors, stressor severity, and positive and negative affect over an 8-day period. PWMCI reported higher daily negative affect, lower daily positive affect, and higher numbers and greater severity of memory stressors but did not differ from CHOAs in numbers or severity of general stressors. Cognitive status was a moderator of the daily stress-affect relationship. Days with greater numbers and severity of general daily stressors were associated with higher negative affect only for PWMCI. The numbers and severity of memory stressors were not associated with negative affect. In addition, more severe general daily stressors and memory stressors were associated with lower positive affect for all participants. Results suggest that PWMCI are less resilient in the face of daily stress than are CHOAs in terms of negative affect, perhaps because of declines in reserve capacity. The study presents a promising approach to understanding stress and coping in predementia states of cognition. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Habel, Melissa A; Dittus, Patricia J; De Rosa, Christine J; Chung, Emily Q; Kerndt, Peter R
Previous studies suggest that student athletes may be less likely than nonathletes to engage in sexual behavior. However, few have explored sexual risk behavior among athletes in early adolescence. In 2005, a sample of 10,487 students in 26 Los Angeles public middle and high schools completed a self-administered survey that asked about their demographic characteristics, sports participation, sexual behaviors and expectations, and parental relationships. Chi-square analyses compared reported levels of daily participation in sports, experience with intercourse, experience with oral sex and condom use at last intercourse by selected characteristics. Predictors of sexual experience and condom use were assessed in multivariate logistic regression analyses. One-third of students reported daily participation in sports. This group had higher odds of ever having had intercourse and ever having had oral sex than their peers who did not play a sport daily (odds ratios, 1.2 and 1.1, respectively). The increases in risk were greater for middle school sports participants than for their high school counterparts (1.5 and 1.6, respectively). Among sexually experienced students, daily sports participants also had elevated odds of reporting condom use at last intercourse (1.4). Students as young as middle school age who participate in sports daily may have an elevated risk for STDs and pregnancy. Health professionals should counsel middle school athletes about sexual risk reduction, given that young students may find it particularly difficult to obtain contraceptives, STD testing and prevention counseling. Copyright © 2010 by the Guttmacher Institute.
Charles, Susan Turk; Luong, Gloria; Almeida, David M.; Ryff, Carol; Sturm, Maggie; Love, Gayle
The current study examined age differences in daily stressors, positive events (uplifts), and their associations with emotional experience among healthy older women. Women (N = 101, 63--93 years old) reported their daily experiences across 1 week. Older age was related to fewer stressors and less frequent negative affect. However, the association between negative affect and age was no longer significant after accounting for the occurrence of daily stressors. Older age was not significantly re...
Daily aspirin therapy: Understand the benefits and risks Daily aspirin therapy can be a lifesaving option, but it's not ... everyone. Get the facts before considering a daily aspirin. By Mayo Clinic Staff Daily aspirin therapy may ...
van Knippenberg, Rosalia J M; de Vugt, Marjolein E; Ponds, Rudolf W; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Verhey, Frans R J
Positive emotions and feelings of competence seem to play an important role in the well-being of caregivers of people with dementia. Both are likely to fluctuate constantly throughout the caretaking process. Unlike standard retrospective methods, momentary assessments in daily life can provide insight into these moment-to-moment fluctuations. Therefore, in this study both retrospective and momentary assessments were used to examine the relationship between caregivers' sense of competence and their experienced positive affect (PA) in daily life. Thirty Dutch caregivers provided momentary data on PA and daily sense of competence ratings for 6 consecutive days using the experience sampling methodology. Additionally, they reported retrospectively on their sense of competence with a traditional questionnaire. A positive association was found between retrospective and daily measured sense of competence. Caregivers reported corresponding levels of sense of competence on both measures. Both daily and retrospective sense of competence were positively associated with the experienced levels of PA. However, daily sense of competence appeared to be the strongest predictor. Regarding the variability in PA, only daily sense of competence showed a significant association, with a higher daily sense of competence predicting a more stable PA pattern. This study provides support for redirecting caregiver support interventions toward enhancement of positive rather than negative experiences and focusing more on caregivers' momentary emotional experiences. Momentary assessments are a valuable addition to standard retrospective measures and provide a more comprehensive and dynamic view of caregiver functioning. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.
Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking category as it relates to readiness to quit among current smokers. Of the 4438 students at six Southeast colleges who completed an online survey, 69.7%...
Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating What do the Daily Value numbers mean on food labels? Answers from ... 15, 2016 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/expert-answers/food-and- ...
Professional ideals are crucial in terms of guiding and committing journalists in modern media organizations. But what happens if there are discrepancies between the journalists’ professional ideals and their daily working practice? Research suggests negative consequences, such as withdrawal...
... this article Daily Tips for Good Oral Hygiene Bacteria can live in your mouth in the form of plaque, causing cavities and gingivitis, which can lead to periodontal (gum) disease. In order to keep your mouth ...
Brown, Lindsay; Harmsen, William; Blanchard, Miran; Goetz, Matthew; Jakub, James; Mutter, Robert; Petersen, Ivy; Rooney, Jessica; Stauder, Michael; Yan, Elizabeth; Laack, Nadia
Purpose: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare and aggressive breast cancer variant treated with multimodality therapy. A variety of approaches intended to escalate the intensity and efficacy of radiation therapy have been reported, including twice-daily radiation therapy, dose escalation, and aggressive use of bolus. Herein, we examine our outcomes for patients treated with once-daily radiation therapy with aggressive bolus utilization, focusing on treatment technique. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of patients with nonmetastatic IBC treated from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2010, was performed. Locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS) and predictors thereof were assessed. Results: Fifty-two women with IBC were identified, 49 (94%) of whom were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. All underwent mastectomy followed by adjuvant radiation therapy. Radiation was delivered in once-daily fractions of 1.8 to 2.25 Gy (median, 2 Gy). Patients were typically treated with daily 1-cm bolus throughout treatment, and 33 (63%) received a subsequent boost to the mastectomy scar. Five-year Kaplan Meier survival estimates for LRC, DFS, and OS were 81%, 56%, and 64%, respectively. Locoregional recurrence was associated with poorer OS (P<.001; hazard ratio [HR], 4.1). Extracapsular extension was associated with worse LRC (P=.02), DFS (P=.007), and OS (P=.002). Age greater than 50 years was associated with better DFS (P=.03). Pathologic complete response was associated with a trend toward improved LRC (P=.06). Conclusions: Once-daily radiation therapy with aggressive use of bolus for IBC results in outcomes consistent with previous reports using various intensified radiation therapy regimens. LRC remains a challenge despite modern systemic therapy. Extracapsular extension, age ≤50 years, and lack of complete response to chemotherapy appear to be associated with worse outcomes. Novel strategies are needed in IBC
Mohr, Cynthia D; Arpin, Sarah; McCabe, Cameron T
Research explored the effects of variability in negative and positive affect on alcohol consumption, specifying daily fluctuation in affect as a critical form of emotion dysregulation. Using daily process methodology allows for a more objective calculation of affect variability relative to traditional self-reports. The present study models within-person negative and positive affect variabilities as predictors of context-specific consumption (i.e. solitary vs. social drinking), controlling for mean levels of affect. A community sample of moderate-to-heavy drinkers (n = 47; 49% women) from a US metropolitan area reported on affect and alcohol consumption thrice daily for 30 days via a handheld electronic interviewer. Within-person affect variability was calculated using daily standard deviations in positive and negative affect. Within person, greater negative and positive variabilities are related to greater daily solitary and social consumption. Across study days, mean levels of negative and positive affect variabilities related to greater social consumption between persons; yet, aggregated negative affect variability was related to less solitary consumption. Results affirm affect variability as a unique predictor of alcohol consumption, independent of mean affect levels. Yet, it is important to differentiate social context of consumption, as well as type of affect variability, particularly at the between-person level. These distinctions help clarify inconsistencies in the self-medication literature regarding associations between average levels of affect and consumption. Importantly, consistent within-person relationships for both variabilities support arguments that both negative and positive affect variabilities are detrimental and reflect an inability to regulate emotional experience. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
In the theoretical part I am devoted to the history, anatomy, types of stoma, concept of stoma, indications for an establishment of stoma, pre and postoperative care, treatment of stoma, instruments and the influence on daily activities of a client while having a stoma. In the practical part I am following my own research of the impact of stoma on daily life's activities of klients with a stoma.
This podcast is based on the November 24, 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Preexposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, is a daily medicine that can be used to prevent getting HIV. PrEP is for people who donât have HIV but who are at very high risk for getting it from sex or injection drug use. Unfortunately, many people who can benefit from PrEP arenât taking it.
Easwar, Vijayalakshmi; Sanfilippo, Joseph; Papsin, Blake; Gordon, Karen
Children with profound hearing loss can gain access to sound through cochlear implants (CIs), but these devices must be worn consistently to promote auditory development. Although subjective parent reports have identified several factors limiting long-term CI use in children, it is also important to understand the day-to-day issues which may preclude consistent device use. In the present study, objective measures gathered through datalogging software were used to quantify the following in children: (1) number of hours of CI use per day, (2) practical concerns including repeated disconnections between the external transmission coil and the internal device (termed "coil-offs"), and (3) listening environments experienced during daily use. This study aimed to (1) objectively measure daily CI use and factors influencing consistent device use in children using one or two CIs and (2) evaluate the intensity levels and types of listening environments children are exposed to during daily CI use. Retrospective analysis. Measures of daily CI use were obtained from 146 pediatric users of Cochlear Nucleus 6 speech processors. The sample included 5 unilateral, 40 bimodal, and 101 bilateral CI users (77 simultaneously and 24 sequentially implanted). Daily CI use, duration, and frequency of coil-offs per day, and the time spent in multiple intensity ranges and environment types were extracted from the datalog saved during clinic appointments. Multiple regression analyses were completed to predict daily CI use based on child-related demographic variables, and to evaluate the effects of age on coil-offs and environment acoustics. Children used their CIs for 9.86 ± 3.43 hr on average on a daily basis, with use exceeding 9 hr per day in ∼64% of the children. Daily CI use reduced significantly with increasing durations of coil-off (p = 0.027) and increased significantly with longer CI experience (p Listening environments of all children typically ranged between 50 and 70 d
Kushwaha, Pratishtha; Jaiswal, Deeksha; Dheera, A.; Upreti, Udita; Chaudhari, Suresh; Kinhikar, Rajesh; Deshpande, Deepak; Shrivastava, Shyam
Daily quality assurance (QA) for high precision radiotherapy equipments is very important to maintain the mechanical and dosimetric accuracy for patient treatments. Gross deviations in these parameters may have an adverse impact on the delivery of the treatments to patients. We report the results of daily QA tests performed over a period of three months for two Varian linear accelerators and a Tomotherapy machine
Walker, Jon; Young, Graeme; Hunt, Chris; Henderson, Terri
To evaluate the clinical performance of two daily disposable contact lenses: 1-DAY ACUVUE (1DA) (etafilcon A, Johnson & Johnson Vision Care) and FOCUS DAILIES with AquaComfort (FD) (nelfilcon A, CIBA Vision, Inc.), which contains a quickly released moisture enhancing agent, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). This was a 1-week, daily wear, subject-masked, bilateral, parallel group study with subjects randomly assigned to one of two daily disposable soft contact lenses. Subjects were existing soft contact lens wearers in the age range 18-39 years with a spherical refraction between -0.50 and -6.00 D. Subjects were assessed at baseline and after 1 week. Assessments included both subjective (symptoms, wearing time, vision) and objective (lens fit and ocular health) outcomes. Twenty clinical sites enrolled 282 subjects (74% female) of whom 276 (98%) successfully completed the study. Significantly more 1DA wearers reported higher mean comfort scores than with FD (3.95 versus 3.41, respectively, Pdisposable lenses highlight that, although both lenses may be considered as clinically acceptable, these lenses should not be regarded as interchangeable.
McWilliams, Stephen; Kinsella, Anthony; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard
Numerous studies have reported that admission rates in patients with affective disorders are subject to seasonal variation. Notwithstanding, there has been limited evaluation of the degree to which changeable daily meteorological patterns influence affective disorder admission rates. A handful of small studies have alluded to a potential link between psychiatric admission rates and meteorological variables such as environmental temperature (heat waves in particular), wind direction and sunshine. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test, ARIMA and time-series regression analyses to examine whether daily meteorological variables—namely wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, rainfall, hours of sunshine, sunlight radiation and temperature—influence admission rates for mania and depression across 12 regions in Ireland over a 31-year period. Although we found some very weak but interesting trends for barometric pressure in relation to mania admissions, daily meteorological patterns did not appear to affect hospital admissions overall for mania or depression. Our results do not support the small number of papers to date that suggest a link between daily meteorological variables and affective disorder admissions. Further study is needed.
Larsen, Mads Lamm; Pedersen, Oliver Heidmann; Hvas, Anne-Mette
Insufficient platelet inhibition has been reported in up to 40% of aspirin-treated patients, including patients with essential thrombocytosis. To maintain sufficient platelet inhibition, a shorter dosing interval with aspirin has been suggested. We aimed to investigate the antiplatelet effect...... of low-dose aspirin given twice-daily compared to standard once-daily dosing in patients with essential thrombocytosis. We included 22 patients, who were treated for 7 days with standard once-daily aspirin (75 mg once-daily) followed by 7 days treatment of twice-daily aspirin (37.5 mg twice......-daily). The two regimens were separated by 14 days aspirin washout. Blood samples were obtained 1h and 24h/12h after the last pill intake in each regimen. The effect of aspirin was evaluated by: (1) platelet aggregation measured by whole blood impedance aggregometry (Multiplate® Analyser) using arachidonic acid...
Summers, Janet; Larkin, Dawne; Dewey, Deborah
In order to understand how age, culture, and problems in motor coordination impact the performance of activities of daily living, we used focus groups and in-depth interviews with Australian and Canadian parents to examine activities of daily living of younger (5-7 years of age) and older (8-9 years of age) children with and without DCD. By comparison with their typically developing age group, children with DCD had more difficulty with dressing, personal hygiene, and eating skills. Difficulties with postural control and fine-motor skills were reported to contribute to poorer performance of activities of daily living. As expected, competence in the performance of activities of daily living improved in the older children with and without DCD and there were few differences in the performance of daily living tasks between typical children in Australia and Canada. Overall, the motor difficulties of children with DCD had a significant impact on performance of a wide range of daily activities.
Sliwinski, Martin J.; Almeida, David M.; Smyth, Joshua; Stawski, Robert S.
There is little longitudinal information on aging-related changes in emotional responses to negative events. The present manuscript examined intraindividual change and variability in the within-person coupling of daily stress and negative affect (NA) using data from two-measurement burst daily diary studies. Three main findings emerged. First, average reactivity to daily stress increased longitudinally, and this increase was evident across most the adult lifespan. Second, individual differences in emotional reactivity to daily stress exhibited long-term temporal stability, but this stability was greatest in midlife and decreased in old age. And third, reactivity to daily stress varied reliably within-persons (across-time), with individual exhibiting higher levels of reactivity during times when reporting high levels of global subject stress in previous month. Taken together, the present results emphasize the importance of modeling dynamic psychosocial and aging processes that operate across different time scales for understanding age-related changes in daily stress processes. PMID:20025399
Maria Angélica Peres de Almeida
Full Text Available El objeto de estudio es el trabajo de grupo realizado com clientes psicóticos en tratamiento por consultorio externo que utilizan Neuroleptico de Acción Prolongada (NAP. Se trata de una investigación de naturaleza cualitativa, cujo objetivo general es identificar cuales son las consecuencias del trabajo realizado por el grupo, junto a los clientes que usan NAP. Los datos fueron producitos a partir de 08 entrevistas semi-estructuradas, com clientes que frecuentaron el grupo durante 06 meses. Como resultados, se verificó que el cliente psiquiátrico es capaz de participar de tal actividad y a partir de ella establecer vínculos afectivos de fundamental importancia para que participe del tratamiento, com major entendimiento del mismo
Saysana, Michele; McCaskey, Marjorie; Cox, Elaine; Thompson, Rachel; Tuttle, Lora K; Haut, Paul R
Health care is a high-risk industry. To improve communication about daily events and begin the journey toward a high reliability organization, the Riley Hospital for Children at Indiana University Health implemented a daily safety brief. Various departments in our children's hospital were asked to participate in a daily safety brief, reporting daily events and unexpected outcomes within their scope of responsibility. Participants were surveyed before and after implementation of the safety brief about communication and awareness of events in the hospital. The length of the brief and percentage of departments reporting unexpected outcomes were measured. The analysis of the presurvey and the postsurvey showed a statistically significant improvement in the questions related to the awareness of daily events as well as communication and relationships between departments. The monthly mean length of time for the brief was 15 minutes or less. Unexpected outcomes were reported by 50% of the departments for 8 months. A daily safety brief can be successfully implemented in a children's hospital. Communication between departments and awareness of daily events were improved. Implementation of a daily safety brief is a step toward becoming a high reliability organization.
PROSPECTS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE MODERN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS' LEARNING AND RESEARCH ENVIRONMENT: TO THE 15TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES AND LEARNING TOOLS OF NAPS OF UKRAINE
M. P. Shyshkina
Full Text Available During 15 years the Institute of Information technology and training of NAPS of Ukraine carries out research work aimed at solving actual problems of the creation, implementation and use of ICT in education, construction and development of computer-based learning environment of open education and e-learning, electronic educational resources, managing and supporting of the researches, technologies of cloud computing. The article considers the main activities of the Institute of Information Technologies and Learning Tools of NAPS of Ukraine. The experience of actual pedagogical issues developing, cooperation among research institutions and universities within activities of joint research laboratories, are reflected. The prospective research directions that will contribute to the modernization and further development of modern learning and scientific environment of educational institutions of Ukraine, in particular, the introduction of cloud oriented tools and technologies, the learning e-resources quality assurance, are outlined. The aim of the paper is to outline the main activities of the Institute of Information technology and training of NAPS of Ukraine during last 15 years and reflect the experience and perspectives of scientific and pedagogical cooperation of national research institutions and universities.
Sin, Nancy L; Graham-Engeland, Jennifer E; Ong, Anthony D; Almeida, David M
Inflammation increases the risk of chronic diseases, but the links between emotional responses to daily events and inflammation are unknown. We examined individual differences in affective reactivity to daily stressors (i.e., changes in positive and negative affect in response to stressors) as predictors of inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP). A cross-sectional sample of 872 adults from the National Study of Daily Experiences (substudy of Midlife in the United States II) reported daily stressors and affect during telephone interviews for 8 days. Blood samples were obtained at a separate clinic visit and assayed for inflammatory markers. Multilevel models estimated trait affective reactivity slopes for each participant, which were inputted into regression models to predict inflammation. People who experienced greater decreases in positive affect on days when stressors occurred (i.e., positive affect reactivity) had elevated log IL-6, independent of demographic, physical, psychological, and behavioral factors (B = 1.12, SE = 0.45, p = .01). Heightened negative affect reactivity was associated with higher log CRP among women (p = .03) but not men (p = .57); health behaviors accounted for this association in women. Adults who fail to maintain positive affect when faced with minor stressors in everyday life appear to have elevated levels of IL-6, a marker of inflammation. Women who experience increased negative affect when faced with minor stressors may be at particular risk of elevated inflammation. These findings add to growing evidence regarding the health implications of affective reactivity to daily stressors. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Sin, Nancy L.; Graham-Engeland, Jennifer E.; Ong, Anthony D.; Almeida, David M.
Objective Inflammation increases the risk of chronic diseases, but the links between emotional responses to daily events and inflammation are unknown. We examined individual differences in affective reactivity to daily stressors (i.e., changes in positive and negative affect in response to stressors) as predictors of inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods A cross-sectional sample of 872 adults from the National Study of Daily Experiences (sub-study of Midlife in the United States II) reported daily stressors and affect during telephone interviews for 8 days. Blood samples were obtained at a separate clinic visit and assayed for inflammatory markers. Multilevel models estimated trait affective reactivity slopes for each participant, which were inputted into regression models to predict inflammation. Results People who experienced greater decreases in positive affect on days when stressors occurred (i.e, positive affect reactivity) had elevated log IL-6, independent of demographic, physical, psychological, and behavioral factors (B = 1.12, SE = 0.45, p = 0.01). Heightened negative affect reactivity was associated with higher log CRP among women (p = 0.03) but not men (p = 0.57); health behaviors accounted for this association in women. Conclusions Adults who fail to maintain positive affect when faced with minor stressors in everyday life appear to have elevated levels of IL-6, a marker of inflammation. Women who experience increased negative affect when faced with minor stressors may be at particular risk of elevated inflammation. These findings add to growing evidence regarding the health implications of affective reactivity to daily stressors. PMID:26030309
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily U.S. minimum and maximum temperatures in whole degrees Fahrenheit and reported and estimated precipitation amounts in hundredths of inches(ex 100 is 1.00...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observational reports of daily air temperature (1200 UTC to 1200 UTC) are made by members of the NWS Automated Surface Observing Systems (ASOS) network; NWS...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observational reports of daily snow fall (1200 UTC to 1200 UTC) are made by members of the NWS Automated Surface Observing Systems (ASOS) network and NWS Cooperative...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observational reports of daily air temperature (1200 UTC to 1200 UTC) are made by members of the NWS Automated Surface Observing Systems (ASOS) network; NWS...
Cabanillas, Beatriz; Novak, Natalija
Daily food processing has the potential to alter the allergenicity of foods due to modification of the physico-chemical properties of proteins. The degree of such modifications depends on factors such as processing conditions, type of food considered, allergenic content, etc. The impact of daily food processing like boiling, roasting, frying or baking on food allergenicity have been extensively studied. The influence of other thermal treatments such as microwave heating or pressure cooking on allergenicity has also been analyzed. Non-thermal treatment such as peeling impacts on the allergenic content of certain foods such as fruits. In this review, we give an updated overview of the effects of daily processing treatments on the allergenicity of a wide variety of foods. The different variables that contribute to the modification of food allergenicity due to processing are also reviewed and discussed.
Wong, Jen D; Shobo, Yetunde
Guided by the life-course perspective, this study contributes to the family caregiving, aging, and disability literature by examining the daily experiences of three types of family caregivers in midlife and late adulthood. A sample of 162 caregivers from the National Survey of Midlife in the United States study completed interviews, questionnaires, and a Daily Diary Study. Multilevel models showed the patterns of daily time use did not differ by caregiver types. Caregivers of sons/daughters with developmental disabilities (DD) experienced more daily stressors than caregivers of parents with health conditions (HC) and caregivers of spouses with HC. Unmarried caregivers of sons/daughters with DD reported spending more time on daily leisure activities and exhibited greater daily stressor exposure than other family caregivers. Age did not moderate the associations between caregiver types and daily experiences. Findings highlight the important consideration of the caregivers' characteristics to better determine the quality of their daily experiences in midlife and late adulthood.
Charles, Susan Turk; Luong, Gloria; Almeida, David M; Ryff, Carol; Sturm, Maggie; Love, Gayle
The current study examined age differences in daily stressors, positive events (uplifts), and their associations with emotional experience among healthy older women. Women (N = 101, 63-93 years old) reported their daily experiences across 1 week. Older age was related to fewer stressors and less frequent negative affect. However, the association between negative affect and age was no longer significant after accounting for the occurrence of daily stressors. Older age was not significantly related to positive affect, although positive uplifts were reported less frequently with age. Findings provide a contextual explanation for emotional experience in very late life, where reduced exposure to stressors partially explains age-related reductions in negative affect.
Clement, Warren F.; Gorder, Peter J.; Jewell, Wayne F.
Developing a single-pilot, all-weather nap-of-the-earth (NOE) capability requires fully automatic NOE (ANOE) navigation and flight control. Innovative guidance and control concepts are investigated in a four-fold research effort that: (1) organizes the on-board computer-based storage and real-time updating of NOE terrain profiles and obstacles in course-oriented coordinates indexed to the mission flight plan; (2) defines a class of automatic anticipative pursuit guidance algorithms and necessary data preview requirements to follow the vertical, lateral, and longitudinal guidance commands dictated by the updated flight profiles; (3) automates a decision-making process for unexpected obstacle avoidance; and (4) provides several rapid response maneuvers. Acquired knowledge from the sensed environment is correlated with the forehand knowledge of the recorded environment (terrain, cultural features, threats, and targets), which is then used to determine an appropriate evasive maneuver if a nonconformity of the sensed and recorded environments is observed. This four-fold research effort was evaluated in both fixed-based and moving-based real-time piloted simulations, thereby, providing a practical demonstration for evaluating pilot acceptance of the automated concepts, supervisory override, manual operation, and re-engagement of the automatic system. Volume one describes the major components of the guidance and control laws as well as the results of the piloted simulations. Volume two describes the complete mathematical model of the fully automatic guidance system for rotorcraft NOE flight following planned flight profiles.
Amann, Stephen T.; Yadav, Dhiraj; Barmada, M. Micheal; O’Connell, Michael; Kennard, Elizabeth D.; Anderson, Michelle; Baillie, John; Sherman, Stuart; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Hawes, Robert H.; AlKaade, Samer; Brand, Randall E.; Lewis, Michele D.; Gardner, Timothy B.; Gelrud, Andres; Money, Mary E.; Banks, Peter A.; Slivka, Adam; Whitcomb, David C
Objectives Define the Quality of Life (QOL) in chronic pancreatitis (CP) subjects Methods We studied 443 well phenotyped CP subjects and 611 controls prospectively enrolled from 20 US centers between 2000–2006 in the North American Pancreatitis Study 2 (NAPS2). Responses to the SF-12 questionnaire were used to calculate the Mental (MCS) and Physical component summary scores (PCS) with norm based scoring (normal ≥50). QOL in CP subjects was compared with controls after controlling for demographic factors, drinking history, smoking and medical conditions. QOL in CP was also compared with known scores for several chronic conditions. Results Both PCS (38±11.5 vs. 52±9.4) and MCS (44±11.5 vs. 51±9.2) were significantly lower in CP compared with controls (p<0.001). On multivariable analyses, compared to controls, a profound decrease in physical QOL (PCS 12.02 points lower) and a clinically significant decrease in mental QOL (MCS 4.24 points lower) was seen due to CP. QOL in CP was similar to (heart, kidney, liver, lung disease) or worse than (non-skin cancers, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, rheumatoid arthritis) other chronic conditions. Conclusions The impact of CP on QOL appears substantial. The QOL in CP subjects appears to be worse or similar to the QOL of many other chronic conditions. PMID:23357924
Sawyer, Amy M.; King, Tonya S.; Hanlon, Alexandra; Richards, Kathy C.; Sweer, Leon; Rizzo, Albert; Weaver, Terri E.
Purpose Identification of risk for CPAP nonadherence prior to home treatment is an opportunity to deliver targeted, adherence interventions. Study objectives included (1) test a risk screening questionnaire to prospectively identify CPAP nonadherence risk among adults with newly-diagnosed OSA; (2) reduce the questionnaire to a minimum item set that effectively identifies 1-month CPAP nonadherence; and (3) examine the diagnostic utility of the screening index. Methods A prospective, longitudinal study at two clinical sleep centers in the U.S. included adults with newly diagnosed OSA (n=97; AHI ≥ 5 events/hr) by polysomnogram (PSG) consecutively recruited to participate. After baseline participant and OSA characteristics were collected, a risk screening questionnaire was administered immediately following CPAP titration polysomnogram. One-month objective CPAP use was collected. Results Predominantly white (87%) males (55%) and females (45%) with obesity (BMI 38.3 kg/m2; SD 9.3) and severe OSA (AHI 36.8; SD 19.7) were included. One-month CPAP use was 4.25hrs/night (SD 2.35). Nineteen questionnaire items (I-NAP) reliably identified nonadherers defined at CPAP use (Wald X2 =34.67, p60% (63%). Conclusion A risk screening questionnaire employed immediately after titration PSG may reliably identify CPAP nonadherers and permit the delivery of targeted interventions to prevent or reduce nonadherence. This novel approach may enhance cost-effectiveness of care and permit appropriate allocation of resources for CPAP adherence. PMID:24595715
Wolf, Laurie Dempsey; Davis, Mary C.
Objective This study examined whether individual differences in loneliness and/or daily exacerbations in loneliness relate to daily pain and frequency and perception of interpersonal events among individuals with fibromyalgia (FM). Methods 118 participants with FM completed electronic diaries each evening for 21 days to assess the occurrence of positive and negative interpersonal events, event appraisals, and pain. Multilevel modeling was used to examine relations of chronic and transitory loneliness to daily life outcomes, controlling for daily depressive symptoms. Results Chronic and transitory loneliness were associated with more frequent reports of negative and less frequent reports of positive interpersonal daily events, higher daily stress ratings and lower daily enjoyment ratings, and higher daily pain levels. Neither chronic nor transitory loneliness moderated the relations between daily negative events and either stress appraisals or pain. However, both chronic and transitory loneliness moderated the relation between daily positive events and enjoyment appraisals. Specifically, on days of greater numbers of positive events than usual, lonely people had larger boosts in enjoyment than did nonlonely people. Similarly, days with greater than usual numbers of positive events were related to larger boosts in enjoyment if an individual was also experiencing higher than usual loneliness levels. Conclusions Chronic and transient episodes of loneliness are associated with more negative daily social relations and pain. However, boosts in positive events yield greater boosts in day-to-day enjoyment of social relations for lonely versus nonlonely individuals, and during loneliness episodes, a finding that can inform future interventions for individuals with chronic pain. PMID:25180546
Munro, Geoffrey D.; Munro, James E.
Describes a classroom demonstration that uses daily horoscopes to show the effect that expectation can have on judgment. Addresses the preparation, procedure, and results of the demonstration, and student evaluations. States that the demonstration appears to be effective for teaching students about expectancy confirmation. (CMK)
L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); S.A. van der Geest (Stéphanie); G. Kuper
textabstractThis paper analyzes adjustments in the Dutch retail gasoline prices. We estimate an error correction model on changes in the daily retail price for gasoline (taxes excluded) for the period 1996-2004 taking care of volatility clustering by estimating an EGARCH model. It turns out the
Bettendorf, L.; van der Geest, S. A.; Kuper, G. H.
This paper analyses adjustments in the Dutch retail gasoline prices. We estimate an error correction model on changes in the daily retail price for gasoline (taxes excluded) for the period 1996-2004, taking care of volatility clustering by estimating an EGARCH model. It turns out that the volatility
Frei, Christoph; Christensen, Jens Hesselbjerg; Déqué, Michel
An evaluation is undertaken of the statistics of daily precipitation as simulated by five regional climate models using comprehensive observations in the region of the European Alps. Four limited area models and one variable-resolution global model are considered, all with a grid spacing of 50 km...
Bustos, Diego M; Bailey, Michael J; Sugden, David
Transcriptome profiling of the pineal gland has revealed night/day differences in the expression of a major fraction of the genes active in this tissue, with two-thirds of these being nocturnal increases. A set of over 600 transcripts exhibit two-fold to >100-fold daily differences in abundance...
Chappin, E.J.L.; Ferrero, M.; Lazzeroni, P.; Lukszo, Z.; Olivero, M.; Repetto, M.
This work presents a management procedure for hydroelectric facilities with daily storage. The water storage gives an additional degree of freedom allowing to shift in time power production when it is more convenient and to work at the maximum efficiency of hydraulic turbine. The management is
Andries van den Broek; Saskia Keuzenkamp
Original title: Het dagelijks leven van allochtone stedelingen. The integration of ethnic minorities in Dutch society is not an easy process. The present emphasis on the problems means there is little room for attention for the daily lives of people within the various ethnic groups. This
Boushey, Gail; Moser, Joan
The Daily 5 and CAFE were born out of The Sister's research and observations of instructional mentors, their intense desire to be able to deliver highly intentional, focused instruction to small groups and individuals while the rest of the class was engaged in truly authentic reading and writing, and their understanding that a one size fits all…
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Daily records. 19.829 Section 19.829 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production of Vinegar by the Vaporizing Process...
Melancon, J.M.; Baud, R.D.
This paper provides daily oil and gas production rate projections for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) for the years 1999 through 2003. These projections represent daily oil and gas production estimates at calendar year end. In this report, daily oil production rates include both oil and condensate production, and daily gas production rates include both associated and nonassociated gas production. In addition to providing daily oil and gas production rate projections, the authors have included one figure and one table pertaining to leasing history and one table concerning exploration and development plan approvals
Melancon, J.M.; Roby, D.S.
This paper provides daily oil and gas production rate projections for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) for the years 1998 through 2002. These projections represent daily oil and gas production estimates at calendar year end. In this report, daily oil production rates include both oil and condensate production, and daily gas production rates include both associated and nonassociated gas production. In addition to providing daily oil and gas production rate projections, the authors have included one figure and one table pertaining to leasing history and one table concerning exploration and development plan approvals
Associação entre sintomas de insônia, cochilo diurno e quedas em idosos da comunidade Asociación entre síntomas de insomnio, siesta breve diurna y caídas en ancianos de una comunidad desfavorecida Association between insomnia symptoms, daytime napping, and falls in community-dwelling elderly
Anita Liberalesso Neri
Full Text Available Essa pesquisa investigou associações entre sintomas de insônia, cochilo diurno, e quedas em idosos da comunidade. Estudo transversal de base populacional e amostra probabilística envolvendo 689 idosos da comunidade. O protocolo continha variáveis de autorrelato e de desempenho físico. Foi utilizada a análise de regressão logística univariada e multivariada, e o nível de significância estatística adotado foi de p 80 anos (OR = 3,48; IC95%: 1,54-7,85, cochilo diurno (OR = 2,24; IC95%: 1,24-4,05 e sintomas depressivos (OR = 1,98; IC95%: 1,11-3,53. A associação entre cochilo diurno e quedas replicam dados de pesquisa internacional. Identificar fatores de risco modificáveis pode auxiliar programas de prevenção de quedas.Esta investigación se centró en las asociaciones entre síntomas de insomnio, siesta breve diurna, y caídas en ancianos de una comunidad desfavorecida. Estudio transversal de base poblacional y muestreo probabilístico involucrando a 689 ancianos de una comunidad desfavorecida. El protocolo contenía variables de autorrelato y de desempeño físico. Se utilizó un análisis de regresión logística univariada y multivariada, y el nivel de significancia estadística adoptado fue de p 80 años (OR = 3,48; IC95%: 1,54-7,85, siesta breve diurna (OR = 2,24; IC95%: 1,24-4,05 y síntomas depresivos (OR = 1,98; IC95%: 1,11-3,53. La asociación entre siesta breve diurna y caídas replican datos de investigaciones internacionales. Identificar factores de riesgo modificables pueden auxiliar en programas de prevención de caídas.This study focused on associations between insomnia symptoms, daytime napping, and falls in community-dwelling elderly, using a population-based cross-sectional design and probability sample with 689 community-dwelling elders. The protocol consisted of self-reported and physical performance variables. The study used univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis with statistical significance