WorldWideScience

Sample records for reported lunar events

  1. Lunar power systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The findings of a study on the feasibility of several methods of providing electrical power for a permanently manned lunar base are provided. Two fundamentally different methods for lunar electrical power generation are considered. One is the use of a small nuclear reactor and the other is the conversion of solar energy to electricity. The baseline goal was to initially provide 300 kW of power with growth capability to one megawatt and eventually to 10 megawatts. A detailed, day by day scenario for the establishment, build-up, and operational activity of the lunar base is presented. Also presented is a conceptual approach to a supporting transportation system which identifies the number, type, and deployment of transportation vehicles required to support the base. An approach to the use of solar cells in the lunar environment was developed. There are a number of heat engines which are applicable to solar/electric conversions, and these are examined. Several approaches to energy storage which were used by the electric power utilities were examined and those which could be used at a lunar base were identified

  2. Lunar Rocks: Available for Year of the Solar System Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    NASA is actively exploring the moon with our Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, the Grail Discovery Mission will launch next year, and each year there is an International Observe the Moon Night providing many events and lunar science focus opportunities to share rocks from the moon with students and the public. In our laboratories, we have Apollo rocks and soil from six different places on the moon, and their continued study provides incredibly valuable ground truth to complement space exploration missions. Extensive information and actual lunar samples are available for public display and education. The Johnson Space Center (JSC) has the unique responsibility to curate NASA's extraterrestrial samples from past and future missions. Curation includes documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach. The lunar rocks and soils continue to be studied intensively by scientists around the world. Descriptions of the samples, research results, thousands of photographs, and information on how to request research samples are on the JSC Curation website: http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/ NASA is eager for scientists and the public to have access to these exciting Apollo samples through our various loan procedures. NASA provides a limited number of Moon rock samples for either short-term or long-term displays at museums, planetariums, expositions, and professional events that are open to the public. The JSC Public Affairs Office handles requests for such display samples. Requestors should apply in writing to Mr. Louis Parker, JSC Exhibits Manager. Mr. Parker will advise successful applicants regarding provisions for receipt, display, and return of the samples. All loans will be preceded by a signed loan agreement executed between NASA and the requestor's organization. Email address: louis.a.parker@nasa.gov Sets of twelve thin sections of Apollo lunar samples are available for short-term loan from JSC Curation. The thin

  3. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Lunar Workshops for Educators, Year 1 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. P.; Hsu, B. C.; Bleacher, L.; Shaner, A. J.; Dalton, H.

    2011-12-01

    This past summer, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) sponsored a series of weeklong professional development workshops designed to educate and inspire grade 6-12 science teachers: the Lunar Workshops for Educators. Participants learned about lunar science and exploration, gained tools to help address common student misconceptions about the Moon, heard some of the latest research results from LRO scientists, worked with LRO data, and learned how to bring these data to their students using hands-on activities aligned with grade 6-12 National Science Education Standards and Benchmarks. Where possible, the workshops also included tours of science facilities or field trips intended to help the teachers better understand mission operations or geologic processes relevant to the Moon. The workshops were very successful. Participants demonstrated an improved understanding of lunar science concepts in post-workshop assessments (as compared to identical pre-assessments) and a greater understanding of how to access and productively share data from LRO with their students and provide them with authentic research experiences. Participant feedback on workshop surveys was also enthusiastically positive. 5 additional Lunar Workshops for Educators will be held around the country in the summer of 2012. For more information and to register, visit http://lunar.gsfc.nasa.gov/lwe/index.html.

  4. Report from ILEWG and Cape Canaveral Lunar Declaration 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, B. H.

    2009-04-01

    synergies with Mars exploration. Users can obtain information on how to participate, as well as details on the latest news and events regarding lunar exploration, forthcoming meetings, relevant reports and documents of importance for the work of the ILEWG, summary descriptions of current lunar exploration projects (such as SMART-1, Chang'E1, Selene, Chandrayaan-1, LRO, LCROSS) funded by various space agencies, and basic data on the Moon itself. Activities of the related space agencies and organizations can also be found. ILEWG has been organising International Conferences on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon (ICEUM) since 1994, whose proceedings are published. It has also sponsored a number of activities, workshops, tasks groups and publications in collabora-tions with other organisations: COSPAR, space agencies, IAA, IAF, EGU (see references below). In accor-dance with its charter, ILEWG reports to COSPAR, and a summary was given at Montreal COSPAR2008 on ILEWG activities conducted since the previous COSPAR2006 assembly in Beijing. The recent ILEWG International Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon, were held respectively in Udaipur, India (ICEUM6, 2004), in Toronto, Canada (ICEUM7, 2005), in Beijing (ICEUM8, 2006), Sorrento (ICEUM9, 2007) and Port Canaveral (ICEUM10/LEAG/SRR, 2008 in conjunction with the NASA Lunar Exploration Analysis Groups and Space Resources Roundtable annual meetings). We'll report on the Cape Canaveral Lunar Declaration and on follow-up activities, in particular in coordination with space agencies, COSPAR and IAF. References: [1] 1st International Lunar Workshop, Balsiger H. et al., Editors, European Space Agency, 1994. ESA-SP-1170. [2] 2nd International Lunar Workshop, Kyoto, H. Mizutani, editor, Japan Space Forum Publisher, 1997. [3] 3rd International Lunar Workshop, Moscow 1998, E. Galimov, editor. [4] ICEUM4, ESTEC, 2000, ESA SP-462, B.H. Foing & M. Perry, editors. [5] ICEUM5, Hawaii Nov 2003, Durst S.M. et al, Editors

  5. Lunar occultation observation of μ Sgr: A progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jatmiko, A. T. P. [Bosscha Observatory, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Puannandra, G. P.; Hapsari, R. D.; Putri, R. A.; Arifin, Z. M.; Haans, G. K.; Hadiputrawan, I. P. W. [Bosscha Observatory, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia and Astronomy Study Program, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Lunar Occultation (LO) is an event where limb of the Moon passing over a particular heavenly bodies such as stars, asteroids, or planets. In other words, during the event, stars, asteroids and planets are occulted by the Moon. When occulted objects contact the lunar limb, there will be a diffraction fringe(s) which can be measured photometrically, until the signal vanishes into noise. This event will give us a valuable information about binarities (of stars) and/or angular diameters estimation (of stars, planets, asteroids) in milliarcsecond resolution, by fitting with theoretical LO pattern. CCDs are common for LO observation because of its fast read out, and recently are developed for sub-meter class telescope. In this paper, our LO observation attempt of μ Sgr and its progress report are presented. The observation was conducted on July 30{sup th}, 2012 at Bosscha Observatory, Indonesia, using 45cm f/12 GOTO telescope combined with ST-9 XE CCD camera and Bessel B filter. We used drift-scan method to obtain light curve of the star as it was disappearing behind Moon's dark limb. Our goal is to detect binarity (or multiplicity) of this particular object.

  6. COMPASS Final Report: Lunar Communications Terminal (LCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Communications Terminal (LCT) COllaborative Modeling and Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) session designed a terminal to provide communications between lunar South Pole assets, communications relay to/from these assets through an orbiting Lunar Relay Satellite (LRS) and navigation support. The design included a complete master equipment list, power requirement list, configuration design, and brief risk assessment and cost analysis. The Terminal consists of a pallet containing the communications and avionics equipment, surrounded by the thermal control system (radiator), an attached, deployable 10-m tower, upon which were mounted locally broadcasting and receiving modems and a deployable 1 m diameter Ka/S band dish which provides relay communications with the lunar relay satellites and, as a backup, Earth when it is in view. All power was assumed to come from the lunar outpost Habitat. Three LCT design options were explored: a stand-alone LCT servicing the manned outpost, an integrated LCT (into the Habitat or Lunar Lander), and a mini-LCT which provides a reduced level of communication for primarily robotic areas dealing as in situ resource utilization (ISRU) and remote science. Where possible all the designs assumed single fault tolerance. Significant mass savings were found when integrating the LCT into the Habitat or Lander but increases in costs occurred depending upon the level of man rating required for such designs.

  7. Effect of lunar phase on frequency of psychogenic nonepileptic events in the EMU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolen, Robert D; Campbell, Zeke; Dennis, William A; Koontz, Elizabeth H; Pritchard, Paul B

    2016-06-01

    Studies of the effect of a full moon on seizures have yielded mixed results, despite a continuing prevailing belief regarding the association of lunar phase with human behavior. The potential effect of a full moon on psychogenic nonepileptic events has not been as well studied, despite what anecdotal accounts from most epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) staff would suggest. We obtained the dates and times of all events from patients diagnosed with psychogenic nonepileptic events discharged from our EMU over a two-year period. The events were then plotted on a 29.5-day lunar calendar. Events were also broken down into lunar quarters for statistical analysis. We found a statistically significant increase in psychogenic nonepileptic events during the new moon quarter in our EMU during our studied timeframe. Our results are not concordant with the results of a similarly designed past study, raising the possibility that psychogenic nonepileptic events are not influenced by lunar phase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Montana ALE (Autonomous Lunar Excavator) Systems Engineering Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Bethanne J.

    2012-01-01

    On May 2 1-26, 20 12, the third annual NASA Lunabotics Mining Competition will be held at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. This event brings together student teams from universities around the world to compete in an engineering challenge. Each team must design, build and operate a robotic excavator that can collect artificial lunar soil and deposit it at a target location. Montana State University, Bozeman, is one of the institutions selected to field a team this year. This paper will summarize the goals of MSU's lunar excavator project, known as the Autonomous Lunar Explorer (ALE), along with the engineering process that the MSU team is using to fulfill these goals, according to NASA's systems engineering guidelines.

  9. Reporting of safeguards events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, P.A.; Ervin, N.E.

    1988-02-01

    On June 9, 1987, the Commission published in the Federal Register a final rule revising the reporting requirements for safeguards events. Safeguards events include actual or attempted theft of special nuclear material (SNM); actual or attempted acts or events which interrupt normal operations at power reactors due to unauthorized use of or tampering with machinery, components, or controls; certain threats made against facilities possessing SNM; and safeguards system failures impacting the effectiveness of the system. The revised rule was effective October 8, 1987. On September 14, 1987, the NRC held a workshop in Bethesda, MD, to answer affected licensees' questions on the final rule. This report documents questions discussed at the September 14 meeting, reflects a completed staff review of the answers, and supersedes previous oral comment on the topics covered

  10. Year 3 LUNAR Annual Report to the NASA Lunar Science Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Burns, Jack; Lazio, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar University Network for Astrophysics Research (LUNAR) is a team of researchers and students at leading universities, NASA centers, and federal research laboratories undertaking investigations aimed at using the Moon as a platform for space science. LUNAR research includes Lunar Interior Physics & Gravitation using Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR), Low Frequency Cosmology and Astrophysics (LFCA), Planetary Science and the Lunar Ionosphere, Radio Heliophysics, and Exploration Science. The LUN...

  11. Report from International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG) to COSPAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    We refer to COSPAR and ILEWG ICEUM and lunar conferences and declarations [1-18]. We discuss how lunar missions SMART-1, Kaguya, Chang'E1&2, Chandrayaan-1, LCROSS, LRO, GRAIL, LADEE, Chang'E3 and upcoming missions contribute to lunar exploration objectives & roadmap. We present the GLUC/ICEUM11 declaration and give a report on ongoing relevant ILEWG community activities, with focus on: “1. Science and exploration - World-wide access to raw and derived (geophysical units) data products using consistent formats and coordinate systems will maximize return on investment. We call to develop and implement plans for generation, validation, and release of these data products. Data should be made available for scientific analysis and supporting the development and planning of future missions - There are still Outstanding Questions: Structure and composition of crust, mantle, and core and implications for the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system; Timing, origin, and consequences of late heavy bombardment; Impact processes and regolith evolution; Nature and origin of volatile emplacement; Implications for resource utilization. These questions require international cooperation and sharing of results in order to be answered in a cost-effective manner - Ground truth information on the lunar far side is missing and needed to address many important scientific questions, e.g. with a sample return from South Pole-Aitken Basin - Knowledge of the interior is poor relative to the surface, and is needed to address a number of key questions, e.g. with International Lunar Network for seismometry and other geophysical measurements - Lunar missions will be driven by exploration, resource utilization, and science; we should consider minimum science payload for every mission, e.g., landers and rovers should carry instruments to determine surface composition and mineralogy - It is felt important to have a shared database about previous missions available for free, so as to provide

  12. Revised licensee event report system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, G.T.; Poore, W.P.

    1985-01-01

    Licensee Event Reports (LERs) provide the basis for evaluating and assessing operating experience information from nuclear power plants. The reporting requirements for submitting LERs to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission have been revised. Effective Jan. 1, 1984, all events were to be submitted in accordance with 10 CFR 50.73 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Report NUREG-1022, Licensee Event Report System-Description of System and Guidelines for Reporting, describes the guidelines on reportability of events. This article summarizes the reporting requirements as presented in NUREG-1022, high-lights differences in data reported between the revised and previous LER systems, and presents results from a preliminary assessment of LERs submitted under the revised LER reporting system

  13. Community Report and Recommendations from International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    2016-07-01

    The International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG) was established in April 1995 at a meeting in Hamburg, Germany. As established in its charter, this working group reports to COSPAR and is charged with developing an international strategy for the exploration of the Moon. It discusses coordination between missions, and a road map for future international lunar exploration and utilisation. It fosters information exchange or potential and real future lunar robotic and human missions, as well as for new scientific and exploration information about the Moon. We refer to COSPAR and ILEWG ICEUM and lunar conferences and declarations [1-18], present the GLUC/ICEUM11 declaration and give a report on ongoing relevant ILEWG community activities. ILEWG supported community forums, ILEWG EuroMoonMars field campaigns and technology validation activities, as well as Young Lunar Explorers events, and activities with broad stakeholders. We discuss how lunar missions SMART-1, Kaguya, Chang'E1&2, Chandrayaan-1, LCROSS, LRO, GRAIL, LADEE, Chang'E3 and upcoming missions contribute to lunar exploration objectives & roadmap towards the Moon Village. GLUC/ICEUM11 declaration: "467 International Lunar Explorers, registered delegates from 26 countries, assembled at GLUC Global Lunar Conference including the 11th ILEWG Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon (ICEUM11) in Beijing. The conference engaged scientists, engineers, enthusiast explorers, agencies and organisations in the discussion of recent results and activities and the review of plans for exploration. Space agencies representatives gave the latest reports on their current lunar activities and programmes. GLUC-ICEUM11 was a truly historical meeting that demonstrated the world-wide interest in lunar exploration, discovery, and science. More than 400 abstracts were accepted for oral and poster presentations in the technical sessions, organised in 32 sessions within 4 symposia: Science and Exploration; Technology

  14. Unusual event report from Oskarshamn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The title of the report was intended to reflect the cause of the shutdown and the report to be regarded as a summary of the deficiencies that had been revealed and remedied. No single deficiency was regarded as reportable as an unusual event, but taken together the identified deficiencies deviated from the assumed safety level to the extent that it should be reported. The unusual event report refers to two main documents presenting measures taken to return to reported safety level, one concerning technical and one organizational measures

  15. Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) is a computerized information database designed to support the FDA's post-marketing safety surveillance program for all...

  16. Studies in matter antimatter separation and in the origin of lunar magnetism. Annual progress report, 1 Sep 1974--31 Aug 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, W.A.; Greeley, R.; Parkin, C.; Aggarwal, H.; Schultz, P.

    1975-01-01

    A progress report covering lunar and planetary research is introduced. Data cover lunar ionospheric models, lunar and planetary geology, and lunar magnetism. Wind tunnel simulations of Mars aeolian problems and a comparative study of basaltic analogs of Lunar and Martial volcanic features was discussed

  17. Towards a Moon Village: Young Lunar Explorers Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Oscar; Foing, Bernard; Batenburg, Peter

    2016-04-01

    : ESA delegations, media, national governments, citizens and taxpayers. References: [1] http://sci.esa.int/ilewg/ and https://ildwg.wordpress.com/ [2] Foing B. Moon explora-tion highlights and Moon Village introduction. [3] Young Lunar Explorers Report ESTEC Moon village sessions with community and young professionals. *Organisation: Bernard Foing, ESA/ESTEC & ILEWG, ESTEC Moon Village workshop WGs co-conveners: Peter Batenburg, Andrea Jaime, Abigail Calzada, Angeliki Kapoglou, Chris Welch, Susanne Pieterse, Daniel Esser, Audrey Berquand, Daniel Winter, Hanna Läkk, Dmitri Ivanov, S Paternostro, Matias Hazadi, Oscar Kamps

  18. REE Partitioning in Lunar Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, J. F.; Lapen, T. J.; Draper, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are an extremely useful tool in modeling lunar magmatic processes. Here we present the first experimentally derived plagioclase/melt partition coefficients in lunar compositions covering the entire suite of REE. Positive europium anomalies are ubiquitous in the plagioclase-rich rocks of the lunar highlands, and complementary negative Eu anomalies are found in most lunar basalts. These features are taken as evidence of a large-scale differentiation event, with crystallization of a global-scale lunar magma ocean (LMO) resulting in a plagioclase flotation crust and a mafic lunar interior from which mare basalts were subsequently derived. However, the extent of the Eu anomaly in lunar rocks is variable. Fagan and Neal [1] reported highly anorthitic plagioclase grains in lunar impact melt rock 60635,19 that displayed negative Eu anomalies as well as the more usual positive anomalies. Indeed some grains in the sample are reported to display both positive and negative anomalies. Judging from cathodoluminescence images, these anomalies do not appear to be associated with crystal overgrowths or zones.

  19. Investigation of lunar crustal structure and isostasy. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurber, C.H.

    1987-07-01

    The lunar mascon basins have strongly free air gravity anomalies, generally exceeding 100 milligals at an elevation of 100 km. The source of the anomalies is a combination of mantle uplift beneath the impact basins and subsequent infilling by high-density mare basalts. The relative contribution of these two components is still somewhat uncertain, although it is generally accepted that the amount of mantle uplift greatly exceeds the thickness of the basalts. Extensive studies have been carried out of the crustal structure of mare basins, based on gravity data, and their tectonic evolution, based on compressive and extensional tectonic features. The present study endeavored to develop a unified, self-consistent model of the lunar crust and lithosphere incorporating both gravity and tectonic constraints

  20. Lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, L. L.; Sonett, C. P.; Srnka, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of lunar paleomagnetic and electromagnetic sounding results which appear inconsistent with the hypothesis that an ancient core dynamo was the dominant source of the observed crustal magnetism are discussed. Evidence is summarized involving a correlation between observed magnetic anomalies and ejecta blankets from impact events which indicates the possible importance of local mechanisms involving meteoroid impact processes in generating strong magnetic fields at the lunar surface. A reply is given to the latter argument which also presents recent evidence of a lunar iron core.

  1. CDC Wonder Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) online database on CDC WONDER provides counts and percentages of adverse event case reports after vaccination,...

  2. 78 FR 9743 - Event Reporting Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0237] Event Reporting Guidelines AGENCY: Nuclear... Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued NUREG- 1022, Revision 3, ``Event Reporting Guidelines: 10 CFR 50.72 and 50.73.'' [[Page 9744

  3. Extreme Energy Events Monitoring report

    CERN Document Server

    Baimukhamedova, Nigina

    2015-01-01

    Following paper reflects the progress I made on Summer Student Program within Extreme Energy Events Monitor project I was working on. During 8 week period I managed to build a simple detector system that is capable of triggering events similar to explosions (sudden change in sound levels) and measuring approximate location of the event. Source codes are available upon request and settings described further.

  4. 76 FR 63565 - Event Reporting Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ...-2011-0237] Event Reporting Guidelines AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft NUREG... comments on Draft NUREG-1022, Revision 3, ``Event Reporting Guidelines: 10 CFR 50.72 and 50.73''. The NUREG-1022 contains guidelines that the NRC staff considers acceptable for use in meeting the event reporting...

  5. Lunar Riometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, J.; Jones, D. L.; MacDowall, R. J.; Burns, J. O.; Kasper, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    The lunar exosphere is the exemplar of a plasma near the surface of an airless body. Exposed to both the solar and interstellar radiation fields, the lunar exosphere is mostly ionized, and enduring questions regarding its properties include its density and vertical extent and its behavior over time, including modification by landers. Relative ionospheric measurements (riometry) are based on the simple physical principle that electromagnetic waves cannot propagate through a partially or fully ionized medium below the plasma frequency, and riometers have been deployed on the Earth in numerous remote and hostile environments. A multi-frequency riometer on the lunar surface would be able to monitor, in situ, the peak plasma density of the lunar exosphere over time. We describe a concept for a riometer implemented as a secondary science payload on future lunar landers, such as those recommended in the recent Planetary Sciences Decadal Survey report. While the prime mission of such a riometer would be probing the lunar exosphere, our concept would also be capable to measuring the properties of nanometer- to micron-scale dust. The LUNAR consortium is funded by the NASA Lunar Science Institute to investigate concepts for astrophysical observatories on the Moon. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA.

  6. Diversity of basaltic lunar volcanism associated with buried impact structures: Implications for intrusive and extrusive events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F.; Zhu, M.-H.; Bugiolacchi, R.; Huang, Q.; Osinski, G. R.; Xiao, L.; Zou, Y. L.

    2018-06-01

    Relatively denser basalt infilling and the upward displacement of the crust-mantle interface are thought to be contributing factors for the quasi-circular mass anomalies for buried impact craters in the lunar maria. Imagery and gravity observations from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and dual Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) missions have identified 10 partially or fully buried impact structures where diversity of observable basaltic mare volcanism exists. With a detailed investigation of the characteristics of associated volcanic landforms, we describe their spatial distribution relationship with respect to the subsurface tectonic structure of complex impact craters and propose possible models for the igneous processes which may take advantage of crater-related zones of weakness and enable magmas to reach the surface. We conclude that the lunar crust, having been fractured and reworked extensively by cratering, facilitates substance and energy exchange between different lunar systems, an effect modulated by tectonic activities both at global and regional scales. In addition, we propose that the intrusion-caused contribution to gravity anomalies should be considered in future studies, although this is commonly obscured by other physical factors such as mantle uplift and basalt load.

  7. Report of the NASA lunar energy enterprise case study task force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The Lunar Energy Enterprise Cast Study Task Force was formed to determine the economic viability and commercial business potential of mining and extracting He-3 from the lunar soil for use in earth-based fusion reactors. In addition, the Solar Power Satellite (SPS) and the Lunar Power Station (LPS) were also evaluated because they involve the use of lunar materials and could provide energy for lunar-based activities. The Task Force considered: (1) the legal and liability aspects of the space energy projects; (2) the long-range terrestrial energy needs and options; (3) the technical maturity of the three space energy projects; and (4) their commercial potential. The use of electricity is expected to increase, but emerging environmental concerns and resource availability suggest changes for the national energy policy. All three options have the potential to provide a nearly inexhaustible, clean source of electricity for the U.S. and worldwide, without major adverse impacts on the Earth's environment. Assumption by industry of the total responsibility for these energy projects is not yet possible. Pursuit of these energy concepts requires the combined efforts of government and industry. The report identifies key steps necessary for the development of these concepts and an evolving industrial role

  8. Event Reports for Operating Reactors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — Raw data of all the events for the last month. Raw data is presented in pipe delimited format. This data set is updated monthly on the first business day of the month.

  9. Hybla Fair event: environmental report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, D.R.; Russell, W.L. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A series of environmental measurements during the Hybla Fair nuclear event were made. Experimenters were unsure of conditions that would be created since there was no closure system and the experiments were close to the source. A variety of temperature, pressure, and load devices were tested. The results will aid in the design and engineering of future close-in diagnostic packages and pipes. (U.S.)

  10. Licensee Event Report (LER) compilation, March 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This monthly report contains Licensee Event Report (LER) operational information that was processed into the LER data file of the Nuclear Operations Analysis Center (NOAC) during the one month period identified on the cover of the document. The LERs, from which this information is derived, are submitted to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by nuclear power plant licensees in accordance with federal regulations. Procedures for LER reporting for revisions to those events occurring prior to 1984 are described in NRC Regulatory Guide 1.16 and NUREG-0161, Instructions for Preparation of Data Entry Sheets for Licensee Event Reports. For those events occurring on and after January 1, 1984, LERs are being submitted in accordance with the revised rule contained in Title 10 Part 50.73 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 50.73 -- Licensee Event Report System) which was published in the Federal Register (Vol. 48, No. 144) on July 26, 1983. NUREG-1022, Licensee Event Report System -- Description of Systems and Guidelines for Reporting, provides supporting guidance and information on the revised LER rule. The LER summaries in this report are arranged alphabetically by facility name and then chronologically by event date for each facility. Component, system, keyword, and component vendor indexes follow the summaries. Vendors are those identified by the utility when the LER form is initiated; the keywords for the component, system, and general keyword indexes are assigned by the computer using correlation tables from the Sequence Coding and Search System

  11. Licensee Event Report (LER) compilation, April 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This monthly report contains Licensee Event Report (LER) operational information that was processed into the LER data file of the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) during the one month period identified on the cover of the document. The LERs, from which this information is derived, are submitted to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by nuclear power plant licensees in accordance with federal regulations. Procedures for LER reporting for revisions to those events occurring prior to 1984 are described in NRC Regulatory Guide 1.16 and NUREG-0161, Instructions for Preparation of Data Entry Sheets for Licensee Event Reports. For those events occurring on and after January 1, 1984, LERs are being submitted in accordance with the revised rule contained in Title 10 Part 50.73 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 50.73 -- Licensee Event Report System) which was published in the Federal Register (Vol. 48, No. 144) on July 26, 1983. NUREG-1022, Licensee Event Report System -- Description of Systems and Guidelines for Reporting, provides supporting guidance and information on the revised LER rule. The LER summaries in this report are arranged alphabetically by facility name and then chronologically by event date for each facility. Component, system, keyword, and component vendor indexes follow the summaries. Vendors are those identified by the utility when the LER form is initiated; the keywords for the component, system, and general keyword indexes are assigned by the computer using correlation tables from the Sequence Coding and Search System

  12. Reports and recommendations from COSPAR Planetary Exploration Committee (PEX) & International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    In response to the growing importance of space exploration, the objectives of the COSPAR Panel on Exploration (PEX) are to provide high quality, independent science input to support the development of a global space exploration program while working to safeguard the scientific assets of solar system bodies. PEX engages with COSPAR Commissions and Panels, science foundations, IAA, IAF, UN bodies, and IISL to support in particular national and international space exploration working groups and the new era of planetary exploration. COSPAR's input, as gathered by PEX, is intended to express the consensus view of the international scientific community and should ultimately provide a series of guidelines to support future space exploration activities and cooperative efforts, leading to outstanding scientific discoveries, opportunities for innovation, strategic partnerships, technology progression, and inspiration for people of all ages and cultures worldwide. We shall focus on the lunar exploration aspects, where the COSPAR PEX is building on previous COSPAR, ILEWG and community conferences. An updated COSPAR PEX report is published and available online (Ehrenfreund P. et al, COSPAR planetary exploration panel report, http://www.gwu.edu/~spi/assets/COSPAR_PEX2012.pdf). We celebrate 20 years after the 1st International Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon at Beatenberg in June 1994. The International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG) was established the year after in April 1995 at an EGS meeting in Hamburg, Germany. As established in its charter, this working group reports to COSPAR and is charged with developing an international strategy for the exploration of the Moon (http://sci.esa.int/ilewg/ ). It discusses coordination between missions, and a road map for future international lunar exploration and utilisation. It fosters information exchange or potential and real future lunar robotic and human missions, as well as for new scientific and

  13. Licensee Event Report (LER) compilation, December 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This monthly report contains licensee event report (LER) operational information that was processed into the LER data file of the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) during the one month period identified on the cover of the document. The LERs, from which this information is derived, are submitted to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by nuclear power plant licensees in accordance with federal regulations. Procedures for LER reporting for revisions to those events occurring prior to 1984 are described in NRC Regulatory Guide 1.16 and NUREG-0161, Instructions for Preparation of Data Entry Sheets for Licensee Event Reports. For those events occurring on and after January 1, 1984, LERs are being submitted in accordance with the revised rule contained in Title 10 Part 50.73 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 50.73 - Licensee Event Report System) which was published in the Federal Register (Vol. 48, No. 144) on July 26, 1983. NUREG-1022, Licensee Event Report System - Description of Systems and Guidelines for Reporting, provides supporting guidance and information on the revised LER rule

  14. Consumer reporting of adverse events following immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clothier, Hazel J; Selvaraj, Gowri; Easton, Mee Lee; Lewis, Georgina; Crawford, Nigel W; Buttery, Jim P

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance of adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) is an essential component of vaccine safety monitoring. The most commonly utilized passive surveillance systems rely predominantly on reporting by health care providers (HCP). We reviewed adverse event reports received in Victoria, Australia since surveillance commencement in July 2007, to June 2013 (6 years) to ascertain the contribution of consumer (vaccinee or their parent/guardian) reporting to vaccine safety monitoring and to inform future surveillance system development directions. Categorical data included were: reporter type; serious and non-serious AEFI category; and, vaccinee age group. Chi-square test and 2-sample test of proportions were used to compare categories; trend changes were assessed using linear regression. Consumer reporting increased over the 6 years, reaching 21% of reports received in 2013 (PConsumer reports were 5% more likely to describe serious AEFI than HCP (P=0.018) and 10% more likely to result in specialist clinic attendance (Preporting increased to 32% of all report since its introduction in 2010, 85% of consumers continued to report by phone. Consumer reporting of AEFI is a valuable component of vaccine safety surveillance in addition to HCP reporting. Changes are required to AEFI reporting systems to implement efficient consumer AEFI reporting, but may be justified for their potential impact on signal detection sensitivity.

  15. Report on Fukushima Daiichi NPP precursor events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The main questions to be answered by this report were: The Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident, could it have been prevented? If there is a next severe accident, may it be prevented? To answer the first question, the report addressed several aspects. First, the report investigated whether precursors to the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident existed in the operating experience; second, the reasons why these precursors did not evolve into a severe accident. Third, whether lessons learned from these precursor events were adequately considered by member countries; and finally, if the operating experience feedback system needs to be improved, based on the previous analysis. To address the second question which is much more challenging, the report considered precursor events identified through a search and analysis of the IRS database and also precursors events based on risk significance. Both methods can point out areas where further work may be needed, even if it depends heavily on design and site-specific factors. From the operating experience side, more efforts are needed to ensure timely and full implementation of lessons learnt from precursor events. Concerning risk considerations, a combined use of risk precursors and operating experience may drive to effective changes to plants to reduce risk. The report also contains a short description and evaluation of selected precursors that are related to the course of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. The report addresses the question whether operating experience feedback can be effectively used to identify plant vulnerabilities and minimize potential for severe core damage accidents. Based on several of the precursor events national or international in-depth evaluations were started. The vulnerability of NPPs due to external and internal flooding has clearly been addressed. In addition to the IRS based investigation, the WGRISK was asked to identify important precursor events based on risk significance. These precursors have

  16. Lunar CATALYST

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar Cargo Transportation and Landing by Soft Touchdown (Lunar CATALYST) is a NASA initiative to encourage the development of U.S. private-sector robotic lunar...

  17. A program of data synthesis from the ALSEP/CPLEE ALSEP/SIDE, and Explorer 35 magnetometer to investigate lunar terminator and nightside particle fluxes and surface interactions. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reasoner, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    Lunar nightside electron fluxes were studied with the aid of the ALSEP/CPLEE and other instruments. The flux events were shown to be due to (a) electrons propagating upstream from the earth's bow shock, (b) electrons thermalized and scattered to the lunar surface by disturbances along the boundary of the lunar solarwind cavity, and (c) solar wind electrons scattered to the lunar surface by lunar limb shocks and/or compressional disturbances. These electrons were identified as a cause of the high night surface negative potentials observed in tha ALSEP/SIDE ion data. A study was also made of the shadowing of magnetotail plasma sheet electrons by interactions between the lunar body and the ambient magnetic field and by interactions between charged particles and lunar remnant magnetic fields. These shadowing effects were shown to modify lunar surface and near-lunar potential distributions. (Author)

  18. CDC WONDER: Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) online database on CDC WONDER provides counts and percentages of adverse event case reports after vaccination, by...

  19. FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS): Latest Quartely Data Files

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) is a database that contains information on adverse event and medication error reports submitted to FDA. The database...

  20. Screening and evaluation of Second Half 1980 licensee event reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waage, J.M.

    1981-09-01

    During the second part of 1980, two individual plant events occurred: Indian Point-2 (containment flooding) and Pilgrim-1 (uncontrolled blowdown). Significant event reports and update on generic problem areas and major equipment problem areas are included in this report

  1. Screening and evaluation of First Half 1980 licensee event reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waage, J.M.

    1981-05-01

    This program was established to identify those events which contain important operating experience and to communicate the insights gained from evaluation of such events to other plant owners and operators. This report represents a summary of that work for the LERs produced during roughly the first half of 1980. It discusses events of major significance reported during that period and summarizes those events which were identified as important. Several generic problem areas are discussed. Six major significant events took place during this period

  2. Lunar atmospheric composition experiment. Final report, 1 Jun. 1971 - 30 Sep. 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    Apollo 17 carried a miniature mass spectrometer, called the Lunar Atmospheric Composition Experiment (LACE), to the moon as part of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) to study the composition and variations in the lunar atmosphere. The instrument was successfully deployed in the Taurus-Littrow Valley with its entrance aperture oriented upward to intercept and measure the downward flux of gases at the lunar surface. During the ten lunations that the LACE operated, it produced a large base of data on the lunar atmosphere, mainly collected at night time. It was found that thermal escape is the most rapid loss mechanism for hydrogen and helium. For heavier gases, photoionization followed by acceleration through the solar wind electric field accounted for most of the loss. The dominant gases on the moon were argon and helium, and models formed for their distribution are described in detail. It is concluded that most of the helium in the lunar atmosphere is of solar wind origin, and that there also exist very small amounts of methane, ammonia, and carbon dioxide

  3. Trends and characteristics observed in nuclear events based on international nuclear event scale reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Norio

    2001-01-01

    The International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) is jointly operated by the IAEA and the OECD-NEA as a means designed for providing prompt, clear and consistent information related to nuclear events, that occurred at nuclear facilities, and facilitating communication between the nuclear community, the media and the public. Nuclear events are reported to the INES with the Scale', a consistent safety significance indicator, which runs from level 0, for events with no safety significance, to level 7 for a major accident with widespread health and environmental effects. Since the operation of INES was initiated in 1990, approximately 500 events have been reported and disseminated. The present paper discusses the trends observed in nuclear events, such as overall trends of the reported events and characteristics of safety significant events with level 2 or higher, based on the INES reports. (author)

  4. What is a lunar standstill III?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Duke Sims

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Prehistoric monument alignments on lunar standstills are currently understood for horizon range, perturbation event, crossover event, eclipse prediction, solstice full Moon and the solarisation of the dark Moon. The first five models are found to fail the criteria of archaeoastronomy field methods. The final model of lunar-solar conflation draws upon all the observed components of lunar standstills – solarised reverse phased sidereal Moons culminating in solstice dark Moons in a roughly nine-year alternating cycle between major and minor standstills. This lunar-solar conflation model is a syncretic overlay upon an antecedent Palaeolithic template for lunar scheduled rituals and amenable to transformation.

  5. The International Lunar Decade Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, V.; Foing, B.; Bland, D.; Crisafulli, J.

    2015-10-01

    The International Lunar Decade Declaration was discussed at the conference held November 9-13, 2014 in Hawaii "The Next Giant Leap: Leveraging Lunar Assets for Sustainable Pathways to Space" - http://2014giantleap.aerospacehawaii.info/ and accepted by a core group that forms the International Lunar Decade Working Group (ILDWG) that is seeking to make the proposed global event and decade long process a reality. The Declaration will be updated from time to time by members of the ILDWreflecting new knowledge and fresh perspectives that bear on building a global consortium with a mission to progress from lunar exploration to the transformation of the Moon into a wealth gene rating platform for the expansion of humankind into the solar system. When key organizations have endorsed the idea and joined the effort the text of the Declaration will be considered final. An earlier International Lunar Decade proposal was issued at the 8th ICEUM Conference in 2006 in Beijing together with 13 specific initiatives for lunar exploration[1,2,3]. These initiatives have been largely implemented with coordination among the different space agencies involved provided by the International Lunar Exploration Working Group[2,3]. The Second International Lunar Decade from 2015 reflects current trends towards increasing involvement of commercial firms in space, particularly seeking opportunities beyond low Earth orbit. The central vision of the International Lunar Decade is to build the foundations for a sustainable space economy through international collaboration concurrently addressing Lunar exploration and building a shared knowledge base;Policy development that enables collabo rative research and development leading to lunar mining and industrial and commercial development;Infrastructure on the Moon and in cislunar space (communications, transport, energy systems, way-stations, other) that reduces costs, lowers risks and speeds up the time to profitable operations;Enabling technologies

  6. Lunar transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The University Space Research Association (USRA) requested the University of Minnesota Spacecraft Design Team to design a lunar transportation infrastructure. This task was a year long design effort culminating in a complete conceptual design and presentation at Johnson Space Center. The mission objective of the design group was to design a system of vehicles to bring a habitation module, cargo, and crew to the lunar surface from LEO and return either or both crew and cargo safely to LEO while emphasizing component commonality, reusability, and cost effectiveness. During the course of the design, the lunar transportation system (LTS) has taken on many forms. The final design of the system is composed of two vehicles, a lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) and a lunar excursion vehicle (LEV). The LTV serves as an efficient orbital transfer vehicle between the earth and the moon while the LEV carries crew and cargo to the lunar surface. Presented in the report are the mission analysis, systems layout, orbital mechanics, propulsion systems, structural and thermal analysis, and crew systems, avionics, and power systems for this lunar transportation concept.

  7. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Lunar Workshops for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. P.; Hsu, B. C.; Hessen, K.; Bleacher, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Lunar Workshops for Educators (LWEs) are a series of weeklong professional development workshops, accompanied by quarterly follow-up sessions, designed to educate and inspire grade 6-12 science teachers, sponsored by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Participants learn about lunar science and exploration, gain tools to help address common student misconceptions about the Moon, find out about the latest research results from LRO scientists, work with data from LRO and other lunar missions, and learn how to bring these data to their students using hands-on activities aligned with grade 6-12 National Science Education Standards and Benchmarks and through authentic research experiences. LWEs are held around the country, primarily in locations underserved with respect to NASA workshops. Where possible, workshops also include tours of science facilities or field trips intended to help participants better understand mission operations or geologic processes relevant to the Moon. Scientist and engineer involvement is a central tenant of the LWEs. LRO scientists and engineers, as well as scientists working on other lunar missions, present their research or activities to the workshop participants and answer questions about lunar science and exploration. This interaction with the scientists and engineers is consistently ranked by the LWE participants as one of the most interesting and inspiring components of the workshops. Evaluation results from the 2010 and 2011 workshops, as well as preliminary analysis of survey responses from 2012 participants, demonstrated an improved understanding of lunar science concepts among LWE participants in post-workshop assessments (as compared to identical pre-assessments) and a greater understanding of how to access and effectively share LRO data with students. Teachers reported increased confidence in helping students conduct research using lunar data, and learned about programs that would allow their students to make authentic

  8. Adverse event reporting in cancer clinical trial publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivendran, Shanthi; Latif, Asma; McBride, Russell B; Stensland, Kristian D; Wisnivesky, Juan; Haines, Lindsay; Oh, William K; Galsky, Matthew D

    2014-01-10

    Reporting adverse events is a critical element of a clinical trial publication. In 2003, the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) group generated recommendations regarding the appropriate reporting of adverse events. The degree to which these recommendations are followed in oncology publications has not been comprehensively evaluated. A review of citations from PubMed, Medline, and Embase published between Jan 1, 2009 and December 31, 2011, identified eligible randomized, controlled phase III trials in metastatic solid malignancies. Publications were assessed for 14 adverse event-reporting elements derived from the CONSORT harms extension statement; a completeness score (range, 0 to 14) was calculated by adding the number of elements reported. Linear regression analysis identified which publication characteristics associated with reporting completeness. A total of 175 publications, with data for 96,125 patients, were included in the analysis. The median completeness score was eight (range, three to 12). Most publications (96%) reported only adverse events occurring above a threshold rate or severity, 37% did not specify the criteria used to select which adverse events were reported, and 88% grouped together adverse events of varying severity. Regression analysis revealed that trials without a stated funding source and with an earlier year of publication had significantly lower completeness scores. Reporting of adverse events in oncology publications of randomized trials is suboptimal and characterized by substantial selectivity and heterogeneity. The development of oncology-specific standards for adverse event reporting should be established to ensure consistency and provide critical information required for medical decision-making.

  9. Lunar horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of the role that lunar horticulture may fulfill in helping establish the life support system of an earth-independent lunar colony. Such a system is expected to be a hybrid between systems which depend on lunar horticulture and those which depend upon the chemical reclamation of metabolic waste and its resynthesis into nutrients and water. The feasibility of this approach has been established at several laboratories. Plants grow well under reduced pressures and with oxygen concentrations of less than 1% of the total pressure. The carbon dioxide collected from the lunar base personnel should provide sufficient gas pressure (approx. 100 mm Hg) for growing the plants.

  10. Assessing the association between omalizumab and arteriothrombotic events through spontaneous adverse event reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ayad K; Hartzema, Abraham G

    2012-01-01

    Omalizumab is a monoclonal antibody, indicated for the treatment of severe allergic asthma. In Europe, there have been concerns about the cardiovascular safety of omalizumab. The objective of this study was to analyze the association between omalizumab and arterial thrombotic events in a spontaneous adverse drug reaction reporting database in the US. Reports of arterial thrombotic events submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration's Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) between 2004 and 2011 were retrieved and analyzed by the reporting odds ratio data mining algorithm. The reporting odds ratio of arterial thrombotic events for omalizumab was compared with specific asthma medications and all drugs in the AERS. Values ≥2 were considered significant safety signals. The Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities Preferred Terms were used to identify arterial thrombotic events (eg, stroke, myocardial infarction). In total, 293,783 reports of arterial thrombotic events were retrieved (about 2% of all adverse drug reaction reports), corresponding to 2274 asthma drug-arterial thrombotic events pairs (omalizumab, 222; inhaled corticosteroids [ICS], 131; long-acting beta-agonists [LABA], 102; single-device combination ICS-LABA, 506; inhaled short-acting beta-agonists [SABA], 475; oral SABA, 6; inhaled antimuscarinics [AMC], 477; single-device combination AMC-SABA, 127; xanthines, 50; leukotriene modifiers, 174; and mast cell stabilizers, 4). Reporting odds ratio and 95% confidence interval values for omalizumab compared with other asthma drugs and all drugs in AERS were 2.75 (2.39-316) and 1.09 (0.95-1.24), respectively. Omalizumab ranked second after ICS in the risk of arterial thrombotic events, followed by AMC, AMC-SABA, and ICS-LABA. Omalizumab is associated with higher than expected reporting of arterial thrombotic events in asthmatic patients. This hypothesis needs further testing in robust epidemiological studies.

  11. Licensee Event Report (LER) compilation for month of September 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    This monthly report contains Licensee Event Report (LER) operational information that was processed into the LER data file of the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) during the one month period identified on the cover of the document. The LERs, from which this information is derived, are submitted to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by nuclear power plant licensees in accordance with federal regulations. Procedures for LER reporting for revisions to those events occurring prior to 1984 are described in NRC Regulatory Guide 1.16 and NUREG-0161, Instructions for Preparation of Data Entry Sheets for Licensee Event Reports. For these events occurring on and after January 1, 1984, LERs are being submitted in accordance with the revised rule contained in Title 10 Part 50.73 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 50.73 -- Licensee Event Report System) which was published in the Federal Register (Vol. 48, No. 144) on July 26, 1983. NUREG-1022, Licensee Event Report System -- Description of Systems and Guidelines for Reporting, provides supporting guidance and information on the revised LER rule. The LER summaries in this report are arranged alphabetically by facility name and then chronologically by event data for each facility. Component, system, keyword, and component vendor indexes follow the summaries. Vendors are those identified by the utility when the LER form is initiated; the keywords for the component, system, and general keyword indexes are assigned by the computer using correlation tables from the Sequence Coding and Search System

  12. Licensee Event Report (LER) compilation for month of August 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This monthly report contains Licensee Event Report (LER) operational information that was processed into the LER data file of the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) during the one month period identified on the cover of the document. The LERs, from which this information is derived, are submitted to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by nuclear power plant licensees in accordance with federal regulations. Procedures for LER reporting for revisions to those events occurring prior to 1984 are described in NRC Regulatory Guide 1.16 and NUREG-0161, Instructions for Preparation of Data Entry Sheets for Licensee Event Reports. For those events occurring on and after January 1, 1984, LERs are being submitted in accordance with the revised rule contained in Title 10 Part 50.73 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 5.073 -- Licensee Event Report System) which was published in the Federal Register (Vol. 48, No. 144) on July 26, 1983. NUREG-1022, Licensee Event Report System -- Description of Systems and Guidelines for Reporting, provides supporting guidance and information on the revised LER rule. The LER summaries in this report are arranged alphabetically by facility name and then chronologically by event date for each facility. Component, system, keyword, and component vendor indexes follow the summaries. Vendors are those identified by the utility when the LER form is initiated; the keywords for the component, system, and general keyword indexes are assigned by the computer using correlation tables from the Sequence Coding and Search System

  13. Lunar cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, William N.

    1992-01-01

    With the exception of water, the major oxide constituents of terrestrial cements are present at all nine lunar sites from which samples have been returned. However, with the exception of relatively rare cristobalite, the lunar oxides are not present as individual phases but are combined in silicates and in mixed oxides. Lime (CaO) is most abundant on the Moon in the plagioclase (CaAl2Si2O8) of highland anorthosites. It may be possible to enrich the lime content of anorthite to levels like those of Portland cement by pyrolyzing it with lunar-derived phosphate. The phosphate consumed in such a reaction can be regenerated by reacting the phosphorus product with lunar augite pyroxenes at elevated temperatures. Other possible sources of lunar phosphate and other oxides are discussed.

  14. Assessing the association between omalizumab and arteriothrombotic events through spontaneous adverse event reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali AK

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ayad K Ali, Abraham G HartzemaDepartment of Pharmaceutical Outcomes and Policy, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USABackground: Omalizumab is a monoclonal antibody, indicated for the treatment of severe allergic asthma. In Europe, there have been concerns about the cardiovascular safety of omalizumab. The objective of this study was to analyze the association between omalizumab and arterial thrombotic events in a spontaneous adverse drug reaction reporting database in the US.Methods and materials: Reports of arterial thrombotic events submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration's Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS between 2004 and 2011 were retrieved and analyzed by the reporting odds ratio data mining algorithm. The reporting odds ratio of arterial thrombotic events for omalizumab was compared with specific asthma medications and all drugs in the AERS. Values ≥2 were considered significant safety signals. The Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities Preferred Terms were used to identify arterial thrombotic events (eg, stroke, myocardial infarction.Results: In total, 293,783 reports of arterial thrombotic events were retrieved (about 2% of all adverse drug reaction reports, corresponding to 2274 asthma drug-arterial thrombotic events pairs (omalizumab, 222; inhaled corticosteroids [ICS], 131; long-acting beta-agonists [LABA], 102; single-device combination ICS-LABA, 506; inhaled short-acting beta-agonists [SABA], 475; oral SABA, 6; inhaled antimuscarinics [AMC], 477; single-device combination AMC-SABA, 127; xanthines, 50; leukotriene modifiers, 174; and mast cell stabilizers, 4. Reporting odds ratio and 95% confidence interval values for omalizumab compared with other asthma drugs and all drugs in AERS were 2.75 (2.39–316 and 1.09 (0.95–1.24, respectively. Omalizumab ranked second after ICS in the risk of arterial thrombotic events, followed by AMC, AMC-SABA, and ICS-LABA.Conclusion: Omalizumab is

  15. Licensee Event Report (LER) compilation for month of October 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This monthly report contains Licensee Event Report (LER) operational information that was processed into the LER data file of Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) during the one month period identified on the cover of the document. The LERs, from which this information is derived, are submitted to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by nuclear power plant licensees in accordance with federal regulations. Procedures for LER reporting for revisions to those events occurring prior to 1984 are described in NRC Regulatory Guide 1.16 and NUREG-0161, Instructions for Preparation of Data Entry Sheets for Licensee Event Reports. For those events occurring on and after January 1, 1984, LERs are being submitted in accordance with the revised rule contained in Title 10 Part 50.73 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 50.73 -- Licensee Event Report System) which was published in the Federal Register (Vol. 48, No. 144) on July 26, 1983.NUREG-1022, Licensee Event Report System -- Description of Systems and Guidelines for Reporting, provides supporting guidance and information on the revised LER rule

  16. Licensee Event Report (LER) compilation for month of October 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    This monthly report contains Licensee Event Report (LER) operational information that was processed into the LER data file of the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) during the one month period identified on the cover of the document. The LERs, from which this information is derived, are submitted to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by nuclear power plant licensees in accordance with federal regulations. Procedures for LER reporting for revisions to those events occurring prior to 1984 are described in NRC Regulatory Guide 1.16 and NUREG-1061, Instructions for Preparation of Data Entry Sheets for Licensee Event Reports. For those events occurring on and after January 1, 1984, LERs are being submitted in accordance with the revised rule contained in Title 10 Part 50.73 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 50.73--Licensee Event Report System) which was published in the Federal Register (Vol. 48, No. 144) on July 26, 1983. NUREG-1022, Licensee Event Report System--Description of Systems and Guidelines for Reporting, provides supporting guidance and information on the revised LER rule

  17. Licensee Event Report (LER) compilation for month of August 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    This monthly report contains Licensee Event Report (LER) operational information that was processed into the LER data file of the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) during the one month period identified on the cover of the document. The LERs, from which this information is derived, are submitted to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by nuclear power plant licensees in accordance with federal regulations. Procedures for LER reporting for revisions to those events occurring prior to 1984 are described in NRC Regulatory Guide 1.16 and NUREG-0161, Instructions for Preparation of Data Entry Sheets for Licensee Event Reports. For those events occurring on and after January 1, 1984, LERs are being submitted in accordance with the revised rule contained in Title 10 Part 50.73 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 50.73 -- Licensee Event Report System) which was published in the Federal Register (Vol. 48, No. 144) on July 26, 1983. NUREG-1022, Licensee Event Report System -- Description of Systems and Guidelines for Reporting, provides supporting guidance and information on the revised LER rule

  18. Licensee Event Report (LER) compilation for month of March 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    This monthly report contains Licensee Event Report (LER) operational information that was processed into the LER data file of the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) during the one-month period identified on the cover of the document. The LERS, from which this information is derived, are submitted to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by nuclear power plant licensees in accordance with federal regulations. Procedures for LER reporting for revisions to those events occurring prior to 1984 are described in NRC Regulatory Guide 1.16 and NUREG-1061, Instructions for preparation of data entry sheets for licensee event reports. For those events occurring on and after January 1, 1984, LERs are being submitted in accordance with the revised rule contained in Title 10 Part 50.73 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 50.73 - Licensee Event Report System) which was published in the Federal Register (Vol. 48, No. 144) on July 26, 1983. NUREG-1022, Licensee Event Report System - Description of systems and guidelines for reporting, provides supporting guidance and information on the revised LER rule

  19. Licensee Event Report (LER) compilation for month of August 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    This monthly report contains Licensee Event Report (LER) operational information that was processed into the LER data file of the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) during the one month period identified on the cover of the document. The LERs, from which this information is derived, are submitted to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by nuclear power plant licensees in accordance with federal regulations. Procedures for LER reporting for revisions to these events occurring prior to 1984 are described in NRC Regulatory Guide 1.16 and NUREG-0161, Instructions for Preparation of Data Entry Sheets for Licensee Event Reports. For those events occurring on and after January 1, 1984, LERs are being submitted in accordance with the revised rule contained in Title 10 Part 50.73 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 50.73 -- Licensee Event Report System) which was published in the Federal Register (Vol. 48, No. 144) on July 26, 1983. NUREG-1022, Licensee Event Report System -- Description of Systems and Guidelines for Reporting, provides supporting guidance and information on the revised LER rule

  20. Status and Future of Lunar Geoscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986

    A review of the status, progress, and future direction of lunar research is presented in this report from the lunar geoscience working group of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Information is synthesized and presented in four major sections. These include: (1) an introduction (stating the reasons for lunar study and identifying…

  1. Report on the lunar ranging at McDonald Observatory. [spark gap configuration and photomultiplier system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, E. C.

    1977-01-01

    Range measurements to an accuracy of 5 cm were achieved following improvements in the laser oscillator configuration and the photomultiplier system. Modifications to the laser include a redesigned pockel cell mount to eliminate stressing of the cell crystal; an improved electrically triggered spark gap for sharpening the electrical pulse; the use of a brewster plate in the cavity to eliminate pre-pulsing; improved alignment for the oscillator system; and increased cavity lifetime through thin film polarizer technology. Laser calibration data are presented along with the lunar laser operations log for June to October 1977.

  2. Lunar Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present an open design for a first plant growth module on the Moon (LPX). The primary science goal of lunar habitat is to investigate germination and initial...

  3. Lunar Flashlight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar Flashlight (LF) is an innovative cubesat mission sponsored by NASA’s Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) division to be launched on the Space Launch System...

  4. Development of a lunar infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of building an infrastructure on the moon is discussed, assuming that earth-to-moon and moon-to-earth transport will be available. The sequence of events which would occur in the process of building an infrastructure is examined. The human needs which must be met on a lunar base are discussed, including minimal life support, quality of life, and growth stages. The technology available to meet these needs is reviewed and further research in fields related to a lunar base, such as the study of the moon's polar regions and the limits of lunar agriculture, is recommended.

  5. Experience feedback from event reports: the human contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaton, E.; Tolstykh, V.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of reported events reveals that in a large number of areas human intervention contributed to the initiation and/or development of these events. Since an accident at any nuclear power plant can have a world-wide effect on public acceptance, the need for attentive and reliable human behavior assumes an even greater significance. The identification of areas where human interaction can have an impact on safe operation is mainly relying on the analysis of events reported to the nuclear community. Any substantial compilation of safety significant operational events such as contained in the IAEA-IRS (Incident Reporting System) is bound to provide valuable and factual insights into problem areas, their origin, development, impact and some remedial actions. Thus a systematic analysis has been carried out on over 200 events where a human contribution could be identified. Some events of particular interest will be discussed and furthermore generic lessons will be presented. In addition the Assessment of Safety Significant Event Technique (ASSET) developed within IAEA which provides a structured methodology to identify not only the direct cause explaining why an individual failed but more important, insights on the root causes explaining why this latent deficiency was not detected earlier through the plant surveillance programme was applied. (author)

  6. Lunar particle shadows and boundary layer experiment: plasma and energetic particles on the Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, K.A.; Chase, L.M.; Lin, R.P.; McCoy, J.E.; McGuire, R.E.

    1974-01-01

    The lunar particle shadows and boundary layer experiments aboard the Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites and scientific reduction and analysis of the data to date are discussed with emphasis on four major topics: solar particles; interplanetary particle phenomena; lunar interactions; and topology and dynamics of the magnetosphere at lunar orbit. The studies of solar and interplanetary particles concentrated on the low energy region which was essentially unexplored, and the studies of lunar interaction pointed up the transition from single particle to plasma characteristics. The analysis concentrated on the electron angular distributions as highly sensitive indicators of localized magnetization of the lunar surface. Magnetosphere experiments provided the first electric field measurements in the distant magnetotail, as well as comprehensive low energy particle measurements at lunar distance

  7. Serious adverse events with infliximab: analysis of spontaneously reported adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Richard A; Gartlehner, Gerald; Powell, Gregory E; Sandler, Robert S

    2007-06-01

    Serious adverse events such as bowel obstruction, heart failure, infection, lymphoma, and neuropathy have been reported with infliximab. The aims of this study were to explore adverse event signals with infliximab by using a long period of post-marketing experience, stratifying by indication. The relative reporting of infliximab adverse events to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was assessed with the public release version of the adverse event reporting system (AERS) database from 1968 to third quarter 2005. On the basis of a systematic review of adverse events, Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) terms were mapped to predefined categories of adverse events, including death, heart failure, hepatitis, infection, infusion reaction, lymphoma, myelosuppression, neuropathy, and obstruction. Disproportionality analysis was used to calculate the empiric Bayes geometric mean (EBGM) and corresponding 90% confidence intervals (EB05, EB95) for adverse event categories. Infliximab was identified as the suspect medication in 18,220 reports in the FDA AERS database. We identified a signal for lymphoma (EB05 = 6.9), neuropathy (EB05 = 3.8), infection (EB05 = 2.9), and bowel obstruction (EB05 = 2.8). The signal for granulomatous infections was stronger than the signal for non-granulomatous infections (EB05 = 12.6 and 2.4, respectively). The signals for bowel obstruction and infusion reaction were specific to patients with IBD; this suggests potential confounding by indication, especially for bowel obstruction. In light of this additional evidence of risk of lymphoma, neuropathy, and granulomatous infections, clinicians should stress this risk in the shared decision-making process.

  8. A lunar polar expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Tomas

    1992-09-01

    Advanced exploration and development in harsh environments require mastery of basic human survival skill. Expeditions into the lethal climates of Earth's polar regions offer useful lessons for tommorrow's lunar pioneers. In Arctic and Antarctic exploration, 'wintering over' was a crucial milestone. The ability to establish a supply base and survive months of polar cold and darkness made extensive travel and exploration possible. Because of the possibility of near-constant solar illumination, the lunar polar regions, unlike Earth's may offer the most hospitable site for habitation. The World Space Foundation is examining a scenario for establishing a five-person expeditionary team on the lunar north pole for one year. This paper is a status report on a point design addressing site selection, transportation, power, and life support requirements.

  9. The practice of reporting adverse events in a teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Guerra Siman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE Understanding the practice of reporting adverse events by health professionals. METHOD A qualitative case study carried out in a teaching hospital with participants of the Patient Safety Center and the nursing team. The collection took place from May to December 2015, and was conducted through interviews, observation and documentary research to treat the data using Content Analysis. RESULTS 31 professionals participated in the study. Three categories were elaborated: The practice of reporting adverse events; Barriers in the effective practice of notifications; The importance of reporting adverse events. CONCLUSION Notification was permeated by gaps in knowledge, fear of punishment and informal communication, generating underreporting. It is necessary to improve the interaction between leaders and professionals, with an emphasis on communication and educational practice.

  10. International Lunar Decade Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, VZ; Crisafulli, J.; Dunlop, D.; Foing, B.

    2017-09-01

    The International Lunar Decade is a global decadal event designed to provide a framework for strategically directed international cooperation for permanent return to the Moon. To be launched July 20, 2019, the 50th anniversary of the giant leap for mankind marked by Neil Armstrong's first step on the Moon, the ILD launch will include events around the world to celebrate space exploration, science, and the expansion of humanity into the Solar System. The ILD framework links lunar exploration and space sciences with the development of enabling technologies, infrastructure, means of financing, laws and policies aimed at lowering the costs and risks of venturing into space. Dramatically reduced costs will broaden the range of opportunities available in space and widen access to space for more states, companies and people worldwide. The ILD is intended to bring about the efflorescence of commercial business based on space resources from the Moon, asteroids, comets and other bodies in the Solar System.

  11. On reporting results from randomized controlled trials with recurrent events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobolev Boris G

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based medicine has been advanced by the use of standards for reporting the design and methodology of randomized controlled trials (RCT. Indeed, without this information it is difficult to assess the quality of evidence from an RCT. Although a variety of statistical methods are available for the analysis of recurrent events, reporting the effect of an intervention on outcomes that recur is an area that remains poorly understood in clinical research. The purpose of this paper is to outline guidelines for reporting results from RCTs where the outcome of interest is a recurrent event. Methods We used a simulation study to relate an event process and results from analyses of the gamma-Poisson, independent-increment, conditional, and marginal Cox models. We reviewed the utility of regression models for the rate of a recurrent event by articulating the associated study questions, preenting the risk sets, and interpreting the regression coefficients. Results Based on a single data set produced by simulation, we reported and contrasted results from statistical methods for evaluating treatment effect from an RCT with a recurrent outcome. We showed that each model has different study questions, assumptions, risk sets, and rate ratio interpretation, and so inferences should consider the appropriateness of the model for the RCT. Conclusion Our guidelines for reporting results from an RCT involving a recurrent event suggest that the study question and the objectives of the trial, such as assessing comparable groups and estimating effect size, should determine the statistical methods. The guidelines should allow clinical researchers to report appropriate measures from an RCT for understanding the effect of intervention on the occurrence of a recurrent event.

  12. Lunar phases and crisis center telephone calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J E; Tobacyk, J J

    1990-02-01

    The lunar hypothesis, that is, the notion that lunar phases can directly affect human behavior, was tested by time-series analysis of 4,575 crisis center telephone calls (all calls recorded for a 6-month interval). As expected, the lunar hypothesis was not supported. The 28-day lunar cycle accounted for less than 1% of the variance of the frequency of crisis center calls. Also, as hypothesized from an attribution theory framework, crisis center workers reported significantly greater belief in lunar effects than a non-crisis-center-worker comparison group.

  13. Review of licensee event reports, 1976 to 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    This report was prepared in response to a request by the Chairman of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards to review, with specific objectives, the Licensee Event Reports (LERs) issued fom 1976 through 1978. A principal objective of the present study was to identify those events which have implications for improved reactor safety. Approximately 8,700 LERs were filed during the three-year period under review. These described events ranging from the trivial to those of major safety significance. This study has confirmed that LERs represent a source of valuable data and information. However, it must be recognized that a detailed review of LERs will not identify all safety problems likely to be encountered in the operation of nuclear power plants. As a result of this review, a number of classes of events were identified. These classes were subsequently categorized into three groups: (a) those having potentially serious safety implications, (b) events that must be regarded as matters of concern, and (c) events of lower safety significance but with excessive frequency

  14. Adverse event reporting in Czech long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hěib, Zdenřk; Vychytil, Pavel; Marx, David

    2013-04-01

    To describe adverse event reporting processes in long-term care facilities in the Czech Republic. Prospective cohort study involving a written questionnaire followed by in-person structured interviews with selected respondents. Long-term care facilities located in the Czech Republic. Staff of 111 long-term care facilities (87% of long-term care facilities in the Czech Republic). None. Sixty-three percent of long-term health-care facilities in the Czech Republic have adverse event-reporting processes already established, but these were frequently very immature programs sometimes consisting only of paper recording of incidents. Compared to questionnaire responses, in-person interview responses only partially tended to confirm the results of the written survey. Twenty-one facilities (33%) had at most 1 unconfirmed response, 31 facilities (49%) had 2 or 3 unconfirmed responses and the remaining 11 facilities (17%) had 4 or more unconfirmed responses. In-person interviews suggest that use of a written questionnaire to assess the adverse event-reporting process may have limited validity. Staff of the facilities we studied expressed an understanding of the importance of adverse event reporting and prevention, but interviews also suggested a lack of knowledge necessary for establishing a good institutional reporting system in long-term care.

  15. Studies in matter antimatter separation and in the origin of lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, W. A.; Greeley, R.; Parkin, C.; Aggarwal, H.; Schultz, P.

    1975-01-01

    A progress report, covering lunar and planetary research is introduced. Data cover lunar ionospheric models, lunar and planetary geology, and lunar magnetism. Wind tunnel simulations of Mars aeolian problems and a comparative study of basaltic analogs of Lunar and Martial volcanic features was discussed.

  16. 10 CFR 50.73 - Licensee event report system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Licensee event report system. 50.73 Section 50.73 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Inspections... systems, including: emergency diesel generators (EDGs); hydroelectric facilities used in lieu of EDGs at...

  17. Lunar electric power systems utilizing the SP-100 reactor coupled to dynamic conversion systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, R.B.; Durand, R.E.

    1993-03-01

    An integration study was performed by Rocketdyne under contract to NASA-LeRC. The study was concerned with coupling an SP-0100 reactor to either a Brayton or Stirling power conversion system. The application was for a surface power system to supply power requirements to a lunar base. A power level of 550 kWe was selected based on the NASA Space Exploration Initiative 90-day study. Reliability studies were initially performed to determine optimum power conversion redundancy. This study resulted in selecting three operating engines and one stand-by unit. Integration design studies indicated that either the Brayton or Stirling power conversion systems could be integrated with the PS-100 reactor. The Stirling system had an integration advantage because of smaller piping size and fewer components. The Stirling engine, however, is more complex and heavier than the Brayton rotating unit, which tends to off-set the Stirling integration advantage. From a performance consideration, the Brayton had a 9 percent mass advantage, and the Stirling had a 50 percent radiator advantage

  18. Adverse event reports following yellow fever vaccination, 2007-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Nicole P; Rabe, Ingrid B; Miller, Elaine R; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J Erin

    2016-05-01

    Yellow fever (YF) vaccines have been available since the 1930s and are generally considered safe and effective. However, rare reports of serious adverse events (SAE) following vaccination have prompted the Advisory Committee for Immunization Practices to periodically expand the list of conditions considered contraindications and precautions to vaccination. We describe adverse events following YF vaccination reported to the U.S. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) from 2007 through 2013 and calculate age- and sex-specific reporting rates of all SAE, anaphylaxis, YF vaccine-associated neurologic disease (YEL-AND) and YF vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD). There were 938 adverse events following YF vaccination reported to VAERS from 2007 through 2013. Of these, 84 (9%) were classified as SAEs for a rate of 3.8 per 100 000 doses distributed. Reporting rates of SAEs increased with increasing age with a rate of 6.5 per 100 000 in persons aged 60-69 years and 10.3 for ≥70 years. The reporting rate for anaphylaxis was 1.3 per 100 000 doses distributed and was highest in persons ≤18 years (2.7 per 100 000). Reporting rates of YEL-AND and YEL-AVD were 0.8 and 0.3 per 100 000 doses distributed, respectively; both rates increased with increasing age. These findings reinforce the generally acceptable safety profile of YF vaccine, but highlight the importance of continued physician and traveller education regarding the risks and benefits of YF vaccination, particularly for older travellers. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the United States.

  19. Reports about Occurrence of Events with Effect on Aviation Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Plos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with a system, that is established to report the events with effect on safety. This system is based on requirements published in Annex 13 to the Chicago Convention and legislative foundations laid down in Regulation L13, Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council (EU No 376/2014, Decree No. 359/2006 Sb. and Act No. 49/1997 Sb. Standards and legislative rules precisely define the types of events that are subject of reporting and also define the structure and content of the reporting message. This content is consists mainly of the identification data about the airplane and crew, information about the route and a short description of the damage to the airplane. In the following, we discuss the possible use of such a system of mandatory reporting for the needs of safety indicators. Then there are proposals of changes in the content of the reporting message for the need of safety indicators. The present knowledge indicates that the use of all opportunities provided by the law for the reporting of events can lead to a creating of sufficient basis for safety indicators.

  20. Eyewitness Suggestibility and Source Similarity: Intrusions of Details from One Event into Memory Reports of Another Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, D. Stephen; Allen, Bem P.; Chan, Jason C. K.; Dahl, Leora C.

    2004-01-01

    We explored the effect of the degree of conceptual similarity between a witnessed event and an extra-event narrative on eyewitness suggestibility. Experiments 1A and 1B replicated Allen and Lindsay's (1998) finding that subjects sometimes intrude details from a narrative description of one event into their reports of a different visual event.…

  1. Armstrong practices in Lunar Module simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Neil A. Armstrong, Commander for the Apollo 11 Moon-landing mission, practices for the historic event in a Lunar Module simulator in the Flight Crew Training building at KSC. Accompanying Armstrong on the Moon flight will be Command Module Pilot Michael Collins and Lunar Module Pilot Edwin E. Aldrin Jr.

  2. Licensee Event Report sequence coding and search procedure workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, W.B.; Gallaher, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    Since mid-1980, the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has been developing procedures for the systematic review and analysis of Licensee Event Reports (LERs). These procedures generally address several areas of concern, including identification of significant trends and patterns, event sequence of occurrences, component failures, and system and plant effects. The AEOD and NSIC conducted a workshop on the new coding procedure at the American Museum of Science and Energy in Oak Ridge, TN, on November 24, 1980

  3. Serious adverse events reported for anti-obesity medicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, L; Hallgreen, C E; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Use of anti-obesity medicines has been linked with serious cardiac and psychiatric adverse events (AEs). Spontaneous reports can provide information about serious, rare and unknown AEs occurring after time of marketing. In Europe, information about AEs reported for anti-obesity medici...... are being marketed, the utilisation of anti-obesity medicines is widespread, and therefore systematic monitoring of the safety of these medicines is necessary.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 01 August 2016. doi:10.1038/ijo.2016.135.......BACKGROUND: Use of anti-obesity medicines has been linked with serious cardiac and psychiatric adverse events (AEs). Spontaneous reports can provide information about serious, rare and unknown AEs occurring after time of marketing. In Europe, information about AEs reported for anti......-obesity medicines can be accessed in the EudraVigilance database (EV). Therefore, we aimed to identify and characterise adverse events (AEs) associated with use of anti-obesity medicines in Europe. METHODS: AE reports submitted for anti-obesity medicines (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical [ATC] group A08A) from 2007...

  4. Self-reported non-severe hypoglycaemic events in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Östenson, C G; Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, P; Lahtela, J

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Hypoglycaemia presents a barrier to optimum diabetes management but data are limited on the frequency of hypoglycaemia incidents outside of clinical trials. The present study investigated the rates of self-reported non-severe hypoglycaemic events, hypoglycaemia awareness and physician...... discussion of events in people with Type 1 diabetes mellitus or insulin-treated Type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: People in seven European countries aged >15 years with Type 1 diabetes or insulin-treated Type 2 diabetes (basal-only, basal-bolus and other insulin regimens) were recruited via consumer panels......, nurses, telephone recruitment and family referrals. Respondents completed four online questionnaires. The first questionnaire collected background information on demographics and hypoglycaemia-related behaviour, whilst all four questionnaires collected data on non-severe hypoglycaemic events...

  5. Lunar Surface Electric Potential Changes Associated with Traversals through the Earth's Foreshock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Hills, H. Kent; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Halekas, Jasper S.; Delory, Gregory T.; Espley, Jared; Farrell, William M.; Freeman, John W.; Vondrak, Richard

    2011-01-01

    We report an analysis of one year of Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) Total Ion Detector (TID) resonance events observed between January 1972 and January 1973. The study includes only those events during which upstream solar wind conditions were readily available. The analysis shows that these events are associated with lunar traversals through the dawn flank of the terrestrial magnetospheric bow shock. We propose that the events result from an increase in lunar surface electric potential effected by secondary electron emission due to primary electrons in the Earth's foreshock region (although primary ions may play a role as well). This work establishes (1) the lunar surface potential changes as the Moon moves through the terrestrial bow shock, (2) the lunar surface achieves potentials in the upstream foreshock region that differ from those in the downstream magnetosheath region, (3) these differences can be explained by the presence of energetic electron beams in the upstream foreshock region and (4) if this explanation is correct, the location of the Moon with respect to the terrestrial bow shock influences lunar surface potential.

  6. Human error probability estimation using licensee event reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voska, K.J.; O'Brien, J.N.

    1984-07-01

    Objective of this report is to present a method for using field data from nuclear power plants to estimate human error probabilities (HEPs). These HEPs are then used in probabilistic risk activities. This method of estimating HEPs is one of four being pursued in NRC-sponsored research. The other three are structured expert judgment, analysis of training simulator data, and performance modeling. The type of field data analyzed in this report is from Licensee Event reports (LERs) which are analyzed using a method specifically developed for that purpose. However, any type of field data or human errors could be analyzed using this method with minor adjustments. This report assesses the practicality, acceptability, and usefulness of estimating HEPs from LERs and comprehensively presents the method for use

  7. Under-reporting of Adverse Events in the Biomedical Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald N. Kostoff

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To address the under-reporting of research results, with emphasis on the underreporting/distorted reporting of adverse events in the biomedical research literature. Design/methodology/approach: A four-step approach is used:(1 To identify the characteristics of literature that make it adequate to support policy; (2 to show how each of these characteristics becomes degraded to make inadequate literature; (3 to identify incentives to prevent inadequate literature; and (4 to show policy implications of inadequate literature. Findings: This review has provided reasons for, and examples of, adverse health effects of myriad substances (1 being under-reported in the premiere biomedical literature, or (2 entering this literature in distorted form. Since there is no way to gauge the extent of this under/distorted-reporting, the quality and credibility of the ‘premiere’ biomedical literature is unknown. Therefore, any types of meta-analyses or scientometric analyses of this literature will have unknown quality and credibility. The most sophisticated scientometric analysis cannot compensate for a highly flawed database. Research limitations: The main limitation is in identifying examples of under-reporting. There are many incentives for under-reporting and few dis-incentives. Practical implications: Almost all research publications, addressing causes of disease, treatments for disease, diagnoses for disease, scientometrics of disease and health issues, and other aspects of healthcare, build upon previous healthcare-related research published. Many researchers will not have laboratories or other capabilities to replicate or validate the published research, and depend almost completely on the integrity of this literature. If the literature is distorted, then future research can be misguided, and health policy recommendations can be ineffective or worse. Originality/value: This review has examined a much wider range of technical and nontechnical

  8. Operating Experience from Events Reported to the IAEA Incident Reporting System for Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-03-01

    Operating experience feedback is an effective mechanism in providing lessons learned from events and the associated corrective actions to prevent them, helping to improve safety at nuclear installations. The Incident Reporting System for Research Reactors (IRSRR), which is operated by the IAEA, is an important tool for international exchange of operating experience feedback for research reactors. The IRSRR reports contain information on events of safety significance with their root causes and lessons learned which help in reducing the occurrence of similar events at research reactors. To improve the effectiveness of the system, it is essential that national organizations demonstrate an appropriate interest for the timely reporting of events important to safety and share the information in the IRSRR database. At their biennial technical meetings, the IRSRR national coordinators recommended collecting the operating experience from the events reported to the IRSRR and disseminating it in an IAEA publication. This publication highlights the root causes, safety significance, lessons learned, corrective actions and the causal factors for the events reported to the IRSRR up to September 2014. The publication also contains relevant summary information on research reactor events from sources other than the IRSRR, operating experience feedback from the International Reporting System for Operating Experience considered relevant to research reactors, and a description of the elements of an operating experience programme as established by the IAEA safety standards. This publication will be of use to research reactor operating organizations, regulators and designers, and any other organizations or individuals involved in the safety of research reactors

  9. Classification system for reporting events involving human malfunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J.; Pedersen, O.M.; Mancini, G.

    1981-01-01

    The report describes a set of categories for reporting industrial incidents and events involving human malfunction. The classification system aims at ensuring information adequate for improvement of human work situations and man-machine interface systems and for attempts to quantify ''human error'' rates. The classification system has a multifacetted non-hierarchical structure and its compatibility with Ispra's ERDS classification is described. The collection of the information in general and for quantification purposes are discussed. 24 categories, 12 of which being human factors-oriented, are listed with their respective subcategories, and comments are given. Underlying models of human data process and their typical malfuntions and of a human decision sequence are described. The work reported is a joint contribution to the CSNI Group of Experts on Human Error Data and Assessment

  10. Mixed Methods Analysis of Medical Error Event Reports: A Report from the ASIPS Collaborative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harris, Daniel M; Westfall, John M; Fernald, Douglas H; Duclos, Christine W; West, David R; Niebauer, Linda; Marr, Linda; Quintela, Javan; Main, Deborah S

    2005-01-01

    .... This paper presents a mixed methods approach to analyzing narrative error event reports. Mixed methods studies integrate one or more qualitative and quantitative techniques for data collection and analysis...

  11. Classification system for reporting events involving human malfunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J.; Pedersen, O.M.; Mancini, G.; Carnino, A.; Griffon, M.; Gagnolet, P.

    1981-03-01

    The report describes a set of categories for reporting industrial incidents and events involving human malfunction. The classification system aims at ensuring information adequate for improvement of human work situations and man-machine interface systems and for attempts to quantify ''human error'' rates. The classification system has a multifacetted non-hierarchial structure and its compatibility with Ispra's ERDS classification is described. The collection of the information in general and for quantification purposes are discussed. 24 categories, 12 of which being human factors oriented, are listed with their respective subcategories, and comments are given. Underlying models of human data processes and their typical malfunctions and of a human decision sequence are described. (author)

  12. Classification system for reporting events involving human malfunctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Pedersen, O.M.; Mancini, G.

    1981-01-01

    The report describes a set of categories for reporting indus-trial incidents and events involving human malfunction. The classification system aims at ensuring information adequate for improvement of human work situations and man-machine interface systems and for attempts to quantify "human error......" rates. The classification system has a multifacetted non-hierarchical struc-ture and its compatibility with Isprals ERDS classification is described. The collection of the information in general and for quantification purposes are discussed. 24 categories, 12 of which being human factors oriented......, are listed with their respective subcategories, and comments are given. Underlying models of human data processes and their typical malfunc-tions and of a human decision sequence are described....

  13. Photometric Lunar Surface Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefian, Ara V.; Alexandrov, Oleg; Morattlo, Zachary; Kim, Taemin; Beyer, Ross A.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate photometric reconstruction of the Lunar surface is important in the context of upcoming NASA robotic missions to the Moon and in giving a more accurate understanding of the Lunar soil composition. This paper describes a novel approach for joint estimation of Lunar albedo, camera exposure time, and photometric parameters that utilizes an accurate Lunar-Lambertian reflectance model and previously derived Lunar topography of the area visualized during the Apollo missions. The method introduced here is used in creating the largest Lunar albedo map (16% of the Lunar surface) at the resolution of 10 meters/pixel.

  14. Lunar soil as shielding against space radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 83R0101, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)], E-mail: miller@lbl.gov; Taylor, L. [Planetary Geosciences Institute, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Zeitlin, C. [Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Heilbronn, L. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Guetersloh, S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); DiGiuseppe, M. [Northrop Grumman Corporation, Bethpage, NY 11714 (United States); Iwata, Y.; Murakami, T. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2009-02-15

    We have measured the radiation transport and dose reduction properties of lunar soil with respect to selected heavy ion beams with charges and energies comparable to some components of the galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), using soil samples returned by the Apollo missions and several types of synthetic soil glasses and lunar soil simulants. The suitability for shielding studies of synthetic soil and soil simulants as surrogates for lunar soil was established, and the energy deposition as a function of depth for a particular heavy ion beam passing through a new type of lunar highland simulant was measured. A fragmentation and energy loss model was used to extend the results over a range of heavy ion charges and energies, including protons at solar particle event (SPE) energies. The measurements and model calculations indicate that a modest amount of lunar soil affords substantial protection against primary GCR nuclei and SPE, with only modest residual dose from surviving charged fragments of the heavy beams.

  15. A new safety event reporting system improves physician reporting in the surgical intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerer, Douglas J E; Nast, Patricia A; Harris, Carolyn B; Krauss, Melissa J; Jones, Rebecca M; Boyle, Walter A; Buchman, Timothy G; Coopersmith, Craig M; Dunagan, W Claiborne; Fraser, Victoria J

    2006-06-01

    Medical errors are common, and physicians have notably been poor medical error reporters. In the SICU, reporting was generally poor and reporting by physicians was virtually nonexistent. This study was designed to observe changes in error reporting in an SICU when a new card-based system (SAFE) was introduced. Before implementation of the SAFE reporting system, education was given to all SICU healthcare providers. The SAFE system was introduced into the SICU for a 9-month period from March 2003 through November 2003, to replace an underused online system. Data were collected from the SAFE card reports and the online reporting systems during introduction, removal, and reimplementation of these cards. Reporting rates were calculated as number of reported events per 1,000 patient days. Reporting rates increased from 19 to 51 reports per 1,000 patient days after the SAFE cards were introduced into the ICU (preporting increased most, rising from 0.3 to 5.8 reports per 1,000 patient days; nursing reporting also increased from 18 to 39 reports per 1,000 patient days (both preporting declined to 0 reports per 1,000 patient days (p=0.01) and rose to 8.1 (p=0.001) when the cards were returned, similar to nursing results. A higher proportion of physician reports were events that caused harm compared with no effect (p reporting system, combined with appropriate education, improved overall reporting in the SICU, especially among physician providers. Nurses were more likely to use reporting systems than were physicians. Physician reports were more likely to be of events that caused harm.

  16. Corporate Disclosure, Materiality, and Integrated Report: An Event Study Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cleofe Giorgino

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the extensive literature investigating the impacts of corporate disclosure in supporting the sustainable growth of an organization, few studies have included in the analysis the materiality issue referred to the information being disclosed. This article aims to address this gap, exploring the effect produced on capital markets by the publication of a recent corporate reporting tool, Integrated Report (IR. The features of this tool are that it aims to represent the multidimensional impact of the organization’s activity and assumes materiality as a guiding principle of the report drafting. Adopting the event study methodology associated with a statistical significance test for categorical data, our results verify that an organization’s release of IR is able to produce a statistically significant impact on the related share prices. Moreover, the term “integrated” assigned to the reports plays a significant role in the impact on capital markets. Our findings have beneficial implications for both researchers and practitioners, adding new evidence for the IR usefulness as a corporate disclosure tool and the effect of an organization’s decision to disclose material information.

  17. Lunar Quest in Second Life, Lunar Exploration Island, Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireton, F. M.; Day, B. H.; Mitchell, B.; Hsu, B. C.

    2010-12-01

    Linden Lab’s Second Life is a virtual 3D metaverse created by users. At any one time there may be 40,000-50,000 users on line. Users develop a persona and are seen on screen as a human figure or avatar. Avatars move through Second Life by walking, flying, or teleporting. Users form communities or groups of mutual interest such as music, computer graphics, and education. These groups communicate via e-mail, voice, and text within Second Life. Information on downloading the Second Life browser and joining can be found on the Second Life website: www.secondlife.com. This poster details Phase II in the development of Lunar Exploration Island (LEI) located in Second Life. Phase I LEI highlighted NASA’s LRO/LCROSS mission. Avatars enter LEI via teleportation arriving at a hall of flight housing interactive exhibits on the LRO/ LCROSS missions including full size models of the two spacecraft and launch vehicle. Storyboards with information about the missions interpret the exhibits while links to external websites provide further information on the mission, both spacecraft’s instrument suites, and related EPO. Other lunar related activities such as My Moon and NLSI EPO programs. A special exhibit was designed for International Observe the Moon Night activities with links to websites for further information. The sim includes several sites for meetings, a conference stage to host talks, and a screen for viewing NASATV coverage of mission and other televised events. In Phase II exhibits are updated to reflect on-going lunar exploration highlights, discoveries, and future missions. A new section of LEI has been developed to showcase NASA’s Lunar Quest program. A new exhibit hall with Lunar Quest information has been designed and is being populated with Lunar Quest information, spacecraft models (LADEE is in place) and kiosks. A two stage interactive demonstration illustrates lunar phases with static and 3-D stations. As NASA’s Lunar Quest program matures further

  18. Operational safety experience feedback by means of unusual event reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    Operational experience of nuclear power plants can be used to great advantage to enhance safety performance provided adequate measures are in place to collect and analyse it and to ensure that the conclusions drawn are acted upon. Feedback of operating experience is thus an extremely important tool to ensure high standards of safety in operational nuclear power plants and to improve the capability to prevent serious accidents and to learn from minor deviations and equipment failures - which can serve as early warnings -to prevent even minor events from occurring. Mechanisms also need to be developed to ensure that operating experience is shared both nationally as well as internationally. The operating experience feedback process needs to be fully and effectively established within the nuclear power plant, the utility, the regulatory organization as well as in other institutions such as technical support organizations and designers. The main purpose of this publication is to reflect the international consensus as to the general principles and practices in the operational safety experience feedback process. The examples of national practices for the whole or for particular parts of the process are given in annexes. The publication complements the IAEA Safety Series No.93 ''Systems for Reporting Unusual Events in Nuclear Power Plants'' (1989) and may also give a general guidance for Member States in fulfilling their obligations stipulated in the Nuclear Safety Convention. Figs, tabs

  19. Operational safety experience feedback by means of unusual event reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Operational experience of nuclear power plants can be used to great advantage to enhance safety performance provided adequate measures are in place to collect and analyse it and to ensure that the conclusions drawn are acted upon. Feedback of operating experience is thus an extremely important tool to ensure high standards of safety in operational nuclear power plants and to improve the capability to prevent serious accidents and to learn from minor deviations and equipment failures - which can serve as early warnings -to prevent even minor events from occurring. Mechanisms also need to be developed to ensure that operating experience is shared both nationally as well as internationally. The operating experience feedback process needs to be fully and effectively established within the nuclear power plant, the utility, the regulatory organization as well as in other institutions such as technical support organizations and designers. The main purpose of this publication is to reflect the international consensus as to the general principles and practices in the operational safety experience feedback process. The examples of national practices for the whole or for particular parts of the process are given in annexes. The publication complements the IAEA Safety Series No.93 ``Systems for Reporting Unusual Events in Nuclear Power Plants`` (1989) and may also give a general guidance for Member States in fulfilling their obligations stipulated in the Nuclear Safety Convention. Figs, tabs.

  20. Systems for reporting unusual events in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Many Member States with nuclear power programmes have established, and are operating, systems for collecting, assessing and disseminating information on safety related events in nuclear power plants. The Agency has recognized the importance of such systems and of achieving compatibility between them. It also recognizes the advantage to be derived from international efforts to exchange operational experience on a worldwide basis. In response to requests put forward during the Special Session of the IAEA General Conference held in September 1986, and to the recommendations made by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) to strengthen international co-operation in nuclear safety and the exchange of information on operating experience, the IAEA has been following a two-step approach. Firstly, it continues to assist Member States to establish, improve or harmonize their national systems for collecting, assessing and disseminating safety related operational experience, and secondly, it continues to reinforce the IAEA system for reporting unusual events with safety significance (IAEA Incident Reporting System - IAEA-IRS). Although the prime objective of both activities is to assist regulatory bodies and operating organizations to improve operational safety, operating organizations may also benefit if a similar approach is used to improve equipment reliability and plant availability. The present Guide contains a recommended scheme based on national and international practice applicable to the management of safety related operational experience in nuclear power plants. The user will have to adapt this guidance for specific national conditions and practices. It is important to realize however that for an effective exchange of information through the IAEA-IRS it is a prerequisite to follow the procedures given in the relevant part of this Guide

  1. The negligible chondritic contribution in the lunar soils water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephant, Alice; Robert, François

    2014-10-21

    Recent data from Apollo samples demonstrate the presence of water in the lunar interior and at the surface, challenging previous assumption that the Moon was free of water. However, the source(s) of this water remains enigmatic. The external flux of particles and solid materials that reach the surface of the airless Moon constitute a hydrogen (H) surface reservoir that can be converted to water (or OH) during proton implantation in rocks or remobilization during magmatic events. Our original goal was thus to quantify the relative contributions to this H surface reservoir. To this end, we report NanoSIMS measurements of D/H and (7)Li/(6)Li ratios on agglutinates, volcanic glasses, and plagioclase grains from the Apollo sample collection. Clear correlations emerge between cosmogenic D and (6)Li revealing that almost all D is produced by spallation reactions both on the surface and in the interior of the grains. In grain interiors, no evidence of chondritic water has been found. This observation allows us to constrain the H isotopic ratio of hypothetical juvenile lunar water to δD ≤ -550‰. On the grain surface, the hydroxyl concentrations are significant and the D/H ratios indicate that they originate from solar wind implantation. The scattering distribution of the data around the theoretical D vs. (6)Li spallation correlation is compatible with a chondritic contribution lunar surface, and (ii) the postulated chondritic lunar water is not retained in the regolith.

  2. Lunar Dust Mitigation Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Shawn; Holloway, Nancy

    With plans for the United States to return to the moon, and establish a sustainable human presence on the lunar surface many issues must be successfully overcome. Lunar dust is one of a number of issues with the potential to create a myriad of problems if not adequately addressed. Samples of dust brought back from Apollo missions show it to be soft, yet sharp and abrasive. The dust consists of a variety of morphologies including spherical, angular blocks, shards, and a number of irregular shapes. One of the main issues with lunar dust is its attraction to stick to anything it comes in contact with (i.e. astronauts, equipment, habitats, etc.). Ionized radiation from the sun strikes the moon's surface and creates an electrostatic charge on the dust. Further, the dust harbors van der Waals forces making it especially difficult to separate once it sticks to a surface. During the Apollo missions, it was discovered that trying to brush the lunar dust from spacesuits was not effective, and rubbing it caused degradation of the suit material. Further, when entering the lunar module after moonwalks, the astronauts noted that the dust was so prolific inside the cabin that they inhaled and ingested it, causing at least one of them, Harrison "Jack" Schmidt, to report irritation of the throat and lungs. It is speculated that the dust could also harm an astronaut's nervous and cardiovascular systems, especially during an extended stay. In addition to health issues, the dust can also cause problems by scouring reflective coatings off of thermal blankets, and roughening surfaces of windows and optics. Further, panels on solar cells and photovoltaics can also be compromised due to dust sticking on the surfaces. Lunar dust has the capacity to penetrate seals, interfere with connectors, as well as mechanisms on digging machines, all of which can lead to problems and failure. To address lunar dust issues, development of electrostatic screens to mitigate dust on sur-faces is currently

  3. Relationship between lunar tidal enhancements in the equatorial electrojet and tropospheric eddy heat flux during stratospheric sudden warmings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, T. A.; Yamazaki, Y.; Stolle, C.; Lühr, H.; Matzka, J.

    2017-12-01

    A number of studies in recent years have reported about the lunar tidal enhancements in the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) from ground- and space-based magnetometer measurements during stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) events. In this study, we make use of the ground magnetometer recordings at Huancayo observatory in Peru for the years 1978 - 2013 to derive a relationship between the lunar tidal enhancements in the EEJ and tropospheric eddy heat fluxes at 100 hPa during the SSW events. Tropospheric eddy heat fluxes are used to quantify the amount of wave activity entering the stratosphere. Anomalously large upward wave activity is known to precede the polar vortex breakdown during SSWs. We make use of the superposed epoch analysis method to determine the temporal relations between lunar tidal enhancements and eddy heat flux anomalies during SSWs, in order to demonstrate the causal relationship between these two phenomena. We also compare the lunar tidal enhancements and eddy heat flux anomalies for vortex split and for vortex displaced SSWs. It is found that larger lunar tidal enhancements are recorded for vortex split events, as compared to vortex displaced events. This confirms earlier observation; larger heat flux anomalies are recorded during vortex split SSW events than the heat flux anomalies during vortex displaced SSW events. Further, the temporal relations of lunar tidal enhancements in the EEJ have been compared separately for both the QBO phases and with the phases of the moon with respect to the central epoch of SSWs by means of the superposed epoch analysis approach. The EEJ lunar tidal enhancements in the east phase of QBO are found to be larger than the lunar tidal enhancements in the west phase of QBO. The phase of moon relative to the central SSW epoch also affects the lunar tidal enhancement in the EEJ. It is found that the lunar tidal enhancements are significantly larger when the day of new or full moon lies near the central SSW epoch, as compared

  4. Licensee Event Report system: description of system and guidelines for reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebdon, F.J.

    1983-09-01

    On July 26, 1983, the Commission published in the Federal Register a final rule (10 CFR 50.73) that modifies and codifies the Licensee Event Report (LER) system. The rule becomes effective on January 1, 1984. This NUREG provides supporting information and guidance that will be of interest to persons responsible for the preparation and review of LERs. The information contained in this NUREG includes: (1) a brief description of how LERs are analyzed by the NRC; (2) a restatement of the guidance contained in the Statement of Consideration that accompanied the publication of the LER rule; (3) a set of examples of potentially reportable events with staff comments on the actual reportability of each event; (4) guidance on how to prepare an LER, including the LER forms; and (5) guidance on submittal of LERs

  5. MedWatch, the FDA Safety Information and Adverse Event Reporting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reporting Program MedWatch: The FDA Safety Information and Adverse Event Reporting Program Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... approved information that can help patients avoid serious adverse events. Potential Signals of Serious Risks/New Safety ...

  6. 77 FR 11134 - Guidance for Industry on Postmarketing Adverse Event Reporting for Medical Products and Dietary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... organizational unit responsible for adverse event reporting compliance when these conditions exist and when the...'s current thinking on postmarketing adverse event reporting for medical products and dietary...

  7. Lunar Science from and for Planet Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, M. C.; Hiesinger, H.; Head, J. W., III

    2008-09-01

    Our Moon Every person on Earth is familiar with the Moon. Every resident with nominal eyesight on each continent has seen this near-by planetary body with their own eyes countless times. Those fortunate enough to have binoculars or access to a telescope have explored the craters, valleys, domes, and plains across the lunar surface as changing lighting conditions highlight the mysteries of this marvellously foreign landscape. Schoolchildren learn that the daily rhythm and flow of tides along the coastlines of our oceans are due to the interaction of the Earth and the Moon. This continuous direct and personal link is but one of the many reasons lunar science is fundamental to humanity. The Earth-Moon System In the context of space exploration, our understanding of the Earth-Moon system has grown enormously. The Moon has become the cornerstone for most aspects of planetary science that relate to the terrestrial (rocky) planets. The scientific context for exploration of the Moon is presented in a recent report by a subcommittee of the Space Studies Board of the National Research Council [free from the website: http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=11954]. Figure 1 captures the interwoven themes surrounding lunar science recognized and discussed in that report. In particular, it is now recognized that the Earth and the Moon have been intimately linked in their early history. Although they subsequently took very different evolutionary paths, the Moon provides a unique and valuable window both into processes that occurred during the first 600 Million years of solar system evolution (planetary differentiation and the heavy bombardment record) as well as the (ultimately dangerous) impact record of more recent times. This additional role of the Moon as keystone is because the Earth and the Moon share the same environment at 1 AU, but only the Moon retains a continuous record of cosmic events. An Initial Bloom of Exploration and Drought The space age celebrated its 50th

  8. Lunar Flashlight and Other Lunar Cubesats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Water is a human-exploitable resource. Lunar Flashlight is a Cubesat mission to detect and map lunar surface ice in permanently-shadowed regions of the lunar south pole. EM-1 will carry 13 Cubesat-class missions to further smallsat science and exploration capabilities; much room to infuse LEO cubesat methodology, models, and technology. Exploring the value of concurrent measurements to measure dynamical processes of water sources and sinks.

  9. Automatically Recognizing Medication and Adverse Event Information From Food and Drug Administration's Adverse Event Reporting System Narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polepalli Ramesh, Balaji; Belknap, Steven M; Li, Zuofeng; Frid, Nadya; West, Dennis P; Yu, Hong

    2014-06-27

    The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) is a repository of spontaneously-reported adverse drug events (ADEs) for FDA-approved prescription drugs. FAERS reports include both structured reports and unstructured narratives. The narratives often include essential information for evaluation of the severity, causality, and description of ADEs that are not present in the structured data. The timely identification of unknown toxicities of prescription drugs is an important, unsolved problem. The objective of this study was to develop an annotated corpus of FAERS narratives and biomedical named entity tagger to automatically identify ADE related information in the FAERS narratives. We developed an annotation guideline and annotate medication information and adverse event related entities on 122 FAERS narratives comprising approximately 23,000 word tokens. A named entity tagger using supervised machine learning approaches was built for detecting medication information and adverse event entities using various categories of features. The annotated corpus had an agreement of over .9 Cohen's kappa for medication and adverse event entities. The best performing tagger achieves an overall performance of 0.73 F1 score for detection of medication, adverse event and other named entities. In this study, we developed an annotated corpus of FAERS narratives and machine learning based models for automatically extracting medication and adverse event information from the FAERS narratives. Our study is an important step towards enriching the FAERS data for postmarketing pharmacovigilance.

  10. Chlorine isotopic compositions of apatite in Apollo 14 rocks: Evidence for widespread vapor-phase metasomatism on the lunar nearside ∼4 billion years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Nicola J.; Barnes, Jessica J.; Tartèse, Romain; Franchi, Ian A.; Anand, Mahesh

    2018-06-01

    Compared to most other planetary materials in the Solar System, some lunar rocks display high δ37Cl signatures. Loss of Cl in a H ≪ Cl environment has been invoked to explain the heavy signatures observed in lunar samples, either during volcanic eruptions onto the lunar surface or during large scale degassing of the lunar magma ocean. To explore the conditions under which Cl isotope fractionation occurred in lunar basaltic melts, five Apollo 14 crystalline samples were selected (14053,19, 14072,13, 14073,9, 14310,171 along with basaltic clast 14321,1482) for in situ analysis of Cl isotopes using secondary ion mass spectrometry. Cl isotopes were measured within the mineral apatite, with δ37Cl values ranging from +14.6 ± 1.6‰ to +40.0 ± 2.9‰. These values expand the range previously reported for apatite in lunar rocks, and include some of the heaviest Cl isotope compositions measured in lunar samples to date. The data here do not display a trend between increasing rare earth elements contents and δ37Cl values, reported in previous studies. Other processes that can explain the wide inter- and intra-sample variability of δ37Cl values are explored. Magmatic degassing is suggested to have potentially played a role in fractionating Cl isotope in these samples. Degassing alone, however, could not create the wide variability in isotopic signatures. Our favored hypothesis, to explain small scale heterogeneity, is late-stage interaction with a volatile-rich gas phase, originating from devolatilization of lunar surface regolith rocks ∼4 billion years ago. This period coincides with vapor-induced metasomastism recorded in other lunar samples collected at the Apollo 16 and 17 landing sites, pointing to the possibility of widespread volatile-induced metasomatism on the lunar nearside at that time, potentially attributed to the Imbrium formation event.

  11. Importance of reportable events with regard to public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, G.

    1983-01-01

    Although risk assessments have shown that the transport of radioactive material (RAM) only contributes a very small part of the overall risk of nuclear energy, the public is still concerned about the safety of these transport operations. This is due to the fact that during such an operation RAM may come in the vicinity of everybody and that most people are familiar with the effects of ordinary transport accidents. It is therefore important to achieve public acceptance, that means, to convince the public that transport of RAM is really safe. Four points are of special importance in this connection: (1) information of the public about the safety philosophy and the radiation protection principles developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for the transport of RAM. The planned edition of explanatory material to the IAEA Safety Series No. 6 - the so-called why document - is very important for this point; (2) information about the average and maximal individual annual doses for members of the public from normal transport of RAM; (3) information of the public about accident experiences in transport of RAM and the excellent safety standard reached in this field; and (4) information of the public about the extent and the results of governmental controls in this field. In the Federal Republic of Germany the states are requested to report to the Federal Ministry of the Interior all special events occurring during handling and carriage of RAM. The main purpose of these reports is to inform the competent authorities and to draw - if necessary - the conclusion for the improvement of protective measures

  12. NASA Lunar Impact Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, Robert M.; Moser, D. E.

    2015-01-01

    The MSFC lunar impact monitoring program began in 2006 in support of environment definition for the Constellation (return to Moon) program. Work continued by the Meteoroid Environment Office after Constellation cancellation. Over 330 impacts have been recorded. A paper published in Icarus reported on the first 5 years of observations and 126 calibrated flashes. Icarus: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0019103514002243; ArXiv: http://arxiv.org/abs/1404.6458 A NASA Technical Memorandum on flash locations is in press

  13. LADEE LUNAR DUST EXPERIMENT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This archive bundle includes data taken by the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) instrument aboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft....

  14. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Liu, Y.; Barnes, J. J.; Anand, M.; Boyce, J. W.; Burney, D.; Day, J. M. D.; Elardo, S. M.; Hui, H.; Klima, R. L.; Magna, T.; Ni, P.; Steenstra, E.; Tartèse, R.; Vander Kaaden, K. E.

    2018-04-01

    This abstract discusses numerous outstanding questions on the topic of endogenous lunar volatiles that will need to be addressed in the coming years. Although substantial insights into endogenous lunar volatiles have been gained, more work remains.

  15. Critical Robotic Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plescia, J. B.

    2018-04-01

    Perhaps the most critical missions to understanding lunar history are in situ dating and network missions. These would constrain the volcanic and thermal history and interior structure. These data would better constrain lunar evolution models.

  16. Impact of High-Reliability Education on Adverse Event Reporting by Registered Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Diane M; Doucette, Jeffrey N

    Adverse event reporting is one strategy to identify risks and improve patient safety, but, historically, adverse events are underreported by registered nurses (RNs) because of fear of retribution and blame. A program was provided on high reliability to examine whether education would impact RNs' willingness to report adverse events. Although the findings were not statistically significant, they demonstrated a positive impact on adverse event reporting and support the need to create a culture of high reliability.

  17. Lunar landing and launch facilities and operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary design of a lunar landing and launch facility for a Phase 3 lunar base is formulated. A single multipurpose vehicle for the lunar module is assumed. Three traffic levels are envisioned: 6, 12, and 24 landings/launches per year. The facility is broken down into nine major design items. A conceptual description of each of these items is included. Preliminary sizes, capacities, and/or other relevant design data for some of these items are obtained. A quonset hut tent-like structure constructed of aluminum rods and aluminized mylar panels is proposed. This structure is used to provide a constant thermal environment for the lunar modules. A structural design and thermal analysis is presented. Two independent designs for a bridge crane to unload/load heavy cargo from the lunar module are included. Preliminary investigations into cryogenic propellant storage and handling, landing/launch guidance and control, and lunar module maintenance requirements are performed. Also, an initial study into advanced concepts for application to Phase 4 or 5 lunar bases has been completed in a report on capturing, condensing, and recycling the exhaust plume from a lunar launch.

  18. Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 9th ARRCN Symposium 2015 was held during 21st–25th October 2015 at the Novotel Hotel, Chumphon, Thailand, one of the most favored travel destinations in Asia. The 10th ARRCN Symposium 2017 will be held during October 2017 in the Davao, Philippines. International Symposium on the Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus «The Montagu's Harrier in Europe. Status. Threats. Protection», organized by the environmental organization «Landesbund für Vogelschutz in Bayern e.V.» (LBV was held on November 20-22, 2015 in Germany. The location of this event was the city of Wurzburg in Bavaria.

  19. The reasons for Chinese nursing staff to report adverse events: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Su; Li, QiuJie

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the impact of nurses' perception of patient safety culture and adverse event reporting, and demographic factors on adverse event reporting in Chinese hospitals. Accurate and timely adverse event reporting is integral in promoting patient safety and professional learning around the incident. In a cross-sectional survey, a sample of 919 nurses completed a structured questionnaire composed of two validated instruments measuring nurses' perception of patient safety culture and adverse event reporting. Associations between the variables were examined using multiple linear regression analysis. The positive response rates of five dimensions of the Patient Safety Culture Assessment Scale varied from 47.55% to 80.62%. The accuracy rate of Adverse Event Reporting Perception Scale was 63.16%. Five hundred and thirty-one (58.03%) nurses did not report adverse event in past 12 months. Six variables were found to be associated with nurses' adverse event reporting: total work experience (P = 0.003), overall patient safety culture score (P teamwork climate (P importance or reporting (P = 0.002). The results confirmed that improvements in the patient safety culture and nurses' perception of adverse event reporting were related to an increase in voluntary adverse event reporting. The knowledge of adverse event reporting should be integrated into the patient safety curriculum. Interventions that target a specific domain are necessary to improve the safety culture. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Spinel-rich lithologies in the lunar highland crust: Linking lunar samples, crystallization experiments and remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, J.; Treiman, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    The discovery of areas rich in (Mg,Fe)-Al spinel on the rims and central peaks of lunar impact basins (by the M3 mapping spectrometer on Chandrayaan-1) has revived the old puzzle of the origin of lunar spinel. (Mg,Fe)-Al spinel is rare but widespread in lunar highlands rocks, and thus might be an important component of the lunar crust [1-3]. However, the origin of this spinel is not clear. Lunar (Mg,Fe)-Al spinel could have formed (1) during 'normal' basalt petrogenesis at high pressure; (2) during low-pressure crystallization of melts rich in olivine and plagioclase components, e.g. impact-melted lunar troctolite; or (3) formed at low pressure during assimilation of anorthosite into picritic magma; thus, lunar spinel-rich areas represent old (pre-impact) intrusions of magma. In the absence of spinel-rich samples from the Moon, however, these ideas have been highly speculative. Here we describe a rock fragment from lunar meteorite ALHA 81005 that we recently reported [4] that not only contains spinel, but is the first spinel-rich lunar sample described. This fragment contains ~30% (Mg,Fe)Al spinel and is so fine grained that it reasonably could represent a larger rock body. However, the fragment is so rich in spinel that it could not have formed by melting a peridotitic mantle or a basaltic lunar crust. The clast's small grain size and its apparent disequilibrium between spinel and pyroxene suggest fairly rapid crystallization at low pressure. It could have formed as a spinel cumulate from an impact melt of troctolitic composition; or from a picritic magma that assimilated crustal anorthosite on its margins. The latter mechanism is preferred because it explains the petrographic and chemical features of our clast, and is consistent with the regional setting of the Moscoviense spinel deposit [4]. To better understand the origin and formation history(s) of spinel-rich rocks, we also performed liquidus/crystallization experiments at low-pressure as analogues for impact

  1. The Hidden Cost of Regulation: The Administrative Cost of Reporting Serious Reportable Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchfield, Bonnie B; Acharya, Bijay; Mort, Elizabeth

    2018-04-01

    More than half of the 50 states (27) and the District of Columbia require reporting of Serous Reportable Events (SREs). The goal is to hold providers accountable and improve patient safety, but there is little information about the administrative cost of this reporting requirement. This study was conducted to identify costs associated with investigating and reporting SREs. This qualitative study used case study methods that included interviewing staff and review of data and documents to investigate each SRE occurring at one academic medical center during fiscal year 2013. A framework of tasks and a model to categorize costs was created. Time was summarized and costs were estimated for each SRE. The administrative cost to process 44 SREs was estimated at $353,291, an average cost of $8,029 per SRE, ranging $6,653 for an environmental-related SRE to $21,276 for a device-related SRE. Care management SREs occurred most frequently, costing an average $7,201 per SRE. Surgical SREs, the most expensive on average, cost $9,123 per SRE. Investigation of events accounted for 64.5% of total cost; public reporting, 17.2%; internal reporting, 10.2%; finance and administration, 6.0%; and 2.1%, other. Even with 26 states mandating reporting, the 17.2% incremental cost of public reporting is substantial. Policy makers should consider the opportunity costs of these resources, averaging $8,029 per SRE, when mandating reporting. The benefits of public reporting should be collectively reviewed to ensure that the incremental costs in this resource-constrained environment continue to improve patient safety and that trade-offs are acknowledged. Copyright © 2017 The Joint Commission. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Licensee Event Report system. Description of system and guidelines for reporting. Suppl. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-02-01

    On July 26, 1983, the Commission published in the Federal Register a final rule (10 CFR 50.73) that modified and codified the Licensee Event Report (LER) system. The rule became effective on January 1, 1984. In September 1983, the NRC published NUREG-1022 which provides supporting information and guidance that is of interest to persons responsible for the preparation and review of LERs. The information contained in NUREG-1022 includes: (1) a brief description of how LERs are analyzed by the NRC, (2) a restatement of the guidance contained in the Statement of Consideration that accompanied the publication of the LER rule, (3) a set of examples of potentially reportable events with staff comments on the actual reportability of each event, (4) guidance on how to prepare an LER, including the LER forms, and (5) guidance on submittal of LERs. Subsequently, during the period from October 25, 1983 to November 16, 1983, the NRC staff held five regional meetings to discuss the scope and content of the LER rule with utility and NRC regional representatives. During these meetings numerous questions arose and were answered. This supplement to NUREG-1022 contains a summary of the questions asked and the answers given

  3. Methodological Considerations for Comparison of Brand Versus Generic Versus Authorized Generic Adverse Event Reports in the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Motiur; Alatawi, Yasser; Cheng, Ning; Qian, Jingjing; Peissig, Peggy L; Berg, Richard L; Page, David C; Hansen, Richard A

    2017-12-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS), a post-marketing safety database, can be used to differentiate brand versus generic safety signals. To explore the methods for identifying and analyzing brand versus generic adverse event (AE) reports. Public release FAERS data from January 2004 to March 2015 were analyzed using alendronate and carbamazepine as examples. Reports were classified as brand, generic, and authorized generic (AG). Disproportionality analyses compared reporting odds ratios (RORs) of selected known labeled serious adverse events stratifying by brand, generic, and AG. The homogeneity of these RORs was compared using the Breslow-Day test. The AG versus generic was the primary focus since the AG is identical to brand but marketed as a generic, therefore minimizing generic perception bias. Sensitivity analyses explored how methodological approach influenced results. Based on 17,521 US event reports involving alendronate and 3733 US event reports involving carbamazepine (immediate and extended release), no consistently significant differences were observed across RORs for the AGs versus generics. Similar results were obtained when comparing reporting patterns over all time and just after generic entry. The most restrictive approach for classifying AE reports yielded smaller report counts but similar results. Differentiation of FAERS reports as brand versus generic requires careful attention to risk of product misclassification, but the relative stability of findings across varying assumptions supports the utility of these approaches for potential signal detection.

  4. Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Christopher J.

    2000-01-01

    "Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy" supports a vision of people moving freely and economically between the earth and the Moon in an expansive space and lunar economy. It makes the economic case for the creation of a lunar space economy and projects the business plan that will make the venture an economic success. In addition, this paper argues that this vision can be created and sustained only by private enterprise and the legal right of private property in space and on the Moon. Finally, this paper advocates the use of lunar land grants as the key to unleashing the needed capital and the economic power of private enterprise in the creation of a 21st century lunar space economy. It is clear that the history of our United States economic system proves the value of private property rights in the creation of any new economy. It also teaches us that the successful development of new frontiers-those that provide economic opportunity for freedom-loving people-are frontiers that encourage, respect and protect the possession of private property and the fruits of labor and industry. Any new 21st century space and lunar economy should therefore be founded on this same principle.

  5. Hepatitis B infection reported with cancer chemotherapy: analyzing the US FDA Adverse Event Reporting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanagawa, Akimasa; Hotta, Yuji; Kataoka, Tomoya; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Masahiro; Kawade, Yoshihiro; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Nishikawa, Ryohei; Tohkin, Masahiro; Kimura, Kazunori

    2018-04-16

    We conducted data mining using the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database on spontaneously reported adverse events to evaluate the association between anticancer drug therapy and hepatitis B infection. Reports of hepatitis B infection were retrieved from the FAERS database. The reporting odds ratio (ROR) was used to estimate the association between hepatitis B infection and various anticancer agents and drug combinations. We detected statistically significant risk signals of hepatitis B for 33 of 64 anticancer agents by ROR (26 cytotoxicity drugs and seven molecular-targeted drugs). We focused on molecular-targeted drugs and assessed the risk of hepatitis B from specific anticancer drug combinations. The frequency of hepatitis B infection was significantly high for drugs such as rituximab, bortezomib, imatinib, and everolimus. The addition of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and fludarabine to drug combinations additively enhanced the frequency of hepatitis B infection. There were no reports on hepatitis B infection associated with trastuzumab or azacitidine monotherapy. However, trastuzumab-containing regimens (e.g., combinations with docetaxel or paclitaxel) were correlated with the incidence of hepatitis B infection, similar to azacitidine monotherapy. Our findings suggest that the concomitant use of anticancer drugs, such as trastuzumab, taxane, and azacitidine, may contribute to the risk of hepatitis B infection. The unique signals detected from the public database might provide clues to eliminate the threat of HBV in oncology. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Adsorption of Hg on lunar samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, G.W. Jr.; Jovanovic, S.

    1985-01-01

    Understanding the presence, migration mechanisms and trapping of indigneous gases and volatiles on the moon is the objective of this study. The rare gases Ar and Xe and highly volatile Hg 0 and Br 0 (and/or their compounds) have been determined to be present in the lunar regolith. Evidence for these elements in the moon was recently reviewed. Studies of the sorption behavior of Xe on lunar material have been carried out. We report here preliminary results of a study designed to rationalize the behavior of Hg in lunar material

  7. [Possibility of exacerbation of allergy by lunar regolith].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Masanori; Kambara, Tatsunori; Kuroda, Etsushi; Miki, Takeo; Honma, Yoshiyuki; Aoki, Shigeru; Morimoto, Yasuo

    2012-09-01

    Japan, U.S.A. and other foreign space agencies have plans for the construction of a lunar base and long-term stay of astronauts on the moon. The surface of the moon is covered by a thick layer of soil that includes fine particles called "lunar regolith", which is formed by meteorite impact and space weathering. Risk assessment of particulate matter on the moon is important for astronauts working in microgravity on the moon. However, there are few investigations about the biological influences of lunar regolith. Especially, there is no investigation about allergic activity to lunar regolith. The main chemical components of lunar regolith are SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, FeO, etc. Of particular interest, approximately 50% of lunar regolith consists of SiO2. There is a report that the astronauts felt hay fever-like symptoms from the inhalation of the lunar regolith. Yellow sand, whose chemical components are similar to lunar regolith, enhances allergenic reactions, suggesting the possibility that lunar regolith has an adjuvant-like activity. Although intraperitoneal administration of lunar regolith with ovalbumin to mouse did not show enhancement of allergenic reactions, further evaluation of lunar regolith's potential to exacerbate the effects of allergies is essential for development of the moon.

  8. Design a Learning-Oriented Fall Event Reporting System Based on Kirkpatrick Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sicheng; Kang, Hong; Gong, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Patient fall has been a severe problem in healthcare facilities around the world due to its prevalence and cost. Routine fall prevention training programs are not as effective as expected. Using event reporting systems is the trend for reducing patient safety events such as falls, although some limitations of the systems exist at current stage. We summarized these limitations through literature review, and developed an improved web-based fall event reporting system. The Kirkpatrick model, widely used in the business area for training program evaluation, has been integrated during the design of our system. Different from traditional event reporting systems that only collect and store the reports, our system automatically annotates and analyzes the reported events, and provides users with timely knowledge support specific to the reported event. The paper illustrates the design of our system and how its features are intended to reduce patient falls by learning from previous errors.

  9. Identifying and Synchronizing Health Information Technology (HIT) Events from FDA Medical Device Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hong; Wang, Frank; Zhou, Sicheng; Miao, Qi; Gong, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Health information technology (HIT) events, a subtype of patient safety events, pose a major threat and barrier toward a safer healthcare system. It is crucial to gain a better understanding of the nature of the errors and adverse events caused by current HIT systems. The scarcity of HIT event-exclusive databases and event reporting systems indicates the challenge of identifying the HIT events from existing resources. FDA Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database is a potential resource for HIT events. However, the low proportion and the rapid evolvement of HIT-related events present challenges for distinguishing them from other equipment failures and hazards. We proposed a strategy to identify and synchronize HIT events from MAUDE by using a filter based on structured features and classifiers based on unstructured features. The strategy will help us develop and grow an HIT event-exclusive database, keeping pace with updates to MAUDE toward shared learning.

  10. Cis-Lunar Base Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Raymond G.; Goodliff, Kandyce E.; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Reeves, John D., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, when mounting expeditions into uncharted territories, explorers have established strategically positioned base camps to pre-position required equipment and consumables. These base camps are secure, safe positions from which expeditions can depart when conditions are favorable, at which technology and operations can be tested and validated, and facilitate timely access to more robust facilities in the event of an emergency. For human exploration missions into deep space, cis-lunar space is well suited to serve as such a base camp. The outer regions of cis-lunar space, such as the Earth-Moon Lagrange points, lie near the edge of Earth s gravity well, allowing equipment and consumables to be aggregated with easy access to deep space and to the lunar surface, as well as more distant destinations, such as near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and Mars and its moons. Several approaches to utilizing a cis-lunar base camp for sustainable human exploration, as well as some possible future applications are identified. The primary objective of the analysis presented in this paper is to identify options, show the macro trends, and provide information that can be used as a basis for more detailed mission development. Compared within are the high-level performance and cost of 15 preliminary cis-lunar exploration campaigns that establish the capability to conduct crewed missions of up to one year in duration, and then aggregate mass in cis-lunar space to facilitate an expedition from Cis-Lunar Base Camp. Launch vehicles, chemical propulsion stages, and electric propulsion stages are discussed and parametric sizing values are used to create architectures of in-space transportation elements that extend the existing in-space supply chain to cis-lunar space. The transportation options to cis-lunar space assessed vary in efficiency by almost 50%; from 0.16 to 0.68 kg of cargo in cis-lunar space for every kilogram of mass in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). For the 15 cases, 5-year campaign

  11. Modeling Respiratory Toxicity of Authentic Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Patricia A.; James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-Wing

    2010-01-01

    The lunar expeditions of the Apollo operations from the 60 s and early 70 s have generated awareness about lunar dust exposures and their implication towards future lunar explorations. Critical analyses on the reports from the Apollo crew members suggest that lunar dust is a mild respiratory and ocular irritant. Currently, NASA s space toxicology group is functioning with the Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Assessment Group (LADTAG) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to investigate and examine toxic effects to the respiratory system of rats in order to establish permissible exposure levels (PELs) for human exposure to lunar dust. In collaboration with the space toxicology group, LADTAG and NIOSH the goal of the present research is to analyze dose-response curves from rat exposures seven and twenty-eight days after intrapharyngeal instillations, and model the response using BenchMark Dose Software (BMDS) from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Via this analysis, the relative toxicities of three types of Apollo 14 lunar dust samples and two control dust samples, titanium dioxide (TiO2) and quartz will be determined. This will be executed for several toxicity endpoints such as cell counts and biochemical markers in bronchoaveolar lavage fluid (BALF) harvested from the rats.

  12. Patients' identification and reporting of unsafe events at six hospitals in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Tomonori; Fujita, Shigeru; Seto, Kanako; Kitazawa, Takefumi; Matsumoto, Kunichika

    2011-11-01

    Hospitals and other health care organizations have increasingly recognized the need to engage patients as participants in patient safety. A study was conducted to compare patients' and health care staff's identification and reporting of such events. A questionnaire was administered at six hospitals in Japan to outpatients and inpatients from November 2004 through February 2007. Patients were asked to respond to questions about experiences of possibly unsafe events. Patients experiencing such events were then asked about the events and whether they had reported their experience to health care staff. A specialist panel classified reported events as "uneasy-dissatisfying" or "unsafe." The response rates of outpatients and inpatients were 85.4% (1,506/1,764) and 54.3% (1,738/3,198), respectively. Among the respondents (> or = 20 years of age), 125 (8.7%) of the outpatients and 185 (10.9%) of the inpatients experienced uneasy-dissatisfying or unsafe events; 35 (2.4%) of the outpatients and 67 (4.0%) of the inpatients experienced unsafe events, the percent increasing with hospital stay. Only 38 (30.4%) of the outpatients and 62 (33.5%) of the inpatients reported the unsafe events to health care staff Only 17.1% of unsafe events reported by inpatients were identified by the in-house reporting systems of adverse events and near misses. For the uneasy-dissatisfying or unsafe events that patients did not think necessary to report, the patients often felt they were self-evident or easily identifiable by health care staff, had difficulty evaluating the event, did not expect their report to bring any improvement, or even felt that reporting it would create some disadvantage in their medical treatment. Patient reporting programs and in-house reporting systems, among other detection methods, should be regarded as complementary sources of information.

  13. Detection and location of multiple events by MARS. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Masso, J.F.; Archambeau, C.B.; Savino, J.M.

    1980-09-01

    Seismic data from two explosions was processed using the Systems Science and Software MARS (Multiple Arrival Recognition System) seismic event detector in an effort to determine their relative spatial and temporal separation on the basis of seismic data alone. The explosions were less than 1.0 kilometer apart and were separated by less than 0.5 sec in origin times. The seismic data consisted of nine local accelerograms (r < 1.0 km) and four regional (240 through 400 km) seismograms. The MARS processing clearly indicates the presence of multiple explosions, but the restricted frequency range of the data inhibits accurate time picks and hence limits the precision of the event location

  14. Life Sciences Implications of Lunar Surface Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Norcross, Jason R.; Abercromby, Andrew F.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document preliminary, predicted, life sciences implications of expected operational concepts for lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA). Algorithms developed through simulation and testing in lunar analog environments were used to predict crew metabolic rates and ground reaction forces experienced during lunar EVA. Subsequently, the total metabolic energy consumption, the daily bone load stimulus, total oxygen needed, and other variables were calculated and provided to Human Research Program and Exploration Systems Mission Directorate stakeholders. To provide context to the modeling, the report includes an overview of some scenarios that have been considered. Concise descriptions of the analog testing and development of the algorithms are also provided. This document may be updated to remain current with evolving lunar or other planetary surface operations, assumptions and concepts, and to provide additional data and analyses collected during the ongoing analog research program.

  15. Proarrhythmic potential of dronedarone: emerging evidence from spontaneous adverse event reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, David P; Hiatt, William R; Krantz, Mori J

    2012-08-01

    To characterize the frequency and type of cardiac events, including torsade de pointes, associated with dronedarone and its structural analog, amiodarone, outside of the clinical trial setting. Retrospective analysis. Spontaneous reports in the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) database generated between July 1, 2009, and June 30, 2011. All reports of adverse events during the study period were reviewed to identify cardiac events associated with any approved drug in the United States. The type and number of cardiac events associated with dronedarone and amiodarone were determined. Active ingredients were identified using the Drugs@FDA database, and the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) was used to aggregate related adverse events. To avoid redundant reporting, all statistics were generated in reference to unique case identifiers. Dronedarone was associated with more adverse cardiovascular event reports than amiodarone (810 vs 493 reports) during the study period. Dronedarone was also associated with the most reports of torsade de pointes of any approved drug in the United States (37 reports), followed by amiodarone (29 reports). Reports of ventricular arrhythmias and cardiac arrest (138 vs 113 reports) as well as heart failure (179 vs 126 reports) were more common with dronedarone than amiodarone. Dronedarone was associated with reports of ventricular arrhythmia, cardiac arrest, and torsade de pointes in clinical practice. Whether this observation accounts for the increased risk of fatal arrhythmia observed in a recent prospective trial requires further investigation. © 2012 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Adverse events following quadrivalent meningococcal CRM-conjugate vaccine (Menveo®) reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting system (VAERS), 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Tanya R; McNeil, Michael M; Ng, Carmen S; Li, Rongxia; Lewis, Paige W; Cano, Maria V

    2017-03-27

    Limited data are available describing the post-licensure safety of meningococcal vaccines, including Menveo®. We reviewed reports of adverse events (AEs) to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) to assess safety in all age groups. VAERS is a national spontaneous vaccine safety surveillance system co-administered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the US Food and Drug Administration. We searched the VAERS database for US reports of adverse events in persons who received Menveo from 1 January 2010 through 31 December 2015. We clinically reviewed reports and available medical records for serious AEs, selected pre-specified outcomes, and vaccination during pregnancy. We used empirical Bayesian data mining to identify AEs that were disproportionately reported after receipt of Menveo. During the study period, VAERS received 2614 US reports after receipt of Menveo. Of these, 67 were classified as serious, including 1 report of death. Adolescents (aged 11-18years) accounted for 74% of reports. Most of the reported AEs were non-serious and described AEs consistent with data from pre-licensure studies. Anaphylaxis and syncope were the two most common events in the serious reports. We did not identify any new safety concerns after review of AEs that exceeded the data mining threshold, although we did observe disproportionate reporting for terms that were not associated with an adverse event (e.g., "incorrect drug dosage form administered", "wrong technique in drug usage process"). Although reports were limited, we did not find any evidence for concern regarding the use of Menveo during pregnancy. In our review of VAERS reports, findings of AEs were consistent with the data from pre-licensure studies. Vaccine providers should continue to emphasize and adhere to proper administration of the vaccine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Orbital studies of lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcleod, M. G.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Limitations of present lunar magnetic maps are considered. Optimal processing of satellite derived magnetic anomaly data is also considered. Studies of coastal and core geomagnetism are discussed. Lunar remanent and induced lunar magnetization are included.

  18. Strategy for the International Lunar Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, V.; Dunlop, D.; Foing, B.

    2015-10-01

    LD is a global event and process for international collaboration in space initiated by the International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG), the National Space Society and the National Science Centre FOTONIKA-LV of the University of Latvia. ILD is planned for launch in 2017, the 60th anniversary of the International Geophysical Year that marked the dawn of the space age with the launch of Sputnik. ILD is envisioned as a decade long process of international collaboration with lunar exploration concurrent with development of policies, key enabling technologies and infrastructures on the Moon and in cislunar space leading towards an eventual goal of industrial development of the Moon and economic activity beyond Earth orbit[1]. This second International Lunar Decade will build on the foundations of the ILD first proposed in by the Planetary Society in 2006 at International Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon (ICEUM), was endorsed by ICEUM participants[3], and then by ILEWG, COSPAR and other organizations. Starting in 2007, the work plan included a series of recommendations for lunar exploration missions coordinated through the ILEWG agencies and COSPAR. Advances in technology such as CubeSats and 3D printing and fundamental changes in mind-set marked by initiatives such as the Google Lunar-X prize and asteroid mining ventures have made industrial development of the Moon a thinkable proposition. The ILD to be launched in 2017 is intended to set the stage for the Moon to become a wealth generating platform for human expansion into the solar system.ILD is being organized to engage existing organizations involved in space collaboration such as COSPAR, COPUOS, ISECG, technical and scientific organizations and others that address space policy, space law, space security, governance and related concerns. Additional organizations will be involved that deal with structures, ecosystems, financing, economic development and health and life support and

  19. Respiratory Toxicity of Lunar Highland Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-wing; Wallace, William T.

    2009-01-01

    Lunar dust exposures occurred during the Apollo missions while the crew was on the lunar surface and especially when microgravity conditions were attained during rendezvous in lunar orbit. Crews reported that the dust was irritating to the eyes and in some cases respiratory symptoms were elicited. NASA s vision for lunar exploration includes stays of 6 months on the lunar surface hence the health effects of periodic exposure to lunar dust need to be assessed. NASA has performed this assessment with a series of in vitro and in vivo tests on authentic lunar dust. Our approach is to "calibrate" the intrinsic toxicity of lunar dust by comparison to a nontoxic dust (TiO2) and a highly toxic dust (quartz) using intratrachael instillation of the dusts in mice. A battery of indices of toxicity is assessed at various time points after the instillations. Cultures of selected cells are exposed to test dusts to assess the adverse effects on the cells. Finally, chemical systems are used to assess the nature of the reactivity of various dusts and to determine the persistence of reactivity under various environmental conditions that are relevant to a space habitat. Similar systems are used to assess the dissolution of the dust. From these studies we will be able to set a defensible inhalation exposure standard for aged dust and predict whether we need a separate standard for reactive dust. Presently-available data suggest that aged lunar highland dust is slightly toxic, that it can adversely affect cultured cells, and that the surface reactivity induced by grinding the dust persists for a few hours after activation.

  20. Lunar resource base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulley, John; Wise, Todd K.; Roy, Claude; Richter, Phil

    A lunar base that exploits local resources to enhance the productivity of a total SEI scenario is discussed. The goals were to emphasize lunar science and to land men on Mars in 2016 using significant amounts of lunar resources. It was assumed that propulsion was chemical and the surface power was non-nuclear. Three phases of the base build-up are outlined, the robotic emplacement of the first elements is detailed and a discussion of future options is included.

  1. Lunar and interplanetary trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Biesbroek, Robin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides readers with a clear description of the types of lunar and interplanetary trajectories, and how they influence satellite-system design. The description follows an engineering rather than a mathematical approach and includes many examples of lunar trajectories, based on real missions. It helps readers gain an understanding of the driving subsystems of interplanetary and lunar satellites. The tables and graphs showing features of trajectories make the book easy to understand. .

  2. Reporting Vaccine Complications: What Do Obstetricians and Gynecologists Know About the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. O. Eckert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obstetrician-gynecologists are increasingly called upon to be vaccinators as an essential part of a woman’s primary and preventive health care. Despite the established safety of vaccines, vaccine adverse events may occur. A national Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS is a well-established mechanism to track adverse events. However, we hypothesized that many obstetrician-gynecologists are naive to the role and use of VAERS. Methods. We devised a ten-question survey to a sample of ACOG fellows to assess their knowledge and understanding of VAERS. We performed descriptive and frequency analysis for each of the questions and used one-way analysis of variance for continuous and chi-squared for categorical variables. Results. Of the 1000 fellows who received the survey, 377 responded. Only one respondent answered all nine knowledge questions correctly, and 9.2% of physicians had used VAERS. Older physicians were less familiar with VAERS in general and with the specific objectives of VAERS in particular (χ2=10.7,P=.005. Conclusions. Obstetrician-gynecologist familiarity with VAERS is lacking. Only when the obstetrician-gynecologist is completely knowledgeable regarding standard vaccine practices, including the availability and use of programs such as VAERS, will providers be functioning as competent and complete vaccinators.

  3. Discrete-event simulation of nuclear-waste transport in geologic sites subject to disruptive events. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, S.; Ryland, S.; Peck, R.

    1980-01-01

    This report outlines a methodology to study the effects of disruptive events on nuclear waste material in stable geologic sites. The methodology is based upon developing a discrete events model that can be simulated on the computer. This methodology allows a natural development of simulation models that use computer resources in an efficient manner. Accurate modeling in this area depends in large part upon accurate modeling of ion transport behavior in the storage media. Unfortunately, developments in this area are not at a stage where there is any consensus on proper models for such transport. Consequently, our work is directed primarily towards showing how disruptive events can be properly incorporated in such a model, rather than as a predictive tool at this stage. When and if proper geologic parameters can be determined, then it would be possible to use this as a predictive model. Assumptions and their bases are discussed, and the mathematical and computer model are described

  4. Comparison of brand versus generic antiepileptic drug adverse event reporting rates in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Motiur; Alatawi, Yasser; Cheng, Ning; Qian, Jingjing; Plotkina, Annya V; Peissig, Peggy L; Berg, Richard L; Page, David; Hansen, Richard A

    2017-09-01

    Despite the cost saving role of generic anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs), debate exists as to whether generic substitution of branded AEDs may lead to therapeutic failure and increased toxicity. This study compared adverse event (AE) reporting rates for brand vs. authorized generic (AG) vs. generic AEDs. Since AGs are pharmaceutically identical to brand but perceived as generics, the generic vs. AG comparison minimized potential bias against generics. Events reported to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System between January 2004 to March 2015 with lamotrigine, carbamazepine, and oxcarbazepine listed as primary or secondary suspect were classified as brand, generic, or AG based on the manufacturer. Disproportionality analyses using the reporting odds ratio (ROR) assessed the relative rate of reporting of labeled AEs compared to reporting these events with all other drugs. The Breslow-Day statistic compared RORs across brand, AG, and other generics using a Bonferroni-corrected Pbrand and generics for all three drugs of interest (Breslow-Day Pbrands and generics have similar reporting rates after accounting for generic perception biases. Disproportional suicide reporting was observed for generics compared with AGs and brand, although this finding needs further study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Standardizing Medication Error Event Reporting in the U.S. Department of Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nosek, Ronald A., Jr; McMeekin, Judy; Rake, Geoffrey W

    2005-01-01

    ...) began an aggressive examination of medical errors and the strategies for minimizing them. A primary goal was the creation of a standardized medication event reporting system, including a central registry for the compilation of reported data...

  6. Exploratory trend and pattern analysis of 1981 through 1983 Licensee Event Report data. Main report. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hester, O.V.; Groh, M.R.; Farmer, F.G.

    1986-10-01

    This report presents an overview of the 1981 through 1983 Sequence Coding and Search System (SCSS) data base that contains nuclear power plant operational data derived from Licensee Event Reports (LERs) submitted to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Both overall event reporting and events related to specific components, subsystems, systems, and personnel are discussed. At all of these levels of information, software is used to generate count data for contingency tables. Contingency table analysis is the main tool for the trend and pattern analysis. The tables focus primarily on faults associated with various components and other items of interest across different plants. The abstracts and other SCSS information on the LERs accounting for unusual counts in the tables were examined to gain insights from the events. Trends and patterns in LER reporting and reporting of events for various component groups were examined through log-linear modeling techniques

  7. 76 FR 1170 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Postmarketing Adverse Event Reporting for Medical Products and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... appropriate FDA organizational unit responsible for adverse event reporting compliance when these conditions... regulation (21 CFR 10.115). The draft guidance, when finalized, will represent the Agency's current thinking... appropriate FDA organizational unit responsible for adverse event reporting compliance when the conditions...

  8. Early lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S. K.; Mellema, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    A new method (Shaw, 1974) for investigating paleointensity (the ancient magnetic field) was applied to three subsamples of a single, 1-m homogeneous clast from a recrystallized boulder of lunar breccia. Several dating methods established 4 billion years as the age of boulder assembly. Results indicate that the strength of the ambient magnetic field at the Taurus-Littrow region of the moon was about 0.4 oersted at 4 billion years ago. Values as high as 1.2 oersted have been reported (Collison et al., 1973). The required fields are approximately 10,000 times greater than present interplanetary or solar flare fields. It is suggested that this large field could have arisen from a pre-main sequence T-Tauri sun.

  9. Guidelines for submitting adverse event reports for publication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelly, William; Arellano, Felix; Barnes, Joanne; Bergman, Ulf; Edwards, Ralph; Fernandez, Alina; Freedman, Stephen; Goldsmith, David; Huang, Kui; Jones, Judith; McLeay, Rachel; Moore, Nicholas; Stather, Rosie; Trenque, Thierry; Troutman, William; van Puijenbroek, Eugène; Williams, Frank; Wise, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Publication of case reports describing suspected adverse effects of drugs and medical products that include herbal and complementary medicines, vaccines and other biologicals and devices is important for postmarketing surveillance. Publication lends credence to important signals raised in these

  10. Corporate Disclosure, Materiality, and Integrated Report: An Event Study Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cleofe Giorgino; Enrico Supino; Federico Barnabè

    2017-01-01

    Within the extensive literature investigating the impacts of corporate disclosure in supporting the sustainable growth of an organization, few studies have included in the analysis the materiality issue referred to the information being disclosed. This article aims to address this gap, exploring the effect produced on capital markets by the publication of a recent corporate reporting tool, Integrated Report (IR). The features of this tool are that it aims to represent the multidimensional imp...

  11. Earthquake-associated events. Annual safety research report, JFY 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    For the tsunami and slope stability as the earthquake-associated events that increased with the revision of the regulatory guide for reviewing seismic design of nuclear power reactor facilities, related technical standard and analysis code were leveled up to support the safety examination of the country. For tsunami study, the original plan was changed due to the 2011 Tohoku earthquake tsunami, analysis code of river run-up, sedimentation, probabilistic tsunami hazard and tsunami trace database were developed. For slope study, in addition to conventional stress criteria, in order to build a slope stability evaluation method, incorporating new indicators, such as deformation and strain, the following study was conducted. The large-scale shaking table test for E-defense, the test data were obtained. The applicability of slope stability analysis code was examined by using the shaking table test data. (author)

  12. Measurement of the lunar neutron density profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolum, D.S.; Burnett, D.S.; Furst, M.; Weiss, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    An in situ measurement of the lunar neutron density from 20 to 400 g cm -2 depth below the lunar surface was made by the Apollo 17 Lunar Neutron Probe Experiment (LNPE) using particle tracks produced by the 10 B (n,α) 7 Li reaction. Both the absolute magnitude and the depth profile of the neutron density are in good agreement with theoretical calculations by Lingenfelter, Canfield, and Hampel. However, relatively small deviations between experiment and theory in the effect of Cd absorption on the neutron density and in the relative 149 Sm to 157 Gd capture rates reported previously (Russ et al., 1972) imply that the true lunar 157 Gd capture rate is about one half of that calculated theoretically. (Auth.)

  13. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Moon and Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The session" Moon and Mercury" included the following reports:Helium Production of Prompt Neutrinos on the Moon; Vapor Deposition and Solar Wind Implantation on Lunar Soil-Grain Surfaces as Comparable Processes; A New Lunar Geologic Mapping Program; Physical Backgrounds to Measure Instantaneous Spin Components of Terrestrial Planets from Earth with Arcsecond Accuracy; Preliminary Findings of a Study of the Lunar Global Megaregolith; Maps Characterizing the Lunar Regolith Maturity; Probable Model of Anomalies in the Polar Regions of Mercury; Parameters of the Maximum of Positive Polarization of the Moon; Database Structure Development for Space Surveying Results by Moon -Zond Program; CM2-type Micrometeoritic Lunar Winds During the Late Heavy Bombardment; A Comparison of Textural and Chemical Features of Spinel Within Lunar Mare Basalts; The Reiner Gamma Formation as Characterized by Earth-based Photometry at Large Phase Angles; The Significance of the Geometries of Linear Graben for the Widths of Shallow Dike Intrusions on the Moon; Lunar Prospector Data, Surface Roughness and IR Thermal Emission of the Moon; The Influence of a Magma Ocean on the Lunar Global Stress Field Due to Tidal Interaction Between the Earth and Moon; Variations of the Mercurian Photometric Relief; A Model of Positive Polarization of Regolith; Ground Truth and Lunar Global Thorium Map Calibration: Are We There Yet?;and Space Weathering of Apollo 16 Sample 62255: Lunar Rocks as Witness Plates for Deciphering Regolith Formation Processes.

  14. Lunar Atmosphere Probe Station: A Proof-of-Concept Instrument Package for Monitoring the Lunar Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, J.; Jones, D. L.; MacDowall, R. J.; Stewart, K. P.; Burns, J. O.; Farrell, W. M.; Giersch, L.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Hicks, B. C.; Polisensky, E. J.; Hartman, J. M.; Nesnas, I.; Weiler, K.; Kasper, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    The lunar exosphere is the exemplar of a plasma near the surface of an airless body. Exposed to both the solar and interstellar radiation fields, the lunar exosphere is mostly ionized, and enduring questions regarding its properties include its density and vertical extent, the extent of contributions from volatile outgassing from the Moon, and its behavior over time, including response to the solar wind and modification by landers. Relative ionospheric measurements (riometry) are based on the simple physical principle that electromagnetic waves cannot propagate through a partially or fully ionized medium below the plasma frequency, and riometers have been deployed on the Earth in numerous remote and hostile environments. A multi-frequency riometer on the lunar surface would be able to monitor, *in situ*, the vertical extent of the lunar exosphere over time. We provide an update on a concept for a riometer implemented as a secondary science payload on future lunar landers, such as those recommended in the recent Planetary Sciences Decadal Survey report or commercial ventures. The instrument concept is simple, consisting of an antenna implemented as a metal deposited on polyimide film and receiver. We illustrate various deployment mechanisms and performance of a prototype in increasing lunar analog conditions. While the prime mission of such a riometer would be probing the lunar exosphere, our concept would also be capable to measuring the properties of dust impactors. The Lunar University Network for Astrophysical Research consortium is funded by the NASA Lunar Science Institute to investigate concepts for astrophysical observatories on the Moon. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. Artist's impression of the Lunar Atmosphere Probe Station.

  15. Evidence for a sulfur-undersaturated lunar interior from the solubility of sulfur in lunar melts and sulfide-silicate partitioning of siderophile elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenstra, E. S.; Seegers, A. X.; Eising, J.; Tomassen, B. G. J.; Webers, F. P. F.; Berndt, J.; Klemme, S.; Matveev, S.; van Westrenen, W.

    2018-06-01

    Sulfur concentrations at sulfide saturation (SCSS) were determined for a range of low- to high-Ti lunar melt compositions (synthetic equivalents of Apollo 14 black and yellow glass, Apollo 15 green glass, Apollo 17 orange glass and a late-stage lunar magma ocean melt, containing between 0.2 and 25 wt.% TiO2) as a function of pressure (1-2.5 GPa) and temperature (1683-1883 K). For the same experiments, sulfide-silicate partition coefficients were derived for elements V, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Mo, Sn, Sb, Te, W and Pb. The SCSS is a strong function of silicate melt composition, most notably FeO content. An increase in temperature increases the SCSS and an increase in pressure decreases the SCSS, both in agreement with previous work on terrestrial, lunar and martian compositions. Previously reported SCSS values for high-FeO melts were combined with the experimental data reported here to obtain a new predictive equation to calculate the SCSS for high-FeO lunar melt compositions. Calculated SCSS values, combined with previously estimated S contents of lunar low-Ti basalts and primitive pyroclastic glasses, suggest their source regions were not sulfide saturated. Even when correcting for the currently inferred maximum extent of S degassing during or after eruption, sample S abundances are still > 700 ppm lower than the calculated SCSS values for these compositions. To achieve sulfide saturation in the source regions of low-Ti basalts and lunar pyroclastic glasses, the extent of degassing of S in lunar magma would have to be orders of magnitude higher than currently thought, inconsistent with S isotopic and core-to-rim S diffusion profile data. The only lunar samples that could have experienced sulfide saturation are some of the more evolved A17 high-Ti basalts, if sulfides are Ni- and/or Cu rich. Sulfide saturation in the source regions of lunar melts is also inconsistent with the sulfide-silicate partitioning systematics of Ni, Co and Cu. Segregation of

  16. Ventilator-Related Adverse Events: A Taxonomy and Findings From 3 Incident Reporting Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Julius Cuong; Williams, Tamara L; Sparnon, Erin M; Cillie, Tam K; Scharen, Hilda F; Marella, William M

    2016-05-01

    In 2009, researchers from Johns Hopkins University's Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality; public agencies, including the FDA; and private partners, including the Emergency Care Research Institute and the University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) Safety Intelligence Patient Safety Organization, sought to form a public-private partnership for the promotion of patient safety (P5S) to advance patient safety through voluntary partnerships. The study objective was to test the concept of the P5S to advance our understanding of safety issues related to ventilator events, to develop a common classification system for categorizing adverse events related to mechanical ventilators, and to perform a comparison of adverse events across different adverse event reporting systems. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of ventilator-related adverse events reported in 2012 from the following incident reporting systems: the Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority's Patient Safety Reporting System, UHC's Safety Intelligence Patient Safety Organization database, and the FDA's Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience database. Once each organization had its dataset of ventilator-related adverse events, reviewers read the narrative descriptions of each event and classified it according to the developed common taxonomy. A Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority, FDA, and UHC search provided 252, 274, and 700 relevant reports, respectively. The 3 event types most commonly reported to the UHC and the Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority's Patient Safety Reporting System databases were airway/breathing circuit issue, human factor issues, and ventilator malfunction events. The top 3 event types reported to the FDA were ventilator malfunction, power source issue, and alarm failure. Overall, we found that (1) through the development of a common taxonomy, adverse events from 3 reporting systems can be evaluated, (2) the types of events reported in each database were related

  17. Ventilator-Related Adverse Events: A Taxonomy and Findings From 3 Incident Reporting Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Julius Cuong; Williams, Tamara L; Sparnon, Erin M; Cillie, Tam K; Scharen, Hilda F; Marella, William M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2009, researchers from Johns Hopkins University's Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality; public agencies, including the FDA; and private partners, including the Emergency Care Research Institute and the University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) Safety Intelligence Patient Safety Organization, sought to form a public-private partnership for the promotion of patient safety (P5S) to advance patient safety through voluntary partnerships. The study objective was to test the concept of the P5S to advance our understanding of safety issues related to ventilator events, to develop a common classification system for categorizing adverse events related to mechanical ventilators, and to perform a comparison of adverse events across different adverse event reporting systems. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of ventilator-related adverse events reported in 2012 from the following incident reporting systems: the Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority's Patient Safety Reporting System, UHC's Safety Intelligence Patient Safety Organization database, and the FDA's Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience database. Once each organization had its dataset of ventilator-related adverse events, reviewers read the narrative descriptions of each event and classified it according to the developed common taxonomy. RESULTS: A Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority, FDA, and UHC search provided 252, 274, and 700 relevant reports, respectively. The 3 event types most commonly reported to the UHC and the Pennsylvania Patient Safety Authority's Patient Safety Reporting System databases were airway/breathing circuit issue, human factor issues, and ventilator malfunction events. The top 3 event types reported to the FDA were ventilator malfunction, power source issue, and alarm failure. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we found that (1) through the development of a common taxonomy, adverse events from 3 reporting systems can be evaluated, (2) the types of

  18. Patient safety event reporting in critical care: a study of three intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Carolyn B; Krauss, Melissa J; Coopersmith, Craig M; Avidan, Michael; Nast, Patricia A; Kollef, Marin H; Dunagan, W Claiborne; Fraser, Victoria J

    2007-04-01

    To increase patient safety event reporting in three intensive care units (ICUs) using a new voluntary card-based event reporting system and to compare and evaluate observed differences in reporting among healthcare workers across ICUs. Prospective, single-center, interventional study. A medical ICU (19 beds), surgical ICU (24 beds), and cardiothoracic ICU (17 beds) at a 1,371-bed urban teaching hospital. Adult patients admitted to these three study ICUs. Use of a new, internally designed, card-based reporting program to solicit voluntary anonymous reporting of medical errors and patient safety concerns. During a 14-month period, 714 patient safety events were reported using a new card-based reporting system, reflecting a significant increase in reporting compared with pre-intervention Web-based reporting (20.4 reported events/1,000 patient days pre-intervention to 41.7 reported events/1,000 patient days postintervention; rate ratio, 2.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.79-2.34). Nurses submitted the majority of reports (nurses, 67.1%; physicians, 23.1%; other reporters, 9.5%); however, physicians experienced the greatest increase in reporting among their group (physicians, 43-fold; nurses, 1.7-fold; other reporters, 4.3-fold) relative to pre-intervention rates. There were significant differences in the reporting of harm by job description: 31.1% of reports from nurses, 36.2% from other staff, and 17.0% from physicians described events that did not reach/affect the patient (p = .001); and 33.9% of reports from physicians, 27.2% from nurses, and 13.0% from other staff described events that caused harm (p = .005). Overall reported patient safety events per 1,000 patient days differed by ICU (medical ICU = 55.5, cardiothoracic ICU = 25.3, surgical ICU = 40.2; p reporting system increased reporting significantly compared with pre-intervention Web-based reporting and revealed significant differences in reporting by healthcare worker and ICU. These differences may reveal

  19. Analysis of loss of offsite power events reported in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkanovski, Andrija, E-mail: Andrija.VOLKANOVSKI@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport, P.O. Box 2, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Ballesteros Avila, Antonio; Peinador Veira, Miguel [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport, P.O. Box 2, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Kančev, Duško [Kernkraftwerk Goesgen-Daeniken AG, CH-4658 Daeniken (Switzerland); Maqua, Michael [Gesellschaft für Anlagen-und-Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Schwertnergasse 1, 50667 Köln (Germany); Stephan, Jean-Luc [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), BP 17 – 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Loss of offsite power events were identified in four databases. • Engineering analysis of relevant events was done. • The dominant root cause for LOOP are human failures. • Improved maintenance procedures can decrease the number of LOOP events. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of analysis of the loss of offsite power events (LOOP) in four databases of operational events. The screened databases include: the Gesellschaft für Anlagen und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS) and Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN) databases, the IAEA International Reporting System for Operating Experience (IRS) and the U.S. Licensee Event Reports (LER). In total 228 relevant loss of offsite power events were identified in the IRSN database, 190 in the GRS database, 120 in U.S. LER and 52 in IRS database. Identified events were classified in predefined categories. Obtained results show that the largest percentage of LOOP events is registered during On power operational mode and lasted for two minutes or more. The plant centered events is the main contributor to LOOP events identified in IRSN, GRS and IAEA IRS database. The switchyard centered events are the main contributor in events registered in the NRC LER database. The main type of failed equipment is switchyard failures in IRSN and IAEA IRS, main or secondary lines in NRC LER and busbar failures in GRS database. The dominant root cause for the LOOP events are human failures during test, inspection and maintenance followed by human failures due to the insufficient or wrong procedures. The largest number of LOOP events resulted in reactor trip followed by EDG start. The actions that can result in reduction of the number of LOOP events and minimize consequences on plant safety are identified and presented.

  20. 78 FR 20039 - Reportable Events and Certain Other Notification Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... for other purposes. Impact of Proposal Overall, PBGC expects the proposal to exempt or waive more than... some of those terminations might have been avoided, and PBGC might have been able to reduce the impact... accounting principles (GAAP) or International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). This requirement serves...

  1. Energy for lunar resource exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Peter E.

    1992-02-01

    Humanity stands at the threshold of exploiting the known lunar resources that have opened up with the access to space. America's role in the future exploitation of space, and specifically of lunar resources, may well determine the level of achievement in technology development and global economic competition. Space activities during the coming decades will significantly influence the events on Earth. The 'shifting of history's tectonic plates' is a process that will be hastened by the increasingly insistent demands for higher living standards of the exponentially growing global population. Key to the achievement of a peaceful world in the 21st century, will be the development of a mix of energy resources at a societally acceptable and affordable cost within a realistic planning horizon. This must be the theme for the globally applicable energy sources that are compatible with the Earth's ecology. It is in this context that lunar resources development should be a primary goal for science missions to the Moon, and for establishing an expanding human presence. The economic viability and commercial business potential of mining, extracting, manufacturing, and transporting lunar resource based materials to Earth, Earth orbits, and to undertake macroengineering projects on the Moon remains to be demonstrated. These extensive activities will be supportive of the realization of the potential of space energy sources for use on Earth. These may include generating electricity for use on Earth based on beaming power from Earth orbits and from the Moon to the Earth, and for the production of helium 3 as a fuel for advanced fusion reactors.

  2. Lunar-A

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    penetrators will be transmitted to the earth station via the Lunar-A mother spacecraft orbiting at an altitude of about .... to save the power consumption of the Lunar-A penetrator .... and an origin-time versus tidal-phases correlation. (Toksoz et al ...

  3. The preparation of reports of a significant event at a uranium processing or uranium handling facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    Licenses to operate uranium processing or uranium handling facilities require that certain events be reported to the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) and to other regulatory authorities. Reports of a significant event describe unusual events which had or could have had a significant impact on the safety of facility operations, the worker, the public or on the environment. The purpose of this guide is to suggest an acceptable method of reporting a significant event to the AECB and to describe the information that should be included. The reports of a significant event are made available to the public in accordance with the provisions of the Access to Information Act and the AECB's policy on public access to licensing information

  4. General practitioners′ attitudes toward reporting and learning from adverse events: results from a survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Thorbjørn H.; Sokolowski, Ineta; Olesen, Frede

    2006-01-01

    , and circumstances under which such exchange is accepted. SUBJECTS: A structured questionnaire sent to 1198 GPs of whom 61% responded. RESULTS. GPs had a positive attitude towards discussing adverse events in the clinic with colleagues and staff and in their continuing medical education groups. The GPs had...... a positive attitude to reporting adverse events to a database if the system granted legal and administrative immunity to reporters. The majority preferred a reporting system located at a research institute. CONCLUSION: GPs have a very positive attitude towards discussing and reporting adverse events......OBJECTIVE: To investigate GPs' attitudes to and willingness to report and learn from adverse events and to study how a reporting system should function. DESIGN: Survey. SETTING: General practice in Denmark. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: GPs' attitudes to exchange of experience with colleagues and others...

  5. Lunar Lava Tube Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Cheryl Lynn; Walden, Bryce; Billings, Thomas L.; Reeder, P. Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Large (greater than 300 m diameter) lava tube caverns appear to exist on the Moon and could provide substantial safety and cost benefits for lunar bases. Over 40 m of basalt and regolith constitute the lava tube roof and would protect both construction and operations. Constant temperatures of -20 C reduce thermal stress on structures and machines. Base designs need not incorporate heavy shielding, so lightweight materials can be used and construction can be expedited. Identification and characterization of lava tube caverns can be incorporated into current precursor lunar mission plans. Some searches can even be done from Earth. Specific recommendations for lunar lava tube search and exploration are (1) an Earth-based radar interferometer, (2) an Earth-penetrating radar (EPR) orbiter, (3) kinetic penetrators for lunar lava tube confirmation, (4) a 'Moon Bat' hovering rocket vehicle, and (5) the use of other proposed landers and orbiters to help find lunar lava tubes.

  6. Petrologic Characteristics of the Lunar Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianmin; Pedrycz, Witold

    2015-11-27

    Petrologic analysis of the lunar surface is critical for determining lunar formation and evolution. Here, we report the first global petrologic map that includes the five most important lunar lithological units: the Ferroan Anorthositic (FAN) Unit, the Magnesian Suite (MS) Unit, the Alkali Suite (AS) Unit, the KREEP Basalt (KB) Unit and the Mare Basalt (MB) Unit. Based on the petrologic map and focusing on four long-debated and important issues related to lunar formation and evolution, we draw the following conclusions from the new insights into the global distribution of the five petrologic units: (1) there may be no petrogenetic relationship between MS rocks and KB; (2) there may be no petrogenetic link between MS and AS rocks; (3) the exposure of the KREEP component on the lunar surface is likely not a result of MB volcanism but is instead mainly associated with the combined action of plutonic intrusion, KREEP volcanism and celestial collision; (4) the impact size of the South Pole-Aitken basin is constrained, i.e., the basin has been excavated through the whole crust to exhume a vast majority of lower-crustal material and a very limited mantle components to the lunar surface.

  7. Report of Animal Investigation Program activities for the Baneberry Event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.D.; Black, S.C.; Giles, K.R.; Moghissi, A.A.

    1975-11-01

    On December 18, 1970, an underground nuclear test, conducted at the Nevada Test Site, released radioactive materials into the atmosphere with resultant on-site and off-site contamination. The Animal Investigation Program of the National Environmental Research Center, Las Vegas developed studies to document the distribution of fission and activation products in the tissue of domestic and wild animals residing within contaminated areas on and surrounding the Nevada Test Site. A study of radioiodine secretion in milk from cows at the experimental dairy farm, including urine and fecal excretion from four of them, was started about 24 hours after the venting. A grazing intake study, which utilized fistulated steers, was also carried out. The analytical data collected from these studies are presented in this report

  8. Assessment of Adverse Events in Protocols, Clinical Study Reports, and Published Papers of Trials of Orlistat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Jeppe Bennekou; Penninga, Elisabeth I; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about how adverse events are summarised and reported in trials, as detailed information is usually considered confidential. We have acquired clinical study reports (CSRs) from the European Medicines Agency through the Freedom of Information Act. The CSRs describe......Med and adverse event data were extracted from this source as well. All three sources were compared. Individual adverse events from one trial were summed and compared to the totals in the summary report. None of the protocols or CSRs contained instructions for investigators on how to question participants about...

  9. Sound velocity and compressibility for lunar rocks 17 and 46 and for glass spheres from the lunar soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, E; Anderson, O L; Sogat, N; Warren, N; Scholz, C

    1970-01-30

    Four experiments on lunar materials are reported: (i) resonance on glass spheres from the soil; (ii) compressibility of rock 10017; (iii) sound velocities of rocks 10046 and 10017; (iv) sound velocity of the lunar fines. The data overlap and are mutually consistent. The glass beads and rock 10017 have mechanical properties which correspond to terrestrial materials. Results of (iv) are consistent with low seismic travel times in the lunar maria. Results of analysis of the microbreccia (10046) agreed with the soil during the first pressure cycle, but after overpressure the rock changed, and it then resembled rock 10017. Three models of the lunar surface were constructed giving density and velocity profiles.

  10. Lunar neutron source function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornblum, J.J.

    1974-01-01

    The search for a quantitative neutron source function for the lunar surface region is justified because it contributes to our understanding of the history of the lunar surface and of nuclear process occurring on the moon since its formation. A knowledge of the neutron source function and neutron flux distribution is important for the interpretation of many experimental measurements. This dissertation uses the available pertinent experimental measurements together with theoretical calculations to obtain an estimate of the lunar neutron source function below 15 MeV. Based upon reasonable assumptions a lunar neutron source function having adjustable parameters is assumed for neutrons below 15 MeV. The lunar neutron source function is composed of several components resulting from the action of cosmic rays with lunar material. A comparison with previous neutron calculations is made and significant differences are discussed. Application of the results to the problem of lunar soil histories is examined using the statistical model for soil development proposed by Fireman. The conclusion is drawn that the moon is losing mass

  11. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  12. Event (error and near-miss) reporting and learning system for process improvement in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutic, Sasa; Brame, R Scott; Oddiraju, Swetha; Parikh, Parag; Westfall, Melisa A; Hopkins, Merilee L; Medina, Angel D; Danieley, Jonathan C; Michalski, Jeff M; El Naqa, Issam M; Low, Daniel A; Wu, Bin

    2010-09-01

    The value of near-miss and error reporting processes in many industries is well appreciated and typically can be supported with data that have been collected over time. While it is generally accepted that such processes are important in the radiation therapy (RT) setting, studies analyzing the effects of organized reporting and process improvement systems on operation and patient safety in individual clinics remain scarce. The purpose of this work is to report on the design and long-term use of an electronic reporting system in a RT department and compare it to the paper-based reporting system it replaced. A specifically designed web-based system was designed for reporting of individual events in RT and clinically implemented in 2007. An event was defined as any occurrence that could have, or had, resulted in a deviation in the delivery of patient care. The aim of the system was to support process improvement in patient care and safety. The reporting tool was designed so individual events could be quickly and easily reported without disrupting clinical work. This was very important because the system use was voluntary. The spectrum of reported deviations extended from minor workflow issues (e.g., scheduling) to errors in treatment delivery. Reports were categorized based on functional area, type, and severity of an event. The events were processed and analyzed by a formal process improvement group that used the data and the statistics collected through the web-based tool for guidance in reengineering clinical processes. The reporting trends for the first 24 months with the electronic system were compared to the events that were reported in the same clinic with a paper-based system over a seven-year period. The reporting system and the process improvement structure resulted in increased event reporting, improved event communication, and improved identification of clinical areas which needed process and safety improvements. The reported data were also useful for the

  13. The nature and causes of unintended events reported at ten emergency departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Wal Gerrit

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies on patient safety have shown that a substantial number of patients suffer from unintended harm caused by healthcare management in hospitals. Emergency departments (EDs are challenging hospital settings with regard to patient safety. There is an increased sense of urgency to take effective countermeasures in order to improve patient safety. This can only be achieved if interventions tackle the dominant underlying causes. The objectives of our study are to examine the nature and causes of unintended events in EDs and the relationship between type of event and causal factor structure. Methods Study at EDs of 10 hospitals in the Netherlands. The study period per ED was 8 to 14 weeks, in which staff were asked to report unintended events. Unintended events were broadly defined as all events, no matter how seemingly trivial or commonplace, that were unintended and could have harmed or did harm a patient. Reports were analysed with a Root Cause Analysis tool (PRISMA by an experienced researcher. Results 522 unintended events were reported. Of the events 25% was related to cooperation with other departments and 20% to problems with materials/equipment. More than half of the events had consequences for the patient, most often resulting in inconvenience or suboptimal care. Most root causes were human (60%, followed by organisational (25% and technical causes (11%. Nearly half of the root causes was external, i.e. attributable to other departments in or outside the hospital. Conclusion Event reporting gives insight into diverse unintended events. The information on unintended events may help target research and interventions to increase patient safety. It seems worthwhile to direct interventions on the collaboration between the ED and other hospital departments.

  14. Development of requirements and functional specifications for crash event data recorders : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    The U.S. DOT has conducted research on the requirements for a Crash Event Data Recorder to facilitate the reconstruction of commercial motor vehicle crashes. This report documents the work performed on the Development of Requirements and Functiona...

  15. Self reported stressful life events and exacerbations in multiple sclerosis: prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Buljevac (Dragan); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); W. Reedeker; A.C.J.W. Janssens (Cécile); F.G.A. van der Meché (Frans); P.A. van Doorn (Pieter); R.Q. Hintzen (Rogier)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To study the relation between self reported stressful life events not related to multiple sclerosis and the occurrence of exacerbations in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. DESIGN: Longitudinal, prospective cohort study. SETTING: Outpatient clinic of

  16. Observation of the lunar surface by GRS in KAGUYA (SELENE). To solve mystery of moon and manned landing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasebe, Nobuyuki; Kobayashi, Shingo

    2009-01-01

    The researches, resources and environment of the moon are reported. The main results such as the magma ocean hypothesis by the Apollo program, the lunar map by Clementine probe and the concentration of Th in the moon by Lunar Prospector probe are explained. B.L. Jolliff et al. proposed the moon consisted of three areas such as the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT), South-Pole Aitken Terrane (SPAT) and Feldspathic Highland Terrane (FHT). The radiations on the lunar surface contain the galactic cosmic ray, solar particle event, second particles produced by interaction between the high energy particles and the materials on the lunar surface, and natural radioactivity from U, Th and K. The gamma ray spectrum on the lunar surface observed by Kaguya gamma ray spectrometer (KGRS) showed the very sharp spectrum of O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, K, Ti, Fe, Th and U. The distribution of Th in PKT, SPAT and FHT was shown. The outline of KGRS, the energy resolutions of many kinds of gamma ray spectrometers, and the gamma ray energies of main elements are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  17. Extracting lunar dust parameters from image charge signals produced by the Lunar Dust Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, J.; Kempf, S.; Horanyi, M.; Szalay, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is an impact ionization dust detector used to characterize the lunar dust exosphere generated by the impacts of large interplanetary particles and meteor streams (Horanyi et al., 2015). In addition to the mass and speed of these lofted particles, LDEX is sensitive to their charge. The resulting signatures of impact events therefore provide valuable information about not only the ambient plasma environment, but also the speed vectors of these dust grains. Here, impact events produced from LDEX's calibration at the Dust Accelerator Laboratory are analyzed using an image charge model derived from the electrostatic simulation program, Coulomb. We show that parameters such as dust grain speed, size, charge, and position of entry into LDEX can be recovered and applied to data collected during LADEE's seven-month mission.

  18. Gender Differences in Lunar-Related Scientific and Mathematical Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports an examination on gender differences in lunar phases understanding of 123 students (70 females and 53 males). Middle-level students interacted with the Moon through observations, sketching, journalling, two-dimensional and three-dimensional modelling, and classroom discussions. These lunar lessons were adapted from the Realistic…

  19. Adverse Drug Event Monitoring at the Food and Drug Administration: Your Report Can Make a Difference

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Syed Rizwanuddin

    2003-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is responsible not only for approving drugs but also for monitoring their safety after they reach the market. The complete adverse event profile of a drug is not known at the time of approval because of the small sample size, short duration, and limited generalizability of pre-approval clinical trials. This report describes the FDA's postmarketing surveillance system, to which many clinicians submit reports of adverse drug events encountered while treati...

  20. Comparison of the adverse event profiles of conventional and liposomal formulations of doxorubicin using the FDA adverse event reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Akiho; Tahara, Kohei; Hane, Yuuki; Matsui, Toshinobu; Sasaoka, Sayaka; Hatahira, Haruna; Motooka, Yumi; Hasegawa, Shiori; Naganuma, Misa; Abe, Junko; Nakao, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Hirofumi; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anthracycline widely used for the treatment of solid and hematological tumors. The aim of this study was to assess the adverse event profiles of conventional DOX and liposomal DOX. This is the first study to evaluate the effect of a liposomal formulation of DOX using spontaneous reporting system (SRS) databases. The SRS used was the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). This study relied on definitions of preferred terms provided by the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) and the standardized MedDRA Queries (SMQ) database. We also calculated the reporting odds ratios (RORs) of suspected drugs (conventional DOX; PEGylated-liposome DOX; non-PEGylated-liposome DOX). The FAERS database contained 7,561,254 reports from January 2004 to December 2015. The number of reported AE cases for conventional DOX, PEGylated-liposome DOX, and non-PEGylated-liposome DOX was 5039, 3780, and 349, respectively. Conventional DOX and liposomal DOX have potential risks of causing myelosuppression, cardiotoxicity, alopecia, nausea, and vomiting, among other effects. The RORs (95% CI) from SMQ for haematopoietic leucopenia associated with conventional DOX, PEGylated-liposome DOX, and non-PEGylated-liposome DOX were 12.75 (11.89-13.68), 6.43 (5.81-7.13), and 14.73 (11.42-18.99), respectively. Liposomal DOX formulations were associated with lower RORs with regard to myelosuppression, cardiotoxicity, and alopecia than the conventional DOX was. The RORs (95% CI) for palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (PPE) associated with conventional DOX, PEGylated-liposome DOX, and non-PEGylated-liposome DOX were 6.56 (4.74-9.07), 64.77 (56.84-73.80), and 28.76 (15.77-52.45), respectively. This study is the first to evaluate the relationship between DOX liposomal formulations and their adverse event profiles. The results indicate that careful observation for PPE is recommended with the use of liposomal DOX, especially PEGylated

  1. Comparison of the adverse event profiles of conventional and liposomal formulations of doxorubicin using the FDA adverse event reporting system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiho Fukuda

    Full Text Available Doxorubicin (DOX is an anthracycline widely used for the treatment of solid and hematological tumors. The aim of this study was to assess the adverse event profiles of conventional DOX and liposomal DOX. This is the first study to evaluate the effect of a liposomal formulation of DOX using spontaneous reporting system (SRS databases. The SRS used was the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS. This study relied on definitions of preferred terms provided by the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA and the standardized MedDRA Queries (SMQ database. We also calculated the reporting odds ratios (RORs of suspected drugs (conventional DOX; PEGylated-liposome DOX; non-PEGylated-liposome DOX. The FAERS database contained 7,561,254 reports from January 2004 to December 2015. The number of reported AE cases for conventional DOX, PEGylated-liposome DOX, and non-PEGylated-liposome DOX was 5039, 3780, and 349, respectively. Conventional DOX and liposomal DOX have potential risks of causing myelosuppression, cardiotoxicity, alopecia, nausea, and vomiting, among other effects. The RORs (95% CI from SMQ for haematopoietic leucopenia associated with conventional DOX, PEGylated-liposome DOX, and non-PEGylated-liposome DOX were 12.75 (11.89-13.68, 6.43 (5.81-7.13, and 14.73 (11.42-18.99, respectively. Liposomal DOX formulations were associated with lower RORs with regard to myelosuppression, cardiotoxicity, and alopecia than the conventional DOX was. The RORs (95% CI for palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (PPE associated with conventional DOX, PEGylated-liposome DOX, and non-PEGylated-liposome DOX were 6.56 (4.74-9.07, 64.77 (56.84-73.80, and 28.76 (15.77-52.45, respectively. This study is the first to evaluate the relationship between DOX liposomal formulations and their adverse event profiles. The results indicate that careful observation for PPE is recommended with the use of liposomal DOX, especially PEGylated

  2. Nurse willingness to report for work in the event of an earthquake in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Natan, Merav; Nigel, Simon; Yevdayev, Innush; Qadan, Mohamad; Dudkiewicz, Mickey

    2014-10-01

    To examine variables affecting nurse willingness to report for work in the event of an earthquake in Israel and whether this can be predicted through the Theory of Self-Efficacy. The nursing profession has a major role in preparing for earthquakes. Nurse willingness to report to work in the event of an earthquake has never before been examined. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among a convenience sample of 400 nurses and nursing students in Israel during January-April 2012. High willingness to report to work in the event of an earthquake was declared by 57% of respondents. High perceived self-efficacy, level of knowledge and experience predict willingness to report to work in the event of an earthquake. Multidisciplinary collaboration and support was also cited as a meaningful factor. Perceived self-efficacy, level of knowledge, experience and the support of a multidisciplinary staff affect nurse willingness to report to work in the event of an earthquake. Nurse managers can identify factors that increase nurse willingness to report to work in the event of an earthquake and consequently develop strategies for more efficient management of their nursing workforce. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Adverse event reporting patterns of newly approved drugs in the USA in 2006: an analysis of FDA Adverse Event Reporting System data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Pankdeep; Chen, Xing; Weiss, Sheila R

    2013-11-01

    The Weber effect states that adverse event (AE) reporting tends to increase in the first 2 years after a new drug is placed onto the market, peaks at the end of the second year, and then declines. However, since the Weber effect was originally described, there has been improvement in the communication of safety information and new policies regarding the reporting of AEs by healthcare professionals and consumers, prompting reassessment of the existence of the Weber effect in the current AE reporting scenario. To determine the AE reporting patterns for new molecular entity (NME) drugs and biologics approved in 2006 and to examine these patterns for the existence of the Weber effect. Publicly available FDA Adverse Event Reporting System data were used to assess the AE reporting patterns for a 5-year period from the drug’s approval date. The total number of annual reports from all sources, based on the report date, was plotted against time (in years). In the period from 2006 to 2011, a total of 91,187 AE reports were submitted for 19 NMEs approved in 2006. The highest number of AE reports were submitted for varenicline tartrate (N = 47,158) and the lowest number for anidulafungin (N = 161). Anidulafungin was reported to have the highest proportion of death reports (36 %) and varenicline tartrate the lowest proportion (1.7 %). The classic Weber pattern was not observed for any of the 19 NMEs approved in 2006. While there was no one predominant pattern of AE report volume, we grouped the drugs into four general categories; the majority of drugs had either a continued increase in reports (Category A 31.6 %) or an N-pattern with reporting reaching an initial peak in year 2 or 3, declining and then beginning to climb again (Category B 42.1 %). There have been numerous changes in AE reporting, particularly a huge increase in overall annual report volume, since the Weber effect was first reported. Our results suggest that a Weber-type reporting pattern should not be assumed

  4. Lunar Map Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Map Catalog includes various maps of the moon's surface, including Apollo landing sites; earthside, farside, and polar charts; photography index maps; zone...

  5. Consolidated Lunar Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Consolidated Lunar Atlas is a collection of the best photographic images of the moon, including low-oblique photography, full-moon photography, and tabular and...

  6. The Lunar Dust Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalay, Jamey Robert

    Planetary bodies throughout the solar system are continually bombarded by dust particles, largely originating from cometary activities and asteroidal collisions. Surfaces of bodies with thick atmospheres, such as Venus, Earth, Mars and Titan are mostly protected from incoming dust impacts as these particles ablate in their atmospheres as 'shooting stars'. However, the majority of bodies in the solar system have no appreciable atmosphere and their surfaces are directly exposed to the flux of high speed dust grains. Impacts onto solid surfaces in space generate charged and neutral gas clouds, as well as solid secondary ejecta dust particles. Gravitationally bound ejecta clouds forming dust exospheres were recognized by in situ dust instruments around the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn, and had not yet been observed near bodies with refractory regolith surfaces before NASA's Lunar Dust and Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission. In this thesis, we first present the measurements taken by the Lunar Dust Explorer (LDEX), aboard LADEE, which discovered a permanently present, asymmetric dust cloud surrounding the Moon. The global characteristics of the lunar dust cloud are discussed as a function of a variety of variables such as altitude, solar longitude, local time, and lunar phase. These results are compared with models for lunar dust cloud generation. Second, we present an analysis of the groupings of impacts measured by LDEX, which represent detections of dense ejecta plumes above the lunar surface. These measurements are put in the context of understanding the response of the lunar surface to meteoroid bombardment and how to use other airless bodies in the solar system as detectors for their local meteoroid environment. Third, we present the first in-situ dust measurements taken over the lunar sunrise terminator. Having found no excess of small grains in this region, we discuss its implications for the putative population of electrostatically lofted dust.

  7. The logic of surveillance guidelines: an analysis of vaccine adverse event reports from an ontological perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Courtot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When increased rates of adverse events following immunization are detected, regulatory action can be taken by public health agencies. However to be interpreted reports of adverse events must be encoded in a consistent way. Regulatory agencies rely on guidelines to help determine the diagnosis of the adverse events. Manual application of these guidelines is expensive, time consuming, and open to logical errors. Representing these guidelines in a format amenable to automated processing can make this process more efficient. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using the Brighton anaphylaxis case definition, we show that existing clinical guidelines used as standards in pharmacovigilance can be logically encoded using a formal representation such as the Adverse Event Reporting Ontology we developed. We validated the classification of vaccine adverse event reports using the ontology against existing rule-based systems and a manually curated subset of the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System. However, we encountered a number of critical issues in the formulation and application of the clinical guidelines. We report these issues and the steps being taken to address them in current surveillance systems, and in the terminological standards in use. CONCLUSIONS: By standardizing and improving the reporting process, we were able to automate diagnosis confirmation. By allowing medical experts to prioritize reports such a system can accelerate the identification of adverse reactions to vaccines and the response of regulatory agencies. This approach of combining ontology and semantic technologies can be used to improve other areas of vaccine adverse event reports analysis and should inform both the design of clinical guidelines and how they are used in the future. AVAILABILITY: Sufficient material to reproduce our results is available, including documentation, ontology, code and datasets, at http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/aero.

  8. Green Bank Lunar Interferometer for Neutrino Transients: GLINT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langston, Glen I. [NRAO, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States)], E-mail: glangsto@nrao.edu; Bradley, Rich [NRAO, 520 Edgemont Rd, Charlottesville, VA 22901 (United States); Hankins, Tim [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Mutel, Bob [University of Iowa, 706 Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2009-06-01

    The Green Bank Lunar Interferometer for Neutrino Transients (GLINT) project is a wide band (0.3-2.6 GHz) interferometric radio array dedicated to observations of transient events. The target is detection of few bright (>2000Jy) short duration (few nano-second) pulses from the lunar regolith. The GLINT project has three goals: (1) Maximize detection of statistically significant pulses originating from the lunar surface. (2) Unambiguously differentiate neutrino pulses from other sources of interference. (3) Localize the direction of the incoming radio pulse resulting from neutrino interactions.

  9. Beneficiation of lunar ilmenite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Joaquin

    1991-01-01

    One of the most important commodities lacking in the moon is free oxygen which is required for life and used extensively for propellent. Free oxygen, however, can be obtained by liberating it from the oxides and silicates that form the lunar rocks and regolith. Ilmenite (FeTiO3) is considered one of the leading candidates for production of oxygen because it can be reduced with a reasonable amount of energy and it is an abundant mineral in the lunar regolith and many mare basalts. In order to obtain oxygen from ilmenite, a method must be developed to beneficiate ilmenite from lunar material. Two possible techniques are electrostatic or magnetic methods. Both methods have complications because lunar ilmenite completely lacks Fe(3+). Magnetic methods were tested on eucrite meteorites, which are a good chemical simulant for low Ti mare basalts. The ilmenite yields in the experiments were always very low and the eucrite had to be crushed to xxxx. These data suggest that magnetic separation of ilmenite from fine grain lunar basalts would not be cost effective. Presently, experiments are being performed with electrostatic separators, and lunar regolith is being waited for so that simulants do not have to be employed.

  10. Lunar Sample Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the Lunar Sample Compendium will be to inform scientists, astronauts and the public about the various lunar samples that have been returned from the Moon. This Compendium will be organized rock by rock in the manor of a catalog, but will not be as comprehensive, nor as complete, as the various lunar sample catalogs that are available. Likewise, this Compendium will not duplicate the various excellent books and reviews on the subject of lunar samples (Cadogen 1981, Heiken et al. 1991, Papike et al. 1998, Warren 2003, Eugster 2003). However, it is thought that an online Compendium, such as this, will prove useful to scientists proposing to study individual lunar samples and should help provide backup information for lunar sample displays. This Compendium will allow easy access to the scientific literature by briefly summarizing the significant findings of each rock along with the documentation of where the detailed scientific data are to be found. In general, discussion and interpretation of the results is left to the formal reviews found in the scientific literature. An advantage of this Compendium will be that it can be updated, expanded and corrected as need be.

  11. Why Clinicians Don't Report Adverse Drug Events: Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohl, Corinne M; Small, Serena S; Peddie, David; Badke, Katherin; Bailey, Chantelle; Balka, Ellen

    2018-02-27

    Adverse drug events are unintended and harmful events related to medications. Adverse drug events are important for patient care, quality improvement, drug safety research, and postmarketing surveillance, but they are vastly underreported. Our objectives were to identify barriers to adverse drug event documentation and factors contributing to underreporting. This qualitative study was conducted in 1 ambulatory center, and the emergency departments and inpatient wards of 3 acute care hospitals in British Columbia between March 2014 and December 2016. We completed workplace observations and focus groups with general practitioners, hospitalists, emergency physicians, and hospital and community pharmacists. We analyzed field notes by coding and iteratively analyzing our data to identify emerging concepts, generate thematic and event summaries, and create workflow diagrams. Clinicians validated emerging concepts by applying them to cases from their clinical practice. We completed 238 hours of observations during which clinicians investigated 65 suspect adverse drug events. The observed events were often complex and diagnosed over time, requiring the input of multiple providers. Providers documented adverse drug events in charts to support continuity of care but never reported them to external agencies. Providers faced time constraints, and reporting would have required duplication of documentation. Existing reporting systems are not suited to capture the complex nature of adverse drug events or adapted to workflow and are simply not used by frontline clinicians. Systems that are integrated into electronic medical records, make use of existing data to avoid duplication of documentation, and generate alerts to improve safety may address the shortcomings of existing systems and generate robust adverse drug event data as a by-product of safer care. ©Corinne M Hohl, Serena S Small, David Peddie, Katherin Badke, Chantelle Bailey, Ellen Balka. Originally published in JMIR

  12. Closer look at lunar volcanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaniman, D.T.; Heiken, G.; Taylor, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Although the American Apollo and Soviet Luna missions concentrated on mare basalt samples, major questions remain about lunar volcanism. Lunar field work will be indispensable for resolving the scientific questions about ages, compositions, and eruption processes of lunar volcanism. From a utilitarian standpoint, a better knowledge of lunar volcanism will also yield profitable returns in lunar base construction (e.g., exploitation of rille or lava-tube structures) and in access to materials such as volatile elements, pure glass, or ilmenite for lunar industry

  13. Adverse event reporting in Slovenia - the influence of safety culture, supervisors and communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birk Karin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The provision of safe healthcare is considered a priority in European Union (EU member states. Along with other preventative measures in healthcare, the EU also strives to eliminate the “causes of harm to human health”. The aim of this survey was to determine whether safety culture, supervisors and communication between co-workers influence the number of adverse event reports submitted to the heads of clinical departments and to the management of an institution. Methods. This survey is based on cross-sectional analysis. It was carried out in the largest Slovenian university hospital. We received 235 completed questionnaires. Respondents included professionals in the fields of nursingcare, physiotherapy, occupational therapy and radiological technology. Results. Safety culture influences the number of adverse event reports submitted to the head of a clinical department from the organizational point of view. Supervisors and communication between co-workers do not influence the number of adverse event reports. Conclusion. It can be concluded that neither supervisors nor the level of communication between co-workers influence the frequency of adverse event reporting, while safety culture does influence it from an organizational point of view. The presumed factors only partly influence the number of submitted adverse event reports, thus other causes of under-reporting must be sought elsewhere.

  14. 76 FR 57045 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for “Reporting Device Adverse Events Challenge”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Announcement of Requirements and Registration for ``Reporting Device Adverse Events Challenge'' Authority: 15 U.S.C. 3719. AGENCY: Office of the National..., specifically as it relates to monitoring product safety and effectiveness. The ``Reporting Device Adverse...

  15. The validity of a patient-reported adverse drug event questionnaire using different recall periods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Sieta T; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M; de Zeeuw, Dick; Denig, Petra

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the validity of a patient-reported adverse drug events (ADEs) questionnaire with a 3-month or 4-week recall period. METHODS: Patients receiving at least one oral glucose-lowering drug were asked to report potential ADEs they experienced related to any drug in a daily diary for a

  16. Incidence and pattern of 12 years of reported transfusion adverse events in Zimbabwe: A retrospective analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mafirakureva, Nyashadzaishe; Khoza, Star; Mvere, David A.; Chitiyo, McLeod E.; Postma, Maarten J.; Van Hulst, Marinus

    2014-01-01

    Background. Haemovigilance hinges on a systematically structured reporting system, which unfortunately does not always exist in resource-limited settings. We determined the incidence and pattern of transfusion-related adverse events reported to the National Blood Service Zimbabwe. Materials and

  17. Licensee Event Report (LER) compilation for month of March 1986. Volume 5, No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    This monthly report contains Licensee Event Report (LER) operational information that was processed into the LER data file of the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) during the one month period identified on the cover of the document. The LERs, from which this information is derived, are submitted to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by nuclear power plant licensees in accordance with federal regulations. Procedures for LER reporting for revisions to those events occurring prior to 1984 are described in NRC Regulatory Guide 1.16 and NUREG-1061. The LER summaries in this report are arranged alphabetically by facility name and then chronologically by event date for each facility. Component, system, keyword, and component vendor indexes follow the summaries. Vendors are those identified by the utility when the LER form is initiated; the keywords for the component, system, and general keyword indexes are assigned by the computer using correlation tables from the Sequence Coding and Search System

  18. The effects of power, leadership and psychological safety on resident event reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Nital P; Dow, Alan; Mazmanian, Paul E; Jundt, Dustin K; Appelbaum, Eric N

    2016-03-01

    Although the reporting of adverse events is a necessary first step in identifying and addressing lapses in patient safety, such events are under-reported, especially by frontline providers such as resident physicians. This study describes and tests relationships between power distance and leader inclusiveness on psychological safety and the willingness of residents to report adverse events. A total of 106 resident physicians from the departments of neurosurgery, orthopaedic surgery, emergency medicine, otolaryngology, neurology, obstetrics and gynaecology, paediatrics and general surgery in a mid-Atlantic teaching hospital were asked to complete a survey on psychological safety, perceived power distance, leader inclusiveness and intention to report adverse events. Perceived power distance (β = -0.26, standard error [SE] 0.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.37 to 0.15; p leadership practices build psychological safety and minimise power distance between low- and high-status members in order to support greater reporting of adverse events. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Collisionless encounters and the origin of the lunar inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevan, Kaveh; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2015-11-26

    The Moon is generally thought to have formed from the debris ejected by the impact of a planet-sized object with the proto-Earth towards the end of planetary accretion. Models of the impact process predict that the lunar material was disaggregated into a circumplanetary disk and that lunar accretion subsequently placed the Moon in a near-equatorial orbit. Forward integration of the lunar orbit from this initial state predicts a modern inclination at least an order of magnitude smaller than the lunar value--a long-standing discrepancy known as the lunar inclination problem. Here we show that the modern lunar orbit provides a sensitive record of gravitational interactions with Earth-crossing planetesimals that were not yet accreted at the time of the Moon-forming event. The currently observed lunar orbit can naturally be reproduced via interaction with a small quantity of mass (corresponding to 0.0075-0.015 Earth masses eventually accreted to the Earth) carried by a few bodies, consistent with the constraints and models of late accretion. Although the encounter process has a stochastic element, the observed value of the lunar inclination is among the most likely outcomes for a wide range of parameters. The excitation of the lunar orbit is most readily reproduced via collisionless encounters of planetesimals with the Earth-Moon system with strong dissipation of tidal energy on the early Earth. This mechanism obviates the need for previously proposed (but idealized) excitation mechanisms, places the Moon-forming event in the context of the formation of Earth, and constrains the pristineness of the dynamical state of the Earth-Moon system.

  20. Recreating Galileo's 1609 Discovery of Lunar Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Needham, Paul S.; Wright, Ernest T.; Gingerich, Owen

    2014-11-01

    The question of exactly which lunar features persuaded Galileo that there were mountains on the moon has not yet been definitively answered; Galileo was famously more interested in the concepts rather than the topographic mapping in his drawings and the eventual engravings. Since the pioneering work of Ewen Whitaker on trying to identify which specific lunar-terminator features were those that Galileo identified as mountains on the moon in his 1609 observations reported in his Sidereus Nuncius (Venice, 1610), and since the important work on the sequence of Galileo's observations by Owen Gingerich (see "The Mystery of the Missing 2" in Galilaeana IX, 2010, in which he concludes that "the Florentine bifolium sheet [with Galileo's watercolor images] is Galileo's source for the reworked lunar diagrams in Sidereus Nuncius"), there have been advances in lunar topographical measurements that should advance the discussion. In particular, one of us (E.T.W.) at the Scientific Visualization Studio of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has used laser-topography from NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter to recreate what Galileo would have seen over a sequence of dates in late November and early December 1609, and provided animations both at native resolution and at the degraded resolution that Galileo would have observed with his telescope. The Japanese Kaguya spacecraft also provides modern laser-mapped topographical maps.

  1. Lunar geophysics, geodesy, and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. G.; Dickey, J. O.

    2002-01-01

    Experience with the dynamics and data analyses for earth and moon reveals both similarities and differences. Analysis of Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) data provides information on the lunar orbit, rotation, solid-body tides, and retroreflector locations.

  2. The Future Lunar Flora Colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, E. G.; Guven, U. G.

    2017-10-01

    A constructional design for the primary establishment for a lunar colony using the micrometeorite rich soil is proposed. It highlights the potential of lunar regolith combined with Earth technology for water and oxygen for human outposts on the Moon.

  3. In situ simulation: Taking reported critical incidents and adverse events back to the clinic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jonas; Paltved, Charlotte; Krogh, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    for content analysis4 and thematic analysis5. Medical experts and simulation faculty will design scenarios for in situ simulation training based on the analysis. Short-term observations using time logs will be performed along with interviews with key informants at the departments. Video data will be collected...... improve patient safety if coupled with training and organisational support2. Insight into the nature of reported critical incidents and adverse events can be used in writing in situ simulation scenarios and thus lead to interventions that enhance patient safety. The patient safety literature emphasises...... well-developed non-technical skills in preventing medical errors3. Furthermore, critical incidents and adverse events reporting systems comprise a knowledgebase to gain in-depth insights into patient safety issues. This study explores the use of critical incidents and adverse events reports to inform...

  4. The reliability of manual reporting of clinical events in an anesthesia information management system (AIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpao, Allan F; Pruitt, Eric Y; Cook-Sather, Scott D; Gurnaney, Harshad G; Rehman, Mohamed A

    2012-12-01

    Manual incident reports significantly under-report adverse clinical events when compared with automated recordings of intraoperative data. Our goal was to determine the reliability of AIMS and CQI reports of adverse clinical events that had been witnessed and recorded by research assistants. The AIMS and CQI records of 995 patients aged 2-12 years were analyzed to determine if anesthesia providers had properly documented the emesis events that were observed and recorded by research assistants who were present in the operating room at the time of induction. Research assistants recorded eight cases of emesis during induction that were confirmed with the attending anesthesiologist at the time of induction. AIMS yielded a sensitivity of 38 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 8.5-75.5 %), while the sensitivity of CQI reporting was 13 % (95 % CI 0.3-52.7 %). The low sensitivities of the AIMS and CQI reports suggest that user-reported AIMS and CQI data do not reliably include significant clinical events.

  5. Mass loading of the Earth's magnetosphere by micron size lunar ejecta. 1: Ejecta production and orbital dynamics in cislunar space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, W. M.; Tanner, W. G.; Anz, P. D.; Chen, A. L.

    1986-01-01

    Particulate matter possessing lunar escape velocity sufficient to enhance the cislunar meteroid flux was investigated. While the interplanetary flux was extensively studied, lunar ejecta created by the impact of this material on the lunar surface is only now being studied. Two recently reported flux models are employed to calculate the total mass impacting the lunar surface due to sporadic meteor flux. There is ample evidence to support the contention that the sporadic interplanetary meteoroid flux enhances the meteroid flux of cislunar space through the creation of micron and submicron lunar ejecta with lunar escape velocity.

  6. Lunar and Vesta Web Portals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, E.; JPL Luna Mapping; Modeling Project Team

    2015-06-01

    The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project offers Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (http://lmmp.nasa.gov) and Vesta Trek Portal (http://vestatrek.jpl.nasa.gov) providing interactive visualization and analysis tools to enable users to access mapped Lunar and Vesta data products.

  7. Shallow Lunar Seismic Activity and the Current Stress State of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Thomas R.; Weber, Renee C.; Collins, Geoffrey C.; Johnson, Catherine L.

    2017-01-01

    A vast, global network of more than 3200 lobate thrust fault scarps has been revealed in high resolution Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) images. The fault scarps are very young, less than 50 Ma, based on their small scale and crisp appearance, crosscutting relations with small-diameter impact craters, and rates of infilling of associated small, shallow graben and may be actively forming today. The population of young thrust fault scarps provides a window into the recent stress state of the Moon and offers insight into the origin of global lunar stresses. The distribution of orientations of the fault scarps is non-random, inconsistent with isotropic stresses from late-stage global contraction as the sole source of stress. Modeling shows that tidal stresses contribute significantly to the current stress state of the lunar crust. Tidal stresses (orbital recession and diurnal tides) superimposed on stresses from global contraction result in non-isotropic compressional stress and may produce thrust faults consistent with lobate scarp orientations. At any particular point on the lunar surface, peak compressive stress will be reached at a certain time in the diurnal cycle. Coseismic slip events on currently active thrust faults are expected to be triggered when peak stresses are reached. Analysis of the timing of the 28 the shallow moonquakes recorded by the Apollo seismic network shows that 19 indeed occur when the Moon is closer to apogee, while only 9 shallow events occur when the Moon is closer to perigee. Here we report efforts to refine the model for the current stress state of the Moon by investigating the contribution of polar wander. Progress on relocating the epicentral locations of the shallow moonquakes using an algorithm designed for sparse networks is also reported.

  8. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Liu, Y.; Barnes, J. J.; Boyce, J. W.; Day, J. M. D.; Elardo, S. M.; Hui, H.; Magna, T.; Ni, P.; Tartese, R.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The chapter will begin with an introduction that defines magmatic volatiles (e.g., H, F, Cl, S) versus geochemical volatiles (e.g., K, Rb, Zn). We will discuss our approach of understanding both types of volatiles in lunar samples and lay the ground work for how we will determine the overall volatile budget of the Moon. We will then discuss the importance of endogenous volatiles in shaping the "Newer Views of the Moon", specifically how endogenous volatiles feed forward into processes such as the origin of the Moon, magmatic differentiation, volcanism, and secondary processes during surface and crustal interactions. After the introduction, we will include a re-view/synthesis on the current state of 1) apatite compositions (volatile abundances and isotopic compositions); 2) nominally anhydrous mineral phases (moderately to highly volatile); 3) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar pyroclastic glass beads; 4) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar basalts; 5) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of melt inclusions; and finally 6) experimental constraints on mineral-melt partitioning of moderately to highly volatile elements under lunar conditions. We anticipate that each section will summarize results since 2007 and focus on new results published since the 2015 Am Min review paper on lunar volatiles [9]. The next section will discuss how to use sample abundances of volatiles to understand the source region and potential caveats in estimating source abundances of volatiles. The following section will include our best estimates of volatile abundances and isotopic compositions (where permitted by available data) for each volatile element of interest in a number of important lunar reservoirs, including the crust, mantle, KREEP, and bulk Moon. The final section of the chapter will focus upon future work, outstanding questions

  9. Improving linear accelerator service response with a real- time electronic event reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoisak, Jeremy D P; Pawlicki, Todd; Kim, Gwe-Ya; Fletcher, Richard; Moore, Kevin L

    2014-09-08

    To track linear accelerator performance issues, an online event recording system was developed in-house for use by therapists and physicists to log the details of technical problems arising on our institution's four linear accelerators. In use since October 2010, the system was designed so that all clinical physicists would receive email notification when an event was logged. Starting in October 2012, we initiated a pilot project in collaboration with our linear accelerator vendor to explore a new model of service and support, in which event notifications were also sent electronically directly to dedicated engineers at the vendor's technical help desk, who then initiated a response to technical issues. Previously, technical issues were reported by telephone to the vendor's call center, which then disseminated information and coordinated a response with the Technical Support help desk and local service engineers. The purpose of this work was to investigate the improvements to clinical operations resulting from this new service model. The new and old service models were quantitatively compared by reviewing event logs and the oncology information system database in the nine months prior to and after initiation of the project. Here, we focus on events that resulted in an inoperative linear accelerator ("down" machine). Machine downtime, vendor response time, treatment cancellations, and event resolution were evaluated and compared over two equivalent time periods. In 389 clinical days, there were 119 machine-down events: 59 events before and 60 after introduction of the new model. In the new model, median time to service response decreased from 45 to 8 min, service engineer dispatch time decreased 44%, downtime per event decreased from 45 to 20 min, and treatment cancellations decreased 68%. The decreased vendor response time and reduced number of on-site visits by a service engineer resulted in decreased downtime and decreased patient treatment cancellations.

  10. Brand vs generic adverse event reporting patterns: An authorized generic-controlled evaluation of cardiovascular medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatawi, Y; Rahman, Md M; Cheng, N; Qian, J; Peissig, P L; Berg, R L; Page, C D; Hansen, R A

    2018-06-01

    Some public scepticism exists about generics in terms of whether brand and generic drugs produce identical outcomes. This study explores whether adverse event (AE) reporting patterns are similar between brand and generic drugs, using authorized generics (AGs) as a control for possible generic drug perception biases. Events reported to the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System from the years 2004-2015 were analysed. Drugs were classified as brand, AG or generic based on drug and manufacturer names. Reports were included if amlodipine, losartan, metoprolol extended release (ER) or simvastatin were listed as primary or secondary suspect drugs. Disproportionality analyses using the reporting odds ratio (ROR) assessed the relative rate of reporting labelled AEs compared to reporting these AEs with all other drugs. The Breslow-Day test compared RORs across brand, AG and generic. Interrupted time series analysis evaluated the impact of generic entry on reporting trends. Generics accounted for significant percentages of total U.S. reports, but AGs accounted for smaller percentages of reports, including for amlodipine (14.26%), losartan (1.48%), metoprolol ER (0.35%) and simvastatin (0.70%). Whereas the RORs were significantly different for multiple brand vs generic comparisons, the AG vs generic comparisons yielded fewer statistically significant findings. Namely, only the ROR for AG differed from generic for amlodipine with peripheral oedema (P brand and generic compared with AG and generic. Use of AGs as a control for perception biases against generics is useful, but this approach can be limited by small AG report numbers. Requiring the manufacturer name to be printed on the prescription bottle or packaging could improve the accuracy of assignment for products being reported. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. OSCAR experiment high-density network data report: Event 3 - April 16-17, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dana, M.T.; Easter, R.C.; Thorp, J.M.

    1984-12-01

    The OSCAR (Oxidation and Scavenging Characteristics of April Rains) experiment, conducted during April 1981, was a cooperative field investigation of wet removal in cyclonic storm systems. The high-density component of OSCAR was located in northeast Indiana and included sequential precipitation chemistry measurements on a 100 by 100 km network, as well as airborne air chemistry and cloud chemistry measurements, surface air chemistry measurements, and supporting meteorological measurements. Four separate storm events were studied during the experiment. This report summarizes data taken by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) during the third storm event, April 16-17. The report contains the high-density network precipitation chemistry data, air chemistry and cloud chemistry data from the PNL aircraft, and meteorological data for the event, including standard National Weather Service products and radar and rawindsonde data from the network. 4 references, 76 figures, 6 tables.

  12. OSCAR experiment high-density network data report: Event 1 - April 8-9, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dana, M.T.; Easter, R.C.; Thorp, J.M.

    1984-12-01

    The OSCAR (Oxidation and Scavenging Characteristics of April Rains) experiment, conducted during April 1981, was a cooperative field investigation of wet removal in cyclonic storm systems. The high-densiy component of OSCAR was located in northeast Indiana and included sequential precipitation chemistry measurements on a 100 by 100 km network, as well as airborne air chemistry and cloud chemistry measurements, surface air chemistry measurements, and supporting meteorological measurements. Four separate storm events were studied during the experiment. This report summarizes data taken by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) during the first storm event, April 8-9. The report contains the high-density network precipitation chemistry data, air chemistry data from the PNL aircraft, and meteorological data for the event, including standard National Weather Service products and radar data from the network. 4 references, 72 figures, 5 tables.

  13. Technology-Induced Errors and Adverse Event Reporting in an Organizational Learning Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinther, Line Dausel; Jensen, Christian Møller; Hjelmager, Ditte Meulengracht; Lyhne, Nicoline; Nøhr, Christian

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the possibilities of evaluating technology-induced errors, through the utilization of experiences of the Danish adverse event reporting system. The learning loop in the adverse event reporting system is identified and analyzed, to examine which elements can be utilized to evaluate technologies. The empirical data was collected through interviews and a workshop with members of the nursing staff at a nursing home in Aalborg, Denmark. It was found that, the establishment of sustainable feedback learning loops depends on shared visions in the organization and how creating shared visions requires involvement and participation. Secondly, care workers must possess fundamental knowledge about the technologies available to them. Thirdly comprehensive classification of adverse events should be established to allow for a systematic and goal directed feed-back process.

  14. Lunar seismicity, structure, and tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammlein, D. R.; Latham, G. V.; Dorman, J.; Nakamura, Y.; Ewing, M.

    1974-01-01

    Natural seismic events have been detected by the long-period seismometers at Apollo stations 16, 14, 15, and 12 at annual rates of 3300, 1700, 800, and 700, respectively, with peak activity at 13- to 14-day intervals. The data are used to describe magnitudes, source characteristics, and periodic features of lunar seismicity. In a present model, the rigid lithosphere overlies an asthenosphere of reduced rigidity in which present-day partial melting is probable. Tidal deformation presumably leads to critical stress concentrations at the base of the lithosphere, where moonquakes are found to occur. The striking tidal periodicities in the pattern of moonquake occurrence and energy release suggest that tidal energy is the dominant source of energy released as moonquakes. Thus, tidal energy is dissipated by moonquakes in the lithosphere and probably by inelastic processes in the asthenosphere.

  15. Report order and identification of multidimensional stimuli: a study of event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Kong-King; Shen, I-Hsuan

    2004-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of order of report on multidimensional stimulus identification. Subjects were required to identify each two-dimensional symbol by pushing corresponding buttons on the keypad on which there were two columns representing the two dimensions. Order of report was manipulated for the dimension represented by the left or right column. Both behavioral data and event-related potentials were recorded from 14 college students. Behavioral data analysis showed that order of report had a significant effect on response times. Such results were consistent with those of previous studies. Analysis of event-related brain potentials showed significant differences in peak amplitude and mean amplitude at time windows of 120-250 msec. at Fz, F3, and F4 and of 350-750 msec. at Fz, F3, F4, Cz, and Pz. Data provided neurophysiological evidence that reporting dimensional values according to natural language habits was appropriate and less cognitively demanding.

  16. TRANSIENT LUNAR PHENOMENA: REGULARITY AND REALITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crotts, Arlin P. S.

    2009-01-01

    Transient lunar phenomena (TLPs) have been reported for centuries, but their nature is largely unsettled, and even their existence as a coherent phenomenon is controversial. Nonetheless, TLP data show regularities in the observations; a key question is whether this structure is imposed by processes tied to the lunar surface, or by terrestrial atmospheric or human observer effects. I interrogate an extensive catalog of TLPs to gauge how human factors determine the distribution of TLP reports. The sample is grouped according to variables which should produce differing results if determining factors involve humans, and not reflecting phenomena tied to the lunar surface. Features dependent on human factors can then be excluded. Regardless of how the sample is split, the results are similar: ∼50% of reports originate from near Aristarchus, ∼16% from Plato, ∼6% from recent, major impacts (Copernicus, Kepler, Tycho, and Aristarchus), plus several at Grimaldi. Mare Crisium produces a robust signal in some cases (however, Crisium is too large for a 'feature' as defined). TLP count consistency for these features indicates that ∼80% of these may be real. Some commonly reported sites disappear from the robust averages, including Alphonsus, Ross D, and Gassendi. These reports begin almost exclusively after 1955, when TLPs became widely known and many more (and inexperienced) observers searched for TLPs. In a companion paper, we compare the spatial distribution of robust TLP sites to transient outgassing (seen by Apollo and Lunar Prospector instruments). To a high confidence, robust TLP sites and those of lunar outgassing correlate strongly, further arguing for the reality of TLPs.

  17. Development and Initial Validation of a Patient-Reported Adverse Drug Event Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Sieta T.; Mol, Peter G. M.; de Zeeuw, Dick; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; Denig, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Background Direct patient reporting of adverse drug events (ADEs) is relevant for the evaluation of drug safety. To collect such data in clinical trials and postmarketing studies, a valid questionnaire is needed that can measure all possible ADEs experienced by patients. Objective Our aim was to

  18. Bad news: The influence of news coverage and Google searches on Gardasil adverse event reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faasse, Kate; Porsius, Jarry T; Faasse, Jonathan; Martin, Leslie R

    2017-12-14

    Human papilloma virus vaccines are a safe and effective tool for reducing HPV infections that can cause cervical cancer. However, uptake of these vaccines has been suboptimal, with many people holding negative beliefs and misconceptions. Such beliefs have been linked with the experience of unpleasant side effects following medical treatment, and media coverage may heighten such concerns. The present study sought to assess the influence of news coverage (number of news articles per month) on adverse event reporting in response to Gardasil vaccination in New Zealand over a 7.5-year period, and whether the influence of news coverage was mediated by internet search activity (Google search volumes). Multiple linear regression analyses and simple mediation analyses were used, controlling for year and number of vaccinations delivered. News coverage in the previous month, and Google search volumes in the same month, were significant predictors of adverse event reporting, after accounting for vaccination rates and year. Concurrent Google search volumes partially mediated the effect of prior news coverage. The results suggest that some of the adverse events reported were not related to the vaccination itself, but to news coverage and internet search volumes, which may have contributed to public concerns about potentially unpleasant or harmful outcomes. These findings have implications for the importance of psychological and social factors in adverse event reporting, and the role of the news media in disseminating health information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Adverse Events in the Netherlands Vaccination Programme : Reports in 2010 and Review 1994-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer-de Bondt PE; Moorer-Lanser N; PHaff TAJ; Oostvogels B; Wesselo C; van der Maas NAT; LCI; cib

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, 800,000 children received one or more vaccines on 1.3 million dates, with more than 7 million vaccine components. There is always some chance of adverse reactions but these are usually not severe, though sometimes frightening. This year, RIVM received 1380 reports of adverse events

  20. 78 FR 41125 - Interim Enforcement Policy for Permanent Implant Brachytherapy Medical Event Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0114] Interim Enforcement Policy for Permanent Implant Brachytherapy Medical Event Reporting AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Policy statement; revision. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing an interim Enforcement Policy that allows...

  1. Licensee Event Report (LER) compilation for month of February 1984. Vol. 3, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-01

    This monthly report contains LER operational information that was processed into the LER data file of the Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) during this period. The LER summaries are arranged alphabetically by facility name and then chronologically by event date for each facility. Component, system, keyword, and component vendor indexes follow the summaries.

  2. 75 FR 16140 - Common Formats for Patient Safety Data Collection and Event Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... FR 45457-45458. Definition of Common Formats The term ``Common Formats'' is used to describe clinical... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Common Formats for Patient Safety Data Collection and Event Reporting AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and...

  3. Moonlighting? - Consequences of lunar cues on anuran reproductive activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Victoria A.; Höbel, Gerlinde

    2018-02-01

    While the influence of environmental variables, particularly temperature and rainfall, on the breeding behavior of amphibians is widely recognized, relatively few studies have addressed how the moon affects amphibian behavior. Yet, the lunar cycle provides several rhythmic temporal cues that animals could use to time important group events such as spawning, and the substantial changes in light levels associated with the different moon phases may also affect the behavior of nocturnal frogs. Using seven years of field observation data, we tested for lunar effects on the reproductive activity of male and female Eastern Gray Treefrogs (Hyla versicolor). We found that chorusing and breeding activity was statistically more likely to occur around the first quarter of the moon and during intermediately bright nights, but that reproductive activity also occurred during various other times during the lunar cycle. We discuss these findings in relation to the two main hypotheses of lunar effects on animals: predator avoidance and temporal synchronization of breeding.

  4. Spontaneous Adverse Event Reports Associated with Zolpidem in the United States 2003–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carmen K.; Marshall, Nathaniel S.; Grunstein, Ronald R.; Ho, Samuel S.; Fois, Romano A.; Hibbs, David E.; Hanrahan, Jane R.; Saini, Bandana

    2017-01-01

    Study Objectives: Stimulated reporting occurs when patients and healthcare professionals are influenced or “stimulated” by media publicity to report specific drug-related adverse reactions, significantly biasing pharmacovigilance analyses. Among countries where the non-benzodiazepine hypnotic drug zolpidem is marketed, the United States experienced a comparable surge of media reporting during 2006–2009 linking the above drug with the development of complex neuropsychiatric sleep-related behaviors. However, the effect of this stimulated reporting in the United States Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System has not been explored. Methods: Using disproportionality analyses, reporting odds ratios for zolpidem exposure and the following adverse events; parasomnia, movement-based parasomnia, nonmovement-based parasomnia, amnesia, hallucination, and suicidality were determined and compared to all other medications in the database, followed by specific comparison to the benzodiazepine hypnotic class, year-by-year from 2003 to 2012. Results: Odds ratios were increased significantly during and after the period of media publicity for parasomnias, movement-based parasomnias, amnesias and hallucinations. We also observed that zolpidem adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports have higher odds for parasomnias, movement-based parasomnias, amnesias, hallucinations, and suicidality compared to all other drugs, even before the media publicity cluster. Conclusions: Although our results indicate that zolpidem reports have higher odds for the ADR of interest even before the media publicity cluster, negative media coverage greatly exacerbated the reporting of these adverse reactions. The effect of such reporting must be borne in mind when decisions around drugs which have been the subject of intense media publicity are made by health professionals or regulatory bodies. Citation: Wong CK, Marshall NS, Grunstein RR, Ho SS, Fois RA, Hibbs DE, Hanrahan JR, Saini B

  5. Lunar electrostatic effects and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yongwei; Yuan, Qingyun; Xiong, Jiuliang

    2013-01-01

    The space environment and features on the moon surface are factors in strong electrostatic electrification. Static electricity will be produced in upon friction between lunar soil and detectors or astronauts on the lunar surface. Lunar electrostatic environment effects from lunar exploration equipment are very harmful. Lunar dust with electrostatic charge may enter the equipment or even cover the instruments. It can affect the normal performance of moon detectors. Owing to the huge environmental differences between the moon and the earth, the electrostatic protection technology on the earth can not be applied. In this paper, we review the electrostatic characteristics of lunar dust, its effects on aerospace equipment and moon static elimination technologies. It was concluded that the effect of charged lunar dust on detectors and astronauts should be completely researched as soon as possible.

  6. The Sooner Lunar Schooner: Lunar engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. P.; Hougen, D. F.; Shirley, D.

    2003-06-01

    The Sooner Lunar Schooner is a multi-disciplinary ongoing project at the University of Oklahoma to plan, design, prototype, cost and (when funds become available) build/contract and fly a robotic mission to the Moon. The goal of the flight will be to explore a small section of the Moon; conduct a materials analysis of the materials left there by an Apollo mission thirty years earlier; and to perform a selenographic survey of areas that were too distant or considered too dangerous to be done by the Apollo crew. The goal of the Sooner Lunar Schooner Project is to improve the science and engineering educations of the hundreds of undergraduate and graduate students working on the project. The participants, while primarily from engineering and physics, will also include representatives from business, art, journalism, law and education. This project ties together numerous existing research programs at the University, and provides a framework for the creation of many new research proposals. The authors were excited and motivated by the Apollo missions to the Moon. When we asked what we could do to similarly motivate students we realized that nothing is as exciting as going to the Moon. The students seem to agree.

  7. 'Case reporting of rare adverse events in otolaryngology': can we defend the case report?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dias, Andrew

    2012-01-31

    The study of errors in medicine has proliferated since the publication of The Institute of Medicine Report \\'TO ERR IS HUMAN\\' in 2000. Case nuances and process of care issues are valuable areas to explore if the goal is to provide the health care worker with the knowledge to avoid future errors. Meta-analysis and randomized controlled trials provide a large data base of evidence towards improvement and opportunities, but it is suggested that case reports can still provide valuable clinical information. The aim is to use the published literature to produce a series of rare harm case reports in E.N.T. The methods include systematic literature review. Journals searched in PUBMED were 60. Rare harm case obtained from the search were 5,322. Rare harm case reports not reported in any other form of evidence-based medicine were 40. Yes, the case report can be defended as it is an important pillar of evidence-based medicine.

  8. Medication errors: an analysis comparing PHICO's closed claims data and PHICO's Event Reporting Trending System (PERTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, David M; Pendrak, Robert F

    2003-07-01

    Clinical pharmacologists are all dedicated to improving the use of medications and decreasing medication errors and adverse drug reactions. However, quality improvement requires that some significant parameters of quality be categorized, measured, and tracked to provide benchmarks to which future data (performance) can be compared. One of the best ways to accumulate data on medication errors and adverse drug reactions is to look at medical malpractice data compiled by the insurance industry. Using data from PHICO insurance company, PHICO's Closed Claims Data, and PHICO's Event Reporting Trending System (PERTS), this article examines the significance and trends of the claims and events reported between 1996 and 1998. Those who misread history are doomed to repeat the mistakes of the past. From a quality improvement perspective, the categorization of the claims and events is useful for reengineering integrated medication delivery, particularly in a hospital setting, and for redesigning drug administration protocols on low therapeutic index medications and "high-risk" drugs. Demonstrable evidence of quality improvement is being required by state laws and by accreditation agencies. The state of Florida requires that quality improvement data be posted quarterly on the Web sites of the health care facilities. Other states have followed suit. The insurance industry is concerned with costs, and medication errors cost money. Even excluding costs of litigation, an adverse drug reaction may cost up to $2500 in hospital resources, and a preventable medication error may cost almost $4700. To monitor costs and assess risk, insurance companies want to know what errors are made and where the system has broken down, permitting the error to occur. Recording and evaluating reliable data on adverse drug events is the first step in improving the quality of pharmacotherapy and increasing patient safety. Cost savings and quality improvement evolve on parallel paths. The PHICO data

  9. Mixed Methods Analysis of Medical Error Event Reports: A Report from the ASIPS Collaborative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harris, Daniel M; Westfall, John M; Fernald, Douglas H; Duclos, Christine W; West, David R; Niebauer, Linda; Marr, Linda; Quintela, Javan; Main, Deborah S

    2005-01-01

    The Applied Strategies for Improving Patient Safety (ASIPS) collaborative developed an ambulatory primary care patient safety reporting system through an Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ...

  10. Toxicity of lunar dust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnarsson, D.; Carpenter, J.; Fubini, B.; Gerde, P.; Loftus, D.; Prisk, K.; Staufer, U.; Tranfield, E.; van Westrenen, W.

    2012-01-01

    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of

  11. Lunar Phases Planisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawl, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a lunar phases planisphere with which a user can answer questions about the rising and setting times of the Moon as well as questions about where the Moon will be at a given phase and time. The article contains figures that can be photocopied to make the planisphere. (Contains 2 figures.)

  12. Lunar magma transport phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    An outline of magma transport theory relevant to the evolution of a possible Lunar Magma Ocean and the origin and transport history of the later phase of mare basaltic volcanism is presented. A simple model is proposed to evaluate the extent of fractionation as magma traverses the cold lunar lithosphere. If Apollo green glasses are primitive and have not undergone significant fractionation en route to the surface, then mean ascent rates of 10 m/s and cracks of widths greater than 40 m are indicated. Lunar tephra and vesiculated basalts suggest that a volatile component plays a role in eruption dynamics. The predominant vapor species appear to be CO CO2, and COS. Near the lunar surface, the vapor fraction expands enormously and vapor internal energy is converted to mixture kinetic energy with the concomitant high-speed ejection of vapor and pyroclasts to form lunary fire fountain deposits such as the Apollo 17 orange and black glasses and Apollo 15 green glass.

  13. Case Report of Multiembolic Cerebrovascular Event Associated with Ramp Study Echocardiogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Butera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of ramp test echocardiogram-associated embolic events in the setting of therapeutic anticoagulation is likely rare and has not been reported. We present such a case in a patient with a HeartMate II left ventricular assist device (LVAD whose serial head computed tomography images, deteriorating clinical course, and the multiembolic nature of the event suggest causality. If the pretest probability of pump thrombosis in an individual LVAD patient is sufficiently high, the potential risks of performing a ramp study echocardiogram may not be warranted, even in the setting of adequate anticoagulation.

  14. World wide web for database of Japanese translation on international nuclear event scale reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Norio; Hirano, Masashi

    1999-01-01

    The International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) is a means designed for providing prompt, clear and consistent information related to nuclear events, that occurred at nuclear facilities, and facilitating communication between the nuclear community, the media and the public. The INES is jointly operated by the IAEA and the OECD-NEA. Nuclear events reported are rated by the Scale', a consistent safety significance indicator. The scale runs from level 0, for events with no safety significance, to level 7 for a major accident with widespread health and environmental effects. The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been promptly translating the INES reports into Japanese and developing a world-wide-web database for the Japanese translation, aiming at more efficient utilization of the INES information inside Japan. The present paper briefly introduces the definitions of INES rating levels and the scope of the Scale, and describes the outlines of the database (the information stored in the database, its functions and how to use it). As well, technical use of the INES reports and the availability/ effectiveness of the database are discussed. (author)

  15. A large-scale dataset of solar event reports from automated feature recognition modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Michael A.; Angryk, Rafal A.; Martens, Petrus C.

    2016-05-01

    The massive repository of images of the Sun captured by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission has ushered in the era of Big Data for Solar Physics. In this work, we investigate the entire public collection of events reported to the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK) from automated solar feature recognition modules operated by the SDO Feature Finding Team (FFT). With the SDO mission recently surpassing five years of operations, and over 280,000 event reports for seven types of solar phenomena, we present the broadest and most comprehensive large-scale dataset of the SDO FFT modules to date. We also present numerous statistics on these modules, providing valuable contextual information for better understanding and validating of the individual event reports and the entire dataset as a whole. After extensive data cleaning through exploratory data analysis, we highlight several opportunities for knowledge discovery from data (KDD). Through these important prerequisite analyses presented here, the results of KDD from Solar Big Data will be overall more reliable and better understood. As the SDO mission remains operational over the coming years, these datasets will continue to grow in size and value. Future versions of this dataset will be analyzed in the general framework established in this work and maintained publicly online for easy access by the community.

  16. When did the lunar core dynamo cease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikoo, S. M.; Weiss, B. P.; Shuster, D. L.; Fuller, M.

    2013-12-01

    Remanent magnetization in the lunar crust and in returned Apollo samples has long suggested that the Moon formed a metallic core and an ancient dynamo magnetic field. Recent paleomagnetic investigations of lunar samples demonstrate that the Moon had a core dynamo which produced ~30-110 μT surface fields between at least 4.2 and 3.56 billion years ago (Ga). Tikoo et al. (1) recently found that the field declined to below several μT by 3.19 Ga. However, given that even values of a few μT are at the upper end of the intensities predicted by dynamo theory for this late in lunar history, it remains uncertain when the lunar dynamo actually ceased completely. Determining this requires a young lunar rock with extraordinarily high magnetic recording fidelity. With this goal, we are conducting a new analysis of young regolith breccia 15498. Although the breccia's age is currently uncertain, the presence of Apollo 15-type mare basalt clasts provides an upper limit constraint of ~3.3 Ga, while trapped Ar data suggest a lithification age of ~1.3 Ga. In stark contrast to the multidomain character of virtually all lunar crystalline rocks, the magnetic carriers in 15498 are on average pseudo-single domain to superparamagnetic, indicating that the sample should provide high-fidelity paleointensity records. A previous alternating field (AF) and thermal demagnetization study of 15498 by Gose et al. (2) observed that the sample carries stable remanent magnetization which persists to unblocking temperatures of at least 650°C. Using a modified Thellier technique, they reported a paleointensity of 2 μT. Although this value may have been influenced by spurious remanence acquired during pretreatment with AF demagnetization, our results confirm the presence of an extremely stable (blocked to coercivities >290 mT) magnetization in the glassy matrix. We also found that this magnetization is largely unidirectional across mutually oriented subsamples. The cooling timescale of this rock (~1

  17. Indigenous lunar construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Wayne P.; Sture, Stein

    1991-01-01

    The utilization of local resources for the construction and operation of a lunar base can significantly reduce the cost of transporting materials and supplies from Earth. The feasibility of processing lunar regolith to form construction materials and structural components is investigated. A preliminary review of potential processing methods such as sintering, hot-pressing, liquification, and cast basalt techniques, was completed. The processing method proposed is a variation on the cast basalt technique. It involves liquification of the regolith at 1200-1300 C, casting the liquid into a form, and controlled cooling. While the process temperature is higher than that for sintering or hot-pressing (1000-1100 C), this method is expected to yield a true engineering material with low variability in properties, high strength, and the potential to form large structural components. A scenario for this processing method was integrated with a design for a representative lunar base structure and potential construction techniques. The lunar shelter design is for a modular, segmented, pressurized, hemispherical dome which could serve as habitation and laboratory space. Based on this design, estimates of requirements for power, processing equipment, and construction equipment were made. This proposed combination of material processing method, structural design, and support requirements will help to establish the feasibility of lunar base construction using indigenous materials. Future work will refine the steps of the processing method. Specific areas where more information is needed are: furnace characteristics in vacuum; heat transfer during liquification; viscosity, pouring and forming behavior of molten regolith; design of high temperature forms; heat transfer during cooling; recrystallization of basalt; and refinement of estimates of elastic moduli, compressive and tensile strength, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. The preliminary

  18. Act to keep patients safe: device-related adverse event reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoem, Scott R; Shah, Udayan K

    2010-05-01

    Primum non nocere- "Above all do no harm." Since the first year of medical school, we have all heard and spoken this dictum countless times. Translating this dictum into action may present challenges in our daily practice. Every day, clinicians must distinguish between scientific evidence, clinical experience, and marketing claims by industry vendors of improved efficacy and safety regarding medical devices. Adverse event reporting and device failure notification are generally laid out well in hospital practice settings. Reporting beyond the local level takes on a new dimension for most surgeons. Perceived stigma from peers and corporations, lack of confidentiality, and cynicism regarding protective actions for patients should not limit one from "raising the alarm" when concerns arise about device safety or performance. This commentary aims to explain the process for reporting device-related adverse events. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Stimulated reporting: the impact of US food and drug administration-issued alerts on the adverse event reporting system (FAERS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Keith B; Demakas, Andrea R; Dimbil, Mo; Tatonetti, Nicholas P; Erdman, Colin B

    2014-11-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) uses the Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) to support post-marketing safety surveillance programs. Currently, almost one million case reports are submitted to FAERS each year, making it a vast repository of drug safety information. Sometimes cited as a limitation of FAERS, however, is the assumption that "stimulated reporting" of adverse events (AEs) occurs in response to warnings, alerts, and label changes that are issued by the FDA. To determine the extent of "stimulated reporting" in the modern-day FAERS database. One hundred drugs approved by the FDA between 2001 and 2010 were included in this analysis. FDA alerts were obtained by a comprehensive search of the FDA's MedWatch and main websites. Publicly available FAERS data were used to assess the "primary suspect" AE reporting pattern for up to four quarters before, and after, the issuance of an FDA alert. A few drugs did demonstrate "stimulated reporting" trends. A majority of the drugs, however, showed little evidence for significant reporting changes associated with the issuance of alerts. When we compared the percentage changes in reporting after an FDA alert with those after a sham "control alert", the overall reporting trends appeared to be quite similar. Of 100 drugs analyzed for short-term reporting trends, 21 real alerts and 25 sham alerts demonstrated an increase (greater than or equal to 1 %) in reporting. The long-term analysis of 91 drugs showed that 24 real alerts and 28 sham alerts demonstrated a greater than or equal to 1 % increase. Our results suggest that most of modern day FAERS reporting is not significantly affected by the issuance of FDA alerts.

  20. Antipsychotics, glycemic disorders, and life-threatening diabetic events: a Bayesian data-mining analysis of the FDA adverse event reporting system (1968-2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuMouchel, William; Fram, David; Yang, Xionghu; Mahmoud, Ramy A; Grogg, Amy L; Engelhart, Luella; Ramaswamy, Krishnan

    2008-01-01

    This analysis compared diabetes-related adverse events associated with use of different antipsychotic agents. A disproportionality analysis of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) was performed. Data from the FDA postmarketing AERS database (1968 through first quarter 2004) were evaluated. Drugs studied included aripiprazole, clozapine, haloperidol, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone. Fourteen Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) Primary Terms (MPTs) were chosen to identify diabetes-related adverse events; 3 groupings into higher-level descriptive categories were also studied. Three methods of measuring drug-event associations were used: proportional reporting ratio, the empirical Bayes data-mining algorithm known as the Multi-Item Gamma Poisson Shrinker, and logistic regression (LR) analysis. Quantitative measures of association strength, with corresponding confidence intervals, between drugs and specified adverse events were computed and graphed. Some of the LR analyses were repeated separately for reports from patients under and over 45 years of age. Differences in association strength were declared statistically significant if the corresponding 90% confidence intervals did not overlap. Association with various glycemic events differed for different drugs. On average, the rankings of association strength agreed with the following ordering: low association, ziprasidone, aripiprazole, haloperidol, and risperidone; medium association, quetiapine; and strong association, clozapine and olanzapine. The median rank correlation between the above ordering and the 17 sets of LR coefficients (1 set for each glycemic event) was 93%. Many of the disproportionality measures were significantly different across drugs, and ratios of disproportionality factors of 5 or more were frequently observed. There are consistent and substantial differences between atypical antipsychotic drugs in the

  1. An adverse drug event manager facilitates spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Siri; Klarskov, Pia; Borgeskov, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is used for continuous risk-benefit evaluation of marketed pharmaceutical products and for signal detection. The Adverse Drug Event Manager (ADEM) is a service offered to clinicians employed at hospitals in the Capital Region......%). The drugs most frequently reported were lisdexamphetamine (n = 40), rivaroxaban (n = 16) and warfarin (n = 15) (vaccines excluded). In 13 out of 484 reports, the ADR was associated with a fatal outcome. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study indicate that an ADEM promotes and facilitates spontaneous ADR...

  2. Lunar Impact Flash Locations from NASA's Lunar Impact Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, D. E.; Suggs, R. M.; Kupferschmidt, L.; Feldman, J.

    2015-01-01

    Meteoroids are small, natural bodies traveling through space, fragments from comets, asteroids, and impact debris from planets. Unlike the Earth, which has an atmosphere that slows, ablates, and disintegrates most meteoroids before they reach the ground, the Moon has little-to-no atmosphere to prevent meteoroids from impacting the lunar surface. Upon impact, the meteoroid's kinetic energy is partitioned into crater excavation, seismic wave production, and the generation of a debris plume. A flash of light associated with the plume is detectable by instruments on Earth. Following the initial observation of a probable Taurid impact flash on the Moon in November 2005,1 the NASA Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) began a routine monitoring program to observe the Moon for meteoroid impact flashes in early 2006, resulting in the observation of over 330 impacts to date. The main objective of the MEO is to characterize the meteoroid environment for application to spacecraft engineering and operations. The Lunar Impact Monitoring Program provides information about the meteoroid flux in near-Earth space in a size range-tens of grams to a few kilograms-difficult to measure with statistical significance by other means. A bright impact flash detected by the program in March 2013 brought into focus the importance of determining the impact flash location. Prior to this time, the location was estimated to the nearest half-degree by visually comparing the impact imagery to maps of the Moon. Better accuracy was not needed because meteoroid flux calculations did not require high-accuracy impact locations. But such a bright event was thought to have produced a fresh crater detectable from lunar orbit by the NASA spacecraft Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). The idea of linking the observation of an impact flash with its crater was an appealing one, as it would validate NASA photometric calculations and crater scaling laws developed from hypervelocity gun testing. This idea was

  3. Department of Defense Suicide Event Report (DoDSER) Calendar Year 2014 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-16

    diagnoses identified in suicide DoDSER reports included mood (n= 17, 28.3%), adjustment (n = 14, 23.3%) and anxiety (n = 13, 21.7%) disorders . For suicide ...n = 35, 27.3%) and substance abuse (n = 35, 27.3%) disorders . For suicide attempt DoDSER reports, the most common diagnoses identified were mood (n...diagnoses identified in suicide DoDSER reports included mood (n= 10, 17.2%), adjustment (n = 8, 13.8%) and substance abuse (n = 8, 13.8%) disorders . For

  4. Designing adverse event forms for real-world reporting: participatory research in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Emma C; Chandler, Clare I R; Innocent, Simeon H S; Kalumuna, Charles; Terlouw, Dianne J; Lalloo, David G; Staedke, Sarah G; Haaland, Ane

    2012-01-01

    The wide-scale roll-out of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) for the treatment of malaria should be accompanied by continued surveillance of their safety. Post-marketing pharmacovigilance (PV) relies on adverse event (AE) reporting by clinicians, but as a large proportion of treatments are provided by non-clinicians in low-resource settings, the effectiveness of such PV systems is limited. To facilitate reporting, AE forms should be easily completed; however, most are challenging for lower-level health workers and non-clinicians to complete. Through participatory research, we sought to develop user-friendly AE report forms to capture information on events associated with ACTs.Following situation analysis, we undertook workshops with community medicine distributors and health workers in Jinja, Uganda, to develop a reporting form based on experiences and needs of users, and communication and visual perception principles. Participants gave feedback for revisions of subsequent versions. We then conducted 8 pretesting sessions with 77 potential end users to test and refine passive and active versions of the form.The development process resulted in a form that included a pictorial storyboard to communicate the rationale for the information needed and facilitate rapport between the reporter and the respondent, and a diary format to record the drug administration and event details in chronological relation to each other. Successive rounds of pretesting used qualitative and quantitative feedback to refine the form, with the final round showing over 80% of the form completed correctly by potential end users.We developed novel AE report forms that can be used by non-clinicians to capture pharmacovigilance data for anti-malarial drugs. The participatory approach was effective for developing forms that are intuitive for reporters, and motivating for respondents. The forms, or their key components, could be adapted for use in other low-literacy settings to improve quality

  5. Designing adverse event forms for real-world reporting: participatory research in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma C Davies

    Full Text Available The wide-scale roll-out of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs for the treatment of malaria should be accompanied by continued surveillance of their safety. Post-marketing pharmacovigilance (PV relies on adverse event (AE reporting by clinicians, but as a large proportion of treatments are provided by non-clinicians in low-resource settings, the effectiveness of such PV systems is limited. To facilitate reporting, AE forms should be easily completed; however, most are challenging for lower-level health workers and non-clinicians to complete. Through participatory research, we sought to develop user-friendly AE report forms to capture information on events associated with ACTs.Following situation analysis, we undertook workshops with community medicine distributors and health workers in Jinja, Uganda, to develop a reporting form based on experiences and needs of users, and communication and visual perception principles. Participants gave feedback for revisions of subsequent versions. We then conducted 8 pretesting sessions with 77 potential end users to test and refine passive and active versions of the form.The development process resulted in a form that included a pictorial storyboard to communicate the rationale for the information needed and facilitate rapport between the reporter and the respondent, and a diary format to record the drug administration and event details in chronological relation to each other. Successive rounds of pretesting used qualitative and quantitative feedback to refine the form, with the final round showing over 80% of the form completed correctly by potential end users.We developed novel AE report forms that can be used by non-clinicians to capture pharmacovigilance data for anti-malarial drugs. The participatory approach was effective for developing forms that are intuitive for reporters, and motivating for respondents. The forms, or their key components, could be adapted for use in other low-literacy settings

  6. Lunar Prospecting With Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Chandra data have also solved a long-running mystery about X-rays from the dark side of the Moon, as reported by Brad Wargelin of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Wargelin discussed how data from the German Roentgen satellite (ROSAT) obtained in 1990 showed a clear X-ray signal from the dark side. These puzzling "dark-Moon X-rays" were tentatively ascribed to energetic electrons streaming away from the Sun and striking the lunar surface. However, Chandra's observations of the energies of individual X-rays, combined with simultaneous measurements of the number of particles flowing away from the Sun in the solar wind, indicate that the X-rays only appear to come from the Moon. In reality they come from much closer to home. "Our results strongly indicate that the so-called dark Moon X-rays do not come from the dark side of the Moon," said Wargelin. "The observed X-ray spectrum, the intensity of the X-rays, and the variation of the X-ray intensity with time, can all be explained by emission from Earth's extended outer atmosphere, through which Chandra is moving." In the model cited by Wargelin and colleagues, collisions of heavy ions of carbon, oxygen and neon in the solar wind with atmospheric hydrogen atoms located tens of thousands of miles above the surface of the Earth give rise to these X-rays. In the collisions, the solar ions capture electrons from hydrogen atoms. The solar ions then kick out X-rays as the captured electrons drop to lower energy states. "This idea has been kicking around among a small circle of believers for several years supported by theory and a few pieces of evidence," said Wargelin. "These new results should really clinch it." NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for the Office of Space Science, NASA Headquarters, Washington. Northrop Grumman of Redondo Beach, Calif., formerly TRW, Inc., was the prime development contractor for the observatory. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory

  7. Line Profile Measurements of the Lunar Exospheric Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliversen, Ronald J.; Mierkiewicz, Edwin J.; Line, Michael R.; Roesler, Fred L.; Lupie, Olivia L.

    2012-01-01

    We report ongoing results of a program to measure the lunar sodium exospheric line profile from near the lunar limb out to two lunar radii (approx 3500 km). These observations are conducted from the National Solar Observatory McMath-Pierce telescope using a dual-etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometer with a resolving power of 180,600 (1.7 km/s) to measure line widths and velocity shifts of the Na D2 (5889 950 A) emission line in equatorial and polar regions at different lunar phases. The typical field of view (FOV) is 3 arcmin (approx 360 km) with an occasional smaller 1 arcmin FOV used right at the limb edge. The first data were obtained from full Moon to 3 days following full Moon (waning phase) in March 2009 as part of a demonstration run aimed at establishing techniques for a thorough study of temperatures and velocity variations in the lunar sodium exosphere. These data indicate velocity displacements from different locations off the lunar limb range between 150 and 600 m/s from the lunar rest velocity with a precision of +/- 20 to +/- 50 m/s depending on brightness. The measured Doppler line widths for observations within 10.5 arcmin of the east and south lunar limbs for observations between 5 deg and 40 deg lunar phase imply temperatures ranging decreasing from 3250 +/- 260K to 1175 +/- 150K. Additional data is now being collected on a quarterly basis since March 2011 and preliminary results will be reported.

  8. Serious reportable events within the inpatient mental health care: Impact on physicians and nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, J; Van Gerven, E; Lannoy, K; Panella, M; Euwema, M; Sermeus, W; De Hert, M; Vanhaecht, K

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the prevalence of physicians and nurses involved in an adverse event within mental health. A quantitative, cross-sectional study was performed. Six Flemish psychiatric hospitals (Belgium) participated in this exploratory cross-sectional study. All psychiatrists and nurses working in these hospitals were invited to complete an online questionnaire in March 2013. 28 psychiatrists and 252 nurses completed the survey. 205 (73%) of the 280 respondents were personally involved at least once in an adverse event within their entire career. Respondents reported that the adverse event with the greatest impact was related to suicide in almost 64% of the cases. About one in eight respondents considered quitting their job because of it. Almost 18% declared that due to the impact of the event, they believed that the quality of the administered care was affected for longer than one month. Respondents stated that they received much support of colleagues (95%), the chief nurse (86%) and the partner (71%). Colleagues seemed to be most supportive in the recovery process. Physicians and nurses working in inpatient mental health care may be at high risk to being confronted with an adverse event at some point in their career. The influence on health professionals involved in an adverse event on their work is particularly important in the first 4-24h. Professionals at those moments had higher likelihood to be involved in another adverse event. Institutions should seriously consider giving support almost at that time. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Motor palsies of cranial nerves (excluding VII) after vaccination: reports to the US Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Emily Jane; Winiecki, Scott K; Ou, Alan C

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed cranial nerve palsies, other than VII, that have been reported to the US Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). We examined patterns for differences in vaccine types, seriousness, age, and clinical characteristics. We identified 68 reports of cranial nerve palsies, most commonly involving the oculomotor (III), trochlear (IV), and abducens (VI) nerves. Isolated cranial nerve palsies, as well as palsies occurring as part of a broader clinical entity, were reported. Forty reports (59%) were classified as serious, suggesting that a cranial nerve palsy may sometimes be the harbinger of a broader and more ominous clinical entity, such as a stroke or encephalomyelitis. There was no conspicuous clustering of live vs. inactivated vaccines. The patient age range spanned the spectrum from infants to the elderly. Independent data may help to clarify whether, when, and to what extent the rates of cranial nerve palsies following particular vaccines may exceed background levels.

  10. The search for Ar in the lunar atmosphere using the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's LAMP instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, J. C.; Stern, S. A.; Feldman, P. D.; Gladstone, R.; Retherford, K. D.; Greathouse, T. K.; Grava, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Apollo 17 mass spectrometer, LACE, first measured mass 40 particles in the lunar atmosphere, and over a nine-month period, detected variations correlated with the lunar day (Hoffman et al., 1973, LPSC, 4, 2865). LACE detected a high particle density at dusk (0.6-1.0x104 cm-3), decreasing through the lunar night to a few hundred cm-3, then increasing rapidly before dawn to levels 2-4 times greater than at dusk. No daytime measurements were made due to instrument saturation. Given the LACE measurements' periodic nature, and the Ar abundance in lunar regolith samples (Kaiser, 1972, EPSL, 13, 387), it was concluded that mass 40 was likely due to Ar. Benna et al. (2014, LPSC, 45, 1535) recently reported that the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) aboard LADEE also detected Ar (mass 40) with similar diurnal profiles. We report on UV spectra of the lunar atmosphere as obtained by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Aboard LRO is the UV-spectrograph, LAMP (Lyman Alpha Mapping Project), spanning the spectral range 575 to 1965 Å. LAMP is typically oriented toward the surface and has been mapping the Moon since September 2009. LAMP also observes the tenuous lunar atmosphere when the surface is in darkness, but the atmospheric column below LRO is illuminated. We have previously used nadir oriented twilight observations to examine the sparse lunar atmosphere (Feldman et al., 2012, Icarus, 221, 854; Cook et al., 2013, Icarus, 225, 681; Stern et al., 2013, Icarus, 226, 1210; Cook & Stern 2014, Icarus, 236, 48). In Cook et al., 2013, we reported an upper limit for Ar of 2.3x104 cm-3. Since then, we have collected additional data and refined our search method by focusing on the regions (near equator) and local times (dawn and dusk) where Ar has been reported previously. We have carefully considered effective area calibration and g-factor accuracies and find these to be unlikely explanations for the order of magnitude differences. We will report new results, which provide much

  11. Clinical events in coronary patients who report low distress: adverse effect of repressive coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denollet, Johan; Martens, Elisabeth J; Nyklícek, Ivan; Conraads, Viviane M; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2008-05-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) patients who report low distress are considered to be at low psychological risk for clinical events. However, patients with a repressive coping style may fail to detect and report signals of emotional distress. The authors hypothesized that repressive CAD patients are at risk for clinical events, despite low self-rated distress. This was a prospective 5- to 10-year follow-up study, with a mean follow-up of 6.6 years. At baseline, 731 CAD patients filled out Trait-Anxiety (distress), Marlowe-Crowne (defensiveness), and Type D scales; 159 patients were classified as "repressive," 360 as "nonrepressive," and 212 as "Type D." The primary endpoint was a composite of total mortality or myocardial infarction (MI); the secondary endpoint was cardiac mortality/MI. No patients were lost to follow-up; 91 patients had a clinical event (including 35 cardiac death and 32 MI). Repressive patients reported low levels of anxiety, anger and depression at baseline, but were at increased risk for death/MI (21/159 = 13%) compared with nonrepressive patients (22/360 = 6%), p = .009. Poor systolic function, poor exercise tolerance, 3-vessel disease, index MI and Type-D personality--but not depression, anxiety or anger--also independently predicted clinical events. After controlling for these variables, repressive patients still had a twofold increased risk of death/MI, OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.10-4.08, p = .025). These findings were replicated for cardiac mortality/MI. CAD patients who use a repressive coping style are at increased risk for clinical events, despite their claims of low emotional distress. This phenomenon may cause an underestimation of the effect of stress on the heart. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. U-Pb geochronology of zircons form lunar Breccia 73217 using a sensitive high mass-resolution ion microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compston, W.; Williams, I.S.

    1984-01-01

    U-Pb age determinations on four lunar zircons from existing thin-sections of one highland breccia, 73217, using the recently constructed ion microprobe SHRIMP, are reported. The analytical reproducibility of SHRIMP is demonstrated, and procedures for measuring Pb/U, Th/U, and corecting for initial Pb are explained. Electron microprobe analyses for the zircons are also reported. The results show that the four zircons survived the lunar cataclysm without any identifiable effects on their U-Pb systematics. All four indicate a single age of 4356 +23 or -14 m.y. The zircons have experienced small variable amounts of Pb loss since crystallization, from almost zero up to about 10 percent. If this occurred during one later event, then age of the latter is between 1100 and 2300 m.y. 18 references

  13. Journalists' Occupational Stress: A Comparative Study between Reporting Critical Events and Domestic News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Susana; Marques-Pinto, Alexandra

    2017-07-27

    Nowadays, journalism is considered a stressful occupation, not only due to the stress perceived in journalists' daily work but also due to the critical, potentially traumatic events they report. However, research on journalists' occupational stress in both these professional settings is still scarce. This study aims to characterize and compare occupational stress variables perceived by journalists in their daily work and in critical scenarios. Taking the Holistic Model of Occupational Stress by Nelson and Simmons (2003) as a framework, 25 Portuguese journalists, all with experience in reporting critical events, were interviewed on their perceptions of some core variables of the model: occupational stressors, distress and eustress emotional reactions, and the consequences of these experiences on their well-being. Differences among these core variables, according to the number of deployments to a critical event, were statistically analysed in order to ascertain whether repeated exposure to trauma influenced journalists' occupational stress perceptions. The data content analysis showed that occupational stressors and emotional reactions differed across settings, while the consequences associated with journalists' experiences were perceived as being mainly negative in both occupational contexts. Significant differences were identified in some of these variables according to the number of deployments to a critical event (p studies.

  14. Signal Detection of Imipenem Compared to Other Drugs from Korea Adverse Event Reporting System Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyounghoon; Soukavong, Mick; Kim, Jungmee; Kwon, Kyoung Eun; Jin, Xue Mei; Lee, Joongyub; Yang, Bo Ram; Park, Byung Joo

    2017-05-01

    To detect signals of adverse drug events after imipenem treatment using the Korea Institute of Drug Safety & Risk Management-Korea adverse event reporting system database (KIDS-KD). We performed data mining using KIDS-KD, which was constructed using spontaneously reported adverse event (AE) reports between December 1988 and June 2014. We detected signals calculated the proportional reporting ratio, reporting odds ratio, and information component of imipenem. We defined a signal as any AE that satisfied all three indices. The signals were compared with drug labels of nine countries. There were 807582 spontaneous AEs reports in the KIDS-KD. Among those, the number of antibiotics related AEs was 192510; 3382 reports were associated with imipenem. The most common imipenem-associated AE was the drug eruption; 353 times. We calculated the signal by comparing with all other antibiotics and drugs; 58 and 53 signals satisfied the three methods. We compared the drug labelling information of nine countries, including the USA, the UK, Japan, Italy, Switzerland, Germany, France, Canada, and South Korea, and discovered that the following signals were currently not included in drug labels: hypokalemia, cardiac arrest, cardiac failure, Parkinson's syndrome, myocardial infarction, and prostate enlargement. Hypokalemia was an additional signal compared with all other antibiotics, and the other signals were not different compared with all other antibiotics and all other drugs. We detected new signals that were not listed on the drug labels of nine countries. However, further pharmacoepidemiologic research is needed to evaluate the causality of these signals. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2017

  15. Licensee Event Report System. Evaluation of first year results, and recommendations for improvements. Supplement No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    This report describes an evaluation of an industry-wide sample of Licensee Event Reports (LERs) that was conducted to determine whether or not these LERs were prepared in accordance with the requirements set forth in 10 CFR 50.73. The study was performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), by EG and G, Inc. This evaluation (NUREG/CR-4178) indicated that although the overall quality of the LERs was good, many LERs failed to meet all of the requirements. This report presents the methodology that was used to evaluate the LERs, the conclusions reached concerning problem areas in the reports, and suggestions as to how the overall quality and completeness of reports can be improved

  16. The simulation of lunar gravity field recovery from D-VLBI of Chang’E-1 and SELENE lunar orbiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jianguo; Ping, Jingsong; Matsumoto, K.; Li, Fei

    2008-07-01

    The lunar gravity field is a foundation to study the lunar interior structure, and to recover the evolution history of the Moon. It is still an open and key topic for lunar science. For above mentioned reasons, it becomes one of the important scientific objectives of recent lunar missions, such as KAGUYA (SELENE) the Japanese lunar mission and Chang’E-1, the Chinese lunar mission. The Chang’E-1 and the SELENE were successfully launched in 2007. It is estimated that these two missions can fly around the Moon longer than 6 months simultaneously. In these two missions, the Chinese new VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) network will be applied for precise orbit determination (POD) by using a differential VLBI (D-VLBI) method during the mission period. The same-beam D-VLBI technique will contribute to recover the lunar gravity field together with other conventional observables, i.e. R&RR (Range and Range Rate) and multi-way Doppler. Taking VLBI tracking conditions into consideration and using the GEODYNII/SOVLE software of GSFC/NASA/USA [Rowlands, D.D., Marshall, J.A., Mccarthy, J., et al. GEODYN II System Description, vols. 1 5. Contractor Report, Hughes STX Corp. Greenbelt, MD, 1997; Ullman, R.E. SOLVE program: mathematical formulation and guide to user input, Hughes/STX Contractor Report, Contract NAS5-31760. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, 1994], we simulated the lunar gravity field recovering ability with and without D-VLBI between the Chang’E-1 and SELENE main satellite. The cases of overlapped flying and tracking period of 30 days, 60 days and 90 days have been analyzed, respectively. The results show that D-VLBI tracking between two lunar satellites can improve the gravity field recovery remarkably. The results and methods introduced in this paper will benefit the actual missions.

  17. Development of an adverse events reporting form for Korean folk medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Hwan; Choi, Sun-Mi; Moon, Sujeong; Kim, Sungha; Kim, Boyoung; Kim, Min-Kyeoung; Lee, Sanghun

    2017-05-01

    We developed an adverse events (AEs) reporting form for Korean folk medicine. The first version of the form was developed and tested in the clinical setting for spontaneous reporting of AEs. Additional revisions to the reporting form were made based on collected data and expert input. We developed an AEs reporting form for Korean folk medicine. The items of this form were based on patient information, folk medicine properties, and AEs. For causality assessment, folk medicine properties such as classification, common and vernacular names, scientific name, part used, harvesting time, storage conditions, purchasing route, product licensing, prescription, persons with similar exposure, any remnant of raw natural products collected from the patient, and cautions or contraindications were added. This is the first reporting form for AEs that incorporates important characteristics of Korean folk medicine. This form would have an important role in reporting adverse events for Korean folk medicine. © 2016 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Petrology of lunar rocks and implication to lunar evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, W. I.

    1976-01-01

    Recent advances in lunar petrology, based on studies of lunar rock samples available through the Apollo program, are reviewed. Samples of bedrock from both maria and terra have been collected where micrometeorite impact penetrated the regolith and brought bedrock to the surface, but no in situ cores have been taken. Lunar petrogenesis and lunar thermal history supported by studies of the rock sample are discussed and a tentative evolutionary scenario is constructed. Mare basalts, terra assemblages of breccias, soils, rocks, and regolith are subjected to elemental analysis, mineralogical analysis, trace content analysis, with studies of texture, ages and isotopic composition. Probable sources of mare basalts are indicated.

  19. Spontaneous Adverse Event Reports Associated with Zolpidem in the United States 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carmen K; Marshall, Nathaniel S; Grunstein, Ronald R; Ho, Samuel S; Fois, Romano A; Hibbs, David E; Hanrahan, Jane R; Saini, Bandana

    2017-02-15

    Stimulated reporting occurs when patients and healthcare professionals are influenced or "stimulated" by media publicity to report specific drug-related adverse reactions, significantly biasing pharmacovigilance analyses. Among countries where the non-benzodiazepine hypnotic drug zolpidem is marketed, the United States experienced a comparable surge of media reporting during 2006-2009 linking the above drug with the development of complex neuropsychiatric sleep-related behaviors. However, the effect of this stimulated reporting in the United States Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System has not been explored. Using disproportionality analyses, reporting odds ratios for zolpidem exposure and the following adverse events; parasomnia, movement-based parasomnia, nonmovement-based parasomnia, amnesia, hallucination, and suicidality were determined and compared to all other medications in the database, followed by specific comparison to the benzodiazepine hypnotic class, year-by-year from 2003 to 2012. Odds ratios were increased significantly during and after the period of media publicity for parasomnias, movement-based parasomnias, amnesias and hallucinations. We also observed that zolpidem adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports have higher odds for parasomnias, movement-based parasomnias, amnesias, hallucinations, and suicidality compared to all other drugs, even before the media publicity cluster. Although our results indicate that zolpidem reports have higher odds for the ADR of interest even before the media publicity cluster, negative media coverage greatly exacerbated the reporting of these adverse reactions. The effect of such reporting must be borne in mind when decisions around drugs which have been the subject of intense media publicity are made by health professionals or regulatory bodies. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  20. Statin-associated muscular and renal adverse events: data mining of the public version of the FDA adverse event reporting system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Sakaeda

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Adverse event reports (AERs submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA were reviewed to assess the muscular and renal adverse events induced by the administration of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins and to attempt to determine the rank-order of the association. METHODS: After a revision of arbitrary drug names and the deletion of duplicated submissions, AERs involving pravastatin, simvastatin, atorvastatin, or rosuvastatin were analyzed. Authorized pharmacovigilance tools were used for quantitative detection of signals, i.e., drug-associated adverse events, including the proportional reporting ratio, the reporting odds ratio, the information component given by a Bayesian confidence propagation neural network, and the empirical Bayes geometric mean. Myalgia, rhabdomyolysis and an increase in creatine phosphokinase level were focused on as the muscular adverse events, and acute renal failure, non-acute renal failure, and an increase in blood creatinine level as the renal adverse events. RESULTS: Based on 1,644,220 AERs from 2004 to 2009, signals were detected for 4 statins with respect to myalgia, rhabdomyolysis, and an increase in creatine phosphokinase level, but these signals were stronger for rosuvastatin than pravastatin and atorvastatin. Signals were also detected for acute renal failure, though in the case of atorvastatin, the association was marginal, and furthermore, a signal was not detected for non-acute renal failure or for an increase in blood creatinine level. CONCLUSIONS: Data mining of the FDA's adverse event reporting system, AERS, is useful for examining statin-associated muscular and renal adverse events. The data strongly suggest the necessity of well-organized clinical studies with respect to statin-associated adverse events.

  1. Statin-associated muscular and renal adverse events: data mining of the public version of the FDA adverse event reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaeda, Toshiyuki; Kadoyama, Kaori; Okuno, Yasushi

    2011-01-01

    Adverse event reports (AERs) submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were reviewed to assess the muscular and renal adverse events induced by the administration of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) and to attempt to determine the rank-order of the association. After a revision of arbitrary drug names and the deletion of duplicated submissions, AERs involving pravastatin, simvastatin, atorvastatin, or rosuvastatin were analyzed. Authorized pharmacovigilance tools were used for quantitative detection of signals, i.e., drug-associated adverse events, including the proportional reporting ratio, the reporting odds ratio, the information component given by a Bayesian confidence propagation neural network, and the empirical Bayes geometric mean. Myalgia, rhabdomyolysis and an increase in creatine phosphokinase level were focused on as the muscular adverse events, and acute renal failure, non-acute renal failure, and an increase in blood creatinine level as the renal adverse events. Based on 1,644,220 AERs from 2004 to 2009, signals were detected for 4 statins with respect to myalgia, rhabdomyolysis, and an increase in creatine phosphokinase level, but these signals were stronger for rosuvastatin than pravastatin and atorvastatin. Signals were also detected for acute renal failure, though in the case of atorvastatin, the association was marginal, and furthermore, a signal was not detected for non-acute renal failure or for an increase in blood creatinine level. Data mining of the FDA's adverse event reporting system, AERS, is useful for examining statin-associated muscular and renal adverse events. The data strongly suggest the necessity of well-organized clinical studies with respect to statin-associated adverse events.

  2. Towards the creation of a flexible classification scheme for voluntarily reported transfusion and laboratory safety events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, Julie M; Schroder, John; Leonard, Dave; Horvath, Monica M; Cozart, Heidi; Ferranti, Jeffrey

    2012-05-18

    Transfusion and clinical laboratory services are high-volume activities involving complicated workflows across both ambulatory and inpatient environments. As a result, there are many opportunities for safety lapses, leading to patient harm and increased costs. Organizational techniques such as voluntary safety event reporting are commonly used to identify and prioritize risk areas across care settings. Creation of functional, standardized safety data structures that facilitate effective exploratory examination is therefore essential to drive quality improvement interventions. Unfortunately, voluntarily reported adverse event data can often be unstructured or ambiguously defined. To address this problem, we sought to create a "best-of-breed" patient safety classification for data contained in the Duke University Health System Safety Reporting System (SRS). Our approach was to implement the internationally recognized World Health Organization International Classification for Patient Safety Framework, supplemented with additional data points relevant to our organization. Data selection and integration into the hierarchical framework is discussed, as well as placement of the classification into the SRS. We evaluated the impact of the new SRS classification on system usage through comparisons of monthly average report rates and completion times before and after implementation. Monthly average inpatient transfusion reports decreased from 102.1 ± 14.3 to 91.6 ± 11.2, with the proportion of transfusion reports in our system remaining consistent before and after implementation. Monthly average transfusion report rates in the outpatient and homecare environments were not significantly different. Significant increases in clinical lab report rates were present across inpatient and outpatient environments, with the proportion of lab reports increasing after implementation. Report completion times increased modestly but not significantly from a practical standpoint. A

  3. Lunar Surface Potential Increases during Terrestrial Bow Shock Traversals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Hills, H. Kent; Halekas, Jasper; Farrell, William M.; Delory, Greg T.; Espley, Jared; Freeman, John W.; Vondrak, Richard R.; Kasper, Justin

    2009-01-01

    Since the Apollo era the electric potential of the Moon has been a subject of interest and debate. Deployed by three Apollo missions, Apollo 12, Apollo 14 and Apollo 15, the Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) determined the sunlit lunar surface potential to be about +10 Volts using the energy spectra of lunar ionospheric thermal ions accelerated toward the Moon. We present an analysis of Apollo 14 SIDE "resonance" events that indicate the lunar surface potential increases when the Moon traverses the dawn bow shock. By analyzing Wind spacecraft crossings of the terrestrial bow shock at approximately this location and employing current balancing models of the lunar surface, we suggest causes for the increasing potential. Determining the origin of this phenomenon will improve our ability to predict the lunar surface potential in support of human exploration as well as provide models for the behavior of other airless bodies when they traverse similar features such as interplanetary shocks, both of which are goals of the NASA Lunar Science Institute's Dynamic Response of the Environment At the Moon (DREAM) team.

  4. Stonehenge: A Simple and Accurate Predictor of Lunar Eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challener, S.

    1999-12-01

    Over the last century, much has been written about the astronomical significance of Stonehenge. The rage peaked in the mid to late 1960s when new computer technology enabled astronomers to make the first complete search for celestial alignments. Because there are hundreds of rocks or holes at Stonehenge and dozens of bright objects in the sky, the quest was fraught with obvious statistical problems. A storm of controversy followed and the subject nearly vanished from print. Only a handful of these alignments remain compelling. Today, few astronomers and still fewer archaeologists would argue that Stonehenge served primarily as an observatory. Instead, Stonehenge probably served as a sacred meeting place, which was consecrated by certain celestial events. These would include the sun's risings and settings at the solstices and possibly some lunar risings as well. I suggest that Stonehenge was also used to predict lunar eclipses. While Hawkins and Hoyle also suggested that Stonehenge was used in this way, their methods are complex and they make use of only early, minor, or outlying areas of Stonehenge. In contrast, I suggest a way that makes use of the imposing, central region of Stonehenge; the area built during the final phase of activity. To predict every lunar eclipse without predicting eclipses that do not occur, I use the less familiar lunar cycle of 47 lunar months. By moving markers about the Sarsen Circle, the Bluestone Circle, and the Bluestone Horseshoe, all umbral lunar eclipses can be predicted accurately.

  5. Sequence Coding and Search System for licensee event reports: user's guide. Volume 1, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, N.M.; Mays, G.T.; Johnson, M.P.

    1985-04-01

    Operating experience data from nuclear power plants are essential for safety and reliability analyses, especially analyses of trends and patterns. The licensee event reports (LERs) that are submitted to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the nuclear power plant utilities contain much of this data. The NRC's Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) has developed, under contract with NSIC, a system for codifying the events reported in the LERs. The primary objective of the Sequence Coding and Search System (SCSS) is to reduce the descriptive text of the LERs to coded sequences that are both computer-readable and computer-searchable. This system provides a structured format for detailed coding of component, system, and unit effects as well as personnel errors. The database contains all current LERs submitted by nuclear power plant utilities for events occurring since 1981 and is updated on a continual basis. This four volume report documents and describes SCSS in detail. Volume 1 is a User's Guide for searching the SCSS database. This volume contains updated material through February 1985 of the working version of ORNL/NSIC-223, Vol. 1

  6. Evaluation of corrective action data for reportable events at commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, G.T.

    1991-01-01

    805The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approved the adoption of cause codes for reportable events as a new performance indicator (PI) in March 1989. Corrective action data associated with the causes of events were to be compiled also. The corrective action data was considered as supplemental information but not identified formally as a performance indicator. In support of NRC, the Nuclear Operations Analysis Center (NOAC) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been routinely evaluating licensee event reports (LERs) for cause code and corrective action data since 1989. The compilation of corrective action data by NOAC represents the first systematic and comprehensive compilation of this type data. The thrust of analyzing the corrective action data was to identify areas where licensees allocated resources to solve problems and prevent the recurrence of personnel errors and equipment failures. The predominant areas of corrective action reported by licensees are to be evaluated by NRC to compare with NRC programs designed to improve plant performance. The set of corrective action codes used to correlate with individual cause codes and included in the analyses were: training, procedural modification, corrective discipline, management change, design modification, equipment replacement/adjustment, other, and unknown. 1 fig

  7. Laser-powered lunar base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costen, R.; Humes, D.H.; Walker, G.H.; Williams, M.D.; Deyoung, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    The objective was to compare a nuclear reactor-driven Sterling engine lunar base power source to a laser-to-electric converter with orbiting laser power station, each providing 1 MW of electricity to the lunar base. The comparison was made on the basis of total mass required in low-Earth-orbit for each system. This total mass includes transportation mass required to place systems in low-lunar orbit or on the lunar surface. The nuclear reactor with Sterling engines is considered the reference mission for lunar base power and is described first. The details of the laser-to-electric converter and mass are discussed. The next two solar-driven high-power laser concepts, the diode array laser or the iodine laser system, are discussed with associated masses in low-lunar-orbit. Finally, the payoff for laser-power beaming is summarized

  8. Lunar ash flows - Isothermal approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, S. I.; Hsieh, T.; O'Keefe, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Suggestion of the ash flow mechanism as one of the major processes required to account for some features of lunar soil. First the observational background and the gardening hypothesis are reviewed, and the shortcomings of the gardening hypothesis are shown. Then a general description of the lunar ash flow is given, and a simple mathematical model of the isothermal lunar ash flow is worked out with numerical examples to show the differences between the lunar and the terrestrial ash flow. The important parameters of the ash flow process are isolated and analyzed. It appears that the lunar surface layer in the maria is not a residual mantle rock (regolith) but a series of ash flows due, at least in part, to great meteorite impacts. The possibility of a volcanic contribution is not excluded. Some further analytic research on lunar ash flows is recommended.

  9. Latency and mode of error detection as reflected in Swedish licensee event reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svenson, Ola; Salo, Ilkka [Stockholm Univ., (Sweden). Dept. of Psychology

    2002-03-01

    Licensee event reports (LERs) from an industry provide important information feedback about safety to the industry itself, the regulators and to the public. LERs from four nuclear power reactors were analyzed to find out about detection times, mode of detection and qualitative differences in reports from different reactors. The reliability of the coding was satisfactory and measured as the covariance between the ratings from two independent judges. The results showed differences in detection time across the reactors. On the average about ten percent of the errors remained undetected for 100 weeks or more, but the great majority of errors were detected soon after their first appearance in the plant. On the average 40 percent of the errors were detected in regular tests and 40 per cent through alarms. Operators found about 10 per cent of the errors through noticing something abnormal in the plant. The remaining errors were detected in various other ways. There were qualitative differences between the LERs from the different reactors reflecting the different conditions in the plants. The number of reports differed by a magnitude 1:2 between the different plants. However, a greater number of LERs can indicate both higher safety standards (e.g., a greater willingness to report all possible events to be able to learn from them) and lower safety standards (e.g., reporting as few events as possible to make a good impression). It was pointed out that LERs are indispensable in order to maintain safety of an industry and that the differences between plants found in the analyses of this study indicate how error reports can be used to initiate further investigations for improved safety.

  10. Latency and mode of error detection as reflected in Swedish licensee event reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svenson, Ola; Salo, Ilkka

    2002-03-01

    Licensee event reports (LERs) from an industry provide important information feedback about safety to the industry itself, the regulators and to the public. LERs from four nuclear power reactors were analyzed to find out about detection times, mode of detection and qualitative differences in reports from different reactors. The reliability of the coding was satisfactory and measured as the covariance between the ratings from two independent judges. The results showed differences in detection time across the reactors. On the average about ten percent of the errors remained undetected for 100 weeks or more, but the great majority of errors were detected soon after their first appearance in the plant. On the average 40 percent of the errors were detected in regular tests and 40 per cent through alarms. Operators found about 10 per cent of the errors through noticing something abnormal in the plant. The remaining errors were detected in various other ways. There were qualitative differences between the LERs from the different reactors reflecting the different conditions in the plants. The number of reports differed by a magnitude 1:2 between the different plants. However, a greater number of LERs can indicate both higher safety standards (e.g., a greater willingness to report all possible events to be able to learn from them) and lower safety standards (e.g., reporting as few events as possible to make a good impression). It was pointed out that LERs are indispensable in order to maintain safety of an industry and that the differences between plants found in the analyses of this study indicate how error reports can be used to initiate further investigations for improved safety

  11. Analysis of adverse events with Essure hysteroscopic sterilization reported to the Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Safi, Zain A; Shavell, Valerie I; Hobson, Deslyn T G; Berman, Jay M; Diamond, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    The Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience database may be useful for clinicians using a Food and Drug Administration-approved medical device to identify the occurrence of adverse events and complications. We sought to analyze and investigate reports associated with the Essure hysteroscopic sterilization system (Conceptus Inc., Mountain View, CA) using this database. Retrospective review of the Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience database for events related to Essure hysteroscopic sterilization from November 2002 to February 2012 (Canadian Task Force Classification III). Online retrospective review. Online reports of patients who underwent Essure tubal sterilization. Essure tubal sterilization. Four hundred fifty-seven adverse events were reported in the study period. Pain was the most frequently reported event (217 events [47.5%]) followed by delivery catheter malfunction (121 events [26.4%]). Poststerilization pregnancy was reported in 61 events (13.3%), of which 29 were ectopic pregnancies. Other reported events included perforation (90 events [19.7%]), abnormal bleeding (44 events [9.6%]), and microinsert malposition (33 events [7.2%]). The evaluation and management of these events resulted in an additional surgical procedure in 270 cases (59.1%), of which 44 were hysterectomies. Sixty-one unintended poststerilization pregnancies were reported in the study period, of which 29 (47.5%) were ectopic gestations. Thus, ectopic pregnancy must be considered if a woman becomes pregnant after Essure hysteroscopic sterilization. Additionally, 44 women underwent hysterectomy after an adverse event reported to be associated with the use of the device. Copyright © 2013 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Development and feasibility of the misuse, abuse, and diversion drug event reporting system (MADDERS®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treister, Roi; Trudeau, Jeremiah J; Van Inwegen, Richard; Jones, Judith K; Katz, Nathaniel P

    2016-12-01

    Inappropriate use of analgesic drugs has become increasingly pervasive over the past decade. Currently, drug abuse potential is primarily assessed post-marketing; no validated tools are available to assess this potential in phase II and III clinical trials. This paper describes the development and feasibility testing of a Misuse, Abuse, and Diversion Drug Event Reporting System (MADDERS), which aims to identify potentially abuse-related events and classify them according to a recently developed classification scheme, allowing the quantification of these events in clinical trials. The system was initially conceived and designed with input from experts and patients, followed by field-testing to assess its feasibility and content validity in both completed and ongoing clinical trials. The results suggest that MADDERS is a feasible system with initial validity. It showed higher rates of the triggering events in subjects taking medications with known abuse potential than in patients taking medications without abuse potential. Additionally, experts agreed on the classification of most abuse-related events in MADDERS. MADDERS is a new systematic approach to collect information on potentially abuse-related events in clinical trials and classify them. The system has demonstrated feasibility for implementation. Additional research is ongoing to further evaluate its validity. Currently, there are no validated tools to assess drug abuse potential during clinical trials. Because of its ease of implementation, its systematic approach, and its preliminary validation results, MADDERS could provide such a tool for clinical trials. (Am J Addict 2016;25:641-651). © 2016 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  13. Lunar Riometry: Proof-of-Concept Instrument Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, J.; Jones, D. L.; MacDowall, R. J.; Stewart, K.; Giersch, L.; Burns, J. O.; Farrell, W. M.; Kasper, J. C.; O'Dwyer, I.; Hartman, J.

    2012-12-01

    The lunar exosphere is the exemplar of a plasma near the surface of an airless body. Exposed to both the solar and interstellar radiation fields, the lunar exosphere is mostly ionized, and enduring questions regarding its properties include its density and vertical extent, the extent of contributions from volatile outgassing from the Moon, and its behavior over time, including response to the solar wind and modification by landers. Relative ionospheric measurements (riometry) is based on the simple physical principle that electromagnetic waves cannot propagate through a partially or fully ionized medium below the plasma frequency, and riometers have been deployed on the Earth in numerous remote and hostile environments. A multi-frequency riometer on the lunar surface would be able to monitor, in situ, the vertical extent of the lunar exosphere over time. We describe a concept for a riometer implemented as a secondary science payload on future lunar landers, such as those recommended in the recent Planetary Sciences Decadal Survey report. The instrument concept is simple, consisting of an antenna implemented as a metal deposited on polyimide film and receiver. We illustrate various deployment mechanisms and performance of a prototype in increasing lunar analog conditions. While the prime mission of such a riometer would be probing the lunar exosphere, our concept would also be capable to measuring the properties of dust impactors. The Lunar University Network for Astrophysical Research consortium is funded by the NASA Lunar Science Institute to investigate concepts for astrophysical observatories on the Moon. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA.

  14. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles: Insights into the Abundances of Volatiles in the Moon from Lunar Apatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, Francis

    2016-01-01

    At the time of publication of New Views of the Moon, it was thought that the Moon was bone dry with less than about 1 ppb H2O. However in 2007, initial reports at the 38th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference speculated that H-species were present in both apatites and pyroclastic volcanic lunar glasses. These early reports were later confirmed through peer-review, which motivated many subsequent studies on magmatic volatiles in and on the Moon within the last decade. Some of these studies have cast into question the post-Apollo view of lunar formation, the distribution and sources of volatiles in the Earth-Moon system, and the thermal and magmatic evolution of the Moon. The mineral apatite has been one of the pillars of this new field of study, and it will be the primary focus of this abstract. Although apatite has been used both to understand the abundances of volatiles in lunar systems as well as the isotopic compositions of those volatiles, the focus here will be on the abundances of F, Cl, and H2O. This work demonstrates the utility of apatite in advancing our understanding of lunar volatiles, hence apatite should be among the topics covered in the endogenous lunar volatile chapter in NVM II. Truncated ternary plot of apatite X-site occupancy (mol%) from highlands apatite and mare basalt apatite plotted on the relative volatile abundance diagram from. The solid black lines delineate fields of relative abundances of F, Cl, and H2O (on a weight basis) in the melt from which the apatite crystallized. The diagram was constructed using available apatite/melt partitioning data for fluorine, chlorine, and hydroxyl.

  15. Lunar Core and Tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. G.; Boggs, D. H.; Ratcliff, J. T.

    2004-01-01

    Variations in rotation and orientation of the Moon are sensitive to solid-body tidal dissipation, dissipation due to relative motion at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, and tidal Love number k2 [1,2]. There is weaker sensitivity to flattening of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) [2,3,4] and fluid core moment of inertia [1]. Accurate Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) measurements of the distance from observatories on the Earth to four retroreflector arrays on the Moon are sensitive to lunar rotation and orientation variations and tidal displacements. Past solutions using the LLR data have given results for dissipation due to solid-body tides and fluid core [1] plus Love number [1-5]. Detection of CMB flattening, which in the past has been marginal but improving [3,4,5], now seems significant. Direct detection of the core moment has not yet been achieved.

  16. Lunar Health Monitor (LHM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisy, Frederick J.

    2015-01-01

    Orbital Research, Inc., has developed a low-profile, wearable sensor suite for monitoring astronaut health in both intravehicular and extravehicular activities. The Lunar Health Monitor measures respiration, body temperature, electrocardiogram (EKG) heart rate, and other cardiac functions. Orbital Research's dry recording electrode is central to the innovation and can be incorporated into garments, eliminating the need for conductive pastes, adhesives, or gels. The patented dry recording electrode has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The LHM is easily worn under flight gear or with civilian clothing, making the system completely versatile for applications where continuous physiological monitoring is needed. During Phase II, Orbital Research developed a second-generation LHM that allows sensor customization for specific monitoring applications and anatomical constraints. Evaluations included graded exercise tests, lunar mission task simulations, functional battery tests, and resting measures. The LHM represents the successful integration of sensors into a wearable platform to capture long-duration and ambulatory physiological markers.

  17. The Lunar Sample Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Sample Compendium is a succinct summary of the data obtained from 40 years of study of Apollo and Luna samples of the Moon. Basic petrographic, chemical and age information is compiled, sample-by-sample, in the form of an advanced catalog in order to provide a basic description of each sample. The LSC can be found online using Google. The initial allocation of lunar samples was done sparingly, because it was realized that scientific techniques would improve over the years and new questions would be formulated. The LSC is important because it enables scientists to select samples within the context of the work that has already been done and facilitates better review of proposed allocations. It also provides back up material for public displays, captures information found only in abstracts, grey literature and curatorial databases and serves as a ready access to the now-vast scientific literature.

  18. Lunar concrete for construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullingford, Hatice S.; Keller, M. Dean

    1988-01-01

    Feasibility of using concrete for lunar-base construction has been discussed recently without relevant data for the effects of vacuum on concrete. Experimental studies performed earlier at Los Alamos have shown that concrete is stable in vacuum with no deterioration of its quality as measured by the compressive strength. Various considerations of using concrete successfully on the moon are provided in this paper along with specific conclusions from the existing data base.

  19. First lunar outpost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andino, Aureo F.; Silva, Daniel; Ortiz, Nelson; Alvarez, Omar; Colon, Julio A.; Colon, Myrelle; Diaz, Alicia; Escobar, Xochiquetzal Y.; Garcia, Alberto; Gonzalez, Isabel C.

    1992-01-01

    Design and research efforts at the University of Puerto Rico have focused on the evaluation and refinement of the Habitability Criteria for a prolonged human presence in space during the last four years. Living quarters for a Mars mission and a third generation lunar base concept were proposed. This academic year, 1991-92, work on further refinement of the habitability criteria and design of partial gravity furniture was carried on. During the first semester, design alternatives for furniture necessary in a habitat design optimized for lunar and Martian environments were developed. Designs are based on recent research data from lunar and Mars gravity simulations, and current NASA standards. Artifacts will be submitted to NASA architects to be tested in KC-135 flights. Test findings will be submitted for incorporation in future updates to NASA habitat design standards. Second semester work was aimed at integrating these findings into the First Lunar Outpost (FLO), a mission scenario currently being considered by NASA. The mission consists of a manned return to the moon by crews of four astronauts for periods of 45 days. The major hardware components of the mission are as follows: (1) a Crew Module for the delivery of the crew and their supplies, and (2) the Habitat Module, which will arrive on the Moon unmanned. Our design efforts concentrated on this Habitat Module and on application of habitability criteria. Different geometries for the pressure vessel and their impact on the interior architecture were studied. Upon the selection of a geometry, a more detailed analysis of the interior design was performed, taking into consideration the reduced gravity, and the protection against radiation, micrometeorites, and the extreme temperature variation. A proposal for a FLO was submitted by the students, consisting essentially of a 24-feet (7.3 m.) by 35-feet (10.67 m) high vertical cylinder with work areas, crew quarters, galley, wardroom, leisure facilities, health

  20. Auditing an Online Self-reported Interventional Radiology Adverse Event Database for Compliance and Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Ezra A; Shyn, Paul B; Chick, Jeffrey F; Chauhan, Nikunj R

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether auditing an online self-reported interventional radiology quality assurance database improves compliance with record entry or improves the accuracy of adverse event (AE) reporting and grading. Physicians were trained in using the database before the study began. An audit of all database entries for the first 3 months, or the first quarter, was performed, at which point physicians were informed of the audit process; entries for the subsequent 3 months, or the second quarter, were again audited. Results between quarters were compared. Compliance with record entry improved from the first to second quarter, but reminders were necessary to ensure 100% compliance with record entry. Knowledge of the audit process did not significantly improve self-reporting of AE or accuracy of AE grading. However, auditing significantly changed the final AE reporting rates and grades. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Religion and Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, V.

    1969: The Eagle lands on the Moon. A moment that would not only mark the highest scientific achievement of all times, but would also have significant religious impli- cations. While the island of Bali lodges a protest at the United Nations against the US for desecrating a sacred place, Hopi Indians celebrate the fulfilment of an ancient prophecy that would reveal the "truth of the Sacred Ways". The plaque fastened to the Eagle - "We Came in Peace for All Mankind" would have contained the words "under God" as directed by the US president, if not for an assistant administrator at NASA that did not want to offend any religion. In the same time, Buzz Aldrin takes the Holy Communion on the Moon, and a Bible is left there by another Apollo mission - not long after the crew of Apollo 8 reads a passage from Genesis while circling the Moon. 1998: Navajo Indians lodge a protest with NASA for placing human ashes aboard the Lunar Prospector, as the Moon is a sacred place in their religion. Past, present and fu- ture exploration of the Moon has significant religious and spiritual implications that, while not widely known, are nonetheless important. Is lunar exploration a divine duty, or a sacrilege? This article will feature and thoroughly analyse the examples quoted above, as well as other facts, as for instance the plans of establishing lunar cemeteries - welcomed by some religions, and opposed by others.

  2. Lunar sample studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Lunar samples discussed and the nature of their analyses are: (1) an Apollo 15 breccia which is thoroughly analyzed as to the nature of the mature regolith from which it derived and the time and nature of the lithification process, (2) two Apollo 11 and one Apollo 12 basalts analyzed in terms of chemistry, Cross-Iddings-Pirsson-Washington norms, mineralogy, and petrography, (3) eight Apollo 17 mare basalts, also analyzed in terms of chemistry, Cross-Iddings-Pirsson-Washington norms, mineralogy, and petrography. The first seven are shown to be chemically similar although of two main textural groups; the eighth is seen to be distinct in both chemistry and mineralogy, (4) a troctolitic clast from a Fra Mauro breccia, analyzed and contrasted with other high-temperature lunar mineral assemblages. Two basaltic clasts from the same breccia are shown to have affinities with rock 14053, and (5) the uranium-thorium-lead systematics of three Apollo 16 samples are determined; serious terrestrial-lead contamination of the first two samples is attributed to bandsaw cutting in the lunar curatorial facility

  3. Modeling lunar volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housley, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    Simple physical arguments are used to show that basaltic volcanos on different planetary bodies would fountain to the same height if the mole fraction of gas in the magma scaled with the acceleration of gravity. It is suggested that the actual eruption velocities and fountain heights are controlled by the velocities of sound in the two phase gas/liquid flows. These velocities are in turn determined by the gas contents in the magma. Predicted characteristics of Hawaiian volcanos are in excellent accord with observations. Assuming that the only gas in lunar volcano is the CO which would be produced if the observed Fe metal in lunar basalts resulted from graphite reduction, lunar volcanos would fountain vigorously, but not as spectacularly as their terrestrial counterparts. The volatile trace metals, halogens, and sulfur released would be transported over the entire moon by the transient atmosphere. Orange and black glass type pyroclastic materials would be transported in sufficient amounts to produce the observed dark mantle deposits.

  4. Vaccine adverse event text mining system for extracting features from vaccine safety reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botsis, Taxiarchis; Buttolph, Thomas; Nguyen, Michael D; Winiecki, Scott; Woo, Emily Jane; Ball, Robert

    2012-01-01

    To develop and evaluate a text mining system for extracting key clinical features from vaccine adverse event reporting system (VAERS) narratives to aid in the automated review of adverse event reports. Based upon clinical significance to VAERS reviewing physicians, we defined the primary (diagnosis and cause of death) and secondary features (eg, symptoms) for extraction. We built a novel vaccine adverse event text mining (VaeTM) system based on a semantic text mining strategy. The performance of VaeTM was evaluated using a total of 300 VAERS reports in three sequential evaluations of 100 reports each. Moreover, we evaluated the VaeTM contribution to case classification; an information retrieval-based approach was used for the identification of anaphylaxis cases in a set of reports and was compared with two other methods: a dedicated text classifier and an online tool. The performance metrics of VaeTM were text mining metrics: recall, precision and F-measure. We also conducted a qualitative difference analysis and calculated sensitivity and specificity for classification of anaphylaxis cases based on the above three approaches. VaeTM performed best in extracting diagnosis, second level diagnosis, drug, vaccine, and lot number features (lenient F-measure in the third evaluation: 0.897, 0.817, 0.858, 0.874, and 0.914, respectively). In terms of case classification, high sensitivity was achieved (83.1%); this was equal and better compared to the text classifier (83.1%) and the online tool (40.7%), respectively. Our VaeTM implementation of a semantic text mining strategy shows promise in providing accurate and efficient extraction of key features from VAERS narratives.

  5. Impacts of European drought events: insights from an international database of text-based reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Kerstin; Kohn, Irene; Blauhut, Veit; Urquijo, Julia; De Stefano, Lucia; Acácio, Vanda; Dias, Susana; Stagge, James H.; Tallaksen, Lena M.; Kampragou, Eleni; Van Loon, Anne F.; Barker, Lucy J.; Melsen, Lieke A.; Bifulco, Carlo; Musolino, Dario; de Carli, Alessandro; Massarutto, Antonio; Assimacopoulos, Dionysis; Van Lanen, Henny A. J.

    2016-03-01

    Drought is a natural hazard that can cause a wide range of impacts affecting the environment, society, and the economy. Providing an impact assessment and reducing vulnerability to these impacts for regions beyond the local scale, spanning political and sectoral boundaries, requires systematic and detailed data regarding impacts. This study presents an assessment of the diversity of drought impacts across Europe based on the European Drought Impact report Inventory (EDII), a unique research database that has collected close to 5000 impact reports from 33 European countries. The reported drought impacts were classified into major impact categories, each of which had a number of subtypes. The distribution of these categories and types was then analyzed over time, by country, across Europe and for particular drought events. The results show that impacts on agriculture and public water supply dominate the collection of drought impact reports for most countries and for all major drought events since the 1970s, while the number and relative fractions of reported impacts in other sectors can vary regionally and from event to event. The analysis also shows that reported impacts have increased over time as more media and website information has become available and environmental awareness has increased. Even though the distribution of impact categories is relatively consistent across Europe, the details of the reports show some differences. They confirm severe impacts in southern regions (particularly on agriculture and public water supply) and sector-specific impacts in central and northern regions (e.g., on forestry or energy production). The protocol developed thus enabled a new and more comprehensive view on drought impacts across Europe. Related studies have already developed statistical techniques to evaluate the link between drought indices and the categorized impacts using EDII data. The EDII is a living database and is a promising source for further research on

  6. Recent events in NPPs and incident reporting system (IRS) activity. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The IAEA convened the 1996 Joint Meeting to Exchange Information on Recent Events in Nuclear Power Plants and the Technical Committee-Annual Meeting of the Incident Reporting System (IRS) national co-ordinators, organized jointly with the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the OECD in Paris, France from 22-26 April 1996. These consecutive meetings took place at the OECD Headquarters, 2 rue Andre Pascal. The main objective of the first meeting (22-24 April 1996) was to exchange and discuss information on recent events which occurred in NPPs. The second meeting (25-26 April 1996) was devoted to the IAEA and NEA activity in the framework of the IRS. The main issues of the programme at the meetings were as follows: in-depth discussion on NPP recent events, presented by the participants; panel discussion on operational safety experience issues identified by the participants; IAEA and NEA activities on IRS subjects in 1995-1996 and plans for the future; issues from the inter-agency's IRS Advisory Committee. Annexes I and II provide more information on the programme at the meetings. A list of participants is given in Annex III (50 participants from 22 countries and 3 international organization). Annexes IV and V provide information on national presentations on recent events. Figs, tabs

  7. Barriers to Safety Event Reporting in an Academic Radiology Department: Authority Gradients and Other Human Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewert, Bettina; Swedeen, Suzanne; Brook, Olga R; Eisenberg, Ronald L; Hochman, Mary

    2018-05-15

    Purpose To investigate barriers to reporting safety concerns in an academic radiology department and to evaluate the role of human factors, including authority gradients, as potential barriers to safety concern reporting. Materials and Methods In this institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant retrospective study, an online questionnaire link was emailed four times to all radiology department staff members (n = 648) at a tertiary care institution. Survey questions included frequency of speaking up about safety concerns, perceived barriers to speaking up, and the annual number of safety concerns that respondents were unsuccessful in reporting. Respondents' sex, role in the department, and length of employment were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed with the Fisher exact test. Results The survey was completed by 363 of the 648 employees (56%). Of those 363 employees, 182 (50%) reported always speaking up about safety concerns, 134 (37%) reported speaking up most of the time, 36 (10%) reported speaking up sometimes, seven (2%) reported rarely speaking up, and four (1%) reported never speaking up. Thus, 50% of employees spoke up about safety concerns less than 100% of the time. The most frequently reported barriers to speaking up included high reporting threshold (69%), reluctance to challenge someone in authority (67%), fear of disrespect (53%), and lack of listening (52%). Conclusion Of employees in a large academic radiology department, 50% do not attain 100% reporting of safety events. The most common human barriers to speaking up are high reporting threshold, reluctance to challenge authority, fear of disrespect, and lack of listening, which suggests that existing authority gradients interfere with full reporting of safety concerns. © RSNA, 2018.

  8. 78 FR 63221 - Guidance for Industry on Data Elements for Submission of Veterinary Adverse Event Reports to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ...] Guidance for Industry on Data Elements for Submission of Veterinary Adverse Event Reports to the Center for Veterinary Medicine; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... entitled ``Data Elements for Submission of Veterinary Adverse Event Reports to the Center for Veterinary...

  9. 75 FR 29352 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Data Elements for Submission of Veterinary Adverse Event Reports...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry on Data Elements for Submission of Veterinary Adverse Event Reports to the Center for Veterinary Medicine; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... industry 188 entitled ``Data Elements for Submission of Veterinary Adverse Event Reports to the Center for...

  10. Survey of reportable events in nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany. Period covered: 2nd quarter 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    There were 40 reportable events in the period covered. 39 events belonged to the lowest reporting category N (normal notification, INES scale 0), 1 incident belongs to the category E (immediate notification, INES scale 1). There was no release above limit of radioactivity nor were there any effects on man or environment. (orig.) [de

  11. A Hospital Nursing Adverse Events Reporting System Project: An Approach Based on the Systems Development Life Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yingjuan; Ball, Marion

    2017-01-01

    Based on the System Development Life Cycle, a hospital based nursing adverse event reporting system was developed and implemented which integrated with the current Hospital Information System (HIS). Besides the potitive outcomes in terms of timeliness and efficiency, this approach has brought an enormous change in how the nurses report, analyze and respond to the adverse events.

  12. Frequencies and trends of significant characteristics of reported events in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, G.; Matthes, H.

    2001-01-01

    In the frame of its support to the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety the GRS continuously performs in-depth technical analyses of reported events at operating nuclear power reactors in Germany which can be used for the determination of plant weaknesses with regard to reactor safety. During the last 18 months, in addition to those activities, the GRS has developed a data bank model for the statistical assessment of events. This model is based on a hierarchically structured, detailed coding system with respect to technical and safety relevant characteristics of the plants and the systematic characterization of plant-specific events. The data bank model is ready for practical application. Results of a first statistical evaluation, taking into account the data sets from the time period 1996 to 1999, are meanwhile available. By increasing the amount of data it will become possible to herewith improve the statements concerning trends of safety aspects. This report describes the coding system, the evaluation model, the data input and the evaluations performed during the period beginning in April 2000. (authors)

  13. Sequence Coding and Search System for licensee event reports: code listings. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallaher, R.B.; Guymon, R.H.; Mays, G.T.; Poore, W.P.; Cagle, R.J.; Harrington, K.H.; Johnson, M.P.

    1985-04-01

    Operating experience data from nuclear power plants are essential for safety and reliability analyses, especially analyses of trends and patterns. The licensee event reports (LERs) that are submitted to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the nuclear power plant utilities contain much of this data. The NRC's Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) has developed, under contract with NSIC, a system for codifying the events reported in the LERs. The primary objective of the Sequence Coding and Search System (SCSS) is to reduce the descriptive text of the LERs to coded sequences that are both computer-readable and computer-searchable. This system provides a structured format for detailed coding of component, system, and unit effects as well as personnel errors. The database contains all current LERs submitted by nuclear power plant utilities for events occurring since 1981 and is updated on a continual basis. Volume 2 contains all valid and acceptable codes used for searching and encoding the LER data. This volume contains updated material through amendment 1 to revision 1 of the working version of ORNL/NSIC-223, Vol. 2

  14. Frequencies and trends of significant characteristics of reported events in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farber, G.; Matthes, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Koln (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    In the frame of its support to the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety the GRS continuously performs in-depth technical analyses of reported events at operating nuclear power reactors in Germany which can be used for the determination of plant weaknesses with regard to reactor safety. During the last 18 months, in addition to those activities, the GRS has developed a data bank model for the statistical assessment of events. This model is based on a hierarchically structured, detailed coding system with respect to technical and safety relevant characteristics of the plants and the systematic characterization of plant-specific events. The data bank model is ready for practical application. Results of a first statistical evaluation, taking into account the data sets from the time period 1996 to 1999, are meanwhile available. By increasing the amount of data it will become possible to herewith improve the statements concerning trends of safety aspects. This report describes the coding system, the evaluation model, the data input and the evaluations performed during the period beginning in April 2000. (authors)

  15. Fusion power from lunar resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulcinski, G.L.; Schmitt, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the moon contains an enormous energy source in 3 He deposited by the solar wind. Fusion of only 100 kg of 3 He with deuterium in thermonuclear fusion power plants can produce > 1000 MW (electric) of electrical energy, and the lunar resource base is estimated at 1 x 10 9 kg of 3 He. This fuel can supply >1000 yr of terrestrial electrical energy demand. The methods for extracting this fuel and the other solar wind volatiles are described. Alternate uses of D- 3 He fusion in direct thrust rockets will enable more ambitious deep-space missions to be conducted. The capability of extracting hydrogen, water, nitrogen, and other carbon-containing molecules will open up the moon to a much greater level of human settlement than previously thought

  16. The timeline of the lunar bombardment: Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbidelli, A.; Nesvorny, D.; Laurenz, V.; Marchi, S.; Rubie, D. C.; Elkins-Tanton, L.; Wieczorek, M.; Jacobson, S.

    2018-05-01

    The timeline of the lunar bombardment in the first Gy of Solar System history remains unclear. Basin-forming impacts (e.g. Imbrium, Orientale), occurred 3.9-3.7 Gy ago, i.e. 600-800 My after the formation of the Moon itself. Many other basins formed before Imbrium, but their exact ages are not precisely known. There is an intense debate between two possible interpretations of the data: in the cataclysm scenario there was a surge in the impact rate approximately at the time of Imbrium formation, while in the accretion tail scenario the lunar bombardment declined since the era of planet formation and the latest basins formed in its tail-end. Here, we revisit the work of Morbidelli et al. (2012) that examined which scenario could be compatible with both the lunar crater record in the 3-4 Gy period and the abundance of highly siderophile elements (HSE) in the lunar mantle. We use updated numerical simulations of the fluxes of asteroids, comets and planetesimals leftover from the planet-formation process. Under the traditional assumption that the HSEs track the total amount of material accreted by the Moon since its formation, we conclude that only the cataclysm scenario can explain the data. The cataclysm should have started ∼ 3.95 Gy ago. However we also consider the possibility that HSEs are sequestered from the mantle of a planet during magma ocean crystallization, due to iron sulfide exsolution (O'Neil, 1991; Rubie et al., 2016). We show that this is likely true also for the Moon, if mantle overturn is taken into account. Based on the hypothesis that the lunar magma ocean crystallized about 100-150 My after Moon formation (Elkins-Tanton et al., 2011), and therefore that HSEs accumulated in the lunar mantle only after this timespan, we show that the bombardment in the 3-4 Gy period can be explained in the accretion tail scenario. This hypothesis would also explain why the Moon appears so depleted in HSEs relative to the Earth. We also extend our analysis of the

  17. Persistence and origin of the lunar core dynamo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suavet, Clément; Weiss, Benjamin P.; Cassata, William S.; Shuster, David L.; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Chan, Lindsey; Garrick-Bethell, Ian; Head, James W.; Grove, Timothy L.; Fuller, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    The lifetime of the ancient lunar core dynamo has implications for its power source and the mechanism of field generation. Here, we report analyses of two 3.56-Gy-old mare basalts demonstrating that they were magnetized in a stable and surprisingly intense dynamo magnetic field of at least ∼13 μT. These data extend the known lifetime of the lunar dynamo by ∼160 My and indicate that the field was likely continuously active until well after the final large basin-forming impact. This likely excludes impact-driven changes in rotation rate as the source of the dynamo at this time in lunar history. Rather, our results require a persistent power source like precession of the lunar mantle or a compositional convection dynamo. PMID:23650386

  18. Analysis of adverse events of renal impairment related to platinum-based compounds using the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganuma, Misa; Motooka, Yumi; Sasaoka, Sayaka; Hatahira, Haruna; Hasegawa, Shiori; Fukuda, Akiho; Nakao, Satoshi; Shimada, Kazuyo; Hirade, Koseki; Mori, Takayuki; Yoshimura, Tomoaki; Kato, Takeshi; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro

    2018-01-01

    Platinum compounds cause several adverse events, such as nephrotoxicity, gastrointestinal toxicity, myelosuppression, ototoxicity, and neurotoxicity. We evaluated the incidence of renal impairment as adverse events are related to the administration of platinum compounds using the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report database. We analyzed adverse events associated with the use of platinum compounds reported from April 2004 to November 2016. The reporting odds ratio at 95% confidence interval was used to detect the signal for each renal impairment incidence. We evaluated the time-to-onset profile of renal impairment and assessed the hazard type using Weibull shape parameter and used the applied association rule mining technique to discover undetected relationships such as possible risk factor. In total, 430,587 reports in the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report database were analyzed. The reporting odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for renal impairment resulting from the use of cisplatin, oxaliplatin, carboplatin, and nedaplatin were 2.7 (2.5-3.0), 0.6 (0.5-0.7), 0.8 (0.7-1.0), and 1.3 (0.8-2.1), respectively. The lower limit of the reporting odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for cisplatin was >1. The median (lower-upper quartile) onset time of renal impairment following the use of platinum-based compounds was 6.0-8.0 days. The Weibull shape parameter β and 95% confidence interval upper limit of oxaliplatin were impairment during cisplatin use in real-world setting. The present findings demonstrate that the incidence of renal impairment following cisplatin use should be closely monitored when patients are hypertensive or diabetic, or when they are co-administered furosemide, loxoprofen, or pemetrexed. In addition, healthcare professionals should closely assess a patient's background prior to treatment.

  19. Lunar imaging and ionospheric calibration for the Lunar Cherenkov technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McFadden, R.; Scholten, O.; Mevius, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Lunar Cherenkov technique is a promising method for UHE neutrino and cosmic ray detection which aims to detect nanosecond radio pulses produced during particle interactions in the Lunar regolith. For low frequency experiments, such as NuMoon, the frequency dependent dispersive effect of the

  20. CisLunar Habitat Internal Architecture Design Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R.; Kennedy, K.; Howard, R.; Whitmore, M.; Martin, C.; Garate, J.

    2017-01-01

    Habitat Internal Architecture Study is to become a forcing function to establish a common understanding of CisLunar Phase-1 Habitation Internal Architecture design criteria, processes, and tools. The scope of the CisLunar Habitat Internal Architecture study is to design, develop, demonstrate, and evaluate a Phase-1 CisLunar Habitat common module internal architecture based on design criteria agreed to by NASA, the International Partners, and Commercial Exploration teams. This task is to define the CisLunar Phase-1 Internal Architecture Government Reference Design, assist NASA in becoming a "smart buyer" for Phase-1 Habitat Concepts, and ultimately to derive standards and requirements from the Internal Architecture Design Process. The first step was to define a Habitat Internal Architecture Design Criteria and create a structured philosophy to be used by design teams as a filter by which critical aspects of consideration would be identified for the purpose of organizing and utilizing interior spaces. With design criteria in place, the team will develop a series of iterative internal architecture concept designs which will be assessed by means of an evaluation criteria and process. These assessments will successively drive and refine the design, leading to the combination and down-selection of design concepts. A single refined reference design configuration will be developed into in a medium-to-high fidelity mockup. A multi-day human-in-the-loop mission test will fully evaluate the reference design and validate its configuration. Lessons learned from the design and evaluation will enable the team to identify appropriate standards for Phase-1 CisLunar Habitat Internal Architecture and will enable NASA to develop derived requirements in support of maturing CisLunar Habitation capabilities. This paper will describe the criteria definition process, workshop event, and resulting CisLunar Phase-1 Habitat Internal Architecture Design Criteria.

  1. Isotopes as tracers of the sources of the lunar material and processes of lunar origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevan, Kaveh

    2014-09-13

    Ever since the Apollo programme, isotopic abundances have been used as tracers to study lunar formation, in particular to study the sources of the lunar material. In the past decade, increasingly precise isotopic data have been reported that give strong indications that the Moon and the Earth's mantle have a common heritage. To reconcile these observations with the origin of the Moon via the collision of two distinct planetary bodies, it has been proposed (i) that the Earth-Moon system underwent convective mixing into a single isotopic reservoir during the approximately 10(3) year molten disc epoch after the giant impact but before lunar accretion, or (ii) that a high angular momentum impact injected a silicate disc into orbit sourced directly from the mantle of the proto-Earth and the impacting planet in the right proportions to match the isotopic observations. Recently, it has also become recognized that liquid-vapour fractionation in the energetic aftermath of the giant impact is capable of generating measurable mass-dependent isotopic offsets between the silicate Earth and Moon, rendering isotopic measurements sensitive not only to the sources of the lunar material, but also to the processes accompanying lunar origin. Here, we review the isotopic evidence that the silicate-Earth-Moon system represents a single planetary reservoir. We then discuss the development of new isotopic tracers sensitive to processes in the melt-vapour lunar disc and how theoretical calculations of their behaviour and sample observations can constrain scenarios of post-impact evolution in the earliest history of the Earth-Moon system. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Temporal Variability of Lunar Exospheric Helium During January 2012 from LRO/LAMP

    OpenAIRE

    Feldman, Paul D.; Hurley, Dana M.; Retherford, Kurt D.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Stern, S. Alan; Pryor, Wayne; Parker, Joel Wm.; Kaufmann, David E.; Davis, Michael W.; Versteeg, Maarten; team, LAMP

    2012-01-01

    We report observations of the lunar helium exosphere made between December 29, 2011, and January 26, 2012, with the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) ultraviolet spectrograph on NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission (LRO). The observations were made of resonantly scattered He I 584 from illuminated atmosphere against the dark lunar surface on the dawn side of the terminator. We find no or little variation of the derived surface He density with latitude but day-to-day variations that li...

  3. Dietary supplement adverse events: report of a one-year poison center surveillance project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Christine; Kearney, Tom; Bent, Stephen; Ko, Richard; Benowitz, Neal; Olson, Kent

    2008-06-01

    The safety and efficacy of dietary supplements is of growing concern to regulators, health-care providers and consumers. Few scientific data exist on clinical effects and potential toxicities of marketed products. Harmful supplements may not be identified for months or years with existing adverse event monitoring mechanisms. Retrospective review of poison center statistics to capture supplement-associated toxicity also has limitations. We collaborated with the FDA Center for Food Safety and Nutrition (CFSAN) to conduct a 1-year prospective surveillance study of dietary supplement-related poison control center calls in 2006. Prompt follow-up of symptomatic cases, laboratory analysis of implicated dietary supplements, and causality assessment by a case review expert panel were performed. Of 275 dietary supplements calls, 41% involved symptomatic exposures; and two-thirds were rated as probably or possibly related to supplement use. Eight adverse events required hospital admission. Sympathomimetic toxicity was most common, with caffeine products accounting for 47%, and yohimbe products accounting for 18% of supplement-related symptomatic cases. Suspected drug-herb interactions occurred in 6 cases, including yohimbe co-ingested with buproprion (1) and methamphetamine (3), and additive anticoagulant/antiplatelet effects of NSAIDs taken with fish oils (1) and ginkgo (1). Laboratory analysis identified a pharmacologically active substance in 4 cases; supplement toxicity was ruled unlikely when analytical testing was negative in 5 cases. Most supplement-related adverse events were minor. Clinically significant toxic effects were most frequently reported with caffeine and yohimbe-containing products. Active surveillance of poison control center reports of dietary supplement adverse events enables rapid detection of potentially harmful products, which may facilitate regulatory oversight.

  4. Event reporting guidelines 10 CFR 50.72 and 50.73. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, D P; Harper, M R; Jones, W R; MacKinnon, J B; Sandin, S S

    1998-01-01

    Revision 1 to NUREG-1022 clarifies the immediate notification requirements of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 50, Section 50.72 (10 CFR 50.72), and the 30-day written licensee event report (LER) requirements of 10 CFR 50.73 for nuclear power plants. This revision was initiated to improve the reporting guidelines related to 10 CFR 50.72 and 50.73 and to consolidate these guidelines into a single reference document. A first draft of this document was noticed for public comment in the Federal Register on october 7, 1991 (56 FR 50598). A second draft was noticed for comment in the Federal Register on February 7, 1994 (59 FR 5614). This document updates and supersedes NUREG-1022 and its Supplements 1 and 2 (published in September 1983, February 1984, and September 1985, respectively). It does not change the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 50.72 and 50.73.

  5. Event reporting guidelines 10 CFR 50.72 and 50.73. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, D.P.; Harper, M.R.; Jones, W.R.; MacKinnon, J.B.; Sandin, S.S.

    1998-01-01

    Revision 1 to NUREG-1022 clarifies the immediate notification requirements of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 50, Section 50.72 (10 CFR 50.72), and the 30-day written licensee event report (LER) requirements of 10 CFR 50.73 for nuclear power plants. This revision was initiated to improve the reporting guidelines related to 10 CFR 50.72 and 50.73 and to consolidate these guidelines into a single reference document. A first draft of this document was noticed for public comment in the Federal Register on october 7, 1991 (56 FR 50598). A second draft was noticed for comment in the Federal Register on February 7, 1994 (59 FR 5614). This document updates and supersedes NUREG-1022 and its Supplements 1 and 2 (published in September 1983, February 1984, and September 1985, respectively). It does not change the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 50.72 and 50.73

  6. Application of Apollo cosmic radiation dosimetry to lunar colonization studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, R.A.; Bailey, J.V.; Brown, R.D.

    1972-01-01

    The radiation data gathered from the lunar landing missions of Apollo 11 through Apollo 15 are presented. These data have been analyzed to provide dosimetry evaluation of the ambient radiation and radiation from potential solar particle events for the planning of safe, long-term stays of relatively large numbers of individuals upon the moon. (U.S.)

  7. To what extent are adverse events found in patient records reported by patients and healthcare professionals via complaints, claims and incident reports?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Wal Gerrit

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient record review is believed to be the most useful method for estimating the rate of adverse events among hospitalised patients. However, the method has some practical and financial disadvantages. Some of these disadvantages might be overcome by using existing reporting systems in which patient safety issues are already reported, such as incidents reported by healthcare professionals and complaints and medico-legal claims filled by patients or their relatives. The aim of the study is to examine to what extent the hospital reporting systems cover the adverse events identified by patient record review. Methods We conducted a retrospective study using a database from a record review study of 5375 patient records in 14 hospitals in the Netherlands. Trained nurses and physicians using a method based on the protocol of The Harvard Medical Practice Study previously reviewed the records. Four reporting systems were linked with the database of reviewed records: 1 informal and 2 formal complaints by patients/relatives, 3 medico-legal claims by patients/relatives and 4 incident reports by healthcare professionals. For each adverse event identified in patient records the equivalent was sought in these reporting systems by comparing dates and descriptions of the events. The study focussed on the number of adverse event matches, overlap of adverse events detected by different sources, preventability and severity of consequences of reported and non-reported events and sensitivity and specificity of reports. Results In the sample of 5375 patient records, 498 adverse events were identified. Only 18 of the 498 (3.6% adverse events identified by record review were found in one or more of the four reporting systems. There was some overlap: one adverse event had an equivalent in both a complaint and incident report and in three cases a patient/relative used two or three systems to complain about an adverse event. Healthcare professionals

  8. An Attempt at Matching Waking Events Into Dream Reports by Independent Judges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia Xi; Shen, He Yong

    2018-01-01

    Correlations between memories and dreaming has typically been studied by linking conscious experiences and dream reports, which has illustrated that dreaming reflects waking life events, thoughts, and emotions. As some research suggests that sleep has a function of memory consolidation, and dreams reflect this, researching this relationship further may uncover more useful insights. However, most related research has been conducted using the self-report method which asks participants to judge the relationship between their own conscious experiences and dreams. This method may cause errors when the research purpose is to make comparisons between different groups, because individual differences cannot be balanced out when the results are compared among groups. Based on a knowledge of metaphors and symbols, we developed two operationalized definitions for independent judges to match conscious experiences and dreams, the descriptive incorporation and the metaphorical incorporation, and tested their reliability for the matching purpose. Two independent judges were asked to complete a linking task for 212 paired event-dreams. Results showed almost half dreams can be matched by independent judges, and the independent-judge method could provide similar proportions for the linking task, when compared with the self-report method. PMID:29681873

  9. Safety management as a foundation for evidence-based aeromedical standards and reporting of medical events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Anthony D; Watson, Dougal B; Evans, Sally A; Hastings, John; Singh, Jarnail; Thibeault, Claude

    2009-06-01

    The different interpretations by States (countries) of the aeromedical standards established by the International Civil Aviation Organization has resulted in a variety of approaches to the development of national aeromedical policy, and consequently a relative lack of harmonization. However, in many areas of aviation, safety management systems have been recently introduced and may represent a way forward. A safety management system can be defined as "A systematic approach to managing safety, including the necessary organizational structures, accountabilities, policies, and procedures" (1). There are four main areas where, by applying safety management principles, it may be possible to better use aeromedical data to enhance flight safety. These are: 1) adjustment of the periodicity and content of routine medical examinations to more accurately reflect aeromedical risk; 2) improvement in reporting and analysis of routine medical examination data; 3) improvement in reporting and analysis of in-flight medical events; and 4) support for improved reporting of relevant aeromedical events through the promotion of an appropriate culture by companies and regulatory authorities. This paper explores how the principles of safety management may be applied to aeromedical systems to improve their contribution to safety.

  10. Sequence Coding and Search System for licensee event reports: coder's manual. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallaher, R.B.; Guymon, R.H.; Mays, G.T.; Poore, W.P.; Cagle, R.J.; Harrington, K.H.; Johnson, M.P.

    1985-04-01

    Operating experience data from nuclear power plants are essential for safety and reliability analyses, especially analyses of trends and patterns. The licensee event reports (LERs) that are submitted to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the nuclear power plant utilities contain much of this data. The NRC's Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) has developed, under contract with NSIC, a system for codifying the events reported in the LERs. The primary objective of the Sequence Coding and Search System (SCSS) is to reduce the descriptive text of the LERs to coded sequences that are both computer-readable and computer-searchable. This four volume report documents and describes SCSS in detail. Volume 3 and 4 provide a technical processor, new to SCSS, the information and methodology necessary to capture descriptive data from the LER and to codify that data into a structured format and serve as reference material for the more experienced technical processor, and contains information that is essential for the more advanced user who needs to be familiar with the intricate coding techniques in order to retrieve specific details in a sequence. This volume contains updated material through amendment 1 to revision 1 of the working version of ORNL/NSIC-223, Vol. 4

  11. Sequence Coding and Search System for licensee event reports: coder's manual. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallaher, R.B.; Guymon, R.H.; Mays, G.T.; Poore, W.P.; Cagle, R.J.; Harrington, K.H.; Johnson, M.P.

    1985-04-01

    Operating experience data from nuclear power plants are essential for safety and reliability analyses, especially analyses of trends and patterns. The licensee event reports (LERs) that are submitted to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the nuclear power plant utilities contain much of this data. The NRC's Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) has developed, under contract with NSIC, a system for codifying the events reported in the LERs. The primary objective of the Sequence Coding and Search System (SCSS) is to reduce the descriptive text of the LERs to coded sequences that are both computer-readable and computer-searchable. This four volume report documents and describes SCSS in detail. Volumes 3 and 4 provide a technical processor, new to SCSS, the information and methodology necessary to capture descriptive data from the LER and to codify that data into a structured format and serve as reference material for the more experienced technical processor, and contains information is essential for the more advanced user who needs to be familiar with the intricate coding techniques in order to retrieve specific details in a sequence. This volume contains updated material through amendment 1 to revision 1 of the working version of ORNL/NSIC-223, Vol. 3

  12. LADEE UVS Observations of Atoms and Dust in the Lunar Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Colaprete, Anthony; Cook, Amanda M.; Shirley, Mark H.; Vargo, Kara E.; Elphic, Richard C.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Glenar, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) was a lunar orbiter launched in September 2013 that investigated the composition and temporal variation of the tenuous lunar exosphere and dust environment. A major goal of the mission was to characterize the dust exosphere prior to future lunar exploration activities, which may alter the lunar environment. The Ultraviolet/Visible Spectrometer (UVS) onboard LADEE addresses this goal, utilizing two sets of optics: a limbviewing telescope, and a solar-viewing telescope. We report on spectroscopic (approximately 280 - 820 nm) observations viewing down the lunar wake or along the 'lunar tail' from lunar orbit. Prior groundbased studies have observed the emission from neutral sodium atoms extended along the lunar tail, so often this region is referred to as the lunar sodium tail. UVS measurements were made on the dark side of the moon, with the UVS limb-viewing telescope pointed outward in the direction of the Moon's wake (almost anti-sun), during different lunar phases. These UVS observation activities sample a long column and allow the characterization of scattered light from dust and emission lines from atoms in the lunar tail. Observations in this UVS configuration show the largest excess of scattered blue light in our data set, indicative of the presence of small dust grains in the tail. Once lofted, nanoparticles may become charged and picked up by the solar wind, similar to the phenomena witnessed above Enceladus's northern hemisphere or by the STEREO/WAVES instrument while close to Earth's orbit. The UVS data show that small dust grains as well as atoms become entrained in the lunar tail.

  13. First Results from NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elphic, R. C.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Delory, G. T.; Noble, S. K.; Boroson, D.; Hine, B.; Salute, J.

    2013-12-01

    days in the event of contingencies. Following commissioning, the 100-day Science Phase is performed at an orbit with periapsis between 20-60 km. This orbit must be constantly managed due to the Moon's highly inhomogeneous gravity field. During the Science Phase, the moon will rotate more than three times underneath the LADEE orbit. LADEE employs a high heritage instrument payload: a Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) from Goddard Space Flight Center, an Ultraviolet/Visible Spectrometer (UVS) from Ames Research Center, and a dust detection experiment (LDEX) from the University of Colorado/LASP. It will also carry the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD) as a technology demonstration. The LLCD is funded by the Human Exploration Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD), managed by GSFC, and built by the MIT Lincoln Lab. Contingent upon LADEE's successful lunar orbit insertion and checkout, we will report the early results from the science investigations.

  14. Final Scientific Report, Integrated Seismic Event Detection and Location by Advanced Array Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvaerna, T.; Gibbons. S.J.; Ringdal, F; Harris, D.B.

    2007-01-30

    In the field of nuclear explosion monitoring, it has become a priority to detect, locate, and identify seismic events down to increasingly small magnitudes. The consideration of smaller seismic events has implications for a reliable monitoring regime. Firstly, the number of events to be considered increases greatly; an exponential increase in naturally occurring seismicity is compounded by large numbers of seismic signals generated by human activity. Secondly, the signals from smaller events become more difficult to detect above the background noise and estimates of parameters required for locating the events may be subject to greater errors. Thirdly, events are likely to be observed by a far smaller number of seismic stations, and the reliability of event detection and location using a very limited set of observations needs to be quantified. For many key seismic stations, detection lists may be dominated by signals from routine industrial explosions which should be ascribed, automatically and with a high level of confidence, to known sources. This means that expensive analyst time is not spent locating routine events from repeating seismic sources and that events from unknown sources, which could be of concern in an explosion monitoring context, are more easily identified and can be examined with due care. We have obtained extensive lists of confirmed seismic events from mining and other artificial sources which have provided an excellent opportunity to assess the quality of existing fully-automatic event bulletins and to guide the development of new techniques for online seismic processing. Comparing the times and locations of confirmed events from sources in Fennoscandia and NW Russia with the corresponding time and location estimates reported in existing automatic bulletins has revealed substantial mislocation errors which preclude a confident association of detected signals with known industrial sources. The causes of the errors are well understood and are

  15. Final Scientific Report, Integrated Seismic Event Detection and Location by Advanced Array Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvaerna, T.; Gibbons. S.J.; Ringdal, F; Harris, D.B.

    2007-01-01

    In the field of nuclear explosion monitoring, it has become a priority to detect, locate, and identify seismic events down to increasingly small magnitudes. The consideration of smaller seismic events has implications for a reliable monitoring regime. Firstly, the number of events to be considered increases greatly; an exponential increase in naturally occurring seismicity is compounded by large numbers of seismic signals generated by human activity. Secondly, the signals from smaller events become more difficult to detect above the background noise and estimates of parameters required for locating the events may be subject to greater errors. Thirdly, events are likely to be observed by a far smaller number of seismic stations, and the reliability of event detection and location using a very limited set of observations needs to be quantified. For many key seismic stations, detection lists may be dominated by signals from routine industrial explosions which should be ascribed, automatically and with a high level of confidence, to known sources. This means that expensive analyst time is not spent locating routine events from repeating seismic sources and that events from unknown sources, which could be of concern in an explosion monitoring context, are more easily identified and can be examined with due care. We have obtained extensive lists of confirmed seismic events from mining and other artificial sources which have provided an excellent opportunity to assess the quality of existing fully-automatic event bulletins and to guide the development of new techniques for online seismic processing. Comparing the times and locations of confirmed events from sources in Fennoscandia and NW Russia with the corresponding time and location estimates reported in existing automatic bulletins has revealed substantial mislocation errors which preclude a confident association of detected signals with known industrial sources. The causes of the errors are well understood and are

  16. Adverse events following yellow fever immunization: Report and analysis of 67 neurological cases in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Reinaldo de Menezes; Pavão, Ana Luiza Braz; de Oliveira, Patrícia Mouta Nunes; dos Santos, Paulo Roberto Gomes; Carvalho, Sandra Maria D; Mohrdieck, Renate; Fernandes, Alexandre Ribeiro; Sato, Helena Keico; de Figueiredo, Patricia Mandali; von Doellinger, Vanessa Dos Reis; Leal, Maria da Luz Fernandes; Homma, Akira; Maia, Maria de Lourdes S

    2014-11-20

    Neurological adverse events following administration of the 17DD substrain of yellow fever vaccine (YEL-AND) in the Brazilian population are described and analyzed. Based on information obtained from the National Immunization Program through passive surveillance or intensified passive surveillance, from 2007 to 2012, descriptive analysis, national and regional rates of YFV associated neurotropic, neurological autoimmune disease, and reporting rate ratios with their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated for first time vaccinees stratified on age and year. Sixty-seven neurological cases were found, with the highest rate of neurological adverse events in the age group from 5 to 9 years (2.66 per 100,000 vaccine doses in Rio Grande do Sul state, and 0.83 per 100,000 doses in national analysis). Two cases had a combination of neurotropic and autoimmune features. This is the largest sample of YEL-AND already analyzed. Rates are similar to other recent studies, but on this study the age group from 5 to 9 years of age had the highest risk. As neurological adverse events have in general a good prognosis, they should not contraindicate the use of yellow fever vaccine in face of risk of infection by yellow fever virus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis onset: evaluation based on vaccine adverse events reporting systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Pellegrino

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate epidemiological features of post vaccine acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM by considering data from different pharmacovigilance surveillance systems. METHODS: The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS database and the EudraVigilance post-authorisation module (EVPM were searched to identify post vaccine ADEM cases. Epidemiological features including sex and related vaccines were analysed. RESULTS: We retrieved 205 and 236 ADEM cases from the EVPM and VAERS databases, respectively, of which 404 were considered for epidemiological analysis following verification and causality assessment. Half of the patients had less than 18 years and with a slight male predominance. The time interval from vaccination to ADEM onset was 2-30 days in 61% of the cases. Vaccine against seasonal flu and human papilloma virus vaccine were those most frequently associated with ADEM, accounting for almost 30% of the total cases. Mean number of reports per year between 2005 and 2012 in VAERS database was 40±21.7, decreasing after 2010 mainly because of a reduction of reports associated with human papilloma virus and Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Polio and Haemophilus Influentiae type B vaccines. CONCLUSIONS: This study has a high epidemiological power as it is based on information on adverse events having occurred in over one billion people. It suffers from lack of rigorous case verification due to the weakness intrinsic to the surveillance databases used. At variance with previous reports on a prevalence of ADEM in childhood we demonstrate that it may occur at any age when post vaccination. This study also shows that the diminishing trend in post vaccine ADEM reporting related to Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Polio and Haemophilus Influentiae type B and human papilloma virus vaccine groups is most likely not [corrected] due to a decline in vaccine coverage indicative of a reduced attention to this adverse drug reaction.

  18. Chronology of early lunar crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasch, E.J.; Nyquist, L.E.; Ryder, G.

    1988-01-01

    The chronology of lunar rocks is summarized. The oldest pristine (i.e., lacking meteoritic contamination of admixed components) lunar rock, recently dated with Sm-Nd by Lugmair, is a ferroan anorthosite, with an age of 4.44 + 0.02 Ga. Ages of Mg-suite rocks (4.1 to 4.5 Ga) have large uncertainties, so that age differences between lunar plutonic rock suites cannot yet be resolved. Most mare basalts crystallized between 3.1 and 3.9 Ga. The vast bulk of the lunar crust, therefore, formed before the oldest preserved terrestrial rocks. If the Moon accreted at 4.56 Ga, then 120 Ma may have elapsed before lunar crust was formed

  19. Lunar Regolith Particle Shape Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiekhaefer, Rebecca; Hardy, Sandra; Rickman, Douglas; Edmunson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Future engineering of structures and equipment on the lunar surface requires significant understanding of particle characteristics of the lunar regolith. Nearly all sediment characteristics are influenced by particle shape; therefore a method of quantifying particle shape is useful both in lunar and terrestrial applications. We have created a method to quantify particle shape, specifically for lunar regolith, using image processing. Photomicrographs of thin sections of lunar core material were obtained under reflected light. Three photomicrographs were analyzed using ImageJ and MATLAB. From the image analysis measurements for area, perimeter, Feret diameter, orthogonal Feret diameter, Heywood factor, aspect ratio, sieve diameter, and sieve number were recorded. Probability distribution functions were created from the measurements of Heywood factor and aspect ratio.

  20. Bridging data models and terminologies to support adverse drug event reporting using EHR data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declerck, G; Hussain, S; Daniel, C; Yuksel, M; Laleci, G B; Twagirumukiza, M; Jaulent, M-C

    2015-01-01

    This article is part of the Focus Theme of METHODs of Information in Medicine on "Managing Interoperability and Complexity in Health Systems". SALUS project aims at building an interoperability platform and a dedicated toolkit to enable secondary use of electronic health records (EHR) data for post marketing drug surveillance. An important component of this toolkit is a drug-related adverse events (AE) reporting system designed to facilitate and accelerate the reporting process using automatic prepopulation mechanisms. To demonstrate SALUS approach for establishing syntactic and semantic interoperability for AE reporting. Standard (e.g. HL7 CDA-CCD) and proprietary EHR data models are mapped to the E2B(R2) data model via SALUS Common Information Model. Terminology mapping and terminology reasoning services are designed to ensure the automatic conversion of source EHR terminologies (e.g. ICD-9-CM, ICD-10, LOINC or SNOMED-CT) to the target terminology MedDRA which is expected in AE reporting forms. A validated set of terminology mappings is used to ensure the reliability of the reasoning mechanisms. The percentage of data elements of a standard E2B report that can be completed automatically has been estimated for two pilot sites. In the best scenario (i.e. the available fields in the EHR have actually been filled), only 36% (pilot site 1) and 38% (pilot site 2) of E2B data elements remain to be filled manually. In addition, most of these data elements shall not be filled in each report. SALUS platform's interoperability solutions enable partial automation of the AE reporting process, which could contribute to improve current spontaneous reporting practices and reduce under-reporting, which is currently one major obstacle in the process of acquisition of pharmacovigilance data.

  1. Severe Space Weather Events--Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report - Extended Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The effects of space weather on modern technological systems are well documented in both the technical literature and popular accounts. Most often cited perhaps is the collapse within 90 seconds of northeastern Canada's Hydro-Quebec power grid during the great geomagnetic storm of March 1989, which left millions of people without electricity for up to 9 hours. This event exemplifies the dramatic impact that severe space weather can have on a technology upon which modern society critically depends. Nearly two decades have passed since the March 1989 event. During that time, awareness of the risks of severe space weather has increased among the affected industries, mitigation strategies have been developed, new sources of data have become available, new models of the space environment have been created, and a national space weather infrastructure has evolved to provide data, alerts, and forecasts to an increasing number of users. Now, 20 years later and approaching a new interval of increased solar activity, how well equipped are we to manage the effects of space weather? Have recent technological developments made our critical technologies more or less vulnerable? How well do we understand the broader societal and economic impacts of severe space weather events? Are our institutions prepared to cope with the effects of a 'space weather Katrina,' a rare, but according to the historical record, not inconceivable eventuality? On May 22 and 23, 2008, a one-and-a-half-day workshop held in Washington, D.C., under the auspices of the National Research Council's (NRC's) Space Studies Board brought together representatives of industry, the federal government, and the social science community to explore these and related questions. The key themes, ideas, and insights that emerged during the presentations and discussions are summarized in 'Severe Space Weather Events--Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report' (The National Academies Press, Washington, D

  2. Lunar Geologic Mapping: A Preliminary Map of a Portion of the LQ-10 ("Marius") Quadrangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, T. K. P.; Yingst, R. A.

    2009-01-01

    Since the first lunar mapping program ended in the 1970s, new topographical, multispectral, elemental and albedo imaging datasets have become available (e.g., Clementine, Lunar Prospector, Galileo). Lunar science has also advanced within the intervening time period. A new systematic lunar geologic mapping effort endeavors to build on the success of earlier mapping programs by fully integrating the many disparate datasets using GIS software and bringing to bear the most current understanding of lunar geologic history. As part of this program, we report on a 1:2,500,000-scale preliminary map of a subset of Lunar Quadrangle 10 ("LQ-10" or the "Marius Quadrangle," see Figures 1 and 2), and discuss the first-order science results. By generating a geologic map of this region, we can constrain the stratigraphic and geologic relationships between features, revealing information about the Moon s chemical and thermal evolution.

  3. Lunar Circular Structure Classification from Chang 'e 2 High Resolution Lunar Images with Convolutional Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X. G.; Liu, J. J.; Zuo, W.; Chen, W. L.; Liu, Y. X.

    2018-04-01

    Circular structures are widely distributed around the lunar surface. The most typical of them could be lunar impact crater, lunar dome, et.al. In this approach, we are trying to use the Convolutional Neural Network to classify the lunar circular structures from the lunar images.

  4. Lunar architecture and urbanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1992-01-01

    Human civilization and architecture have defined each other for over 5000 years on Earth. Even in the novel environment of space, persistent issues of human urbanism will eclipse, within a historically short time, the technical challenges of space settlement that dominate our current view. By adding modern topics in space engineering, planetology, life support, human factors, material invention, and conservation to their already renaissance array of expertise, urban designers can responsibly apply ancient, proven standards to the exciting new opportunities afforded by space. Inescapable facts about the Moon set real boundaries within which tenable lunar urbanism and its component architecture must eventually develop.

  5. Data Analysis Techniques for a Lunar Surface Navigation System Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelmins, David; Sands, O. Scott; Swank, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    NASA is interested in finding new methods of surface navigation to allow astronauts to navigate on the lunar surface. In support of the Vision for Space Exploration, the NASA Glenn Research Center developed the Lunar Extra-Vehicular Activity Crewmember Location Determination System and performed testing at the Desert Research and Technology Studies event in 2009. A significant amount of sensor data was recorded during nine tests performed with six test subjects. This paper provides the procedure, formulas, and techniques for data analysis, as well as commentary on applications.

  6. An experimental investigation of masking in the US FDA adverse event reporting system database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsin-wei; Hochberg, Alan M; Pearson, Ronald K; Hauben, Manfred

    2010-12-01

    A phenomenon of 'masking' or 'cloaking' in pharmacovigilance data mining has been described, which can potentially cause signals of disproportionate reporting (SDRs) to be missed, particularly in pharmaceutical company databases. Masking has been predicted theoretically, observed anecdotally or studied to a limited extent in both pharmaceutical company and health authority databases, but no previous publication systematically assesses its occurrence in a large health authority database. To explore the nature, extent and possible consequences of masking in the US FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) database by applying various experimental unmasking protocols to a set of drugs and events representing realistic pharmacovigilance analysis conditions. This study employed AERS data from 2001 through 2005. For a set of 63 Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA®) Preferred Terms (PTs), disproportionality analysis was carried out with respect to all drugs included in the AERS database, using a previously described urn-model-based algorithm. We specifically sought masking in which drug removal induced an increase in the statistical representation of a drug-event combination (DEC) that resulted in the emergence of a new SDR. We performed a series of unmasking experiments selecting drugs for removal using rational statistical decision rules based on the requirement of a reporting ratio (RR) >1, top-ranked statistical unexpectedness (SU) and relatedness as reflected in the WHO Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical level 4 (ATC4) grouping. In order to assess the possible extent of residual masking we performed two supplemental purely empirical analyses on a limited subset of data. This entailed testing every drug and drug group to determine which was most influential in uncovering masked SDRs. We assessed the strength of external evidence for a causal association for a small number of masked SDRs involving a subset of 29 drugs for which level of evidence

  7. Crystallization Age and Impact Resetting of Ancient Lunar Crust from the Descartes Terrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, M. D.; Borg, L. E.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D. D.

    2002-01-01

    Lunar ferroan anorthosites (FANs) are relics of an ancient, primary feldspathic crust that is widely believed to have crystallized from a global magma ocean. Compositions and ages of FANs provide fundamental information about the origin and magmatic evolution of the Moon, while the petrology and thermal history of lunar FANs illustrate the structure and impact history of the lunar crust. Here we report petrologic, geochemical, and isotopic (Nd-Sr-Ar) studies of a ferroan noritic anorthosite clast from lunar breccia 67215 to improve our understanding of the composition, age, and thermal history of the Moon.

  8. Evidence Report: Risk of Crew Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Sams, Clarence F.

    2013-01-01

    The Risk of Crew Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response is identified by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Human Research Program (HRP) as a recognized risk to human health and performance in space. The HRP Program Requirements Document (PRD) defines these risks. This Evidence Report provides a summary of the evidence that has been used to identify and characterize this risk. It is known that human immune function is altered in- and post-flight, but it is unclear at present if such alterations lead to increased susceptibility to disease. Reactivation of latent viruses has been documented in crewmembers, although this reactivation has not been directly correlated with immune changes or with observed diseases. As described in this report, further research is required to better characterize the relationships between altered immune response and susceptibility to disease during and after spaceflight. This is particularly important for future deep-space exploration missions.

  9. Hydrogen Distribution in the Lunar Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanin, A. B.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Bakhtin, B. N.; Bodnarik, J. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Evans, L. G.; Harshmann, K.; Fedosov, F.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present a method of conversion of the lunar neutron counting rate measured by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) instrument collimated neutron detectors, to water equivalent hydrogen (WEH) in the top approximately 1 m layer of lunar regolith. Polar maps of the Moon’s inferred hydrogen abundance are presented and discussed.

  10. Lunar Topography: Results from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Gregory; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Mazarico, Erwan

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has been operating nearly continuously since July 2009, accumulating over 6 billion measurements from more than 2 billion in-orbit laser shots. LRO's near-polar orbit results in very high data density in the immediate vicinity of the lunar poles, with full coverage at the equator from more than 12000 orbital tracks averaging less than 1 km in spacing at the equator. LRO has obtained a global geodetic model of the lunar topography with 50-meter horizontal and 1-m radial accuracy in a lunar center-of-mass coordinate system, with profiles of topography at 20-m horizontal resolution, and 0.1-m vertical precision. LOLA also provides measurements of reflectivity and surface roughness down to its 5-m laser spot size. With these data LOLA has measured the shape of all lunar craters 20 km and larger. In the proposed extended mission commencing late in 2012, LOLA will concentrate observations in the Southern Hemisphere, improving the density of the polar coverage to nearly 10-m pixel resolution and accuracy to better than 20 m total position error. Uses for these data include mission planning and targeting, illumination studies, geodetic control of images, as well as lunar geology and geophysics. Further improvements in geodetic accuracy are anticipated from the use of re ned gravity fields after the successful completion of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission in 2012.

  11. Choosing Appropriate Theories for Understanding Hospital Reporting of Adverse Drug Events, a Theoretical Domains Framework Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalviri, Gloria; Yazdizadeh, Bahareh; Mirbaha, Fariba; Gholami, Kheirollah; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2018-01-01

    Adverse drug events (ADEs) may cause serious injuries including death. Spontaneous reporting of ADEs plays a great role in detection and prevention of them; however, underreporting always exists. Although several interventions have been utilized to solve this problem, they are mainly based on experience and the rationale for choosing them has no theoretical base. The vast variety of behavioural theories makes it difficult to choose appropriate theory. Theoretical domains framework (TDF) is suggested as a solution. The objective of this study was to select the best theory for evaluating ADE reporting in hospitals based on TDF. We carried out three focus group discussions with hospital pharmacists and nurses, based on TDF questions. The analysis was performed through five steps including coding discussions transcript, extracting beliefs, selecting relevant domains, matching related constructs to the extracted beliefs, and determining the appropriate theories in each domain. The theory with the highest number of matched domains and constructs was selected as the theory of choice. A total of six domains were identified relevant to ADE reporting, including "Knowledge", "Skills", "Beliefs about consequences", "Motivation and goals", "Environmental context and resources" and "Social influences". We found theory of planned behavior as the comprehensive theory to study factors influencing ADE reporting in hospitals, since it was relevant theory in five out of six relevant domains and the common theory in 55 out of 75 identified beliefs. In conclusion, we suggest theory of planned behavior for further studies on designing appropriate interventions to increase ADE reporting in hospitals.

  12. Discoveries from Revisiting Apollo Direct Active Measurements of Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Brian

    2010-05-01

    New missions to the moon being developed by China, Japan, India, USA, Russia and Europe and possibilities of human missions about 2020 face the reality that 6 Apollo expeditions did not totally manage or mitigate effects of easily-mobilised and very "sticky" lunar dust on humans and hardware. Laboratory and theoretical modelling cannot reliably simulate the complex lunar environments that affect dynamical movements of lunar dust. The only direct active measurements of lunar dust during Apollo were made by matchbox-sized minimalist Dust Detector Experiments (DDEs) deployed to transmit some 30 million digital measurements from Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15. These were misplaced or relatively ignored until 2009, when a self-funded suite of discoveries (O'Brien Geophys. Research Letters FIX 6 May 2099) revealed unexpected properties of lunar dust, such as the adhesive force being stronger as illumination increased. We give the first reports of contrasting effects, contamination or cleansing, from rocket exhausts of Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15 Lunar Modules leaving the moon. We further strengthen the importance of collateral dust inadvertently splashed on Apollo hardware by human activities. Dust management designs and mission plans require optimum use of such in situ measurements, extended by laboratory simulations and theoretical modelling.

  13. Coding of adverse events of suicidality in clinical study reports of duloxetine for the treatment of major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maund, Emma; Tendal, Britta; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of coding and coding conventions on summaries and tabulations of adverse events data on suicidality within clinical study reports. DESIGN: Systematic electronic search for adverse events of suicidality in tables, narratives, and listings of adverse events...... identification number, we attempted to reconcile data on the same event between the different formats for presenting data on adverse events within the clinical study report. SETTING: 9 randomised placebo controlled trials of duloxetine for major depressive disorder submitted to the European Medicines Agency...... for marketing approval. DATA SOURCES: Clinical study reports obtained from the EMA in 2011. RESULTS: Six trials used the medical coding dictionary COSTART (Coding Symbols for a Thesaurus of Adverse Reaction Terms) and three used MedDRA (Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities). Suicides were clearly...

  14. Lunar and Planetary Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, Alexander T.

    2018-05-01

    Lunar and planetary geology can be described using examples such as the geology of Earth (as the reference case) and geologies of the Earth's satellite the Moon; the planets Mercury, Mars and Venus; the satellite of Saturn Enceladus; the small stony asteroid Eros; and the nucleus of the comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Each body considered is illustrated by its global view, with information given as to its position in the solar system, size, surface, environment including gravity acceleration and properties of its atmosphere if it is present, typical landforms and processes forming them, materials composing these landforms, information on internal structure of the body, stages of its geologic evolution in the form of stratigraphic scale, and estimates of the absolute ages of the stratigraphic units. Information about one body may be applied to another body and this, in particular, has led to the discovery of the existence of heavy "meteoritic" bombardment in the early history of the solar system, which should also significantly affect Earth. It has been shown that volcanism and large-scale tectonics may have not only been an internal source of energy in the form of radiogenic decay of potassium, uranium and thorium, but also an external source in the form of gravity tugging caused by attractions of the neighboring bodies. The knowledge gained by lunar and planetary geology is important for planning and managing space missions and for the practical exploration of other bodies of the solar system and establishing manned outposts on them.

  15. Space Solar Power Technology for Lunar Polar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Mark W.; Howell, Joe T.

    2004-01-01

    The technology for Laser-Photo-Voltaic Wireless Power Transistor (Laser-PV WPT) is being developed for lunar polar applications by Boeing and NASA Marshall Space Center. A lunar polar mission could demonstrate and validate Laser-PV WPT and other SSP technologies, while enabling access to cold, permanently shadowed craters that are believed to contain ice. Crater may hold frozen water and other volatiles deposited over billion of years, recording prior impact event on the moon (and Earth). A photo-voltaic-powered rover could use sunlight, when available, and laser light, when required, to explore a wide range of lunar terrain. The National Research Council recently found that a mission to the moon's south pole-Aitkir basin has priority for space science

  16. Assessment of Adverse Events in Protocols, Clinical Study Reports, and Published Papers of Trials of Orlistat: A Document Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeppe Bennekou Schroll

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how adverse events are summarised and reported in trials, as detailed information is usually considered confidential. We have acquired clinical study reports (CSRs from the European Medicines Agency through the Freedom of Information Act. The CSRs describe the results of studies conducted as part of the application for marketing authorisation for the slimming pill orlistat. The purpose of this study was to study how adverse events were summarised and reported in study protocols, CSRs, and published papers of orlistat trials.We received the CSRs from seven randomised placebo controlled orlistat trials (4,225 participants submitted by Roche. The CSRs consisted of 8,716 pages and included protocols. Two researchers independently extracted data on adverse events from protocols and CSRs. Corresponding published papers were identified on PubMed and adverse event data were extracted from this source as well. All three sources were compared. Individual adverse events from one trial were summed and compared to the totals in the summary report. None of the protocols or CSRs contained instructions for investigators on how to question participants about adverse events. In CSRs, gastrointestinal adverse events were only coded if the participant reported that they were "bothersome," a condition that was not specified in the protocol for two of the trials. Serious adverse events were assessed for relationship to the drug by the sponsor, and all adverse events were coded by the sponsor using a glossary that could be updated by the sponsor. The criteria for withdrawal due to adverse events were in one case related to efficacy (high fasting glucose led to withdrawal, which meant that one trial had more withdrawals due to adverse events in the placebo group. Finally, only between 3% and 33% of the total number of investigator-reported adverse events from the trials were reported in the publications because of post hoc filters, though six of

  17. The influence of international and domestic events in the evolution of forest inventory and reporting consistency in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a brief chronological look at resource inventory and reporting and links to international influences. It explores events as drivers of more consistent data within the United States and highlights key dates and events in the evolution of inventory policy and practice. From King George to L?Ecole nationale forestiere to the Food and Agriculture...

  18. Pressurized Lunar Rover (PLR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Kenneth; Frampton, Jeffrey; Honaker, David; McClure, Kerry; Zeinali, Mazyar; Bhardwaj, Manoj; Bulsara, Vatsal; Kokan, David; Shariff, Shaun; Svarverud, Eric

    The objective of this project was to design a manned pressurized lunar rover (PLR) for long-range transportation and for exploration of the lunar surface. The vehicle must be capable of operating on a 14-day mission, traveling within a radius of 500 km during a lunar day or within a 50-km radius during a lunar night. The vehicle must accommodate a nominal crew of four, support two 28-hour EVA's, and in case of emergency, support a crew of six when near the lunar base. A nominal speed of ten km/hr and capability of towing a trailer with a mass of two mt are required. Two preliminary designs have been developed by two independent student teams. The PLR 1 design proposes a seven meter long cylindrical main vehicle and a trailer which houses the power and heat rejection systems. The main vehicle carries the astronauts, life support systems, navigation and communication systems, lighting, robotic arms, tools, and equipment for exploratory experiments. The rover uses a simple mobility system with six wheels on the main vehicle and two on the trailer. The nonpressurized trailer contains a modular radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) supplying 6.5 kW continuous power. A secondary energy storage for short-term peak power needs is provided by a bank of lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries. The life support system is partly a regenerative system with air and hygiene water being recycled. A layer of water inside the composite shell surrounds the command center allowing the center to be used as a safe haven during solar flares. The PLR 1 has a total mass of 6197 kg. It has a top speed of 18 km/hr and is capable of towing three metric tons, in addition to the RTG trailer. The PLR 2 configuration consists of two four-meter diameter, cylindrical hulls which are passively connected by a flexible passageway, resulting in the overall vehicle length of 11 m. The vehicle is driven by eight independently suspended wheels. The dual-cylinder concept allows articulated as well as double

  19. Medication Exposures and Subsequent Development of Ewing Sarcoma: A Review of FDA Adverse Event Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith U. Cope

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT are rare but deadly cancers of unknown etiology. Few risk factors have been identified. This study was undertaken to ascertain any possible association between exposure to therapeutic drugs and ESFT. Methods. This is a retrospective, descriptive study. A query of the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS was conducted for all reports of ESFT, January 1, 1998, through December 31, 2013. Report narratives were individually reviewed for patient characteristics, underlying conditions and drug exposures. Results. Over 16 years, 134 ESFT reports were identified, including 25 cases of ESFT following therapeutic drugs and biologics including immunosuppressive agents and hormones. Many cases were confounded by concomitant medications and other therapies. Conclusions. This study provides a closer look at medication use and underlying disorders in patients who later developed ESFT. While this study was not designed to demonstrate any clear causative association between ESFT and prior use of a single product or drug class, many drugs were used to treat immune-related disease and growth or hormonal disturbances. Further studies may be warranted to better understand possible immune or neuroendocrine abnormalities or exposure to specific classes of drugs that may predispose to the later development of ESFT.

  20. Lunar Exploration Missions Since 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, S. J. (Editor); Gaddis, L. R.; Joy, K. H.; Petro, N. E.

    2017-01-01

    The announcement of the Vision for Space Exploration in 2004 sparked a resurgence in lunar missions worldwide. Since the publication of the first "New Views of the Moon" volume, as of 2017 there have been 11 science-focused missions to the Moon. Each of these missions explored different aspects of the Moon's geology, environment, and resource potential. The results from this flotilla of missions have revolutionized lunar science, and resulted in a profoundly new emerging understanding of the Moon. The New Views of the Moon II initiative itself, which is designed to engage the large and vibrant lunar science community to integrate the results of these missions into new consensus viewpoints, is a direct outcome of this impressive array of missions. The "Lunar Exploration Missions Since 2006" chapter will "set the stage" for the rest of the volume, introducing the planetary community at large to the diverse array of missions that have explored the Moon in the last decade. Content: This chapter will encompass the following missions: Kaguya; ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon’s Interaction with the Sun); Chang’e-1; Chandrayaan-1; Moon Impact Probe; Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO); Lunar Crater Observation Sensing Satellite (LCROSS); Chang’e-2; Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL); Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE); Chang’e-3.

  1. Analysis of factors associated with hiccups based on the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Ryuichiro; Uesawa, Yoshihiro; Ishii-Nozawa, Reiko; Kagaya, Hajime

    2017-01-01

    Hiccups are occasionally experienced by most individuals. Although hiccups are not life-threatening, they may lead to a decline in quality of life. Previous studies showed that hiccups may occur as an adverse effect of certain medicines during chemotherapy. Furthermore, a male dominance in hiccups has been reported. However, due to the limited number of studies conducted on this phenomenon, debate still surrounds the few factors influencing hiccups. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of medicines and patient characteristics on hiccups using a large-sized adverse drug event report database and, specifically, the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) database. Cases of adverse effects associated with medications were extracted from JADER, and Fisher's exact test was performed to assess the presence or absence of hiccups for each medication. In a multivariate analysis, we conducted a multiple logistic regression analysis using medication and patient characteristic variables exhibiting significance. We also examined the role of dexamethasone in inducing hiccups during chemotherapy. Medicines associated with hiccups included dexamethasone, levofolinate, fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, carboplatin, and irinotecan. Patient characteristics associated with hiccups included a male gender and greater height. The combination of anti-cancer agent and dexamethasone use was noted in more than 95% of patients in the dexamethasone-use group. Hiccups also occurred in patients in the anti-cancer agent-use group who did not use dexamethasone. Most of the medications that induce hiccups are used in chemotherapy. The results of the present study suggest that it is possible to predict a high risk of hiccups using patient characteristics. We confirmed that dexamethasone was the drug that has the strongest influence on the induction of hiccups. However, the influence of anti-cancer agents on the induction of hiccups cannot be denied. We consider the results of the present

  2. Application of information retrieval approaches to case classification in the vaccine adverse event reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botsis, Taxiarchis; Woo, Emily Jane; Ball, Robert

    2013-07-01

    Automating the classification of adverse event reports is an important step to improve the efficiency of vaccine safety surveillance. Previously we showed it was possible to classify reports using features extracted from the text of the reports. The aim of this study was to use the information encoded in the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA(®)) in the US Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) to support and evaluate two classification approaches: a multiple information retrieval strategy and a rule-based approach. To evaluate the performance of these approaches, we selected the conditions of anaphylaxis and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). We used MedDRA(®) Preferred Terms stored in the VAERS, and two standardized medical terminologies: the Brighton Collaboration (BC) case definitions and Standardized MedDRA(®) Queries (SMQ) to classify two sets of reports for GBS and anaphylaxis. Two approaches were used: (i) the rule-based instruments that are available by the two terminologies (the Automatic Brighton Classification [ABC] tool and the SMQ algorithms); and (ii) the vector space model. We found that the rule-based instruments, particularly the SMQ algorithms, achieved a high degree of specificity; however, there was a cost in terms of sensitivity in all but the narrow GBS SMQ algorithm that outperformed the remaining approaches (sensitivity in the testing set was equal to 99.06 % for this algorithm vs. 93.40 % for the vector space model). In the case of anaphylaxis, the vector space model achieved higher sensitivity compared with the best values of both the ABC tool and the SMQ algorithms in the testing set (86.44 % vs. 64.11 % and 52.54 %, respectively). Our results showed the superiority of the vector space model over the existing rule-based approaches irrespective of the standardized medical knowledge represented by either the SMQ or the BC case definition. The vector space model might make automation of case definitions for

  3. Characterization of rainfall events and correlation with reported disasters: A case in Cali, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canon, C. C.; Tischbein, B.; Bogardi, J.

    2017-12-01

    Flood maps generally display the area that a river might overflow after a rainfall event takes place, under different scenarios of climate, land use/land cover, and/or failure of dams and dikes. However, rainfall is not limited to feed runoff and enlarge the river: it also causes minor disasters outside the map's highlighted area. The city of Cali in Colombia illustrates very well this situation: its flat topography and its major critical infrastructure near the river make it flood-risk prone; a heavy rainfall event would potentially deplete drinking water, electrical power and drainage capacity, and trigger outbreaks of water-borne diseases in the whole city, not only in the flooded area. Unfortunately, the government's disaster prevention strategies focus on the floodplain and usually overlook the aftermath of these minor disasters for being milder and scattered. Predicted losses in flood maps are potentially big, while those from minor disasters over the city are small but real, and citizens, utility companies and urban maintenance funds must constantly take them over. Mitigation and prevention of such minor disasters can save money for the development of the city in other aspects. This paper characterizes hundreds of rainfall events selected from 10-min step time series from 2006 to 2017, and finds their correlation with reported rainfall-related disasters throughout Cali, identified by date and neighborhood. Results show which rainfall parameters are most likely to indicate the occurrence of such disasters and their approximate location in the urban area of Cali. These results, when coupled with real-time observations of rainfall data and simulations of drainage network response, may help citizens and emergency bodies prioritize zones to assist during heavy storms. In the long term, stakeholders may also implement low impact development solutions in these zones to reduce flood risks.

  4. Tests of the lunar hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    The concept that the Moon was fissioned from the Earth after core separation is the most readily testable hypothesis of lunar origin, since direct comparisons of lunar and terrestrial compositions can be made. Differences found in such comparisons introduce so many ad hoc adjustments to the fission hypothesis that it becomes untestable. Further constraints may be obtained from attempting to date the volatile-refractory element fractionation. The combination of chemical and isotopic problems suggests that the fission hypothesis is no longer viable, and separate terrestrial and lunar accretion from a population of fractionated precursor planetesimals provides a more reasonable explanation.

  5. Neurologic Adverse Events Associated with Voriconazole Therapy: Report of Two Pediatric Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevliya Öcal Demir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although voriconazole, a triazole antifungal, is a safe drug, treatment with this agent is associated with certain adverse events such as hepatic, neurologic, and visual disturbances. The current report presents two cases, one a 9-year-old boy and the other a 17-year-old girl, who experienced neurologic side effects associated with voriconazole therapy. Our aim is to remind readers of the side effects of voriconazole therapy in order to prevent unnecessary investigations especially for psychological and ophthalmologic problems. The first case was a 9-year-old boy with cystic fibrosis and invasive aspergillosis that developed photophobia, altered color sensation, and fearful visual hallucination. The second case was a 17-year-old girl with cystic fibrosis and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, and she experienced photophobia, fatigue, impaired concentration, and insomnia, when the dose of voriconazole therapy was increased from 12 mg/kg/day to 16 mg/kg/day. The complaints of the two patients disappeared after discontinuation of voriconazole therapy. Our experience in these patients reminded us of the importance of being aware of the neurologic adverse events associated with voriconazole therapy in establishing early diagnosis and initiating prompt treatment. In addition, although serum voriconazole concentration was not measured in the present cases, therapeutic drug monitoring for voriconazole seems to be critically important in preventing neurologic side effects in pediatric patients.

  6. Atlanta Centennial Olympic Games and Paralympic Games event study, 1996. Final report, July 1996--August 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amodei, R.; Bard, E.; Brong, B.; Cahoon, F.; Jasper, K.

    1998-11-01

    The Atlanta metropolitan region was the location of one of the most ambitious Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) deployments in the United States. This deployment included several individual projects--a Central Transportation Management Center (TMC), six Traffic Control Centers (TCCs), one Transit Information Center (TIC), The Travel Information Showcase (TIS), and the extension of the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA) Rail network and the new high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes on I-85 and I-75. The 1996 Atlanta Centennial Olympic Games and Paralympic Games created a focus for these projects. All of these systems were to be brought on-line in time for the Olympic Games. This report presents the findings of the 1996 Olympic and Paralympic Games Events Study--a compilation of findings of system performance, the benefits realized, and the lessons learned during their operations over the event period. The study assessed the performance of the various Travel Demand Management (TDM) plans employed for Olympic Games traffic management.

  7. Lunar Phases and Earthly Events: Beliefs from Different Education Levels. (Spanish Title: Fases de la Luna y Acontecimientos Terrestres: Creencia de Distintos Niveles de Instrucción.) As Fases da Lua e os Acontecimentos Terrestres: a Crença de Diferentes Níveis de Instrução

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; da Rosa, Cleci Teresinha Werner; Alves Vizzotto, Patrick; Becker da Rosa, Álvaro

    2013-12-01

    This article presents the result of a research carried out in the first semester of 2013 with a group of 80 subjects from different education levels. In this research, we sought to investigate the earthly events that this group of people attributes to the phenomenon of lunar phases. For data collection we used semi-structured interviews guided by questions that aimed to keep the focus on subjects of the investigation. Interviews were recorded and transcribed, and the results were compared to scientific studies in the area after being quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed. Research data showed that the Moon and the phenomenon of lunar phases still fascinate and raise the interest of people. However, the lack of knowledge to find correct explanations to the phenomena involving the moon ends up originating a series of beliefs about its influence on earthly events. En este artículo se presenta el resultado de una investigación realizada en el primer semestre de 2013 con a un grupo de 80 individuos de distintos niveles de instrucción. En esta investigación, tratamos de averiguar cuáles son los acontecimientos terrestres que este grupo de personas atribuye al fenómeno las fases lunares. Como instrumento de colecta de datos, se emplearon entrevistas semiestructuradas guiadas por preguntas que trataban de mantener la atención de los entrevistados en el objeto investigado. Las entrevistas fueron grabadas y transcriptas, y los resultados, después de ser analizados cuantitatativa y cualitativamente, fueron confrontados con estudios científicos del área. Los datos de la investigación demuestran que la Luna y de sus fases continúan fascinando y despertando el interés de la población. Sin embargo, la falta de conocimientos para encontrar explicaciones correctas relacionadas a los fenómenos que ocurren con el astro acaba originando una serie de creencias en la población sobre su influencia en los sucesos terrestres. Apresenta-se neste artigo o resultado de uma

  8. Cataclysm No More: New Views on the Timing and Delivery of Lunar Impactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, Nicolle E B

    2017-09-01

    If properly interpreted, the impact record of the Moon, Earth's nearest neighbour, can be used to gain insights into how the Earth has been influenced by impacting events since its formation ~4.5 billion years (Ga) ago. However, the nature and timing of the lunar impactors - and indeed the lunar impact record itself - are not well understood. Of particular interest are the ages of lunar impact basins and what they tell us about the proposed "lunar cataclysm" and/or the late heavy bombardment (LHB), and how this impact episode may have affected early life on Earth or other planets. Investigations of the lunar impactor population over time have been undertaken and include analyses of orbital data and images; lunar, terrestrial, and other planetary sample data; and dynamical modelling. Here, the existing information regarding the nature of the lunar impact record is reviewed and new interpretations are presented. Importantly, it is demonstrated that most evidence supports a prolonged lunar (and thus, terrestrial) bombardment from ~4.2 to 3.4 Ga and not a cataclysmic spike at ~3.9 Ga. Implications for the conditions required for the origin of life are addressed.

  9. Perioperative anaesthetic adverse events in Thailand (PAAd THAI) study: Incident report of perioperative convulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiamcharoenwit, Jatuporn; Akavipat, Phuping; Ariyanuchitkul, Thidarat; Wirachpisit, Nichawan; Pulnitiporn, Aksorn; Pongraweewan, Orawan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of perioperative convulsion and to suggest possible correcting strategies. The multi-centre study was conducted prospectively in 22 hospitals across Thailand in 2015. The occurrences of perioperative adverse events were collected. The data was collated by site manager and forwarded to the data management unit. All perioperative convulsion incidences were enrolled and analysed. The consensus was documented for the relevant factors and the corrective strategies. Descriptive statistics were used. From 2,000 incident reports, perioperative convulsions were found in 16 patients. Six episodes (37.5%) were related to anaesthesia, 31.3% to patients, 18.8% to surgery, and 12.5% to systemic processes. The contributing factor was an inexperienced anaesthesia performer (25%), while the corrective strategy was improvements to supervision (43.8%). Incidents of perioperative convulsion were found to be higher than during the last decade. The initiation and maintenance of safe anaesthesia should be continued.

  10. False rumors and true belief: memory processes underlying children's errant reports of rumored events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principe, Gabrielle F; Haines, Brooke; Adkins, Amber; Guiliano, Stephanie

    2010-12-01

    Previous research has shown that overhearing an errant rumor--either from an adult or from peers--about an earlier experience can lead children to make detailed false reports. This study investigates the extent to which such accounts are driven by changes in children's memory representations or merely social demands that encourage the reporting of rumored information. This was accomplished by (a) using a warning manipulation that eliminated social pressures to report an earlier heard rumor and (b) examining the qualitative characteristics of children's false narratives of a rumored-but-nonexperienced event. Findings indicated that overheard rumors can induce sensory and contextual characteristics in memory that can lead children to develop genuine false beliefs in seeing rumored-but-nonexperienced occurrences. Such constructive tendencies were especially likely among 3- and 4-year-olds (relative to 5- and 6-year-olds) and when rumors were picked up from peers during natural social interactions (relative to when they were planted by an adult). (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Association between lunar phase and sleep characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turányi, Csilla Zita; Rónai, Katalin Zsuzsanna; Zoller, Rezső; Véber, Orsolya; Czira, Mária Eszter; Újszászi, Ákos; László, Gergely; Szentkirályi, András; Dunai, Andrea; Lindner, Anett; Szőcs, Julianna Luca; Becze, Ádám; Kelemen, Andrea; Lendvai, Zsófia; Molnar, Miklos Z; Mucsi, István; Novák, Márta

    2014-11-01

    Popular belief holds that the lunar cycle affects human physiology, behavior, and health, including sleep. To date, only a few and conflicting analyses have been published about the association between lunar phases and sleep. Our aim was to analyze the relationship between lunar phases and sleep characteristics. In this retrospective, cross-sectional analysis, data from 319 patients who had been referred for sleep study were included. Individuals with apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15/h were excluded. Socio-demographic parameters were recorded. All participants underwent one-night standard polysomnography. Associations between lunar cycle (new moon, full moon and alternate moon) and sleep parameters were examined in unadjusted and adjusted models. Fifty-seven percent of patients were males. Mean age for men was 45 ± 14 years and 51 ± 12 years for women. In total, 224 persons had their sleep study done during alternate moon, 47 during full moon, and 48 during new moon. Full moon was associated with lower sleep efficiency [median (%) (IQR): new moon 82 (18), full moon 74 (19), alternate moon 82 (15); P < 0.001], less deep sleep [median (%) (IQR): new moon 9 (9), full moon 6 (4), alternate moon 11 (9); P < 0.001], and increased REM latency [median (min) (IQR): new moon 98 (74), full moon 137 (152), alternate moon 97 (76); P < 0.001], even after adjustment for several covariables. The results are consistent with a recent report and the widely held belief that sleep characteristics may be associated with the full moon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluating the High School Lunar Research Projects Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, A. J.; Shipp, S. S.; Allen, J.; Kring, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    instrument is an open-ended, modified version of the Views of Nature of Science questionnaire. The science attitudes Likert-scale instrument is a modified version of the Attitudes Toward Science Inventory. The lunar science content instrument was developed by CLSE education staff. All three of these instruments are administered to students before and after their research experience to measure the program's impact on student views of the nature of science, attitudes toward science, and knowledge of lunar science. All instruments are administered online via Survey Monkey®. When asked if the program changed the way they view the Moon, 77.4% of students (n=53) replied "yes" and described their increase in knowledge of the formation of the Moon, lunar surface processes, etc. Just under half (41.5%) of the students reported that their experience in the program has contributed to their consideration of a career in science. When asked about obstacles teams had to overcome, teachers described issues with time, student motivation and technology. However, every teacher enthusiastically agreed that the authentic research experience was worthwhile to their students. Detailed evaluation results for the 2011-2012 program will be presented.

  13. Restoration of Apollo Data by the Lunar Data Project/PDS Lunar Data Node: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R.; Hills, H. Kent; Taylor, Patrick T.; Grayzeck, Edwin J.; Guinness, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    The Apollo 11, 12, and 14 through 17 missions orbited and landed on the Moon, carrying scientific instruments that returned data from all phases of the missions, included long-lived Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Packages (ALSEPs) deployed by the astronauts on the lunar surface. Much of these data were never archived, and some of the archived data were on media and in formats that are outmoded, or were deposited with little or no useful documentation to aid outside users. This is particularly true of the ALSEP data returned autonomously for many years after the Apollo missions ended. The purpose of the Lunar Data Project and the Planetary Data System (PDS) Lunar Data Node is to take data collections already archived at the NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive (NSSDCA) and prepare them for archiving through PDS, and to locate lunar data that were never archived, bring them into NSSDCA, and then archive them through PDS. Preparing these data for archiving involves reading the data from the original media, be it magnetic tape, microfilm, microfiche, or hard-copy document, converting the outmoded, often binary, formats when necessary, putting them into a standard digital form accepted by PDS, collecting the necessary ancillary data and documentation (metadata) to ensure that the data are usable and well-described, summarizing the metadata in documentation to be included in the data set, adding other information such as references, mission and instrument descriptions, contact information, and related documentation, and packaging the results in a PDS-compliant data set. The data set is then validated and reviewed by a group of external scientists as part of the PDS final archive process. We present a status report on some of the data sets that we are processing.

  14. Examining Wrong Eye Implant Adverse Events in the Veterans Health Administration With a Focus on Prevention: A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neily, Julia; Chomsky, Amy; Orcutt, James; Paull, Douglas E; Mills, Peter D; Gilbert, Christina; Hemphill, Robin R; Gunnar, William

    2018-03-01

    The study goals were to examine wrong intraocular lens (IOL) implant adverse events in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), identify root causes and contributing factors, and describe system changes that have been implemented to address this challenge. This study represents collaboration between the VHA's National Center for Patient Safety (NCPS) and the National Surgery Office (NSO). This report includes 45 wrong IOL implant surgery adverse events reported to established VHA NCPS and NSO databases between July 1, 2006, and June 31, 2014. There are approximately 50,000 eye implant procedures performed each year in the VHA. Wrong IOL implant surgery adverse events are reported by VHA facilities to the NCPS and the NSO. Two authors (A.C. and J.N.) coded the reports for event type (wrong lens or expired lens) and identified the primary contributing factor (coefficient κ = 0.837). A descriptive analysis was conducted, which included the reported yearly event rate. The main outcome measure was the reported wrong IOL implant surgery adverse events. There were 45 reported wrong IOL implant surgery adverse events. Between 2011 and June 30, 2014, there was a significant downward trend (P = 0.02, R = 99.7%) at a pace of -0.08 (per 10,000 cases) every year. The most frequently coded primary contributing factor was incomplete preprocedure time-out (n = 12) followed by failure to perform double check of preprocedural calculations based upon original data and implant read-back at the time the surgical eye implant was performed (n = 10). Preventing wrong IOL implant adverse events requires diligence beyond performance of the preprocedural time-out. In 2013, the VHA has modified policy to ensure double check of preprocedural calculations and implant read-back with positive impact. Continued analysis of contributing human factors and improved surgical team communication are warranted.

  15. Electrochemistry of lunar rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Haskin, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Electrolysis of silicate melts has been shown to be an effective means of producing metals from common silicate materials. No fluxing agents need be added to the melts. From solution in melts of diopside (CaMgSi2O6) composition, the elements Si, Ti, Ni, and Fe have been reduced to their metallic states. Platinum is a satisfactory anode material, but other cathode materials are needed. Electrolysis of compositional analogs of lunar rocks initially produces iron metal at the cathode and oxygen gas at the anode. Utilizing mainly heat and electricity which are readily available from sunlight, direct electrolysis is capable of producing useful metals from common feedstocks without the need for expendable chemicals. This simple process and the products obtained from it deserve further study for use in materials processing in space.

  16. Google Moon Lunar Mapping Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A collection of lunar maps and charts. This tool is an exciting new way to explore the story of the Apollo missions, still the only time mankind has set foot on...

  17. First oxygen from lunar basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, M. A.; Knudsen, C. W.; Brueneman, D. J.; Kanamori, H.; Ness, R. O.; Sharp, L. L.; Brekke, D. W.; Allen, C. C.; Morris, R. V.; Keller, L. P.

    1993-01-01

    The Carbotek/Shimizu process to produce oxygen from lunar soils has been successfully demonstrated on actual lunar samples in laboratory facilities at Carbotek with Shimizu funding and support. Apollo sample 70035 containing approximately 25 percent ilmenite (FeTiO3) was used in seven separate reactions with hydrogen varying temperature and pressure: FeTiO3 + H2 yields Fe + TiO2 + H2O. The experiments gave extremely encouraging results as all ilmenite was reduced in every experiment. The lunar ilmenite was found to be about twice as reactive as terrestrial ilmenite samples. Analytical techniques of the lunar and terrestrial ilmenite experiments performed by NASA Johnson Space Center include iron Mossbauer spectroscopy (FeMS), optical microscopy, SEM, TEM, and XRD. The Energy and Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota performed three SEM techniques (point count method, morphology determination, elemental mapping), XRD, and optical microscopy.

  18. Thermodynamics of lunar ilmenite reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenberg, B. H.; Franklin, H. A.; Jones, C. H.

    1993-01-01

    With the prospect of returning to the moon, the development of a lunar occupation would fulfill one of the goals of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) of the late 1980's. Processing lunar resources into useful products, such as liquid oxygen for fuel and life support, would be one of many aspects of an active lunar base. ilmenite (FeTiO3) is found on the lunar surface and can be used as a feed stock to produce oxygen. Understanding the various ilmenite-reduction reactions elucidates many processing options. Defining the thermodynamic chemical behavior at equilibrium under various conditions of temperature and pressures can be helpful in specifying optimal operating conditions. Differences between a previous theoretical analysis and experimentally determined results has sparked interest in trying to understand the effect of operating pressure on the hydrogen-reduction-of-ilmenite reaction. Various aspects of this reduction reaction are discussed.

  19. The enigma of lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, L. L.

    1981-01-01

    Current understandings of the nature and probable origin of lunar magnetism are surveyed. Results of examinations of returned lunar samples are discussed which reveal the main carrier of the observed natural remanent magnetization to be iron, occasionally alloyed with nickel and cobalt, but do not distinguish between thermoremanent and shock remanent origins, and surface magnetometer data is presented, which indicates small-scale magnetic fields with a wide range of field intensities implying localized, near-surface sources. A detailed examination is presented of orbital magnetometer and charged particle data concerning the geologic nature and origin of magnetic anomaly sources and the directional properties of the magnetization, which exhibit a random distribution except for a depletion in the north-south direction. A lunar magnetization survey with global coverage provided by a polar orbiting satellite is suggested as a means of placing stronger constraints on the origin of lunar crustal magnetization.

  20. Lunar Health Monitor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the Phase II Lunar Health Monitor program, Orbital Research will develop a second generation wearable sensor suite for astronaut physiologic monitoring. The...

  1. Prospective Ukrainian lunar orbiter mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkuratov, Y.; Litvinenko, L.; Shulga, V.; Yatskiv, Y.; Kislyuk, V.

    Ukraine has launch vehicles that are able to deliver about 300 kg to the lunar orbit. Future Ukrainian lunar program may propose a polar orbiter. This orbiter should fill principal information gaps in our knowledge about the Moon after Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions and the future missions, like Smart-1, Lunar-A, and Selene. We consider that this can be provided by radar studies of the Moon with supporting optical polarimetric observations from lunar polar orbit. These experiments allow one to better understand global structure of the lunar surface in a wide range of scales, from microns to kilometers. We propose three instruments for the prospective lunar orbiter. They are: a synthetic aperture imaging radar (SAR), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and imaging polarimeter (IP). The main purpose of SAR is to study with high resolution (50 m) the permanently shadowed sites in the lunar polar regions. These sites are cold traps for volatiles, and have a potential of resource utilization. Possible presence of water ice in the regolith in the sites makes them interesting for permanent manned bases on the Moon. Radar imaging and mapping of other interesting regions could be also planned. Multi-frequencies multi-polarization soun d ing of the lunar surface with GPR can provide information about internal structure of the lunar surface from meters to several hundred meters deep. GPR can be used for measuring the megaregolith layer properties, detection of cryptomaria, and studies of internal structure of the largest craters. IP will be a CCD camera with an additional suite of polarizers. Modest spatial resolution (100 m) should provide a total coverage or a large portion of the lunar surface in oblique viewing basically at large phase angles. Polarization degree at large (>90°) phase angles bears information about characteristic size of the regolith particles. Additional radiophysical experiments are considered with the use of the SAR system, e.g., bistatic radar

  2. Duke Surgery Patient Safety: an open-source application for anonymous reporting of adverse and near-miss surgical events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrobon, Ricardo; Lima, Raquel; Shah, Anand; Jacobs, Danny O; Harker, Matthew; McCready, Mariana; Martins, Henrique; Richardson, William

    2007-05-01

    Studies have shown that 4% of hospitalized patients suffer from an adverse event caused by the medical treatment administered. Some institutions have created systems to encourage medical workers to report these adverse events. However, these systems often prove to be inadequate and/or ineffective for reviewing the data collected and improving the outcomes in patient safety. To describe the Web-application Duke Surgery Patient Safety, designed for the anonymous reporting of adverse and near-miss events as well as scheduled reporting to surgeons and hospital administration. SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE: DSPS was developed primarily using Java language running on a Tomcat server and with MySQL database as its backend. Formal and field usability tests were used to aid in development of DSPS. Extensive experience with DSPS at our institution indicate that DSPS is easy to learn and use, has good speed, provides needed functionality, and is well received by both adverse-event reporters and administrators. This is the first description of an open-source application for reporting patient safety, which allows the distribution of the application to other institutions in addition for its ability to adapt to the needs of different departments. DSPS provides a mechanism for anonymous reporting of adverse events and helps to administer Patient Safety initiatives. The modifiable framework of DSPS allows adherence to evolving national data standards. The open-source design of DSPS permits surgical departments with existing reporting mechanisms to integrate them with DSPS. The DSPS application is distributed under the GNU General Public License.

  3. Dielectric properties of lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushkova, O. V.; Kibardina, I. N.

    2017-03-01

    Measurements of the dielectric characteristics of lunar soil samples are analyzed in the context of dielectric theory. It has been shown that the real component of the dielectric permittivity and the loss tangent of rocks greatly depend on the frequency of the interacting electromagnetic field and the soil temperature. It follows from the analysis that one should take into account diurnal variations in the lunar surface temperature when interpreting the radar-sounding results, especially for the gigahertz radio range.

  4. Lessons Learned from the Evolution of Mandatory Adverse Event Reporting Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    related to treatment, such as nosocomial infections and unintended effects of drugs and medical devices, is collected by the Centers for Disease...Nontreatment-related events (such as criminal acts, specified statutory events, and nosocomial infection outbreaks) • Treatment and procedure...1.8 Ventilator death/injury 38 1.5 Anesthesia-related event 35 1.4 Infection -related event 34 1.4 Medical equipment-related 32 1.3 Maternal death

  5. MyMoon: Engaging the “Missing Link” in Lunar Science Exploration through New Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, A.; Shupla, C.; Shipp, S. S.; Eriksson, A.

    2009-12-01

    NASA’s new scientific exploration of the Moon, coupled with the public’s interest in the Moon and innovative social networking approaches, is being leveraged to engage a fresh adult audience in lunar science and exploration. In July 2009 the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) launched a lunar education new media portal, MyMoon. LPI is collaborating with lunar scientists, educators, artists - and the public - to populate the site with science content, diverse media exhibits, events, and opportunities for involvement. Through MyMoon, the general public interacts with lunar content that informs them about lunar science research and missions, and engages them in future plans for lunar exploration and eventual habitation. MyMoon’s objectives are to: 1) develop a dynamic, new media learning portal that will enable the general public, with a focus on adults ages 18-35; 2) host a growing, active audience that becomes further involved in NASA’s lunar exploration by sharing their ideas about lunar topics, creating their own materials, and participating in events and experiences; 3) build a community of enthusiasts through social networking media; 4) create a model for online engagement of audiences 18 to 35, and provide detailed evaluation data on best practices and strategies for success. Immersive new media technologies are changing the way that people interact, work, learn, and teach. These provide potentially high-impact opportunities for reaching an audience of young adults, age 18 to 35, that largely is not accessed by, or accessing, NASA (Dittmar, 2004). MyMoon strives to engage - and involve - this audience to build a community of enthusiasts for lunar scientific exploration through social networks and current and emerging new media platforms, including posting videos on YouTube, photo contests on Flickr, and sharing events and challenges on Facebook and Twitter. MyMoon features interactive exhibits that are audience driven and added on a quarterly basis

  6. Lunar Navigation Architecture Design Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Christopher; Getchius, Joel; Holt, Greg; Moreau, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program is aiming to establish a long-term presence on the lunar surface. The Constellation elements (Orion, Altair, Earth Departure Stage, and Ares launch vehicles) will require a lunar navigation architecture for navigation state updates during lunar-class missions. Orion in particular has baselined earth-based ground direct tracking as the primary source for much of its absolute navigation needs. However, due to the uncertainty in the lunar navigation architecture, the Orion program has had to make certain assumptions on the capabilities of such architectures in order to adequately scale the vehicle design trade space. The following paper outlines lunar navigation requirements, the Orion program assumptions, and the impacts of these assumptions to the lunar navigation architecture design. The selection of potential sites was based upon geometric baselines, logistical feasibility, redundancy, and abort support capability. Simulated navigation covariances mapped to entry interface flightpath- angle uncertainties were used to evaluate knowledge errors. A minimum ground station architecture was identified consisting of Goldstone, Madrid, Canberra, Santiago, Hartebeeshoek, Dongora, Hawaii, Guam, and Ascension Island (or the geometric equivalent).

  7. Analysis of the Interaction between Clopidogrel, Aspirin, and Proton Pump Inhibitors Using the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yukiya; Suzuki, Honami; Umetsu, Ryogo; Uranishi, Hiroaki; Abe, Junko; Nishibata, Yuri; Sekiya, Yasuaki; Miyamura, Nobuteru; Hara, Hideaki; Tsuchiya, Teruo; Kinosada, Yasutomi; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Clopidogrel is an antiplatelet agent widely used in combination with aspirin to limit the occurrence of cardiovascular (embolic/thrombotic) events. Consensus guidelines recommend proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) as a gastrointestinal (GI) prophylactic measure for all patients receiving dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of the simultaneous use of clopidogrel, aspirin, and PPIs on hemorrhagic and embolic/thrombotic events using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database. Reports of hemorrhagic and embolic/thrombotic events between 2004 and 2013 were analyzed with a reporting odds ratio (ROR) algorithm and logistic regression methods. The Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities Preferred Terms was used to identify such events. Regarding hemorrhagic events, the adjusted RORs of the concomitant use of aspirin and clopidogrel and those of PPIs prescribed with aspirin and clopidogrel were 4.40 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.02-4.81) and 3.40 (95% CI, 2.84-4.06), respectively. For embolic/thrombotic events, the adjusted RORs of the concomitant use of aspirin and clopidogrel and those of PPIs prescribed with aspirin and clopidogrel were 2.37 (95% CI, 2.16-2.59) and 2.38 (95% CI, 2.00-2.84), respectively. Among patients included in the FAERS database, the concurrent use of aspirin and clopidogrel with PPIs reduced the adjusted ROR of GI hemorrhagic events. PPIs had little influence on the adjusted ROR of embolic/thrombotic events. These results support the use of PPIs as a preventive measure against GI hemorrhagic events for patients receiving clopidogrel and aspirin.

  8. RoboCup European Championship: Report of the Amsterdam 2000 event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, F.; van der Hoek, W.; Jonker, P.; Krose, B.; Spoelder, H.J.W.; Stramigioli, S.

    2001-01-01

    The local organizers of the RoboCup European Championship presents a brief, informal overview of this event with the aim to support organizers of future RoboCup events in the organization and coordination of such a rather complex tournament. The objective was to organize a low cost scientific event

  9. New insight into lunar impact melt mobility from the LRO camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Veronica J.; Tornabene, Livio L.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; McEwen, Alfred S.; Hawke, B. Ray; Giguere, Thomas A.; Kattenhorn, Simon A.; Garry, William B.; Rizk, Bashar; Caudill, C.M.; Gaddis, Lisa R.; van der Bogert, Carolyn H.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) is systematically imaging impact melt deposits in and around lunar craters at meter and sub-meter scales. These images reveal that lunar impact melts, although morphologically similar to terrestrial lava flows of similar size, exhibit distinctive features (e.g., erosional channels). Although generated in a single rapid event, the post-impact mobility and morphology of lunar impact melts is surprisingly complex. We present evidence for multi-stage influx of impact melt into flow lobes and crater floor ponds. Our volume and cooling time estimates for the post-emplacement melt movements noted in LROC images suggest that new flows can emerge from melt ponds an extended time period after the impact event.

  10. Psychometric considerations in the measurement of event-related brain potentials: Guidelines for measurement and reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayson, Peter E; Miller, Gregory A

    2017-01-01

    Failing to consider psychometric issues related to reliability and validity, differential deficits, and statistical power potentially undermines the conclusions of a study. In research using event-related brain potentials (ERPs), numerous contextual factors (population sampled, task, data recording, analysis pipeline, etc.) can impact the reliability of ERP scores. The present review considers the contextual factors that influence ERP score reliability and the downstream effects that reliability has on statistical analyses. Given the context-dependent nature of ERPs, it is recommended that ERP score reliability be formally assessed on a study-by-study basis. Recommended guidelines for ERP studies include 1) reporting the threshold of acceptable reliability and reliability estimates for observed scores, 2) specifying the approach used to estimate reliability, and 3) justifying how trial-count minima were chosen. A reliability threshold for internal consistency of at least 0.70 is recommended, and a threshold of 0.80 is preferred. The review also advocates the use of generalizability theory for estimating score dependability (the generalizability theory analog to reliability) as an improvement on classical test theory reliability estimates, suggesting that the latter is less well suited to ERP research. To facilitate the calculation and reporting of dependability estimates, an open-source Matlab program, the ERP Reliability Analysis Toolbox, is presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Review of nuclear air treatment system related License Event Reports for the period 1985 - 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacox, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper will continue the review of HVAC/NATS related LERS presented at past Air Cleaning Conferences by Dr. D. W. Moeller and his associates. The general approach and format are similar. LER abstracts from mid 1985 through 1987 were reviewed and those related to HVAC/NATS classified and analyzed. The categories were jointly developed by Dr. Moeller, Dr. Casper Sun and myself. In appropriate cases both primary and secondary categories fora problem are given. A basic listing by category and brief statistical review are presented. Additionally a number of categories are discussed in some detail. The categories chosen for specific review are intended to highlight particular problem areas. NUREG/CR-2000 License Event Report (LER) Compilation is the basis for the initial review and coding. In essentially all cases where an LER is classified as of interest the complete LER was obtained and reviewed in full. The intent of this paper is to provide a basis for the industry to document and analyze problem areas that require additional attention. It appears that about 15% of all LERS in the subject period are HVAC/NATS related. This figure is generally consistent with those reported at the 17th DOE Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference. It is hoped that such attention will allow additional resources to be allocated to upgrade systems, procedures and training as well as in some cases government regulation

  12. Lunar Magma Ocean Crystallization: Constraints from Fractional Crystallization Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, J. F.; Draper, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    The currently accepted paradigm of lunar formation is that of accretion from the ejecta of a giant impact, followed by crystallization of a global scale magma ocean. This model accounts for the formation of the anorthosite highlands crust, which is globally distributed and old, and the formation of the younger mare basalts which are derived from a source region that has experienced plagioclase extraction. Several attempts at modelling the crystallization of such a lunar magma ocean (LMO) have been made, but our ever-increasing knowledge of the lunar samples and surface have raised as many questions as these models have answered. Geodynamic models of lunar accretion suggest that shortly following accretion the bulk of the lunar mass was hot, likely at least above the solidus]. Models of LMO crystallization that assume a deep magma ocean are therefore geodynamically favorable, but they have been difficult to reconcile with a thick plagioclase-rich crust. A refractory element enriched bulk composition, a shallow magma ocean, or a combination of the two have been suggested as a way to produce enough plagioclase to account for the assumed thickness of the crust. Recently however, geophysical data from the GRAIL mission have indicated that the lunar anorthositic crust is not as thick as was initially estimated, which allows for both a deeper magma ocean and a bulk composition more similar to the terrestrial upper mantle. We report on experimental simulations of the fractional crystallization of a deep (approximately 100km) LMO with a terrestrial upper mantle-like (LPUM) bulk composition. Our experimental results will help to define the composition of the lunar crust and mantle cumulates, and allow us to consider important questions such as source regions of the mare basalts and Mg-suite, the role of mantle overturn after magma ocean crystallization and the nature of KREEP

  13. Online surveillance of media health event reporting in Nepal: digital disease detection from a One Health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwind, Jessica S; Norman, Stephanie A; Karmacharya, Dibesh; Wolking, David J; Dixit, Sameer M; Rajbhandari, Rajesh M; Mekaru, Sumiko R; Brownstein, John S

    2017-09-21

    Traditional media and the internet are crucial sources of health information. Media can significantly shape public opinion, knowledge and understanding of emerging and endemic health threats. As digital communication rapidly progresses, local access and dissemination of health information contribute significantly to global disease detection and reporting. Health event reports in Nepal (October 2013-December 2014) were used to characterize Nepal's media environment from a One Health perspective using HealthMap - a global online disease surveillance and mapping tool. Event variables (location, media source type, disease or risk factor of interest, and affected species) were extracted from HealthMap. A total of 179 health reports were captured from various sources including newspapers, inter-government agency bulletins, individual reports, and trade websites, yielding 108 (60%) unique articles. Human health events were reported most often (n = 85; 79%), followed by animal health events (n = 23; 21%), with no reports focused solely on environmental health. By expanding event coverage across all of the health sectors, media in developing countries could play a crucial role in national risk communication efforts and could enhance early warning systems for disasters and disease outbreaks.

  14. Hypersensitivity reactions to anticancer agents: Data mining of the public version of the FDA adverse event reporting system, AERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakaeda Toshiyuki

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously, adverse event reports (AERs submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA database were reviewed to confirm platinum agent-associated hypersensitivity reactions. The present study was performed to confirm whether the database could suggest the hypersensitivity reactions caused by anticancer agents, paclitaxel, docetaxel, procarbazine, asparaginase, teniposide, and etoposide. Methods After a revision of arbitrary drug names and the deletion of duplicated submissions, AERs involving candidate agents were analyzed. The National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 was applied to evaluate the susceptibility to hypersensitivity reactions, and standardized official pharmacovigilance tools were used for quantitative detection of signals, i.e., drug-associated adverse events, including the proportional reporting ratio, the reporting odds ratio, the information component given by a Bayesian confidence propagation neural network, and the empirical Bayes geometric mean. Results Based on 1,644,220 AERs from 2004 to 2009, the signals were detected for paclitaxel-associated mild, severe, and lethal hypersensitivity reactions, and docetaxel-associated lethal reactions. However, the total number of adverse events occurring with procarbazine, asparaginase, teniposide, or etoposide was not large enough to detect signals. Conclusions The FDA's adverse event reporting system, AERS, and the data mining methods used herein are useful for confirming drug-associated adverse events, but the number of co-occurrences is an important factor in signal detection.

  15. Vaccine Adverse Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... in the primary immunization series in infants Report Adverse Event Report a Vaccine Adverse Event Contact FDA ( ...

  16. Development of a Lunar Borehole Seismometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passmore, P. R.; Siegler, M.; Malin, P. E.; Passmore, K.; Zacny, K.; Avenson, B.; Weber, R. C.; Schmerr, N. C.; Nagihara, S.

    2017-12-01

    Nearly all seismic stations on Earth are buried below the ground. Burial provides controlled temperatures and greater seismic coupling at little cost. This is also true on the Moon and other planetary bodies. Burial of a seismometer under just 1 meter of lunar regolith would provide an isothermal environment and potentially reduce signal scattering noise by an order of magnitude. Here we explain how we will use an existing NASA SBIR and PIDDP funded subsurface heat flow probe deployment system to bury a miniaturized, broadband, optical seismometer 1 meter below the lunar surface. The system is sensitive, low mass and low power. We believe this system offers a compelling architecture for NASA's future seismic exploration of the solar system. We will report on a prototype 3-axis, broadband seismometer package that has been tested under low pressure conditions in lunar-regolith simulant. The deployment mechanism reaches 1m depth in less than 25 seconds. Our designed and tested system: 1) Would be deployed at least 1m below the lunar surface to achieve isothermal conditions without thermal shielding or heaters, increase seismic coupling, and decrease noise. 2) Is small (our prototype probe is a cylinder 50mm in diameter, 36cm long including electronics, potentially as small as 10 cm with sensors only). 3) Is low-mass (each sensor is 0.1 kg, so an extra redundancy 4-component seismograph plus 1.5 kg borehole sonde and recorder weighs less than 2 kg and is feasibly smaller with miniaturized electronics). 4) Is low-power (our complete 3-sensor borehole seismographic system's power consumption is about half a Watt, or 7% of Apollo's 7.1 W average and 30% of the InSight SEIS's 1.5W winter-time heating system). 5) Is broadband and highly sensitive (the "off the shelf" sensors have a wide passband: 0.005-1000 Hz - and high dynamic range of 183 dB (or about 10-9g Hz-1/2, with hopes for simple modifications to be at least an order of magnitude better). Burial also aids the

  17. Standardized reporting of adverse events after microvascular decompression of cranial nerves; a population-based single-institution consecutive series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartek, Jiri; Gulati, Sasha; Unsgård, Geirmund

    2016-01-01

    and 1 June 2013. Adverse events occurring within 30 days were classified according to the Landriel Ibanez classification for neurosurgical complications: grade I represents any non-life threatening complication treated without invasive procedures; grade II is complications requiring invasive management......OBJECTIVE: To investigate frequencies of adverse events occurring within 30 days after microvascular decompression (MVD) surgery using a standardized report form of adverse events. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of 98 adult patients (≥16 years) treated with MVD between 1 January 1994......; grade III is life-threatening adverse events requiring treatment in an intensive care unit (ICU); grade IV is death as a result of complications. We sought to compare our results with reports from the literature. RESULTS: Patients' median age was 61 years (range 26-83), and 64 (65 %) were females...

  18. Lunar Meteorites: A Global Geochemical Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Joy, K. H.; Arai, T.; Gross, J.; Korotev, R. L.; McCubbin, F. M.

    2017-01-01

    To date, the world's meteorite collections contain over 260 lunar meteorite stones representing at least 120 different lunar meteorites. Additionally, there are 20-30 as yet unnamed stones currently in the process of being classified. Collectively these lunar meteorites likely represent 40-50 distinct sampling locations from random locations on the Moon. Although the exact provenance of each individual lunar meteorite is unknown, collectively the lunar meteorites represent the best global average of the lunar crust. The Apollo sites are all within or near the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT), thus lithologies from the PKT are overrepresented in the Apollo sample suite. Nearly all of the lithologies present in the Apollo sample suite are found within the lunar meteorites (high-Ti basalts are a notable exception), and the lunar meteorites contain several lithologies not present in the Apollo sample suite (e.g., magnesian anorthosite). This chapter will not be a sample-by-sample summary of each individual lunar meteorite. Rather, the chapter will summarize the different types of lunar meteorites and their relative abundances, comparing and contrasting the lunar meteorite sample suite with the Apollo sample suite. This chapter will act as one of the introductory chapters to the volume, introducing lunar samples in general and setting the stage for more detailed discussions in later more specialized chapters. The chapter will begin with a description of how lunar meteorites are ejected from the Moon, how deep samples are being excavated from, what the likely pairing relationships are among the lunar meteorite samples, and how the lunar meteorites can help to constrain the impactor flux in the inner solar system. There will be a discussion of the biases inherent to the lunar meteorite sample suite in terms of underrepresented lithologies or regions of the Moon, and an examination of the contamination and limitations of lunar meteorites due to terrestrial weathering. The

  19. Precision Lunar Laser Ranging For Lunar and Gravitational Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkowitz, S. M.; Arnold, D.; Dabney, P. W.; Livas, J. C.; McGarry, J. F.; Neumann, G. A.; Zagwodzki, T. W.

    2008-01-01

    Laser ranging to retroreflector arrays placed on the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts and the Soviet Lunar missions over the past 39 years have dramatically increased our understanding of gravitational physics along with Earth and Moon geophysics, geodesy, and dynamics. Significant advances in these areas will require placing modern retroreflectors and/or active laser ranging systems at new locations on the lunar surface. Ranging to new locations will enable better measurements of the lunar librations, aiding in our understanding of the interior structure of the moon. More precise range measurements will allow us to study effects that are too small to be observed by the current capabilities as well as enabling more stringent tests of Einstein's theory of General Relativity. Setting up retroreflectors was a key part of the Apollo missions so it is natural to ask if future lunar missions should include them as well. The Apollo retroreflectors are still being used today, and nearly 40 years of ranging data has been invaluable for scientific as well as other studies such as orbital dynamics. However, the available retroreflectors all lie within 26 degrees latitude of the equator, and the most useful ones within 24 degrees longitude of the sub-earth meridian. This clustering weakens their geometrical strength.

  20. Incidents in transport of radioactive materials for civil use: IRSN draws lessons from events reported between 1999 and 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Some 900,000 packages of radioactive materials for civil use are transported each year in France. The great majority of these shipments involve radioactive materials used in the fields of medicine, pharmaceuticals, industry or property. Transport of radioactive materials linked to the nuclear fuel cycle actually represents only 15% of transport. A great variety of material is transported, differing in weight (from a few grams to tens of tons), form, activity and packaging. The associated risks are also different: radioactive contamination, external exposure to ionising radiation, chemical risk etc. In its role of technical support to safety and radioprotection authorities, IRSN's mission is to assess the design, manufacturing, testing and use of packaging and transport systems. The Institute is also involved in the management and analysis of events that occur during transport of radioactive materials. To assist with this, the IRSN manages a database which lists reported deviations, anomalies, incidents and accidents (known in a generic way as 'events') relating to transport. With an aim of reduction of the risks related to transport, the feedback resulting from the thorough analysis of the notified events is capitalized by IRSN, just as the feedback of the assessments of the safety analysis reports of the various package designs. Based on these feedbacks, IRSN proposes axes of improvement relating to package designs and transport operations, and regulatory evolutions, as well as priority topics for the inspections carried out by the French Nuclear safety authority (ASN). The IRSN has carried out a transversal analysis of all events in transport of radioactive materials that occurred in France from 1999 to 2007 as listed in its database (i.e. 901 events). For each event, some 70 parameters have been recorded from the analysis of the notifications and reports of the events, transmitted by the operators (type of event, type of package, level on the INES scale). This

  1. Lunar Industry & Research Base Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, J.; Kaliapin, M.; Osinovyy, G.

    2017-09-01

    Currently, all main space industry players, such as Europe, USA, Russia, China, etc., are looking back again at the idea of Moon exploration building there a manned lunar base. Alongside with other world spacefaring nations, Yuzhnoye State Design Office with its long-time development experience, technological and intellectual potential, organized its own conceptual work on development of the Lunar Industry & Research Base. In the frames of conceptual project "Lunar Industrial & Research Base" were formed its appearance, preliminary configuration and infrastructure at different stages of operation, trajectory and flight scheme to the Moon, as well as terms of the project's realization, and main technical characteristics of the systems under development, such as space transportation system for crew and cargo delivery to lunar surface and return to Earth, standardized designs of lunar modules, lunar surface vehicles, etc. The "Lunar Industrial & Research Base" project's preliminary risk assessment has shown a high value of its overall risk due to the lack of reliable information about the Moon, technical risks, long-term development of its elements, very high financial costs and dependence on state support. This points to the fact that it is reasonable to create such a global project in cooperation with other countries. International cooperation will expand the capabilities of any nation, reduce risks and increase the success probability of automated or manned space missions. It is necessary to create and bring into operation practical mechanisms for long-term space exploration on a global scale. One of the ways to do this is to create a multinational agency which would include both state enterprises and private companies.

  2. View of the Lunar Module 'Orion' and Lunar Roving Vehicle during first EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    A view of the Lunar Module (LM) 'Orion' and Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), as photographed by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Descates landing site. Astronaut John W. Young, commander, can be seen directly behind the LRV. The lunar surface feature in the left background is Stone Mountain.

  3. [Current movements of four serious adverse events induced by medicinal drugs based on spontaneous reports in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, Chie; Azuma, Yu-ichiro; Maekawa, Keiko; Kaniwa, Nahoko; Sai, Kimie; Saito, Yoshiro

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous reports on suspected serious adverse events caused by medicines from manufacturing/distributing pharmaceutical companies or medical institutions/pharmacies are regulated by the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law of Japan, and this system is important for post-marketing safety features. Although causal relationship between the medicine and the adverse event is not evaluated, and one incidence may be redundantly reported, this information would be useful to roughly grasp the current movements of drug-related serious adverse events, We searched open-source data of the spontaneous reports publicized by Pharmaceutical and Medical Devices Agency for 4 serious adverse events (interstitial lung disease, rhabdomyolysis, anaphylaxis, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis) from 2004 to 2010 fiscal year (for 2010, from April 1 st to January 31th). Major drug-classes suspected to the adverse events were antineoplastics for interstitial lung disease, hyperlipidemia agents and psychotropics for rhabdomyolysis, antibiotics/chemotherapeutics, antineoplastics and intracorporeal diagnostic agents for anaphylaxis (anaphylactic shock, anaphylactic reactions, anaphylactoid shock and anaphylactoid reactions), and antibiotics/chemotherapeutics, antipyretics and analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents/common cold drugs, and antiepileptics for Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis. These results would help understanding of current situations of the 4 drug-related serious adverse events in Japan.

  4. Hepatic adverse events during highly active antiretroviral therapy containing nevirapine: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamazhan Tansu

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatotoxicity is one of the most serious complications of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. The aim of this report is to analyse an HIV infected patient on HAART including nevirapine and taking antidepressive agents, with acute toxic hepatitis. Case presentation A 39 year old patient diagnosed as HIV positive one month ago administered to the clinical ward of the Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology in Ege University Medical School with high fever, malaise, nausea, diarrheae and elevated liver enzymes (ALT 1558 U/L, AST 4288 U/L. He has been using HAART including zidovudine+lamivudine (2 × 1/day and nevirapine (2 × 200 mg/day, following dose escalation for 22 days, sertralin and diazepam for 12 days and lithium for 10 days. The patient was hospitalized. Antiretroviral and antidepressant treatments were stopped. The day after admission, his fever dropped and his symptoms improved. Clinical improvement continued on the following days. The patient was discharged upon his request on the 14th day of hospitalization. The liver function tests returned to normal levels in two weeks following discharge. Conclusion Close monitoring of liver enzymes during the first 12 weeks of nevirapine therapy is critical to prevent life threatening events.

  5. Extracting HEPs from Event Reports of Domestic Nuclear Power Plants-Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jinkyun; Kim, Yochan; Jung, Wondea [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    it is very important to soundly estimate the human error probability (HEP) of required tasks that could degrade the operational safety of systems. To this end, it is necessary to provide the HRA practitioners with the reliable catalog of HEPs. Unfortunately, one of the common issues raised by HRA practitioners is a lack of HRA data including HEPs. Therefore, many researchers are trying to provide reliable HRA data from diverse sources, such as (1) event reports reflecting the operational experience of domestic nuclear power plants (NPPs), and (2) human performance data observed from full- and/or partial-scope simulator exercises. It is evident that the contribution of human errors to the safety of socio-technical systems is very critical. For this reason, it is important for HRA practitioners to provide reliable HRA data including HEPs. Although a full-scope simulator can be used to collect valuable HRA data, it is still necessary to extract HRA data from the review of operational experience data. If so, it is possible to expect several benefits, such as the use of HRA data gathered from the operational experience of domestic NPPs as reference information to clarify the appropriateness of those collected from full-scope simulators.

  6. Obligation for the reporting of events and internal organization structure for information of the authorities by the utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.J.; Scheer, J.

    1997-01-01

    The obligation of the utilities for the reporting of events to the authorities responsible for nuclear regulation and safety of the public is shown in this report. As an example the nuclear power plants of PreussenElektra Brokdorf and Stade are taken. The internal organization structure and the ways of communication to the authorities are discribed. Furthermore, the outlook and structure of the report which is used for alarm and information of the authorities is shown. (orig.) [de

  7. Two lunar global asymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    The Moon's center of mass is displaced from its center of figure about 2 km in a roughly earthward direction. Most maria are on the side of the Moon which faces the Earth. It is assumed that the Moon was initially spherically symmetric. The emplacement of mare basalts transfers mass which produces most of the observed center of mass displacement toward the Earth. The cause of the asymmetric distribution of lunar maria was examined. The Moon is in a spin orbit coupled relationship with the Earth and the effect of the Earth's gravity on the Moon is asymmetric. The earth-facing side of the Moon is a gravitational favored location for the extrusion of mare basalt magma in the same way that the topographically lower floor of a large impact basin is a gravitationally favored location. This asymmetric effect increases inversely with the fourth power of the Earth Moon distance. The history of the Earth-Moon system includes: formation of the Moon by accretion processes in a heliocentric orbit ner that of the Earth; a gravitational encounter with the Earth about 4 billion years ago resulting in capture of the Moon into a geocentric orbit and heating of the Moon through dissipation of energy related to tides raised during close approaches to the Earth(5) to produce mare basalt magma; and evolution of the Moon's orbit to its present position, slowly at first to accommodate more than 500 million years during which magmas were extruded.

  8. Active Solid State Dosimetry for Lunar EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Chen, Liang-Yu.

    2006-01-01

    The primary threat to astronauts from space radiation is high-energy charged particles, such as electrons, protons, alpha and heavier particles, originating from galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), solar particle events (SPEs) and trapped radiation belts in Earth orbit. There is also the added threat of secondary neutrons generated as the space radiation interacts with atmosphere, soil and structural materials.[1] For Lunar exploration missions, the habitats and transfer vehicles are expected to provide shielding from standard background radiation. Unfortunately, the Lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suit is not expected to afford such shielding. Astronauts need to be aware of potentially hazardous conditions in their immediate area on EVA before a health and hardware risk arises. These conditions would include fluctuations of the local radiation field due to changes in the space radiation field and unknown variations in the local surface composition. Should undue exposure occur, knowledge of the dynamic intensity conditions during the exposure will allow more precise diagnostic assessment of the potential health risk to the exposed individual.[2

  9. Summary and bibliography of safety-related events at boiling-water nuclear power plants as reported in 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormack, K.E.; Gallaher, R.B.

    1982-03-01

    This document presents a bibliography that contains 100-word abstracts of event reports submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission concerning operational events that occurred at boiling-water-reactor nuclear power plants in 1980. The 1547 abstracts included on microfiche in this bibliography describe incidents, failures, and design or construction deficiencies that were experienced at the facilities. These abstracts are arranged alphabetically by reactor name and then chronologically for each reactor. Full-size keyword and permuted-title indexes to facilitate location of individual abstracts are provided following the text. Tables that summarize the information contained in the bibliography are also provided. The information in the tables includes a listing of the equipment items involved in the reported events and the associated number of reports for each item. Similar information is given for the various kinds of instrumentation and systems, causes of failures, deficiencies noted, and the time of occurrence (i.e., during refueling, operation, testing, or construction).

  10. Active versus passive adverse event reporting after pediatric chiropractic manual therapy: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlman, Katherine A; Carroll, Linda; Tsuyuki, Ross T; Hartling, Lisa; Vohra, Sunita

    2017-12-01

    Patient safety performance can be assessed with several systems, including passive and active surveillance. Passive surveillance systems provide opportunity for health care personnel to confidentially and voluntarily report incidents, including adverse events, occurring in their work environment. Active surveillance systems systematically monitor patient encounters to seek detailed information about adverse events that occur in work environments; unlike passive surveillance, active surveillance allows for collection of both numerator (number of adverse events) and denominator (number of patients seen) data. Chiropractic manual therapy is commonly used in both adults and children, yet few studies have been done to evaluate the safety of chiropractic manual therapy for children. In an attempt to evaluate this, this study will compare adverse event reporting in passive versus active surveillance systems after chiropractic manual therapy in the pediatric population. This cluster randomized controlled trial aims to enroll 70 physicians of chiropractic (unit of randomization) to either passive or active surveillance system to report adverse events that occur after treatment for 60 consecutive pediatric (13 years of age and younger) patient visits (unit of analysis). A modified enrollment process with a two-phase consent procedure will be implemented to maintain provider blinding and minimize dropouts. The first phase of consent is for the provider to confirm their interest in a trial investigating the safety of chiropractic manual therapy. The second phase ensures that they understand the specific requirements for the group to which they were randomized. Percentages, incidence estimates, and 95% confidence intervals will be used to describe the count of reported adverse events in each group. The primary outcome will be the number and quality of the adverse event reports in the active versus the passive surveillance group. With 80% power and 5% one-sided significance

  11. NELIOTA: First temperature measurement of lunar impact flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanos, A. Z.; Avdellidou, C.; Liakos, A.; Xilouris, E. M.; Dapergolas, A.; Koschny, D.; Bellas-Velidis, I.; Boumis, P.; Charmandaris, V.; Fytsilis, A.; Maroussis, A.

    2018-04-01

    We report the first scientific results from the NELIOTA (NEO Lunar Impacts and Optical TrAnsients) project, which has recently begun lunar monitoring observations with the 1.2-m Kryoneri telescope. NELIOTA aims to detect faint impact flashes produced by near-Earth meteoroids and asteroids and thereby help constrain the size-frequency distribution of near-Earth objects in the decimeter to meter range. The NELIOTA setup, consisting of two fast-frame cameras observing simultaneously in the R and I bands, enables - for the first time - direct analytical calculation of the flash temperatures. We present the first ten flashes detected, for which we find temperatures in the range 1600 to 3100 K, in agreement with theoretical values. Two of these flashes were detected on multiple frames in both filters and therefore yield the first measurements of the temperature drop for lunar flashes. In addition, we compute the impactor masses, which range between 100 g and 50 kg.

  12. A research framework for pharmacovigilance in health social media: Identification and evaluation of patient adverse drug event reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Chen, Hsinchun

    2015-12-01

    Social media offer insights of patients' medical problems such as drug side effects and treatment failures. Patient reports of adverse drug events from social media have great potential to improve current practice of pharmacovigilance. However, extracting patient adverse drug event reports from social media continues to be an important challenge for health informatics research. In this study, we develop a research framework with advanced natural language processing techniques for integrated and high-performance patient reported adverse drug event extraction. The framework consists of medical entity extraction for recognizing patient discussions of drug and events, adverse drug event extraction with shortest dependency path kernel based statistical learning method and semantic filtering with information from medical knowledge bases, and report source classification to tease out noise. To evaluate the proposed framework, a series of experiments were conducted on a test bed encompassing about postings from major diabetes and heart disease forums in the United States. The results reveal that each component of the framework significantly contributes to its overall effectiveness. Our framework significantly outperforms prior work. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. A Comparison of Anorthositic Lunar Lithologies: Variation on the FAN Theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C-Y.; Yamaguchi, A.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peng, Z. X.; Park, J.; Herzog, G. F.; Shirai, N.

    2014-01-01

    Certain anorthositic rocks that are rare in the returned lunar samples have been identified among lunar meteorites. The variety of anorthosites in the Apollo collection also is more varied than is widely recognized. James eta. identified three lithologies in a composite clast o ferroan anorthosite (FAN)-suite rocks in lunar breccia 64435. They further divided all FANs into four subgroups: anorthositic ferroan (AF), mafic magnesian (MM), mafic ferroan (MF), and anorthositic sodic (AS, absent in the 64435 clast). Here we report Sm-Nd isotopic studies of the lithologies present in the 64435 composite clast and compare the new data to our previous data for lunar anorthosites incuding lunar anorthositic meteorites. Mineralogy-petrography, in situ trace element studies, Sr-isotope studies, and Ar-Ar chronology are included, but only the Nd-isotopic studies are currently complete.

  14. Sputtering of Lunar Regolith Simulant by Protons and Multicharged Heavy Ions at Solar Wind Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Fred W.; Harris, Peter R.; Taylor, C.N.; Meyer, Harry M. III; Barghouty, N.; Adams, J. Jr.

    2011-01-01

    We report preliminary results on sputtering of a lunar regolith simulant at room temperature by singly and multiply charged solar wind ions using quadrupole and time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry approaches. Sputtering of the lunar regolith by solar-wind heavy ions may be an important particle source that contributes to the composition of the lunar exosphere, and is a possible mechanism for lunar surface ageing and compositional modification. The measurements were performed in order to assess the relative sputtering efficiency of protons, which are the dominant constituent of the solar wind, and less abundant heavier multicharged solar wind constituents, which have higher physical sputtering yields than same-velocity protons, and whose sputtering yields may be further enhanced due to potential sputtering. Two different target preparation approaches using JSC-1A AGGL lunar regolith simulant are described and compared using SEM and XPS surface analysis.

  15. Procedures as a Contributing Factor to Events in the Swedish Nuclear Power Plants. Analysis of a Database with Licensee Event Reports 1995-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bento, Jean-Pierre

    2002-12-01

    The operating experience from the twelve Swedish nuclear power units has been reviewed for the years 1995 - 1999 with respect to events - both Scrams and Licensee Event Reports, LERs - to which deficient procedure has been a contributing cause. In the present context 'Procedure' is defined as all written documentation used for the planning, performance and control of the tasks necessary for the operation and maintenance of the plants. The study has used an MTO-database (Man - Technology - Organisation) containing, for the five years studied, 42 MTO-related scrams out of 87 occurred scrams, and about 800 MTO-related LERs out of 2000 reported LERs. On an average, deficient procedures contribute to approximately 0,2 scram/unit/ year and to slightly more than three LERs/unit/year. Presented differently, procedure related scrams amount to 15% of the total number of scrams and to 31% of the MTO-related scrams. Similarly procedure related LERs amount to 10% of the total number of LERs and to 25% of the MTO-related LERs. For the most frequent work types performed at the plants, procedure related LERs are - in decreasing order - associated with tasks performed during maintenance, modification, testing and operation. However, for the latest year studied almost as many procedure related LERs are associated with modification tasks as with the three other work types together. A further analysis indicates that 'Deficient procedure content' is, by far, the dominating underlying cause contributing to procedure related scrams and LERs. The study also discusses the coupling between procedure related scrams/LERs, power operation and refuelling outages, and Common Cause Failures, CCF. An overall conclusion is that procedure related events in the Swedish nuclear power plants do not, on a national scale, represent an alarming issue. Significant and sustained efforts have been and are made at most units to improve the quality of procedures. However, a few units exhibit a noticeable

  16. Coding of adverse events of suicidality in clinical study reports of duloxetine for the treatment of major depressive disorder: descriptive study

    OpenAIRE

    Maund, Emma; Tendal, Britta; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Lundh, Andreas; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of coding and coding conventions on summaries and tabulations of adverse events data on suicidality within clinical study reports. Design Systematic electronic search for adverse events of suicidality in tables, narratives, and listings of adverse events in individual patients within clinical study reports. Where possible, for each event we extracted the original term reported by the investigator, the term as coded by the medical coding dictionary, medical codi...

  17. Apollo Missions to the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Paige V.

    2018-01-01

    Six Apollo missions to the Moon, from 1969-1972, enabled astronauts to collect and bring lunar rocks and materials from the lunar surface to Earth. Apollo lunar samples are curated by NASA Astromaterials at the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX. Samples continue to be studied and provide clues about our early Solar System. Learn more and view collected samples at: https://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar.

  18. Lunar surface engineering properties experiment definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J. K.; Goodman, R. E.; Hurlbut, F. C.; Houston, W. N.; Willis, D. R.; Witherspoon, P. A.; Hovland, H. J.

    1971-01-01

    Research on the mechanics of lunar soils and on developing probes to determine the properties of lunar surface materials is summarized. The areas of investigation include the following: soil simulation, soil property determination using an impact penetrometer, soil stabilization using urethane foam or phenolic resin, effects of rolling boulders down lunar slopes, design of borehole jack and its use in determining failure mechanisms and properties of rocks, and development of a permeability probe for measuring fluid flow through porous lunar surface materials.

  19. Cognition- and Dementia-Related Adverse Effects With Sacubitril-Valsartan: Analysis of the FDA Adverse Event Report System Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Amichai; Hirsh Raccah, Bruria; Matok, Ilan; Muszkat, Mordechai

    2018-05-07

    Because neprilysin is involved in the degradation of amyloid-beta, there is concern that the angiotensin-neprilysin inhibitor sacubitril-valsartan could increase the risk for dementia. We analyzed adverse event cases submitted to the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Report System from July 2015 to March 2017. Cognition- and dementia-related adverse event cases were defined with the use of broad and narrow structured medical queries. During the period evaluated, 9,004 adverse event reports (out of a total of 2,249,479) involved the use of sacubitril-valsartan. Based on the broad definition, sacubitril-valsartan was associated with cognition- and dementia-related adverse events in 459 reports (5.1%), but this was lower than the proportion of these reports among other medications (6.6%, reporting odds ratio [ROR] 0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65-0.79). Restricting the comparison to cases with age >60 years and with the use of a comparator group with heart failure resulted in no association between sacubitril-valsartan and dementia-related adverse events, with the use of both the broad and the narrow definitions (ROR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76-1.02, and ROR 1.06, 95% CI 0.4-3.16, respectively). Sacubitril-valsartan is not associated with a disproportionately high rate of short-term dementia-related adverse effect reports. Long-term studies assessing cognitive outcomes are required to better establish the medication's cognition effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. New Age for Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.; Martel, L. M. V.

    2018-04-01

    Lunar-focused research and plans to return to the lunar surface for science and exploration have reemerged since the Space Policy Directive-1 of December 11, 2017 amended the National Space Policy to include the following, "Lead an innovative and sustainable program of exploration with commercial and international partners to enable human expansion across the solar system and to bring back to Earth new knowledge and opportunities. Beginning with missions beyond low-Earth orbit, the United States will lead the return of humans to the Moon for long-term exploration and utilization, followed by human missions to Mars and other destinations." In response to this revision, NASA proposes a Lunar Exploration and Discovery Program in the U.S. fiscal year 2019 Budget Request. It supports NASA's interests in commercial and international partnerships in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), long-term exploration in Cislunar space beyond LEO, and research and exploration conducted on the Moon to inform future crewed missions, even to destinations beyond the Moon. (Cislunar refers to the volume of space between LEO and the Moon's orbital distance.) The lunar campaign strengthens the integration of human and robotic activities on the lunar surface with NASA's science, technology, and exploration goals.

  1. Report of adverse events related to treatments to Institute de Veille sanitaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maingon, P.; Simmon-Tellier, S.

    2007-01-01

    The 'code de sante publique' imposes to all health professionals an obligation to declare serious and undesirable events following cares applied during treatment investigations or prevention actions. An experimentation has been installed under the responsibility of the Institut de Veille sanitaire further to the 9 August 2004 bill. It aims to define how to declare undesirable adverse events to test its feasibility, its efficiency and to identify the necessary conditions to widespread its modalities. The field of these experimentations concerns all health professionals, working in public hospital or in private practice. The definition of undesirable adverse events should be clarified. Different ways to declare these events will be discussed with S.F.R.O. (Societe francaise de radiotherapie oncologique) to improve the current management of incidents and adverse events. (authors)

  2. Basic radio interferometry for future lunar missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aminaei, Amin; Klein Wolt, Marc; Chen, Linjie; Bronzwaer, Thomas; Pourshaghaghi, Hamid Reza; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Falcke, Heino

    2014-01-01

    In light of presently considered lunar missions, we investigate the feasibility of the basic radio interferometry (RIF) for lunar missions. We discuss the deployment of two-element radio interferometer on the Moon surface. With the first antenna element is envisaged to be placed on the lunar lander,

  3. Nanophase Fe0 in lunar soils

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    globules that occur in the rinds of many soil grains and in the ... tinitic glass is a quenched product of silicate melts, also produced by micrometeorite impacts on lunar soils ..... stand impact processes and their products. ... cules at night; the earth's atmosphere by con- .... deep lunar interior from an inversion of lunar free oscil-.

  4. Analysis of syntactic and semantic features for fine-grained event-spatial understanding in outbreak news reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanlekha Hutchatai

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have suggested that epidemiological reasoning needs a fine-grained modelling of events, especially their spatial and temporal attributes. While the temporal analysis of events has been intensively studied, far less attention has been paid to their spatial analysis. This article aims at filling the gap concerning automatic event-spatial attribute analysis in order to support health surveillance and epidemiological reasoning. Results In this work, we propose a methodology that provides a detailed analysis on each event reported in news articles to recover the most specific locations where it occurs. Various features for recognizing spatial attributes of the events were studied and incorporated into the models which were trained by several machine learning techniques. The best performance for spatial attribute recognition is very promising; 85.9% F-score (86.75% precision/85.1% recall. Conclusions We extended our work on event-spatial attribute recognition by focusing on machine learning techniques, which are CRF, SVM, and Decision tree. Our approach avoided the costly development of an external knowledge base by employing the feature sources that can be acquired locally from the analyzed document. The results showed that the CRF model performed the best. Our study indicated that the nearest location and previous event location are the most important features for the CRF and SVM model, while the location extracted from the verb's subject is the most important to the Decision tree model.

  5. SENTINEL EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Robida

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Objective of the article is a two year statistics on sentinel events in hospitals. Results of a survey on sentinel events and the attitude of hospital leaders and staff are also included. Some recommendations regarding patient safety and the handling of sentinel events are given.Methods. In March 2002 the Ministry of Health introduce a voluntary reporting system on sentinel events in Slovenian hospitals. Sentinel events were analyzed according to the place the event, its content, and root causes. To show results of the first year, a conference for hospital directors and medical directors was organized. A survey was conducted among the participants with the purpose of gathering information about their view on sentinel events. One hundred questionnaires were distributed.Results. Sentinel events. There were 14 reports of sentinel events in the first year and 7 in the second. In 4 cases reports were received only after written reminders were sent to the responsible persons, in one case no reports were obtained. There were 14 deaths, 5 of these were in-hospital suicides, 6 were due to an adverse event, 3 were unexplained. Events not leading to death were a suicide attempt, a wrong side surgery, a paraplegia after spinal anaesthesia, a fall with a femoral neck fracture, a damage of the spleen in the event of pleural space drainage, inadvertent embolization with absolute alcohol into a femoral artery and a physical attack on a physician by a patient. Analysis of root causes of sentinel events showed that in most cases processes were inadequate.Survey. One quarter of those surveyed did not know about the sentinel events reporting system. 16% were having actual problems when reporting events and 47% beleived that there was an attempt to blame individuals. Obstacles in reporting events openly were fear of consequences, moral shame, fear of public disclosure of names of participants in the event and exposure in mass media. The majority of

  6. Lunar Cube Transfer Trajectory Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, David; Dichmann, Donald James; Clark, Pamela E.; Haapala, Amanda; Howell, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Numerous Earth-Moon trajectory and lunar orbit options are available for Cubesat missions. Given the limited Cubesat injection infrastructure, transfer trajectories are contingent upon the modification of an initial condition of the injected or deployed orbit. Additionally, these transfers can be restricted by the selection or designs of Cubesat subsystems such as propulsion or communication. Nonetheless, many trajectory options can b e considered which have a wide range of transfer duration, fuel requirements, and final destinations. Our investigation of potential trajectories highlights several options including deployment from low Earth orbit (LEO) geostationary transfer orbits (GTO) and higher energy direct lunar transfer and the use of longer duration Earth-Moon dynamical systems. For missions with an intended lunar orbit, much of the design process is spent optimizing a ballistic capture while other science locations such as Sun-Earth libration or heliocentric orbits may simply require a reduced Delta-V imparted at a convenient location along the trajectory.

  7. Lunar Rotation, Orientation and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. G.; Ratcliff, J. T.; Boggs, D. H.

    2004-12-01

    The Moon is the most familiar example of the many satellites that exhibit synchronous rotation. For the Moon there is Lunar Laser Ranging measurements of tides and three-dimensional rotation variations plus supporting theoretical understanding of both effects. Compared to uniform rotation and precession the lunar rotational variations are up to 1 km, while tidal variations are about 0.1 m. Analysis of the lunar variations in pole direction and rotation about the pole gives moment of inertia differences, third-degree gravity harmonics, tidal Love number k2, tidal dissipation Q vs. frequency, dissipation at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, and emerging evidence for an oblate boundary. The last two indicate a fluid core, but a solid inner core is not ruled out. Four retroreflectors provide very accurate positions on the Moon. The experience with the Moon is a starting point for exploring the tides, rotation and orientation of the other synchronous bodies of the solar system.

  8. Lunar heat-flow experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langseth, M. G.

    1977-01-01

    The principal components of the experiment were probes, each with twelve thermometers of exceptional accuracy and stability, that recorded temperature variations at the surface and in the regolith down to 2.5 m. The Apollo 15 experiment and the Apollo 17 probes recorded lunar surface and subsurface temperatures. These data provided a unique and valuable history of the interaction of solar energy with lunar surface and the effects of heat flowing from the deep interior out through the surface of the moon. The interpretation of these data resulted in a clearer definition of the thermal and mechanical properties of the upper two meters of lunar regolith, direct measurements of the gradient in mean temperature due to heat flow from the interior and a determination of the heat flow at the Apollo 15 and Apollo 17 sites.

  9. Characterization of atrial fibrillation adverse events reported in ibrutinib randomized controlled registration trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer R; Moslehi, Javid; O'Brien, Susan; Ghia, Paolo; Hillmen, Peter; Cymbalista, Florence; Shanafelt, Tait D; Fraser, Graeme; Rule, Simon; Kipps, Thomas J; Coutre, Steven; Dilhuydy, Marie-Sarah; Cramer, Paula; Tedeschi, Alessandra; Jaeger, Ulrich; Dreyling, Martin; Byrd, John C; Howes, Angela; Todd, Michael; Vermeulen, Jessica; James, Danelle F; Clow, Fong; Styles, Lori; Valentino, Rudy; Wildgust, Mark; Mahler, Michelle; Burger, Jan A

    2017-10-01

    The first-in-class Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib has proven clinical benefit in B-cell malignancies; however, atrial fibrillation (AF) has been reported in 6-16% of ibrutinib patients. We pooled data from 1505 chronic lymphocytic leukemia and mantle cell lymphoma patients enrolled in four large, randomized, controlled studies to characterize AF with ibrutinib and its management. AF incidence was 6.5% [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 4.8, 8.5] for ibrutinib at 16.6-months versus 1.6% (95%CI: 0.8, 2.8) for comparator and 10.4% (95%CI: 8.4, 12.9) at the 36-month follow up; estimated cumulative incidence: 13.8% (95%CI: 11.2, 16.8). Ibrutinib treatment, prior history of AF and age 65 years or over were independent risk factors for AF. Multiple AF events were more common with ibrutinib (44.9%; comparator, 16.7%) among patients with AF. Most (85.7%) patients with AF did not discontinue ibrutinib, and more than half received common anticoagulant/antiplatelet medications on study. Low-grade bleeds were more frequent with ibrutinib, but serious bleeds were uncommon (ibrutinib, 2.9%; comparator, 2.0%). Although the AF rate among older non-trial patients with comorbidities is likely underestimated by this dataset, these results suggest that AF among clinical trial patients is generally manageable without ibrutinib discontinuation ( clinicaltrials.gov identifier: 01578707, 01722487, 01611090, 01646021 ). Copyright© 2017 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  10. An evaluation of selected herbal reference texts and comparison to published reports of adverse herbal events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Christine A; Anderson, Ilene B; Kim, Susan Y; Blanc, Paul D

    2002-01-01

    There has been a recent proliferation of medical reference texts intended to guide practitioners whose patients use herbal therapies. We systematically assessed six herbal reference texts to evaluate the information they contain on herbal toxicity. We selected six major herbal references published from 1996 to 2000 to evaluate the adequacy of their toxicological information in light of published adverse events. To identify herbs most relevant to toxicology, we reviewed herbal-related calls to our regional California Poison Control System, San Francisco division (CPCS-SF) in 1998 and identified the 12 herbs (defined as botanical dietary supplements) most frequently involved in these CPCS-SF referrals. We searched Medline (1966 to 2000) to identify published reports of adverse effects potentially related to these same 12 herbs. We scored each herbal reference text on the basis of information inclusiveness for the target 12 herbs, with a maximal overall score of 3. The herbs, identified on the basis of CPCS-SF call frequency were: St John's wort, ma huang, echinacea, guarana, ginkgo, ginseng, valerian, tea tree oil, goldenseal, arnica, yohimbe and kava kava. The overall herbal reference scores ranged from 2.2 to 0.4 (median 1.1). The Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database received the highest overall score and was the most complete and useful reference source. All of the references, however, lacked sufficient information on management of herbal medicine overdose, and several had incorrect overdose management guidelines that could negatively impact patient care. Current herbal reference texts do not contain sufficient information for the assessment and management of adverse health effects of botanical therapies.

  11. Hydralazine-associated adverse events: a report of two cases of hydralazine-induced ANCA vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Zuckerman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hydralazine is a direct-acting vasodilator, which has been used in treatment for hypertension (HTN since the 1950s. While it is well known to cause drug-induced lupus (DIL, recent reports are indicating the emergence of the drug-induced anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA associated vasculitis (DIV. Herein, we describe two patients (aged 57 and 87 years who presented with severe acute kidney injury (AKI, proteinuria, and hematuria. Both were receiving hydralazine for the treatment of hypertension. ANCA serology was positive in both patients along with anti-histone antibodies (commonly seen in drug-induced vasculitis. Renal biopsy revealed classic crescentic (pauci-immune glomerulonephritis in these patients and hydralazine was discontinued. During the hospital course, the 57-year-old patient required dialysis therapy and was treated with steroids and rituximab for the ANCA disease. Renal function improved and the patient was discharged (off dialysis with a serum creatinine of 3.6 mg/dL (baseline = 0.9 mg/dL. At a follow-up of 2 years, the patient remained off dialysis with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD (stage IIIb. The 87-year-old patient had severe AKI with serum creatinine at 10.41 mg/dL (baseline = 2.27 mg/dL. The patient required hemodialysis and was treated with steroids, rituximab, and plasmapheresis. Unfortunately, the patient developed catheter-induced bacteremia and subsequently died of sepsis. Hydralazine can cause severe AKI resulting in CKD or death. Given this extremely unfavorable adverse-event profile and the widespread availability of alternative anti-hypertensive agents, the use of hydralazine should be carefully considered.

  12. Transient paralysis during acupuncture therapy: a case report of an adverse event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beable, Anne

    2013-09-01

    A patient with apparently well-controlled epilepsy with a painful musculoskeletal condition was treated successfully with two sessions of acupuncture. However, 4 h after the first treatment and during the second, an adverse event involving impairment of consciousness occurred. The patient subsequently experienced an increased frequency of complex partial seizures resulting in the loss of his driving licence. A detailed retrospective review of the past medical history indicated that the patient probably had comorbidities in the form of rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and dysfunctional somatosensory/vestibular processing. Acupuncture may have triggered the adverse event via shared neurosubstrates. This adverse event raises possible implications regarding safe clinical acupuncture practice.

  13. Lunar Base Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D.; Fischbach, D.; Tetreault, R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the feasibility of constructing a heat pump suitable for use as a heat rejection device in applications such as a lunar base. In this situation, direct heat rejection through the use of radiators is not possible at a temperature suitable for lde support systems. Initial analysis of a heat pump of this type called for a temperature lift of approximately 378 deg. K, which is considerably higher than is commonly called for in HVAC and refrigeration applications where heat pumps are most often employed. Also because of the variation of the rejection temperature (from 100 to 381 deg. K), extreme flexibility in the configuration and operation of the heat pump is required. A three-stage compression cycle using a refrigerant such as CFC-11 or HCFC-123 was formulated with operation possible with one, two or three stages of compression. Also, to meet the redundancy requirements, compression was divided up over multiple compressors in each stage. A control scheme was devised that allowed these multiple compressors to be operated as required so that the heat pump could perform with variable heat loads and rejection conditions. A prototype heat pump was designed and constructed to investigate the key elements of the high-lift heat pump concept. Control software was written and implemented in the prototype to allow fully automatic operation. The heat pump was capable of operation over a wide range of rejection temperatures and cooling loads, while maintaining cooling water temperature well within the required specification of 40 deg. C +/- 1.7 deg. C. This performance was verified through testing.

  14. Uses for lunar crawler transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaden, Richard A.

    This article discusses state-of-the-art crawler transporters and expresses the need for additional research and development for lunar crawlers. The thrust of the paper illustrates how the basic crawler technology has progressed to a point where extremely large modules can be shop fabricated and move to some distant location at a considerable savings. Also, extremely heavy loads may be lifted by large crawler cranes and placed in designed locations. The Transi-Lift Crawler crane with its traveling counterweight is an attractive concept for lunar construction.

  15. Building lunar roads - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Bennett

    The problems involved in constructing lunar roads are explored. The main challenges are airlessness, low gravity, and solar effects, especially temperature extremes. Also involved are the expense of delivering equipment and material to the job site (especially for bridges and other structures), obtaining skilled labor, and providing maintenance. The lunar road will most likely be gravel, but with the size of the material closer to cobblestone to reduce scattering. They will probably be very winding, even on the flats, and feature numerous bridges and some cuts. This traffic will be mostly automatic or teleoperated cargo carriers with a handful of shirtsleeve-pressurized 'passenger cars' large enough to live in for several days.

  16. Insertable cardiac event recorder in detection of atrial fibrillation after cryptogenic stroke: an audit report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etgen, Thorleif; Hochreiter, Manfred; Mundel, Markus; Freudenberger, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent risk factor in ischemic stroke but often remains undetected. We analyzed the value of insertable cardiac event recorder in detection of AF in a 1-year cohort of patients with cryptogenic ischemic stroke. All patients with cryptogenic stroke and eligibility for oral anticoagulation were offered the insertion of a cardiac event recorder. Regular follow-up for 1 year recorded the incidence of AF. Of the 393 patients with ischemic stroke, 65 (16.5%) had a cryptogenic stroke, and in 22 eligible patients, an event recorder was inserted. After 1 year, in 6 of 22 patients (27.3%), AF was detected. These preliminary data show that insertion of cardiac event recorder was eligible in approximately one third of patients with cryptogenic stroke and detected in approximately one quarter of these patients new AF.

  17. A synthesis report of purpose and need: assessment of event egress for Houston's Reliant Stadium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Attendance at large arena events is increasing, as the seats are added, and ground level activities such as tailgating attract visitors not attending the game. Access is somewhat staggered as people choose their arrival times differently. However, th...

  18. Coding of adverse events of suicidality in clinical study reports of duloxetine for the treatment of major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maund, Emma; Tendal, Britta; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn

    2014-01-01

    in individual patients within clinical study reports. Where possible, for each event we extracted the original term reported by the investigator, the term as coded by the medical coding dictionary, medical coding dictionary used, and the patient's trial identification number. Using the patient's trial...... for marketing approval. DATA SOURCES: Clinical study reports obtained from the EMA in 2011. RESULTS: Six trials used the medical coding dictionary COSTART (Coding Symbols for a Thesaurus of Adverse Reaction Terms) and three used MedDRA (Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities). Suicides were clearly...... identifiable in all formats of adverse event data in clinical study reports. Suicide attempts presented in tables included both definitive and provisional diagnoses. Suicidal ideation and preparatory behaviour were obscured in some tables owing to the lack of specificity of the medical coding dictionary...

  19. Passive seismic experiment - A summary of current status. [Apollo-initiated lunar surface station data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, G. V.; Dorman, H. J.; Horvath, P.; Ibrahim, A. K.; Koyama, J.; Nakamura, Y.

    1978-01-01

    The data set obtained from the four-station Apollo seismic network including signals from approximately 11,800 events, is surveyed. Some refinement of the lunar model will result, but its gross features remain the same. Attention is given to the question of a small, molten lunar core, the answer to which remains dependent on analysis of signals from a far side impact. Seventy three sources of repeating, deep moonquakes have been identified, thirty nine of which have been accurately located. Concentrated at depths from 800 to 1000 km, the periodicities of these events have led to the hypothesis that they are generated by tidal stresses. Lunar seismic data has also indicated that the meteoroid population is ten times lower than originally determined from earth based observations. Lunar seismic activity is much lower and mountainous masses show no sign of sinking, in contrast to earth, as a result of the lunar crust being four times thicker. While much work remains to be done, significant correlation between terrestrial and lunar observations can be seen.

  20. Adverse event reporting and developments in radiation biology after normal tissue injury: International Atomic Energy Agency consultation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yuhchyau; Trotti, Andy; Coleman, C. Norman; Machtay, Mitchell; Mirimanoff, Rene O.; Hay, John; O'Brien, Peter C.; El-Gueddari, Brahim; Salvajoli, Joao V.; Jeremic, Branislav

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Recent research has enhanced our understanding of radiation injury at the molecular-cellular and tissue levels; significant strides have occurred in standardization of adverse event reporting in clinical trials. In response, the International Atomic Energy Agency, through its Division of Human Health and its section for Applied Radiation Biology and Radiotherapy, organized a consultation meeting in Atlanta (October 2, 2004) to discuss developments in radiobiology, normal tissue reactions, and adverse event reporting. Methods and Materials: Representatives from cooperative groups of African Radiation Oncology Group, Curriculo Radioterapeutica Ibero Latino Americana, European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, and Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group held the meeting discussion. Results: Representatives of major radiotherapy groups/organizations and prominent leaders in radiotherapy discussed current understanding of normal tissue radiobiologic effects, the design and implementation of future clinical and translational projects for normal tissue injury, and the standardization of adverse-event reporting worldwide. Conclusions: The consensus was to adopt NCI comprehensive adverse event reporting terminology and grading system (CTCAE v3.0) as the new standard for all cooperative group trials. Future plans included the implementation of coordinated research projects focusing on normal tissue biomarkers and data collection methods

  1. Australian regulatory framework and reporting entities are hindering the lessons to be learned from adverse radiation events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, G.

    2016-01-01

    When adverse radiation events occur in the medical radiation science profession in Australia they are reported to the relevant state or territory authority. The details and cause of the incident are forwarded to the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) to be included in the Australian Radiation Incident Register. The aim of any error reporting system is to learn from previous errors and to prevent them occurring again. The information obtained from past errors is one of the most invaluable tools to prevent future adverse events. This article examines the current regulatory framework, reporting systems and radiation protection authorities in Australia and their effectiveness at improving patient safety. Several obstacles must be overcome if the systems and organisations responsible for radiation safety are to meet the expectations of both the community and the medical radiation science profession. - Highlights: • Adverse radiation events in Australia are reported to state and territory authorities. • Adverse radiation events are included in the Australian Radiation Incident Register State and territory radiation authorities have failed to implement changes agreed upon in 1999. • The Australian Radiation Incident Register requires reforms if it is to operate as an effective learning system.

  2. Associations Between Stressful Events and Self-Reported Mental Health Problems Among Non-Western Immigrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singhammer, John; Bancila, Delia

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to investigate the relationships of stressful events with self-reported mental health problems in the general population, comparing non-western immigrants with Danish nationals. 11.500 individuals aged 18-64 years from eight ethnic groups were invited to participat...

  3. Major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events after the ross procedure: A report from the german-dutch ross registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Sievers (Hans Hinrich); U. Stierle (Ulrich); E.I. Charitos (Efstratios); T. Hanke; M. Misfeld (Martin); J.F.M. Bechtel (Matthias); A. Gorski (Armin); U.F. Franke (Ulrich); B. Graf (Bernhard); D.R. Robinson (Derek); A.J.J.C. Bogers (Ad); A. Dodge-Khatami (Ali); J.O. Boehm (Juergen); J.G. Rein (Joachim); C.A. Botha (Cornelius); R. Lange (Rüdiger); J. Hoerer (Juergen); A. Moritz (Anton); T. Wahlers (Thorsten); M. Breuer (Martin); K. Ferrari-Kuehne (Katharina); R. Hetzer (Roland); M. Huebler (Michael); G. Ziemer (Gerhard); J.J.M. Takkenberg (Hanneke); W. Hemmer

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground-: The purpose of the study is to report major cardiac and cerebrovascular events after the Ross procedure in the large adult and pediatric population of the German-Dutch Ross registry. These data could provide an additional basis for discussions among physicians and a source

  4. Five Apollo astronauts with Lunar Module at ASVC prior to grand opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Some of the former Apollo program astronauts observe a Lunar Module and Moon mockup during a tour the new Apollo/Saturn V Center (ASVC) at KSC prior to the gala grand opening ceremony for the facility that was held Jan. 8, 1997. The astronauts were invited to participate in the event, which also featured NASA Administrator Dan Goldin and KSC Director Jay Honeycutt. Some of the visiting astonauts were (from left): Apollo 10 Lunar Module Pilot and Apollo 17 Commander Eugene A. Cernan; Apollo 9 Lunar Module Pilot Russell L. Schweikart; Apollo 10 Command Module Pilot and Apollo 16 Commander John W. Young; Apollo 10 Commander Thomas P. Stafford; and Apollo 11 Lunar Module Pilot Edwin E. 'Buzz' Aldrin, Jr. The ASVC also features several other Apollo program spacecraft components, multimedia presentations and a simulated Apollo/Saturn V liftoff. The facility will be a part of the KSC bus tour that embarks from the KSC Visitor Center.

  5. Lunar Phases and Emergency Department Visits for Renal Colic Due to Ureteral Calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Andy W; Johnson, Justin D; Fronczak, Carolyn M; LaGrange, Chad A

    2016-01-01

    Urolithiasis affects an estimated 5% of the population and the lifetime risk of passing a stone in the urinary tract is estimated to be 8-10%. Urinary calculus formation is highly variable and while certain risk factors such as age, gender, seasonality, anatomic abnormality, and metabolic diseases have been identified, not much is known regarding the association of environmental factors such as lunar phases on renal colic. We conducted a retrospective study to test the hypothesis that full moon phase is an environmental factor associated for increased emergency department (ED) visits for renal colic due to ureteral calculus. We analyzed 559 renal colic diagnoses by the ED at the University of Nebraska Medical Center in a 24-month period and compared them with corresponding lunar phases as well as supermoon events. The lunar phases were defined as full moon ± two days, new moon ± two days, and the days in-between as normal days according to the lunar calendar. Supermoon event dates were obtained from NASA. 90 cases (16.1%) were diagnosed during full moon phase, 89 cases (15.9%) were diagnosed during new moon phase, and 380 cases (68.0%) were diagnosed during normal days. The incidence of renal colic showed no statistically significant association with lunar phases or supermoon events. In this retrospective longitudinal study with adequate power, neither full moon phase nor supermoon event exhibited an association with increased renal colic diagnoses due to ureteral calculus by the ED at the University of Nebraska Medical Center.

  6. Retrospective Study of Reported Adverse Events Due to Complementary Health Products in Singapore From 2010 to 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimin Xu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to collate and analyse adverse event reports associated with the use of complementary health products (CHP submitted to the Health Sciences Authority (HSA of Singapore for the period 2010–2016 to identify various trends and signals for pharmacovigilance purposes. A total of 147,215 adverse event reports suspected to be associated with pharmaceutical products and CHP were received by HSA between 2010 and 2016. Of these, 143,191 (97.3% were associated with chemical drugs, 1,807 (1.2% with vaccines, 1,324 (0.9% with biological drugs (biologics, and 893 (0.6% with CHP. The number of adverse event reports associated with Chinese Proprietary Medicine, other complementary medicine and health supplements are presented. Eight hundred and ninety three adverse event reports associated with CHP in the 7-year period have been successfully collated and analyzed. In agreement with other studies, adverse events related to the “skin and appendages disorders” were the most commonly reported. Most of the cases involved dermal allergies (e.g., rashes associated with the use of glucosamine products and most of the adulterated products were associated with the illegal addition of undeclared drugs for pain relief. Dexamethasone, chlorpheniramine, and piroxicam were the most common adulterants detected. Reporting suspected adverse events is strongly encouraged even if the causality is not confirmed because any signs of clustering will allow rapid regulatory actions to be taken. The findings from this study help to create greater awareness on the health risks, albeit low, when consuming CHP and dispelling the common misconception that “natural” means “safe.” In particular, healthcare professionals and the general public should be aware of potential adulteration of CHP. The analysis of spontaneously reported adverse events is an important surveillance system in monitoring the safety of CHP and helps in the understanding of the

  7. Facilitated Nurse Medication-Related Event Reporting to Improve Medication Management Quality and Safety in Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Reale, Carrie; Slagle, Jason M; Anders, Shilo; Shotwell, Matthew S; Dresselhaus, Timothy; Weinger, Matthew B

    Medication safety presents an ongoing challenge for nurses working in complex, fast-paced, intensive care unit (ICU) environments. Studying ICU nurse's medication management-especially medication-related events (MREs)-provides an approach to analyze and improve medication safety and quality. The goal of this study was to explore the utility of facilitated MRE reporting in identifying system deficiencies and the relationship between MREs and nurses' work in the ICUs. We conducted 124 structured 4-hour observations of nurses in three different ICUs. Each observation included measurement of nurse's moment-to-moment activity and self-reports of workload and negative mood. The observer then obtained MRE reports from the nurse using a structured tool. The MREs were analyzed by three experts. MREs were reported in 35% of observations. The 60 total MREs included four medication errors and seven adverse drug events. Of the 49 remaining MREs, 65% were associated with negative patient impact. Task/process deficiencies were the most common contributory factor for MREs. MRE occurrence was correlated with increased total task volume. MREs also correlated with increased workload, especially during night shifts. Most of these MREs would not be captured by traditional event reporting systems. Facilitated MRE reporting provides a robust information source about potential breakdowns in medication management safety and opportunities for system improvement.

  8. Mechanical properties of lunar regolith and lunar soil simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Steven W.

    1989-01-01

    Through the Surveyor 3 and 7, and Apollo 11-17 missions a knowledge of the mechanical properties of Lunar regolith were gained. These properties, including material cohesion, friction, in-situ density, grain-size distribution and shape, and porosity, were determined by indirect means of trenching, penetration, and vane shear testing. Several of these properties were shown to be significantly different from those of terrestrial soils, such as an interlocking cohesion and tensile strength formed in the absence of moisture and particle cementation. To characterize the strength and deformation properties of Lunar regolith experiments have been conducted on a lunar soil simulant at various initial densities, fabric arrangements, and composition. These experiments included conventional triaxial compression and extension, direct tension, and combined tension-shear. Experiments have been conducted at low levels of effective confining stress. External conditions such as membrane induced confining stresses, end platten friction and material self weight have been shown to have a dramatic effect on the strength properties at low levels of confining stress. The solution has been to treat these external conditions and the specimen as a full-fledged boundary value problem rather than the idealized elemental cube of mechanics. Centrifuge modeling allows for the study of Lunar soil-structure interaction problems. In recent years centrifuge modeling has become an important tool for modeling processes that are dominated by gravity and for verifying analysis procedures and studying deformation and failure modes. Centrifuge modeling is well established for terrestrial enginering and applies equally as well to Lunar engineering. A brief review of the experiments is presented in graphic and outline form.

  9. Vaccine Adverse Events Reported during the First Ten Years (1998–2008 after Introduction in the State of Rondonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica P. L. Cunha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite good safety records, vaccines given to young children can cause adverse events. We investigated the reported adverse events following immunization (AEFI of vaccines given to children of less than seven years of age during the first ten years (1998 to 2008 in the state of Rondonia, Brazil. We worked with the events related to BCG (Bacillus Calmett-Guérin, HB (hepatitis B, DTwP/Hib (diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis+Hemophillus influenza b, DTP (diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, MMR (mumps, measles, rubella, and YF (yellow fever vaccines because they were part of the recommended scheme. The number of doses of vaccines given was 3,231,567 with an average of AEFI of 57.2/year during the studied period. DTwP/Hib was responsible for 298 (57.8%, DTP 114 (22.9%, HB 31 (6%, MMR 28 (5.4%, BCG 24 (4.7%, and YF 20 (3.9% of the reported AEFI. The combination of the AEFI for DTwP/Hib vaccines showed the highest number of systemic (61.4% and local events (33.8%. Young children (≤1-year old were more susceptible to AEFI occurring in the 6 hours (54.2% following vaccine uptake. This study suggests significant differences in reactogenicity of vaccines and that despite limitations of the AEFI Brazilian registry system we cannot ignore underreporting and should use the system to expand our understanding of adverse events and effects.

  10. Analysis of the Power oscillations event in Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant. Preliminary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez M, V.M.; Amador G, R.; Castillo, R.; Hernandez, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The event occurred at Unit 1 of Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant in January 24, 1995, is analyzed using the Ramona 3 B code. During this event, Unit 1 suffered power oscillation when operating previous to the transfer at high speed recirculating pumps. This phenomenon was timely detected by reactor operator who put the reactor in shut-down doing a manual Scram. Oscillations reached a maximum extent of 10.5% of nominal power from peak to peak with a frequency of 0.5 Hz. Preliminary evaluations show that the event did not endangered the fuel integrity. The results of simulating the reactor core with Ramona 3 B code show that this code is capable to moderate reactor oscillations. Nevertheless it will be necessary to perform a more detailed simulation of the event in order to prove that the code can predict the beginning of oscillations. It will be need an additional analysis which permit the identification of factors that influence the reactor stability in order to express recommendations and in this way avoid the recurrence of this kind of events. (Author)

  11. Developing the "Lunar Vicinity" Scenario of the Global Exploration Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, G.; Neal, C. R.; Crawford, I. A.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    2014-04-01

    The Global Exploration Roadmap (GER, [1]) has been developed by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG - comprised of 14 space agencies) to define various pathways to getting humans beyond low Earth orbit and eventually to Mars. Such pathways include visiting asteroids or the Moon before going on to Mars. This document has been written at a very high level and many details are still to be determined. However, a number of important papers regarding international space exploration can form a basis for this document (e.g. [2,3]). In this presentation, we focus on developing the "Lunar Vicinity" scenario by adding detail via mapping a number of recent reports/documents into the GER. Precedence for this scenario is given by Szajnfarber et al. [4] who stated "We find that when international partners are considered endogenously, the argument for a "flexible path" approach is weakened substantially. This is because international contributions can make "Moon first" economically feasible". The documents highlighted here are in no way meant to be all encompassing and other documents can and should be added, (e.g., the JAXA Space Exploration Roadmap). This exercise is intended to demonstrate that existing documents can be mapped into the GER despite the major differences in granularity, and that this mapping is a way to promote broader national and international buy-in to the Lunar Vicinity scenario. The documents used here are: the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) Panel on Exploration report on developing a global space exploration program [5], the Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) report from the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG) [6], the Lunar Exploration Roadmap developed by LEAG [7], the National Research Council report Scientific Context for the Exploration of the Moon (SCEM) [8], the scientific rationale for resuming lunar surface exploration [9], the astrobiological benefits of human space exploration [9,10].

  12. NASA Lunar Base Wireless System Propagation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Upanavage, Matthew; Sham, Catherine C.

    2007-01-01

    There have been many radio wave propagation studies using both experimental and theoretical techniques over the recent years. However, most of studies have been in support of commercial cellular phone wireless applications. The signal frequencies are mostly at the commercial cellular and Personal Communications Service bands. The antenna configurations are mostly one on a high tower and one near the ground to simulate communications between a cellular base station and a mobile unit. There are great interests in wireless communication and sensor systems for NASA lunar missions because of the emerging importance of establishing permanent lunar human exploration bases. Because of the specific lunar terrain geometries and RF frequencies of interest to the NASA missions, much of the published literature for the commercial cellular and PCS bands of 900 and 1800 MHz may not be directly applicable to the lunar base wireless system and environment. There are various communication and sensor configurations required to support all elements of a lunar base. For example, the communications between astronauts, between astronauts and the lunar vehicles, between lunar vehicles and satellites on the lunar orbits. There are also various wireless sensor systems among scientific, experimental sensors and data collection ground stations. This presentation illustrates the propagation analysis of the lunar wireless communication and sensor systems taking into account the three dimensional terrain multipath effects. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are significantly affected by the presence of the lunar terrain. The obtained results indicate the lunar surface material, terrain geometry and antenna location are the important factors affecting the propagation characteristics of the lunar wireless systems. The path loss can be much more severe than the free space propagation and is greatly affected by the antenna height, surface material and operating frequency. The

  13. Concept of Lunar Energy Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niino, Masayuki; Kisara, Katsuto; Chen, Lidong

    1993-10-01

    This paper presents a new concept of energy supply system named Lunar Energy Park (LEP) as one of the next-generation clean energy sources. In this concept, electricity is generated by nuclear power plants built on the moon and then transmitted to receiving stations on the earth by laser beam through transporting systems situated in geostationary orbit. The lunar nuclear power plants use a high-efficiency composite energy conversion system consisting of thermionic and thermoelectric generators to change nuclear thermal energy into electricity directly. The nuclear resources are considered to be available from the moon, and nuclear fuel transport from earth to moon is not necessary. Because direct energy conversion systems are employed, the lunar nuclear plants can be operated and controlled by robots and are maintenance-free, and so will cause no pollution to humans. The key technologies for LEP include improvements of conversion efficiency of both thermionic and thermoelectric converters, and developments of laser-beam power transmission technology as well. The details, including the construction of lunar nuclear plants, energy conversion and energy transmission systems, as well as the research plan strategies for this concept are reviewed.

  14. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXII

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This CD-ROM publication contains the extended abstracts that were accepted for presentation at the 32nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference held at Houston, TX, March 12-16, 2001. The papers are presented in PDF format and are indexed by author, keyword, meteorite, program and samples for quick reference.

  15. Technical report on design base events related to the safety assessment of a Low-level Waste Storage Facility (LWSF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karino, Motonobu; Uryu, Mitsuru; Miyata, Kazutoshi; Matsui, Norio; Imamoto, Nobuo; Kawamata, Tatsuo; Saito, Yasuo; Nagayama, Mineo; Wakui, Yasuyuki

    1999-07-01

    The construction of a new Low-level Waste Storage Facility (LWSF) is planned for storage of concentrated liquid waste from existing Low-level Radioactive Waste Treatment Facility in Tokai Reprocessing Plant of JNC. An essential base for the safety designing of the facility is correctly implemented the adoption of the defence in depth principle. This report summarized criteria for judgement, selection of postulated events, major analytical conditions for anticipated operational occurrences and accidents for the safety assessment and evaluation of each event were presented. (Itami, H.)

  16. Naming Lunar Mare Basalts: Quo Vadimus Redux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, G.

    1999-01-01

    Nearly a decade ago, I noted that the nomenclature of lunar mare basalts was inconsistent, complicated, and arcane. I suggested that this reflected both the limitations of our understanding of the basalts, and the piecemeal progression made in lunar science by the nature of the Apollo missions. Although the word "classification" is commonly attached to various schemes of mare basalt nomenclature, there is still no classification of mare basalts that has any fundamental grounding. We remain basically at a classification of the first kind in the terms of Shand; that is, things have names. Quoting John Stuart Mill, Shand discussed classification of the second kind: "The ends of scientific classification are best answered when the objects are formed into groups respecting which a greater number of propositions can be made, and those propositions more important than could be made respecting any other groups into which the same things could be distributed." Here I repeat some of the main contents of my discussion from a decade ago, and add a further discussion based on events of the last decade. A necessary first step of sample studies that aims to understand lunar mare basalt processes is to associate samples with one another as members of the same igneous event, such as a single eruption lava flow, or differentiation event. This has been fairly successful, and discrete suites have been identified at all mare sites, members that are eruptively related to each other but not to members of other suites. These eruptive members have been given site-specific labels, e.g., Luna24 VLT, Apollo 11 hi-K, A12 olivine basalts, and Apollo 15 Green Glass C. This is classification of the first kind, but is not a useful classification of any other kind. At a minimum, a classification is inclusive (all objects have a place) and exclusive (all objects have only one place). The answer to "How should rocks be classified?" is far from trivial, for it demands a fundamental choice about nature

  17. Perspectives on Lunar Helium-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1999-01-01

    Global demand for energy will likely increase by a factor of six or eight by the mid-point of the 21st Century due to a combination of population increase, new energy intensive technologies, and aspirations for improved standards of living in the less-developed world (1). Lunar helium-3 (3He), with a resource base in the Tranquillitatis titanium-rich lunar maria (2,3) of at least 10,000 tonnes (4), represents one potential energy source to meet this rapidly escalating demand. The energy equivalent value of 3He delivered to operating fusion power plants on Earth would be about 3 billion per tonne relative to today's coal which supplies most of the approximately 90 billion domestic electrical power market (5). These numbers illustrate the magnitude of the business opportunity. The results from the Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer (6) suggests that 3He also may be concentrated at the lunar poles along with solar wind hydrogen (7). Mining, extraction, processing, and transportation of helium to Earth requires new innovations in engineering but no known new engineering concepts (1). By-products of lunar 3He extraction, largely hydrogen, oxygen, and water, have large potential markets in space and ultimately will add to the economic attractiveness of this business opportunity (5). Inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion technology appears to be the most attractive and least capital intensive approach to terrestrial fusion power plants (8). Heavy lift launch costs comprise the largest cost uncertainty facing initial business planning, however, many factors, particularly long term production contracts, promise to lower these costs into the range of 1-2000 per kilogram versus about 70,000 per kilogram fully burdened for the Apollo Saturn V rocket (1). A private enterprise approach to developing lunar 3He and terrestrial IEC fusion power would be the most expeditious means of realizing this unique opportunity (9). In spite of the large, long-term potential

  18. Reverse translation of adverse event reports paves the way for de-risking preclinical off-targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Mateusz; Lounkine, Eugen; Whitebread, Steven; Farmer, Pierre; DuMouchel, William; Shoichet, Brian K; Urban, Laszlo

    2017-08-08

    The Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) remains the primary source for post-marketing pharmacovigilance. The system is largely un-curated, unstandardized, and lacks a method for linking drugs to the chemical structures of their active ingredients, increasing noise and artefactual trends. To address these problems, we mapped drugs to their ingredients and used natural language processing to classify and correlate drug events. Our analysis exposed key idiosyncrasies in FAERS, for example reports of thalidomide causing a deadly ADR when used against myeloma, a likely result of the disease itself; multiplications of the same report, unjustifiably increasing its importance; correlation of reported ADRs with public events, regulatory announcements, and with publications. Comparing the pharmacological, pharmacokinetic, and clinical ADR profiles of methylphenidate, aripiprazole, and risperidone, and of kinase drugs targeting the VEGF receptor, demonstrates how underlying molecular mechanisms can emerge from ADR co-analysis. The precautions and methods we describe may enable investigators to avoid confounding chemistry-based associations and reporting biases in FAERS, and illustrate how comparative analysis of ADRs can reveal underlying mechanisms.

  19. Disclosure of adverse events: a data linkage study reporting patient experiences among Australian adults aged ≥ 45 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Merrilyn; Harrison, Reema; Smith-Merry, Jennifer; Kelly, Patrick; Manias, Elizabeth; Jorm, Christine; Iedema, Rick

    2018-04-26

    Objective Since Australia initiated national open disclosure standards in 2002, open disclosure policies have been adopted in all Australian states and territories. Yet, research evidence regarding their adoption is limited. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency with which patients who report an adverse event had information disclosed to them about the incident, including whether they participated in a formal open disclosure process, their experiences of the process and the extent to which these align with the current New South Wales (NSW) policy. Methods A cross-sectional survey about patient experiences of disclosure associated with an adverse event was administered to a random sample of 20000 participants in the 45 and Up Study who were hospitalised in NSW, Australia, between January and June 2014. Results Of the 18993 eligible potential participants, completed surveys were obtained from 7661 (40% response rate), with 474 (7%) patients reporting an adverse event. Of those who reported an adverse event, a significant majority reported an informal or bedside disclosure (91%; 430/474). Only 79 patients (17%) participated in a formal open disclosure meeting. Most informal disclosures were provided by nurses, with only 25% provided by medical practitioners. Conclusions Experiences of open disclosure may be enhanced by informing patients of their right to full disclosure in advance of or upon admission to hospital, and recognition of and support for informal or bedside disclosure for appropriate types of incidents. A review of the open disclosure guidelines in relation to the types of adverse events that require formal open disclosure and those more suitable to informal bedside disclosure is indicated. Guidelines for bedside disclosure should be drafted to assist medical practitioners and other health professionals facilitate and improve their communications about adverse events. Alignment of formal disclosure with policy requirements may also be

  20. Integrated lunar materials manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Michael A. (Inventor); Knudsen, Christian W. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A manufacturing plant and process for production of oxygen on the moon uses lunar minerals as feed and a minimum of earth-imported, process materials. Lunar feed stocks are hydrogen-reducible minerals, ilmenite and lunar agglutinates occurring in numerous, explored locations mixed with other minerals in the pulverized surface layer of lunar soil known as regolith. Ilmenite (FeTiO.sub.3) and agglutinates contain ferrous (Fe.sup.+2) iron reducible by hydrogen to yield H.sub.2 O and metallic Fe at about 700.degree.-1,200.degree. C. The H.sub.2 O is electrolyzed in gas phase to yield H.sub.2 for recycle and O.sub.2 for storage and use. Hydrogen losses to lunar vacuum are minimized, with no net hydrogen (or any other earth-derived reagent) consumption except for small leaks. Feed minerals are surface-mined by front shovels and transported in trucks to the processing area. The machines are manned or robotic. Ilmenite and agglutinates occur mixed with silicate minerals which are not hydrogen-reducible at 700.degree.-1,200.degree. C. and consequently are separated and concentrated before feeding to the oxygen generation process. Solids rejected from the separation step and reduced solids from the oxygen process are returned to the mine area. The plant is powered by nuclear or solar power generators. Vapor-phase water electrolysis, a staged, countercurrent, fluidized bed reduction reactor and a radio-frequency-driven ceramic gas heater are used to improve thermal efficiency.

  1. Development of an online morbidity, mortality, and near-miss reporting system to identify patterns of adverse events in surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilimoria, Karl Y; Kmiecik, Thomas E; DaRosa, Debra A; Halverson, Amy; Eskandari, Mark K; Bell, Richard H; Soper, Nathaniel J; Wayne, Jeffrey D

    2009-04-01

    To design a Web-based system to track adverse and near-miss events, to establish an automated method to identify patterns of events, and to assess the adverse event reporting behavior of physicians. A Web-based system was designed to collect physician-reported adverse events including weekly Morbidity and Mortality (M&M) entries and anonymous adverse/near-miss events. An automated system was set up to help identify event patterns. Adverse event frequency was compared with hospital databases to assess reporting completeness. A metropolitan tertiary care center. Identification of adverse event patterns and completeness of reporting. From September 2005 to August 2007, 15,524 surgical patients were reported including 957 (6.2%) adverse events and 34 (0.2%) anonymous reports. The automated pattern recognition system helped identify 4 event patterns from M&M reports and 3 patterns from anonymous/near-miss reporting. After multidisciplinary meetings and expert reviews, the patterns were addressed with educational initiatives, correction of systems issues, and/or intensive quality monitoring. Only 25% of complications and 42% of inpatient deaths were reported. A total of 75.2% of adverse events resulting in permanent disability or death were attributed to the nature of the disease. Interventions to improve reporting were largely unsuccessful. We have developed a user-friendly Web-based system to track complications and identify patterns of adverse events. Underreporting of adverse events and attributing the complication to the nature of the disease represent a problem in reporting culture among surgeons at our institution. Similar systems should be used by surgery departments, particularly those affiliated with teaching hospitals, to identify quality improvement opportunities.

  2. The Eichmann Trial on East German Television : On (not) Reporting about a Transnational Media Event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keilbach, Judith|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/289029635

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the Eichmann trial (1961) as a transnational media event. It describes on the one hand the co-operation of different institutions that facilitated the trial's filming as well as the worldwide distribution of the footage. On the other hand it draws on East and West German

  3. The nature and causes of unintended events reported at 10 internal medicine departments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubberding, S.; Zwaan, L.; Timmermans, D.R.M.; Wagner, C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine the nature and causes of unintended events (UEs) at internal medicine departments (IMD). Methods: An observational study was conducted at 10 IMDs in 8 Dutch hospitals. The study period per participating department was 5 to 14 weeks. During this period, staff

  4. Evaluation of a Sustainable Green Living Expo Event: Attendees' Reports of Satisfaction, Learning, and Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, David C.; Swenson, Shelley E.; Wente, Jessica N.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the evaluation of the Sustainable Big Bend Green Living Expo and Education Fair, which targets participants with a variety of learning opportunities. Evaluation was carried out using onsite surveys along with follow-up surveys and phone interviews. Results indicate that a 1-day sustainability event is a meaningful way to…

  5. Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Struk, Peter M.; Green, Jennifer L.; Chau, Savio N.; Curell, Philip C.; Dempsey, Cathy A.; Patterson, Linda P.; Robbins, William; Steele, Michael A.; DAnnunzio, Anthony; hide

    2011-01-01

    The Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap is a guide for developing the technologies needed to enable the supportable, sustainable, and affordable exploration of the Moon and other destinations beyond Earth. Supportability is defined in terms of space maintenance, repair, and related logistics. This report considers the supportability lessons learned from NASA and the Department of Defense. Lunar Outpost supportability needs are summarized, and a supportability technology strategy is established to make the transition from high logistics dependence to logistics independence. This strategy will enable flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in an environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. The supportability roadmap defines the general technology selection criteria. Technologies are organized into three categories: diagnostics, test, and verification; maintenance and repair; and scavenge and recycle. Furthermore, "embedded technologies" and "process technologies" are used to designate distinct technology types with different development cycles. The roadmap examines the current technology readiness level and lays out a four-phase incremental development schedule with selection decision gates. The supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop technologies with the widest possible capability and utility while minimizing the impact on crew time and training and remaining within the time and cost constraints of the program.

  6. Patient safety with reference to the occurrence of adverse events in admitted patients on the basis of incident reporting in a tertiary care hospital in North India

    OpenAIRE

    Moonis Mirza; Farooq A. Jan; Rauf Ahmad Wani; Fayaz Ahmad Sofi

    2016-01-01

    Background: A good quality report should lend itself for detailed analysis of the chain of events that lead to the incident. This knowledge can then be used to consider what interventions, and at what level in the chain, can prevent the incident from occurring again. Aim was to study the occurrence of adverse events on the basis of incident reporting. Methods: Critical analysis of incident reporting of adverse events taking place in admitted patients for one year by using WHO Structured q...

  7. Design and Construction of Manned Lunar Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijie

    2016-07-01

    Building manned lunar base is one of the core aims of human lunar exploration project, which is also an important way to carry out the exploitation and utilization of lunar in situ resources. The most important part of manned lunar base is the design and construction of living habitation and many factors should be considered including science objective and site selection. Through investigating and research, the scientific goals of manned lunar base should be status and characteristics ascertainment of lunar available in situ resources, then developing necessary scientific experiments and utilization of lunar in situ resources by using special environment conditions of lunar surface. The site selection strategy of manned lunar base should rely on scientific goals according to special lunar surface environment and engineering capacity constraints, meanwhile, consulting the landing sites of foreign unmanned and manned lunar exploration, and choosing different typical regions of lunar surface and analyzing the landform and physiognomy, reachability, thermal environment, sunlight condition, micro meteoroids protection and utilization of in situ resources, after these steps, a logical lunar living habitation site should be confirmed. This paper brings out and compares three kinds of configurations with fabricating processes of manned lunar base, including rigid module, flexible and construction module manned lunar base. 1.The rigid habitation module is usually made by metal materials. The design and fabrication may consult the experience of space station, hence with mature technique. Because this configuration cannot be folded or deployed, which not only afford limit working and living room for astronauts, but also needs repetitious cargo transit between earth and moon for lunar base extending. 2. The flexible module habitation can be folded in fairing while launching. When deploying on moon, the configuration can be inflatable or mechanically-deployed, which means under

  8. International lunar observatory / power station: from Hawaii to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, S.

    becoming the place to go to honeymoon, and to go to the Moon. A world apart, Hawaii, with its microgravity environment, is part way in space already, a stepping stone to the Moon, stars, and beyond. References 1. NASA Technical Memorandum 4757; Paul D. Lowman Jr, "Lunar Limb Observatory", An Incremental Plan for the Utilization, Exploration and Settlement of the Moon; Goddard Space Flight Center, October 1996. 2. Japan NASDA Report 61; "An Infinity of Twinkling Stars Visible from the Moon", The Day the Moon Becomes the Heartland of Humankind - Series 4; July 1997. 3. China Space Flight High Tech Program 863; "Research on the Necessity and Feasibility of Lunar Exploration in our Country"; May 1995. 4. European Space Agency SP-1150; "Mission to the Moon", Europe's Priorities for the Scientific Exploration and Utilization of the Moon; 1992. 5. Lavochkin Association; Company Prospectus; Moscow, Russia; August 1995. 6. India Space Research Organization; Lunar Spacecraft 2005 Feasibility Study; Bangalore; due late 2000. 7. "International Lunar Observatory", Steve Durst; 3rd International Conference on Exploration and Utilization of the Moon; Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow; October 1998. 8. "Lunar Observatories: Why, Where, and When?"; Paul D. Lowman Jr, Peter C. Chen, Steve Durst; 8th International Space Conference of Pacific -basin Societies; Xian, China; June 1999. 9. "International Lunar Observatory: From Hawaii to the Moon", Steve Durst; 4th International Conference on Exploration and Utilization of the Moon; ESA / ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, July 2000. (Paper Revised; Prepared for but not Presented to the 2nd Annual Lunar Development Conference: `Return to the Moon II' 20-21 July 2000, Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, Nevada)

  9. Lunar remote sensing and measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, H.J.; Boyce, J.M.; Schaber, G.G.; Scott, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing and measurements of the Moon from Apollo orbiting spacecraft and Earth form a basis for extrapolation of Apollo surface data to regions of the Moon where manned and unmanned spacecraft have not been and may be used to discover target regions for future lunar exploration which will produce the highest scientific yields. Orbital remote sensing and measurements discussed include (1) relative ages and inferred absolute ages, (2) gravity, (3) magnetism, (4) chemical composition, and (5) reflection of radar waves (bistatic). Earth-based remote sensing and measurements discussed include (1) reflection of sunlight, (2) reflection and scattering of radar waves, and (3) infrared eclipse temperatures. Photographs from the Apollo missions, Lunar Orbiters, and other sources provide a fundamental source of data on the geology and topography of the Moon and a basis for comparing, correlating, and testing the remote sensing and measurements. Relative ages obtained from crater statistics and then empirically correlated with absolute ages indicate that significant lunar volcanism continued to 2.5 b.y. (billion years) ago-some 600 m.y. (million years) after the youngest volcanic rocks sampled by Apollo-and that intensive bombardment of the Moon occurred in the interval of 3.84 to 3.9 b.y. ago. Estimated fluxes of crater-producing objects during the last 50 m.y. agree fairly well with fluxes measured by the Apollo passive seismic stations. Gravity measurements obtained by observing orbiting spacecraft reveal that mare basins have mass concentrations and that the volume of material ejected from the Orientale basin is near 2 to 5 million km 3 depending on whether there has or has not been isostatic compensation, little or none of which has occurred since 3.84 b.y. ago. Isostatic compensation may have occurred in some of the old large lunar basins, but more data are needed to prove it. Steady fields of remanent magnetism were detected by the Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites

  10. International Observe the Moon Night: Providing Opportunities for the Public to Engage in Lunar Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, B. C.; Bleacher, L.; Day, B. H.; Daou, D.; Jones, A. P.; Mitchell, B.; Shaner, A. J.; Shipp, S. S.

    2010-12-01

    International Observe the Moon Night (InOMN) is designed to engage lunar science and education communities, our partner networks, amateur astronomers, space enthusiasts, and the general public in annual lunar observation campaigns that share the excitement of lunar science and exploration. InOMN enables the public to maintain its curiosity about the Moon and gain a better understanding of the Moon's formation, its evolution, and its place in the sky. For 2010, members of the public were encouraged to host their own InOMN events. InOMN hosts such as astronomy clubs, museums, schools, or other groups could find helpful resources and share information about InOMN events they organized on the InOMN website (http://observethemoonnight.org). Images, feedback, and lessons learned from the 2010 InOMN event will be shared in order to encourage increased planning and hosting of InOMN events in 2011. From various interpretations of the lunar “face,” early pictograms of the Moon’s phases, or to the use of the lunar cycle for festivals or harvests, the Moon has an undeniable influence on human civilization. We have chosen the 2011 InOMN theme to provide an opportunity for individuals to share their personal or cultural connections to the Moon. For 2011, the InOMN website will include a ‘lunar bulletin board’ where InOMN participants can post pictures and share stories of what the Moon means to them. The 2011 InOMN contest will encourage people to submit their works of art, poems, short stories, or music about the Moon all centered around the theme “What does the Moon mean to you?” As with the winners of previous contests, winning entries will be incorporated into the following year’s InOMN advertisements and events.

  11. The ESA Lunar Lander and the search for Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, A. D.; Barber, S. J.; Pillinger, J. M.; Sheridan, S.; Wright, I. P.; Gibson, E. K.; Merrifield, J. A.; Waltham, N. R.; Waugh, L. J.; Pillinger, C. T.

    2011-10-01

    Following the Apollo era the moon was considered a volatile poor body. Samples collected from the Apollo missions contained only ppm levels of water formed by the interaction of the solar wind with the lunar regolith [1]. However more recent orbiter observations have indicated that water may exist as water ice in cold polar regions buried within craters at concentrations of a few wt. % [2]. Infrared images from M3 on Chandrayaan-1 have been interpreted as showing the presence of hydrated surface minerals with the ongoing hydroxyl/water process feeding cold polar traps. This has been supported by observation of ephemeral features termed "space dew" [3]. Meanwhile laboratory studies indicate that water could be present in appreciable quantities in lunar rocks [4] and could also have a cometary source [5]. The presence of sufficient quantities of volatiles could provide a resource which would simplify logistics for long term lunar missions. The European Space Agency (ESA's Directorate of Human Spaceflight and Operations) have provisionally scheduled a robotic mission to demonstrate key technologies to enable later human exploration. Planned for launch in 2018, the primary aim is for precise automated landing, with hazard avoidance, in zones which are almost constantly illuminated (e.g. at the edge of the Shackleton crater at the lunar south pole). These regions would enable the solar powered Lander to survive for long periods > 6 months, but require accurate navigation to within 200m. Although landing in an illuminated area, these regions are close to permanently shadowed volatile rich regions and the analysis of volatiles is a major science objective of the mission. The straw man payload includes provision for a Lunar Volatile and Resources Analysis Package (LVRAP). The authors have been commissioned by ESA to conduct an evaluation of possible technologies to be included in L-VRAP which can be included within the Lander payload. Scientific aims are to demonstrate the

  12. Hospital staff should use more than one method to detect adverse events and potential adverse events: incident reporting, pharmacist surveillance and local real‐time record review may all have a place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Sisse; Neale, Graham; Schwab, Kat; Psaila, Beth; Patel, Tejal; Chapman, E Jane; Vincent, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Background Over the past five years, in most hospitals in England and Wales, incident reporting has become well established but it remains unclear how well reports match clinical adverse events. International epidemiological studies of adverse events are based on retrospective, multi‐hospital case record review. In this paper the authors describe the use of incident reporting, pharmacist surveillance and local real‐time record review for the recognition of clinical risks associated with hospital inpatient care. Methodology Data on adverse events were collected prospectively on 288 patients discharged from adult acute medical and surgical units in an NHS district general hospital using incident reports, active surveillance of prescription charts by pharmacists and record review at time of discharge. Results Record review detected 26 adverse events (AEs) and 40 potential adverse events (PAEs) occurring during the index admission. In contrast, in the same patient group, incident reporting detected 11 PAEs and no AEs. Pharmacy surveillance found 10 medication errors all of which were PAEs. There was little overlap in the nature of events detected by the three methods. Conclusion The findings suggest that incident reporting does not provide an adequate assessment of clinical adverse events and that this method needs to be supplemented with other more systematic forms of data collection. Structured record review, carried out by clinicians, provides an important component of an integrated approach to identifying risk in the context of developing a safety and quality improvement programme. PMID:17301203

  13. Coding of adverse events of suicidality in clinical study reports of duloxetine for the treatment of major depressive disorder: descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maund, Emma; Tendal, Britta; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Lundh, Andreas; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2014-06-04

    To assess the effects of coding and coding conventions on summaries and tabulations of adverse events data on suicidality within clinical study reports. Systematic electronic search for adverse events of suicidality in tables, narratives, and listings of adverse events in individual patients within clinical study reports. Where possible, for each event we extracted the original term reported by the investigator, the term as coded by the medical coding dictionary, medical coding dictionary used, and the patient's trial identification number. Using the patient's trial identification number, we attempted to reconcile data on the same event between the different formats for presenting data on adverse events within the clinical study report. 9 randomised placebo controlled trials of duloxetine for major depressive disorder submitted to the European Medicines Agency for marketing approval. Clinical study reports obtained from the EMA in 2011. Six trials used the medical coding dictionary COSTART (Coding Symbols for a Thesaurus of Adverse Reaction Terms) and three used MedDRA (Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities). Suicides were clearly identifiable in all formats of adverse event data in clinical study reports. Suicide attempts presented in tables included both definitive and provisional diagnoses. Suicidal ideation and preparatory behaviour were obscured in some tables owing to the lack of specificity of the medical coding dictionary, especially COSTART. Furthermore, we found one event of suicidal ideation described in narrative text that was absent from tables and adverse event listings of individual patients. The reason for this is unclear, but may be due to the coding conventions used. Data on adverse events in tables in clinical study reports may not accurately represent the underlying patient data because of the medical dictionaries and coding conventions used. In clinical study reports, the listings of adverse events for individual patients and narratives

  14. Development and evaluation of a computerbased instrument supporting event analysis in NPP. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szameitat, S.

    2002-11-01

    Information technologies (IT) in safety management are seen as opportunity to control and reduce risks. The processing of safety-critical event information, a central function of safety management, could be more efficient using computers. But organization structures are different, the processes of experience transfer are complex and the opportunities of IT are broad. To implement a support system is to question about design criteria of computer support for an event-based safety management system (eSMS). Two studies were conducted. Study 1 compares the organizational, technical and legal conditions for Safety Management in the German Nuclear Industry and the Norwegian Offshore Industry. It could identify design criteria, which independent from the operator influence the eSMS. Study 2 compares the eSMS of different nuclear power plants analyzing the organization structures and processes. Those internal and external criteria have a significant influence on a efficient design of a system support for eSMS. The third study makes the options and impact of computer support on experience transfer in eSMS as subject of discussion. For this purpose a simulation environment has been created. Groups investigated typical event scenarios from a nuclear power plant for contributing factors. The communication medium has been manipulated (face-to-face versus computer-mediated). Results of 15 groups indicate, that the collection of event information was promoted by computer-mediated communication. This is the foundation of the identification of contributing factors. The depth of analysis has not been influenced. Computer mediation hampers the learning of facts. IT can support safety management effectively. (orig.) [de

  15. Instructions for preparation of data entry sheets for Licensee Event Report (LER) file. Revision 1. Instruction manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-07-01

    The manual provides instructions for the preparation of data entry sheets for the licensee event report (LER) file. It is a revision to an interim manual published in October 1974 in 00E-SS-001. The LER file is a computer-based data bank of information using the data entry sheets as input. These data entry sheets contain pertinent information in regard to those occurrences required to be reported to the NRC. The computer-based data bank provides a centralized source of data that may be used for qualitative assessment of the nature and extent of off-normal events in the nuclear industry and as an index of source information to which users may refer for more detail

  16. The Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) Paradigm Versus the Realities of Lunar Anorthosites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, A. H.; Gross, J.

    2018-05-01

    The paradigm of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) is inconsistent with much chemical and compositional data on lunar anorthosites. The paradigm of serial anorthosite diapirism is more consistent, though not a panacea.

  17. Formation of the lunar helium corona and atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, R. R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Helium is one of the dominant gases of the lunar atmosphere. Its presence is easily identified in data from the mass spectrometer at the Apollo 17 landing site. The major part of these data was obtained in lunar nighttime, where helium concentration reaches the maximum of its diurnal cyclic variation. The large night to day concentration ratio agrees with the basic theory of exospheric lateral transport reported by Hodges and Johnson (1968). A reasonable fraction of atmospheric helium atoms has a velocity in excess of the gravitational escape velocity. The result is a short average lifetime and a tenuous helium atmosphere. A description is presented of an investigation which shows that the atmosphere of the moon has two distinct components including low energy atoms, which are gravitationally bound in trajectories that intersect the lunar surface, and higher energy atoms, which are trapped in satellite orbits. The total helium abundance in the lunar corona is shown to be about 1.3 times 10 to the 30th power atoms.

  18. Managing diversity in organisations: practitioner and academic perspectives: report from a gender in management special interest group research event

    OpenAIRE

    Beauregard, T. Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - This report aims to provide a brief summary of the presentations made by researchers and practitioners at the Gender in Management Special Interest Group’s research event, Managing Diversity in Organisations: Practitioner and Academic Perspectives.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach - The research seminar was chaired by Dr. Adelina Broadbridge (University of Stirling) and Dr. Gillian Maxwell (Glasgow Caledonian University), and featured five presentations related to diversity in org...

  19. Lunar cycles at mating do not influence sex ratio at birth in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, J J; Cuervo-Arango, J; Santa Juliana, L

    2015-02-01

    It is scientifically demonstrated that lunar cycles have important effects on several biological events. Controversy exists about the lunar influence on human and animal parturition. In addition, in the horse industry, especially in Polo Horse breeders of Argentina and around the world there is a higher demand for female offspring than for males. The objective of this study was to determine whether there is a significant association between the lunar phase at the time of mating and the sex ratio at birth in horses. The Argentinean Stud Book provided information related to all matings registered for Thoroughbred and Arab horses between 2003 and 2011. Statistical associations were tested between dates of matings at different lunar phases or days and sex ratio at birth. A total of 65.535 gestations were studied. Overall, sex ratio at birth resulted in 33.396 fillies (50.96%) and 32.139 colts (49.04%). The percentages of males and females at birth were not statistically different amongst the different lunar phases or days. We can strongly conclude that managing the breeding dates in relation to lunar cycles in order to manipulate the sex ratio of the offspring is not a viable option in horses.

  20. Building a knowledge base of severe adverse drug events based on AERS reporting data using semantic web technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guoqian; Wang, Liwei; Liu, Hongfang; Solbrig, Harold R; Chute, Christopher G

    2013-01-01

    A semantically coded knowledge base of adverse drug events (ADEs) with severity information is critical for clinical decision support systems and translational research applications. However it remains challenging to measure and identify the severity information of ADEs. The objective of the study is to develop and evaluate a semantic web based approach for building a knowledge base of severe ADEs based on the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) reporting data. We utilized a normalized AERS reporting dataset and extracted putative drug-ADE pairs and their associated outcome codes in the domain of cardiac disorders. We validated the drug-ADE associations using ADE datasets from SIDe Effect Resource (SIDER) and the UMLS. We leveraged the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Event (CTCAE) grading system and classified the ADEs into the CTCAE in the Web Ontology Language (OWL). We identified and validated 2,444 unique Drug-ADE pairs in the domain of cardiac disorders, of which 760 pairs are in Grade 5, 775 pairs in Grade 4 and 2,196 pairs in Grade 3.

  1. Assessing storm events for energy meteorology: using media and scientific reports to track a North Sea autumn storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettle, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    Important issues for energy meteorology are to assess meteorological conditions for normal operating conditions and extreme events for the ultimate limit state of engineering structures. For the offshore environment in northwest Europe, energy meteorology encompasses weather conditions relevant for petroleum production infrastructure and also the new field of offshore wind energy production. Autumn and winter storms are an important issue for offshore operations in the North Sea. The weather in this region is considered as challenging for extreme meteorological events as the Gulf of Mexico with its attendant hurricane risk. The rise of the Internet and proliferation of digital recording devices has placed a much greater amount of information in the public domain than was available to national meteorological agencies even 20 years ago. This contribution looks at reports of meteorology and infrastructure damage from a storm in the autumn of 2006 to trace the spatial and temporal record of meteorological events. Media reports give key information to assess the events of the storm. The storm passed over northern Europe between Oct.31-Nov. 2, 2006, and press reports from the time indicate that its most important feature was a high surge that inundated coastal areas. Sections of the Dutch and German North Sea coast were affected, and there was record flooding in Denmark and East Germany in the southern Baltic Sea. Extreme wind gusts were also reported that were strong enough to damage roofs and trees, and there was even tornado recorded near the Dutch-German border. Offshore, there were a series of damage reports from ship and platforms that were linked with sea state, and reports of rogue waves were explicitly mentioned. Many regional government authorities published summaries of geophysical information related to the storm, and these form part of a regular series of online winter storm reports that started as a public service about 15 years ago. Depending on the

  2. Lunar domes properties and formation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Lena, Raffaello; Phillips, Jim; Chiocchetta, Maria Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Lunar domes are structures of volcanic origin which are usually difficult to observe due to their low heights. The Lunar Domes Handbook is a reference work on these elusive features. It provides a collection of images for a large number of lunar domes, including telescopic images acquired with advanced but still moderately intricate amateur equipment as well as recent orbital spacecraft images. Different methods for determining the morphometric properties of lunar domes (diameter, height, flank slope, edifice volume) from image data or orbital topographic data are discussed. Additionally, multispectral and hyperspectral image data are examined, providing insights into the composition of the dome material. Several classification schemes for lunar domes are described, including an approach based on the determined morphometric quantities and spectral analyses. Furthermore, the book provides a description of geophysical models of lunar domes, which yield information about the properties of the lava from which the...

  3. Lunar Flight Study Series: Volume 8. Earth-Moon Transit Studies Based on Ephemeris Data and Using Best Available Computer Program. Part 3: Analysis of Some Lunar Landing Site Problems Utilizing Two Fundamental Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, W. B.; Hooper, H. L.

    1963-01-01

    This report presents two fundamental properties of lunar trajectories and makes use of these properties to solve various lunar landing site problems. Not only are various problems treated and solved but the properties and methods are established for use in the solution of other problems. This report presents an analysis of lunar landing site problems utilizing the direct mission mode as well as the orbital mission mode. A particular landing site is then specified and different flight profiles are analyzed for getting an exploration vehicle to that landing site. Rendezvous compatible lunar orbits for various stay-times at the landing site are treated. Launch opportunities are discussed for establishing rendezvous compatible lunar orbits without powered plane changes. Then, the minimum required plane changes for rendezvous in the lunar orbit are discussed for launching from earth on any day. On days that afford rendezvous compatible opportunities, there are no powered plane change requirements in the operations from launch at AMR through the rendezvous in lunar orbit, after the stay at the lunar site.

  4. Application of automation and robotics to lunar surface human exploration operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.; Sherwood, Brent; Buddington, Patricia A.; Bares, Leona C.; Folsom, Rolfe; Mah, Robert; Lousma, Jack

    1990-01-01

    Major results of a study applying automation and robotics to lunar surface base buildup and operations concepts are reported. The study developed a reference base scenario with specific goals, equipment concepts, robot concepts, activity schedules and buildup manifests. It examined crew roles, contingency cases and system reliability, and proposed a set of technologies appropriate and necessary for effective lunar operations. This paper refers readers to four companion papers for quantitative details where appropriate.

  5. Lower-Cost, Relocatable Lunar Polar Lander and Lunar Surface Sample Return Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, G. Michael; Garvin, James B.; Burt, I. Joseph; Karpati, Gabe

    2011-01-01

    Key science and exploration objectives of lunar robotic precursor missions can be achieved with the Lunar Explorer (LEx) low-cost, robotic surface mission concept described herein. Selected elements of the LEx concept can also be used to create a lunar surface sample return mission that we have called Boomerang

  6. Infrared Lunar Laser Ranging at Calern : Impact on Lunar Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Vishnu; Fienga, Agnes; Manche, Herve; Gastineau, Mickael; Courde, Clement; Torre, Jean Marie; Exertier, Pierre; Laskar, Jacques

    2017-04-01

    Introduction: Since 2015, in addition to the traditional green (532nm), infrared (1064nm) has been the preferred wavelength for lunar laser ranging at the Calern lunar laser ranging (LLR) site in France. Due to the better atmospheric transmission of IR with respect to Green, nearly 3 times the number of normal points have been obtained in IR than in Green [1]. Dataset: In our study, in addition to the historical data obtained from various other LLR sites, we include the recent IR normal points obtained from Calern over the 1 year time span (2015-2016), constituting about 4.2% of data spread over 46 years of LLR. Near even distribution of data provided by IR on both the spatial and temporal domain, helps us to improve constraints on the internal structure of the Moon modeled within the planetary ephemeris : INPOP [2]. Data reduction: IERS recommended models have been used in the data reduction software GINS (GRGS,CNES) [3]. Constraints provided by GRAIL [4], on the Lunar gravitational potential and Love numbers have been taken into account in the least-square fit procedure. Earth orientation parameters from KEOF series have been used as per a recent study [5]. Results: New estimates on the dynamical parameters of the lunar core will be presented. Acknowledgements: We thank the lunar laser ranging observers at Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, France, McDonald Observatory, Texas, Haleakala Observatory, Hawaii, and Apache Point Observatory in New Mexico for providing LLR observations that made this study possible. The research described in this abstract was carried out at Geoazur-CNRS, France, as a part of a PhD thesis funded by Observatoire de Paris and French Ministry of Education and Research. References: [1] Clement C. et al. (2016) submitted to A&A [2] Fienga A. et al. (2015) Celest Mech Dyn Astr, 123: 325. doi:10.1007/s10569-015-9639-y [3] Viswanathan V. et al. (2015) EGU, Abstract 18, 13995 [4] Konopliv A. S. et al. (2013) J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 118, 1415

  7. A Report from the Cambodia Training Event for Awareness of Melioidosis (C-TEAM, October 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotharith Bory

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Melioidosis is an endemic infection in Cambodia, a lower middle income SE Asian country. Despite more laboratories isolating and identifying Burkholderia pseudomallei in recent years, the infection remains under-recognised and under-diagnosed, particularly in the adult population. Lack of knowledge about the disease and lack of utilization of microbiology laboratories contributes to this, along with laboratory capacity issues. Treatment costs often hamper optimal management. In response to these issues, a national one-health training event was held in October 2017 to raise awareness of the disease amongst clinical, laboratory, and public health professionals. The meeting format, findings, and outcomes are described here.

  8. Influence of Japanese Regulatory Action on Denosumab-Related Hypocalcemia Using Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeyama, Mayu; Sai, Kimie; Imatoh, Takuya; Segawa, Katsunori; Hirasawa, Noriyasu; Saito, Yoshiro

    2017-01-01

    The anti-receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) antibody, Denosumab (DEN), was approved in April 2012 in Japan, but a Dear Healthcare Professional Letter of Rapid Safety Communication was released in September, 2012 by the regulatory authority because of the severe hypocalcemia risks. Currently, the effectiveness of this regulatory action has not been evaluated and, therefore, this study aimed to assess its impact on DEN-induced hypocalcemia using the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report database (JADER). The case reports from April 2012 to September 2014 were collected from the JADER, which included 151642 adverse events for the primary suspected drugs. The reporting odds ratio (ROR) of hypocalcemia as a signal of the target adverse event was analyzed for DEN and zoledronic acid (ZOL, a reference drug). Changes in RORs were compared between the pre- (Pre, April 2012 to September 2012) and post- (Post 1, October 2012 to September 2013 and Post 2, October 2013 to September 2014) periods of the regulatory action. A decrease in the hypocalcemia ROR was observed for DEN in the post-periods, especially Post 2. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a significant decrease in hypocalcemia signal in Post 1 (p=0.0306 vs. Pre) and Post 2 (p=0.0054 vs. Pre). ZOL caused no significant changes in ROR of hypocalcemia, and none of the drugs caused ROR changes in jaw osteonecrosis (a reference adverse event). This study suggests that the regulatory action against hypocalcemia in DEN effectively decreased hypocalcemia signal. Further studies using medical information databases are needed to confirm this result.

  9. Production of Synthetic Lunar Simulants, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Zybek Advanced Products has proven the ability to produce industrial quantities of lunar simulant materials, including glass, agglutinate and melt breccias. These...

  10. Development of a lunar infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, J. D.

    If humans are to reside continuously and productively on the Moon, they must be surrounded and supported there by an infrastructure having some attributes of the support systems that have made advanced civilization possible on Earth. Building this lunar infrastructure will, in a sense, be an investment. Creating it will require large resources from Earth, but once it exists it can do much to limit the further demands of a lunar base for Earthside support. What is needed for a viable lunar infrastructure? This question can be approached from two directions. The first is to examine history, which is essentially a record of growing information structures among humans on Earth (tribes, agriculture, specialization of work, education, ethics, arts and sciences, cities and states, technology). The second approach is much less secure but may provide useful insights: it is to examine the minimal needs of a small human community - not just for physical survival but for a stable existence with a net product output. This paper presents a summary, based on present knowledge of the Moon and of the likely functions of a human community there, of some of these infrastructure requirements, and also discusses possible ways to proceed toward meeting early infrastructure needs.

  11. Increasing Patient Engagement in Pharmacovigilance Through Online Community Outreach and Mobile Reporting Applications: An Analysis of Adverse Event Reporting for the Essure Device in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahk, Chi Y; Goshgarian, Melanie; Donahue, Krystal; Freifeld, Clark C; Menone, Christopher M; Pierce, Carrie E; Rodriguez, Harold; Brownstein, John S; Furberg, Robert; Dasgupta, Nabarun

    Preparing and submitting a voluntary adverse event (AE) report to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for a medical device typically takes 40 min. User-friendly Web and mobile reporting apps may increase efficiency. Further, coupled with strategies for direct patient involvement, patient engagement in AE reporting may be improved. In 2012, the FDA Center for Devices and Radiologic Health (CDRH) launched a free, public mobile AE reporting app, MedWatcher, for patients and clinicians. During the same year, a patient community on Facebook adopted the app to submit reports involving a hysteroscopic sterilization device, brand name Essure ® . Patient community outreach was conducted to administrators of the group "Essure Problems" (approximately 18,000 members as of June 2015) to gather individual case safety reports (ICSRs). After agreeing on key reporting principles, group administrators encouraged members to report via the app. Semi-structured forms in the app mirrored fields of the MedWatch 3500 form. ICSRs were transmitted to CDRH via an electronic gateway, and anonymized versions were posted in the app. Data collected from May 11, 2013 to December 7, 2014 were analyzed. Narrative texts were coded by trained and certified MedDRA coders (version 17). Descriptive statistics and metrics, including VigiGrade completeness scores, were analyzed. Various incentives and motivations to report in the Facebook group were observed. The average Essure AE report took 11.4 min (±10) to complete. Submissions from 1349 women, average age 34 years, were analyzed. Serious events, including hospitalization, disability, and permanent damage after implantation, were reported by 1047 women (77.6 %). A total of 13,135 product-event pairs were reported, comprising 327 unique preferred terms, most frequently fatigue ( n  = 491), back pain (468), and pelvic pain (459). Important medical events (IMEs), most frequently mental impairment (142), device dislocation (108), and

  12. Lunar feldspathic meteorites: Constraints on the geology of the lunar highlands, and the origin of the lunar crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Juliane; Treiman, Allan H.; Mercer, Celestine N.

    2014-02-01

    The composition of the lunar crust provides clues about the processes that formed it and hence contains information on the origin and evolution of the Moon. Current understanding of lunar evolution is built on the Lunar Magma Ocean hypothesis that early in its history, the Moon was wholly or mostly molten. This hypothesis is based on analyses of Apollo samples of ferroan anorthosites (>90% plagioclase; molar Mg/(Mg+Fe)=Mg#Moon's surface, and remote sensing data, show that ferroan anorthosites are not globally distributed and that the Apollo highland samples, used as a basis for the model, are influenced by ejecta from the Imbrium basin. In this study we evaluate anorthosites from all currently available adequately described lunar highland meteorites, representing a more widespread sampling of the lunar highlands than Apollo samples alone, and find that ∼80% of them are significantly more magnesian than Apollo ferroan anorthosites. Interestingly, Luna mission anorthosites, collected outside the continuous Imbrium ejecta, are also highly magnesian. If the lunar highland crust consists dominantly of magnesian anorthosites, as suggested by their abundance in samples sourced outside Imbrium ejecta, a reevaluation of the Lunar Magma Ocean model is a sensible step forward in the endeavor to understand lunar evolution. Our results demonstrate that lunar anorthosites are more similar in their chemical trends and mineral abundance to terrestrial massif anorthosites than to anorthosites predicted in a Lunar Magma Ocean. This analysis does not invalidate the idea of a Lunar Magma Ocean, which seems a necessity under the giant impact hypothesis for the origin of the moon. However, it does indicate that most rocks now seen at the Moon's surface are not primary products of a magma ocean alone, but are products of more complex crustal processes.

  13. Light element geochemistry and spallogenesis in lunar rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Des Marais, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The abundances and isotopic compositions of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur were measured in eleven lunar rocks. Samples were combusted sequentially at three temperatures to resolve terrestrial contamination from indigenous volatiles. Sulfur abundances in Apollo 16 highland rocks range from 73 to 1165 μg/g, whereas sulfur contents in Apollo 15 and 17 basalts range from 719 to 1455 μg/g and correlate with TiO 2 content. Lunar rocks as a group have a remarkably uniform sulfur isotopic composition, which may reflect the low oxygen fugacity of the basaltic magmas. Much of the range of reported delta 34 Ssub(CD) values is caused by systematic analytical discrepancies between laboratories. Lunar rocks very likely contain less than 0.1 μg/g of nitrogen. The measured spallogenic production rate, 4.1 x 10 -6 μg 15 N/g sample/m.y., agrees remarkably closely with previous estimates. An estimate which includes all available data is 3.7 x 10 -6 μg 15 N/g sample/m.y. Lunar basalts may contain no indigenous lunar carbon in excess of procedural blank levels. Highland rocks consistently release about 1 to 5 μg/g of carbon in excess of blank levels, but this carbon might either derive from ancient meteoritic debris or be a mineralogic product of terrestrial weathering. The average measured spallogenic 13 C production rate is 4.1 x 10 -6 μg 13 C/g sample/m.y. (author)

  14. Evolution of Shock Melt Compositions in Lunar Regoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, A. M.; Christoffersen, R.; Keller, L. P.; Berger, E. L.; Noble, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Space weathering processes - driven primarily by solar wind ion and micrometeorite bombardment, are constantly changing the surface regoliths of airless bodies, such as the Moon. It is essential to study lunar soils in order to fully under-stand the processes of space weathering, and how they alter the optical reflectance spectral properties of the lunar surface relative to bedrock. Lunar agglutinates are aggregates of regolith grains fused together in a glassy matrix of shock melt produced during micrometeorite impacts into the lunar regolith. The formation of the shock melt component in agglutinates involves reduction of Fe in the target material to generate nm-scale spherules of metallic Fe (nanophase Fe0 or npFe0). The ratio of elemental Fe, in the form of npFe0, to FeO in a given bulk soil indicates its maturity, which increases with length of surface exposure as well as being typically higher in the finer-size fraction of soils. The melting and mixing process in agglutinate formation remain poorly understood. This includes incomplete knowledge regarding how the homogeneity and overall compositional trends of the agglutinate glass portions (agglutinitic glass) evolve with maturity. The aim of this study is to use sub-micrometer scale X-ray compositional mapping and image analysis to quantify the chemical homogeneity of agglutinitic glass, correlate its homogeneity to its parent soil maturity, and identify the principal chemical components contributing to the shock melt composition variations. An additional focus is to see if agglutinitic glass contains anomalously high Fe sub-micron scale compositional domains similar to those recently reported in glassy patina coatings on lunar rocks.

  15. Adverse events reported to the Food and Drug Administration from 2004 to 2016 for cosmetics and personal care products marketed to newborns and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Erika; Kwa, Michael; Paller, Amy S; Xu, Shuai

    2018-03-01

    Despite their ubiquitous use and several recent health controversies involving cosmetics and personal care products for children, the Food and Drug Administration has little oversight of these products and relies on consumer-submitted adverse event reports. We assessed the recently released Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's Adverse Event Reporting System database for adverse event reports submitted to the Food and Drug Administration for baby personal care products and to determine whether useful insights can be derived. We extracted the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's Adverse Event Reporting System data file from 2004 to 2016 and examined the subset classified according to the Food and Drug Administration-designated product class as a baby product. Events were manually categorized into product type and symptom type to assess for trends. Only 166 total adverse events were reported to the Food and Drug Administration for baby products from 2004 to 2016. The majority of reports indicated rash or other skin reaction; 46% of reported events led to a health care visit. Pediatric dermatologists should consider submitting cosmetics and personal care product adverse event reports and encouraging consumers to do so likewise in situations in which a product adversely affects a child's health. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Despite 2007 law requiring FDA hotline to be included in print drug ads, reporting of adverse events by consumers still low.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Dongyi; Goldsmith, John; Aikin, Kathryn J; Encinosa, William E; Nardinelli, Clark

    2012-05-01

    In 2007 the federal government began requiring drug makers to include in their print direct-to-consumer advertisements information for consumers on how to contact the Food and Drug Administration directly, either by phone or through the agency's website, to report any adverse events that they experienced after taking a prescription drug. Adverse events can range from minor skin problems like itching to serious injuries or illness that result in hospitalization, permanent disability, or even death. Even so, current rates of adverse event reporting are low. We studied adverse event reports about 123 drugs that came from patients before and after the enactment of the print advertising requirement and estimated that requirement's impact with model simulations. We found that if monthly spending on print direct-to-consumer advertising increased from zero to $7.7 million per drug, the presence of the Food and Drug Administration contact information tripled the increase in patient-reported adverse events, compared to what would have happened in the absence of the law. However, the absolute monthly increase was fewer than 0.24 reports per drug, suggesting that the public health impact of the increase was small and that the adverse event reporting rate would still be low. The study results suggest that additional measures, such as more publicity about the Adverse Event Reporting System or more consumer education, should be considered to promote patient reporting of adverse events.

  17. Trail-Based Search for Efficient Event Report to Mobile Actors in Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhezhuang; Liu, Guanglun; Yan, Haotian; Cheng, Bin; Lin, Feilong

    2017-10-27

    In wireless sensor and actor networks, when an event is detected, the sensor node needs to transmit an event report to inform the actor. Since the actor moves in the network to execute missions, its location is always unavailable to the sensor nodes. A popular solution is the search strategy that can forward the data to a node without its location information. However, most existing works have not considered the mobility of the node, and thus generate significant energy consumption or transmission delay. In this paper, we propose the trail-based search (TS) strategy that takes advantage of actor's mobility to improve the search efficiency. The main idea of TS is that, when the actor moves in the network, it can leave its trail composed of continuous footprints. The search packet with the event report is transmitted in the network to search the actor or its footprints. Once an effective footprint is discovered, the packet will be forwarded along the trail until it is received by the actor. Moreover, we derive the condition to guarantee the trail connectivity, and propose the redundancy reduction scheme based on TS (TS-R) to reduce nontrivial transmission redundancy that is generated by the trail. The theoretical and numerical analysis is provided to prove the efficiency of TS. Compared with the well-known expanding ring search (ERS), TS significantly reduces the energy consumption and search delay.

  18. Trail-Based Search for Efficient Event Report to Mobile Actors in Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhezhuang; Liu, Guanglun; Yan, Haotian; Cheng, Bin; Lin, Feilong

    2017-01-01

    In wireless sensor and actor networks, when an event is detected, the sensor node needs to transmit an event report to inform the actor. Since the actor moves in the network to execute missions, its location is always unavailable to the sensor nodes. A popular solution is the search strategy that can forward the data to a node without its location information. However, most existing works have not considered the mobility of the node, and thus generate significant energy consumption or transmission delay. In this paper, we propose the trail-based search (TS) strategy that takes advantage of actor’s mobility to improve the search efficiency. The main idea of TS is that, when the actor moves in the network, it can leave its trail composed of continuous footprints. The search packet with the event report is transmitted in the network to search the actor or its footprints. Once an effective footprint is discovered, the packet will be forwarded along the trail until it is received by the actor. Moreover, we derive the condition to guarantee the trail connectivity, and propose the redundancy reduction scheme based on TS (TS-R) to reduce nontrivial transmission redundancy that is generated by the trail. The theoretical and numerical analysis is provided to prove the efficiency of TS. Compared with the well-known expanding ring search (ERS), TS significantly reduces the energy consumption and search delay. PMID:29077017

  19. Reporting of Cardiovascular Medical Device Adverse Events to Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiro Handa

    2015-09-01

    Comments: Although Japanese MAHs complied with the obligation to report AEs, they often failed to share AEs with healthcare providers. Registry may be a potential solution, although the cooperation of healthcare providers to input data is essential.

  20. Surface chemistry of selected lunar regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielefeld, M.J.; Reedy, R.C.; Metzger, A.E.; Trombka, J.I.; Arnold, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    A completely new analysis has been carried out on the data from the Apollo 15 and 16 γ ray spectrometer experiments. The components of the continuum background have been estimated. The elements Th, K, Fe and Mg give useful results; results for Ti are significant only for a few high Ti regions. Errors are given, and the results are checked by other methods. Concentrations are reported for about sixty lunar regions; the ground track has been subdivided in various ways. The borders of the maria seem well-defined chemically, while the distribution of KREEP is broad. This wide distribution requires emplacement of KREEP before the era of mare formation. Its high concentration in western mare soils seems to require major vertical mixing

  1. Hydrogen Bearing Material in the Lunar Exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, D.; Benna, M.; Colaprete, A.; Retherford, K. D.; Cook, J. C.; Elphic, R. C.; Farrell, W. M.; Killen, R. M.; Sarantos, M.

    2015-12-01

    We report on observations of water and its daughters in the lunar exosphere. Data from LADEE NMS, LADEE UVS, and LRO LAMP indicating the presence of H, H2, OH, and H2O are presented in terms of their relationship to external drivers. These observations point to the roles of solar wind and micrometeoroids in the source and release of hydrogen-bearing atoms and molecules in the exosphere. In particular, the implantation of H via solar wind is found to be the largest contributor to H2 in the moon's exosphere. However, the spatial distribution is more consistent with a release mechanism centered on the morning hemisphere. Thus the data are consistent with H2 created through a 2-step process involving the implantation of solar wind and subsequent release by micrometeoroids. This accounts for >12% of the solar wind H budget, leaving day water cycle occurring on the Moon.

  2. Implementation and evaluation of a prototype consumer reporting system for patient safety events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingart, Saul N; Weissman, Joel S; Zimmer, Karen P; Giannini, Robert C; Quigley, Denise D; Hunter, Lauren E; Ridgely, M Susan; Schneider, Eric C

    2017-08-01

    No methodologically robust system exists for capturing consumer-generated patient safety reports. To address this challenge, we developed and pilot-tested a prototype consumer reporting system for patient safety, the Health Care Safety Hotline. Mixed methods evaluation. The Hotline was implemented in two US healthcare systems from 1 February 2014 through 30 June 2015. Patients, family members and caregivers associated with two US healthcare systems. A consumer-oriented incident reporting system for telephone or web-based administration was developed to elicit medical mistakes and care-related injuries. Key informant interviews, measurement of website traffic and analysis of completed reports. Key informants indicated that Hotline participation was motivated by senior leaders' support and alignment with existing quality and safety initiatives. During the measurement period from 1 October 2014 through 30 June 2015, the home page had 1530 visitors with a unique IP address. During its 17 months of operation, the Hotline received 37 completed reports including 20 mistakes without harm and 15 mistakes with injury. The largest category of mistake concerned problems with diagnosis or advice from a health practitioner. Hotline reports prompted quality reviews, an education intervention, and patient follow-ups. While generating fewer reports than its capacity to manage, the Health Care Safety Hotline demonstrated the feasibility of consumer-oriented patient safety reporting. Further research is needed to understand how to increase consumers' use of these systems. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. Visual correlation analytics of event-based error reports for advanced manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Nazir, Iqbal

    2017-01-01

    With the growing digitalization and automation in the manufacturing domain, an increasing amount of process data and error reports become available. To minimize the number of errors and maximize the efficiency of the production line, it is important to analyze the generated error reports and find solutions that can reduce future errors. However, not all errors have the equal importance, as some errors may be the result of previously occurred errors. Therefore, it is important for domain exper...

  4. Department of Defense Suicide Event Report (DoDSER) Data Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-14

    suffered from a high number of “don’t know/data unavailable” responses because toxicology , forensic investigations, etc. were still being processed...asphyxia) and manner (for example, suicide, homicide). A medical examiner or coroner usually conducts an autopsy and other medical- forensic examinations...cases had a completed death investigation, 86 percent of the cases had an autopsy report, 71 percent had a toxicology report, and 54 percent included

  5. Seventh-day syndrome: a catastrophic event after liver transplantation: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M; Ferreira, I; Gandara, J; Ferreira, S; Lopes, V; Coelho, A; Vizcaino, R; Marinho, A; Daniel, J; Miranda, H P

    2015-05-01

    Seventh-day syndrome (7DS) is an early serious complication of liver transplantation, characterized by sudden failure of a previously normally functioning liver graft ∼1 week after the surgery. Although it is an uncommon event, it has major associated mortality. As its etiology is yet to be recognized, the only currently available treatment is retransplantation. We present 3 cases of orthotopic liver transplantation recipients who had an initial uneventful recovery after surgery followed by a dramatic rise of serum liver enzyme levels ∼7 days later and hepatic failure with subsequent graft loss and death despite high-dose immunosuppressive therapy. Histologic findings showed massive centrolobular hemorrhage and hepatocellular necrosis with reduced inflammation. It is essential to review and accumulate more clinical and laboratory information to better understand this syndrome and to better prevent and treat it. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Safety at basic nuclear facilities other than nuclear power plants. Lessons learned from significant events reported in 2011 and 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The third report on the safety of basic nuclear installations in France other than power reactors presents an IRSN's analysis of significant events reported to the Nuclear Safety Authority in the years 2011 and 2012. It covers plants, laboratories, research reactors and facilities for the treatment, storage or disposal of waste. This report aims to contribute to a better understanding by stakeholders and more widely by the public of the safety and radiation protection issues associated with the operation of nuclear facilities, the progress made in terms of safety as well as the identified deficiencies. The main trend shows, once again, the significant role of organizational and human factors in the significant events that occurred in 2011 and 2012, of which the vast majority are without noteworthy consequences. Aging mechanisms are another major cause of equipment failure and require special attention. The report also provides IRSN's analysis of specific events that are particularly instructive for facility safety and a synthesis of assessments performed by IRSN on topics that are important for safety and radiation protection. IRSN also includes an overview of its analysis of measures proposed by licensees for increasing the safety of their facilities after the March 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan, which consist of providing a 'hardened safety core' to confront extreme situations (earthquake, flooding, etc.) that are unlikely but plausible and can bring about levels of hazards higher than those taken into account in the design of the facilities

  7. Common data elements for secondary use of electronic health record data for clinical trial execution and serious adverse event reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Bruland

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data capture is one of the most expensive phases during the conduct of a clinical trial and the increasing use of electronic health records (EHR offers significant savings to clinical research. To facilitate these secondary uses of routinely collected patient data, it is beneficial to know what data elements are captured in clinical trials. Therefore our aim here is to determine the most commonly used data elements in clinical trials and their availability in hospital EHR systems. Methods Case report forms for 23 clinical trials in differing disease areas were analyzed. Through an iterative and consensus-based process of medical informatics professionals from academia and trial experts from the European pharmaceutical industry, data elements were compiled for all disease areas and with special focus on the reporting of adverse events. Afterwards, data elements were identified and statistics acquired from hospital sites providing data to the EHR4CR project. Results The analysis identified 133 unique data elements. Fifty elements were congruent with a published data inventory for patient recruitment and 83 new elements were identified for clinical trial execution, including adverse event reporting. Demographic and laboratory elements lead the list of available elements in hospitals EHR systems. For the reporting of serious adverse events only very few elements could be identified in the patient records. Conclusions Common data elements in clinical trials have been identified and their availability in hospital systems elucidated. Several elements, often those related to reimbursement, are frequently available whereas more specialized elements are ranked at the bottom of the data inventory list. Hospitals that want to obtain the benefits of reusing data for research from their EHR are now able to prioritize their efforts based on this common data element list.

  8. Common data elements for secondary use of electronic health record data for clinical trial execution and serious adverse event reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruland, Philipp; McGilchrist, Mark; Zapletal, Eric; Acosta, Dionisio; Proeve, Johann; Askin, Scott; Ganslandt, Thomas; Doods, Justin; Dugas, Martin

    2016-11-22

    Data capture is one of the most expensive phases during the conduct of a clinical trial and the increasing use of electronic health records (EHR) offers significant savings to clinical research. To facilitate these secondary uses of routinely collected patient data, it is beneficial to know what data elements are captured in clinical trials. Therefore our aim here is to determine the most commonly used data elements in clinical trials and their availability in hospital EHR systems. Case report forms for 23 clinical trials in differing disease areas were analyzed. Through an iterative and consensus-based process of medical informatics professionals from academia and trial experts from the European pharmaceutical industry, data elements were compiled for all disease areas and with special focus on the reporting of adverse events. Afterwards, data elements were identified and statistics acquired from hospital sites providing data to the EHR4CR project. The analysis identified 133 unique data elements. Fifty elements were congruent with a published data inventory for patient recruitment and 83 new elements were identified for clinical trial execution, including adverse event reporting. Demographic and laboratory elements lead the list of available elements in hospitals EHR systems. For the reporting of serious adverse events only very few elements could be identified in the patient records. Common data elements in clinical trials have been identified and their availability in hospital systems elucidated. Several elements, often those related to reimbursement, are frequently available whereas more specialized elements are ranked at the bottom of the data inventory list. Hospitals that want to obtain the benefits of reusing data for research from their EHR are now able to prioritize their efforts based on this common data element list.

  9. Accident analyses in nuclear power plants following external initiating events and in the shutdown state. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, Horst; Kowalik, Michael; Mildenberger, Oliver; Hage, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The work which is documented here provides the methodological basis for improvement of the state of knowledge for accident sequences after plant external initiating events and for accident sequences which begin in the shutdown state. The analyses have been done for a PWR and for a BWR reference plant. The work has been supported by the German federal ministry BMUB under the label 3612R01361. Top objectives of the work are: - Identify relevant event sequences in order to define characteristic initial and boundary conditions - Perform accident analysis of selected sequences - Evaluate the relevance of accident sequences in a qualitative way The accident analysis is performed with the code MELCOR 1.8.6. The applied input data set has been significantly improved compared to previous analyses. The event tree method which is established in PSA level 2 has been applied for creating a structure for a unified summarization and evaluation of the results from the accident analyses. The computer code EVNTRE has been applied for this purpose. In contrast to a PSA level 2, the branching probabilities of the event tree have not been determined with the usual accuracy, but they are given in an approximate way only. For the PWR, the analyses show a considerable protective effect of the containment also in the case of beyond design events. For the BWR, there is a rather high probability for containment failure under core melt impact, but nevertheless the release of radionuclides into the environment is very limited because of plant internal retention mechanisms. This report concludes with remarks about existing knowledge gaps and with regard to core melt sequences, and about possible improvements of the plant safety.

  10. The McDonald Observatory lunar laser ranging project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, E. C.

    1978-01-01

    A summary of the activities of the McDonald lunar laser ranging station at Fort Davis for the FY 77-78 fiscal year is presented. The lunar laser experiment uses the observatory 2.7m reflecting telescope on a thrice-per-day, 21-day-per-lunation schedule. Data are recorded on magnetic tapes and sent to the University of Texas at Austin where the data is processed. After processing, the data is distributed to interested analysis centers and later to the National Space Science Data Center where it is available for routine distribution. Detailed reports are published on the McDonald operations after every fourth lunation or approximately once every 115 days. These reports contain a day-by-day documentation of the ranging activity, detailed discussions of the equipment development efforts, and an abundance of other information as is needed to document and archive this important data type.

  11. Acute renal failure with sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2 inhibitors: Analysis of the FDA adverse event report system database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, A; Heyman, S N; Matok, I; Stokar, J; Muszkat, M; Szalat, A

    2017-12-01

    Sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have recently been approved for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It has been proposed that these agents could induce acute renal failure (ARF) under certain conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the association between SGLT2-inhibitors and ARF in the FDA adverse