WorldWideScience

Sample records for reported language difficulties

  1. Screening Bilingual Preschoolers for Language Difficulties: Utility of Teacher and Parent Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pua, Emmanuel Peng Kiat; Lee, Mary Lay Choo; Rickard Liow, Susan J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The utility of parent and teacher reports for screening 3 types of bilingual preschoolers (English-first language [L1]/Mandarin-second language[L2], Mandarin-L1/English-L2, or Malay-L1/English-L2) for language difficulty was investigated in Singapore with reference to measures of reliability, validity, sensitivity, and specificity in an…

  2. Screening Bilingual Preschoolers for Language Difficulties: Utility of Teacher and Parent Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pua, Emmanuel Peng Kiat; Lee, Mary Lay Choo; Rickard Liow, Susan J

    2017-04-14

    The utility of parent and teacher reports for screening 3 types of bilingual preschoolers (English-first language [L1]/Mandarin-second language[L2], Mandarin-L1/English-L2, or Malay-L1/English-L2) for language difficulty was investigated in Singapore with reference to measures of reliability, validity, sensitivity, and specificity in an English-medium kindergarten setting. The index tests were teachers' ratings of the English language ability of 5-year-olds (N = 85) on the Bilingual Language Assessment Battery (BLAB): Preschool Teacher Report (Pua, Lee, & Rickard Liow, 2013) and parents' ratings of their child's home language ability (N = 78 English-L1, Mandarin-L1, or Malay-L1) on the BLAB: Preschool Parent Report (Pua, Lee, & Rickard Liow, 2013). The reference standards were objective measures of single-word receptive vocabulary (80 items) and expressive vocabulary (140 items) in the child's L1 and L2, as proxies for language ability. BLAB Teacher Reports for the English receptive and expressive subscales showed concurrent validity for all 3 bilingual groups, as well as generally high sensitivity and specificity. In contrast, BLAB Parent Reports for L1 receptive ability failed to show significant correlations with the objective measures of receptive vocabulary. Subjective teacher ratings may be an effective method of screening bilingual preschoolers for language difficulty, thereby prompting referral to clinicians.

  3. Population Estimates, Health Care Characteristics, and Material Hardship Experiences of U.S. Children With Parent-Reported Speech-Language Difficulties: Evidence From Three Nationally Representative Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonik, Rajan A; Parish, Susan L; Akorbirshoev, Ilhom; Son, Esther; Rosenthal, Eliana

    2017-10-05

    To provide estimates for the prevalence of parent-reported speech-language difficulties in U.S. children, and to describe the levels of health care access and material hardship in this population. We tabulated descriptive and bivariate statistics using cross-sectional data from the 2007 and 2011/2012 iterations of the National Survey of Children's Health, the 2005/2006 and 2009/2010 iterations of the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, and the 2004 and 2008 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation. Prevalence estimates ranged from 1.8% to 5.0%, with data from two of the three surveys preliminarily indicating increased prevalence in recent years. The largest health care challenge was in accessing care coordination, with 49%-56% of children with parent-reported speech-language difficulties lacking full access. Children with parent-reported speech-language difficulties were more likely than peers without any indications of speech-language difficulties to live in households experiencing each measured material hardship and participating in each measured public benefit program (e.g., 20%-22% experiencing food insecurity, compared to 11%-14% of their peers without any indications of speech-language difficulties). We found mixed preliminary evidence to suggest that the prevalence of parent-reported speech-language difficulties among children may be rising. These children face heightened levels of material hardship and barriers in accessing health care.

  4. Mental Verbs and Pragmatic Language Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudis, George; Natsopoulos, Demetrios; Panayiotou, Georgia

    2007-01-01

    Background: Pragmatic language impairment has recently been the subject of a number of studies that attempted to illuminate classification and diagnostic issues, and identify the profile of children with pragmatic language difficulties. Although much progress has been made, the nature of pragmatic difficulties remains unclear. Aims: To contrast…

  5. Mental Verbs and Pragmatic Language Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudis, George; Natsopoulos, Demetrios; Panayiotou, Georgia

    2007-01-01

    Background: Pragmatic language impairment has recently been the subject of a number of studies that attempted to illuminate classification and diagnostic issues, and identify the profile of children with pragmatic language difficulties. Although much progress has been made, the nature of pragmatic difficulties remains unclear. Aims: To contrast…

  6. Response Time in Adults with a History of Language Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carol A.; Poll, Gerard H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate speed of processing in college students with a history of problems with language. Affected individuals (n = 16) were identified through a self-reported history of language and/or reading difficulties, and compared to a group of 16 unaffected individuals. Measures of language ability and a battery of…

  7. Foreign Language Learning Difficulties and Teaching Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Tiffini

    2008-01-01

    Beginning foreign language (FL) courses in high school often have high numbers of learning disabled (LED) and at-risk students, perhaps because many students who are considered to be college bound begin foreign language study in middle school. This paper examines FL difficulties as well as effective strategies that others have used to conquer…

  8. Neurobiological Basis of Language Learning Difficulties

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, S.; Watkins, K; Bishop, D

    2016-01-01

    Trends Individuals with SLI and dyslexia have impaired or immature learning mechanisms; this hampers their extraction of structure in complex learning environments. These learning difficulties are not general or confined to language. Problems are specific to tasks that involve implicitly learning sequential structure or complex cue–outcome relationships. Such learning is thought to depend upon corticostriatal circuits. In language learning studies, the striatum is recruited when adults extrac...

  9. Learning Styles and Foreign Language Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Obdulia; Peck, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    In order to identify what other elements besides linguistic deficits could be playing a role in foreign language learning difficulties, the Kolb Learning Styles Inventory was administered to students enrolled in regular and modified Spanish classes at a major U.S. university. Preliminary results gathered as part of a longitudinal study on learning…

  10. Response time in adults with a history of language difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carol A; Poll, Gerard H

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate speed of processing in college students with a history of problems with language. Affected individuals (n=16) were identified through a self-reported history of language and/or reading difficulties, and compared to a group of 16 unaffected individuals. Measures of language ability and a battery of response time tasks were administered. Results showed that the affected group had lower language performance and slower response time than the unaffected group. Better language performance was associated with faster response time, and this relationship was stronger in the affected group. These findings are consistent with the literature showing that language impairment often persists into adulthood. Further investigation of the relation between processing speed and language ability may help describe vulnerabilities for adults with language problems, as well as ways to promote compensation for those vulnerabilities. Readers will (1) increase understanding of associations between processing speed and language in children and adults; (2) become familiar with a method for assessing processing speed; and (3) increase understanding of possible vulnerabilities in adults with a history of language and/or reading problems.

  11. Language difficulties and criminal justice: the need for earlier identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Karen; Garvani, Gillian; Gregory, Juliette; Kilner, Karen

    2015-01-01

    At least 60% of young people in the UK who are accessing youth justice services present with speech, language and communication difficulties which are largely unrecognized. The contributing reasons for this are discussed, suggesting that early language difficulty is a risk factor for other problems such as literacy difficulties and educational failure that may increasingly put the young person at risk of offending. Opportunities for identification and remediation of language difficulties before young people reach youth justice services are also outlined. To examine language skills in a sample of children in a secure children's home aged 11-17 years. A sample of 118 males were routinely assessed on four Comprehensive Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF) subtests and the British Picture Vocabulary Scale (BPVS). Around 30% of the participants presented with language difficulties scoring 1.5 SD (standard deviation) below the mean on the assessments. Despite them entering the home because their vulnerability was recognized, only two participants had a previous record of language difficulties. A total of 20% of the participants had a diagnosis of mental illness, 50% had a history of drug abuse and 31% had looked-after status prior to entry to the home. Children experiencing educational or emotional difficulties need to be routinely assessed for speech, language and communication difficulties. More population-based approaches to supporting the development of oral language skills in children and young people are also supported. © 2015 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  12. DIFFICULTIES OF ENGLISH LEARNING AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

    OpenAIRE

    KORSHUNOVA I.G.

    2016-01-01

    The article highlights the problems of English learning as a foreign language. Some difficulties are connected with origin of the language, spelling rules and grammar. But in most cases problems are caused by the learner’s personal abilities.

  13. Language difficulties in children adopted internationally: neuropsychological and functional neural correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helder, E J; Behen, M E; Wilson, B; Muzik, O; Chugani, H T

    2014-01-01

    Children who have experienced deprivation as a result of orphanage care during early development are at increased risk for a number of cognitive, emotional, and social difficulties (MacLean, 2003). This study examined the neuropsychological and behavioral profile of internationally adopted children with language difficulties, one of the most common cognitive challenges (Behen et al., 2008). In addition to neuropsychological testing, fMRI was utilized to examine activation patterns during expressive fluency and receptive language tasks. In comparison to internationally adopted children without language difficulties and nonadopted controls, participants with language difficulty had worse performance on tasks of verbal memory and reasoning, academic skills, and working memory. Behaviorally, all internationally adopted participants, regardless of language ability, had more parent-reported hyperactivity and impulsivity compared with controls. The fMRI tasks revealed reduced activation in traditional language areas in participants with language difficulty. The impact of early adverse experience on later development is discussed.

  14. Early Writing Deficits in Preschoolers with Oral Language Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether preschool children with language impairments (LI), a group with documented reading difficulties, also experience writing difficulties. In addition, a purpose was to examine if the writing outcomes differed when children had concomitant cognitive deficits in addition to oral language problems. A…

  15. School Readiness among Children with Varying Histories of Language Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Laura M.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Pence Turnbull, Khara L.; Skibbe, Lori E.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that (a) persistent language difficulties during childhood would predict lower school readiness and (b) language difficulties present just prior to school entry would predict lower school readiness beyond any effects of persistence. The study involved examining indicators of school readiness collected at…

  16. Procedural learning difficulties in children with Specific Language Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Desmottes, Lise; Meulemans, Thierry; Maillart, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    Through a review of the literature, this paper shows that linguistic and non-linguistic disorders in children with specific language impairment might be linked to difficulties in procedural learning, especially regarding sequential abilities. Indeed, children with specific language impairment encounter difficulties to learn visuo-motor and linguistic sequences. These difficulties are not limited to initial learning but extend to the consolidation stage in long-term memory. Finally, recent ...

  17. Neurobiological Basis of Language Learning Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Saloni; Watkins, Kate E; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we highlight why there is a need to examine subcortical learning systems in children with language impairment and dyslexia, rather than focusing solely on cortical areas relevant for language. First, behavioural studies find that children with these neurodevelopmental disorders perform less well than peers on procedural learning tasks that depend on corticostriatal learning circuits. Second, fMRI studies in neurotypical adults implicate corticostriatal and hippocampal systems in language learning. Finally, structural and functional abnormalities are seen in the striatum in children with language disorders. Studying corticostriatal networks in developmental language disorders could offer us insights into their neurobiological basis and elucidate possible modes of compensation for intervention.

  18. The Relationship between Foreign Language Anxiety and Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsai-Yu; Chang, Goretti B. Y.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the possible existence of causal links between anxiety and language learning difficulties by using the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986) to examine anxiety and the Foreign Language Screening Instrument for Colleges (FLSI-C) (Ganschow & Sparks, 1991) to explore learning…

  19. Memory Abilities in Children with Mathematical Difficulties: Comorbid Language Difficulties Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Giselle; Gut, Janine; Frischknecht, Marie-Claire; Grob, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated cognitive abilities in children with difficulties in mathematics only (n = 48, M = 8 years and 5 months), combined mathematical and language difficulty (n = 27, M = 8 years and 1 month) and controls (n = 783, M = 7 years and 11 months). Cognitive abilities were measured with seven subtests, tapping visual perception,…

  20. Memory Abilities in Children with Mathematical Difficulties: Comorbid Language Difficulties Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Giselle; Gut, Janine; Frischknecht, Marie-Claire; Grob, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated cognitive abilities in children with difficulties in mathematics only (n = 48, M = 8 years and 5 months), combined mathematical and language difficulty (n = 27, M = 8 years and 1 month) and controls (n = 783, M = 7 years and 11 months). Cognitive abilities were measured with seven subtests, tapping visual perception,…

  1. Foreign Language Learning Difficulties: An Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganschow, Leonore; Sparks, Richard L.; Javorsky, James

    1998-01-01

    Discusses cognitive, affective, and linguistic influences on foreign language learning. It proposes the Linguistic Coding Differences Hypothesis (LCDH) model for understanding foreign language learning problems. The empirical support for the LCDH model is reviewed. Diagnostic, pedagogical, and policy implications are addressed. (Author/DB)

  2. Assessing speech perception in children with language difficulties: effects of background noise and phonetic contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Maggie; Martindale, Nicola

    2012-02-01

    Deficits in speech perception are reported for some children with language impairments. This deficit is more marked when listening against background noise. This study investigated the speech perception skills of young children with and without language difficulties. A speech discrimination task, using non-word minimal pairs in an XAB paradigm, was presented to 20 5-7-year-old children with language difficulties and 33 typically-developing (TD) children aged between 4- to 7-years. Stimuli were presented in quiet and in background noise (babble), and stimuli varied in phonetic contrasts, differing in either place of articulation or presence/absence of voicing. Children with language difficulties performed less well than TD children in all conditions. There was an interaction between group and noise condition, such that children with language difficulties were more affected by the presence of noise. Both groups of children made more errors with one voicing contrast /s z/ and there was some indication that children with language difficulties had proportionately greater difficulty with this contrast. Speech discrimination scores were significantly correlated with language scores for children with language difficulties. Issues in developing material for assessment of speech discrimination in children with LI are discussed.

  3. Interventions for Children's Language and Literacy Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowling, Margaret J.; Hulme, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Against a backdrop of research on individual differences in reading disorders, this review considers a range of effective interventions to promote reading and language skills evaluated by our group. The review begins by contrasting the reading profiles seen in dyslexia and reading comprehension impairment and then argues that different…

  4. Interventions for Children's Language and Literacy Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowling, Margaret J.; Hulme, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Against a backdrop of research on individual differences in reading disorders, this review considers a range of effective interventions to promote reading and language skills evaluated by our group. The review begins by contrasting the reading profiles seen in dyslexia and reading comprehension impairment and then argues that different…

  5. Children's History of Speech-Language Difficulties: Genetic Influences and Associations with Reading-Related Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeThorne, Laura Segebart; Hart, Sara A.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Thompson, Lee Anne; Schatschneider, Chris; Davison, Megan Dunn

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined (a) the extent of genetic and environmental influences on children's articulation and language difficulties and (b) the phenotypic associations between such difficulties and direct assessments of reading-related skills during early school-age years. Method: Behavioral genetic analyses focused on parent-report data…

  6. Pragmatic language difficulties in children with hyperactivity and attention problems: an integrated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Benita C; Johnson, Katherine A; Bretherton, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    Diagnostic criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest a range of difficulties in the pragmatic aspects of language, including excessive talking and interrupting others. Such difficulties have been periodically reported over several decades in studies on the language abilities of children with features of ADHD, yet a comprehensive review of the literature has been lacking. This review aims to integrate evidence from several lines of research from 1979 to the present on pragmatic language difficulties in children with ADHD or symptoms of ADHD. A comprehensive search of empirical literature on pragmatic language in children with ADHD or symptoms of ADHD was conducted using PsycINFO and PubMed databases and through following up relevant references cited in articles. Literature was reviewed with respect to the nature and extent of pragmatic language difficulties in ADHD. Thirty studies met the review inclusion criteria, including recent questionnaire studies, observational studies of children's communication patterns, and studies of higher-level language comprehension and production. The studies indicate a consistent profile of pragmatic language impairments in children with features of ADHD, particularly in the areas of excessive talking, poor conversational turn-taking, and lack of coherence and organization in elicited speech. Pragmatic language difficulties are common in children with features of ADHD. These difficulties are consistent with deficits in executive function that are thought to characterize ADHD, thus providing some support for the theory that executive function contributes to pragmatic language competency. As yet there is very little empirical evidence of specific relationships between particular aspects of pragmatic language and particular domains of executive function. Given the importance of pragmatic language competency for children's social and academic functioning, pragmatic language abilities should be considered during

  7. Behavioral Problems in the Classroom and Underlying Language Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommerdahl, Jodi; Semingson, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    Dealing with the behavioral problems of students is one of many dimensions of most educators' and schools' requirements. While research has repeatedly shown that a large number of children with behavior problems have underlying, unrecognized language difficulties, few schools have implemented programs where children with problem behavior are…

  8. Young children with language difficulties: a dimensional approach to subgrouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Rianne; Ceulemans, Eva; Grauwels, Jolien; Maljaars, Jarymke; Zink, Inge; Steyaert, Jean; Noens, Ilse

    2013-11-01

    A dimensional approach was used to create bottom-up constructed subgroups that captured the behavioral heterogeneity in 36 Dutch-speaking children with language difficulties. Four subgroups were delineated based upon differences in cognitive ability, symbol understanding, joint attention and autism spectrum disorder related characteristics. Children with a different developmental disorder were found within a single cluster. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that bottom-up constructed subgroups might capture the heterogeneous behavioral profiles of young children with developmental difficulties in a more meaningful way. Furthermore, joint attention and symbol understanding seem important skills to assess in young children presenting with language difficulties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Research on Difficulty in Indonesia Students Learning Chinese Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Anggreani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chinese has become the worlds second language. Each language has its own law, as is the Chinese. Indonesian students have difficulty in learning Chinese which are are not surprising. Every language has various characteristics, so do Chinese and Bahasa Indonesia. Article analyzes difficulties to learn Chinese, especially for Indonesian students, those are tone, grammar, sounds of er hua such as Alice retroflex. The respondents are 100 Indonesian students who are randomly selected for testing samples analyzed. Since there is no tone in Bahasa Indonesia, it makes a lot of Indonesian students in the learning process often appear in Chinese foreign accent phenomenon. This article expects to explore the problem by studying the formation of the causes and solutions. Indonesian students learning Chinese was designed to provide some teaching and learning strategies.

  10. Research on Difficulty in Indonesia Students Learning Chinese Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Anggreani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese has become the world’s second language. Each language has its own law, as is the Chinese. Indonesian students have difficulty in learning Chinese which are are not surprising. Every language has various characteristics, so do Chinese and Bahasa Indonesia. Article analyzes difficulties to learn Chinese, especially for Indonesian students, those are tone, grammar, sounds of “er hua” such as Alice retroflex. The respondents are 100 Indonesian students who are randomly selected for testing samples analyzed. Since there is no tone in Bahasa Indonesia, it makes a lot of Indonesian students in the learning process often appear in Chinese foreign accent phenomenon. This article expects to explore the problem by studying the formation of the causes and solutions. Indonesian students learning Chinese was designed to provide some teaching and learning strategies.

  11. Characterizing early detection of language difficulties in children born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Julie; Flamant, Cyril; Boussicault, Gerald; Berlie, Isabelle; Gascoin, Géraldine; Branger, Bernard; N'Guyen The Tich, Sylvie; Rozé, Jean-Christophe

    2014-06-01

    The optimal age for assessing language difficulties in premature children remains unclear. To determine the most predictive and earliest screening tool for later language difficulties on children born preterm. A prospective population-based study in the Loire Infant Follow-up Team LIFT SUBJECTS: All children born language items of Brunet Lezine test at 24months, and the "Epreuves de Repérage des Troubles du Langage" (ERTL) at 4years. After 5years, the kindergarten teacher evaluated the vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation capacities of the child in comparison with the classroom performances. Among 1957 infants enrolled at discharge, 947 were assessed by their teacher with 12.2% (n=116) of language difficulties. Full data at all time points were available for 426 infants. The area under curve of the receiver operator characteristic curve obtained for the ASQ communication scale at 18months was significantly lower (0.65±0.09) than that obtained at 24months (0.77±0.08) and the languages items of Brunet Lezine test at 24months (0.77±0.08), and the ERTL at 4years (0.76±0.09). The optimal cut-off value for ASQ communication at 24months is ≤45 [sensitivity of 0.79 (95%CI: 0.70-0.86); specificity of 0.63 (95%CI: 0.59-0.66)]. The Ages & Stages Questionnaire communication scale at 24 corrected months appears as an acceptable test at an early time point to identify preterm children at risk of later language difficulties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Understanding Risk for Reading Difficulties in Children With Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kimberly A; Justice, Laura M; O'Connell, Ann A; Pentimonti, Jill M; Kaderavek, Joan N

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively examine the preschool language and early literacy skills of kindergarten good and poor readers, and to determine the extent to which these skills predict reading status. Participants were 136 children with language impairment enrolled in early childhood special education classrooms. On the basis of performance on a word recognition task given in kindergarten, children were classified as either good or poor readers. Comparisons were made across these 2 groups on a number of language and early literacy measures administered in preschool, and logistic regression was used to determine the best predictors of kindergarten reading status. Twenty-seven percent of the sample met criterion for poor reading in kindergarten. These children differed from good readers on most of the skills measured in preschool. The best predictors of kindergarten reading status were oral language, alphabet knowledge, and print concept knowledge. Presence of comorbid disabilities was not a significant predictor. Classification accuracy was good overall. Results suggest that risk of reading difficulty for children with language impairment can be reliably estimated in preschool, prior to the onset of formal reading instruction. Measures of both language and early literacy skills are important for identifying which children are likely to develop later reading difficulties.

  13. Carbon markets proliferating despite difficulties, report notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-06-01

    Although some existing carbon markets are facing structural issues and economic difficulties in Europe have put a damper on the European Union emissions trading system, new carbon pricing initiatives are developing rapidly, and these initiatives could help slow down greenhouse gas emissions, according to a 29 May report from the World Bank.

  14. "I Went to a Language Unit": Adolescents' Views on Specialist Educational Provision and Their Language Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkin, Zoe; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2009-01-01

    The opinions of adolescents about their earlier specialist educational provision in the UK, i.e. language units, have received little attention in the literature. This study examines the views of young people and their parents on language units and also evaluates opinions concerning the young people's language difficulties. One hundred and…

  15. Foreign language learning difficulties in Italian children: are they associated with other learning difficulties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Marcella; Palladino, Paola

    2007-01-01

    A group of seventh- and eighth-grade Italian students with low achievement (LA) in learning English as a foreign language (FL) was selected and compared to a group with high achievement (HA) in FL learning. The two groups were matched for age and nonverbal intelligence. Two experiments were conducted to examine the participants' verbal and nonverbal learning skills, such as native language reading accuracy, speed and comprehension, calculation, and attention and self-regulation. Both experiments showed that the LA group seemed at risk for reading comprehension difficulties, but its reading speed and accuracy were within the average range according to Italian norms. The results also excluded the possibility that FL learning difficulties of LA participants could be associated with a deficit in calculation. Furthermore, according to teachers' ratings, children with LA appeared at risk for attention-deficit disorder (ADD). The pattern of learning difficulties of seventh- and eighth-grade participants with LA appeared to be not completely comparable with that of high school students at risk of FL learning difficulties as described in the literature.

  16. Vulnerability to Bullying in Children with a History of Specific Speech and Language Difficulties

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    Lindsay, Geoff; Dockrell, Julie E.; Mackie, Clare

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the susceptibility to problems with peer relationships and being bullied in a UK sample of 12-year-old children with a history of specific speech and language difficulties. Data were derived from the children's self-reports and the reports of parents and teachers using measures of victimization, emotional and behavioral…

  17. Figurative Idiomatic Language: Strategies and Difficulties of Understanding English Idioms

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    Nisreen Al-Khawaldeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Learning idioms which is considered a very essential part of learning and using language (Sridhar and Karunakaran, 2013 has recently attracted a great attention of English learning researchers particularly the assessment of how well Asian language learners acquire and use idioms in communication (Tran, 2013. Understanding and using them fluently could be viewed as a sign towards language proficiency as they could be an effective way to give students better conditions to enhance their communication skills in the daily context (Beloussova, 2015. Investigating how idiomatic expressions are dealt with and processed in a second language or foreign language is an issue worth examining further since it may give language teachers a better idea of some of the strategies language learners use in order to interpret figurative language. Despite their importance, learning and using English idioms by Arab EFL learners have not been investigated extensively, and no research has been conducted on Jordanian students’ idiomatic competency. Thus, the researcher decided to work on these un-tackled issues in the Jordanian context. Most idioms-based investigations are the difficulties Jordanians learners of English face when translating them into Arabic (Hussein, Khanji, and Makhzoumi, 2000; Bataineh and Bataineh, 2002; Alrishan and Smadi, 2015. The analysis of the test showed students’ very poor idiomatic competence; particularly a very limited awareness of the most frequently used idioms despite their overwhelming desire to learn them. Data analysis of the questionnaire revealed the strategies students use and the problems they face in understanding and learning idioms. Keywords: Idioms, idiomatic competence, figurative meaning, language proficiency, idioms learning strategies

  18. Pragmatic difficulties in children with Specific Language Impairment.

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    Osman, Dalia Mostafa; Shohdi, Sahar; Aziz, Azza Adel

    2011-02-01

    Most of the children having Specific Language Impairment (SLI) exhibit pragmatic difficulties that are often overlooked while their communication skills are being evaluated. Identifying pragmatic needs in such children can be lengthy and indeterminate as many of such children don't quite "fit" into a definite diagnostic category. This study aimed at identifying and clarifying the nature of pragmatic difficulties in a group of children with Specific Language Impairment by comparing their pragmatic skills with those of a group of normally developing children using a simple Pragmatic Screening protocol hoping that this would aid in reaching a better understanding of the nature of pragmatic difficulties in such children. The present study examined the pragmatic profiles of 60 age and gender matched native Cairo-Egyptian Arabic speaking children (with age range 4-6 years old). The children were divided into two groups; Group A and Group B. Group A included 30 children with normal language development whereas Group B included 30 children who had been previously diagnosed as having Specific Language Impairment. For each subject, history taking followed by audiological and psychometric evaluation to rule out the existence of any hearing difficulties or mental deficiency was performed. Afterwards, each child under study was subjected to the Arabic Pragmatic Screening tool [1]. For each child, the screening was scored by three readers; average scores were obtained and statistically analyzed. All the values obtained by the control group were found to be significantly higher than those obtained by the SLI group except for some non-verbal paralinguistic skills where non-significant differences were found between the two groups. Through the ROC curve, cut off level for Total Pragmatic Score (TPS) was found to be less than or equal to 78.16, i.e. 4-6 year old children with a TPS equal to or less than 78.16 were considered to have pragmatic difficulties. Thorough screening of

  19. Speech-language therapy for adolescents with written-language difficulties: the South African context.

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    Erasmus, D; Schutte, L; van der Merwe, M; Geertsema, S

    2013-12-01

    To investigate whether privately practising speech-language therapists in South Africa are fulfilling their role of identification, assessment and intervention for adolescents with written-language and reading difficulties. Further needs concerning training with regard to this population group were also determined. A survey study was conducted, using a self-administered questionnaire. Twenty-two currently practising speech-language therapists who are registered members of the South African Speech-Language-Hearing Association (SASLHA) participated in the study. The respondents indicated that they are aware of their role regarding adolescents with written-language difficulties. However, they feel that South-African speech-language therapists are not fulfilling this role. Existing assessment tools and interventions for written-language difficulties are described as inadequate, and culturally and age inappropriate. Yet, the majority of the respondents feel that they are adequately equipped to work with adolescents with written-language difficulties, based on their own experience, self-study and secondary training. The respondents feel that training regarding effective collaboration with teachers is necessary to establish specific roles, and to promote speech-language therapy for adolescents among teachers. Further research is needed in developing appropriate assessment and intervention tools as well as improvement of training at an undergraduate level.

  20. Speech-language therapy for adolescents with written-language difficulties: The South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danel Erasmus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate whether privately practising speech-language therapists in South Africa are fulfilling their role of identification, assessment and intervention for adolescents with written-language and reading difficulties. Further needs concerning training with regard to this population group were also determined.Method: A survey study was conducted, using a self-administered questionnaire. Twenty-two currently practising speech-language therapists who are registered members of the South African Speech-Language-Hearing Association (SASLHA participated in the study.Results: The respondents indicated that they are aware of their role regarding adolescents with written-language difficulties. However, they feel that South-African speech-language therapists are not fulfilling this role. Existing assessment tools and interventions for written-language difficulties are described as inadequate, and culturally and age inappropriate. Yet, the majority of the respondents feel that they are adequately equipped to work with adolescents with written-language difficulties, based on their own experience, self-study and secondary training. The respondents feel that training regarding effective collaboration with teachers is necessary to establish specific roles, and to promote speech-language therapy for adolescents among teachers.Conclusion: Further research is needed in developing appropriate assessment and intervention tools as well as improvement of training at an undergraduate level.

  1. Second language listening difficulties perceived by low-level learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Anna C-S; Wu, Bill Wen-Pin; Pang, Jerry C-L

    2013-04-01

    The purpose was the develop a questionnaire to identify the specific listening difficulties of second language (L2) learners. Based on previous research, a questionnaire containing 31 items was developed and administered to 1,056 college freshmen. The whole sample was split randomly into two subsamples, each containing 528 cases. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to analyse the first subsample, and six factors were extracted, explaining a total of 57.1% of variance. To test the factor model, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted with the second subsample. Various fit indices were examined. The best fitting model for the data was a 23-item, six-factor model representing text, input channel and surroundings, relevance, listener, speaker, and task. Apart from the listener factor, all components are external ones and deemed to be uncontrollable by listeners. L2 learners must take an active role in listening practice to overcome L2 listening difficulties.

  2. Female Entrepreneurship: difficulties reported in life stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Dias Alperstedt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze the problems detected along the entrepreneurial process, from the life stories of the SEBRAE Award Business woman participants in Santa Catarina state. Therefore, were analyzed the stories of 86 entrepreneurs participating of Prize 2010 edition. These reports were analyzed by interpretation. How to difficulties encountered in the entrepreneurial process are the perceived lack of trust placed in them, as well as the personal, family and business conflict, being the latters conflicting dimensions in the lives of these women as competing for their attention. Are still pointed aspects of business management, and financial issues and market the most serious..

  3. Healthcare costs associated with language difficulties up to 9 years of age: Australian population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciberras, Emma; Westrupp, Elizabeth M; Wake, Melissa; Nicholson, Jan M; Lucas, Nina; Mensah, Fiona; Gold, Lisa; Reilly, Sheena

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to quantify the non-hospital healthcare costs associated with language difficulties within two nationally representative samples of children. Data were from three biennial waves (2004-2008) of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (B cohort: 0-5 years; K cohort: 4-9 years). Language difficulties were defined as scores ≤ 1.25 SD below the mean on measures of parent-reported communication (0-3 years) and directly assessed vocabulary (4-9 years). Participant data were linked to administrative data on non-hospital healthcare attendances and prescription medications from the universal Australian Medicare subsidized healthcare scheme. It was found that healthcare costs over each 2-year age band were higher for children with than without language difficulties at 0-1, 2-3, and 4-5 years, notably 36% higher (mean difference = $AU206, 95% CI = $90, $321) at 4-5 years (B cohort). The slightly higher 2-year healthcare costs for children with language difficulties at 6-7 and 8-9 years were not statistically different from those without language difficulties. Modelled to the corresponding Australian child population, 2-year government costs ranged from $AU1.2-$AU12.1 million (depending on age examined). Six-year healthcare costs increased with the persistence of language difficulties in the K cohort, with total Medicare costs increasing by $192 (95% CI = $74, $311; p = .002) for each additional wave of language difficulties. Language difficulties (whether transient or persistent) were associated with substantial excess population healthcare costs in childhood, which are in addition to the known broader costs incurred through the education system. It is unclear whether healthcare costs were specifically due to the assessment and/or treatment of language difficulties, as opposed to conditions that may be co-morbid with or may cause language difficulties.

  4. Teaching weight to explicitly address language ambiguities and conceptual difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taibu, Rex; Schuster, David; Rudge, David

    2017-06-01

    Language ambiguities in concept meanings can exacerbate student learning difficulties and conceptual understanding of physics concepts. This is especially true for the concept of "weight," which has multiple meanings in both scientific and everyday usage. The term weight has been defined in several different ways, with nuances, but in textbooks and teaching the term is almost always defined in one of two ways: operationally either as the contact force between an object and a measuring scale or as the gravitational force on an object due to some other body such as Earth. The use of the same name for different concepts leads to much confusion, especially in accelerating situations, and to conflicting notions of "weightlessness" in free fall situations. In the present paper, we share an innovative approach that initially avoids the term weight entirely while teaching the physics of each situation, and then teaches the language ambiguities explicitly. We developed an instructional module with this approach and implemented it over two terms in three sections of an introductory physics course for preservice elementary teachers. Learning gains for content understanding were assessed using pretests and post-tests. Participants achieved remarkably high gains for both static and accelerating situations. Surveys pre- and postinstruction showed substantially improved appreciation of language issues and ambiguities associated with weight, weightlessness, and free fall. Interviews with instructors teaching the module provided additional insight into the advantages and teaching demands of the new approach.

  5. Children with specific language impairment show difficulties in sensory modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taal, Marion N; Rietman, André B; Meulen, Sjoeke V D; Schipper, Maria; Dejonckere, Philippe H

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether a group of 116 Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) shows differences in sensory processing when compared to a control group of age-matched 4-7-year-old typical peers. The Sensory Profile-NL-a standardized questionnaire of 125 items-was completed by caregivers of children in both groups. Children with SLI differed significantly from the control group on all 14 section scores and 4 quadrant scores of the Sensory Profile-NL. The effect size of the difference in sensory modulation patterns of children with and without SLI on this measure was large (Cohen's d ≥ 0.80). Difficulties in sensory modulation can be characterized as frequent co-morbid problems in children with SLI.

  6. A longitudinal study of behavioral, emotional and social difficulties in individuals with a history of specific language impairment (SLI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Clair, Michelle C; Pickles, Andrew; Durkin, Kevin; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2011-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have often been reported to have associated behavioral, emotional and social difficulties. Most previous studies involve observations at a single time point, or cross sectional designs, and longitudinal evidence of the developmental trajectories of particular difficulties is limited. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to measure behavioral (hyperactivity and conduct), emotional and social (peer) problems in a sample of individuals with a history of SLI at four time points from childhood (age 7) to adolescence (age 16). A decrease in behavioral and emotional problems was observed from childhood to adolescence, although emotional problems were still evident in adolescence. In contrast, there was an increase in social problems. Reading skills and expressive language were related only to behavioral problems. Pragmatic abilities were related to behavioral, emotional and social difficulties. As a group, those with a history of SLI have poorer long term social and, to a lesser extent, emotional outcomes. In contrast, behavioral difficulties appear to decrease to normative levels by adolescence. Different aspects of early language abilities and reading skills exert different types and degrees of influence on behavioral, emotional and social difficulties. Readers will be able to: (1) understand the types of behavioral, emotional and social difficulties present in individuals with a history of SLI; (2) be familiar with the developmental trajectory of these difficulties from childhood to adolescence; and (3) understand the relationships between behavioral, emotional and social difficulties and early language and literacy ability. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Improving language comprehension in preschool children with language difficulties: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Åste M; Melby-Lervåg, Monica; Lervåg, Arne

    2017-10-01

    Children with language comprehension difficulties are at risk of educational and social problems, which in turn impede employment prospects in adulthood. However, few randomized trials have examined how such problems can be ameliorated during the preschool years. We conducted a cluster randomized trial in 148 preschool classrooms. Our intervention targeted language comprehension skills and lasted 1 year and 1 month, with five blocks of 6 weeks and intervention three times per week (about 75 min per week). Effects were assessed on a range of measures of language performance. Immediately after the intervention, there were moderate effects on both near, intermediate and distal measures of language performance. At delayed follow-up (7 months after the intervention), these reliable effects remained for the distal measures. It is possible to intervene in classroom settings to improve the language comprehension skills of children with language difficulties. However, it appears that such interventions need to be intensive and prolonged. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  8. The Relationship between Task Difficulty and Second Language Fluency in French: A Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Préfontaine, Yvonne; Kormos, Judit

    2015-01-01

    While there exists a considerable body of literature on task-based difficulty and second language (L2) fluency in English as a second language (ESL), there has been little investigation with French learners. This mixed methods study examines learner appraisals of task difficulty and their relationship to automated utterance fluency measures in…

  9. Learners' Listening Comprehension Difficulties in English Language Learning: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilakjani, Abbas Pourhosein; Sabouri, Narjes Banou

    2016-01-01

    Listening is one of the most important skills in English language learning. When students listen to English language, they face a lot of listening difficulties. Students have critical difficulties in listening comprehension because universities and schools pay more attention to writing, reading, and vocabulary. Listening is not an important part…

  10. What Teachers of Students with SEBD Need to Know about Speech and Language Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommerdahl, Jodi

    2009-01-01

    It is recognised increasingly that a large proportion of students in social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBD) settings have speech and language difficulties (SLD). It is therefore important for school administrators and teachers to understand the links between language and behaviour. This article provides teachers with theoretical…

  11. A Small-Scale Pilot Study into Language Difficulties in Children Who Offend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Games, Fran; Curran, Anita; Porter, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This small-scale pilot research project investigates the prevalence of Speech Language and Communication Difficulties in a sample of children attending a Youth Offending Service in the UK. Using the CELF-4, approximately 90% of the sample displayed some form of language difficulty and, overall, this population displayed mild to moderate…

  12. English academic language skills: Perceived difficulties by undergraduate and graduate students, and their academic achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Berman; Liying Cheng

    2001-01-01

    Abstract An EAP needs survey conducted at a major Canadian university among first-year Bachelor's- and Master's-level students reveals that native speakers (NS) and non-native speakers (NNS) of English perceive that the language skills that are necessary for academic study are of different levels of difficulty. Furthermore, English language difficulties appear to negatively affect the academic achievement of NNS graduate students as compared to their NS peers. However, such difficulties, ...

  13. Language Outcomes at 7 Years: Early Predictors and Co-Occurring Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, Cristina; Reilly, Sheena; Bavin, Edith L; Bretherton, Lesley; Cini, Eileen; Conway, Laura; Cook, Fallon; Eadie, Patricia; Prior, Margot; Wake, Melissa; Mensah, Fiona

    2017-03-01

    To examine at 7 years the language abilities of children, the salience of early life factors and language scores as predictors of language outcome, and co-occurring difficulties METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study of 1910 infants recruited at age 8 to 10 months. Exposures included early life factors (sex, prematurity, birth weight/order, twin birth, socioeconomic status, non-English speaking background,family history of speech/language difficulties); maternal factors (mental health, vocabulary, education, and age); and child language ability at 2 and 4 years. Outcomes were 7-year standardized receptive or expressive language scores (low language: ≥1.25 SD below the mean), and co-occurring difficulties (autism, literacy, social, emotional, and behavioral adjustment, and health-related quality of life). Almost 19% of children (22/1204;18.9%) met criteria for low language at 7 years. Early life factors explained 9-13% of variation in language scores, increasing to 39-58% when child language scores at ages 2 and 4 were included. Early life factors moderately discriminated between children with and without low language (area under the curve: 0.68-0.72), strengthening to good discrimination with language scores at ages 2 and 4 (area under the curve: 0.85-0.94). Low language at age 7 was associated with concurrent difficulties in literacy, social-emotional and behavioral difficulties, and limitations in school and psychosocial functioning. Child language ability at 4 years more accurately predicted low language at 7 than a range of early child, family, and environmental factors. Low language at 7 years was associated with a higher prevalence of co-occurring difficulties. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Learning difficulties or learning English difficulties? Additional language acquisition: an update for paediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Vanessa; Rhodes, Anthea; Paxton, Georgia

    2014-03-01

    Australia is a diverse society: 26% of the population were born overseas, a further 20% have at least one parent born overseas and 19% speak a language other than English at home. Paediatricians are frequently involved in the assessment and management of non-English-speaking-background children with developmental delay, disability or learning issues. Despite the diversity of our patient population, information on how children learn additional or later languages is remarkably absent in paediatric training. An understanding of second language acquisition is essential to provide appropriate advice to this patient group. It takes a long time (5 years or more) for any student to develop academic competency in a second language, even a student who has received adequate prior schooling in their first language. Refugee students are doubly disadvantaged as they frequently have limited or interrupted prior schooling, and many are unable to read and write in their first language. We review the evidence on second language acquisition during childhood, describe support for English language learners within the Australian education system, consider refugee-background students as a special risk group and address common misconceptions about how children learn English as an additional language. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  15. Language delays, reading delays, and learning difficulties: interactive elements requiring multidimensional programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Ian; Elias, Gordon; Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth; Homel, Ross; Freiberg, Kate

    2007-01-01

    Researchers have hypothesized four levels of instructional dialogue and claimed that teachers can improve children's language development by incorporating these dialogue levels in their classrooms. It has also been hypothesized that enhancing children's early language development enhances children's later reading development. This quasi-experimental research study investigated both of these hypotheses using a collaborative service delivery model for Grade 1 children with language difficulties from a socially and economically disadvantaged urban community in Australia. Comparing the end-of-year reading achievement scores for the 57 children who received the language intervention with those of the 59 children in the comparison group, the findings from this research are supportive of both hypotheses. The interrelationships between learning difficulties, reading difficulties, and language difficulties are discussed along with children's development in vocabulary, use of memory strategies and verbal reasoning, and the need for multidimensional programming.

  16. Figurative Idiomatic Language: Strategies and Difficulties of Understanding English Idioms

    OpenAIRE

    Nisreen Al-Khawaldeh; Abdullah Jaradat; Husam Al-momani; Baker Bani-Khair

    2016-01-01

    Learning idioms which is considered a very essential part of learning and using language (Sridhar and Karunakaran, 2013) has recently attracted a great attention of English learning researchers particularly the assessment of how well Asian language learners acquire and use idioms in communication (Tran, 2013). Understanding and using them fluently could be viewed as a sign towards language proficiency as they could be an effective way to give students better conditions to enhance their commun...

  17. Morphological awareness and reading difficulties in adolescent Spanish-speaking language minority learners and their classmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the role of morphological awareness weaknesses in the reading difficulties encountered by Spanish-speaking language minority learners and their native English-speaking peers in sixth grade. One hundred and thirty-eight students (82 language minority learners; 56 native English speakers) were assessed on English measures of reading comprehension, silent word reading fluency, and derivational morphological awareness. Students with specific reading comprehension difficulties, specific word reading difficulties, and combined difficulties were identified using categorical cut-scores. Findings indicated that morphological awareness differentiated skilled readers from students with reading difficulties. Substantial proportions of students with reading difficulties (38%-63%, depending on reading difficulty subtype) demonstrated weaknesses in morphological awareness. Language minority learners with reading difficulties were particularly likely to demonstrate weaknesses in morphological awareness (55%-64%), compared to native English speakers with similar reading difficulties (13%-50%). Findings suggest the diagnostic potential of morphological awareness for adolescent learners with reading difficulties, especially those from language minority backgrounds.

  18. Russian language for Persian learners A research on the difficulties of learning motion verbs of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ایزانلو ایزانلو

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Since motion verbs of Russian language is one of those complex issues in Russian language syntax, Iranian students who are learning Russian language face problems when learning this grammatical category. These problems in learning appear in two stages. aThe stage of learning and understanding the meaning of these verbs in the Russian language itself; b The stage of transition of these verbs from Russian language into Persian language when translating texts into Persian. It seems that the difficulties regarding the learning of these verbs are related to the structural, semantic and syntactical differences between these two languages. The writer of this article has studied these verbs and the related difficulties when translating texts from Russian into Persian language.

  19. Evidence-based interventions for reading and language difficulties: creating a virtuous circle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowling, Margaret J; Hulme, Charles

    2011-03-01

    BACKGROUND. Children may experience two very different forms of reading problem: decoding difficulties (dyslexia) and reading comprehension difficulties. Decoding difficulties appear to be caused by problems with phonological (speech sound) processing. Reading comprehension difficulties in contrast appear to be caused by problems with 'higher level' language difficulties including problems with semantics (including deficient knowledge of word meanings) and grammar (knowledge of morphology and syntax). AIMS. We review evidence concerning the nature, causes of, and treatments for children's reading difficulties. We argue that any well-founded educational intervention must be based on a sound theory of the causes of a particular form of learning difficulty, which in turn must be based on an understanding of how a given skill is learned by typically developing children. Such theoretically motivated interventions should in turn be evaluated in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to establish whether they are effective, and for whom. RESULTS. There is now considerable evidence showing that phonologically based interventions are effective in ameliorating children's word level decoding difficulties, and a smaller evidence base showing that reading and oral language (OL) comprehension difficulties can be ameliorated by suitable interventions to boost vocabulary and broader OL skills. CONCLUSIONS. The process of developing theories about the origins of children's educational difficulties and evaluating theoretically motivated treatments in RCTs, produces a 'virtuous circle' whereby theory informs practice, and the evaluation of effective interventions in turn feeds back to inform and refine theories about the nature and causes of children's reading and language difficulties.

  20. Understanding Risk for Reading Difficulties in Children with Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kimberly A.; Justice, Laura M.; O'Connell, Ann A.; Pentimonti, Jill M.; Kaderavek, Joan N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively examine the preschool language and early literacy skills of kindergarten good and poor readers, and to determine the extent to which these skills predict reading status. Method: Participants were 136 children with language impairment enrolled in early childhood special education classrooms.…

  1. Wen's Report: No Difficulty Can Daunt China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2009-01-01

    @@ On March 5, China's Premier Wen Jiabao delivered a government work report to the 3,000 or so National People's Congress (NPC) deputies and more than 2,000 members of the Chinese People's Political Consulta-tive Conference (CPPCC) National Committee.

  2. Undergraduate ESL Students' Difficulties in Writing the Introduction for Research Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maznun, Mirrah Diyana Binti; Monsefi, Roya; Nimehchisalem, Vahid

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the difficulties encountered by undergraduate ESL students in writing the introduction section of their project reports. Five introduction sections of bachelor of arts students, majoring in English language, were analyzed and a lecturer was interviewed regarding the areas of the students' weaknesses. Swales'…

  3. Foreign Language Learning Difficulties in Italian Children: Are They Associated with Other Learning Difficulties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Marcella; Palladino, Paola

    2007-01-01

    A group of seventh- and eighth-grade Italian students with low achievement (LA) in learning English as a foreign language (FL) was selected and compared to a group with high achievement (HA) in FL learning. The two groups were matched for age and nonverbal intelligence. Two experiments were conducted to examine the participants' verbal and…

  4. Figurative Idiomatic Language: Strategies and Difficulties of Understanding English Idioms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nisreen Al-Khawaldeh; Abdullah Jaradat; Husam Al-momani; Baker Bani-Khair

    2016-01-01

    ... (Sridhar and Karunakaran, 2013) has recently attracted a great attention of English learning researchers particularly the assessment of how well Asian language learners acquire and use idioms in communication (Tran, 2013...

  5. The Socio-psychological Difficulties of Learning the English Language in the Context of Lifelong Education

    OpenAIRE

    Nizkodubov, Gavriel Anatolevich; Zyubanov, Vadim Yurievich; Johnson, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with some of the common problems that adult educators face when teaching adult language learners, in particular learners who have considerable educational and life experience but still seem to be stuck at the lower levels of elementary and pre-intermediate due to their low self-esteem, high level of anxiety, and fear of making mistakes. Adult learners face difficulties when listening to the target language. The types and extent of difficulties have been conducted, and listenin...

  6. Adolescents with a history of specific language impairment (SLI): strengths and difficulties in social, emotional and behavioral functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Mok, Pearl L H; Pickles, Andrew; Durkin, Kevin

    2013-11-01

    Adolescents with specific language impairment (SLI) are at a greater risk of emotional and behavioral problems compared to their typically developing (TD) peers, but little is known about their self-perceived strengths and difficulties. In this study, the self-reported social, emotional and behavioral functioning of 139 adolescents with a history of SLI and 124 TD individuals at age 16 was examined. The self-report version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to assess their prosocial behavior and levels of peer, emotional and behavioral difficulties. Associations of these areas of functioning with gender, verbal and non-verbal skills were also investigated. Adolescents with a history of SLI were more likely than their TD peers to report higher levels of peer problems, emotional symptoms, hyperactivity and conduct problems. The majority of adolescents in both groups (87% SLI and 96% TD), however, reported prosocial behavior within the typical range. Difficulty with peer relations was the strongest differentiator between the groups, with the odds of reporting borderline or abnormally high levels of peer problems being 12 times higher for individuals with a history of SLI. Adolescents with poorer receptive language skills were also more likely to report higher levels of emotional and behavioral difficulties. The findings of this study identify likely traits that may lead to referral to services. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. 'It’s not just the learner, it's the system!' Teachers’ perspectives on written language difficulties: Implications for speech-language therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Navsaria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The failure to achieve academic outcomes in linguistically diverse classrooms in poor areas of the Western Cape, South Africa, is well documented. A major contributing factor is the written language communication difficulties experienced in these classrooms. This paper describes the views of intermediate-phase teachers on why written language difficulties are experienced by learners and ways in which these difficulties might be overcome. A series of interviews were conducted with two class teachers in one urban school from which there had been a high number of referrals for speech-language therapy. The teachers were individually interviewed using an in-depth, semi-structured format. Teachers reported that 50 - 70% of learners in their classes were not meeting grade level academic outcomes. They were asked to explain the difficulties experienced with regard to written language, and the challenges and solutions linked to these. The findings suggest that there are barriers and opportunities at the school system, individual learner and home/social community levels. Major challenges identified at the school system level included limited training and lack of support for teachers, poor foundation skills in learners and difficulties with language. The current opportunities for the development of written language were insufficient and teachers identified further opportunities to promote the learners’ written language development. These included training and support for teachers, clear and consistent assessment guidelines, remedial assistance for learners and safe, nurturing home environments. There is a need to look beyond the learner as the site of the problem; a systemic approach is essential. In the light of these findings, suggestions are made for the role of the speech-language therapist.

  8. Speech and Language Difficulties in Children with and without a Family History of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Julia M.; Myers, Joanne M.

    2010-01-01

    Comorbidity between SLI and dyslexia is well documented. Researchers have variously argued that dyslexia is a separate disorder from SLI, or that children with dyslexia show a subset of the difficulties shown in SLI. This study examines these hypotheses by assessing whether family history of dyslexia and speech and language difficulties are…

  9. Intervention for Co-Occurring Speech and Language Difficulties: Addressing the Relationship between the Two Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeff-Gabriel, Belinda; Chiat, Shula; Pring, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Although many children are referred with difficulties in both their speech and their language, the literature offers relatively little guidance on their therapy. Should clinicians treat these difficulties independently? Or should treatment depend on the potential impact of one domain on the other? This study aimed to investigate the relationship…

  10. New Comers: The Difficulties They Encounter Learning the Target Language and Possible Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassama, Sorie

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the difficulties encountered by newcomers from diverse backgrounds who come to the United States with the desire to learn English and further their studies. Most of these newcomers sometimes face insurmountable difficulties while trying to learn the new language. In some cases, they hit brick walls and the only negative…

  11. Working with Children with Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties: A View from Speech and Language Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parow, Beth

    2009-01-01

    There is a continuing interest in the link between communication difficulties and social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBD). The literature indicates that speech and language therapy (SLT) can be effective, but there is also evidence that the communication needs of children with SEBD are likely to go undetected. Little is known about…

  12. Textbook Presentations of Weight: Conceptual Difficulties and Language Ambiguities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taibu, Rex; Rudge, David; Schuster, David

    2015-01-01

    The term "weight" has multiple related meanings in both scientific and everyday usage. Even among experts and in textbooks, weight is ambiguously defined as either the gravitational force on an object or operationally as the magnitude of the force an object exerts on a measuring scale. This poses both conceptual and language difficulties…

  13. Another Look at the Language Difficulties of International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanyin; Mi, Yinan

    2010-01-01

    International students encounter language-related problems in their academic studies. Specific problem areas have been identified and possible underlying causes have been explored. The present study investigates the impact of two variables--length of study and academic disciplines--in relation to the problems. The findings from a survey and…

  14. Detecting the Difficulty Level of Foreign Language Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    should be done using a morphological analyzer such as the MADA system described in (Roth et al., 2008; Habash and Rambow, 2005; Habash and Sadat, 2006...Consortium LM language model MADA Morphological Analysis and Disambiguation for Arabic (system) Ref reference ROC receiver operating characteristic SBAR a

  15. Another Look at the Language Difficulties of International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanyin; Mi, Yinan

    2010-01-01

    International students encounter language-related problems in their academic studies. Specific problem areas have been identified and possible underlying causes have been explored. The present study investigates the impact of two variables--length of study and academic disciplines--in relation to the problems. The findings from a survey and…

  16. Textbook Presentations of Weight: Conceptual Difficulties and Language Ambiguities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taibu, Rex; Rudge, David; Schuster, David

    2015-01-01

    The term "weight" has multiple related meanings in both scientific and everyday usage. Even among experts and in textbooks, weight is ambiguously defined as either the gravitational force on an object or operationally as the magnitude of the force an object exerts on a measuring scale. This poses both conceptual and language difficulties…

  17. English Language Learning Difficulty of Korean Students in a Philippine Multidisciplinary University

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Albela, Emmanuel Jeric A.; Nieto, Deborah Rosalind D.; Ferrer, John Bernard F.; Santos, Rior N.

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study analyzed the English language learning difficulties of 13 purposively chosen Korean students relative to their sociolinguistic competence, motivation in using the English language, and cultural factors. Interview responses were transcribed, categorized and thematised according to saliency, meaning and homogeneity. The…

  18. Morphological Awareness and Reading Difficulties in Adolescent Spanish-Speaking Language Minority Learners and Their Classmates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the role of morphological awareness weaknesses in the reading difficulties encountered by Spanish-speaking language minority learners and their native English-speaking peers in sixth grade. One hundred and thirty-eight students (82 language minority learners; 56 native English speakers) were assessed on English measures of…

  19. What about a Simple Language? Analyzing the Difficulties in Learning to Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannila, Linda; Peltomaki, Mia; Salakoski, Tapio

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results from a two-part study. We analyze 60 programs written by novice programmers aged 16-19 after their first programming course, in either Java or Python. The aim is to find difficulties independent of the language used, and such originating from the language. Second, we analyze the transition from a "simple"…

  20. Morphological Awareness and Reading Difficulties in Adolescent Spanish-Speaking Language Minority Learners and Their Classmates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the role of morphological awareness weaknesses in the reading difficulties encountered by Spanish-speaking language minority learners and their native English-speaking peers in sixth grade. One hundred and thirty-eight students (82 language minority learners; 56 native English speakers) were assessed on English measures of…

  1. [Language difficulties in preschool children with a history of extreme prematurity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiolo L, Mariangela; Varela M, Virginia; Arancibia S, Claudia; Ruiz M, Felipe

    2014-06-01

    Preterm infants are prone to present language development difficulties. There is evidence that verbal deficits are common and adversely affect social interaction as well as school learning. In Chile, these skills are not evaluated by the premature follow-up program; therefore, the extent of this problem is unknown. The objective of this study is to describe the language difficulties of a group of preschoolers with a history of extreme prematurity. Thirty children aged 4 and 5 years old, with a history of extreme prematurity, but without severe neurological damage or hearing loss were evaluated through language tests at the Premature Follow-up Polyclinic of the Eastern Cordillera Health Reference Center. 73.3% of the children assessed had deficits in some area of the language. Of these, 77.3% had comprehensive and expressive difficulties. In this group, 86.4% showed significant difficulties in narrative skills. A high preterm infant proportion presents language difficulties in preschool, resulting in the need of including specific intervention programs that promote better language development for this population.

  2. The impact of childhood language difficulties on healthcare costs from 4 to 13 years: Australian longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Paula; Reeve, Rebecca; Mccabe, Patricia; Viney, Rosalie; Goodall, Stephen

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the relationship between children's language difficulties and health care costs using the 2004-2012 Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Language difficulties were defined as scores ≤1.25SD below the standardised mean on measures of directly assessed receptive vocabulary (4-9 years) and teacher-reported language and literacy (10-13 years). Participant data were individually linked to administrative data, which were sourced from Australia's universal subsidised healthcare scheme (Medicare). It was found that healthcare costs over each 2-year age band were higher for children with language difficulties than without in the 4-5-year-age bracket (mean difference = AU$357, 95%CI $59, $659), in the 6-7-year-age bracket (mean difference = AU$602, 95%CI $136, $1068) and in the 10-11-year-age bracket (mean difference = AU$504, 95%CI $153, $854). Out-of-pocket costs, that is the portion of healthcare costs paid for by the family, were also higher for children with than without language difficulties in the 4-5-year-age bracket (mean difference = AU$123, 95%CI $46, $199), in the 6-7-year-age bracket (mean difference = AU$176, 95%CI $74,278) and in the 10-11-year-age bracket (mean difference = AU$79, 95%CI $6, $152). Medical services accounted for 97% of total healthcare cost differences. Overall the findings from this study suggest that language difficulties are associated with increased healthcare costs at key developmental milestones, notably early childhood and as a child approaches the teenage years.

  3. The writing of informed consent in accessible language: difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Nurimar C

    2015-06-01

    In order to assess the adequacy of informed consent terminology of research projects developed at the Clementino Fraga Filho University Hospital (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro) , we conducted a review study on the terminology found in 55 projects (2008-20013) . Such projects belonged to different medical specialties and were all registered in the hospital's Ethics in Research Committee. Patients had difficulty in understanding the meanings of 76 medical terms and expressions; only 12 of them could be replaced. On the other hand, the present study reached the conclusion that, in most cases, the writing with scientific terms is essential in items such as justification/objectives and procedures, being insurmountable obstacles to the participants of this research and patients' understanding.

  4. Goal importance and students at risk of having language difficulties: an underexplored aspect of student motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideridis, Georgios D

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the motivational determinants of students at risk of language difficulties (in reading and spelling) and students with high language skills. Teachers' evaluations in language and mathematics at the end of the academic year constituted the dependent variable. Motivational orientations were examined using the constructs that reflect the theory of planned behavior and goal importance. Participants were 202 elementary school students-22 at risk of language difficulties and 180 with high language skills-drawn from 30 elementary schools in northern Greece. The results indicated that the two groups differed significantly, with the at-risk students exhibiting significantly lower perceptions of goal importance, intention to achieve, belief strength, outcome evaluation, and normative beliefs, and eventually scoring lower in language and mathematics at the end of the academic year. A finer analysis of students' motivational orientations was conducted using covariance structural modeling (CSM) and EQS 5.7b. The planned behavior model with goal importance produced a comparative fit index (CFI) of 1.00 in language and mathematics for the at-risk group. The respective CFIs for the high language skills group were .97 and 1.00 in language and mathematics, respectively. Although model fit was excellent across samples, different weights and signs linking motivational orientations to achievement partly explained the observed differences in language and mathematics manifested in the two groups.

  5. Linguistic difficulties in language and reading development constrain skilled adult reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, C; Ziegler, J C

    2000-07-01

    This study investigated whether the quality and specification of phonological representations in early language development would predict later skilled reading. Two perceptual identification experiments were performed with skilled readers. In Experiment 1, spelling difficulties in Grade 1 were used as a proxy measure for poorly specified representations in early language development. In Experiment 2, difficulties in perceiving and representing liquid and nasalized phonemes in final consonant clusters were used for the same purpose. Both experiments showed that words that were more likely to develop underspecified lexical representations in early language development remained more difficult in skilled reading. This finding suggests that early linguistic difficulties in speech perception and structuring of lexical representations may constrain the long-term organization and dynamics of the skilled adult reading system. The present data thus challenge the assumption that skilled reading can be fully understood without taking into account linguistic constraints acting upon the beginning reader.

  6. 14 CFR 135.415 - Service difficulty reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Service difficulty reports. 135.415 Section 135.415 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT...

  7. Improving the teaching of children with severe speech-language difficulties by introducing an Authoring Concept Mapping Kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kicken, Ria; Ernes, Elise; Hoogenberg-Engbers, Ilja

    2016-01-01

    ’ practice has been transformed and improved. The children’s perspective on the topic comes through in the teachers’ opinions. Concept mapping turned out to enhance meaning negotiation, active inquiry and collaboration during teaching interactive learning language. Teachers reported that it had great impact......The paper reports on case studies in which an Authoring Concept Mapping Kit was incorporated as a didactic tool in the teaching of children with severe speech-language difficulties. The Kit was introduced to replace methods such as topic webs, or complement others such as conversation exchange....... Three pilots were carried out between 2012 and 2015, with escalating numbers in participation and duration. The paper focuses on the teachers, their training, implementation, and their motivations for incorporating concept mapping in interactive learning language. The outcomes report on how the teachers...

  8. Specific language difficulties and school achievement in children born at 25 weeks of gestation or less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolke, Dieter; Samara, Muthanna; Bracewell, Melanie; Marlow, Neil

    2008-02-01

    To determine whether language and educational problems are specific or due to general cognitive deficits in children born at 25 weeks' gestation or less. A national cohort study assessed 241 of 308 (78%) surviving children at a median age of 6 years, 4 months along with 160 of these children's classmates. Formal tests included standard cognitive, language, phonetic, and speech assessments. The children's school achievement was rated by classroom teachers. Mean cognitive scores for index children were 82 (standard deviation [SD] +/- 19) compared with 106 (SD +/- 12) for the peer group. Extremely preterm children had an increased risk of language problems (odds ratio [OR] = 10; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3 to 32), speech problems (OR = 4.4; 95% CI = 3 to 7), and overall school difficulties (OR = 25; 95% CI = 12 to 54). Extremely preterm boys were twice as likely to show deficits as extremely preterm girls, but no such sex-based differences were apparent in the comparison group. Differences in general cognitive scores explained specific language or phonetic awareness deficits, but not speech ratings or educational difficulties, in the extremely preterm children. Language or phonetic difficulties are not specific and indicate general cognitive functional difficulties. The findings have implications for models of global deviation of brain development in extremely preterm children.

  9. Masithethe: speech and language development and difficulties in isiXhosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Michelle; Smouse, Mantoa

    2012-03-02

    IsiXhosa is the second most spoken language in South Africa and one of its official languages. Spoken mainly in the Eastern and Western Cape regions it is fitting that much of the research focusing on children's isiXhosa speech and language acquisition has been carried out at the University of Cape Town (UCT). We describe what is known about children's acquisition of isiXhosa, and highlight studies which inform our knowledge of the typical development of the language in relation to the acquisition of consonants including clicks and the isiXhosa noun class system. Little is known about the specific nature of speech and language difficulties in isiXhosa, and the development of isiXhosa resources for speech and language assessment and therapy is in its infancy. Suggestions are made for advancing knowledge and practice which is needed to provide a relevant and quality service to isiXhosa speakers.

  10. The impact of developmental visuospatial learning difficulties on British Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, J R; Woll, B; Gathercole, S

    2002-01-01

    There has been substantial research interest in recent years in the relationship between the development of language and cognition, especially where dissociations can be seen between them. Williams syndrome, a rare congenital disorder characterized by a fractionation of higher cortical functions, with relatively preserved language but marked difficulties with visuospatial constructive cognition, has been extensively studied. The case of Heather, who is remarkably similar to the characteristic phenotype of Williams syndrome in physical appearance and cognitive abilities, but who is also congenitally deaf and a user of British Sign Language, provides the first opportunity to explore the consequences of specific visuospatial learning difficulties on the linguistic system when the language used is visuospatial. Heather shows a pattern of impaired drawing ability and visual form discrimination, but preserved ability to discriminate faces. She has a large vocabulary in British Sign Language, and overall presents a picture of relative competence in British Sign Language grammar. However, she shows specific deficits in those areas of British Sign Language which directly rely on spatial representations for linguistic purposes. A number of theories as to the nature of her impairments and those found in Williams syndrome are discussed, using models of the relationship between language and visuospatial cognition based on data from this unique case.

  11. "Do We Make Ourselves Clear?" Developing a Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties (SEBD) Support Service's Effectiveness in Detecting and Supporting Children Experiencing Speech, Language and Communication Difficulties (SLCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Research has identified a significant relationship between social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBD) and speech, language and communication difficulties (SLCD). However, little has been published regarding the levels of knowledge and skill that practitioners working with pupils experiencing SEBD have in this important area, nor how…

  12. Feeding-swallowing difficulties in children later diagnosed with language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malas, Kathy; Trudeau, Natacha; Chagnon, Miguel; McFarland, David H

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the relationship between feeding-swallowing difficulties (FSDs) and later language impairments in children. Retrospective analyses were carried out using the clinical files of 82 children with language impairments from a large urban rehabilitation center. Two subgroups of these children were established: children with motor impairments, referred to as the language impairment with motor impairment ('LI+MI') subgroup (n=23, mean age 4y 6mo, SD 8.7mo), and children without motor impairments, referred to as the language impairment without motor impairment ('LI-MI') subgroup (n=59, mean age 5y, SD 8mo). The prevalence of food selectivity, difficulties in sucking, salivary control issues, and food transition difficulties was extracted. Data were compared with a general population estimate of FSDs. FSDs were documented in 62% of the clinical files; 87% of these files were from the LI+MI subgroup and 53% were from the LI-MI subgroup. Among each subgroup of children with language impairments, the prevalence of FSDs was significantly higher than the general population estimate of 20% (LI+MI:χ(2) =55.965, df=1, planguage impairments and motor impairments than in those with language impairments but without motor impairments (χ(2) =6.936, df=1, pdifficulties (χ(2) =14.99, df=1, planguage impairment. However, larger prospective studies are needed to confirm this. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  13. Mental health problems in pre-school children with specific language impairment: Use of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flapper, B.C.; Bos, A.C.; Jansen, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of mental health problems (MHP) in children with language disorders ranges from 11 to 55%, due to additional disabilities that have a significant relationship to psychosocial difficulties. Specialists assume that children with a selective disorder [selective language impairment

  14. Predicting Early Spelling Difficulties in Children with Specific Language Impairment: A Clinical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordewener, Kim A. H.; Bosman, Anna M. T.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the precursors of spelling difficulties in first grade for children with specific language impairment (SLI). A sample of 58 second-year kindergartners in the Netherlands was followed until the end of first grade. Linguistic, phonological, orthographic, letter knowledge, memory, and nonverbal-reasoning skills were considered…

  15. Determining aspects of text difficulty for the Sign Language of the Netherlands (NGT) Functional Assessment instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek-Laven, A.; Boers-Visker, E.; van den Bogaerde, B.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe our work in progress on the development of a set of criteria to predict text difficulty in Sign Language of the Netherlands (NGT). These texts are used in a four year bachelor program, which is being brought in line with the Common European Framework of Reference for

  16. Parents' and Professionals' Perceptions of Quality of Life in Children with Speech and Language Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Chris; Dean, Taraneh

    2006-01-01

    The true impact of speech and language difficulties (SaLD) on children's lives and the effectiveness of intervention is unknown. Within other fields of paediatric healthcare, clinicians and policy-makers are increasingly emphasizing the utility of Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) studies and measures. SaLT has a variety of measures to assess…

  17. Determining aspects of text difficulty for the Sign Language of the Netherlands (NGT) Functional Assessment instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, Annieck van den; Boers-Visker, Eveline; Bogaerde, Beppie van den

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe our work in progress on the development of a set of criteria to predict text difficulty in Sign Language of the Netherlands (NGT). These texts are used in a four year bachelor program, which is being brought in line with the Common European Framework of Reference for Langua

  18. Working Memory Deficits in ADHD: The Contribution of Age, Learning/Language Difficulties, and Task Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowerby, Paula; Seal, Simon; Tripp, Gail

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To further define the nature of working memory (WM) impairments in children with combined-type ADHD. Method: A total of 40 Children with ADHD and an age and gender-matched control group (n = 40) completed two measures of visuo-spatial WM and two measures of verbal WM. The effects of age and learning/language difficulties on performance…

  19. Current management for word finding difficulties by speech-language therapists in South African remedial schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rauville, Ingrid; Chetty, Sandhya; Pahl, Jenny

    2006-01-01

    Word finding difficulties frequently found in learners with language learning difficulties (Casby, 1992) are an integral part of Speech-Language Therapists' management role when working with learning disabled children. This study investigated current management for word finding difficulties by 70 Speech-Language Therapists in South African remedial schools. A descriptive survey design using a quantitative and qualitative approach was used. A questionnaire and follow-up focus group discussion were used to collect data. Results highlighted the use of the Renfrew Word Finding Scale (Renfrew, 1972, 1995) as the most frequently used formal assessment tool. Language sample analysis and discourse analysis were the most frequently used informal assessment procedures. Formal intervention programmes were generally not used. Phonetic, phonemic or phonological cueing were the most frequently used therapeutic strategies. The authors note strengths and raise concerns about current management for word finding difficulties in South African remedial schools, particularly in terms of bilingualism. Opportunities are highlighted regarding the development of assessment and intervention measures relevant to the diverse learning disabled population in South Africa.

  20. Working Memory Performance of Italian Students with Foreign Language Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Paola; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that the ability to learn a foreign language is related to working memory. However, there is no clear evidence about which component of working memory may be involved. Two experiments investigated working memory problems in groups of seventh and eighth grade Italian children with difficulties in learning English as a second…

  1. Do Chinese Dyslexic Children Have Difficulties Learning English as a Second Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Fong, Kin-Man

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether Chinese dyslexic children had difficulties learning English as a second language given the distinctive characteristics of the two scripts. Twenty-five Chinese primary school children with developmental dyslexia and 25 normally achieving children were tested on a number of English vocabulary,…

  2. Predicting early spelling difficulties in children with specific language impairment: A clinical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordewener, K.A.H.; Bosman, A.M.T.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the precursors of spelling difficulties in first grade for children with specific language impairment (SLI). A sample of 58 second-year kindergartners in the Netherlands was followed until the end of first grade. Linguistic, phonological, orthographic, letter knowledge, memory,

  3. Working Memory Deficits in ADHD: The Contribution of Age, Learning/Language Difficulties, and Task Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowerby, Paula; Seal, Simon; Tripp, Gail

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To further define the nature of working memory (WM) impairments in children with combined-type ADHD. Method: A total of 40 Children with ADHD and an age and gender-matched control group (n = 40) completed two measures of visuo-spatial WM and two measures of verbal WM. The effects of age and learning/language difficulties on performance…

  4. Effectiveness of Spanish Intervention for First-Grade English Language Learners at Risk for Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Sharon; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia; Mathes, Patricia G.; Cirino, Paul T.; Carlson, Coleen D.; Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D.; Cardenas-Hagan, Elsa; Francis, David J.

    2006-01-01

    The effectiveness of an explicit, systematic reading intervention for first-grade students whose home language was Spanish and who were at risk for reading difficulties was examined. Participants were 69 students in 20 classrooms in 7 schools from 3 districts who initially did not pass the screening in Spanish and were randomly assigned within…

  5. Teacher-identified oral language difficulties among boys with attention problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, T; Koltun, H; Malone, M; Roberts, W

    1994-04-01

    Teachers evaluated the language functioning of 95 boys, aged 6.5 to 13.8 years, identified as having attention problems (AP, n = 30), learning disability (LD, n = 33), or average achievement (AA, n = 32). The three groups did not differ significantly (p > .05) in their frequency of articulation problems. Significantly (p pragmatics problems than both of the other groups. AP boys were also viewed as having a higher frequency of receptive/expressive language problems than were AA boys, but not compared with LD boys. LD and AA boys did not differ in their ratings for pragmatics problems, but more LD than AA boys were perceived as having receptive/expressive problems. The average incidence of all types of language problems was highest for the AP boys at 42% with poor pragmatics representing their most frequently rated language difficulty. AP boys' pragmatics difficulties seemed to be characterized by greater difficulty in maintaining than initiating a conversation compared with the other two groups. This difficulty was positively associated with the teachers' ratings of the AP boys' impulsivity.

  6. Difficulties and challenges for newly qualified ELE (Spanish as a Foreign Language teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Ochoa Sierra

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The research presented here shows the results obtained from a series of interviews conducted with teachers who work as teachers of Spanish as a foreign language about the most important difficulties and challenges which such teachers face at the beginning of their career

  7. The behaviour and self-esteem of children with specific speech and language difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, G; Dockrell, J

    2000-12-01

    Children with specific speech and language difficulties (SSLD) may have associated difficulties that impair their access to the curriculum, and their social relationships at home and in school. (i) To identify the range of additional problems experienced by children with SSLD in different educational contexts; (ii) to consider the relationship between these problems and the child's current language status and (iii) to consider the child's self-esteem and the extent to which self-esteem is associated with the primary language problem or other associated difficulties. Sixty-nine children (17 girls, 52 boys) aged 7-8 years (Year 3) who had been identified as having SSLD, 59 from two local education authorities and 10 from regional special schools for children with severe speech and language difficulties. The children were assessed on a range of cognitive, language and educational measures; children and teachers completed a measure of the children's self-esteem (Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance); teachers and parents completed a behavioural questionnaire (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ); teachers also completed a further rating scale which included a behaviour subscale (Junior Rating Scale: JRS). The children's behaviour was rated as significantly different from the norm on both the SDQ and JRS, with the parents more likely to rate the child as having problems, but also as having prosocial behaviour. Both teachers and parents tended to rate the boys as having more problems than girls on the SDQ, with significant differences for the parents' ratings occurring on the total score and the hyperactivity and conduct problems scales. The children had positive self perceptions, which were comparable to the standardisation sample, and generally significantly higher than those of the teachers. The language and educational attainment scores of the children in special and mainstream schools were generally not significantly different, but

  8. Do Chinese dyslexic children have difficulties learning English as a second language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Fong, Kin-Man

    2005-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether Chinese dyslexic children had difficulties learning English as a second language given the distinctive characteristics of the two scripts. Twenty-five Chinese primary school children with developmental dyslexia and 25 normally achieving children were tested on a number of English vocabulary, reading, and phonological processing tasks. It was found that the Dyslexia group performed significantly worse than the Control group in nearly all the English measures. The findings suggest that Chinese dyslexic children also encounter difficulties in learning English as a second language, and they are generally weak in phonological processing both in Chinese and English. However, phonological skills were found to correlate significantly with English reading but not with Chinese reading in the dyslexic children. It is evident that there are both common and specific causes to reading difficulties in Chinese and English.

  9. The Functional Communication Skills of Boys with Externalising Behaviour with and without Co-Occurring Language Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Leila; Law, James

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have highlighted a high level of language impairment (LI) and pragmatic language disorder (PLD) amongst children with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBD). However, little is known regarding the impact of LI in the severity of PLD in this group. This study investigates the language and pragmatic language skills of…

  10. Adopted Children's Language Difficulties and Their Relation to Symptoms of Reactive Attachment Disorder: FinAdo Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaska, Hanna; Elovainio, Marko; Sinkkonen, Jari; Stolt, Suvi; Jalonen, Iina; Matomaki, Jaakko; Makipaa, Sanna; Lapinleimu, Helena

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the potential association between symptoms of reactive attachment disorder and language difficulties among internationally adopted children in Finland (the FinAdo study). The language difficulties were assessed using a standardised Five to Fifteen (FTF) parental questionnaire and the symptoms of reactive attachment disorder…

  11. Adopted Children's Language Difficulties and Their Relation to Symptoms of Reactive Attachment Disorder: FinAdo Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaska, Hanna; Elovainio, Marko; Sinkkonen, Jari; Stolt, Suvi; Jalonen, Iina; Matomaki, Jaakko; Makipaa, Sanna; Lapinleimu, Helena

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the potential association between symptoms of reactive attachment disorder and language difficulties among internationally adopted children in Finland (the FinAdo study). The language difficulties were assessed using a standardised Five to Fifteen (FTF) parental questionnaire and the symptoms of reactive attachment disorder…

  12. Longitudinal Patterns of Behaviour Problems in Children with Specific Speech and Language Difficulties: Child and Contextual Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Geoff; Dockrell, Julie E.; Strand, Steve

    2007-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the stability of behavioural, emotional and social difficulties (BESD) in children with specific speech and language difficulties (SSLD), and the relationship between BESD and the language ability. Methods: A sample of children with SSLD were assessed for BESD at ages 8, 10 and 12 years by both…

  13. Language-learning impairments: a 30-year follow-up of language-impaired children with and without psychiatric, neurological and cognitive difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbro, Carsten; Dalby, Mogens; Maarbjerg, Stine

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the long-term consequences of language impairments for academic, educational and socio-economic outcomes. It also assessed the unique contributions of childhood measures of speech and language, non-verbal IQ, and of psychiatric and neurological problems. The study was a 30-year follow-up of 198 participants originally diagnosed with language impairments at 3-9 years. Childhood diagnoses were based on language and cognitive abilities, social maturity, motor development, and psychiatric and neurological signs. At follow-up the participants responded to a questionnaire about literacy, education, employment, economic independence and family status. The response rate was 42% (198/470). At follow-up a majority of the participants reported literacy difficulties, unemployment and low socio-economic status-at rates significantly higher than in the general population. Participants diagnosed as children with specific language impairments had significantly better outcomes than those with additional diagnoses, even when non-verbal IQ was normal or statistically controlled. Childhood measures accounted for up to 52% of the variance in adult outcomes. Psychiatric and neurological comorbidity is relevant for adult outcomes of language impairments even when non-verbal IQ is normal. © 2011 Royal College of Speech & Language Therapists.

  14. Speech-language therapy for adolescents with written-language difficulties: the South African context

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D Erasmus; L Schutte; M van der Merwe; S Geertsema

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVETo investigate whether privately practising speech-language therapists in South Africa are fulfilling their role of identification, assessment and intervention for adolescents with written...

  15. The Role of Early Language Difficulties in the Trajectories of Conduct Problems Across Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Shaun Goh Kok; O'Kearney, Richard

    2015-11-01

    This study uses latent growth curve modelling to contrast the developmental trajectories of conduct problems across childhood for children with early language difficulties (LD) and those with typical language (TL). It also examines whether the presence of early language difficulties moderates the influence of child, parent and peers factors known to be associated with the development of conduct problems. Unconditional and language status conditional latent growth curves of conduct problems were estimated for a nationally representative cohort of children, comprising of 1627 boys (280 LD) and 1609 girls (159 LD) measured at ages 4-5, 6-7, 8-9 and 10-11. Multiple regression tested interaction between language status and predictors of the level and slope of the development of conduct symptoms. On average, children's conduct problems followed a curvilinear decrease. Compared to their TL peers, LD boys and girls had trajectories of conduct problems that had the same shape but with persistently higher levels. Among boys, LD amplified the contributions of parental hostility and SES and protected against the contributions of sociability and maternal psychological distress to a high level of conduct problems. In low SES boys, LD was a vulnerability to a slower rate of decline in conduct problems. Among girls, LD amplified the contributions of low pro-social behaviour to a higher level and sociability to a slower rate of decline of conduct problems while dampening the contribution of peer problems to a higher level of problems.

  16. Speech and language therapy intervention with a group of persistent and prolific young offenders in a non-custodial setting with previously undiagnosed speech, language and communication difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Juliette; Bryan, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Increasing numbers of children with behaviour and school problems (related to both academic achievement and social participation) are recognized as having undiagnosed speech, language and communication difficulties. Both speech, language and communication difficulties and school failure are risk factors for offending. To investigate the prevalence of speech, language and communication difficulties in a group of persistent and prolific young offenders sentenced to the Intensive Supervision and Surveillance Programme (ISSP), and to provide a preliminary evaluation of the impact of speech and language therapy (SLT) intervention. Seventy-two entrants to ISSP over 12 months were screened by the speech and language therapist. Those showing difficulties then had a detailed language assessment followed by intervention delivered jointly by the speech and language therapist and the youth offending team staff. Reassessment occurred at programme completion. A total of 65% of those screened had profiles indicating that they had language difficulties and might benefit from speech and language therapy intervention. As a cohort, their language skills were lower than those of the general population, and 20% scored at the 'severely delayed' level on standardized assessment. This is the first study of speech and language therapy within community services for young offenders, and is the first to demonstrate language improvement detectable on standardized language tests. However, further research is needed to determine the precise role of speech and language therapy within the intervention programme. Children and young people with behavioural or school difficulties coming into contact with criminal justice, mental health, psychiatric, and social care services need to be systematically assessed for undiagnosed speech, language and communication difficulties. Appropriate interventions can then enable the young person to engage with verbally mediated interventions. © 2011 Royal College

  17. Phonological sensitivity and memory in children with a foreign language learning difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Paola; Ferrari, Marcella

    2008-01-01

    The phonological processing and memory skills of 12- and 13-year-old Italian children with difficulty in learning English as a foreign language (foreign language learning difficulty, FLLD) were examined and compared with those of a control group matched for age and nonverbal intelligence. Three experiments were conducted. A dissociation between verbal and visuo-spatial working memory was observed when compared to the control group; children with FLLD showed a poorer performance in a phonological working memory task but performed to a comparable level in a visuo-spatial working memory task (Experiment 1). In Experiment 2 the word length and the response modality of an auditory word span task were manipulated in order to examine the efficiency of the phonological loop and the relevance of the spoken output. The FLLD group did not show sensitivity to the word length effect and showed no advantage in the picture pointing recall condition. In Experiment 3 children with FLLD were shown to be sensitive to phonological similarity but again they showed neither a word length effect nor a slower articulation speed. Furthermore, in all three experiments children with FLLD were shown to be less efficient in phonological sensitivity tasks and this deficit appeared to be independent of the phonological memory problem. All three experiments consistently showed that children with FLLD have an impairment in phonological memory and phonological processing, which appear to be independent from one other but both contribute to the children's difficulty in learning a second language.

  18. Early Pragmatic Language Difficulties in Siblings of Children with Autism: Implications for "DSM-5" Social Communication Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Meghan; Young, Gregory S.; Hutman, Ted; Johnson, Scott; Schwichtenberg, A. J.; Ozonoff, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Background: We evaluated early pragmatic language skills in preschool-age siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and examined correspondence between pragmatic language impairments and general language difficulties, autism symptomatology, and clinical outcomes. Methods: Participants were younger siblings of children with ASD…

  19. Early Pragmatic Language Difficulties in Siblings of Children with Autism: Implications for "DSM-5" Social Communication Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Meghan; Young, Gregory S.; Hutman, Ted; Johnson, Scott; Schwichtenberg, A. J.; Ozonoff, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Background: We evaluated early pragmatic language skills in preschool-age siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and examined correspondence between pragmatic language impairments and general language difficulties, autism symptomatology, and clinical outcomes. Methods: Participants were younger siblings of children with ASD…

  20. Pragmatics of language and theory of mind in children with dyslexia with associated language difficulties or nonverbal learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardillo, Ramona; Garcia, Ricardo Basso; Mammarella, Irene C; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2017-03-15

    The present study aims to find empirical evidence of deficits in linguistic pragmatic skills and theory of mind (ToM) in children with dyslexia with associated language difficulties or nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD), when compared with a group of typically developing (TD) children matched for age and gender. Our results indicate that children with dyslexia perform less well than TD children in most of the tasks measuring pragmatics of language, and in one of the tasks measuring ToM. In contrast, children with NLD generally performed better than the dyslexia group, and performed significantly worse than the TD children only in a metaphors task based on visual stimuli. A discriminant function analysis confirmed the crucial role of the metaphors subtest and the verbal ToM task in distinguishing between the groups. We concluded that, contrary to a generally-held assumption, children with dyslexia and associated language difficulties may be weaker than children with NLD in linguistic pragmatics and ToM, especially when language is crucially involved. The educational and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  1. DIFFICULTIeS OF TOTAL HIP REPLACEMENT IN PATIENTS WITH ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS (case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Tikhilov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A distinctive feature of patients with ankylosing spondylitis is the formation of hip ankylosis in an extremely unfavorable functional position combined with upset of sagittal balance of the body along with a thoracolumbar kyphosis. Treatment of these patients poses considerable technical difficulties and is often associated with complications. The authors report a clinical case of a female 40 years old patient with confirmed rhizomelic spondylitis. The patient mainly complained of fixed malposition of the right lower extremity (hip ankylosis in extreme 1450 flexion and 1500 abduction combined with a severe fixed spine deformity (thoracic kyphosis 920, lumbar lordosis 170. Considering significant sagittal balance disorder it was decided to go for a two-stage procedure. Total hip arthroplasty of the right joint was performed at the first stage. At the second stage the authors corrected thoracolumbar spinal deformity by Th12 (type PSO 4 and L2 (type PSO 3 wedge resections and converging resected vertebral bodies by a multilevel fixation system with transpedicular support elements. The interval between the stages was 11 months. Two-stage treatment of this patient al-lowed to avoid adverse postoperative complications and to achieve a significant functional improvement in one year after treatment started. The sum of points before and after the treat-ment amounted respectively to 46 and 79 on Harris Hip Score, 17 and 38 points on Oxford Hip Score (OHS. To summarize, comprehensive treatment with planning of all subsequent steps prior to hip replacement is the method of choice for avoidance of postoperative complications in patients with ankylosing spondylitis accompanied by a significant upset of sagittal balance.

  2. The Production of Turkish Relative Clauses in Second Language Acquisition: Overcoming Student Difficulties

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    Anjel Toczu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on teaching relative clauses (R.Cs in Turkish, a left-branching language, and discusses the relative difficulty of producing RCs in Turkish by English-speaking learners by investigating whether the production of subject relative clauses in Turkish is easier than that of the object relative clauses. It also offers suggestions as to how to help learners overcome these difficulties. Turkish and English belong to two different language families, Altaic and Inda-European respectively. This study lends further insight that Turkish does not have RCs similar to those found in Inda-European languages. Instead, in Turkish RCs comprise nominalized verbs and participles. The characteristics of Turkish are also explained such as its word order, agglutinating morphology, vowel and consonant harmony rules as well as case markers indicating grammatical relations between sentence constituents, which shed light to our understanding of RCs in Turkish. Data was collected through written and oral tasks from students enrolled in a military intensive Turkish language training program in the United States. Moreover, their performance was studied through classroom observations and one-on-one speaking activities.

  3. Effectiveness of Spanish intervention for first-grade English language learners at risk for reading difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Sharon; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia; Mathes, Patricia G; Cirino, Paul T; Carlson, Coleen D; Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D; Cardenas-Hagan, Elsa; Francis, David J

    2006-01-01

    The effectiveness of an explicit, systematic reading intervention for first-grade students whose home language was Spanish and who were at risk for reading difficulties was examined. Participants were 69 students in 20 classrooms in 7 schools from 3 districts who initially did not pass the screening in Spanish and were randomly assigned within schools to a treatment or comparison group; after 7 months, 64 students remained in the study. The intervention matched the language of instruction of their core reading program (Spanish). Treatment groups of 3 to 5 students met daily for 50 min and were provided systematic and explicit instruction in oral language and reading by trained bilingual intervention teachers. Comparison students received the school's standard intervention for struggling readers. Observations during core reading instruction provided information about the reading instruction and language use of the teachers. There were no differences between the treatment and comparison groups in either Spanish or English on any measures at pretest, but there were significant posttest differences in favor of the treatment group for the following outcomes in Spanish: Letter-Sound Identification (d = 0.72), Phonological Awareness composite (d = 0.73), Woodcock Language Proficiency Battery-Revised Oral Language composite (d = 0.35), Word Attack (d = 0.85), Passage Comprehension (d = 0.55), and two measures of reading fluency (d = 0.58-0.75).

  4. Undergraduate ESL Students’ Difficulties in Writing the Introduction for Research Reports

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    Mirrah Diyana Binti Maznun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the difficulties encountered by undergraduate ESL students in writing the introduction section of their project reports. Five introduction sections of bachelor of arts students, majoring in English language, were analyzed and a lecturer was interviewed regarding the areas of the students’ weaknesses. Swales’ create-a-research-space (cars model was used as the analytical framework of the study. The results revealed that students confronted problems in writing their introduction for each move especially for move 2, which consists of counter claiming, indicating research gap, raising questions from previous research and continuing tradition. It was also found that the students had difficulty in writing the background of the study, theoretical framework, and statement of the problem which indicated their unawareness of the appropriate rhetorical structure of the introduction section.

  5. Difficulties that Students who Learn Turkish as a Foreign Language Encounter During Listening Skills

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    Abdullah KALDIRIM

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Listening skills play an important role in an individual’s communication with others and in their understanding of the environment. Since it provides a basis for the acquisition of language skills it is one of the most important learning tools, and because it is frequently used in everyday life and in the learning process, listening skill is the foreground of foreign language teaching. It is important for students to understand what they listen to in order that they do not encounter any difficulties in the language learning process. To ensure success in the environments where the Turkish language is taught as a foreign language, it is necessary to follow the listening processes of the students attentively and to identify the problems they face during this process. This study aims to identify the listening barriers encountered by university students learning Turkish as a foreign language at level B2, and was designed based on a qualitative research approach and a phenomenological design. Within the scope of the study, eight students studying at Dumlupınar University’s TÖMER (Turkish & Foreign Languages Research and Application Center were identified as participants. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews conducted with students included in the sample, and descriptive analysis technique was applied in the analysis of the research data. Participants expressed views that they often encountered problems such as accented speech, frequent use of idioms and proverbs during listening, lack of vocabulary development, and lack of emphasis and voice intonation during speech. Also, factors that make listening easy to understand are identified as the other languages they speak, good vocabulary knowledge, interesting topics, listening to audiovisual elements, and the speaker’s use of gestures and mimics.

  6. Prior History of Feeding-Swallowing Difficulties in Children With Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malas, Kathy; Trudeau, Natacha; Giroux, Marie-Claude; Gauthier, Lisanne; Poulin, Simone; McFarland, David H

    2017-02-01

    This study updated and extended our previous investigation (Malas et al., 2015) of feeding-swallowing difficulties and concerns (FSCs) in children with language impairments (LI) by using more stringent inclusion criteria and targeting children earlier in the care delivery pathway. Retrospective analyses were performed on the clinical files of 29 children (average age: 60 months, SD = 9.0) diagnosed as having LI using standardized testing, nonstandardized testing and final speech-language pathologist judgment. The files of children born prematurely or with a history of anatomical, structural, neurodevelopmental, cognitive, sensory, motor, or speech disorders were excluded. Literature-based indicators were used to determine the prevalence of difficulties in sucking, food transition, food selectivity, and salivary control. Values were compared with the general population estimate of Lindberg et al. (1992). A significantly higher percentage of histories of FSCs (48%) were found in the files of children with LI when compared with the population estimate (χ2 = 13.741, df = 1, p Difficulties in food transition (31%) and food selectivity (14%) were the most frequent. Data confirm and extend our previous findings and suggest that a previous history of FSCs may characterize children with LI early in their care delivery pathway.

  7. The Persistence and Functional Impact of English Language Difficulties Experienced by Children Learning English as an Additional Language and Monolingual Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Katie E; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier

    2017-07-12

    This study explored whether a monolingual-normed English language battery could identify children with English as an additional language (EAL) who have persistent English language learning difficulties that affect functional academic attainment. Children with EAL (n = 43) and monolingual English-speaking children (n = 46) completed a comprehensive monolingual-normed English language battery in Year 1 (ages 5-6 years) and Year 3 (ages 7-8 years). Children with EAL and monolingual peers, who either met monolingual criteria for language impairment or typical development on the language battery in Year 1, were compared on language growth between Year 1 and Year 3 and on attainment in national curriculum assessments in Year 2 (ages 6-7 years). Children with EAL and monolingual peers who met monolingual criteria for language impairment in Year 1 continued to display comparably impaired overall language ability 2 years later in Year 3. Moreover, these groups displayed comparably low levels of academic attainment in Year 2, demonstrating comparable functional impact of their language difficulties. Monolingual-normed language batteries in the majority language may have some practical value for identifying bilingual children who need support with language learning, regardless of the origin of their language difficulties.

  8. Weaknesses in semantic, syntactic and oral language expression contribute to reading difficulties in Chinese dyslexic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao-Yun; Ho, Connie Suk-Han

    2014-02-01

    The present study examined the role of weaknesses in some language skills for the reading difficulties among Chinese dyslexic children. Thirty Chinese dyslexic children were compared with 30 chronological age (CA) controls and 30 reading-level (RL) controls on a number of language and reading measures. The results showed that Chinese dyslexic children performed significantly worse than the CA controls but similarly to the RL controls in many of the linguistic measures except that the dyslexic group also performed significantly less well than the RL group in semantic skills and syntactic skills on multiple modifiers. The dyslexic children were found to have difficulties in semantic processing, syntactic skills and oral language expression as compared with the CA controls, which were also found to predict their performance in word recognition and/or sentence comprehension. In addition, measures of semantic discrimination, advanced syntactic word order, and oral narrative also significantly predicted the group membership of having or not having dyslexia. These findings suggest that weaknesses in some semantic and advanced syntactic skills are the potential source of poor word and sentence reading in Chinese developmental dyslexia. Implications of the present findings for the identification of dyslexia were discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Computer-based auditory training (CBAT): benefits for children with language- and reading-related learning difficulties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Loo, Jenny Hooi Yin; Bamiou, Doris-Eva; Campbell, Nicci; Luxon, Linda M

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the evidence for computer-based auditory training (CBAT) in children with language, reading, and related learning difficulties, and evaluates the extent it can benefit children with auditory processing disorder (APD...

  10. Predicting early spelling difficulties in children with specific language impairment: a clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordewener, Kim A H; Bosman, Anna M T; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the precursors of spelling difficulties in first grade for children with specific language impairment (SLI). A sample of 58 second-year kindergartners in The Netherlands was followed until the end of first grade. Linguistic, phonological, orthographic, letter knowledge, memory, and nonverbal-reasoning skills were considered as precursors, as was spelling level at an earlier point in time. Spelling difficulties at the end of first grade were most accurately identified by letter knowledge at the beginning of first grade and word spelling at the middle of first grade. It is concluded that spelling development in children with SLI can be seen as an autocatalytic process in which, without intervention, poor spellers generally remain poor spellers, and good spellers remain good spellers. A focus on early spelling intervention is thus emphasized. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An investigation of difficulties experienced by students developing unified modelling language (UML) class and sequence diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sien, Ven Yu

    2011-12-01

    Object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) is not an easy subject to learn. There are many challenges confronting students when studying OOAD. Students have particular difficulty abstracting real-world problems within the context of OOAD. They are unable to effectively build object-oriented (OO) models from the problem domain because they essentially do not know "what" to model. This article investigates the difficulties and misconceptions undergraduate students have with analysing systems using unified modelling language analysis class and sequence diagrams. These models were chosen because they represent important static and dynamic aspects of the software system under development. The results of this study will help students produce effective OO models, and facilitate software engineering lecturers design learning materials and approaches for introductory OOAD courses.

  12. The Difficulties of English as a Foreign Language (EFL Learners in Understanding Pragmatics

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    Fauzia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pragmatics is the study of the relation of signs to interpreters. For English foreign language (EFL learners, the knowledge and comprehensible input of pragmatics is much needed. This paper is based on research project. The writer did the research survey by giving some respondents questionnaire. The respondent is some students from UAD, which is taken randomly. Besides using open questionnaire, the writer also got the data from in depth interview with some EFL learners, the native speaker who teaches English, and also did literature review from some books. The result of the research then gives some evidences that EFL learners difficulties in understanding the English pragmatics occurs in 1 greeting, 2 apologizing, 3 complimenting, and 4 thanking. The factors that promotes EFL learners’ difficulties in understanding because 1 the different culture and values between native speaker and learners; 2 habit that the usually use in their daily life.

  13. Association between feeding difficulties and language delay in preterm infants using Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams-Chapman, Ira; Bann, Carla M; Vaucher, Yvonne E; Stoll, Barbara J

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the relationship between abnormal feeding patterns and language performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Third Edition at 18-22 months adjusted age among a cohort of extremely premature infants. This is a descriptive analysis of 1477 preterm infants born ≤ 26 weeks gestation or enrolled in a clinical trial between January 1, 2006 and March 18, 2008 at a National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network center who completed the 18-month neurodevelopmental follow-up assessment. At 18-22 months adjusted age, a comprehensive neurodevelopmental evaluation was performed by certified examiners including the Receptive and Expressive Language Subscales of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Third Edition and a standardized adjusted age feeding behaviors and nutritional intake. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multilevel linear and logistic regression modeling. Abnormal feeding behaviors were reported in 193 (13%) of these infants at 18-22 months adjusted age. Abnormal feeding patterns, days of mechanical ventilation, hearing impairment, and Gross Motor Functional Classification System level ≥ 2 each independently predicted lower composite language scores. At 18 months adjusted age, premature infants with a history of feeding difficulties are more likely to have language delay. Neuromotor impairment and days of mechanical ventilation are both important risk factors associated with these outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Difficulties of students with limited english language skills in pre-service mathematics education courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Kaye; MacGregor, Mollie

    1991-06-01

    Student teachers who are recent migrants to Australia from non-English-speaking countries experience difficulties in mathematics method courses and in teaching practice, but there are no published reports of research into their difficulties. This paper reports on a preliminary investigation into how students with limited English skills perceive their problems and how they think courses could be adapted to meet their needs. Information was obtained from a questionnaire, by conversation with individual students, by observation of micro-teaching sessions and teaching practice, and from a student counsellor. The factor which most concerned the repondents to the questionnaire was the difficulty which pupils might have in understanding their speech. The results of the study highlight the present lack of resources to provide intensive training for student teachers in the use of specifically mathematical English. The teacher education course was identified as the only vehicle available to them for improving their English.

  15. Language difficulties in outpatients and their impact on a chronic pain unit in Northwest Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppen, Wilhelm; Bandschapp, Oliver; Urwyler, Albert

    2010-05-01

    Many foreign patients attending our pain clinic are unable to understand one of the four Swiss national languages and are also unable to speak English. Therefore, communication with these patients can be very difficult or even impossible. Consequently, diagnosis and treatment may also prove difficult. Recognizing that language barriers can have deleterious effects, the use of an interpreter is at times the only way to communicate, however, the financial responsibility becomes that of the health care provider. The aim of this paper was to study the aspects of communication with immigrants and to discuss the effect of language difficulties on the organizational structure of a pain clinic. In our analysis, we prospectively included all patients attending our pain clinic between January 1st and December 31st, 2006 and 2008. The mother tongue, rather than the nationality, of the patients and their ability to communicate was registered. In 2006, the communication of 92% of the patients was "good" or "very good". Communication was extremely difficult or impossible in 6% to 7%. No statistically significant difference was found between the number of consultations per patient per mother tongue, irrespective of the patient's ability to communicate. Additionally, the consultation times were significantly shorter in patients with a poor ability to communicate. In 6% to 7% of our pain patients, communication was impossible or extremely difficult. Language barriers can be problematic in all cultures and consultation situations. The average consultation length may be associated with better outcomes in chronic pain patients.

  16. Mental health problems in pre-school children with specific language impairment: Use of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flapper, B.C.; Bos, A.C.; Jansen, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of mental health problems (MHP) in children with language disorders ranges from 11 to 55%, due to additional disabilities that have a significant relationship to psychosocial difficulties. Specialists assume that children with a selective disorder [selective language impairment withou

  17. Mental health problems in pre-school children with specific language impairment: Use of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flapper, B.C.; Bos, A.C.; Jansen, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of mental health problems (MHP) in children with language disorders ranges from 11 to 55%, due to additional disabilities that have a significant relationship to psychosocial difficulties. Specialists assume that children with a selective disorder [selective language impairment withou

  18. Identifying the Challenges and Opportunities to Meet the Needs of Children with Speech, Language and Communication Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockrell, Julie E.; Howell, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The views of experienced educational practitioners were examined with respect to the terminology used to describe children with speech, language and communication needs (SLCN), associated problems and the impact of speech and language difficulties in the classroom. Results showed that education staff continue to experience challenges with the…

  19. Risk of Reading Difficulty among Students with a History of Speech or Language Impairment: Implications for Student Support Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipoli, Richard P., Jr.; Merritt, Donna D.

    2017-01-01

    Many students with a history of speech or language impairment have an elevated risk of reading difficulty. Specific subgroups of these students remain at risk of reading problems even after clinical manifestations of a speech or language disorder have diminished. These students may require reading intervention within a general education system of…

  20. Self-reported difficulty in climbing up or down stairs in nondisabled elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verghese, Joe; Wang, Cuiling; Xue, Xiaonan; Holtzer, Roee

    2008-01-01

    To examine clinical and functional correlates of self-reported difficulty in climbing up or climbing down stairs in older adults. Cross-sectional survey. Community sample. Older adults (N=310; mean age, 79.7 y; 62% women), without disability or dementia. Not applicable. Clinical and functional status as well as activity limitations (able to perform activities of daily living [ADLs] with some difficulty). Of the 310 subjects, 140 reported difficulties in climbing up and 83 in climbing down stairs (59 both). Self-reported difficulty in climbing up stairs was associated with hypertension, arthritis, and depressive symptoms. Difficulty in climbing up stairs was also associated with poor balance and grip strength as well as neurologic gait abnormalities. Subjects with difficulty climbing down stairs had more falls. Both activities were associated with leg claudication, fear of falling, non-neurologic gait abnormalities, and slow gait. Examined individually, self-reported difficulty climbing down stairs captured a wider spectrum of ADL limitations than climbing up stairs. However, combined difficulty in both phases of stair climbing had a stronger association with activity limitations (vs no difficulty; odds ratio, 6.58; 95% confidence interval, 3.35-12.91) than difficulty in any one phase alone. Self-reported difficulty in climbing up and down stairs revealed commonalities as well as differences in related clinical correlates. Difficulty in both climbing up and down stairs should be separately assessed to better capture clinical and functional status in older adults.

  1. Difficulties in Metaphor Comprehension Faced by International Students Whose First Language Is Not English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlemore, Jeannette; Chen, Phyllis Trautman; Koester, Almut; Barnden, John

    2011-01-01

    This article reports a study on metaphor comprehension by the international students whose first language is not English, while attending undergraduate lectures at a British university. Study participants identified words or multiword items that they found difficult in extracts from four academic lectures, and they interpreted metaphors from those…

  2. [Understanding questions: a specific difficulty in children with pragmatic communication and language disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfort, I; Monfort, M

    2010-03-03

    The question-answer schema is the basis for communicative interaction and is therefore a fundamental aim of the work carried out with children with severe communication and language impairment. Answering questions requires basic skills that enable the listener to identify intonation and facial expression, as well as skills in interpreting intentions and in understanding linguistic content. Some questions can rest on contextual-social keys and others may be based on lexical or structural keys. Some questions, however, call for a more complex understanding, such as 'what' and 'who' questions. Here, we propose an analysis of the skills involved in understanding questions and the consequences on intervention strategies. Intervention in understanding questions should combine different approaches (cognitive, social, linguistic) depending on the type of question, the specific difficulties the child has and the context.

  3. DICTIONARIES OF DIFFICULTIES OF THE XIX CENTURY RUSSIAN LANGUAGE AND THE HANDWRITTEN «DICTIONARY OF THE DIFFICULTIES OF THE RUSSIAN LANGUAGE» BY YA. GROT (1870S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Priemysheva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the handwritten «Dictionary of the Russian language difficulties», on which Ya. K. Grot worked in the 1870s.This handwritten dictionary continues the tradition of creating dictionaries of difficulties that arose in Russia in the 1840s (A. N. Grech, V. Dolopchev. The dictionary has not yet been a subject of scientific interest.It represents a notebook of 63 sheets, where problematic words written alphabetically are supplied with detailed linguistic comments on their etymology, variation in pronunciation, spelling and stress. The text is complemented by press-cuttings on phraseology, etymology of Russian patronyms as well as by examples of grammatical abusage by Russian writers and poets.The handwritten dictionary by Ya. K. Grot indicates that the distinguished linguist was not only one of the originators of theoretical foundations of Russian orthography, but that his scientific activity was closely connected with the study of its practical problems and with continuation of such direction of national lexicography as compiling dictionaries of the Russian language difficulties.

  4. Phonological processing in children with specific language impairment with and without reading difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucas, Tom; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Slonims, Vicky

    2016-09-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) is heterogeneous and identifying subgroups within it may help explain the aetiology of the condition. Phonological processing abilities distinguish between children with SLI who do and do not have reading decoding impairments (RDIs). To probe different levels of phonological processing in children with SLI with and without RDI to investigate the cognitive basis of these differences. A total of 64 children aged 5-17 years were classified using the results of standardized language and single-word reading tests into those with no SLI and no RDI (No SLI/No RDI) (N = 18), no SLI but with RDI (No SLI/RDI) (N = 4, not included in analyses because of the small number), SLI/No RDI (N = 20), and SLI/RDI (N = 22). The groups were compared on a range of tasks engaging different levels of phonological processing (input and output processing and phonological awareness). The SLI/RDI group was distinguished from the SLI/No RDI and No SLI/No RDI groups by more errors in the longer items in non-word repetition and by poorer phonological awareness. Non-word discrimination scores indicated a gradient of performance across groups that was not associated with a qualitatively different pattern of performance. This is the first study contrasting input and output processes associated with phonological processing. The results suggest that deficits in SLI plus RDI may be associated with impairment in actively maintaining phonological representations for phonological processing, which is not present in those without RDI and which leads to reading decoding difficulties. © 2016 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  5. Understanding Middle School Students' Difficulties in Explaining Density Differences from a Language Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, Lay Hoon; Clarke, David; Hart, Christina

    2015-09-01

    This study examines how a class of Grade 7 students employed linguistic resources to explain density differences. Drawing from the same data-set as a previous study by, we take a language perspective to investigate the challenges students face in learning the concept of density. Our study thus complements previous research on learning about density which has mostly focussed on the conceptual challenges. The data consist of transcripts of lessons on density and students' written assignments. Using selected analytical categories from the Systemic Functional Linguistics framework, we first examined students' use of linguistic resources in their written reports of a practical activity. We then compared the language employed by the students with the instructional language, identifying possible links. Our analysis identified specific aspects of language that the students need to appropriate in order to express an understanding of density that aligns with a scientific perspective. The findings from this study illuminate ways by which teachers could assist students in overcoming the linguistic challenges in explaining density differences, which complement those made by existing studies that focus on conceptual challenges.

  6. Children with reading difficulties show differences in brain regions associated with orthographic processing during spoken language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desroches, Amy S; Cone, Nadia E; Bolger, Donald J; Bitan, Tali; Burman, Douglas D; Booth, James R

    2010-10-14

    We explored the neural basis of spoken language deficits in children with reading difficulty, specifically focusing on the role of orthography during spoken language processing. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine differences in brain activation between children with reading difficulties (aged 9-to-15 years) and age-matched children with typical achievement during an auditory rhyming task. Both groups showed activation in bilateral superior temporal gyri (BA 42 and 22), a region associated with phonological processing, with no significant between-group differences. Interestingly, typically achieving children, but not children with reading difficulties, showed activation of left fusiform cortex (BA 37), a region implicated in orthographic processing. Furthermore, this activation was significantly greater for typically achieving children compared to those with reading difficulties. These findings suggest that typical children automatically activate orthographic representations during spoken language processing, while those with reading difficulties do not. Follow-up analyses revealed that the intensity of the activation in the fusiform gyrus was associated with significantly stronger behavioral conflict effects in typically achieving children only (i.e., longer latencies to rhyming pairs with orthographically dissimilar endings than to those with identical orthographic endings; jazz-has vs. cat-hat). Finally, for reading disabled children, a positive correlation between left fusiform activation and nonword reading was observed, such that greater access to orthography was related to decoding ability. Taken together, the results suggest that the integration of orthographic and phonological processing is directly related to reading ability.

  7. Verbal problem-solving difficulties in autism spectrum disorders and atypical language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson-Day, Ben

    2014-12-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) adopt less efficient strategies than typically developing (TD) peers on the Twenty Questions Task (TQT), a measure of verbal problem-solving skills. Although problems with the TQT are typically associated with executive dysfunction, they have also been reported in children who are deaf, suggesting a role for atypical language development. To test the contribution of language history to ASD problem solving, TQT performance was compared in children with high-functioning autism (HFA), children with Asperger syndrome (AS) and TD children. The HFA group used significantly less efficient strategies than both AS and TD children. No group differences were evident on tests of question understanding, planning or verbal fluency. Potential explanations for differences in verbal problem-solving skill are discussed with reference to the development of inner speech and use of visual strategies in ASD. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The Effects of Self-Regulation on Science Vocabulary Acquisition of English Language Learners with Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woori; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    This multiple-probe study examined the effects of self-regulation on the acquisition of science vocabulary by four third-grade English language learners (ELLs) with learning difficulties. The students were provided only direct vocabulary instruction in a baseline phase, followed by intervention and maintenance phases into which self-regulation…

  9. Computer-Based Auditory Training (CBAT): Benefits for Children with Language- and Reading-Related Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Jenny Hooi Yin; Bamiou, Doris-Eva; Campbell, Nicci; Luxon, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the evidence for computer-based auditory training (CBAT) in children with language, reading, and related learning difficulties, and evaluates the extent it can benefit children with auditory processing disorder (APD). Searches were confined to studies published between 2000 and 2008, and they are rated according to the level…

  10. Effects of a Supplemental Vocabulary Intervention on the Word Knowledge of Kindergarten Students at Risk for Language and Literacy Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Susan M.; Coyne, Michael D.; McCoach, D. Betsy; Zipoli, Richard; Pullen, Paige C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a vocabulary intervention designed to supplement research-based classroom vocabulary instruction, implemented with students who may be at risk for language and learning difficulties. Participants included 43 kindergarten students who received research-based classroom vocabulary…

  11. Practices of Other-Initiated Repair in the Classrooms of Children with Specific Speech and Language Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Repair practices used by teachers who work with children with specific speech and language difficulties (SSLDs) have hitherto remained largely unexplored. Such classrooms therefore offer a new context for researching repairs and considering how they compare with non-SSLD interactions. Repair trajectories are of interest because they are dialogic…

  12. The Effects of Self-Regulation on Science Vocabulary Acquisition of English Language Learners with Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woori; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    This multiple-probe study examined the effects of self-regulation on the acquisition of science vocabulary by four third-grade English language learners (ELLs) with learning difficulties. The students were provided only direct vocabulary instruction in a baseline phase, followed by intervention and maintenance phases into which self-regulation…

  13. Russian language for Persian learners A research on the difficulties of learning motion verbs of

    OpenAIRE

    ایزانلو ایزانلو

    2009-01-01

    Since motion verbs of Russian language is one of those complex issues in Russian language syntax, Iranian students who are learning Russian language face problems when learning this grammatical category. These problems in learning appear in two stages. a)The stage of learning and understanding the meaning of these verbs in the Russian language itself; b) The stage of transition of these verbs from Russian language into Persian language when translating texts into Persian. It seems that the di...

  14. Motor development and motor resonance difficulties in autism: relevance to early intervention for language and communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleery, Joseph P; Elliott, Natasha A; Sampanis, Dimitrios S; Stefanidou, Chrysi A

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that a sub-set of children with autism experience notable difficulties and delays in motor skills development, and that a large percentage of children with autism experience deficits in motor resonance. These motor-related deficiencies, which evidence suggests are present from a very early age, are likely to negatively affect social-communicative and language development in this population. Here, we review evidence for delayed, impaired, and atypical motor development in infants and children with autism. We then carefully review and examine the current language and communication-based intervention research that is relevant to motor and motor resonance (i.e., neural "mirroring" mechanisms activated when we observe the actions of others) deficits in children with autism. Finally, we describe research needs and future directions and developments for early interventions aimed at addressing the speech/language and social-communication development difficulties in autism from a motor-related perspective.

  15. Motor Development and Motor Resonance Difficulties in Autism: Relevance to Early Intervention for Language and Communication Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Mccleery

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that a sub-set of children with autism experience notable difficulties and delays in motor skills development, and that a large percentage of children with autism experience deficits in motor resonance. These motor-related deficiencies, which evidence suggests are present from a very early age, are likely to negatively affect social-communicative and language development in this population. Here, we review evidence for delayed, impaired, and atypical motor development in infants and children with autism. We then carefully review and examine the current language and communication-based intervention research that is relevant to motor and motor resonance (i.e., neural mirroring mechanisms activated when we observe the actions of others deficits in children with autism. Finally, we describe research needs and future directions and developments for early interventions aimed at addressing the speech/language and social-communication development difficulties in autism from a motor-related perspective.

  16. Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Mathematics, Native Language Literacy and Foreign Language amongst Boys and Girls with and without Mathematic Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungert, Tomas; Andersson, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to examine achievement and self-efficacy in mathematics and native and foreign language literacy in children with specific mathematic LD (MD-only), children with comorbid mathematic and reading difficulties (MD-RD), and compare them with children without LD (controls), as well as to explore gender differences. Participants were 143…

  17. Pragmatic language and the child with emotional/behavioural difficulties (EBD): a pilot study exploring the interaction between behaviour and communication disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Leila; Law, James

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between mental health, behaviour and language development is widely recognized in the literature. Recent advances in assessment tools allows one to consider the role of pragmatic language skills in this co-occurrence. This pilot study aimed to investigate (1) the level of association between pragmatic language difficulties and emotional/behavioural difficulties; and (2) what explanations there might there be for any such association. The roles of language, word decoding, and non-verbal cognitive ability and also socio-demographic factors are considered. Seventeen participants aged 7-11 years were identified from Educational Psychologist caseloads as having behaviour that is causing concern at school. Comparisons were made with 16 age- and sex-matched controls. Participants' language, literacy and non-verbal cognitive ability were assessed at school. Parents and teachers completed questionnaires investigating communication skills, behaviour and emotional wellbeing. No significant difference was found between the groups for non-verbal cognitive ability. However, children in the referred group were significantly more likely to have structural language, word decoding and pragmatic language difficulties and mothers with no further education beyond school. Taking a broad view of language skills to include structural language, pragmatic language and word decoding, 94% (n = 15) of referred children had significant difficulties with at least one of these three factors. The only factor not found on its own was structural language difficulties, indicating that on their own they are perhaps not associated with emotional/behavioural difficulties. The results of this pilot study have implications for how we view language and behaviour difficulties in primary schools. Future larger-scale research should consider the role of parenting factors, pragmatic language skills and literacy ability in the high co-existence rate of emotional/behavioural difficulties and

  18. Early pragmatic language difficulties in siblings of children with autism: implications for DSM-5 social communication disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Meghan; Young, Gregory S; Hutman, Ted; Johnson, Scott; Schwichtenberg, A J; Ozonoff, Sally

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated early pragmatic language skills in preschool-age siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and examined correspondence between pragmatic language impairments and general language difficulties, autism symptomatology, and clinical outcomes. Participants were younger siblings of children with ASD (high-risk, n = 188) or typical development (low-risk, n = 119) who were part of a prospective study of infants at risk for ASD; siblings without ASD outcomes were included in analyses. Pragmatic language skills were measured via the Language Use Inventory (LUI). At 36 months, the high-risk group had significantly lower parent-rated pragmatic language scores than the low-risk group. When defining pragmatic language impairment (PLI) as scores below the 10(th) percentile on the LUI, 35% of the high-risk group was identified with PLI versus 10% of the low-risk group. Children with PLI had higher rates of general language impairment (16%), defined as scores below the 10(th) percentile on the Receptive or Expressive Language subscales of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, relative to those without PLI (3%), but most did not evidence general language impairments. Children with PLI had significantly higher ADOS scores than those without PLI and had higher rates of clinician-rated atypical clinical best estimate outcomes (49%) relative to those without PLI (15%). Pragmatic language problems are present in some siblings of children with ASD as early as 36 months of age. As the new DSM-5 diagnosis of Social (Pragmatic) Communication Disorder (SCD) is thought to occur more frequently in family members of individuals with ASD, it is possible that some of these siblings will meet criteria for SCD as they get older. Close monitoring of early pragmatic language development in young children at familial risk for ASD is warranted. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  19. Slovenian Teachers' Elements of Support for Pupils with Learning Difficulties in Foreign Language Teaching at the Primary and Lower-Secondary Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumen, Mihaela; Bracko, Lea; Krajnc, Majda Schmidt

    2014-01-01

    The article concerns educational work with students who have learning difficulties with foreign languages in Slovenian primary schools. The aim of the research was to investigate current methodical and organisational elements of teacher's support in foreign language teaching for students (aged 9-15) with learning difficulties, according to the…

  20. Speaking in their Language: An Overview of the Major Difficulties Faced by the Libyan EFL Learners in Speaking Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Mubarak Pathan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Of the four major language skills, speaking is regarded as the most crucial and central one as it enables the learner to establish successful communication in that language, which is often the main aim of learning any foreign language. That is why it forms the focus of attention in any foreign language teaching and learning as failure to master this crucial language skill leads to the failure to establish successful communication. However, mastering this language skill does not go so easily with the EFL learners and particularly for the Arab EFL learners as many factors, including the mother tongue interference, hinder and influence the process of learning and mastering this crucial foreign language skill. The consequent result is that the EFL learners, especially Arab learners, encounter various difficulties while communicating in English and speak the language in their own way with the flavour of their mother tongue, Arabic. This problem of the Libyan EFL learners, encountered while speaking in English, is the subject of investigation in this paper. Various other problems, nature of these problems, sources of these problems and some pedagogical suggestion to overcome these problems are also some of the central topics of discussion in the paper.

  1. Re-examining text difficulty through automated textual analysis tools and readers’ beliefs: the case of the Greek State Certificate of English Language Proficiency exam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Liontou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on an exploratory study that aimed at describing and comparing a range of linguistic features that characterize the reading texts used at the B2 and C1 level of the Greek State Certificate of English Language Proficiency exam (KPG1. Its ultimate purpose was to explore the contribution of such features to perceived text difficulty while at the same time examining the relationship between strategy use and test-takers’ perceived level of reading comprehension difficulty reported in 7,250 questionnaires. Text analysis revealed significant differences between B2 and C1 reading texts for a specific number of text features such as word, paragraph and text length, readability indices, levels of word frequency and presence of words with rich conceptual content. A significant correlation was also found between B2 test-takers’ perception of reading module difficulty and specific text features i.e. lexical diversity, abstract words, positive additive connectives and anaphoric references between adjacent sentences. With regard to C1 test-takers, data analysis showed that two specific text variables i.e. positive logical connectives and argument overlap, correlated significantly with readers’ perception of reading module difficulty. Finally, problem-solving reading strategies such as rereading the text, guessing the meaning of unknown words and translating in mother tongue were found to correlate significantly with perceived text difficulty, whereas support-type reading strategies such as underlining or selectively reading parts of the text were less often employed regardless KPG test-takers’ perception of text difficulty. The findings of this study could help both EFL teachers and test designers gain valuable knowledge regarding EFL learners’ reading habits and also become more alert to the difficulty specific text features impose on the latter.

  2. Cultural Difference and Language Proficiency-On Difficulties Faced by Chinese EAL Student Writers at Postgraduate Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xi

    2013-01-01

      EFL students at universities have major challenges to overcome. Great attention has paid to improving such students the academic literacy skill they will need to succeed in higher education. Students at postgraduate level, especially those EAL stu⁃dents, tend to suffer growing difficulties in their academic writing. The essay focuses on the difficulties caused by cultural differ⁃ence and insufficient language proficiency, especially faced by the Chinese EAL student writers. Finally, possible solutions will be brought forward in the conclusion.

  3. A Functional Language for Specifying Business Reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    We describe our work on developing a functional domain specific language for specifying business reports. The report specification language is part of a novel enterprise resource planing system based on the idea of a providing a lean core system that is highly customisable via a variety of domain...

  4. A Functional Language for Specifying Business Reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    We describe our work on developing a functional domain specific language for specifying business reports. The report specification language is part of a novel enterprise resource planing system based on the idea of a providing a lean core system that is highly customisable via a variety of domain...

  5. Diagnostic Difficulties in a Pediatric Insulinoma: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, Ingrith; Diaconescu, Smaranda; Aprodu, Gabriel; Ioniuc, Ileana; Diaconescu, Mihai Radu; Miron, Lucian

    2016-03-01

    Insulinomas are functional neuroendocrine pancreatic tumors rarely encountered in pediatric pathology. Insulinomas are usually solitary and sporadic, but may occur in association with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Whipple's triad-hypoglycemia, simultaneous compatible adrenergic and/or neurological signs, and relief of symptoms upon the administration of glucose-remains the fundamental diagnostic tool. We report a case of insulinoma in an 11-year-old boy with malnutrition and mild psychic retardation. History revealed neuroglycopenic symptoms associated with hypoglycemia that returned to normal values after glucose intravenous infusion; before admission in our unit, the levels of circulating insulin, as well as the abdominal ultrasound and abdominal computed tomography scan, were reported within normal range. During hospitalization in our service, the glycemic curves showed recurring low values associated with low glycated hemoglobin, positive fasting test, and elevated C-peptide. The pancreatic ultrasound was inconclusive, but the magnetic resonance imaging revealed a high signal focal area with a diameter of 1 cm, located in the tail of pancreas. Conventional enucleation of the lesion prompted a spectacular normalization of glucose metabolism and the alleviation of the main clinical symptoms. The child had a favorable evolution in the clinical follow-up, presenting with weight gain and progressive remission to complete disappearance of most symptoms-except for the mental impairments. Although in our case Whipple's triad was apparent from the beginning, the diagnosis was delayed due to the failure of conventional imaging methods in locating the tumor. Weight loss and mental impairment contributed to the diagnosis pitfalls. Pediatricians should be aware of confusing and nonspecific symptoms, especially when children with insulinoma present mental or neurological retardation. Despite the existence of medical regimens, surgery remains the gold standard for the

  6. Williams Syndrome: The extent of agreement between parent and self report of psychological difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Freeman

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: People with Williams syndrome (WS have been reported by their carers to have problems with attention, anxiety and social relationships. People with WS have been shown to report their anxieties. This study extends our knowledge of how people with WS see themselves in terms of behaviour and social relationships. Methods: A survey using self and parent report forms of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results: Both parents and individuals with WS (N = 31 reported difficulties in emotional disorder and hyperactivity symptoms and strengths in prosocial behaviours such as altruism and empathy. They disagreed about peer problems. Conclusions: People with WS understand some but not all of their difficulties. In particular they fail to recognize their social difficulties which may lead them to be vulnerable to exploitation.

  7. Development of the Grammar and Phonology Screening (GAPS) test to assess key markers of specific language and literacy difficulties in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Hilary; Froud, Karen; McClelland, Alastair; van der Lely, Heather K J

    2006-01-01

    Despite a large body of evidence regarding reliable indicators of language deficits in young children, there has not been a standardized, quick screen for language impairment. The Grammar and Phonology Screening (GAPS) test was therefore designed as a short, reliable assessment of young children's language abilities. GAPS was designed to provide a quick screening test to assess whether pre- and early school entry children have the necessary grammar and pre-reading phonological skills needed for education and social development. This paper reports the theoretical background to the test, the pilot study and reliability, and the standardization. This 10-min test comprises 11 test sentences and eight test nonsense words for direct imitation and is designed to highlight significant markers of language impairment and reading difficulties. To standardize the GAPS, 668 children aged 3.4-6.6 were tested across the UK, taking into account population distribution and socio-economic status. The test was carried out by a range of health and education professionals as well as by students and carers using only simple, written instructions. GAPS is effective in detecting a range of children in need of further in-depth assessment or monitoring for language difficulties. The results concur with those from much larger epidemiological studies using lengthy testing procedures. The GAPS test (1) provides a successful screening tool; (2) is designed to be administered by professionals and non-professionals alike; and (3) facilitates identification of language impairment or at-risk factors of reading impairment in the early educational years. Thus, the test affords a first step in a process of assessment and targeted intervention to enable children to reach their potential.

  8. [Language observation protocol for teachers in pre-school education. Effectiveness in the detection of semantic and morphosyntactic difficulties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ygual-Fernández, Amparo; Cervera-Merida, José F; Baixauli-Fortea, Inmaculada; Meliá-De Alba, Amanda

    2011-03-01

    A number of studies have shown that teachers are capable of recognising pupils with language difficulties if they have suitable guidelines or guidance. To determine the effectiveness of an observation-based protocol for pre-school education teachers in the detection of phonetic-phonological, semantic and morphosyntactic difficulties. The sample consisted of 175 children from public and state-subsidised schools in Valencia and its surrounding province, together with their teachers. The children were aged between 3 years and 6 months and 5 years and 11 months. The protocol that was used asks for information about pronunciation skills (intelligibility, articulation), conversational skills (with adults, with peers), literal understanding of sentences, grammatical precision, expression through discourse, lexical knowledge and semantics. There was a significant correlation between the teachers' observations and the criterion scores on intelligibility, literal understanding of sentences, grammatical expression and lexical richness, but not in the observations concerning articulation and verbal reasoning, which were more difficult for the teachers to judge. In general, the observation protocol proved to be effective, it guided the teachers in their observations and it asked them suitable questions about linguistic data that were relevant to the determination of difficulties in language development. The use of this protocol can be an effective strategy for collecting information for use by speech therapists and school psychologists in the early detection of children with language development problems.

  9. Effects of Persuasive Designed Courseware on Children with Learning Difficulties in Learning Malay Language Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kien Heng; Bakri, Aryati; Rahman, Azizah Abdul

    2016-01-01

    The effects of courseware learning for children with learning difficulties have been studied over the years. Educational courseware is very common nowadays as a teaching tool for children's early education. However, most of the coursewares are designed for children with normal learning ability. Special children who face difficulty in the learning…

  10. A Diagnostic Challenge: Language Difficulties and Hearing Impairment in a Secondary-School Student from a Non-English-Speaking Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Judith; Dodd, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Children who have sensory, cognitive or oromotor deficits, or come from a bilingual-speaking background are currently excluded from the diagnosis of specific language impairment (SLI). Emerging evidence, however, suggests that at least 7% of all children have language learning difficulties, irrespective of other diagnoses or language learning…

  11. A Diagnostic Challenge: Language Difficulties and Hearing Impairment in a Secondary-School Student from a Non-English-Speaking Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Judith; Dodd, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Children who have sensory, cognitive or oromotor deficits, or come from a bilingual-speaking background are currently excluded from the diagnosis of specific language impairment (SLI). Emerging evidence, however, suggests that at least 7% of all children have language learning difficulties, irrespective of other diagnoses or language learning…

  12. Learner Outcomes in Science in South Africa: Role of the Nature of Learner Difficulties with the Language for Learning and Teaching Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyoo, Samuel Ouma

    2016-09-01

    Paul Leslie Gardner pioneered the study of student difficulties with everyday words presented in the science context (Gardner 1971); several similarly designed studies (e.g. Cassels and Johnstone 1985; Tao in Research in Science Education, 24, 322-330, 1994; Farell and Ventura in Language and Education, 12(4), 243-254, 1998; Childs and O'Farell in Chemistry Education: Research and Practice, 4(3), 233-247, 2003) have since been reported in literature. This article draws from an exploratory study of the difficulties South African High School physical science learners encounter with everyday English words when presented in the science context. The participants (1107 learners and 35 respective physical science teachers) were drawn from 35 public secondary schools in Johannesburg area of South Africa. Data were obtained through a word test to participant learners followed by group interviews but face-to-face interviews with each physical science teacher. This study has revealed that in similar ways as have been reported in each of the studies so far, South African learners also face difficulties with meanings of everyday words presented in a science context. The main source of difficulties encountered was learner inability to distinguish between the meanings of familiar everyday words as used in everyday parlance from the `new' meanings of the same everyday words when used in the science context. Interpretations of learner interview responses revealed that fewer difficulties would have been experienced by learners if science teachers generally explained the context meanings of the words as used during science teaching. The findings suggest that focusing on contextual proficiency more than on general proficiency in the language of learning and teaching (LOLT) during teaching perhaps holds more promise for enhanced learning and achievement in science. Steps necessary to raise teacher awareness of the potential impact of context on meanings of everyday words of the LOLT

  13. Learner Outcomes in Science in South Africa: Role of the Nature of Learner Difficulties with the Language for Learning and Teaching Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyoo, Samuel Ouma

    2017-08-01

    Paul Leslie Gardner pioneered the study of student difficulties with everyday words presented in the science context (Gardner 1971); several similarly designed studies (e.g. Cassels and Johnstone 1985; Tao in Research in Science Education, 24, 322-330, 1994; Farell and Ventura in Language and Education, 12(4), 243-254, 1998; Childs and O'Farell in Chemistry Education: Research and Practice, 4(3), 233-247, 2003) have since been reported in literature. This article draws from an exploratory study of the difficulties South African High School physical science learners encounter with everyday English words when presented in the science context. The participants (1107 learners and 35 respective physical science teachers) were drawn from 35 public secondary schools in Johannesburg area of South Africa. Data were obtained through a word test to participant learners followed by group interviews but face-to-face interviews with each physical science teacher. This study has revealed that in similar ways as have been reported in each of the studies so far, South African learners also face difficulties with meanings of everyday words presented in a science context. The main source of difficulties encountered was learner inability to distinguish between the meanings of familiar everyday words as used in everyday parlance from the `new' meanings of the same everyday words when used in the science context. Interpretations of learner interview responses revealed that fewer difficulties would have been experienced by learners if science teachers generally explained the context meanings of the words as used during science teaching. The findings suggest that focusing on contextual proficiency more than on general proficiency in the language of learning and teaching (LOLT) during teaching perhaps holds more promise for enhanced learning and achievement in science. Steps necessary to raise teacher awareness of the potential impact of context on meanings of everyday words of the LOLT

  14. Computer-based auditory training (CBAT): benefits for children with language- and reading-related learning difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Jenny Hooi Yin; Bamiou, Doris-Eva; Campbell, Nicci; Luxon, Linda M

    2010-08-01

    This article reviews the evidence for computer-based auditory training (CBAT) in children with language, reading, and related learning difficulties, and evaluates the extent it can benefit children with auditory processing disorder (APD). Searches were confined to studies published between 2000 and 2008, and they are rated according to the level of evidence hierarchy proposed by the American Speech-Language Hearing Association (ASHA) in 2004. We identified 16 studies of two commercially available CBAT programs (13 studies of Fast ForWord (FFW) and three studies of Earobics) and five further outcome studies of other non-speech and simple speech sounds training, available for children with language, learning, and reading difficulties. The results suggest that, apart from the phonological awareness skills, the FFW and Earobics programs seem to have little effect on the language, spelling, and reading skills of children. Non-speech and simple speech sounds training may be effective in improving children's reading skills, but only if it is delivered by an audio-visual method. There is some initial evidence to suggest that CBAT may be of benefit for children with APD. Further research is necessary, however, to substantiate these preliminary findings.

  15. Components and context: exploring sources of reading difficulties for language minority learners and native English speakers in urban schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Michael J; Vukovic, Rose K

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the cognitive and ecological domains within the componential model of reading, this longitudinal study explores heterogeneity in the sources of reading difficulties for language minority learners and native English speakers in urban schools. Students (N = 150) were followed from first through third grade and assessed annually on standardized English language and reading measures. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the relative contributions of code-related and linguistic comprehension skills in first and second grade to third grade reading comprehension. Linguistic comprehension and the interaction between linguistic comprehension and code-related skills each explained substantial variation in reading comprehension. Among students with low reading comprehension, more than 80% demonstrated weaknesses in linguistic comprehension alone, whereas approximately 15% demonstrated weaknesses in both linguistic comprehension and code-related skills. Results were remarkably similar for the language minority learners and native English speakers, suggesting the importance of their shared socioeconomic backgrounds and schooling contexts.

  16. Errors in Automatic Speech Recognition versus Difficulties in Second Language Listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Maryam Sadat; Meshgi, Kourosh; Akita, Yuya; Kawahara, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) technology has become a part of contemporary Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) systems. ASR systems however are being criticized for their erroneous performance especially when utilized as a mean to develop skills in a Second Language (L2) where errors are not tolerated. Nevertheless, these errors can…

  17. Societal Responses to Adult Difficulties in L2 Acquisition: Toward an Evolutionary Perspective on Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, John H.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that second language (L2) acquisition becomes more difficult as one grows older and that success in adult L2 acquisition is highly variable. Nevertheless, humans in language contact situations have to cope with intergroup communication. This article examines the ways society has responded to this challenge. It describes…

  18. Reading Difficulties and Grade Retention: What's the Connection for English Language Learners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman-Perrott, Lisa J.; Herrera, Socorro; Murry, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Much of the student diversity in U.S. schools reflects increasing numbers of English language learners (ELL). ELL represent a very heterogeneous group in terms of their native language proficiency, educational experiences, access to quality early childhood programs, and immigration experiences. An unfortunate commonality they often share is poor…

  19. A Parent-Based Book-Reading Intervention for Disadvantaged Children with Language Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmar, Susan Hilary

    2014-01-01

    Children with delayed language skills, who were from a socio-economic area defined as disadvantaged, made significant improvements in language skills after their parents were trained in easily learned strategies, enabling them to make simple changes in the way they interacted with their children. The 36 children, mean age five years, were…

  20. Difficulties Encountered by Both Teachers and Students in Teaching and Learning Turkish as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canbulat, Mehmet; Dilekçi, Atilla

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to identify and suggest solutions to the problems experienced by students learning Turkish as a second language according to the opinions of both teachers and students evaluated. The research has been conducted among the classroom teachers, Turkish language teachers and the students attending the schools in…

  1. Investigating the Difficulties and Problems Faced by the English Language Students of Al Quds Open University in Legal Translation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Maher Mahmoud Al-Nakhalah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Following experimental descriptive method, the paper explores the difficulties and problems faced by the English language students of Al Quds Open University in legal translation process; that is, while translating legal terms/documents from Arabic to English and from English to Arabic. A test was designed by the researcher in order to explore and investigate the difficulties and problems faced by the students. The test included four questions: 1 Translating English legal paragraph, 2 Translating Arabic legal paragraph, 3 Translating ten Arabic legal terms and 4 Translating ten English legal terms. The test was applied on the English language students of Al Quds Open University in Gaza Region in Palestine during the second course of the academic year 2010/2011. The samples of the study were chosen and selected randomly. Following suitable statistical methods, the paper offers the obtained results with critical discussion. Possible solutions, recommendations and suggestions to overcome these difficulties and problems also form important parts of the discussion in the paper.

  2. Effects of lexical factors on lexical access among typical language-learning children and children with word-finding difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Rochelle S; German, Diane J

    2002-09-01

    This investigation studied the influence of lexical factors, known to impact lexical access in adults, on the word retrieval of children. Participants included 320 typical and atypical (word-finding difficulties) language-learning children, ranging in age from 7 to 12 years. Lexical factors examined included word frequency, age-of-acquisition, neighborhood density, neighborhood frequency, and stress pattern. Findings indicated that these factors did influence lexical access in children. Words which were high in frequency and neighborhood frequency, low in neighborhood density and age-of-acquisition, and which contained the typical stress pattern for the language were easier to name. Further, the number of neighbors that were more frequent than the target word also had an effect on the word's ease of retrieval. Significant interactions indicated that age-of-acquisition effects decreased with maturation for typically-learning children whereas these effects continued to impact the lexical access of children with word-finding difficulties across the ages studied, suggesting that these children's difficulties in accessing words may have prevented them from developing strong access paths to these words. These findings support a view of lexical access in which access paths to words become strengthened with successful use.

  3. Inservice Teachers' Difficulties with and Resistance to Curricular Innovation: A Solution-Finding Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Innovations in Learning, Temple University, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This Solution-Finding Report provides references and information requested on the topic of inservice teachers finding it difficult to implement, or resisting, curricular innovation. Many of the citations in this bibliography also deal with ways to overcome these difficulties and this resistance. Solution-finding Reports are intended to provide a…

  4. Why do children with language impairment have difficulties with narrative macrostructure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Elma; Boerma, Tessel

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Research has produced conflicting findings about the effects of language impairment (LI) on narrative macrostructure outcomes. AIMS: The present study investigated if children with LI perform weaker than typically developing (TD) controls on narrative macrostructure in different tasks, w

  5. Patient-reported speech in noise difficulties and hyperacusis symptoms and correlation with test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyridakou, Chrysa; Luxon, Linda M; Bamiou, Doris E

    2012-07-01

    To compare self-reported symptoms of difficulty hearing speech in noise and hyperacusis in adults with auditory processing disorders (APDs) and normal controls; and to compare self-reported symptoms to objective test results (speech in babble test, transient evoked otoacoustic emission [TEOAE] suppression test using contralateral noise). A prospective case-control pilot study. Twenty-two participants were recruited in the study: 10 patients with reported hearing difficulty, normal audiometry, and a clinical diagnosis of APD; and 12 normal age-matched controls with no reported hearing difficulty. All participants completed the validated Amsterdam Inventory for Auditory Disability questionnaire, a hyperacusis questionnaire, a speech in babble test, and a TEOAE suppression test using contralateral noise. Patients had significantly worse scores than controls in all domains of the Amsterdam Inventory questionnaire (with the exception of sound detection) and the hyperacusis questionnaire (P correction. Strong correlations were observed between self-reported symptoms of difficulty hearing speech in noise and speech in babble test results in the right ear (ρ = 0.624, P = .002), and between self-reported symptoms of hyperacusis and TEOAE suppression test results in the right ear (ρ = -0.597 P = .003). There was no significant correlation between the two tests. A strong correlation was observed between right ear speech in babble and patient-reported intelligibility of speech in noise, and right ear TEOAE suppression by contralateral noise and hyperacusis questionnaire. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Desirable Difficulties in Vocabulary Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, Robert A; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-01-01

    In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is understood and produced. From each perspective we discuss evidence that supports the notion that difficulties in learning and imposed costs to language processing may produce benefits because they are likely to increase conceptual understanding. We then consider the consequences of these processes for actual second-language learning and suggest that some of the domain-general cognitive advantages that have been reported for proficient bilinguals may reflect difficulties imposed by the learning process, and by the requirement to negotiate cross-language competition, that are broadly desirable. As Alice Healy and her collaborators were perhaps the first to demonstrate, research on desirable difficulties in vocabulary and language learning holds the promise of bringing together research traditions on memory and language that have much to offer each other.

  7. Underlying neurological dysfunction in children with language, speech or learning difficulties and a verbal IQ--performance IQ discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulemans, J; Goeleven, A; Zink, I; Loyez, L; Lagae, L; Debruyne, F

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between possible underlying neurological dysfunction and a significant discrepancy between verbal IQ/performance IQ (VIQ-PIQ) in children with language, speech or learning difficulties. In a retrospective study, we analysed data obtained from intelligence testing and neurological evaluation in 49 children with a significant VIQ-PIQ discrepancy (> or = 25 points) who were referred because of language, speech or learning difficulties to the Multidisciplinary University Centre for Logopedics and Audiology (MUCLA) of the University Hospitals of Leuven, Belgium. The group of children broke down into a group of 35 children with PIQ > VIQ and a group of 14 children with VIQ > PIQ. In the first group, neurological data were present for 24 children. The neurological history and clinical neurological examination were normal in all cases. Brain MRI was performed in 15 cases and proved to be normal in all children. Brain activity was assessed with long-term video EEG monitoring in ten children. In two children, the EEG results were abnormal: there was an epileptic focus in one child and a manifest alteration in the EEG typical of Landau-Kleffner syndrome in the other. In the second group of 14 children whose VIQ was higher than the PIQ, neurological data were available for ten children. Neurological history and clinical neurological examination were normal in all cases. Brain MRI was performed in five cases and was normal in all children. EEG monitoring was performed in one child. This revealed benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes. In a small number of children (9%) with speech, language and learning difficulties and a discrepancy between VIQ and PIQ, an underlying neurological abnormality is present. We recommend referring children with a significant VIQ-PIQ mismatch to a paediatric neurologist. As an epileptic disorder seems to be the most common underlying neurological pathology in this specific group of children, EEG

  8. Effects of Varying Text Difficulty Levels on Second Language (L2) Reading Attitudes and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Min-Hsun

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of varying text difficulty on L2 reading attitudes and reading comprehension. To provide the optimal challenge for L2 reading, comprehensible input hypothesis postulates that choosing text slightly harder than the learner's current level will enhance reading comprehension. Fifty-four freshmen from one university…

  9. An Investigation of Difficulties Experienced by Students Developing Unified Modelling Language (UML) Class and Sequence Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sien, Ven Yu

    2011-01-01

    Object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) is not an easy subject to learn. There are many challenges confronting students when studying OOAD. Students have particular difficulty abstracting real-world problems within the context of OOAD. They are unable to effectively build object-oriented (OO) models from the problem domain because they…

  10. An Investigation of Difficulties Experienced by Students Developing Unified Modelling Language (UML) Class and Sequence Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sien, Ven Yu

    2011-01-01

    Object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) is not an easy subject to learn. There are many challenges confronting students when studying OOAD. Students have particular difficulty abstracting real-world problems within the context of OOAD. They are unable to effectively build object-oriented (OO) models from the problem domain because they…

  11. The Effectiveness of Semantic Therapy for the Word Finding Difficulties of Children with Severe and Complex Speech, Language and Communication Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jean; Aldersley, Anna; Dobson, Catherine; Edgar, Silke; Harding, Christian; Luckins, Jessie; Wiseman, Fiona; Pring, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Word finding difficulties are often seen in children with language difficulties. Their problem is readily observed and has led to investigations of its nature and encouraged attempts at intervention. Semantic errors in their naming suggest that their knowledge of items is poorly developed and that therapies to strengthen it may be effective.…

  12. Early Evidence of the Italian Parent-Report Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-P).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Bin; Delvecchio, Elisa; Di Riso, Daniela; Lis, Adriana; Salcuni, Silvia

    2017-04-01

    The parent-report Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-P) is a widely used scale that assesses children's and adolescents' strengths and difficulties. The present study applied this scale to Italian adolescents and compared the current results with previous Chinese findings and the United Kingdom norm. Participants were 422 Italian parents and their adolescent children. Parents and adolescents answered the parent-report and the self-report SDQ, respectively. Results showed that the five-factor first-order model was better than other competing models. Cronbach's alpha of emotional problems, conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems, prosocial behavior, and total difficulties was .63, .52, .69, .51, .59, and .77 respectively for mother-report measure, and .67, .48, .67, .46, .55, and .79 respectively for father-report measure. Parent-adolescent agreements ranged from low to medium, whereas mother-father agreements were large. Parents did not rate boys and girls as well as early-adolescence and mid-adolescence differently. Italian parents rated their adolescent children to have lower levels of hyperactivity, peer problems, total difficulties, and higher levels of prosocial behavior than Chinese parents; and Italian mothers rated their adolescent children to have lower levels of hyperactivity than United Kingdom parents. In conclusion, the current findings suggest both strengths and inadequacies of the SDQ-P for Italian adolescents.

  13. Predicting Literacy Achievement in Young English Language Learners: A Question of Language Proficiency or of Learning Difficulty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenman, Sara; Madelaine, Alison

    2012-01-01

    In this article empirical research regarding the best predictors of literacy achievement for English language learning students (ELLs) in English-only classrooms is reviewed. These students comprise an ever-increasing population in these settings, but there is considerable confusion in differentiating between ELLs who are low-achievement readers…

  14. Validity of a Protocol for Adult Self-Report of Dyslexia and Related Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowling, Margaret; Dawes, Piers; Nash, Hannah; Hulme, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Background There is an increased prevalence of reading and related difficulties in children of dyslexic parents. In order to understand the causes of these difficulties, it is important to quantify the risk factors passed from parents to their offspring. Method 417 adults completed a protocol comprising a 15-item questionnaire rating reading and related skills and a scale assessing ADHD symptoms; 344 completed reading, nonword reading and spelling tests. Results A confirmatory factor analysis with four factors (Reading, Word Finding, Attention and Hyperactivity) provided a reasonable fit to the data. The Reading Factor showed robust correlations with measured literacy skills. Adults who reported as dyslexic, or rated their reading difficulties as more severe, gained lower scores on objective measures of literacy skills. Although the sensitivity of the new scale was acceptable, it tended to miss some cases of low literacy. Conclusions Self-report scales of reading and of attention difficulties are useful for identifying adults with reading and attention difficulties which may confer risks on their children of related problems. It is important for research following children at family risk of dyslexia to be aware of these effects. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:22271419

  15. Understanding Middle School Students' Difficulties in Explaining Density Differences from a Language Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, Lay Hoon; Clarke, David; Hart, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This study examines how a class of Grade 7 students employed linguistic resources to explain density differences. Drawing from the same data-set as a previous study by, we take a language perspective to investigate the challenges students face in learning the concept of density. Our study thus complements previous research on learning about…

  16. Preliminary Study of the Prevalence of Speech and Language Difficulties in Young Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Background: There are no systematic surveys of the UK prison population, but data from several sources suggest that a significant number of prisoners might have limitations in their speech, language and communication abilities. Aim: To examine the hypothesis that compared with the general population, a significantly larger number of the prison…

  17. Rise Time Perception in Children with Reading and Combined Reading and Language Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Rachel L.; Manis, Franklin R.

    2013-01-01

    Using a non-speech-specific measure of prosody, rise time perception, Goswami and her colleagues have found that individuals with dyslexia perform significantly worse than nonimpaired readers. Studies have also found that children and adults with specific language impairment were impaired on these tasks. Despite the high comorbidity of these…

  18. Meeting the Needs of Children and Young People with Speech, Language and Communication Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Geoff; Dockrell, Julie; Desforges, Martin; Law, James; Peacey, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Background: The UK government set up a review of provision for children and young people with the full range of speech, language and communication needs led by a Member of Parliament, John Bercow. A research study was commissioned to provide empirical evidence to inform the Bercow Review. Aims: To examine the efficiency and effectiveness of…

  19. The Effectiveness of the Instrumental Enrichment Approach on the Enhancement of Reading Comprehension Skills of Preparatory Stage Pupils with English Language Learning Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Nifayee, Amani Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    This research investigates the effectiveness of the Instrumental Enrichment Approach on the enhancement of the reading comprehension skills of learners with English Language Learning Difficulties. It aims at identifying the reading comprehension skills required for preparatory stage English language learners, re-develop and teach sample materials…

  20. Supporting Students with Language Learning Difficulties in Secondary Schools through Collaboration: The Use of Concept Maps to Investigate the Impact on Teachers' Knowledge of Vocabulary Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Gemma; Nash, Marysia; Earl, Gill

    2010-01-01

    Language difficulties persist in a proportion of young people first identified in their early school years (Bishop and Adams, 1990; Stothard et al., 1998), and speech and language therapy (SLT) within secondary education is a developing area of expertise. This article briefly describes the rationale for collaboration between teachers and SLT…

  1. Supporting Students with Language Learning Difficulties in Secondary Schools through Collaboration: The Use of Concept Maps to Investigate the Impact on Teachers' Knowledge of Vocabulary Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Gemma; Nash, Marysia; Earl, Gill

    2010-01-01

    Language difficulties persist in a proportion of young people first identified in their early school years (Bishop and Adams, 1990; Stothard et al., 1998), and speech and language therapy (SLT) within secondary education is a developing area of expertise. This article briefly describes the rationale for collaboration between teachers and SLT…

  2. Virtual Classrooms in Brazil: teachers' difficulties and anxieties towards technology in language learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Machado de Almeida Mattos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers, nowadays, have been enthusiastic in promoting the advantages of introducing technology in the language classroom, but few have been worried with the problems and anxieties that result from changes in a long-lasting culture such as the culture of language learning. This paper aims at discussing the problems faced by teachers who have been working with technology in their language classrooms. The research design was based on theoretical and empirical studies both in the areas of Computer Assisted Language Learning and Teacher Development. The main objective of this paper is, thus, to achieve a global understanding of the teachers' anxieties in relation to the virtual environment of language learning. Data was gathered through interviews with the teachers, leading to a qualitative analysis of the findings.Atualmente, muitos pesquisadores têm promovido entusiasticamente as vantagens de se introduzir tecnologia na sala de aula de língua estrangeira (LE, mas poucos têm-se preocupado com os problemas e as ansiedades que resultam de mudanças numa cultura tão antiga quanto a da sala de aula de LE. Este trabalho visa a discutir os problemas enfrentados por professores que trabalham com tecnologia em suas salas de aula de língua. A pesquisa foi baseada em estudos teóricos e empíricos tanto na área de ensino mediado por computador quanto no campo de desenvolvimento de professores. O objetivo principal deste trabalho é, assim, obter um entendimento global das ansiedades do professor em relação ao ambiente virtual de aprendizagem de língua. Os dados foram coletados mediante entrevistas com os professores informantes, levando a uma análise qualitativa dos resultados.

  3. Difficulties in daily life reported by patients with homonymous visual field defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heutink, Jochem; de Haan, Gera; Melis-Dankers, Bart; Brouwer, Wiebo; Tucha, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Background: Homonymous visual field defects (HVFDs) are a common consequence of posterior brain injury and may have a substantial influence on ADL and participation in society. In this study we analysed self-reported visionrelated difficulties in daily life in a group of patients with HVFDs. Methods

  4. Difficulties in daily life reported by patients with homonymous visual field defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heutink, Jochem; de Haan, Gera; Melis-Dankers, Bart; Brouwer, Wiebo; Tucha, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Background: Homonymous visual field defects (HVFDs) are a common consequence of posterior brain injury and may have a substantial influence on ADL and participation in society. In this study we analysed self-reported visionrelated difficulties in daily life in a group of patients with HVFDs.

  5. Difficulties reported by hiv-infected patients using antiretroviral therapy in brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Drew Crosland Guimarães

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the degree of difficulty that HIV-infected patients have with therapy treatment. INTRODUCTION: Patients’ perceptions about their treatment are a determinant factor for improved adherence and a better quality of life. METHODS: Two cross-sectional analyses were conducted in public AIDS referral centers in Brazil among patients initiating treatment. Patients interviewed at baseline, after one month, and after seven months following the beginning of treatment were asked to classify and justify the degree of difficulty with treatment. Logistic regression was used for analysis. RESULTS: Among 406 patients initiating treatment, 350 (86.2% and 209 (51.5% returned for their first and third visits, respectively. Treatment perceptions ranged from medium to very difficult for 51.4% and 37.3% on the first and third visits, respectively. The main difficulties reported were adverse reactions to the medication and scheduling. A separate logistic regression indicated that the HIV-seropositive status disclosure, symptoms of anxiety, absence of psychotherapy, higher CD4+ cell count (> 200/mm³ and high (> 4 adverse reaction count reported were independently associated with the degree of difficulty in the first visit, while CDC clinical category A, pill burden (> 7 pills, use of other medications, high (> 4 adverse reaction count reported and low understanding of medical orientation showed independent association for the third visit. CONCLUSIONS: A significant level of difficulty was observed with treatment. Our analyses suggest the need for early assessment of difficulties with treatment, highlighting the importance of modifiable factors that may contribute to better adherence to the treatment protocol.

  6. Technical Text Comprehension Difficulties in the Usage of Reflexive Verbs in the French Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Dubikaltytė-Raugalienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The author researches the problems of textual competence and especially the reflexive constructions in the texts of French speciality. It was established that there exists some difference in the usage of reflective verbs in the French and the Lithuanian language especially in the field of passive voice and a wider semantics of modal and aspect verbs and that raises not a fen problems of effective text reading problems.

  7. difficulties of communicative language teaching for non-english majors in higher education of china

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温俊毅

    2011-01-01

    Ⅰ.introductionsince 1980s,changes have been made in the field of elt in china:communicative language teaching has been introduced.english textbooks and syllabus which put more emphasis on the training of students ' communicauive competence including listening and speaking have been produced since 1990s in line with the policy of the state education development commission ( sedc) in china the teaching syllabus has also been adjusted to match the needs for clt.

  8. Difficulties of Communicative Language Teaching for Non-English Majors in Higher Education of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温俊毅

    2011-01-01

    Ⅰ.IntroductionSince 1980s,changes have been made in the field of ELT in China:Communicative language teaching has been introduced.English textbooks and syllabus which put more emphasis on the training of students ' communicauive competence including listening and speaking have been produced since 1990s in line with the policy of the State Education Development Commission ( SEDC) in China The teaching syllabus has also been adjusted to match the needs for CLT.

  9. Diagnosing companies in financial difficulty based on the auditor’s report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Zenzerović

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The approach used in this paper expands on existing research that focuses on devising prediction models for companies experiencing financial difficulties and which in turn serves as a criteria-based diagnosis tool for distinguishing healthy companies from those facing seriously financial difficulties. It draws on auditors’ reports on company financial statements that emphasize a company’s ability to continue as a going concern as the main criterion used to distinguish companies experiencing financial difficulties from companies that are not. Two closely-related hypotheses were tested in this paper. First, the authors tested the hypothesis that an auditor’s report accompanied by an explanatory paragraph pointing out issues associated with the going concern assumption is the proper criterion for differentiating companies experiencing financial difficulties from those that are not. Second, the central assumption that is tested relates to a combination of financial ratios whereby authors presume that an appropriate combination of financial ratios is a good analytical tool for distinguishing companies experiencing serious financial difficulties from those that are not. Research results conducted among 191 companies listed on the Zagreb Stock Exchange confirm both hypotheses. The LRA model – a diagnosis tool for identifying companies with financial problems, was also derived using logistic regression analysis. The statistical adequacy and quality of the model was tested using measures like Nagelkerke R2, type 1 and type 2 errors that appear when calculating the classification ability of the model. All measures indicated that model was statistically sufficient and validated its use as a diagnosis tool in recognizing the companies facing financial difficulties.

  10. Effectiveness of semantic therapy for word-finding difficulties in pupils with persistent language impairments: a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbels, Susan H; Nicoll, Hilary; Clark, Becky; Eachus, Beth; Gallagher, Aoife L; Horniman, Karen; Jennings, Mary; McEvoy, Kate; Nimmo, Liz; Turner, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Word-finding difficulties (WFDs) in children have been hypothesized to be caused at least partly by poor semantic knowledge. Therefore, improving semantic knowledge should decrease word-finding errors. Previous studies of semantic therapy for WFDs are inconclusive. To investigate the effectiveness of semantic therapy for secondary school-aged pupils with WFDs using a randomized control trial with blind assessment. Fifteen participants with language impairments and WFDs (aged 9;11-15;11) were randomly assigned to a therapy versus waiting control group. In Phase 1 the therapy group received two 15-min semantic therapy sessions per week for 8 weeks with their usual speech and language therapist. Therapy for each participant targeted words from one of three semantic categories (animals, food, clothes). All participants were tested pre- and post-phase 1 therapy on the brief version of the Test of Adolescent Word Finding (TAWF), semantic fluency and the Test of Word Finding in Discourse (TWFD). In Phase 2 the waiting control group received the same therapy as the original therapy group, which received therapy targeted at other language areas. Testing after Phase 2 aimed to establish whether the waiting control group made similar progress to the original therapy group and whether the original therapy group maintained any gains. The original therapy group made significant progress in standard scores on the TAWF (d= 0.94), which was maintained 5 months later. However, they made no progress on the semantic fluency or discourse tests. Participants in the waiting control group did not make significant progress on the TAWF in Phase 1 when they received no word-finding therapy. However, after Phase 2, when they received the therapy, they also made significant progress (d= 0.81). The combined effect of therapy over the two groups was d= 1.2. The mean standard scores on the TAWF were 67 pre-therapy and 77 post-therapy. Four hours of semantic therapy on discrete semantic categories

  11. The consequences of language proficiency and difficulty of lexical access for translation performance and priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Wendy S; Tokowicz, Natasha; Kroll, Judith F

    2014-01-01

    Repetition priming was used to assess how proficiency and the ease or difficulty of lexical access influence bilingual translation. Two experiments, conducted at different universities with different Spanish-English bilingual populations and materials, showed repetition priming in word translation for same-direction and different-direction repetitions. Experiment 1, conducted in an English-dominant environment, revealed an effect of translation direction but not of direction match, whereas Experiment 2, conducted in a more balanced bilingual environment, showed an effect of direction match but not of translation direction. A combined analysis on the items common to both studies revealed that bilingual proficiency was negatively associated with response time (RT), priming, and the degree of translation asymmetry in RTs and priming. An item analysis showed that item difficulty was positively associated with RTs, priming, and the benefit of same-direction over different-direction repetition. Thus, although both participant accuracy and item accuracy are indices of learning, they have distinct effects on translation RTs and on the learning that is captured by the repetition-priming paradigm.

  12. Contribution of speech and language difficulties to health-related quality-of-life in Australian children: A longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Rachel; Desha, Laura; Khan, Asaduzzaman; Ziviani, Jenny

    2017-04-01

    The trajectory of health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) for children aged 4-9 years and its relationship with speech and language difficulties (SaLD) was examined using data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Generalized linear latent and mixed modelling was used to analyse data from three waves of the LSAC across four HRQoL domains (physical, emotional, social and school functioning). Four domains of HRQoL, measured using the Paediatric Quality-of-Life Inventory (PedsQL™), were examined to find the contribution of SaLD while accounting for child-specific factors (e.g. gender, ethnicity, temperament) and family characteristics (social ecological considerations and psychosocial stressors). In multivariable analyses, one measure of SaLD, namely parent concern about receptive language, was negatively associated with all HRQoL domains. Covariates positively associated with all HRQoL domains included child's general health, maternal mental health, parental warmth and primary caregiver's engagement in the labour force. Findings suggest that SaLD are associated with reduced HRQoL. For most LSAC study children, having typical speech/language skills was a protective factor positively associated with HRQoL.

  13. Grammatical Difficulties in Children with Specific Language Impairment: Is Learning Deficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsinjen Julie; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical accounts of grammatical limitations in specific language impairment (SLI) have been polarized between those that postulate problems with domain-specific grammatical knowledge, and those that regard grammatical deficits as downstream consequences of perceptual or memory limitations. Here we consider an alternative view that grammatical deficits arise when the learning system is biased towards memorization of exemplars, and is poor at extracting statistical dependencies from the input. We examine evidence that SLI involves deficits in extracting nonadjacent dependencies from input, leading to reliance on rote learning, and consider how far this may be part of a limitation of procedural learning, or a secondary consequence of memory limitations.

  14. Discrimination, other psychosocial stressors, and self-reported sleep duration and difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slopen, Natalie; Williams, David R

    2014-01-01

    To advance understanding of the relationship between discrimination and sleep duration and difficulties, with consideration of multiple dimensions of discrimination, and attention to concurrent stressors; and to examine the contribution of discrimination and other stressors to racial/ ethnic differences in these outcomes. Cross-sectional probability sample. Chicago, IL. There were 2,983 black, Hispanic, and white adults. Outcomes included self-reported sleep duration and difficulties. Discrimination, including racial and nonracial everyday and major experiences of discrimination, workplace harassment and incivilities, and other stressors were assessed via questionnaire. In models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, greater exposure to racial (β = -0.14)) and nonracial (β = -0.08) everyday discrimination, major experiences of discrimination attributed to race/ethnicity (β = -0.17), and workplace harassment and incivilities (β = -0.14) were associated with shorter sleep (P discrimination attributed to race/ethnicity and sleep duration (β = -0.09, P Racial (β = 0.04) and non-racial (β = 0.05) everyday discrimination and racial (β = 0.04) and nonracial (β = 0.04) major experiences of discrimination, and workplace harassment and incivilities (β = 0.04) were also associated with more (log) sleep difficulties, and associations between racial and nonracial everyday discrimination and sleep difficulties remained after adjustment for other stressors (P Racial/ethnic differences in sleep duration and difficulties were not significant after adjustment for discrimination (P > 0.05). Discrimination was associated with shorter sleep and more sleep difficulties, independent of socioeconomic status and other stressors, and may account for some of the racial/ethnic differences in sleep.

  15. Children with specific language impairment: the role of prosodic processes in explaining difficulties in processing syntactic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabisch, Beate; Hahne, C A Anja; Glass, Elisabeth; von Suchodoletz, Waldemar; Friederici, Angela D

    2009-03-19

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) experience great difficulties in language comprehension and/or production whereby the majority of these children have particular problems in acquiring syntactic rules. In the speech stream boundaries of major syntactic constituents are reliably marked by prosodic cues. Therefore, prosodic information provides an important cue for discovering the syntactic structure of a language [Jusczyk, P.W., 2002. How infants adapt speech-processing capacities to native language structure. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 11, 15-18.]. Following this, the question is, whether children with SLI differ in the processing of syntactic information from normally developing children and to what extent this is related to the processing of the inherent prosodic information. Children heard either correct sentences or sentences with a word category violation (syntactic level) and a joined prosodic incongruity (prosodic level) while event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Judging the sentence's correctness, control children performed better than children with SLI for all types of sentences. With respect to the ERPs, control children showed a bilateral early starting anterior negativity sustaining into a late anterior negativity and a P600 in posterior regions in response to incorrect sentences. Children with SLI showed a comparable P600 but unlike the control children there was only a late, clearly left lateralized anterior negativity. The complete absence of a right anterior negativity in children with SLI suggests that they may not access prosodic information in the same way normal children do. The differences in prosodic processing may in turn hamper the development of syntactic processing skills as indicated by the absence of the syntax-related early left anterior negativity.

  16. Longitudinal patterns of behavioral, emotional, and social difficulties and self-concepts in adolescents with a history of specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Geoff; Dockrell, Julie E

    2012-10-01

    This study explored the prevalence and stability of behavioral difficulties and self-concepts between the ages of 8 and 17 years in a sample of children with a history of specific language impairment (SLI). We investigated whether earlier behavioral, emotional, and social difficulties (BESD); self-concepts; and language and literacy abilities predicted behavioral difficulties and self-concepts at 16/17 years. In this prospective longitudinal study, 65 students were followed up with teacher behavior ratings and individual assessments of language, literacy, and self-concepts at 8, 10, 12, 16, and 17 years. The students had consistently higher levels than norms of 5 domains of BESD, which had different trajectories over time, and poorer scholastic competence, whose trajectory also varied over time. Earlier language ability did not predict later behavioral difficulties or self-concepts, but the prediction of academic self-concept at 16 by literacy at 10 years approached significance. The importance of distinguishing domains of behavioral difficulties and self-concept is demonstrated. Language, when measured at 8 or 10 years of age, was not a predictor of behavior or self-concepts at 16 years, or of self-concepts at 17 years. The study stresses the importance of practitioners addressing academic abilities and different social-behavioral domains in delivering support for adolescents with SLI.

  17. Auditory processing deficits are sometimes necessary and sometimes sufficient for language difficulties in children: Evidence from mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Lorna F; Tuomainen, Outi; Rosen, Stuart

    2017-09-01

    There is a general consensus that many children and adults with dyslexia and/or specific language impairment display deficits in auditory processing. However, how these deficits are related to developmental disorders of language is uncertain, and at least four categories of model have been proposed: single distal cause models, risk factor models, association models, and consequence models. This study used children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss (MMHL) to investigate the link between auditory processing deficits and language disorders. We examined the auditory processing and language skills of 46, 8-16year-old children with MMHL and 44 age-matched typically developing controls. Auditory processing abilities were assessed using child-friendly psychophysical techniques in order to obtain discrimination thresholds. Stimuli incorporated three different timescales (µs, ms, s) and three different levels of complexity (simple nonspeech tones, complex nonspeech sounds, speech sounds), and tasks required discrimination of frequency or amplitude cues. Language abilities were assessed using a battery of standardised assessments of phonological processing, reading, vocabulary, and grammar. We found evidence that three different auditory processing abilities showed different relationships with language: Deficits in a general auditory processing component were necessary but not sufficient for language difficulties, and were consistent with a risk factor model; Deficits in slow-rate amplitude modulation (envelope) detection were sufficient but not necessary for language difficulties, and were consistent with either a single distal cause or a consequence model; And deficits in the discrimination of a single speech contrast (/bɑ/ vs /dɑ/) were neither necessary nor sufficient for language difficulties, and were consistent with an association model. Our findings suggest that different auditory processing deficits may constitute distinct and independent routes to

  18. UNESCO Report Favours Preservation of Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runte, Roseann

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the UNESCO report "Our Creative Diversity," which links development and culture and argues that languages will not survive due to law but because of the respect given them and the milieu in which they are (or are not) used. The article points out that bilinguals are more used to switching thought patterns, have more flexible…

  19. Relating aviation service difficulty reports to accident data for safety trend prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullwood, R.; Hall, R.; Martinez, G.; Uryasev, S.

    1996-03-13

    This work explores the hypothesis that Service Difficulty Reports (SDR - primarily inspection reports) are related to Accident Incident Data System (AIDS - reports primarily compiled from National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) accident investigations). This work sought and found relations between equipment operability reported in the SDR and aviation safety reported in AIDS. Equipment is not the only factor in aviation accidents, but it is the factor reported in the SDR. Two approaches to risk analysis were used: (1) The conventional method, in which reporting frequencies are taken from a data base (SDR), and used with an aircraft reliability block diagram model of the critical systems to predict aircraft failure, and (2) Shape analysis that uses the magnitude and shape of the SDR distribution compared with the AIDS distribution to predict aircraft failure.

  20. [Delayed discovery of congenital diaphragmatic hernia: diagnostic difficulties. A report of two cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coste, C; Jouvencel, P; Debuch, C; Argote, C; Lavrand, F; Feghali, H; Brissaud, O

    2004-08-01

    Delayed revelation of congenital diaphragmatic hernias (CDH) is not uncommon and can represent 5-30% of total CDHs. Time before diagnosis may be prolonged, sometimes to the adult period. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms are frequent but not specific. The clinical presentation of delayed CDH may thus mislead the practitioner. Diagnosis can be approached and/or confirmed by plain radiography. Outcome is usually favorable after surgery. We report two cases of delayed CDH and we discuss the difficulty of diagnosis.

  1. Why do children with language impairment have difficulties with narrative macrostructure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Elma; Boerma, Tessel

    2016-08-01

    Research has produced conflicting findings about the effects of language impairment (LI) on narrative macrostructure outcomes. The present study investigated if children with LI perform weaker than typically developing (TD) controls on narrative macrostructure in different tasks, whether this changes over time and if between-group differences stem from linguistic or cognitive factors. A group of monolingual Dutch children with LI (n=84) and a TD control group (n=45) were tested with a story comprehension and a story generation task. All children were five or six at wave 1 and six or seven at wave 2. Information was collected on vocabulary, grammar, verbal memory and sustained attention. At wave 1, the LI group performed weaker than the TD group in both tasks. At wave 2, the groups performed similarly on story comprehension. On story generation, the TD group still outperformed the LI group. Sustained attention mediated the relationship between group and story generation. Effects of LI on narrative macrostructure are moderated by age and task and may stem from sustained attention weaknesses. These findings have implications for using narrative tasks in educational and diagnostic settings and may direct future interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Measuring quality of life in children with speech and language difficulties: a systematic review of existing approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomersall, Tim; Spencer, Sarah; Basarir, Hasan; Tsuchiya, Aki; Clegg, Judy; Sutton, Anthea; Dickinson, Kath

    2015-07-01

    Children's and adolescent's speech and language difficulties (SaLD) can affect various domains of quality of life (QoL), and speech and language therapy interventions are critical to improving QoL. Systematically measuring QoL outcomes in this population is highly complex due to factors such as heterogeneity in impairments and differing targets during intervention. However, measurements of QoL are increasingly required by healthcare commissioners and policy-makers to inform resource allocation. To review the use of QoL measures in research involving children (age ≤ 18 years) with SaLD. A systematic review was undertaken. A systematic search across various databases was performed. Information on the methodological details of each relevant study, along with descriptions of the QoL measures employed, were extracted into standardized data extraction forms. Findings were discussed in a narrative synthesis. Twenty-one relevant studies were identified that deal with a range of subpopulations of children with SaLD. For the most part, generic QoL measures were used, although there was little convergence on the type of QoL measures employed throughout the literature. Five studies utilized preference-based QoL measures, including the 16D/17D, HUI3, EQ-5D and QWB-SA. Of these measures, the HUI3 demonstrated the most promising discriminant validity, although the preference weights for this measure were generated with adults. QoL among children with SaLD is not yet being captured in a systematic way. The HUI3 measure appears to show some promise for generating relevant preference-based QoL estimates, although further testing of the measure is required. © 2015 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  3. Psychometric properties of the Arabic self-report version of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emam, Mahmoud Mohamed; Abu Hilal, Maher M; Kazem, Ali Mahdi; Alkharousi, Suad Juma

    2016-12-01

    Students in middle school tend to display emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBDs) compared to other forms of psychopathology. Early identification of EBDs is therefore a priority in order to prevent the chronic co-morbidity with other forms of psychopathology which may affect students' academic achievement. Assessment of EBDs has been traditionally undertaken via proxy reporting; but psychometrically rigorous instruments are needed so that children and adolescents can report on their own emotions and behaviours. Such need increases in the Omani context given the lack of EBDs adequate assessment instruments. In the current study the factor structure of the Arabic self-report version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (A-SDQ) was examined in a sample of 815 middle school students (mean age=14 years). The study tested the SDQ original five-factor model which received considerable empirical support. Responses on the A-SDQ were compared to responses obtained via proxy reports from teachers and parents through confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs). Results showed a reasonable fit for the three informant forms. Nevertheless, there were differences in item loadings across the three informant forms. Additionally, participants' self-report responses were tested for invariance across gender. CFAs provided support to the invariance hypothesis for item loadings, indicating that the items were similarly valid indices of the five factors for males and females. Factor correlations, factor variances and item residuals were not invariant across gender.

  4. Cracking the Code of Press Headlines: From Difficulty to Opportunity for the Foreign Language Learner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael White

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Los materiales de prensa constituyen un recurso muy atractivo para la clase de inglés como lengua extranjera y el primer contacto con dichos recursos es característicamente a través del titular. A pesar de que el titular esté diseñado para atraer y captar al lector, muy a menudo resulta de difícil comprensión incluso para el estudiante avanzado en lengua inglesa y esto puede hacer estragos en cuanto a motivación y confianza por parte del alumnado. El artículo actual se propone combatir esta paradoja mediante un análisis estructural de titulares. Mantiene que dichos titulares utilizan pautas sistemáticas que una vez expuestas y analizadas proporcionan al alumnado las claves para su comprensión. El objetivo es doble: por un lado facilita la comprensión y mejora la motivación por parte del alumno y, por otra parte, le ayuda a dominar mejor los entresijos de la sintaxis y la fraseología de la lengua inglesa.While press materials, are widely used both as an ESP materials resource and as a research source by ESP practitioners, press headlines in English confront the Non Native Speaker (NNS and to some extent the Native Speaker (NS with a notorious paradox: headlines are crafted to raise communication potential and yet, rather than communicate, they often perplex the reader. This may be devastating for motivation on the part of the English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL student where even those at advanced level suffer frustration on failing to cope with headlines. The main arguments of this article are that headline perplexity is generated by the very communicatively driven strategies used in their configurations, that these strategies form patterns and that these patterns can be singled out and analysed in such a way as to enable the student to crack the code and thereby turn a liability into an asset, a stumbling block into a stepping stone.

  5. Phonological awareness intervention for verbal working memory skills in school-age children with specific language impairment and concomitant word reading difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungjun Park

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory investigation examined the effects of explicit phonological awareness intervention on each subcomponent of Baddeley’s verbal working memory model. Fifty school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI and concurrent deficits in word reading were randomly assigned to either an experimental (n=25 or a control group (n = 25. Children in both groups received individual traditional language intervention for four, 1 hour sessions each week for 4 weeks (16 hrs. The experimental group received an additional 20 min of phonological awareness intervention each day (5.3 hrs. Participants in the experimental group significantly outperformed the children in the control group across all verbal working memory measures. The strongest effects were found for the digit recall and word list recall subtests, which were used to assess the verbal short-term memory component of the model (i.e., phonological loop. The next largest effect sizes were reported for the subtests of the verbal working memory functioning (i.e., phonological loop and central executive. The smallest change was found on the recalling sentences subtest, which was chosen to represent the episodic buffer component. These results suggest that school-age children with SLI and concomitant word-reading difficulties in second through third grade who receive explicit phonological awareness intervention can make significant gains on untrained verbal working memory skills in a relatively short period of time which underscores the importance of phonological awareness intervention beyond first grade.

  6. Language Attitudes and Self-Reports of French-English Language Usage in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourhis, Richard Y.

    1983-01-01

    Explores the impact of Quebec language planning in favor of French on self-reports of language use in cross-cultural encounters between Francophones and Anglophones in Montreal. Results indicate that discrepancies exist between respondents' self-reports of language use and their reported experience and that motivational and normative factors…

  7. Learner Outcomes in Science in South Africa: Role of the Nature of Learner Difficulties with the Language for Learning and Teaching Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyoo, Samuel Ouma

    2017-01-01

    Paul Leslie Gardner pioneered the study of student difficulties with everyday words presented in the science context (Gardner 1971); several similarly designed studies (e.g. Cassels and Johnstone 1985; Tao in "Research in Science Education," 24, 322-330, 1994; Farell and Ventura in "Language and Education," 12(4), 243-254,…

  8. The strengths and weaknesses in verbal short-term memory and visual working memory in children with hearing impairment and additional language learning difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Suzi; Goldbart, Juliet; Stansfield, Jois

    2014-07-01

    To compare verbal short-term memory and visual working memory abilities of six children with congenital hearing-impairment identified as having significant language learning difficulties with normative data from typically hearing children using standardized memory assessments. Six children with hearing loss aged 8-15 years were assessed on measures of verbal short-term memory (Non-word and word recall) and visual working memory annually over a two year period. All children had cognitive abilities within normal limits and used spoken language as the primary mode of communication. The language assessment scores at the beginning of the study revealed that all six participants exhibited delays of two years or more on standardized assessments of receptive and expressive vocabulary and spoken language. The children with hearing-impairment scores were significantly higher on the non-word recall task than the "real" word recall task. They also exhibited significantly higher scores on visual working memory than those of the age-matched sample from the standardized memory assessment. Each of the six participants in this study displayed the same pattern of strengths and weaknesses in verbal short-term memory and visual working memory despite their very different chronological ages. The children's poor ability to recall single syllable words in relation to non-words is a clinical indicator of their difficulties in verbal short-term memory. However, the children with hearing-impairment do not display generalized processing difficulties and indeed demonstrate strengths in visual working memory. The poor ability to recall words, in combination with difficulties with early word learning may be indicators of children with hearing-impairment who will struggle to develop spoken language equal to that of their normally hearing peers. This early identification has the potential to allow for target specific intervention that may remediate their difficulties. Copyright © 2014. Published

  9. Relating aviation service difficulty reports to accident data for safety trend prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullwood, R.R.; Hall, R.E.; Martinez-Guridi, G.; Uryasev, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Sampath, S.G. [Federal Aviation Administration, Atlantic City, NJ (United States)

    1996-10-01

    A synthetic model of scheduled-commercial U.S. aviation fatalities was constructed from linear combinations of the time-spectra of critical systems reporting using 5.5 years of Service Difficulty Reports (SDR){sup 2} and Accident Incident Data System (AIDS) records{sup 3}. This model, used to predict near-future trends in aviation accidents, was tested by using the first 36 months of data to construct the synthetic model which was used to predict fatalities during the following eight months. These predictions were tested by comparison with the fatality data. A reliability block diagram (RBD) and third-order extrapolations also were used as predictive models and compared with actuality. The synthetic model was the best predictor because of its use of systems data. Other results of the study are a database of service difficulties for major aviation systems, and a rank ordering of systems according to their contribution to the synthesis. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Actigraphic and parental reports of sleep difficulties in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvolby, Allan; Jørgensen, Jan; Bilenberg, Niels

    2008-01-01

    (Fourth Edition) criteria. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Actigraphically measured sleep variables and parent-estimated sleep by diary. RESULTS: We found that children with ADHD have significantly longer sleep onset latency and a more irregular sleep pattern than the psychiatric control or healthy reference...... the objectively measured sleep variables and those reported by parents, who overestimated sleep onset latency. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study allow us to conclude that some children with ADHD have impaired sleep that cannot be referred to comorbid oppositional defiant disorder. However, it is important......OBJECTIVES: To describe actigraphically detected and parent-reported sleep problems in nonmedicated children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); to clarify whether or not comorbid oppositional defiant disorder contributes to sleep difficulties; and to compare objectively measured...

  11. DIFFICULTIES RELATED TO THE FINANCIAL POSITION REPORTING INTO THE PUBLIC SECTOR IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia ŞTEFĂNESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of a turbulent economic environment with impact on the vulnerability of the public sector entities, the stakeholders’ needs of information are focussed on the assessment of liquidities and their solvency, on the sustenability of service offerring, as well as on the capacity of the entities to answer a dynamic environment in terms of cost, quality and continuity. In this respect, the current study has as objective to identify the difficulties of reporting the financial position into the public sector in Romania. In order to reach the proposed objective, an interpretative research methodology was used. The results of this study has pointed out that the prevalence of divergences between the national view versus IPSAS in terms of reporting the financial position into the public sector limits the informational value and its relevance both for the management of the entities and their stakeholders.

  12. Self-Reported Hearing Difficulties Among Adults With Normal Audiograms: The Beaver Dam Offspring Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Kelly L; Pinto, Alex; Fischer, Mary E; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Levy, Sarah; Tweed, Ted S; Cruickshanks, Karen J

    2015-01-01

    Clinicians encounter patients who report experiencing hearing difficulty (HD) even when audiometric thresholds fall within normal limits. When there is no evidence of audiometric hearing loss, it generates debate over possible biomedical and psychosocial etiologies. It is possible that self-reported HDs relate to variables within and/or outside the scope of audiology. The purpose of this study is to identify how often, on a population basis, people with normal audiometric thresholds self-report HD and to identify factors associated with such HDs. This was a cross-sectional investigation of participants in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study. HD was defined as a self-reported HD on a four-item scale despite having pure-tone audiometric thresholds within normal limits (hearing assessments, relevant factors such as sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, environmental exposures, medical history, health-related quality of life, and symptoms of neurological disorders were also examined as possible risk factors. The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression was used to probe symptoms associated with depression, and the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 mental score was used to quantify psychological stress and social and role disability due to emotional problems. The Visual Function Questionnaire-25 and contrast sensitivity test were used to query vision difficulties. Of the 2783 participants, 686 participants had normal audiometric thresholds. An additional grouping variable was created based on the available scores of HD (four self-report questions), which reduced the total dataset to n = 682 (age range, 21-67 years). The percentage of individuals with normal audiometric thresholds who self-reported HD was 12.0% (82 of 682). The prevalence in the entire cohort was therefore 2.9% (82 of 2783). Performance on audiological tests (distortion product otoacoustic emissions and word-recognition tests) did not differ between the group self-reporting HD and the group

  13. English Language Learning Strategies Reported by Advanced Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juyeon; Heinz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate effective English language learning strategies (LLSs) employed by successful language learners. The participants in this study were 20 student interpreters enrolled in the graduate school of interpretation and translation in Korea. Data on LLSs were collected through unstructured essay writing, a…

  14. Language and reading comprehension in middle childhood predicts emotional and behaviour difficulties in adolescence for those with permanent childhood hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jim; Pimperton, Hannah; Kreppner, Jana; Worsfold, Sarah; Terlektsi, Emmanouela; Mahon, Merle; Kennedy, Colin

    2017-09-05

    Permanent childhood hearing loss (PCHL) is associated with an elevated level of emotional and behaviour difficulties (EBD). In children and adolescents with PCHL, EBD has been found to be linked to language ability in children with PCHL. The present study was designed to test whether childhood language and/or reading comprehension abilities of children with PCHL predict subsequent EBD in adolescence. Language comprehension (LC) and reading comprehension (RC) were measured at ages 6-10 years (Time 1) and 13-20 years (Time 2) in participants with PCHL who preferred to communicate using spoken language (n = 57) and a hearing comparison group (n = 38). EBD was measured at both time points by parent and by teacher ratings on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Within the PCHL group there were negative correlations between EBD scores and concurrent LC and RC scores at Time 1 and at Time 2. Cross-lagged latent variable models fitted to the longitudinal data indicated that the associations between LC, RC and teacher-rated EBD were more likely to arise from the impact of LC and RC on behaviour rather than the other way around. In those with PCHL, poor language and reading comprehension in middle childhood increased the risk of emotional and behaviour difficulties at school in the teenage years. The results suggest that effective language and literacy interventions for children with hearing loss may also bring benefits to their mental health. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  15. Speaking in their Language: An Overview of the Major Difficulties Faced by the Libyan EFL Learners in Speaking Skill

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mustafa Mubarak Pathan; Zamzam Emhemad Mari Aldersi; Ergaya Ali Gerair Alsout

    2014-01-01

    Of the four major language skills, speaking is regarded as the most crucial and central one as it enables the learner to establish successful communication in that language, which is often the main...

  16. Iranian bilingual students reported use of language switching when doing mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvanehnezhad, Zahra; Clarkson, Philip

    2008-04-01

    Teachers are often unaware that bilingual students often switch between their languages when doing mathematics. Little research has been undertaken into this phenomenon. Results are reported here from a study of language switching by sixteen Year 4/5 Iranian bilingual students as they solved mathematical problems in an interview situation. Reasons given for switching between English and their L1 language (Persian or Farsi) were the difficulty of the problem, familiarity with particular numbers or words they used habitually in Persian, and being in the Persian school or interview environment. It seems likely that these Iranian bilingual students will continue to use some form of language switching to help them understand and complete mathematical tasks in mainstream classrooms.

  17. Pregnancy hypertension and the risk for neuropsychological difficulties across early development: A brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Mark; Jenkins, Jennifer M

    2016-01-01

    Despite documented effects on fetal brain development, little is currently known about the relationship between maternal pregnancy hypertension and child neuropsychological outcomes. This brief report examined the association between maternal hypertension during pregnancy and children's social cognition and executive functioning when children were 18 months, 3 years, and 4.5 years. A community sample of 501 families (23 hypertensive mothers; 478 nonhypertensive) was recruited when children were newborns. Social cognition (including theory of mind [ToM]) and executive functioning (EF) were measured using a battery of age-appropriate standardized and/or observational tasks. Information on pregnancy and prenatal factors were measured via maternal report when children were newborns. After controlling for prenatal and demographic covariates, the presence of hypertension difficulties during pregnancy was associated with all measures of social cognition, ToM, and EF. A secondary analysis comparing the hypertension group (n = 23) to a nonhypertensive matched control group (n = 23) supported the effect of pregnancy hypertension on children's social-cognitive and EF development. Future studies using obstetrical records are encouraged based on these preliminary findings.

  18. Foreign Language Methodology Conference Workshop Reports, 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Jose M., Ed.; Whitmer, Robert L., Ed.

    This collection resulting from a workshop on language teaching methodology contains the following papers: (1) "The Role of Culture in Foreign Language Learning," by N. Brooks; (2) "Guidelines and Ideas to Boost the Enrollment in Foreign Language Courses," by L.F. Gonzalez-Cruz; "Cooking in the Classroom," by K. Boykin; (4) "Performance Based…

  19. Foreign Language Methodology Conference Workshop Reports, 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Jose M., Ed.; Whitmer, Robert L., Ed.

    This collection resulting from a workshop on language teaching methodology contains the following papers: (1) "The Role of Culture in Foreign Language Learning," by N. Brooks; (2) "Guidelines and Ideas to Boost the Enrollment in Foreign Language Courses," by L.F. Gonzalez-Cruz; "Cooking in the Classroom," by K. Boykin; (4) "Performance Based…

  20. Assessment of English language learners: using parent report on first language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne; Emmerzael, Kristyn; Duncan, Tamara Sorenson

    2010-01-01

    the first language cannot be examined directly. The information provided by the ALDeQ could be used in conjunction with other measures in order to identify children with language impairment among English language learners. The complete ALDeQ and score interpretation information are given in Appendix A. Readers will (1) have a general understanding of how parent report could be useful for assessment in a multilingual context; (2) be aware of how first language loss in minority language children could impact assessment, and (3) have specific knowledge of a particular parent questionnaire and how it can be used to assist in identifying English language learners with language delay/impairment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Positive Facet of Self-compassion Predicts Self-reported Use of and Attitudes toward Desirable Difficulties in Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura K. Wagner

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous research found that introducing difficulties and challenges during learning has desirable outcomes. With the present work, we investigated the question how the use of and the attitudes toward such learning strategies (so-called desirable difficulties are related to self-compassion, a concept that describes the tendency to be understanding and kind to oneself when confronted with negative experiences. Evidence suggests self-compassion to be linked to less fear of failing, and further to higher control beliefs and mastery goals in learning. Given that applying desirable difficulties in self-regulated learning implies increased challenges, and further, a higher likelihood to experience a feeling of failing, we expected that the use of desirable difficulties increases with levels of self-compassion. We tested this hypothesis in an online study (N = 136 in which self-compassion and the self-reported use of and attitudes toward strategies of desirable difficulties were assessed via respective questionnaires. Results of a correlation analysis yielded first evidence for our idea. Decomposing self-compassion into a positive and a negative facet showed that the positive, but not the negative, facet is positively correlated with attitudes toward and the use of desirable difficulties. Additionally, a regression analysis showed that the positive but not the negative facet predicted attitudes toward and use of desirable difficulties, when entering both facets simultaneously as predictors. Practical implications for learners are discussed.

  2. Seminar in Language and Language Learning. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Univ., Seattle.

    Collected here are ten unpublished work papers from a 1962 Seminar in Seattle, held for the purpose of evaluating the interdisciplinary needs of the doctoral candidate who is receiving special training to organize the teaching of foreign languages in schools and universities. Authors are Dwight L. Bolinger (linguistics), John B. Carroll (programed…

  3. Second language learning difficulties in Chinese children with dyslexia: what are the reading-related cognitive skills that contribute to English and Chinese word reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kevin Kien Hoa; Ho, Connie Suk-Han

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relations between reading-related cognitive skills and word reading development of Chinese children with dyslexia in their Chinese language (L1) and in English (L2). A total of 84 bilingual children-28 with dyslexia, 28 chronological age (CA) controls, and 28 reading-level (RL) controls-participated and were administered measures of word reading, rapid naming, visual-orthographic skills, and phonological and morphological awareness in both L1 and L2. Children with dyslexia showed weaker performance than CA controls in both languages and had more difficulties in phonological awareness in English but not in Chinese. In addition, reading-related cognitive skills in Chinese contributed significantly to the ability to read English words, suggesting cross-linguistic transfer from L1 to L2. Results found evidence for different phonological units of awareness related to the characteristics of the different languages being learned, supporting the psycholinguistic grain size and linguistic coding differences hypotheses.

  4. Brief report: Response inhibition and processing speed in children with motor difficulties and developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Marialivia; Leonard, Hayley C; Hill, Elisabeth L; Henry, Lucy A

    2016-01-01

    A previous study reported that children with poor motor skills, classified as having motor difficulties (MD) or Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), produced more errors in a motor response inhibition task compared to typically developing (TD) children but did not differ in verbal inhibition errors. The present study investigated whether these groups differed in the length of time they took to respond in order to achieve these levels of accuracy, and whether any differences in response speed could be explained by generally slow information processing in children with poor motor skills. Timing data from the Verbal Inhibition Motor Inhibition test were analyzed to identify differences in performance between the groups on verbal and motor inhibition, as well as on processing speed measures from standardized batteries. Although children with MD and DCD produced more errors in the motor inhibition task than TD children, the current analyses found that they did not take longer to complete the task. Children with DCD were slower at inhibiting verbal responses than TD children, while the MD group seemed to perform at an intermediate level between the other groups in terms of verbal inhibition speed. Slow processing speed did not account for these group differences. Results extended previous research into response inhibition in children with poor motor skills by explicitly comparing motor and verbal responses, and suggesting that slow performance, even when accurate, may be attributable to an inefficient way of inhibiting responses, rather than slow information processing speed per se.

  5. Characteristics, Assessment, and Treatment of Writing Difficulties in College Students with Language Disorders and/or Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Many students currently are enrolled in colleges and universities across the country with language disorders and/or learning disabilities (LLD). The majority of these students struggle with writing, creating a need to identify and provide them with writing intervention services. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) may provide this intervention;…

  6. Trajectory and outcomes of speech language therapy in the Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS): case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misquiatti, Andréa Regina Nunes; Cristovão, Melina Pavini; Brito, Maria Claudia

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the trajectory and the outcomes of speech-language therapy in Prader-Willi syndrome through a longitudinal study of the case of an 8 year-old boy, along four years of speech-language therapy follow-up. The therapy sessions were filmed and documental analysis of information from the child's records regarding anamnesis, evaluation and speech-language therapy reports and multidisciplinary evaluations were carried out. The child presented typical characteristics of Prader-Willi syndrome, such as obesity, hyperfagia, anxiety, behavioral problems and self aggression episodes. Speech-language pathology evaluation showed orofacial hypotony, sialorrhea, hypernasal voice, cognitive deficits, oral comprehension difficulties, communication using gestures and unintelligible isolated words. Initially, speech-language therapy had the aim to promote the language development emphasizing social interaction through recreational activities. With the evolution of the case, the main focus became the development of conversation and narrative abilities. It were observed improvements in attention, symbolic play, social contact and behavior. Moreover, there was an increase in vocabulary, and evolution in oral comprehension and the development of narrative abilities. Hence, speech-language pathology intervention in the case described was effective in different linguistic levels, regarding phonological, syntactic, lexical and pragmatic abilities.

  7. Early difficulties of Chinese preschoolers at familial risk for dyslexia: deficits in oral language, phonological processing skills, and print-related skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Leung, Man-Tak; Cheung, Him

    2011-05-01

    The present study examined some early performance difficulties of Chinese preschoolers at familial risk for dyslexia. Seventy-six high-risk (40 good and 36 poor readers) and 25 low-risk Chinese children were tested on oral language, reading-related cognitive skills (e.g. phonological processing skills, rapid naming, and morphological awareness), and Chinese word reading and spelling over a 3-year period. The parents were also given a behaviour checklist for identifying child at-risk behaviours. Results showed that the High Risk (Poor Reading) group performed significantly worse than the Low Risk and the High Risk (Good Reading) group on most of the measures and domains. More children in the High Risk (Poor Reading) group displayed at-risk behaviours than in the other two groups. These results suggest that Chinese at-risk children with early difficulties in reading and spelling do show a wide range of language-, phonology-, and print-related deficits, similar to their alphabetic counterparts. An understanding of these early difficulties may help prevent dyslexia from developing in at-risk children. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Psychological problems in Iranian adolescents: application of the self report form of strengths and difficulties questionnaire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the epidemiology of psychological problems in adolescents in five provinces of Tehran, Khorasan Razavi, Isfahan, East Azerbaijan and Fars in Iran.In the present cross-sectional and descriptive - analytical study, 5171 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were selected through multistage cluster sampling method from Tehran, Isfahan, Fars, Khorasan Razavi and East Azarbaijan provinces. The self-report form of Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ was used to obtain the demographic data of each adolescent. Descriptive analysis and 95% confidence interval were used to investigate the relationship between scores of the SDQ questionnaire and demographic factors.Based on the results, the highest prevalence of psychological problems in the five provinces was related to conduct problems (24%, and the lowest prevalence was related to social problems (5.76%. Also, comparison of 95% confidence interval of prevalence of psychological problems between the two genders suggested a significant difference only in emotional problems of the self-report version of the SDQ between the two genders. The result revealed no significant difference in the psychological problems of the self-report version of the SDQ between the two age's groups and between the middle and high school graduates (p≤0.05. Among the 5 provinces, Fars allocated the highest rates of conduct problems (28.4, hyperactivity problems (21.5% and overall criterion problems (17.3%; Esfahan had the highest rates of emotional problems (9.1% and problems with peers (8.1%; and Khorasan Razavi had the highest rates of social problems (7.6%.In this study, the highest prevalence of psychological problems in the five provinces was related to conduct problems, and the lowest prevalence was related to social problems. It was determined that girls have more emotional problems than boys. Also, no significant difference was found in the psychological problems of 12

  9. 学困生语言学习策略培训探讨%On Language Learning Strategies Training for Learners with Learning Difficulties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈霞

    2012-01-01

    加强大学英语分级教学中学困生语言学习策略培训,提高学困生大学英语自主学习能力是大学英语教学改革关注的热点,也是实施素质教育的一个重要内容,更是全面提高大学英语教学质量的根本途径。本文结合语言学习策略培训的理论基础,重点阐述了学困生语言学习一策略培训的必要性,提出了加强学困生语言学习策略培训的有效方法。%Strengthening language learning strategies training for learners, especially for those with learning difficulties is an effective way to improve their autonymous learning ability, which is one of the hot topics in the process of English teaching reform. Cultivating students'autonymous learning ability is not only an important part of quality - oriented education, but also the essential way to improve college English teaching. In this article, on the ground of the theory of language learning strategies training, the writer mainly emphasizes the significance of language learning strategies training for the learners with learning difficulties and suggests some effective training methods.

  10. Applicability of genetic polymorphism analysis for the diagnosis of Angelman syndrome and the correlation between language difficulties and disease phenotype

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, K; Li, Y T; Hou, M

    2016-01-01

    ...% of patients with AS. The aim of this study was to validate the clinical features and genetic polymorphisms of AS, and to discuss the relationship between functional language lateralization and the arcuate fasciculus...

  11. Perspectives of Bilingualism in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primlyn, A. Linda

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the problems faced by students in the second language classroom. It focuses on their integration of social and cultural aspects in language learning, because every language is an amalgamation of both. The author adds that the learner of a second language finds difficulty in learning the culture of the first language and it…

  12. Difficulties in Daily Life Reported by Patients With Homonymous Visual Field Defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Gera A.; Heutink, Joost; Melis-Dankers, Bart J. M.; Brouwer, Wiebo H.; Tucha, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Background:Homonymous visual field defects (HVFD) are common after postchiasmatic acquired brain injury and may have a significant impact on independent living and participation in society. Vision-related difficulties experienced in daily life are usually assessed using questionnaires. The current s

  13. Self reported behavioral and emotional difficulties in relation to dentition status among school going children of Dilsukhnagar, Hyderabad, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adepu Srilatha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral health has strong biological, psychological, and social projections, which influence the quality of life. Thus, developing a common vision and a comprehensive approach to address children′s social, emotional, and behavioral health needs is an integral part of the child and adolescent′s overall health. Aim: To assess and compare the behavior and emotional difficulties among 15-year-olds and to correlate it with their dentition status based on gender. Study Settings and Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire study among 15-year-old schoolgoing children in six private schools in Dilsukhnagar, Hyderabad, India. Materials and Methods: The behavior and emotional difficulties were assessed using self-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. The dentition status was recorded by the criteria given by the World Health Organization (WHO in the Basic Oral Health Survey Assessment Form (1997. Statistical Analysis: Independent Student′s t-test was used for comparison among the variables. Correlation between scales of SDQ and dentition status was done using Karl Pearson′s correlation coefficient method. Results: Girls reported more emotional problems and good prosocial behavior and males had more conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems, and total difficulty problems. Total decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT and decayed component were significantly and positively correlated with total difficulty, emotional symptom, and conduct problems scale while missing component was correlated with the hyperactivity scale and filled component with prosocial behavior. Conclusion: DMFT and its components showed an association with all scales of SDQ except for peer problem scale. Thus, the oral health of children was significantly influenced by behavioral and emotional difficulties; so, changes in the mental health status will affect the oral health of children.

  14. The Hamlet Application Design Language: introductory definition report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R. van Steen

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThis report provides an introduction to the definition of the Hamlet Application Design Language (ADL). ADL is a graphical-based language and notation supporting the design of parallel real-time applications. Designs expressed in ADL are based on a model of processes that communicate by

  15. The Hamlet Application Design Language: introductory definition report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R. van Steen

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThis report provides an introduction to the definition of the Hamlet Application Design Language (ADL). ADL is a graphical-based language and notation supporting the design of parallel real-time applications. Designs expressed in ADL are based on a model of processes that communicate by

  16. Helping Second Language Literature Learners Overcome E-Learning Difficulties: LET-NET Team Teaching with Online Peer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pin-Hsiang Natalie; Marek, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents and discusses results from an EFL second language literature program in which the instructional design included a team teaching scheme, blended learning practice, and computer-mediated peer-interaction. The team teaching plan used a Mandarin speaking English teacher and a Native English-speaking teacher collaborating and…

  17. Modern Languages and Specific Learning Difficulties (SpLD): Implications of Teaching Adult Learners with Dyslexia in Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Matilde; Heiser, Sarah; Arias McLaughlin, Ximena

    2015-01-01

    In modern language (ML) distance learning programmes, teachers and students use online tools to facilitate, reinforce and support independent learning. This makes it essential for teachers to develop pedagogical expertise in using online communication tools to perform their role. Teachers frequently raise questions of how best to support the needs…

  18. Culturally and Linguistically Responsive Schema Intervention: Improving Word Problem Solving for English Language Learners with Mathematics Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Melissa K.; Powell, Sarah R.

    2017-01-01

    Word problems are prevalent on high-stakes assessments, and success on word problems has implications for grade promotion and graduation. Unfortunately, English Language Learners (ELLs) continue to perform significantly below their native English-speaking peers on mathematics assessments featuring word problems. Little is known about the…

  19. Modern Languages and Specific Learning Difficulties (SpLD): Implications of Teaching Adult Learners with Dyslexia in Distance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Matilde; Heiser, Sarah; Arias McLaughlin, Ximena

    2015-01-01

    In modern language (ML) distance learning programmes, teachers and students use online tools to facilitate, reinforce and support independent learning. This makes it essential for teachers to develop pedagogical expertise in using online communication tools to perform their role. Teachers frequently raise questions of how best to support the needs…

  20. Involving Children with Learning and Communication Difficulties: The Perspectives of Teachers, Speech and Language Therapists and Teaching Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiler, Anthony; Watson, Debby

    2011-01-01

    Recent policy initiatives in the United Kingdom within the field of disability have rightly highlighted the importance of hearing the child's voice. However, it is also imperative that professionals work effectively together to enable this to happen. This study presents the perspectives of teachers, speech and language therapists and teaching…

  1. Testing Math or Testing Language? The Construct Validity of the KeyMath-Revised for Children With Intellectual Disability and Language Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Katherine T; Branum-Martin, Lee; Morris, Robin D; Romski, MaryAnn; Sevcik, Rose A

    2015-11-01

    Although it is often assumed that mathematics ability alone predicts mathematics test performance, linguistic demands may also predict achievement. This study examined the role of language in mathematics assessment performance for children with intellectual disability (ID) at less severe levels, on the KeyMath-Revised Inventory (KM-R) with a sample of 264 children, in grades 2-5. Using confirmatory factor analysis, the hypothesis that the KM-R would demonstrate discriminant validity with measures of language abilities in a two-factor model was compared to two plausible alternative models. Results indicated that KM-R did not have discriminant validity with measures of children's language abilities and was a multidimensional test of both mathematics and language abilities for this population of test users. Implications are considered for test development, interpretation, and intervention.

  2. Foreign Language Methodology Conference Workshop Reports, 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Jose M., Ed.; Whitmer, Robert L., Ed.

    This collection resulting from a workshop on language teaching methodology contains the following papers: (1) "Current Views and Principles on Unlocking the FL Treasure Chest," by R. Lado; (2) "Effective Ways of Teaching First-Year French," by J.G. Nicholas; (3) "Teaching Conversation and Comprehension Skills in Elementary…

  3. Foreign Language Methodology Conference Workshop Reports, 1977.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Jose M., Ed.; Whitmer, Robert L., Ed.

    This collection resulting from a workshop on language teaching methodology contains the following papers: (1) "Current Views and Principles on Unlocking the FL Treasure Chest," by R. Lado; (2) "Effective Ways of Teaching First-Year French," by J.G. Nicholas; (3) "Teaching Conversation and Comprehension Skills in Elementary…

  4. Solitary peripheral ivory osteoma of the mandible presenting with difficulty in deglutition: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Nilesh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteomas are benign bone tumors which arise from the cortex or medulla of craniofacial and jaw bones. They are usually asymptomatic or present as slow-growing painless masses. Larger lesions may present with aesthetic (facial asymmetry and functional disturbances (jaw deviation, difficulty in breathing, pain, and sensory deficits. This paper highlights a case of solitary peripheral osteoma composed of a compact bony mass arising from the lower border of the mandible in an adult female patient. The lesion presented with discomfort during deglutition, which was attributed to impingement of muscles of the oral cavity floor, including the anterior belly of digastric muscle.

  5. Solitary peripheral ivory osteoma of the mandible presenting with difficulty in deglutition: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilesh, Kumar; V Vande, Aaditee; K Veerabhadrappa, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    Osteomas are benign bone tumors which arise from the cortex or medulla of craniofacial and jaw bones. They are usually asymptomatic or present as slow-growing painless masses. Larger lesions may present with aesthetic (facial asymmetry) and functional disturbances (jaw deviation, difficulty in breathing, pain, and sensory deficits). This paper highlights a case of solitary peripheral osteoma composed of a compact bony mass arising from the lower border of the mandible in an adult female patient. The lesion presented with discomfort during deglutition, which was attributed to impingement of muscles of the oral cavity floor, including the anterior belly of digastric muscle.

  6. Phonological awareness development in children with and without spoken language difficulties: A 12-month longitudinal study of German-speaking pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Blanca; Stackhouse, Joy; Wells, Bill

    2017-10-01

    There is strong empirical evidence that English-speaking children with spoken language difficulties (SLD) often have phonological awareness (PA) deficits. The aim of this study was to explore longitudinally if this is also true of pre-school children speaking German, a language that makes extensive use of derivational morphemes which may impact on the acquisition of different PA levels. Thirty 4-year-old children with SLD were assessed on 11 PA subtests at three points over a 12-month period and compared with 97 four-year-old typically developing (TD) children. The TD-group had a mean percentage correct of over 50% for the majority of tasks (including phoneme tasks) and their PA skills developed significantly over time. In contrast, the SLD-group improved their PA performance over time on syllable and rhyme, but not on phoneme level tasks. Group comparisons revealed that children with SLD had weaker PA skills, particularly on phoneme level tasks. The study contributes a longitudinal perspective on PA development before school entry. In line with their English-speaking peers, German-speaking children with SLD showed poorer PA skills than TD peers, indicating that the relationship between SLD and PA is similar across these two related but different languages.

  7. Heritage Language Learners in First-Year Foreign Language Courses: A Report of General Data across Learner Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Rachel R.; Howard, Kathryn M.; Deak, Julia

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a survey of language study motivations for first-year language learners at two large private East Coast American universities. Surveys were completed by 401 students in courses for 19 different foreign languages. Forty percent of respondents were designated as heritage language learners (HLLs), and they were divided into…

  8. Testing Math or Testing Language? The Construct Validity of the KeyMath-Revised for Children with Intellectual Disability and Language Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Katherine T.; Branum-Martin, Lee; Morris, Robin D.; Romski, MaryAnn; Sevcik, Rose A.

    2015-01-01

    Although it is often assumed that mathematics ability alone predicts mathematics test performance, linguistic demands may also predict achievement. This study examined the role of language in mathematics assessment performance for children with intellectual disability (ID) at less severe levels, on the KeyMath-Revised Inventory (KM-R) with a…

  9. Prosodic constraints on inflected words: an area of difficulty for German-speaking children with specific language impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauschke, Christina; Renner, Lena; Domahs, Ulrike

    2013-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that morphosyntactic difficulties may result from prosodic problems. We therefore address the interface between inflectional morphology and prosody in typically developing children (TD) and children with SLI by testing whether these groups are sensitive to prosodic constraints that guide plural formation in German. A plural elicitation task was designed consisting of 60 words and 20 pseudowords. The performance of 14 German-speaking children with SLI (mean age 7.5) was compared to age-matched controls and to younger children matched for productive vocabulary. TD children performed significantly better than children with SLI. Error analyses revealed that children with SLI produced more forms that did not meet the optimal shape of a noun plural. Beyond the fact that children with SLI have deficits in plural marking, the findings suggest that they also show reduced sensitivity to prosodic requirements. In other words, the prosodic structure of inflected words seems to be vulnerable in children with SLI.

  10. Applicability of genetic polymorphism analysis for the diagnosis of Angelman syndrome and the correlation between language difficulties and disease phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K; Li, Y T; Hou, M

    2016-06-17

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurogenetic disorder caused by a defect in the expression of the maternally inherited ubiquitin protein ligase E3A (UBE3A) gene in chromosome 15. The most common genetic defects include maternal deletions in chromosome 15q11-13; however, paternal uniparental disomy and imprinting defects allow for the identification of mutations in UBE3A in 10% of patients with AS. The aim of this study was to validate the clinical features and genetic polymorphisms of AS, and to discuss the relationship between functional language lateralization and the arcuate fasciculus in the Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Six children with AS (mean age = 32.57 months) presenting characteristic behavioral patterns of AS (frequent laughter and happy demeanor, hand flapping, and hypermotor behavior) were recruited to this study. The patients underwent a clinical evaluation (clinical history, dysmorphological and neurological examinations, and psychological evaluations) and paraclinical investigations [genetic tests (fluorescence in situ hybridization and methylation polymerase chain reaction), electroencephalogram, and magnetic resonance imaging]. We conclude that AS diagnosis cannot rely solely on genetic testing for polymorphisms in UBE3A and must consider its clinical characteristics. Moreover, functional language lateralization and the arcuate fasciculus in the Broca's and Wernicke's areas were found to be closely correlated. Therefore, UBE3A gene mutation analysis combined with comprehensive clinical evaluations may be suitable for the diagnosis of AS.

  11. Representing Information in Patient Reports Using Natural Language Processing and the Extensible Markup Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Carol; Hripcsak, George; Shagina, Lyuda; Liu, Hongfang

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To design a document model that provides reliable and efficient access to clinical information in patient reports for a broad range of clinical applications, and to implement an automated method using natural language processing that maps textual reports to a form consistent with the model. Methods: A document model that encodes structured clinical information in patient reports while retaining the original contents was designed using the extensible markup language (XML), and a document type definition (DTD) was created. An existing natural language processor (NLP) was modified to generate output consistent with the model. Two hundred reports were processed using the modified NLP system, and the XML output that was generated was validated using an XML validating parser. Results: The modified NLP system successfully processed all 200 reports. The output of one report was invalid, and 199 reports were valid XML forms consistent with the DTD. Conclusions: Natural language processing can be used to automatically create an enriched document that contains a structured component whose elements are linked to portions of the original textual report. This integrated document model provides a representation where documents containing specific information can be accurately and efficiently retrieved by querying the structured components. If manual review of the documents is desired, the salient information in the original reports can also be identified and highlighted. Using an XML model of tagging provides an additional benefit in that software tools that manipulate XML documents are readily available. PMID:9925230

  12. Accuracy of physician self-report of Spanish language proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Anne; Wang, Frances; Schillinger, Dean; Pérez Stable, Eliseo J; Fernandez, Alicia

    2011-04-01

    As health systems strive to meet the needs of linguistically diverse patient populations, determining a physician's non-English language proficiency is becoming increasingly important. However, brief, validated measures are lacking. To determine if any of four self-reported measures of physician Spanish language proficiency are useful measures of fluency in Spanish. Physician self-report of Spanish proficiency was compared to Spanish-speaking patients' report of their physicians' language proficiency. 110 Spanish-speaking patients and their 46 physicians in two public hospital clinics with professional interpreters available. Physicians rated their Spanish fluency with four items: one general fluency question, two clinically specific questions, and one question on interpreter use. Patients were asked if their doctor speaks Spanish ("yes/no"). Concordance, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) were calculated for each of the items, and receiver operating (ROC) curves were used to compare performance characteristics. Concordance between physician and patient reports of physician Spanish proficiency ranged from 84 to 91%. The PPV for each of the four items ranged from 91 to 99%, the NPV from 60 to 90%, and the area under their ROC curves from 90 to 95%. The general fluency question gave the best combination of PPV and NPV, and the item on holding sensitive discussions had the highest PPV, 99%. Physicians who reported fluency as "fair" were as likely to have patients report they did not speak Spanish as that they did. Physician self-report of Spanish language proficiency is highly correlated with patient report, except when physicians report "fair" general fluency. In settings where no financial or other incentives are linked to language skills, simple questions may be a useful way to assess physician language proficiency.

  13. Maternal history of reading difficulty is associated with reduced language-related gray matter in beginning readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jessica M; Tanaka, Hiroko; Stanley, Leanne; Nagamine, Masanori; Zakerani, Nahal; Thurston, Alexandra; Kesler, Shelli; Hulme, Charles; Lyytinen, Heikki; Glover, Gary H; Serrone, Christine; Raman, Mira M; Reiss, Allan L; Hoeft, Fumiko

    2012-02-01

    Family history and poor preliteracy skills (referred to here as familial and behavioral risk, respectively) are critical predictors of developmental dyslexia. This study systematically investigated the independent contribution of familial and behavioral risks on brain structures, which had not been explored in past studies. We also examined the differential effects of maternal versus paternal history on brain morphometry, and familial risk dimensionally versus categorically, which were also novel aspects of the study. We assessed 51 children (5 to 6 years of age) with varying degrees of familial and behavioral risks for developmental dyslexia and examined associations with brain morphometry. We found that greater maternal history of reading disability was associated with smaller bilateral prefrontal and parieto-temporal gray, but not white matter volumes. Regressing out behavioral risk, socioeconomic status, and maternal education and other confounds did not change the results. No such relationship was observed for paternal reading history and behavioral risk. Results of cortical surface area and thickness further showed that there was a significant negative relationship between cortical surface area (but not thickness) and greater severity of maternal history, in particular within the left inferior parietal lobule, suggesting prenatal influence of maternal history on children's brain morphometry. The results suggested greater maternal, possibly prenatal, influence on language-related brain structures. These results help to guide future neuroimaging research focusing on environmental and genetic influences and provide new information that may help predict which child will develop dyslexia in the future.

  14. [Language and executive functioning skills of students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and in reading comprehension difficulties (RCD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda Casas, Ana; Fernández Andrés, María Inmaculada; García Castellar, Rosa; Roselló Miranda, Belén; Colomer Diago, Carla

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the specificity of deficits in linguistic and executive functioning of students with ADHD and with RCD and to determine the profile of deficits in the comorbid group (ADHD+RCD). Participants in the study were 84 students, ages 12-16 years divided into four groups with an equal number of subjects (N= 21): ADHD, RCD, ADHD+RCD and comparison group (without ADHD and without RCD). We measured vocabulary, oral comprehension, lexical access, verbal and visual working memory, inhibition and attention. The results show that the ADHD+RCD group presents the most important linguistic deficits, followed by the RCD group. On the other hand, the three clinical groups (ADHD, RCD and ADHD+RCD) display greater performance problems in working memory than the comparison group, whereas the two groups with ADHD had more problems in attention and inhibition. These results suggest the dissociation of linguistic and executive deficits that affect the RCD group and ADHD group to a greater extent, respectively. Lastly, the comorbid group showed deficits both in language and in executive skills. We discuss the implications of these findings for designing interventions.

  15. A functional language for specifying business reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    We describe our work on developing a functional domain specificlanguage for specifying business reports. The report specificationlanguage is part of a novel enterprise resource planing system basedon the idea of a providing a lean core system that is highlycustomisable via a variety of domain...

  16. The language of corporate annual reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo

    2013-01-01

    Corporate reports contain four distinct discourses: accounting ,finance, public relations and legal. Each recontextualizes the company's activities in distinct ways which select what actions will be represented, transform actions through the way they are worded, and add motives to actions...

  17. Behavioural/Attentional Problems and Literacy Learning Difficulties in Children from Non-English Language/Cultural Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everatt, John; Al-Sharhan, Abir; Al-Azmi, Yousuf; Al-Menaye, Nasser; Elbeher, Gad

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of studies of the relationship between off-task behaviours and measures of educational achievement. The work focused on children from an Arabic-speaking/cultural background rarely studied in the literature. The first study involved children within a mainstream school context and found that measures of literacy and…

  18. Patterns of Stuttering Comparing two Languages: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeth Hernández-Jaramillo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In bilinguals, specific patterns of stuttering in each one of the languages may be different. This study reports on the case of a bilingual adult who speaks Spanish and English simultaneously and whose dominant language is Spanish. Speech and language testing was performed in both languages. The samples chosen for the analysis of speech corpus were: spontaneous speech, de­scription of the picture and reading. Some differences in the stuttering distribution were found. Of the disfluent instants, 61.39 % of the total was presented in English and the other remaining 38.61 % in Spanish. In both languages, stuttering by word type was more frequent in function words (i.e. prepositions, pronouns, conjunctions, particles and infinitive forms than in content words (i.e. verbs, nouns, adjectives. As observed, dysfluency types were similar in Spanish and English, with the greatest percentage being word repetition, followed by phonemic prolongations. These were more frequent in English than in Spanish. Although it is possible to find similari­ties in the stuttering pattern suggesting general stuttering laws, differences associated not only with language-specific idiosyncrasies but also with the individual’s bilingualism characteristics were also found.

  19. Self Reported Childhood Difficulties, Adult Multimorbidity and Allostatic Load. A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Norwegian HUNT Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margret Olafia Tomasdottir

    Full Text Available Multimorbidity receives increasing scientific attention. So does the detrimental health impact of adverse childhood experiences (ACE. Aetiological pathways from ACE to complex disease burdens are under investigation. In this context, the concept of allostatic overload is relevant, denoting the link between chronic detrimental stress, widespread biological perturbations and disease development. This study aimed to explore associations between self-reported childhood quality, biological perturbations and multimorbidity in adulthood.We included 37 612 participants, 30-69 years, from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, HUNT3 (2006-8. Twenty one chronic diseases, twelve biological parameters associated with allostatic load and four behavioural factors were analysed. Participants were categorised according to the self-reported quality of their childhood, as reflected in one question, alternatives ranging from 'very good' to 'very difficult'. The association between childhood quality, behavioural patterns, allostatic load and multimorbidity was compared between groups.Overall, 85.4% of participants reported a 'good' or 'very good' childhood; 10.6% average, 3.3% 'difficult' and 0.8% 'very difficult'. Childhood difficulties were reported more often among women, smokers, individuals with sleep problems, less physical activity and lower education. In total, 44.8% of participants with a very good childhood had multimorbidity compared to 77.1% of those with a very difficult childhood (Odds ratio: 5.08; 95% CI: 3.63-7.11. Prevalences of individual diseases also differed significantly according to childhood quality; all but two (cancer and hypertension showed a significantly higher prevalence (p<0.05 as childhood was categorised as more difficult. Eight of the 12 allostatic parameters differed significantly between childhood groups.We found a general, graded association between self-reported childhood difficulties on the one hand and multimorbidity, individual

  20. Evaluative Language in Peer Review Referee Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortanet, Inmaculada

    2008-01-01

    Most international journals and conferences currently use the peer review system to ensure the quality of their contributions. Among the various types of peer review, the "blind" and the "anonymous" review seem to be the most common. Reviewers, or referees, usually write reports anonymously to indicate to authors what they should change in their…

  1. Self-reported difficulties with everyday function, cognitive symptoms and cognitive function in people with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laverick, Rosanna; Haddow, Lewis J; Daskalopoulou, Marina

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We determined factors associated with self-reported decline in activities of daily living (ADLs) and symptoms of cognitive impairment in HIV positive (HIV+) adults in five European clinics. METHODS: HIV+ adults underwent computerized and pen-and-paper neuropsychological tests and ques......BACKGROUND: We determined factors associated with self-reported decline in activities of daily living (ADLs) and symptoms of cognitive impairment in HIV positive (HIV+) adults in five European clinics. METHODS: HIV+ adults underwent computerized and pen-and-paper neuropsychological tests...... when assessing HIV-associated cognitive impairment in clinical care or research studies.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License 4.0 (CCBY-NC), where it is permissible to download, share, remix, transform, and buildup the work...

  2. Traveling through Languages: Reports on Language Experiences in Tourists' Travel Blogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goethals, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to gain insight into (Spanish) tourists' multilingual experiences by analyzing spontaneously written online travel diaries. Using the conceptual framework of Rapport Management Theory (RMT; Spencer-Oatey 2008), I analyze reports on the tourists' mother tongue, local languages, and English as lingua franca in order to examine the…

  3. Comment on Cameron and Cameron (2002): "children of homosexual parents report childhood difficulties".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Lowell L

    2002-08-01

    Cameron and Cameron's reanalysis of published data in 2002 indicates children being raised in a home environment with at least one homosexual parent report some negative consequences. However, a closer look at the information presented suggests (especially in the absence of control groups) that the negative consequences documented do not constitute major psychological trauma. Rather, they are more in the nature of the teasing and bullying that plagues any child who comes from a home that may be atypical in any fashion.

  4. Research at Yale in Natural Language Processing. Research Report #84.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schank, Roger C.

    This report summarizes the capabilities of five computer programs at Yale that do automatic natural language processing as of the end of 1976. For each program an introduction to its overall intent is given, followed by the input/output, a short discussion of the research underlying the program, and a prognosis for future development. The programs…

  5. Structural Equation Modeling Reporting Practices for Language Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockey, Gary J.; Choi, Ikkyu

    2015-01-01

    Studies that use structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques are increasingly encountered in the language assessment literature. This popularity has created the need for a set of guidelines that can indicate what should be included in a research report and make it possible for research consumers to judge the appropriateness of the…

  6. Hepatic angiosarcoma and liver transplant: a report of 2 cases with diagnostic difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Ayşen; Deniz, Emine Ebru; Haberal, Nihan; Moray, Gökhan; Özdemir, Binnaz Handan

    2014-03-01

    Angiosarcoma is a rare primary malignant mesenchymal tumor of the liver. The prognosis of hepatic angiosarcoma is poor with an average life expectancy of 6 months after diagnosis. Diagnosing hepatic angiosarcoma is challenging because of nondiagnostic liver biopsy or specious history and radiologic presentation. We report 2 cases with hepatic angiosarcoma which were diagnosed histopathologically in the native liver after liver transplant. One of 2 patients was lost to follow-up, and another patient died of relapsing hepatic angiosarcoma 18 months after the liver transplant.

  7. Report on BAAL "Language in Africa" SIG Meetings Reading in African Languages: Developing Literacies and Reading Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildsmith-Cromarty, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    This report describes ongoing research on reading in African languages. It draws mainly on contributions from two British Association for Applied Linguistics (BAAL) "Language in Africa" (LiA) Special Interest Group (SIG) meetings: the LiA SIG strand at BAAL 2013 and the seminar on "Reading Methodologies in African Languages"…

  8. Report on BAAL "Language in Africa" SIG Meetings Reading in African Languages: Developing Literacies and Reading Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildsmith-Cromarty, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    This report describes ongoing research on reading in African languages. It draws mainly on contributions from two British Association for Applied Linguistics (BAAL) "Language in Africa" (LiA) Special Interest Group (SIG) meetings: the LiA SIG strand at BAAL 2013 and the seminar on "Reading Methodologies in African Languages"…

  9. Vitamin D dependent rickets, diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donghi, Valentina; Di Frenna, Marianna; di Lascio, Alessandra; Chiumello, Giuseppe; Weber, Giovanna

    2011-01-01

    There are two types of vitamin D dependent rickets (VDDR) that cause rickets in children. Vitamin D dependent rickets type 1 (VDDR-I) is caused by an inborn error of vitamin D metabolism, which interferes with renal conversion of calcidiol (25OHD) to calcitriol (1,25(OH)2D) by the enzyme 1alpha-hydroxylase. Vitamin D dependent rickets type 2 (VDDR-II) is caused by a defect in the vitamin D receptor (VDR). We report cases of two African children affected by VDDR-I and VDDR-II, respectively. Establishing an early diagnosis of these genetic forms of rickets is challenging, especially in developing countries where nutritional rickets (NR) is the most common variety of the disease. A prompt diagnosis is necessary to initiate adequate treatment, resolve biochemical features and prevent complications, such as severe deformities that may require surgical intervention.

  10. Desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bjork, RA; Kroll, JF

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 by the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois. In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is underst...

  11. Morphological strategies training: The effectiveness and feasibility of morphological strategies training for students of English as a foreign language with and without spelling difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Griva & Dimitris Anastasiou

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was primarily to investigate the effects of morphological strategies training on students with and without spelling difficulties in English as a foreign language (EFL, but also to assess the feasibility of morphological strategies training in a classroom context. The intervention was piloted in the sixth grade of a Greek primary school: 23 Greek-speaking students, aged 11-12, were assigned to the treatment group receiving explicit teaching on inflectional and derivational morphemic patterns of English words. The control group, composed of 25 Greek-speaking students of the same age, attending a different classroom of the same school, was taught English spelling in a conventional (visual-memory based way. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were employed to gain insights: a pre- and post-test, an observation schedule, a student questionnaire and a teacher interview. The pre- and post-test results indicated that the metamorphological training yielded specific effects on targeted morpheme patterns. The same results were obtained from a sub-group of nine poor spellers in the treatment group, compared to a sub-group of six poor spellers in the control one. The observation data revealed that the metamorphological training promoted students' active participation and the questionnaire data indicated that students got satisfaction from their training. Finally, interview data highlighted that teachers considered the intervention as a feasible way of improving students' morphological processing skills in spelling.

  12. THE FARSI VERSION OF THE STRENGTH AND DIFFICULTIES QUESTIONNAIRE SELF REPORT FORM: THE NORMATIVE DATA AND SCALE PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alavi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:This study was performed to evaluate the normative data and psychometric properties and the internal consistency of the Farsi (Persian version of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ self-report form, as a screening tool in a community-based sample of 12 to 17 year-old adolescents of urban Tehran.Materials & Methods: In this investigation, 1105 adolescents (12 to 17 years old, selected from 250 clusters from all the 22 municipality areas of Tehran, responded to 25 questions of the Farsi version of SDQ self-report form. The frequency of each symptom domains according to Goodman's cutoff points and 90th percentile and the mean score in each subscale were determined.Results:The 90th percentile cutoff points were somewhat different from those of the previous reports. Using Goodman's cutoff points, the prevalence of symptom domains was relatively high. For example, 13.7 percent of the adolescents studied had total scores equal to 20 or more. There were significant correlations between different subscales and their constituting questions.Conclusion:Self-report form of SDQ is a valuable tool in the screening of adolescent psychopathologies. Frequency of majority of the symptom domains seems to be higher in the adolescents in Tehran urban areas.

  13. Brain Regions Underlying Word Finding Difficulties in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebuchon-Da Fonseca, Agnes; Guedj, Eric; Alario, F-Xavier; Laguitton, Virginie; Mundler, Olivier; Chauvel, Patrick; Liegeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Word finding difficulties are often reported by epileptic patients with seizures originating from the language dominant cerebral hemisphere, for example, in temporal lobe epilepsy. Evidence regarding the brain regions underlying this deficit comes from studies of peri-operative electro-cortical stimulation, as well as post-surgical performance.…

  14. Brain Regions Underlying Word Finding Difficulties in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebuchon-Da Fonseca, Agnes; Guedj, Eric; Alario, F-Xavier; Laguitton, Virginie; Mundler, Olivier; Chauvel, Patrick; Liegeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Word finding difficulties are often reported by epileptic patients with seizures originating from the language dominant cerebral hemisphere, for example, in temporal lobe epilepsy. Evidence regarding the brain regions underlying this deficit comes from studies of peri-operative electro-cortical stimulation, as well as post-surgical performance.…

  15. Asperger syndrome and nonverbal learning difficulties in adult males: self- and parent-reported autism, attention and executive problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, Bibbi; Billstedt, Eva; Nydén, Agneta; Gillberg, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    A specific overlap between Asperger syndrome (AS) and nonverbal learning difficulties (NLD) has been proposed, based on the observation that, as a group, people with AS tend to have significantly higher verbal IQ (VIQ) than performance IQ (PIQ), one of the core features of NLD. The primary aim was to assess the longer term outcome of NLD--broken down into persistent and transient forms. The present study of 68 individuals was performed in the context of a larger prospective longitudinal study to late adolescence/early adult life of 100 boys with AS. Using self- and parent-report measures, we studied the longer term outcome of the NLD (defined as VIQ > PIQ by 15 points) as regards social communication, repetitive behaviour, attention, and executive function (EF) was studied. Three subgroups were identified: (1) Persistent NLD (P-NLD), (2) Childhood "only" NLD (CO-NLD) and (3) Never NLD (NO-NLD). The P-NLD group had the worst outcome overall. The CO-NLD group had better reported EF scores than the two other AS subgroups. There were no differences between the subgroups regarding social communication, repetitive behaviour, or attentional skills. Low PIQ increased the risk of ADHD symptoms. In the context of AS in males, P-NLD carries a relatively poor outcome, particularly with regard to self-reported EF. However, CO-NLD appears to entail a significantly better outcome. The results underscore the importance of analysing the cognitive profile both at diagnosis and after several years, so as to be able to formulate a realistic prognosis.

  16. Language profiles in ASD, SLI, and ADHD.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, H.M.; Embrechts, M.

    2008-01-01

    Developmental disorders might differ in their language profiles when using parent reports. The first study indicated that school aged children with ASD have similar language profiles as children with ADHD. Both groups had relatively more difficulties with pragmatics than with structural language

  17. Language profiles in ASD, SLI and ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, H.M.; Embrechts, M.

    2008-01-01

    Developmental disorders might differ in their language profiles when using parent reports. The first study indicated that school aged children with ASD have similar language profiles as children with ADHD. Both groups had relatively more difficulties with pragmatics than with structural language

  18. MLA Report on Foreign-Language Education Continues to Provoke Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasley, Paula

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that, nearly one year after its release, the report on foreign language and higher education issued by an ad hoc committee of the Modern Language Association (MLA) is still provoking discussion about reforms in the teaching of foreign languages and the role of the association in any revamp. The debate continued at a panel held…

  19. Defining Grammatical Difficulty: A Student Teacher Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graus, Johan; Coppen, Peter-Arno

    2015-01-01

    Numerous second language acquisition (SLA) researchers have tried to define grammatical difficulty in second and foreign language acquisition--often as part of an attempt to relate the efficacy of different types of instruction to the degree of difficulty of grammatical structures. The resulting proliferation of definitions and the lack of a…

  20. Do older people with visual impairment and living alone in a rural developing country report greater difficulty in managing stairs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairi, Noran N; Bulgiba, Awang; Peramalah, Devi; Mudla, Izzuna

    2013-01-01

    Managing stairs is a challenging activity of daily living (ADL) for older people. This study aims to examine the association between visual impairment and difficulty in managing stairs among older people living alone and those living with others. A population-based cross sectional study was conducted in rural Malaysia from 2007 till 2008. Seven hundred and sixty five older people aged 60 years and over underwent eye examination for visual impairment. Visual acuity criteria were used to define visual impairment. Presenting visual acuity was assessed using a standard metric Snellen Chart of E type. Difficulty in managing stairs was measured according to a question drawn from the Barthel Index which asks "do you need help in climbing stairs". Overall, the prevalence of difficulty in managing stairs among older people in our population was 135 (18.3%, 95% CI 15.7-21.2). After adjusting for important confounders the odds ratio (OR) for visual impairment and difficulty in managing stairs among older people living alone was 5.04 (95% CI 2.27, 10.62). Among older people living with others, the adjusted OR for visual impairment and difficulty in managing stairs was 3.10 (95% CI 1.52, 6.80). In a sample of older people aged 60 years and over, those living alone with visual impairment had greater difficulty in managing stairs than those living with others. Identification of these groups of older people is useful for targeting interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of English Language Learners: Using Parent Report on First Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne; Emmerzael, Kristyn; Duncan, Tamara Sorenson

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Obtaining information on both languages of English language learners for assessment can be a challenge in a multilingual context. It is often difficult or impossible to observe a child's first language directly due to the absence of resources available in every language spoken. The objectives of this study were (1) to develop a parent…

  2. Self-reported hearing difficulties, main income sources, and socio-economic status; a cross-sectional population-based study in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Pernilla

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hearing difficulties constitute the most common cause of disability globally. Yet, studies on people with hearing difficulties regarding socio-economic status (SES, work, long-term unemployment, sickness absence, and disability pension are scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate the main income sources of men and women of working ages with and without self-reported hearing difficulties and associations with gender, age, SES, type of living area, and country of birth. Methods A cross-sectional population-based study, using information on self-reported hearing difficulties and SES of 19 045 subjects aged 20–64 years participating in Statistics Sweden’s annual Living Conditions Surveys in any of the years 2004 through 2008. The information was linked to a nationwide database containing data on demographics and income sources. Odds ratios (ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated, using binary logistic regression analysis. Results Hearing difficulties increased with age and were more common in men (age-adjusted OR: 1.42 (95% CI: 1.30-1.56 with an overall prevalence of 13.1% in men and 9.8% in women. Using working men as reference, the OR of having hearing difficulties was 1.23 (0.94-1.60 in men with unemployment benefits and 1.36 (1.13-1.65 in men with sickness benefits or disability pension, when adjusting for age and SES. The corresponding figures in women were 1.59 (1.17-2.16 and 1.73 (1.46-2.06. The OR of having sickness benefits or disability pension in subjects with hearing difficulties was 1.36 (1.12-1.64 in men and 1.70 (1.43-2.01 in women, when adjusting for age and SES and using men and women with no hearing difficulties as reference. Conclusions Hearing difficulties were more prevalent in men. After adjustment with age and SES as well as with type of living area and country of birth, a significant association with unemployment benefits was found only in women, and the associations

  3. Self-reported hearing difficulties, main income sources, and socio-economic status; a cross-sectional population-based study in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Hearing difficulties constitute the most common cause of disability globally. Yet, studies on people with hearing difficulties regarding socio-economic status (SES), work, long-term unemployment, sickness absence, and disability pension are scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate the main income sources of men and women of working ages with and without self-reported hearing difficulties and associations with gender, age, SES, type of living area, and country of birth. Methods A cross-sectional population-based study, using information on self-reported hearing difficulties and SES of 19 045 subjects aged 20–64 years participating in Statistics Sweden’s annual Living Conditions Surveys in any of the years 2004 through 2008. The information was linked to a nationwide database containing data on demographics and income sources. Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, using binary logistic regression analysis. Results Hearing difficulties increased with age and were more common in men (age-adjusted OR: 1.42 (95% CI: 1.30-1.56)) with an overall prevalence of 13.1% in men and 9.8% in women. Using working men as reference, the OR of having hearing difficulties was 1.23 (0.94-1.60) in men with unemployment benefits and 1.36 (1.13-1.65) in men with sickness benefits or disability pension, when adjusting for age and SES. The corresponding figures in women were 1.59 (1.17-2.16) and 1.73 (1.46-2.06). The OR of having sickness benefits or disability pension in subjects with hearing difficulties was 1.36 (1.12-1.64) in men and 1.70 (1.43-2.01) in women, when adjusting for age and SES and using men and women with no hearing difficulties as reference. Conclusions Hearing difficulties were more prevalent in men. After adjustment with age and SES as well as with type of living area and country of birth, a significant association with unemployment benefits was found only in women, and the associations with long

  4. Pragmatic Language and the Child with Emotional/Behavioural Difficulties (EBD): A Pilot Study Exploring the Interaction between Behaviour and Communication Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Leila; Law, James

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The relationship between mental health, behaviour and language development is widely recognized in the literature. Recent advances in assessment tools allows one to consider the role of pragmatic language skills in this co-occurrence. Aims: This pilot study aimed to investigate (1) the level of association between pragmatic language…

  5. Pragmatic Language and the Child with Emotional/Behavioural Difficulties (EBD): A Pilot Study Exploring the Interaction between Behaviour and Communication Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Leila; Law, James

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The relationship between mental health, behaviour and language development is widely recognized in the literature. Recent advances in assessment tools allows one to consider the role of pragmatic language skills in this co-occurrence. Aims: This pilot study aimed to investigate (1) the level of association between pragmatic language…

  6. Two-Way Bilingual Education: Students Learning through Two Languages. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Donna; Montone, Chris; Carranza, Isolda; Lindholm, Kathryn; Proctor, Patrick

    The report presents results of a study of elementary and secondary school two-way bilingual immersion programs that focused on the program and contextual factors affecting student learning, student and teacher language use in the classroom, and teaching strategies used to promote target language use and increase language proficiency. The study…

  7. Indeterminate Texts, Responsive Readers, and the Idea of Difficulty in Literature Learning. Report Series 4.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    Assessors of literature learning have long been concerned with the issue of difficulty and the fundamental contradictions in the term "examination of literary understanding." An alternate view of literature is that although texts are finally indeterminate, a group of them has been set aside by communities as forming a part of the communal…

  8. Resting Heart Rate Variability Predicts Self-Reported Difficulties in Emotion Regulation: A Focus on Emotional Clarity and Impulse Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeWayne P Williams

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Model of Neurovisceral Integration suggests that vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV represents a psychophysiological index of inhibitory control and thus, is associated with emotion regulation capacity. Over the past decade, growing empirical evidence supports this notion, showing that those with higher resting vmHRV can regulate and control negative emotions more adequately. However, to our knowledge, no study has previously examined how resting vmHRV may relate to everyday perceived difficulties in emotion regulation. The present study attempts to examine such relationship in 183 undergraduate students (98 female, 60 minority, mean Age = 19.34. Resting vmHRV was collected during a 5-minute resting baseline period, and everyday difficulties in emotion regulation were assessed using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS. Controlling for potential confounds (including both trait anxiety and rumination, results revealed a negative relationship between resting vmHRV and DERS such that lower resting vmHRV was associated with greater difficulties in emotional control, especially a lack of emotional clarity and impulse control, as indicated by the respective subscales of the DERS. These findings provide further evidence for the Neurovisceral Integration Model, suggesting that emotional control and autonomic regulation share neural networks within the brain. Moreover, the present study extends prior research by highlighting two distinct facets of emotion regulation (impulse control and emotional clarity that should be of particular interest when investigating the link between emotion regulation, resting vmHRV, and related health outcomes including morbidity and mortality.

  9. Family Language Policies, Reported Language Use and Proficiency in Russian-Hebrew Bilingual Children in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Carmit; Burstein Feldman, Zhanna; Yitzhaki, Dafna; Armon Lotem, Sharon; Walters, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between family language policy (FLP) and language choice, language use, proficiency in Russian and Hebrew, codeswitching (CS) and linguistic performance was studied in Russian-speaking immigrant parents and their Russian-Hebrew bilingual preschool children. By means of Glaser's Grounded Theory, the content of sociolinguistic…

  10. Research Handbook on Children's Language Learning. Preliminary Edition. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dato, Daniel P.

    This handbook serves as an introduction to the study of children's language development and as a supplementary aid in the training of research workers in the field of children's language learning. As a teaching aid, it is suggested this work be used with a film entitled "Psycholinquistic Research Techniques: Children's Language." Major chapters…

  11. Educating English Language Learners: Building Teacher Capacity. Roundtable Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Keira Gebbie; Sanderman, Alicia R.; Levy, Jack

    2008-01-01

    In the Fall of 2007, the U.S. Department of Education's Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students (OELA) established the following strategic priority: Develop policy and program recommendations to improve the professional development of English language learner…

  12. Speech and language disorders secondary to diffuse subcortical vascular lesions: Neurolinguistic and acoustic analysis. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, Gordana; Stojanović, Milena; Pavlović, Aleksandra; Stanković, Predrag; Zidverc-Trajković, Jasna; Pavlović, Dragan; Marković-Jovanović, Zagorka; Covicković-Sternić, Nadezda

    2009-08-15

    Subcortical white matter (WM) plays an important role in speech production and language processing. Most frequently, cerebral WM lesions are secondary to small vessel disease in patients with vascular risk factors. We report the case of a 53-year-old man with history of hypertension and ischemic subcortical lesions, who presented with speech difficulties and mild cognitive impairment. Language and cognitive assessment included Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, Boston Naming Test, Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, Trail Making Test A and B, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Scale for Evaluation of Perceptive Characteristics of Voice and Speech, and Multidimensional Evaluation of Speech and Voice. Brain MRI showed ischemic WM lesions and lacunar infarcts in the brainstem and right cerebellum. Cognitive testing revealed mild cognitive impairment, predominantly affecting attention and executive functions. Speech and language analysis demonstrated dysarthria, dysphonia with hypophonia, and imprecise articulation, as well as short rushes of speech, palilalia and mild subcortical dysphasia. Neurolinguistic and acoustic analysis in patients with ischemic WM lesions can provide additional information in the understanding of language and speech disturbances, and can assist in patient management.

  13. Reading difficulties in Albanian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdyli, Rrezarta; Cuetos, Fernando

    2012-10-01

    Albanian is an Indo-European language with a shallow orthography, in which there is an absolute correspondence between graphemes and phonemes. We aimed to know reading strategies used by Albanian disabled children during word and pseudoword reading. A pool of 114 Kosovar reading disabled children matched with 150 normal readers aged 6 to 11 years old were tested. They had to read 120 stimuli varied in lexicality, frequency, and length. The results in terms of reading accuracy as well as in reading times show that both groups were affected by lexicality and length effects. In both groups, length and lexicality effects were significantly modulated by school year being greater in early grades and later diminish in length and just the opposite in lexicality. However, the reading difficulties group was less accurate and slower than the control group across all school grades. Analyses of the error patterns showed that phonological errors, when the letter replacement leading to new nonwords, are the most common error type in both groups, although as grade rises, visual errors and lexicalizations increased more in the control group than the reading difficulties group. These findings suggest that Albanian normal children use both routes (lexical and sublexical) from the beginning of reading despite of the complete regularity of Albanian, while children with reading difficulties start using sublexical reading and the lexical reading takes more time to acquire, but finally both routes are functional.

  14. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...... of a company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...

  15. Science in Foreign Language Education: A Response to MLA Reports from a Liberal Arts College Spanish Program Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domcekova, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    According to the author, the Modern Language Association's (MLA's) recent publication of the reports "Foreign Languages and Higher Education: New Structures for a Changed World" and "Report to the Teagle Foundation on the Undergraduate Major in Language and Literature" concerning foreign language education has caused many of them to reexamine the…

  16. New Challenges and Opportunities. Dimension: Languages '87. Report of the Southern Conference on Language Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, T. Bruce, Ed.; Medley, Frank W., Jr., Ed.

    Papers included in this volume from a conference on language teaching include the following: "The Symposium on the Evaluation of Foreign Language Proficiency: Challenges to the Profession" (Albert Valdman); "Conversion to a Proficiency Oriented Curriculum at the University Level" (Carmen Villegas Rogers, William H. Heflin, John…

  17. Formulas in First and Second Language Acquisition. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, No. 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihman, Marilyn May

    The use of formulaic speech is seen as a learning strategy in children's first language (L1) acquisition to a limited extent, and to an even greater extent in their second language (L2) acquisition. While the first utterances of the child learning L1 are mostly one-word constructions, many of them are routine words or phrases that the child learns…

  18. U.S. Airline Transport Pilot International Flight Language Experiences, Report 3: Language Experiences in Non-Native English-Speaking Airspace/Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    MacKay, I., and Meador D. (2002). The production of English vowels by fluent early and late Italian- English bilinguals. Phonetica, 59:49- 71...U.S. Airline Transport Pilot International Flight Language Experiences, Report 3: Language Experiences in Non-Native English -Speaking Airspace...International Flight Language Experiences, Report 3: Language Experiences in Non-Native English -Speaking Airspace/Airports 6. Performing Organization Code

  19. Language and Society in South Asia. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Michael C.; Schiffman, Harold F.

    This work attempts to provide an overview of linguistic diversity in South Asia and to place this diversity in a cultural context. The work tries to describe the current state of knowledge concerning socially conditioned language variation in the subcontinent. Each of five major language families contains numerous mutually intelligible and…

  20. Working Memory and Developmental Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Lucy A.; Botting, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Children with developmental language impairments (DLI) are often reported to show difficulties with working memory. This review describes the four components of the well-established working memory model, and considers whether there is convincing evidence for difficulties within each component in children with DLI. The emphasis is on the most…

  1. Working Memory and Developmental Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Lucy A.; Botting, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Children with developmental language impairments (DLI) are often reported to show difficulties with working memory. This review describes the four components of the well-established working memory model, and considers whether there is convincing evidence for difficulties within each component in children with DLI. The emphasis is on the most…

  2. Second Language Learning Difficulties in Chinese Children with Dyslexia: What Are the Reading-Related Cognitive Skills that Contribute to English and Chinese Word Reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kevin Kien Hoa; Ho, Connie Suk-Han

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relations between reading-related cognitive skills and word reading development of Chinese children with dyslexia in their Chinese language (L1) and in English (L2). A total of 84 bilingual children--28 with dyslexia, 28 chronological age (CA) controls, and 28 reading-level (RL) controls--participated and were administered…

  3. An Investigation of Learning Efficacy, Management Difficulties and Improvements in Tertiary CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) Programmes in Taiwan: A Survey of Stakeholder Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenhsien

    2016-01-01

    In 2011, Taiwan's Ministry of Education conducted a national-scale appraisal of 92 CLIL programmes. However, we lack an effective model for examining by precisely how much improvement in the quality of the CLIL programmes will rise as a consequence of the increased language proficiency and the acquisition of disciplinary knowledge. To gain greater…

  4. How certain is 'certain'? Exploring how the English-language media reported the use of calibrated language in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Fifth Assessment Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Luke C; Nerlich, Brigitte

    2016-08-01

    This article presents findings from an analysis of English-language media reports following the publication of the fifth Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Report in September 2013. Focusing on the way they reported the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's use of 'calibrated' language, we find that of 1906 articles relating to the issuing of the report only 272 articles (14.27%) convey the use of a deliberate and systematic verbal scale. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's carefully calibrated language was rarely discussed or explicated, but in some instances scientists, political actors or journalists would attempt to contextualise or elaborate on the reported findings by using analogies to other scientific principles or examples of taking action despite uncertainty. We consider those analogies in terms of their efficacy in communicating (un)certainty. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. RELACIONES ENTRE LAS DIFICULTADES DEL LENGUAJE ORAL A LOS 5 Y 6 AÑOS Y LOS PROCESOS DE LECTURA A LOS 8 Y 9 AÑOS Relationships between difficulties of oral language at 5 and 6 years old and reading processes at 8 and 9 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fernanda Lara-Díaz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. Diferentes estudios relacionan las dificultades del lenguaje oral con las dificultades de lectura. La mayoría de estas investigaciones se han realizado en lenguas con ortografías opacas como el inglés y sus resultados no pueden ser completamente generalizables al español. Objetivo. Describir la relación entre las dificultades del lenguaje oral y la adquisición de lectura en el español como lengua de ortografía transparente, en una muestra de niños escolarizados. Material y métodos. Participaron 58 niños en dos momentos diferentes, una evaluación inicial, realizada entre los cinco y seis años de edad y otra final realizada tres años después. La evaluación inicial del lenguaje oral se realizó mediante la aplicación de la prueba Preeschool Language Scale (PSL-3 y en un segundo tiempo se evaluó la lectura utilizando la prueba Evaluación de los Procesos Lectores PROLEC. Resultados. Se observó una relación entre la evaluación del lenguaje oral (comprensión auditiva y comunicación expresiva y la lectura (decodificación y comprensión. La lectura de los niños identificados con retraso de lenguaje presenta diferencias clínica y estadísticamente significativas con respecto a los niños sin retraso, especialmente en el proceso de decodificación. Se observa igualmente un ritmo evolutivo diferente entre los dos grupos coincidiendo con la hipótesis de la recuperación ilusoria. Conclusiones. Los resultados de este estudio sugieren que las dificultades del lenguaje oral en español repercuten tanto en los procesos de decodificación como en los de comprensión. La relevancia de este estudio, radica en que se aproxima a la relación entre los componentes del lenguaje oral y la lectura, favoreciendo los procesos de promoción, prevención, diagnóstico e intervención fonoaudiológica en contextos tanto clínicos como educativos.Background. Different studies report co-existence among oral language impairments and

  6. Idiopathic chondrolysis - diagnostic difficulties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.; Scougall, J.

    1984-07-01

    Four cases of idiopathic chondrolysis of the hip in three white girls and one Maori girl are reported. The authors stress the causes why a disease with characteristic clinical and radiographic appearances and normal biochemical findings presents diagnostic difficulties. It is suspected that idiopathic chondrolysis is a metabolic disorder of chondrocytes, triggered by environment circumstances in susceptible individuals. Idiopathic chondrolysis is probably one of the most common causes of coxarthrosis in women.

  7. Language abilities in preschool-aged siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders – preliminary report

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    Ewa Pisula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD observed among relatives of people affected with autism are referred to as broader autism phenotype (BAP. Among the components of BAP are language and communication skills. Research to date on these skills amongst the relatives of individuals with ASD is inconclusive. Furthermore, limited data are available about preschool-aged siblings of children with ASD. Participants and procedure Eighty-six children aged 4 years and 6 months – 6 years and 11 months took part in the study (32 girls and 54 boys. They were divided into four groups: siblings of children with autism (S/ASD, high-functioning children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (HF/ASD, siblings of children with Down syndrome (S/DS and siblings of typically developing children (Controls, C. Communication and language skills were tested using the Vocabulary Test for Children (TSD. It was used to assess two kinds of verbal skills: receptive language (passive and expressive language (active. Results No differences were observed in expressive lanquage or receptive language between siblings of children with ASD and siblings of children with DS as well as typically developing children. In terms of receptive language and general communication skills, siblings of children with ASD scored higher than high functioning children with ASD. High functioning children with ASD displayed difficulties with receptive language, expressive language, general language and communication skills. Conclusions The results suggest that siblings of children with ASD do not display deficits in communication and language skills. It is however important to note that due to a small sample size this study should be considered as preliminary.

  8. Word-finding difficulties, verbal paraphasias, and verbal dyspraxia in ten individuals with fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, M; Rocha, A C; Giacheti, C M; Richieri-Costa, A

    1995-02-27

    Speech/language disorders are common in the fragile X syndrome. [Howard-Peebles, 1979: Am J Hom Genet 31:214-222; Renier et al., 1983: J Ment Defic Res 27:51-59; Sparks, 1984: Birth Defects and Speech-Language Disorders, pp. 39-43; Hanson et al., 1986: Am J Med Genet 23:195-206]. Verbal paraphasias have been considered a rare feature and word-finding difficulties have seldom been reported. Here we report on ten Brazilian patients who were evaluated for speech/language disturbances and found that word-finding difficulties were present in 50% of the cases, which is a slightly higher frequency than that of clear dyspraxia. We suggest, therefore, that word-finding difficulties and verbal dyspraxia can be a common feature within the spectrum of this syndrome. Additional speech findings are discussed.

  9. Rule Difficulty: Teachers' Intuitions and Learners' Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    The need for some form of explicit grammar instruction is recognised in most current approaches to second language teaching. Since the usefulness of explicit instruction is at least to some extent dependent on the difficulty of the rules that are taught, an important question for teachers is whether their judgements of rule difficulty are…

  10. Communicative Competence in Oral Language Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Rhonda; Haig, Yvonne; Rochecouste, Judith

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on a review of the teaching and assessment of oral language in Western Australian secondary schools. Results show that teachers have considerable difficulty in incorporating oral language tasks into their pedagogy because of a curriculum biased towards developing writing skills. Teachers also revealed that they do not have the…

  11. LANGUAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱妤

    2009-01-01

    @@ The word"language"comes from the Latin(拉丁语)word"lingua",which means"tongue".The tongue is used in more sound combinations(结合)than any other organ(器官)of speech.A broader(概括性的)interpretation(解释)of"language"is that it is any form of expression.This includes(包括)writing,sign(手势)language,dance,music,painting,and mathematics.But the basic(基本的)form of language is speech.

  12. Awakening the Languages. Challenges of Enduring Language Programs: Field Reports from 15 Programs from Arizona, New Mexico and Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, Mary S.; Naranjo, Tessie; Nicholas, Sheilah; Slaughter, Inee; Yamamoto, Akira; Zepeda, Ofelia

    The Indigenous Language Institute (ILI) collaborates with indigenous language communities to combat language decline. ILI facilitates community-based language programs, increases public awareness of language endangerment, and disseminates information on language preservation and successful language revitalization programs. In response to numerous…

  13. Review guidelines on software languages for use in nuclear power plant safety systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht, H.; Hecht, M.; Graff, S.; Green, W.; Lin, D.; Koch, S.; Tai, A.; Wendelboe, D. [SoHaR, Inc., Beverly Hills, CA (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Guidelines for the programming and auditing of software written in high level languages for safety systems are presented. The guidelines are derived from a framework of issues significant to software safety which was gathered from relevant standards and research literature. Language-specific adaptations of these guidelines are provided for the following high level languages: Ada, C/C++, Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Ladder Logic, International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Standard 1131-3 Sequential Function Charts, Pascal, and PL/M. Appendices to the report include a tabular summary of the guidelines and additional information on selected languages.s

  14. Early Identification of Reading Comprehension Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catts, Hugh W.; Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Bridges, Mindy Sittner; Liu, Yi-Syuan

    2016-01-01

    Most research on early identification of reading disabilities has focused on word reading problems and little attention has been given to reading comprehension difficulties. In this study, we investigated whether measures of language ability and/or response to language intervention in kindergarten uniquely predicted reading comprehension…

  15. Early Identification of Reading Comprehension Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catts, Hugh W.; Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Bridges, Mindy Sittner; Liu, Yi-Syuan

    2016-01-01

    Most research on early identification of reading disabilities has focused on word reading problems and little attention has been given to reading comprehension difficulties. In this study, we investigated whether measures of language ability and/or response to language intervention in kindergarten uniquely predicted reading comprehension…

  16. The difficulties of Slovenian high-school students in deciding on further education

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    Miha Zagoričnik

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In research we investigated the difficulties faced by Slovenian high school students when choosing a university programme. A theoretical taxonomy of career decision making difficulties proposed by Gati, Krausz and Osipow was examined with Career decision making difficulties Questionnaire which was translated into Slovenian language and adapted to the context of choosing a university programme. The questionnaire was administrated to a sample of 179 fourth grade high school students. The results showed that students in general face small to medium difficulties when choosing a university programme. They have the greatest difficulties in the fields of general indecisiveness, disfunctional beliefs, and lack of information about existing university programmes, and the smallest in the fields of external conflicts and lack of motivation. In general there were no important differences in difficulties between boys and girls. The exception was the field of lack of motivation, where girls reported fewer difficulties than boys. Determined students reported fewer difficulties than undetermined. When comparing the empirical structure of high school students' difficulties when choosing the university programme to theoretical taxonomy of career decision making difficulties, we found more differences than similarities.

  17. L'environnement pedagogique: source de difficulte dans la maitrise des habiletes phonetiques en langue seconde (The Learning Environment: Source of Difficulty in the Mastery of Second Language Phonetic Skills).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Cecile

    1984-01-01

    Research is reported that showed phonetic and phonological training to be given peripheral attention or neglected in second language instruction in one geographic area. It is suggested this neglect stems from (1) low teacher and student expectation of success in attaining a native-like accent, and (2) assumptions that a non-native-like accent will…

  18. Content-Based Persian Language Instruction at the University of Maryland: A Field-Report

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    Ali Reza Abasi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Content-based language instruction (CBI has been increasingly gaining prominence in foreign language education. There is, however, a paucity of reports on less commonly taught language programs in the USA that have adopted this approach. This paper reports on the introduction of CBI in a Persian language program at the University of Maryland. The paper begins with an overview of the most common CBI models in higher education settings. Next, a description of a particular CBI model developed in response to the program needs is presented, followed by a description of an offered course based on this model and a discussion of the views of the students, content faculty, and the language instructor. In conclusion, key considerations and the lessons learned in the process of implementing CBI are discussed.

  19. Workshop on programming languages for high performance computing (HPCWPL): final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Richard C.

    2007-05-01

    This report summarizes the deliberations and conclusions of the Workshop on Programming Languages for High Performance Computing (HPCWPL) held at the Sandia CSRI facility in Albuquerque, NM on December 12-13, 2006.

  20. Intensive Methods of Language Teaching. Reports from the Language Centre for Finnish Universities No. 33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laihiala-Kankainen, Sirkka

    This publication discusses the use of intensive teaching methods for language instruction, also known as suggestopedia ("suggestopaedy"). The theory of suggestopedia, various methods developed from the theory, and their applications are described. A description of Lozanov's suggestopedic method precedes a discussion about the various…

  1. Intensive Methods of Language Teaching. Reports from the Language Centre for Finnish Universities No. 33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laihiala-Kankainen, Sirkka

    This publication discusses the use of intensive teaching methods for language instruction, also known as suggestopedia ("suggestopaedy"). The theory of suggestopedia, various methods developed from the theory, and their applications are described. A description of Lozanov's suggestopedic method precedes a discussion about the various directions…

  2. Dyslexia and learning a foreign language: a personal experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, C S

    2000-01-01

    Individuals with dyslexia can expect to have difficulties learning a second language since second language learning builds on native language learning. The factors that have a negative impact on learning one's native language have a similar impact on learning a foreign language (e.g., difficulties with phonemic awareness, retrieving and processing linguistic information, working memory, metalinguistic explanations, stabilizing sound-symbol relationships). This participant observer report provides (1) a brief review of research on how dyslexia complicates learning a second language; (2) a description of how dyslexia has affected my educational experiences; (3) a description of personal experiences learning a foreign language between 1992-1998; and (4) recommendations for individuals with dyslexia who are faced with fulfilling a foreign language requirement and for their foreign language instructors.

  3. Systemic Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection not associated with endocarditis highlighting bacteriological diagnosis difficulties Case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volard, Bertrand; Mignot, Loïc; Piednoir, Emmanuel; de Champs, Christophe; Limelette, Anne; Guillard, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is mostly isolated in swine causing erysipelas. Human invasive infections due to E. rhusiopathiae remain poorly described and interestingly bacteraemia associated with endocarditis are a source of ineffective empirical antibiotherapy. We report a case of sepsis without endocarditis due to E. rhusiopathiae and a review of the literature.

  4. XBRL: The New Language of Corporate Financial Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Wanda F.

    2007-01-01

    In its purest form, accounting is a method of communication, and many refer to it as the language of business. Although the average citizen might view accounting as a convoluted set of complex standards, the recent abuses of data have resulted in legislation and investor demands for timely and relevant information. In addition, global requirements…

  5. Word order in Russian Sign Language: an extended report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimmelman, V.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the results of an investigation of word order in Russian Sign Language (RSL) are presented. A small corpus (16 minutes) of narratives based on comic strips by 9 native signers was analyzed and a picture-description experiment (based on Volterra et al. 1984) was conducted with 6 native

  6. VOCAL: Voice Oriented Curriculum Author Language. Technical Report No. 291.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinckley, Michael; And Others

    VOCAL (Voice Oriented Curriculum Author Language) is designed to facilitate the authoring of computer assisted curricula which incorporate highly interactive audio and text presentations. Lessons written in VOCAL are intended to be patterned after the style of informal classroom lectures. VOCAL contains features that allow the author to specify…

  7. Ancient Language as an Educational Tool: Report on an Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresky, Jeffrey

    A course in introductory Greek was introduced as part of a freshman seminar program at William Patterson College of New Jersey. The course was distinctive in that the instructor undertook to learn the subject along with the students. The goal of the course was that the students would learn something about Greek, about language in general and about…

  8. Do self-report measures of social anxiety reflect cultural bias or real difficulties for Asian American college students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Lorinda Y; Lau, Anna S

    2011-01-01

    Construal of the self as independent or interdependent in relation to others has been found to correlate significantly with social anxiety symptom ratings, raising concerns about possible cultural bias in these measures for Asian Americans. To investigate the validity of self-reported social anxiety symptoms, we examined the role of ethnicity in the associations among social anxiety, self-construal, and adaptive social functioning in a sample of 229 Asian- and European American college students. Results revealed that ethnicity moderated the relationship between self-construal and social anxiety such that interdependent self-construal was associated with higher social anxiety only for first generation Asian Americans. However, there were no significant ethnic differences in the associations between social anxiety self-reports and several measures of social functioning.

  9. Language barriers as a reported cause of prehospital care delay in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grow, Robert W; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D; Moore, Brian R

    2008-01-01

    Although anecdotal reports exist, the frequency of language barriers encountered between EMS providers and patients/families in the prehospital environment remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of EMS provider-reported perceived delays in care due to language barrier and to characterize the nature of calls involved. Retrospective analysis of the Minnesota State Ambulance Reporting system (MNSTAR) database, a mandated statewide EMS data collection tool. All EMS run reports submitted between January 1, 2004, and June 30, 2005, were reviewed to identify instances of reported treatment delay secondary to a language barrier. During the 18-month study period, 629,738 patient encounter reports were submitted to MNSTAR, of which 2,052 identified treatment delays secondary to language. The rate of language barrier care delays in the state of Minnesota is 3.3 per 1,000 prehospital patient encounters. EMS responses troubled by delays in care secondary to language barriers represent a small percentage of total runs in Minnesota. However, approximately 1,370 cases per year occur.

  10. English Language Learners with Reading Disabilities: A Review of the Literature and the Foundation for a Research Agenda. Research Report. ETS RR-09-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Jane R.; Sabatini, John

    2009-01-01

    The issue of identifying reading difficulties and disabilities in English language learners (ELLs) is a complex one. It is an area that draws on the diverse disciplines of first- and second-language acquisition, literacy, English language learning, and reading, including differences and disabilities research. This literature review aims to…

  11. Lexical Difficulty--Using Elicited Imitation to Study Child L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campfield, Dorota E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a post-hoc analysis of the influence of lexical difficulty of cue sentences on performance in an elicited imitation (EI) task to assess oral production skills for 645 child L2 English learners in instructional settings. This formed part of a large-scale investigation into effectiveness of foreign language teaching in Polish…

  12. Instrumental activities of daily living among community-dwelling older adults: personality associations with self-report, performance, and awareness of functional difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchy, Yana; Williams, Paula G; Kraybill, Matthew L; Franchow, Emilie; Butner, Jonathan

    2010-09-01

    Self-reports of the ability to engage in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) among older adults are known to be related to personality traits. However, self-reports are sometimes discrepant with performance-based IADL assessments, and little is known about personality associations with objective functionality or with poor insight about functional deficits. This study examined the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised profiles associated with (a) self-report of functional problems, (b) functional errors evidenced on performance-based IADL assessment, and (c) discrepancies between self-report and performance. Participants were 65 community-dwelling individuals ranging in age from 60 to 87 years. The results showed that self-report of IADL problems are associated with higher neuroticism and lower conscientiousness, actual IADL difficulties with higher neuroticism and lower agreeableness and openness to experience, underreporting of problems with higher conscientiousness, and overreporting of problems with higher extraversion and neuroticism. These relationships were partly mediated by age, education, and cognitive status. When unique personality associations with self-report and performance were examined, neuroticism and agreeableness, respectively, emerged as the strongest predictors.

  13. Assesment Report in the Infantile Education: a study on the argumentative language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Aparecida Colasanto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This report is an abstract of a research developed in a Master Degree, in order to analyses the argumentative language in the assesment report as a way to explain the teach-learning process. The theory of this work is based on backthin‘s language conception (Bakthin/ Volochinov, 1929, the mediator assessment conception according to Vygotsky (1930, 1934 and argumentative language conception (Carraher 1983, Koch 1984, Bronckart 1997, Liberali 2000. As it is an action research, the assesment reports were colected at São Paulo, in a Kindergarten Public School. The results showed how argumentative language helps teacher to think about its action, its teach-learning process out its comunication with parents about kids development.

  14. The reverse abdominoplasty - A report of seven cases and a review of English-language literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halbesma, Gerrit J.; van der Lei, Berend

    To date, the reverse abdominoplasty has been reported infrequently as a procedure to improve the upper abdominal wall contour. In this report, we report on our experience with the reverse abdominoplasty and on a review of the English-language literature by using PubMed to draw conclusions regarding

  15. The reverse abdominoplasty - A report of seven cases and a review of English-language literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halbesma, Gerrit J.; van der Lei, Berend

    2008-01-01

    To date, the reverse abdominoplasty has been reported infrequently as a procedure to improve the upper abdominal wall contour. In this report, we report on our experience with the reverse abdominoplasty and on a review of the English-language literature by using PubMed to draw conclusions regarding

  16. What do children aged 5 to 11 years old know about the sun and skin cancer? The practical difficulties of international collaborative research when analysis of language is involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton Bishop, J A; Collins, M; Hughes, B R; Altman, D G; Bergman, W; Breitbart, E W; de Stavola, B; Elvers, H; Gylling, F; Koopman, M; Marks, R; Martin, M; Martin, M; Murphy, G; Osterlind, A; Wetton, N

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the perceptions of primary school children about sun exposure and skin cancer, and the language they use about these issues, as a basis for the design of health promotional materials. In all, 2857 children in five European countries took part in the study and were compared with 641 Australian children participating in a similar study, since the latter have been exposed to more intensive health education about the sun. The 'draw and write' technique was used. In Europe the level of awareness about the risks of excessive sun exposure and the need to protect the skin was considerably lower than in Australia, although there was some variation within northern Europe. Amongst the European children acknowledging a need to protect the skin, the principal means of protection quoted was the use of suncreams, with inadequate awareness of the value of clothing, hats and shade. European children expressed greater approval of suntans than did the Australian children. Some methodological problems were encountered as a result of nuances in the languages involved, emphasizing difficulties in international research of this type.

  17. The strengths and difficulties questionnaire as a predictor of parent-reported diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginny Russell

    Full Text Available The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ is widely used as an international standardised instrument measuring child behaviour. The primary aim of our study was to examine whether behavioral symptoms measured by SDQ were elevated among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD relative to the rest of the population, and to examine the predictive value of the SDQ for outcome of parent-reported clinical diagnosis of ASD/ADHD. A secondary aim was to examine the extent of overlap in symptoms between children diagnosed with these two disorders, as measured by the SDQ subscales. A cross-sectional secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Birth Cohort (n = 19,519, was conducted. Data were weighted to be representative of the UK population as a whole. ADHD or ASD identified by a medical doctor or health professional were reported by parents in 2008 and this was the case definition of diagnosis; (ADHD n = 173, ASD n = 209, excluding twins and triplets. Study children's ages ranged from 6.3-8.2 years; (mean 7.2 years. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between the parent-reported clinical diagnosis of ASD/ADHD and teacher and parent-reported SDQ subscales. All SDQ subscales were strongly associated with both ASD and ADHD. There was substantial co-occurrence of behavioral difficulties between children diagnosed with ASD and those diagnosed with ADHD. After adjustment for other subscales, the final model for ADHD, contained hyperactivity/inattention and impact symptoms only and had a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 90%; (AUC = 0.94 (95% CI, 0.90-0.97. The final model for ASD was composed of all subscales except the 'peer problems' scales, indicating of the complexity of behavioural difficulties that may accompany ASD. A threshold of 0.03 produced model sensitivity and specificity of 79% and 93% respectively; AUC = 0.90 (95% CI, 0.86-0.95. The

  18. Language through literature through language: An action research report on the English 100 course at the University of North West

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    I. Butler

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article the writer surveys attitudes to the integration of language and literature in ESL/EFL teaching, noting the reservations that have been expressed about it in the past, and which still continue to linger in some quarters. Against this background he then describes the development and implementation of an integrated English syllabus at the University of North West, focusing on his current action research in teaching the first year modules. Using examples from the material he has developed for these modules, he demonstrates how the principles of language/literature integration, as articulated by writers in the field, can be translated into practice in a number of ways. Since this is an on-going project the writer presents his findings as a report on work in progress. The article does, however, conclude with a brief summary of the positive responses received from lecturers and students in response to questionnaires and surveys conducted in 2000 and 2001. A linguist deaf to the poetic function of language and a literary scholar indifferent to linguistic problems and unconversant with linguistic methods, are equally flagrant anachronisms. Roman Jakobson (in Simpson, 1997:ii I imagined how it would be like to study literature alone. This would be tough especially if English is not your first language. Just tough. (From the journal of an English 100 student, University of North West

  19. The Use of Programming Languages on the Final Project Report by Using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhartini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The development in information technology provides a lot of convenience for everyone. Academy of Information Management and Computer (AIMC students of the fourth semester, implementing the Job Training must specify the type of programming that will be used as a Final Project Report. The study assessed five types of programming language by using the approach of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP to obtain information on the programming language that has the quality or better rating than 5 programming languages is based on the parameters. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP is one way in determining or making a decision that are multi-criteria or multi-objective such as choosing the programming language for the Student Information Management at the Academy of Information Management and Computer (AIMC. Programming language based on five criteria consisting of Clarity, Simplicity, and unity; Orthogonality; Fairness for Applications; Supports Abstraction; Environment Program; and Portability Program.

  20. Measuring Difficulty in English-Chinese Translation: Towards a General Model of Translation Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sanjun

    2012-01-01

    Accurate assessment of a text's level of translation difficulty is critical for translator training and accreditation, translation research, and the language industry as well. Traditionally, people rely on their general impression to gauge a text's translation difficulty level. If the evaluation process is to be more effective and the…

  1. DIFFICULTIES EMERGING IN THE PROCESS OF TEACHING RUSSIAN STUDENTS TO MAKE A SPEECH IN JAPANESE AT THE STAGE OF THE SPEECH ORAL PRESENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Maksimenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acquiring skills of making a speech in the Japanese language as a kind of prepared oral monologue speech implies not only an ability to collect and select material, to find arguments for issue revealing, to expound the topic logically and to arrange the utterance in accordance with the main idea, but also to arrange all the material and give the compositional ending of the text, to intone the text correctly, to answer questions etc. The article gives a detailed description of difficulties that emerge at the moment of oral speech presentation made by Russian students in the Japanese language at the initial stage of education. These difficulties include the following: the difficulty of report articulation and intonation with the tempo which is normal for Japanese monologue passages; the difficulty of contact establishment with the audience during the delivery of speech in the Japanese language; the difficulty of selecting polite expressions used in answering questions in Japanese.

  2. Co-Occurrence of Linguistic and Behavioural Difficulties in Early Childhood: A Developmental Psychopathology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Johanna L.; Drabick, Deborah A. G.

    2011-01-01

    Three hypotheses have been posited as competing explanations for the comorbidity or co-occurrence of language difficulties and behavioural problems among children: (1) language difficulties confer risk for behaviour problems, (2) behaviour problems confer risk for language difficulties, and (3) shared risk factors account for their co-occurrence.…

  3. Co-Occurrence of Linguistic and Behavioural Difficulties in Early Childhood: A Developmental Psychopathology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Johanna L.; Drabick, Deborah A. G.

    2011-01-01

    Three hypotheses have been posited as competing explanations for the comorbidity or co-occurrence of language difficulties and behavioural problems among children: (1) language difficulties confer risk for behaviour problems, (2) behaviour problems confer risk for language difficulties, and (3) shared risk factors account for their co-occurrence.…

  4. Adolescent Bullying and Sleep Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon C. Hunter

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated whether adolescents who report having been bullied, being bullies, or report both being a bully and being bullied experience more sleep difficulties than children uninvolved in bullying. The study drew upon cognitive theories of insomnia, investigating whether the extent to which young people report worrying about bullying can moderate associations between victimization and sleep difficulties. Participants were 5420 adolescents who completed a self-report questionnaire. Pure Victims (OR = 1.72, 95% CI [1.07, 2.75], Pure Bullies (OR = 1.80, 95% CI [1.16, 2.81], and Bully-Victims (OR = 2.90, 95% CI [1.17, 4.92] were all more likely to experience sleep difficulties when compared to uninvolved young people. The extent to which young people reported worrying about being bullied did not moderate the links between victimization and sleep difficulties. In this way, bullying is clearly related to sleep difficulties among adolescents but the conceptual reach of the cognitive model of insomnia in this domain is questioned.

  5. Breathing difficulties - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difficulty breathing - first aid; Dyspnea - first aid; Shortness of breath - first aid ... Breathing difficulty is almost always a medical emergency. An exception is feeling slightly winded from normal activity, ...

  6. On the Learning Behaviours of English Additional-Language Speakers Entering Engineering Education in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollacott, L.; Simelane, Z.; Inglis, J.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of an inductive study on the learning behaviours and language difficulties of a small group of English additional-language students entering a school of chemical and metallurgical engineering in South Africa. Students were interviewed in their home language. While they appeared to have had a reasonable grounding…

  7. Speech-Language Evaluation and Rehabilitation Treatment in Floating-Harbor Syndrome: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelillo, Nicola; Di Costanzo, Brigida; Barillari, Umberto

    2010-01-01

    Floating-Harbor syndrome is a rare congenital disorder characterized by specific facial features, short stature associated with significantly delayed bone age and language impairment. Although language delay is a cardinal manifestation of this syndrome, few reports describe the specific language difficulties of these patients, particularly the…

  8. Profiling Language and Culture Strategy Use Patterns of ESL Student Teachers in Study Abroad by Using Self-Reported Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Anne; Wong, Ruth M. H.; Lam, Wendy Y. K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses a niche in studies on immersion programmes for English as second language learners. While studies on the impact of the experience of studying abroad are replete with reports about the enhancement of participants' language proficiency or intercultural skills, the present study investigates the types of language and culture…

  9. Two Newspapers Report the Same Event: The Language of Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopher, H.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a detailed study of two newspaper reports published on the same day and describing the same event. The study reveals (1) different attitudes concerning the need for objectivity in news reporting and (2) the complex and covert nature of the textual features through which bias is communicated. (SED)

  10. A Language for Life (Report of the Bullock Committee).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackray, Derek, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    The articles collected in this special issue of "Reading"offer a response to and elaboration of the report of the Bullock Committee on reading. An editorial introduction describes the focus and implications of the report and outlines the committee's main recommendations. Included in the discussion are the following articles:…

  11. Adopting Extensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL): A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Marivic

    2010-01-01

    In 2007 and 2008, government challenges consisted of error prone, manually intensive, and inefficient environments for financial reporting. Banking regulators worldwide faced issues with respect to transparency, timeliness, quality, and managing risks associated with accounting opacity. The general problem was the existing reporting standards and…

  12. LEARNING DIFFICULTIES: AN ANALYSIS BASED ON VIGOTSKY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane Cenci

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We aimed, along the text, to bring a reflection upon learning difficulties based on Socio-Historical Theory, relating what is observed in schools to what has been discussed about learning difficulties and the theory proposed by Vygotsky in the early XX century. We understand that children enter school carrying experiences and knowledge from their cultural group and that school ignores such knowledge very often. Then, it is in such disengagement that emerges what we started to call learning difficulties. One cannot forget to see a child as a whole – a student is a social being constituted by culture, language and specific values to which one must be attentive.

  13. Social Stress in Young People with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadman, Ruth; Durkin, Kevin; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2011-01-01

    Social interactions can be a source of social stress for adolescents. Little is known about how adolescents with developmental difficulties, such as specific language impairment (SLI), feel when interacting socially. Participants included 28 adolescents with SLI and 28 adolescents with typical language abilities (TL). Self-report measures of…

  14. Moving ahead in language: observations on a report of precocious language development in 3-4 year old children with spinal muscular atrophy type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieratzki, Jechil S; Woll, Bencie

    2005-01-01

    Benony and Benony in a recent issue of this Journal have presented new data on the precocity of language acquisition in children with type II spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), at age 36-47 months. They refer to our interim report of advanced early language development in these motor-impaired children, which covers the age period 18-35 months. Here, we provide more details of our findings and discuss them in relation to their report and our theory of the role of the procedural system in language learning.

  15. Caregiver Talk to Young Spanish-English Bilinguals: Comparing Direct Observation and Parent-Report Measures of Dual-Language Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchman, Virginia A.; Martínez, Lucía Z.; Hurtado, Nereyda; Grüter, Theres; Fernald, Anne

    2017-01-01

    In research on language development by bilingual children, the early language environment is commonly characterized in terms of the relative amount of exposure a child gets to each language based on parent report. Little is known about how absolute measures of child-directed speech in two languages relate to language growth. In this study of…

  16. Caregiver Talk to Young Spanish-English Bilinguals: Comparing Direct Observation and Parent-Report Measures of Dual-Language Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchman, Virginia A.; Martínez, Lucía Z.; Hurtado, Nereyda; Grüter, Theres; Fernald, Anne

    2017-01-01

    In research on language development by bilingual children, the early language environment is commonly characterized in terms of the relative amount of exposure a child gets to each language based on parent report. Little is known about how absolute measures of child-directed speech in two languages relate to language growth. In this study of…

  17. Detailed Analysis of Language Development of Preschool Children in ECE Program. Technical Report No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Brainard W.

    This report is concerned with the language skills category of objectives of the Early Childhood Education (ECE) Program. The Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Ability (ITPA) was the primary instrument used for evaluation of 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children in three treatment groups: (1) mobile educational facility, TV, and paraprofessional, (2) TV…

  18. Reading, Reporting, and Repast: Three R's for Co-Constructing Language and Literacy Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Diane E.; And Others

    This study examined the relationship between early language measures and kindergarten literacy measures for children from 40 low-income families. Early literacy measures were based on conversations between mother and child during a book-reading session; the child's report of an event as elicited by the mother; and mealtime. Conversations were…

  19. Convergences and Transdisciplinarity in the Foreign Language Department: A Response to the MLA Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gala, Candelas

    2008-01-01

    This paper takes a specific university Department of Romance Languages as a case study to examine how the measures it adopted in view of increasing enrollment in Spanish in the nineties coincide with the recommendations in the MLA's 2007 report; it also examines how they have fared after some 12 years of implementation, advances explanations for…

  20. The power of language in corporate financial reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darina Slattery

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Financial information is extremely valuable to investors and other interested parties. This information, which can be qualitative or quantitative in nature, can be analyzed and subsequently used to try to predict future share prices and/or determine market sentiment. Financial writers need to bear this in mind when writing reports, as their message(s could be interpreted in unexpected ways and this could cause undesirable market reactions. In this article, I provide an overview of some studies that examined the writing style and tone of financial reports. I also provide an overview of some studies that examined the use of positive and negative words in financial reports. I conclude with reference to some recent studies that involved the automatic analysis and classification of financial content. Whilst the success of automated tools has been limited, to a certain extent, tools are being used increasingly to assist with the daunting task of interpreting complicated and lengthy financial documents. Once these tools improve, it will not be so easy for financial writers to disguise bad news in the midst of good news.

  1. Beyond Subgroup Reporting: English Language Learners with Disabilities in 2002-2003 Online State Assessment Reports. ELLs with Disabilities Report 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albus, Deb; Thurlow, Martha

    2005-01-01

    Although No Child Left Behind legislation does not require states to report enrollment, participation and performance data for English language learners (ELLs) with disabilities either online or in print-based reports, there is increasing interest in the academic success of this subgroup of students, estimated at about 357,325 nationwide (Zehler,…

  2. Residents in difficulty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; O'Neill, Lotte; Hansen, Dorthe Høgh;

    2016-01-01

    Background The majority of studies on prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty have been conducted in English-speaking countries and the existing literature may not reflect the prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in other parts of the world such as the Scand......Background The majority of studies on prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty have been conducted in English-speaking countries and the existing literature may not reflect the prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in other parts of the world...... such as the Scandinavian countries, where healthcare systems are slightly different. The aim of this study was to examine prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in one out of three postgraduate medical training regions in Denmark, and to produce both a quantifiable overview and in-depth understanding...

  3. Residents in difficulty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette K.; O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg; Hansen, Dorthe H.;

    2016-01-01

    Background The majority of studies on prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty have been conducted in English-speaking countries and the existing literature may not reflect the prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in other parts of the world such as the Scand......Background The majority of studies on prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty have been conducted in English-speaking countries and the existing literature may not reflect the prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in other parts of the world...... of the topic. Methods We performed a mixed methods study. All regional residency program directors (N = 157) were invited to participate in an e-survey about residents in difficulty. Survey data were combined with database data on demographical characteristics of the background population (N = 2399...

  4. Information System Constraint Language (ISyCL) Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    Mayer 871, and IDEFIx [DACOM 85], since there is no need to repeat here the information in those excellent texts. ISyCL Technical Report 5 Final...structures used to dc.sciihc ,owntraints on an IDEF3 process description would he different than tthose used to add con-sLraints to an IDEFIx data model...probably using tags and other user-supplied aids. For example, an IDEFI entity class might map to an IDEFIx entity, but the modeler would have to

  5. Is hemispheric language dominance relevant in musical hallucinations? Two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Stefan; Ellger, Tanja; Ringelstein, Erich B; Knecht, Stefan

    2002-12-01

    It has been suggested that musical hallucinations are often due to a focal brain lesion predominantly of right hemispheric pathologies. We report about two patients with musical hallucinations associated with a brain tumor of the right hemisphere. Although both patients were right-handed, one of them had a right hemispheric dominance for language as proven by the Wada test. The musical ability as measured by the Seashore test was not impaired. We conclude that the language dominance of the hemisphere is not primarily relevant for the development of musical hallucinations.

  6. The agreement between parent-reported and directly measured child language and parenting behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon K Bennetts

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Parenting behaviors are commonly targeted in early interventions to improve children’s language development. Accurate measurement of both parenting behaviors and children’s language outcomes is thus crucial for sensitive assessment of intervention outcomes. To date, only a small number of studies have compared parent-reported and directly measured behaviors, and these have been hampered by small sample sizes and inaccurate statistical techniques, such as correlations. The Bland-Altman Method and Reduced Major Axis regression represent more reliable alternatives because they allow us to quantify fixed and proportional bias between measures. In this study, we draw on data from two Australian early childhood cohorts (N= 201 parents and slow-to-talk toddlers aged 24 months; and N=218 parents and children aged 6-36 months experiencing social adversity to (1 examine agreement and quantify bias between parent-reported and direct measures, and (2 to determine socio-demographic predictors of the differences between parent-reported and direct measures. Measures of child language and parenting behaviors were collected from parents and their children. Our findings support the utility of the Bland-Altman Method and Reduced Major Axis regression in comparing measurement methods. Results indicated stronger agreement between parent-reported and directly measured child language, and poorer agreement between measures of parenting behaviors. Child age was associated with difference scores for child language; however the direction varied for each cohort. Parents who rated their child’s temperament as more difficult tended to report lower language scores on the parent questionnaire, compared to the directly measured scores. Older parents tended to report lower parenting responsiveness on the parent questionnaire, compared to directly measured scores. Finally, speaking a language other than English was associated with less responsive parenting behaviors on the

  7. The Agreement between Parent-Reported and Directly Measured Child Language and Parenting Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetts, Shannon K; Mensah, Fiona K; Westrupp, Elizabeth M; Hackworth, Naomi J; Reilly, Sheena

    2016-01-01

    Parenting behaviors are commonly targeted in early interventions to improve children's language development. Accurate measurement of both parenting behaviors and children's language outcomes is thus crucial for sensitive assessment of intervention outcomes. To date, only a small number of studies have compared parent-reported and directly measured behaviors, and these have been hampered by small sample sizes and inaccurate statistical techniques, such as correlations. The Bland-Altman Method and Reduced Major Axis regression represent more reliable alternatives because they allow us to quantify fixed and proportional bias between measures. In this study, we draw on data from two Australian early childhood cohorts (N = 201 parents and slow-to-talk toddlers aged 24 months; and N = 218 parents and children aged 6-36 months experiencing social adversity) to (1) examine agreement and quantify bias between parent-reported and direct measures, and (2) to determine socio-demographic predictors of the differences between parent-reported and direct measures. Measures of child language and parenting behaviors were collected from parents and their children. Our findings support the utility of the Bland-Altman Method and Reduced Major Axis regression in comparing measurement methods. Results indicated stronger agreement between parent-reported and directly measured child language, and poorer agreement between measures of parenting behaviors. Child age was associated with difference scores for child language; however, the direction varied for each cohort. Parents who rated their child's temperament as more difficult tended to report lower language scores on the parent questionnaire, compared to the directly measured scores. Older parents tended to report lower parenting responsiveness on the parent questionnaire, compared to directly measured scores. Finally, speaking a language other than English was associated with less responsive parenting behaviors on the videotaped

  8. Between-Word Processes in Children with Speech Difficulties: Insights from a Usage-Based Approach to Phonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    There are some children with speech and/or language difficulties who are significantly more difficult to understand in connected speech than in single words. The study reported here explores the between-word behaviours of three such children, aged 11;8, 12;2 and 12;10. It focuses on whether these patterns could be accounted for by lenition, as…

  9. Between-Word Processes in Children with Speech Difficulties: Insights from a Usage-Based Approach to Phonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    There are some children with speech and/or language difficulties who are significantly more difficult to understand in connected speech than in single words. The study reported here explores the between-word behaviours of three such children, aged 11;8, 12;2 and 12;10. It focuses on whether these patterns could be accounted for by lenition, as…

  10. Alternatives in the Second-Year Language Courses: A Report for the Departments of Foreign Languages at SUNY/Buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, Anthony; And Others

    A series of discussions among members of the language departments at SUNY/Buffalo was held to examine ways of improving language teaching methodology in the college, particularly at the second-year level. The suggestions resulting from these meetings are offered as a practical response to the decreased enrollment in language courses. The…

  11. A Comparison of Innovative Training Techniques at the Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center. Research Report 1426.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Brian J.

    A study evaluated the comparative training effectiveness of three language instruction methods: (1) suggestopedia, (2) the standard methodology used at the Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center, a functional skill-building approach, and (3) a flexible-scheduling version of the standard methodology, with pacing based on group…

  12. Renal Cell Carcinoma in A Patient with Kartagener Syndrome: First Case Report in English Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkin Sağlam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac and pulmonary anomalies are common among patients with situs inversus totalis. Renal anomalies, including renal agenesis, dysplasia, hypoplasia, ectopia, polycystic kidney, and horseshoe kidney have been reported. We report a case of renal cell carcinoma in a patient with situs inversus totalis (SIT. Our case represents the fourth case report of renal cell carcinoma in a patient with situs inversus totalis and to the best of our knowledge this is the first report in English language. Due to the higher frequency of cardiac, pulmonary, renal, and vascular anomalies the management of patients with situs inversus and urologic disease requires careful preoperative evaluation.

  13. Applying natural language processing toolkits to electronic health records - an experience report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Neil; Weber-Jahnke, Jens H

    2009-01-01

    A natural language challenge devised by Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) was to analyze free-text health data to construct a multi-class, multi-label classification system focused on obesity and its co-morbidities. This report presents a case study in which a natural language processing (NLP) toolkit, called NLTK, was used in the challenge. This report provides a brief review of NLP in the context of EHR applications, briefly surveys and contrasts some existing NLP toolkits, and reports on our experiences with the i2b2 case study. Our efforts uncovered issues including the lack of human annotated physician notes for use as NLP training data, differences between conventional free-text and medical notes, and potential hardware and software limitations affecting future projects.

  14. The Social Perception of Heroes and Murderers: Effects of Gender-Inclusive Language in Media Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Karolina; Littwitz, Cindy; Sczesny, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    The way media depict women and men can reinforce or diminish gender stereotyping. Which part does language play in this context? Are roles perceived as more gender-balanced when feminine role nouns are used in addition to masculine ones? Research on gender-inclusive language shows that the use of feminine-masculine word pairs tends to increase the visibility of women in various social roles. For example, when speakers of German were asked to name their favorite "heroine or hero in a novel," they listed more female characters than when asked to name their favorite "hero in a novel." The research reported in this article examines how the use of gender-inclusive language in news reports affects readers' own usage of such forms as well as their mental representation of women and men in the respective roles. In the main experiment, German participants (N = 256) read short reports about heroes or murderers which contained either masculine generics or gender-inclusive forms (feminine-masculine word pairs). Gender-inclusive forms enhanced participants' own usage of gender-inclusive language and this resulted in more gender-balanced mental representations of these roles. Reading about "heroines and heroes" made participants assume a higher percentage of women among persons performing heroic acts than reading about "heroes" only, but there was no such effect for murderers. A post-test suggested that this might be due to a higher accessibility of female exemplars in the category heroes than in the category murderers. Importantly, the influence of gender-inclusive language on the perceived percentage of women in a role was mediated by speakers' own usage of inclusive forms. This suggests that people who encounter gender-inclusive forms and are given an opportunity to use them, use them more themselves and in turn have more gender-balanced mental representations of social roles.

  15. The social perception of heroes and murderers: Effects of gender-inclusive language in media reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina eHansen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The way media depict women and men can reinforce or diminish gender stereotyping. Which part does language play in this context? Are roles perceived as more gender-balanced when feminine role nouns are used in addition to masculine ones? Research on gender-inclusive language shows that the use of feminine-masculine word pairs tends to increase the visibility of women in various social roles. For example, when speakers of German were asked to name their favorite heroine or hero in a novel, they listed more female characters than when asked to name their favorite hero in a novel. The research reported in this paper examines how the use of gender-inclusive language in news reports affects readers’ own usage of such forms as well as their mental representation of women and men in the respective roles. In the main experiment, German participants (N = 256 read short reports about heroes or murderers which contained either masculine generics or gender-inclusive forms (feminine-masculine word pairs. Gender-inclusive forms enhanced participants’ own usage of gender-inclusive language and this resulted in more gender-balanced mental representations of these roles. Reading about heroines and heroes made participants assume a higher percentage of women among persons performing heroic acts than reading about heroes only, but there was no such effect for murderers. A post-test suggested that this might be due to a higher accessibility of female exemplars in the category heroes than in the category murderers. Importantly, the influence of gender-inclusive language on the perceived percentage of women in a role was mediated by speakers’ own usage of inclusive forms. This suggests that people who encounter gender-inclusive forms and are given an opportunity to use them, use them more themselves and in turn have more gender-balanced mental representations of social roles.

  16. Assessing recall in mothers' retrospective reports: concerns over children's speech and language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Ginny; Miller, Laura L; Ford, Tamsin; Golding, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Retrospective recall about children's symptoms is used to establish early developmental patterns in clinical practice and is also utilised in child psychopathology research. Some studies have indicated that the accuracy of retrospective recall is influenced by life events. Our hypothesis was that an intervention: speech and language therapy, would adversely affect the accuracy of parent recall of early concerns about their child's speech and language development. Mothers (n = 5,390) reported on their child's speech development (child male to female ratio = 50:50) when their children were aged 18 or 30 months, and also reported on these early concerns retrospectively, 10 years later, when their children were 13 years old. Overall reliability of retrospective recall was good, 86 % of respondents accurately recalling their earlier concerns. As hypothesised, however, the speech and language intervention was strongly associated with inaccurate retrospective recall about concerns in the early years (Relative Risk Ratio = 19.03; 95 % CI:14.78-24.48). Attendance at speech therapy was associated with increased recall of concerns that were not reported at the time. The study suggests caution is required when interpreting retrospective reports of abnormal child development as recall may be influenced by intervening events.

  17. Cultural Discrepancies Multiply Difficulties in Translating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨姝

    2016-01-01

    Translators always face dilemmas while translating source text into target text. Whether the language form is more im-portant than the real underlying meaning is constantly a controversial issue in translation. In practice, to keep the target text in the same genre and form as the source text and accurately render the original meaning from the author is highly difficult, espe-cially in literature translation. Therefore, previous research regarding difficulties in translating various languages in diverse cul-tures are to be reviewed, followed by a more specific context in which literature translations from Chinese to English and Eng-lish to Chinese are analyzed. Difficulties exposed in these translations are dealt with by experienced translators who employ vari-ous strategies. How effective these translations are in transmitting the original source language in both form and other functions are then evaluated. Moreover, the impacts that culture have on translation are further discussed. It comes to conclude that transla-tors may apply effective methods to minimize the gap between source language and target language, despite being unable to ex-actly render the meaning and form of the source text, especially when over one source language is involved.

  18. Special Operations Forces Language And Culture Needs Assessment Project: Participation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    French & Spanish Portuguese & Spanish NSWG-1 Coronado, CA 5 Italian, Spanish, & Tagalog Arabic, French, Spanish, & Visayan NSWG-2 Little Creek, VA 5...Cambodian • Cantonese • Cebuano Visayan • Chinese • Chinese Mandarin • Czech • Dutch • Farsi • Filipino • French • German • Haitian Creole SOF...Ukrainian • Visayan (Hiligaynon) • Working on Italian SOF Language and Culture Needs Assessment Project Participation Report 2/25/10

  19. A Field Study in the Application of CONSULT-I to the Problem of Inconsistency in Diagnosis and Treatment of Reading Difficulties. Proffitt Grant Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Anabel P.; Metz, Elizabeth

    A field study tested the application of the CONSULT-I (R) program, which uses artificial intelligence with statistical pattern recognition in constructing a diagnosis and recommending treatment of reading difficulties. Participants in the field study came from 10 southern and central Indiana school districts, both public and parochial, and one…

  20. Self and Informant Reports of Mental Health Difficulties among Adults with Autism Findings from a Long-Term Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Philippa; Howlin, Patricia; Savage, Sarah; Bolton, Patrick; Rutter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Data on psychiatric problems in adults with autism are inconsistent, with estimated rates ranging from around 25% to over 75%. We assessed difficulties related to mental health in 58 adults with autism (10 females, 48 males; mean age 44?years) whom we have followed over four decades. All were of average non-verbal intelligence quotient when…

  1. Subjective word-finding difficulty reduces engagement in social leisure activities in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Meagan T; Zahodne, Laura B; Stern, Yaakov; Dorrejo, Jhedy; Yeung, Philip; Cosentino, Stephanie

    2014-06-01

    To assess the influence of subjective word-finding difficulty on degree of engagement in social leisure activities among individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Analysis of data collected from the second cohort of the Multicenter Study of Predictors of Disease Course in Alzheimer's disease. Four study sites in the United States and France. Individuals diagnosed with mild to moderate AD (N = 236). On separate questionnaires, participants were asked to 1) report whether they had trouble finding the right word when speaking (subjective word-finding difficulty) and 2) rate their frequency and enjoyment of social and nonsocial leisure activities. Objective language measures included object naming and verbal fluency. Measures of dependence, depression, cognitive status, age, sex, and education were also included as covariates in regression analyses. Fifty-two percent of the sample reported word-finding difficulty, and subjective complaints were correlated with poorer verbal fluency scores. Subjective word-finding difficulty was selectively related to social but not nonsocial activity measures. Endorsers of word-finding difficulty reported less frequency and enjoyment of social leisure activities, controlling for effects of covariates and objective word-finding ability. In contrast, lower engagement in nonsocial activities was associated with older age and higher depression scores but not with word-finding complaints. Caregivers' reports of study participants' activities corroborated these results. Individuals with AD who are aware of increasing word-finding failures are less likely to participate in and enjoy socially oriented leisure activities. This finding may have significant implications for clinical and health outcomes in AD. Failure to evaluate subjective language complaints could result in social withdrawal symptoms, threatening the individual's quality of life and increasing caregiver burden. Reduced social interaction may ultimately exacerbate language

  2. Succeeding with English Language Learners: Lessons from the Great City Schools. A Report Summary. The Informed Educator Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Research Service, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In its recent 68-page report, "Succeeding With English Language Learners-Lessons From the Great City Schools," the Council of Great City Schools discusses findings from a study designed to identify district-level policies and strategies associated with improvements in English Language Learner (ELL) student achievement. This "Informed Educator"…

  3. First Language of Examinees and Its Relationship to Differential Item Functioning. Research Report. ETS RR-09-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharay, Sandip; Dorans, Neil J.; Liang, Longjuan

    2009-01-01

    To ensure fairness, it is important to better understand the relationship of language proficiency to standard psychometric analysis procedures. This paper examines how results of differential item functioning (DIF) analysis are affected by an increase in the proportion of examinees who report that English is not their first language in the…

  4. A Team Approach to Training Early Intervention and Preschool Personnel in Speech-Language Pathology, 1998-2000. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Jose State Univ., CA.

    This final report discusses the activities and outcomes of a project designed to train specialists to work collaboratively across settings to improve the outcomes of young children with language and learning disabilities. It provided education for trainees that led to a Masters degree in speech-language pathology with a specialty in early…

  5. The Relationship between International Trade & Linguistic Competence (Report to the Australian Advisory Council on Languages and Multicultural Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, John; And Others

    A study of the importance of foreign language skills to the success of Australia's business and industry in exporting to non-English-speaking countries is reported. The study has three parts. The first describes a telephone survey of 50 Australian companies requesting information on crucial factors in export marketing and employee language needs,…

  6. NEW CONTRIBUTIONS TO READING DIFFICULTIES INTERVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VÍCTOR SANTIUSTE BERMEJO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a synthesis of the intervention programs and strategies to treat reading difficulties. The synthesisincludes a review of the last published articles on the issue, both in Spanish and English. It also presents the visits todifferent Language Rehabilitation Centers in the Community of Madrid including the approaches applied in thesecenters. Besides the description of the general intervention strategies applied to reading problems, some of theprograms to treat specific difficulties of words decoding and recognizing are explained, and the programs to treatreading comprehension and fluidity.

  7. Review guidelines for software languages for use in nuclear power plant safety systems: Final report. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht, M.; Decker, D.; Graff, S.; Green, W.; Lin, D.; Dinsmore, G.; Koch, S. [SoHaR, Inc., Beverly Hills, CA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Guidelines for the programming and auditing of software written in high level languages for safety systems are presented. The guidelines are derived from a framework of issues significant to software safety which was gathered from relevant standards and research literature. Language-specific adaptations of these guidelines are provided for the following high level languages: Ada83 and Ada95; C and C++; International Electrochemical Commission (IEC) Standard 1131-3 Ladder Logic, Sequential Function Charts, Structured Text, and Function Block Diagrams; Pascal; and PL/M. Appendices to the report include a tabular summary of the guidelines and additional information on selected languages.

  8. Learner's Learning Experiences & Difficulties towards (ESL) among UKM Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maarof, Nooreiny; Munusamy, Indira Malani A/P

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the learners learning experiences and difficulties of ESL among the UKM undergraduates. This study will be focusing on identifying the factors behind Malaysian undergraduate's experiences and also their difficulties in the English as Second Language (ESL) classroom. This paper discusses some of the issues of English…

  9. Word Difficulty and Learning among Native Arabic Learners of EFL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masrai, Ahmed; Milton, James

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates word difficulty and learning among learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) in Saudi Arabia. Difficulty factors examined in the study include repetition of words in learners' EFL textbooks, word length and parts of speech, and adds a further consideration which is underexplored in the literature; word translation…

  10. Difficulties and solutions of learning Icelandic for foreigners

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Soffía Yujing, 1989-

    2012-01-01

    This thesis mainly focuses on difficulties in learning Icelandic, as well as analyzing and suggesting measures for improvements of these difficulties. Icelandic is a hard language to learn and many foreigners have encountered great difficulties in the learning process. The syntax of Icelandic is unique and complex, take the nouns for example, this part of speech can be divided into three genders, each with very complex transformations. Icelandic pronunciation of some letters is unusual, an...

  11. Mathematical Difficulties and ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucangeli, Daniela; Cabrele, Silvia

    2006-01-01

    Most of the research on academics and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has focused on reading disorders in children with ADHD rather than difficulties in mathematics. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of studies focusing on students with attention deficit disorders with or without hyperactivity and 1 area of…

  12. Raising aspirations: increasing the participation of students with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (Social Communication Difficulties) in Higher Education: report of the HEFCE strand two disability ASPIHE project

    OpenAIRE

    Blamires, M.; Gee, S; HEFCE strand two disability

    2002-01-01

    The Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) funded a Social Communication and Understanding Project in Higher Education (ASPIHE) for a period of two years during 2000-2002. This was a strand two disability project, which aimed to promote and disseminate existing expertise and good practice across the higher education community. The focus was on support for students in higher education who have difficulties in social understanding and communication. This largely consists of studen...

  13. Reintegration Difficulty of Military Couples Following Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    characteristics, and difficulty with reintegration . Our recruitment procedures were so successful that we are working to double our sample to take...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-2-0131 TITLE: Reintegration Difficulty of Military Couples Following Deployment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Leanne K...TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE July 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1July2014 - 30June2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Reintegration

  14. Literary Language in Development of L2 Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Lu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is believed that language in daily communication rather than literary language should be the target of learning in L2 education. This is mainly because literary language is said to be uncommon in life. This paper reports on a study in which some Hong Kong ESL learners’ English proficiency was re-examined through literary texts. These learners had reached intermediate or advanced levels of English prior to the study and were generally competent in daily English. However, many of them encountered difficulty in understanding literary language. Their proficiency in general English test could not match their performances in understanding literary works. The findings reveal that learners who are strong in general proficiency may not be good in understanding literary language. Lack of literary language in the curriculum results in a false and distorted picture about the learners’ proficiency. Literary language helps upgrade L2 learners’ real proficiency in the target language.

  15. Children with Communication Difficulties in Mainstream Science Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellington, Wendy; Wellington, Jerry

    2002-01-01

    Speculates on the number of pupils with speech and language impairments that are present in mainstream classes and therefore the extent to which such difficulties will pose a challenge to science teachers in mainstream schools. Highlights and discusses the main barriers and challenges that language, communication, and interaction difficulties…

  16. End-digits preference for self-reported height depends on language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, Matthias; Faeh, David

    2008-09-30

    When individuals report figures, they often prefer to round to specific end-digits (e.g. zero). Such preference has been found in reports of body weight, cigarette consumption or blood pressure measurements. Very little is known about self-reported body height. End-digit preference can distort estimates of prevalence and other statistical parameters. This study examines end-digit preference for self-reported height and how it relates with sex, age, educational level or cultural affiliation. We analysed reports of height of 47,192 individuals (aged 15 years or older) living in Switzerland and participating in one of the three population-based Swiss Health Surveys carried out in 1992/93, 1997 and 2002 respectively. Digit preferences were analysed by sex, age group, educational level, survey, smoking status, interview language (only for Swiss nationals) and nationality. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval were calculated by using multivariate logistic regression. Italian and French nationals (44.1% and 40.6%) and Italian and French Swiss (39.6% and 35.3%) more strongly preferred zero and five than Germans and German Swiss (29.2% and 30.3%). Two, four, six and eight were more popular in Germans and German Swiss (both 44.4%). Compared to German Swiss (OR = 1), for the end-digits zero and five, the OR were 1.50 (1.38-1.63) for Italian Swiss and 1.24 (1.18-1.30) for French Swiss; 1.73 (1.58-1.89) for Italian nationals and 1.61 (1.33-1.95) for French nationals. The end-digits two, four, six and eight showed an opposite pattern. Different preferences for end-digits depending on language and nationality could be observed consistently in all three national health surveys. The patterns were strikingly similar in Swiss and foreign nationals speaking the same language, suggesting that preferences were specific to language rather than to nationality. Taking into account rounding preferences could allow more valid comparisons in analyses of self-reported data

  17. End-digits preference for self-reported height depends on language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faeh David

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When individuals report figures, they often prefer to round to specific end-digits (e.g. zero. Such preference has been found in reports of body weight, cigarette consumption or blood pressure measurements. Very little is known about self-reported body height. End-digit preference can distort estimates of prevalence and other statistical parameters. This study examines end-digit preference for self-reported height and how it relates with sex, age, educational level or cultural affiliation. Methods We analysed reports of height of 47,192 individuals (aged 15 years or older living in Switzerland and participating in one of the three population-based Swiss Health Surveys carried out in 1992/93, 1997 and 2002 respectively. Digit preferences were analysed by sex, age group, educational level, survey, smoking status, interview language (only for Swiss nationals and nationality. Adjusted odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence interval were calculated by using multivariate logistic regression. Results Italian and French nationals (44.1% and 40.6% and Italian and French Swiss (39.6% and 35.3% more strongly preferred zero and five than Germans and German Swiss (29.2% and 30.3%. Two, four, six and eight were more popular in Germans and German Swiss (both 44.4%. Compared to German Swiss (OR = 1, for the end-digits zero and five, the OR were 1.50 (1.38–1.63 for Italian Swiss and 1.24 (1.18–1.30 for French Swiss; 1.73 (1.58–1.89 for Italian nationals and 1.61 (1.33–1.95 for French nationals. The end-digits two, four, six and eight showed an opposite pattern. Conclusion Different preferences for end-digits depending on language and nationality could be observed consistently in all three national health surveys. The patterns were strikingly similar in Swiss and foreign nationals speaking the same language, suggesting that preferences were specific to language rather than to nationality. Taking into account rounding preferences could

  18. Three Communication Difficulties of EFL Students

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Jiménez, Grettel

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the diversity of resources (media, Internet, software, videos, social networks, etc.) many students present a lot of difficulties in developing their communication skills in learning English as a foreign language (EFL). Indeed, there are three aspects that affect the students’ oral production negatively. First, lack of motivation that could be manifested in anxiety and students’ low self-esteem. Second, the learning environment which includes the teacher’s methodology and classroo...

  19. Do Different Modalities of Reflection Matter? An Exploration of Adult Second-Language Learners' Reported Strategy Use and Oral Language Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Shih

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a small-scale study that was the first to explore raising second-language (L2) learners' awareness of speaking strategies as mediated by three modalities of task-specific reflection--individual written reflection, individual spoken reflection, and group spoken reflection. Though research in such areas as L2 writing, teacher's…

  20. Learner/Machine Interaction in Computer-Assisted Language Learning. Report of the IEC/CILT Computer-Assisted Language Learning Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eric, Comp.

    The proceedings of a conference on learner-machine interaction in computer-assisted language learning (CALL) include the texts of four papers, descriptions of program demonstrations and talks given by participants, a report on the plenary session by Eric Brown, information sources about CALL, a comment on the workshop by Leslie Churchman, a review…

  1. Learner/Machine Interaction in Computer-Assisted Language Learning. Report of the IEC/CILT Computer-Assisted Language Learning Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eric, Comp.

    The proceedings of a conference on learner-machine interaction in computer-assisted language learning (CALL) include the texts of four papers, descriptions of program demonstrations and talks given by participants, a report on the plenary session by Eric Brown, information sources about CALL, a comment on the workshop by Leslie Churchman, a review…

  2. Examining differences in nurses' language, accent, and comprehensibility in nursing home settings based on birth origin and country of education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Laura M; Brush, Barbara L; Castle, Nicholas G; Eaton, Michelle; Capezuti, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    As nursing homes turn abroad to fill vacancies, the diverse linguistic backgrounds of nurse hires are creating new challenges in comprehensibility between nurses, providers, and residents. Accents are a natural part of spoken language that may present difficulty even when the parties involved are speaking the same language. We surveyed 1,629 nurses working in 98 nursing homes (NHs) in five U.S. states to determine if and how language difficulties were perceived by nurses and others (e.g. physicians, residents and family members). We found that when participants were asked how often other care team members and residents/families had difficulty understanding them due to language use or accent, foreign born nurses were significantly more likely to report that they experienced difficulty at least some of the time across all groups. This study supports an assessment of nurses' language, accents, and comprehensibility in these settings.

  3. [School difficulties in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenberg, T L; Buffone, M R; Scardia, C; Facente, C

    2002-12-01

    Loss, failure and desertion are those words, which better describe the most frequent difficulties incurred by teenagers, and their relation to the school environment, and indicate, as well, the lack of connection between individual aspirations and school achievements obtained. Despite the likelihood of school difficulties throughout the entire educational career, from the kindergarten to the college, we are able to recognize certain specific "disturbances" which come out during the adolescence, basically relating to the school experiences. School failure, school desertion and school abandonment are, in fact, issues mainly discussed in coincidence with the beginning of the adolescent age and the attending of the high school. The aetiopathogenesis of school discomfort is mostly determined by more than only one factor: psychological, physical, cognitive and environmental aspects, all together, contribute in various ways, to the rise and persisting of the above described problems. Suggesting a univocal characterization of the adolescent with school difficulties, is indeed a hard task, since school failure is not an exclusive feature of only one kind of personality or the expression of only one type of conflict. Once identified the individuals more subject to risk, and the warning signs of actual uneasiness, it is important therefore to intervene timely and in different ways in order to avoid the worsening or the excessive extension of the school difficulties and of their frequent and serious consequences on the teenagers' individual and domestic well-being. Such type of prevention definitely belongs to the Adolescent Medicine, and must be developed on different levels, by involving not only the teenagers, but also their families, the school, and the whole social environment in which the teenagers live and with which they interact.

  4. Language Barriers Among the Foreign-Born in Canada: Agreement of Self-Reported Measures and Persistence Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okrainec, Karen; Booth, Gillian L; Hollands, Simon; Bell, Chaim M

    2017-02-01

    Persistent language barriers are associated with poor health outcomes. The agreement between reporting a language barrier at time of immigration and in the 2007-2008 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) was calculated using kappa scores among foreign-born individuals who arrived to Ontario, Canada between 1985 and 2005. A total of 2323 immigrants were included, with a mean (± SD) time of 10.2 ± 6.4 years between immigration and completing the CCHS. Only 6 % of immigrants reported a persistent language barrier, resulting in a low agreement between the two sources (kappa = 0.06, 95 % CI 0.042-0.086). Though immigrants were less likely to report a persistent language barrier the longer they had been in Canada, only 13 % of immigrants who had arrived language barriers at time of immigration are poor indicators of persistent language barriers. There is a need for a better measure of language barriers among Canadian immigrants.

  5. Hearing difficulty and its psychological implications for the elderly.

    OpenAIRE

    D. A. Jones; Victor, C.R.; Vetter, N. J.

    1984-01-01

    A random sample of patients aged 70 and over from a general practice were interviewed in their own homes. Information was sought on their hearing difficulty and mental state: standardised measures of anxiety, depression, and memory loss were used. Of the 657 subjects interviewed, 33% reported having difficulty hearing normal conversations and 6% reported experiencing "much difficulty." Hearing difficulty was associated with both depression and anxiety, but the associations weakened when adjus...

  6. Recommendations for Assessing English Language Learners: English Language Proficiency Measures and Accommodation Uses. Recommendations Report (Part 3 of 3). CRESST Report 737

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Herman, Joan L.; Bachman, Lyle F.; Bailey, Alison L.; Griffin, Noelle

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB, 2002) has had a great impact on states' policies in assessing English language learner (ELL) students. The legislation requires states to develop or adopt sound assessments in order to validly measure the ELL students' English language proficiency, as well as content knowledge and skills. While states…

  7. Dyscalculia ≠ maths difficulties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Maria Christina Secher

    2016-01-01

    Using Bourdieu’s notion of field, the Scandinavian field of maths pedagogy occurs at a time characterised by increasing inclusion efforts in primary school. Various stakeholders in maths pedagogy are arguing about what should be done about pupils who perform poorly in mathematics and what causes...... their difficulties. Four analytical positions are presented here: the diagnostic, the structural, the interventionist and the complementary. The literature examined includes academic articles on math pedagogy and scholarly journals for maths teachers from the period 1995–2014. A total of 103 articles were analysed...

  8. Difficulty of pinching behind the back: an atypical symptom of carpal tunnel syndrome related to a specific wrist position. Two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Satoru; Tachibana, Shigekuni; Fujii, Kiyotaka

    2012-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) may be overlooked in the absence of typical sensory symptoms. Two patients with CTS lacked the attendant sensory symptoms but experienced difficulties performing a pinching action behind the back (manipulation of the buckle of a baby sling or the hook of a brassiere), a mode of pinching that required wrist flexion. The causative mechanism was probably exacerbation of a latent weakness of the intrinsic muscles of the thumb by wrist flexion, in which the strength of the extrinsic flexors of the thumb and index finger were decreased due to loosening of the tendons. Such symptoms, induced by a specific wrist position, may be help to diagnose a latent weakness in the intrinsic muscles of the thumb, present in patients with CTS.

  9. ACCEPTANCE AND USAGE OF EXTENSIBLE BUSINESS REPORTING LANGUAGE: AN EMPIRICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elissavet Stergiaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL is a language based on XML that provides an effective solution for the preparation, presentation and exchange of International Financial Reporting Standards. Many researchers examined the adoption, acceptance or usage of XBRL but none have clarified a direct link between the acceptance of technology and how it affects XBRL users. So, a significant issue to answer is: What is the level of acceptance of XBRL in the European region? Particularly, a new acceptance model was developed based on Technology Acceptance Model 2 (TAM2 in order to test XBRL usage and its impact with five major constructs. The sample consists of 100 listed companies from European Union countries such as United Kingdom, Germany, Spain, Italy, France, Denmark, The Netherlands, Switzerland, Belgium, Luxemburg and Poland. The results reveal that a great number of companies in the European Union are satisfied with the output and the perspectives of XBRL acceptance and usage. The above argument is supported by the positive correlation found in this research among independent constructs and the dependent factors of XBRL acceptance and usage. Europe appears to be a strong supporter of XBRL technology, so non adopters of XBRL can use the results of this study and decide whether XBRL is a useful tool for them or not.

  10. Language Accommodations for English Language Learners in Large-Scale Assessments: Bilingual Dictionaries and Linguistic Modification. CSE Report 666

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Jamal; Courtney, Mary; Mirocha, James; Leon, Seth; Goldberg, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Recent attention to issues concerning the instruction and assessment of English language learner (ELL) students has placed them among the top national priorities in education. Policy has noticeably shifted from exclusion to inclusion of ELL students in the assessment and accountability system. However, recent research on and practice in the…

  11. Russian Language Study in 1975: A Status Report. CAL-ERIC/CLL Series on Languages and Linguistics, No. 29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Joseph L., Ed.

    The papers included in this collection attempt to provide a comprehensive overview of the situation confronting the Russian language-teaching profession and a picture of the status of the teaching of Russian in the U.S. today. The papers are: (1) "Trends in Enrollments in Russian in U.S. Colleges and Public Secondary Schools," by Richard I. Brod…

  12. Self-Reported Parenting Behavior and Child Temperament in Families of Toddlers with and without Speech-Language Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry Carson, Cecyle K.; Carson, David K.; Klee, Thomas; Jackman-Brown, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This study examined self-reported parenting behaviors, and child temperament and behavior, based on parental perceptions of 47 toddlers ages 25 to 31 months. Data were obtained via parental reports and direct assessment. Children were identified as having a speech-language delay (SLD, n = 17) or as typically developing (n = 30) based on…

  13. Perceived Difficulties in e-Learning During the First Term at University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Kavaliauskienė

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—the focus of this article is to explore difficulties that are encountered by students during the first term at university. It is well known that students can have various problems in learning English and make mistakes in grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation. The native language of a learner affects learning and using English. Speaking and e-listening are the skills that are more common on an everyday basis than reading and writing. Moreover, these skills are more difficult to master. English vocabulary presents another problem for language learners. Albeit, at the university level students study English for Specific Purposes (ESP, in other words, the foreign language for their future profession, and they might face particular difficulties in their studies of ESP. Design/methodology/approach—the research paper adopts the qualitative research approach. The questionnaire on learner perceptions of difficulties in e-learning was administered to students of three different specializations. Students’ self-assessments of achievements or failures were analysed. Findings. The results indicated that perceptions of difficulties to adapting to university studies depended on their chosen specialization. The findings show that undergraduates of all three investigated specializations encounter the same difficulties, but to a different degree. In other words, there are no significantly specific difficulties due to the complexity of the professional vocabulary that students must learn. The ratings of Psychology, Social Work and Public Policy and Management students reveal higher mean values and wider range of Standard Deviations than reported by other researchers (Berman, Cheng, 2001. The results obtained imply that Lithuanian learners are more positive than their foreign counterparts. Computations of Pearson’s correlations coefficients demonstrate that there are some good correlational relationships within each specialization. Research

  14. Final Report A Multi-Language Environment For Programmable Code Optimization and Empirical Tuning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Qing [Univ. of Colorado, Colorado Springs, CO (United States); Whaley, Richard Clint [Univ. of Texas, San Antonio, TX (United States); Qasem, Apan [Texas State Univ., San Marcos, TX (United States); Quinlan, Daniel [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-11-23

    This report summarizes our effort and results of building an integrated optimization environment to effectively combine the programmable control and the empirical tuning of source-to-source compiler optimizations within the framework of multiple existing languages, specifically C, C++, and Fortran. The environment contains two main components: the ROSE analysis engine, which is based on the ROSE C/C++/Fortran2003 source-to-source compiler developed by Co-PI Dr.Quinlan et. al at DOE/LLNL, and the POET transformation engine, which is based on an interpreted program transformation language developed by Dr. Yi at University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA). The ROSE analysis engine performs advanced compiler analysis, identifies profitable code transformations, and then produces output in POET, a language designed to provide programmable control of compiler optimizations to application developers and to support the parameterization of architecture-sensitive optimizations so that their configurations can be empirically tuned later. This POET output can then be ported to different machines together with the user application, where a POET-based search engine empirically reconfigures the parameterized optimizations until satisfactory performance is found. Computational specialists can write POET scripts to directly control the optimization of their code. Application developers can interact with ROSE to obtain optimization feedback as well as provide domain-specific knowledge and high-level optimization strategies. The optimization environment is expected to support different levels of automation and programmer intervention, from fully-automated tuning to semi-automated development and to manual programmable control.

  15. Student Difficulties in Learning Density: A Distributed Cognition Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lihua; Clarke, David

    2012-08-01

    Density has been reported as one of the most difficult concepts for secondary school students (e.g. Smith et al. 1997). Discussion about the difficulties of learning this concept has been largely focused on the complexity of the concept itself or student misconceptions. Few, if any, have investigated how the concept of density was constituted in classroom interactions, and what consequences these interactions have for individual students' conceptual understanding. This paper reports a detailed analysis of two lessons on density in a 7th Grade Australian science classroom, employing the theory of Distributed Cognition (Hollan et al. 1999; Hutchins 1995). The analysis demonstrated that student understanding of density was shaped strongly by the public classroom discussion on the density of two metal blocks. It also revealed the ambiguities associated with the teacher demonstration and the student practical work. These ambiguities contributed to student difficulties with the concept of density identified in this classroom. The results of this study suggest that deliberate effort is needed to establish shared understanding not only about the purpose of the activities, but also about the meaning of scientific language and the utility of tools. It also suggests the importance of appropriate employment of instructional resources in order to facilitate student scientific understanding.

  16. ERRORS AND DIFFICULTIES IN TRANSLATING LEGAL TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia, CHIRILA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the accurate translation of legal texts has become highly important as the mistranslation of a passage in a contract, for example, could lead to lawsuits and loss of money. Consequently, the translation of legal texts to other languages faces many difficulties and only professional translators specialised in legal translation should deal with the translation of legal documents and scholarly writings. The purpose of this paper is to analyze translation from three perspectives: translation quality, errors and difficulties encountered in translating legal texts and consequences of such errors in professional translation. First of all, the paper points out the importance of performing a good and correct translation, which is one of the most important elements to be considered when discussing translation. Furthermore, the paper presents an overview of the errors and difficulties in translating texts and of the consequences of errors in professional translation, with applications to the field of law. The paper is also an approach to the differences between languages (English and Romanian that can hinder comprehension for those who have embarked upon the difficult task of translation. The research method that I have used to achieve the objectives of the paper was the content analysis of various Romanian and foreign authors' works.

  17. A Natural Language Processing Tool for Large-Scale Data Extraction from Echocardiography Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha R.

    2016-01-01

    Large volumes of data are continuously generated from clinical notes and diagnostic studies catalogued in electronic health records (EHRs). Echocardiography is one of the most commonly ordered diagnostic tests in cardiology. This study sought to explore the feasibility and reliability of using natural language processing (NLP) for large-scale and targeted extraction of multiple data elements from echocardiography reports. An NLP tool, EchoInfer, was developed to automatically extract data pertaining to cardiovascular structure and function from heterogeneously formatted echocardiographic data sources. EchoInfer was applied to echocardiography reports (2004 to 2013) available from 3 different on-going clinical research projects. EchoInfer analyzed 15,116 echocardiography reports from 1684 patients, and extracted 59 quantitative and 21 qualitative data elements per report. EchoInfer achieved a precision of 94.06%, a recall of 92.21%, and an F1-score of 93.12% across all 80 data elements in 50 reports. Physician review of 400 reports demonstrated that EchoInfer achieved a recall of 92–99.9% and a precision of >97% in four data elements, including three quantitative and one qualitative data element. Failure of EchoInfer to correctly identify or reject reported parameters was primarily related to non-standardized reporting of echocardiography data. EchoInfer provides a powerful and reliable NLP-based approach for the large-scale, targeted extraction of information from heterogeneous data sources. The use of EchoInfer may have implications for the clinical management and research analysis of patients undergoing echocardiographic evaluation. PMID:27124000

  18. Mathematics difficulties & classroom leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Maria Christina Secher

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates possible links between inclusion, students, for whom mathematics is extensively difficult, and classroom leadership through a case study on teaching strategies and student participation in four classrooms at two different primary schools in Denmark. Three sets of results...... are presented: 1) descriptions of the teachers’ classroom leadership to include all their students in the learning community, 2) the learning community produced by stated and practiced rules for teaching and learning behavior, 3) the classroom behavior of students who experience difficulties with mathematics....... The findings suggest that the teachers’ pedagogical choices and actions support an active learning environment for students in diverse learning needs, and that the teachers practise dimensions of inclusive classroom leadership that are known to be successful for teaching mathematics to all students. Despite...

  19. Bilingual Mothers' Language Choice in Child-directed Speech: Continuity and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Houwer, Annick; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2016-01-01

    An important aspect of Family Language Policy in bilingual families is parental language choice. Little is known about the continuity in parental language choice and the factors affecting it. This longitudinal study explores maternal language choice over time. Thirty-one bilingual mothers provided reports of what language(s) they spoke with their children. Mother-child interactions were videotaped when children were pre-verbal (5M), producing words in two languages (20M), and fluent speakers (53M). All children had heard two languages from birth in the home. Most mothers reported addressing children in the same single language. Observational data confirmed mothers' use of mainly a single language in interactions with their children, but also showed the occasional use of the other language in over half the sample when children were 20 months. Once children were 53 months mothers again used only the same language they reported speaking to children. These findings reveal a possible effect of children's overall level of language development and demonstrate the difficulty of adhering to a strict “one person, one language” policy. The fact that there was longitudinal continuity in the language most mothers mainly spoke with children provided children with cumulative language input learning opportunities. PMID:28210008

  20. The Difficulties in Determining Time of the Operation in the Total Corrected Transposition of the Great Arteries with Severe Left AV Valve Regurgitation: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erden İ et al.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (L-TGA is characterized by discordance between the atria and ventricles, as well as between the ventricles and the great arteries. As a result, the morphologic right ventricle lies to the left of the morphologic left ventricle and becomes the systemic ventricle. The morphologic right ventricle gives rise to the aorta, which is anterior of the pulmonary artery. As a result of discordance at both the atrioventricular (AV and the great vessel level, physiologic blood flow remains normal. It was shown that the decreased RV functions are related with increased mortality rates in long term follow up. Most of these patients have RV failure due to abnormal pressure load of systemic RV, imbalance between O2 supply and myocardial demand and development of systemic AV valvular regurgitation in most of the patients. Therefore, the most important and difficult point in the follow up of these patients is evaluation of RV functions and degree of systemic AV valve regurgitation. In this review, we discussed the difficulties in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients in the light of a typical TGA case.

  1. Mapping English Language Proficiency Test Scores onto the Common European Framework. TOEFL® Research Reports. RR-80. ETS RR-05-18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Richard J.; Wylie, E. Caroline

    2005-01-01

    The Common European Framework describes language proficiency in reading, writing, speaking, and listening on a six-level scale. The Framework provides a common language with which to discuss students' progress. This report describes a study conducted with two panels of English language experts to map scores from four tests that collectively assess…

  2. Short-Term and Working Memory Skills in Primary School-Aged Children with Specific Language Impairment and Children with Pragmatic Language Impairment: Phonological, Linguistic and Visuo-Spatial Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Jenny; Lockton, Elaine; Adams, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children with specific language impairment (CwSLI) are consistently reported to have short-term memory (STM) and working memory (WM) difficulties. Aim: To compare STM and WM abilities in CwSLI with children with pragmatic language impairment (CwPLI). Methods & Procedures: Primary school-aged CwSLI (n = 12) and CwPLI (n = 23) were…

  3. Developing Communicative Skills in the Second-Language Classroom: A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, Anthony

    1982-01-01

    Meaningful, comprehensible instructional materials that take into consideration the student's proficiency level are recommended for teaching communicative skills. Formulae developed for teaching various language functions (forms of socializing, showing emotion, judging, and getting information) and functional language rhetorical strategies are…

  4. The Awareness of the Extensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL In Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AZLEEN ILIAS

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study had explored the Extensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL among various stakeholders from a financial reporting perspective. In addition, the impact of the benefits on users, organization and preparers might vary according to the culture, country or financial regulations. Thus, this research will focus on Malaysia since Malaysia is multi-cultural and the adoption of XBRL can be considered as a new development. Pertaining to this research, it is important to understand the concept of a new reporting technology and the way XBRL will provide interactive data. The awareness and intention to adopt the XBRL will resume effectively once users, preparers and regulators are able to understand the whole concept of XBRL. This research is considered significant in order to explore the readiness and awareness of new reporting technology in Asia, particularly in Malaysia. This study found only a few respondents was fully aware of XBRL, while the majority of respondents were unaware about XBRL. Besides awareness, the study found that there are approximately 67.2% of respondents who are likely to investigate the XBRL technology, which indicates that there is a possibility that XBRL will be more significant and eventually accepted by stakeholders. This study found that approximately 3.1% understood fully what XBRL is and 18% understood the basic concepts.

  5. The Awareness of the Extensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL In Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AZLEEN ILIAS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study had explored the Extensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL among various stakeholders from a financial reporting perspective. In addition, the impact of the benefits on users, organization and preparers might vary according to the culture, country or financial regulations. Thus, this research will focus on Malaysia since Malaysia is multi-cultural and the adoption of XBRL can be considered as a new development. Pertaining to this research, it is important to understand the concept of a new reporting technology and the way XBRL will provide interactive data. The awareness and intention to adopt the XBRL will resume effectively once users, preparers and regulators are able to understand the whole concept of XBRL. This research is considered significant in order to explore the readiness and awareness of new reporting technology in Asia, particularly in Malaysia. This study found only a few respondents was fully aware of XBRL, while the majority of respondents were unaware about XBRL. Besides awareness, the study found that there are approximately 67.2% of respondents who are likely to investigate the XBRL technology, which indicates that there is a possibility that XBRL will be more significant and eventually accepted by stakeholders. This study found that approximately 3.1% understood fully what XBRL is and 18% understood the basic concepts.

  6. Overcoming Algebraic and Graphic Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Ana Lucia Braz

    This paper describes student difficulties in first-year calculus classes and suggests some instructional strategies to address these difficulties. Participants in this study were 200 low socio-economic background freshmen majoring in business in Brazil. Results show that the main difficulties are related to lack of understanding of algebraic…

  7. Linguistic coding deficits in foreign language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, R; Ganschow, L; Pohlman, J

    1989-01-01

    As increasing numbers of colleges and universities require a foreign language for graduation in at least one of their degree programs, reports of students with difficulties in learning a second language are multiplying. Until recently, little research has been conducted to identify the nature of this problem. Recent attempts by the authors have focused upon subtle but ongoing language difficulties in these individuals as the source of their struggle to learn a foreign language. The present paper attempts to expand upon this concept by outlining a theoretical framework based upon a linguistic coding model that hypothesizes deficits in the processing of phonological, syntactic, and/or semantic information. Traditional psychoeducational assessment batteries of standardized intelligence and achievement tests generally are not sensitive to these linguistic coding deficits unless closely analyzed or, more often, used in conjunction with a more comprehensive language assessment battery. Students who have been waived from a foreign language requirement and their proposed type(s) of linguistic coding deficits are profiled. Tentative conclusions about the nature of these foreign language learning deficits are presented along with specific suggestions for tests to be used in psychoeducational evaluations.

  8. Intervention for mixed receptive-expressive language impairment: a review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boyle, James; McCartney, Elspeth; O'Hare, Anne; Law, James

    2010-01-01

    ... difficulties as well as adverse outcomes for language development and academic progress. This paper considers underlying explanations that may account for receptive-expressive language impairment...

  9. Development and Evaluation of a Tactical Mandarin Chinese Language Course. Technical Report No. 65-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Catherine; Rocklyn, Eugene H.

    To meet the need for a short, self-instructional, tactical language course in a Far Eastern tonal language of potential military significance, a course in Mandarin Chinese was developed by adapting the methods described in Subtask CONTACT II with reference to a European language (Russian). The purpose of the course was to enable combat soldiers to…

  10. Languages for Communication Workshops, 1988: Tarrant County Junior College, Northeast Campus. Final Project Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Jane; Lively, Madeleine

    In summer 1988, Tarrant County Junior College, Northeast Campus, conducted a series of eight 16-hour workshops and three 32-hour workshops for high school teachers of foreign languages. The workshops were intended primarily as in-service training to help foreign language teachers: (1) improve their oral proficiency in the language they teach; (2)…

  11. Native Indian Language Education to the Victoria--Saanich Region: An Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Yvonne; And Others

    In two school districts of the Saanich Penninsula, Native Indian Language programs were initiated in 1979 (Victoria) and 1981 (Saanich). The goal of this evaluation were: (1) to determine the factors which affected the implementation of Native Indian Language programs for dialects of two language families (Wakashan, including Kwak'wala and…

  12. The Relationship between Instructor Humor Orientation and Students' Report on Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyaeemehr, Ali; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Humor is an integral component of any language and therefore has an impact on the way languages are acquired/learned. Numerous studies have investigated the role of instructor humor in teaching/learning processes; however, there is little empirical research on the relationship between instructor humor and learning of a second language. This paper…

  13. Corpus Linguistics for Korean Language Learning and Teaching. NFLRC Technical Report No. 26

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bley-Vroman, Robert, Ed.; Ko, Hyunsook, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Dramatic advances in personal computer technology have given language teachers access to vast quantities of machine-readable text, which can be analyzed with a view toward improving the basis of language instruction. Corpus linguistics provides analytic techniques and practical tools for studying language in use. This volume includes both an…

  14. The target language environment of Chinese learning difficulties and countermeasures research--Take Moldova students for example%非目的语环境下汉语学习的难点及对策研究--以摩尔多瓦学生为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽

    2014-01-01

    越来越多的国家开始学习汉语,就连摩尔多瓦这样的欧洲小国,也建立了已有五年历史的孔子学院。由于深处内陆,摩国学生进行汉语学习确实存在着很多的困难,因此,研究和破解学生在非目的语环境下学习汉语的困难就成为对外汉语教学的一个重要课题。%More and more countries start to learn Chinese, even Moldova such a smal country in Europe, has also set up Confucius institute of five years. Due to the inland, there are a lot of difficulties for Chinese learning students, therefore, to research and break the students in the target language environment to the difficulty of learning Chinese has become an important subject of teaching Chinese as a foreign language.

  15. 长处与困难问卷父母评和自评的一致性%The Agreement of Results Between Parents and Self Report of Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵冰; 黄峥; 郭菲; 胡毅; 陈祉妍

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究长处与困难问卷(SDQ)父母卷和自评卷应用情况,分析父亲、母亲、青少年三者对SDQ问卷评价的异同.方法:采用全国青少年心理健康调查数据,对4644名11岁到21岁的在校学生长处与困难问卷的父母卷和自评卷数据进行分析.结果:问卷信度、效度总体良好.父亲评与母亲评在多动-注意、同伴关系、亲社会维度上有差异,在青少年早、中、晚期,自评分数普遍高于父母评,父母评和自评在大部分维度上有差异,如情绪症状、行为问题、多动注意三个维度,男生组和女生组结果在同伴关系和亲社会维度上略有不同.结论:长处与困难问卷父母评结果趋于一致,父母评和自评结果在各个维度上普遍存在差异.%Objective: To study the application status of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire(SDQ), and explore the agreement and differences of SDQ results among father report, mother report and self report. Methods: Data were derived from the Chinese Mental Health Survey Database, and SDQ results of parents report and self report from 4644 students aged 11-21 years. Results: Reliability and validity were in general acceptable. There was no discrepancy in emotion symptom, conduct problem and total difficulties between father rating and mother rating. At different stages of puberty, parents report and self report in most dimensions were different, generally adolescents rated themselves higher than the parents. In the medium-term of youth, there was no discrepancy in pro-social dimensions between mother rating and self rating, in late adolescents, there was no discrepancy in peer relationships dimension among mother rating, father rating and self rating. Conclusion: For Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, mother rating and father rating are consistent, while the parents rating and self rating are different in most dimensions.

  16. Social and emotional loneliness and self-reported difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep (DIMS) in a sample of Norwegian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayley, Amie C; Downey, Luke A; Stough, Con; Sivertsen, Børge; Knapstad, Marit; Øverland, Simon

    2017-02-01

    Social and emotional loneliness negatively impact several areas of health, including sleep. However, few comprehensive population-based studies have evaluated this relationship. Over 12,000 students aged 21-35 years who participated in the student survey for higher education in Norway (the SHoT study) were assessed. Loneliness was assessed using the Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale. Difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep (DIMS) was assessed by a single-item subjective response on the depression scale of the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (HSCL-25). Social loneliness was associated with more serious DIMS (unadjusted proportional odds-ratio [OR] = 2.69, 95% CI = 2.46-2.95). This association was attenuated following adjustment for anxiety (adjusted OR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.75-2.10) and depression (adjusted OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.34-1.63), however was not substantially altered when all demographics and psychological distress were accounted for (fully adjusted OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.30-1.63). Emotional loneliness was also associated with more serious DIMS (unadjusted proportional OR = 2.33, 95% CI = 2.12-2.57). Adjustment for anxiety (adjusted OR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.78-2.15) and depression (adjusted OR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.48-1.80) attenuated, but did not extinguish this relationship in the fully adjusted model (adjusted OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.09-1.31). Mediation analyses revealed that the social loneliness-DIMS association was fully attributed to psychological distress, while the emotional loneliness-DIMS association was only partially mediated, and a direct association was still observed. Associations between social and emotional loneliness and subjective DIMS were embedded in a larger pattern of psychological distress. Mitigating underlying feelings of loneliness may reduce potentially deleterious effects on sleep health and psychological wellbeing in young adults.

  17. Natural Language Processing Techniques for Extracting and Categorizing Finding Measurements in Narrative Radiology Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevenster, M; Buurman, J; Liu, P; Peters, J F; Chang, P J

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating quantitative outcome parameters may contribute to constructing a healthcare organization in which outcomes of clinical procedures are reproducible and predictable. In imaging studies, measurements are the principal category of quantitative para meters. The purpose of this work is to develop and evaluate two natural language processing engines that extract finding and organ measurements from narrative radiology reports and to categorize extracted measurements by their "temporality". The measurement extraction engine is developed as a set of regular expressions. The engine was evaluated against a manually created ground truth. Automated categorization of measurement temporality is defined as a machine learning problem. A ground truth was manually developed based on a corpus of radiology reports. A maximum entropy model was created using features that characterize the measurement itself and its narrative context. The model was evaluated in a ten-fold cross validation protocol. The measurement extraction engine has precision 0.994 and recall 0.991. Accuracy of the measurement classification engine is 0.960. The work contributes to machine understanding of radiology reports and may find application in software applications that process medical data.

  18. Natural Language Processing Techniques for Extracting and Categorizing Finding Measurements in Narrative Radiology Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buurman, J.; Liu, P.; Peters, J.F.; Chang, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Accumulating quantitative outcome parameters may contribute to constructing a healthcare organization in which outcomes of clinical procedures are reproducible and predictable. In imaging studies, measurements are the principal category of quantitative para meters. Objectives The purpose of this work is to develop and evaluate two natural language processing engines that extract finding and organ measurements from narrative radiology reports and to categorize extracted measurements by their “temporality”. Methods The measurement extraction engine is developed as a set of regular expressions. The engine was evaluated against a manually created ground truth. Automated categorization of measurement temporality is defined as a machine learning problem. A ground truth was manually developed based on a corpus of radiology reports. A maximum entropy model was created using features that characterize the measurement itself and its narrative context. The model was evaluated in a ten-fold cross validation protocol. Results The measurement extraction engine has precision 0.994 and recall 0.991. Accuracy of the measurement classification engine is 0.960. Conclusions The work contributes to machine understanding of radiology reports and may find application in software applications that process medical data. PMID:26448801

  19. Speech and Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... impairment. Many children are identified as having a speech or language impairment after they enter the public school system. A teacher may notice difficulties in a child’s speech or communication skills and refer the child for ...

  20. Heritability and Genetic Relationship of Adult Self-Reported Stuttering, Cluttering and Childhood Speech-Language Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagnani, Corrado; Fibiger, Steen; Skytthe, Axel;

    2011-01-01

    Genetic influence and mutual genetic relationship for adult self-reported childhood speech-language disorders, stuttering, and cluttering were studied. Using nationwide questionnaire answers from 34,944 adult Danish twins, a multivariate biometric analysis based on the liability-threshold model......, 0.78/0.80 for stuttering, and 0.53/0.65 for cluttering. For each trait, the same genes were suggested to affect liability in males and females. Furthermore, high genetic correlations between the traits were obtained; the estimates for childhood speech-language disorders and stuttering were 0.......71/0.79 for males/females, for childhood speech-language disorders and cluttering 0.73/0.56, and for stuttering and cluttering 0.53/0.57. Substantial unique environmental correlations between the traits were also found in both genders. Conclusion: With the limitations related to self-reporting from adult age...

  1. Concurrent validity of caregiver/parent report measures of language for children who are learning both English and Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchman, Virginia A; Martine-Sussmann, Carmen

    2002-10-01

    The validity of two analogous caregiver/parent report measures of early language development in young children who are learning both English and Spanish is examined. Caregiver/parent report indices of vocabulary production and grammar were obtained for 26 children using the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory: Words & Sentences (CDI; Fenson et al., 1994) and the Inventario del Desarrollo de Habilidades Comunicativas: Palabras y Enunciados (IDHC; Jackson-Maldonado, Bates, & Thal, 1992). Scores were significantly correlated with analogous laboratory measures in both English and Spanish, including a real-object naming task and spontaneous language use during free-play. The findings offer evidence that the CDI and IDHC provide valid assessments of early language milestones in young English- and Spanish-speaking children. Factors that may influence the validity of these tools for use with this population are also discussed.

  2. The dark side of gendered language: The masculine-generic form as a cause for self-report bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainapel, Sigal; Shamir, Opher Y; Tenenbaum, Yulie; Gilam, Gadi

    2015-12-01

    Language reflects sociocultural structures, such as gender, and affects individuals' perceptions and cognitions. In gendered languages, male-inflected parts of speech are generally used for both sexes (i.e., masculine generics), thus proliferating stereotypes, inequality, and misattributions. We hypothesized that masculine-generic inflection in a questionnaire would bias women's reports compared with a gender-neutral inflection (e.g., "he or she"). We tested our prediction using an academic motivation questionnaire. We found that women reported lower task value and intrinsic goal orientation in the masculine-generic form compared with the gender-neutral form, and lower self-efficacy than men in the masculine-generic form. These findings suggest that questionnaires and surveys written in gendered languages or translated into them may contain construct-irrelevant variance that may undermine the validity of their scores' interpretations, thus risking the possibility of false conclusions.

  3. DIFFICULTIES AND STRATEGIES IN THE PROCESS OF LEGAL TEXTS TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela-Elena, DUMITRESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to identify the difficulties and find approaches in translating legal texts which involve a lot of different types of translation problems. The translator has the task to discover proper strategies to render the translated text comprehensible for the reader in the target language simultaneously reflecting the unique character of the legal system from the source language country. Some of the necessary strategies which the translator should take into account are: the borrowing of original terms, the naturalization of specific terms into the target language, the language calques usage, or the introduction of descriptive translation. Even if a translator tries to solve any difficulty when he translates a legal text, he must maintain the source culture characteristics and do not deprive the texts of their specific character.

  4. Integrating Spanish language training across a Doctor of Physical Therapy curriculum: a case report of one program's evolving model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechak, Celia; Diaz, Deborah; Dillon, Loretta

    2014-12-01

    As the Hispanic population continues to expand in the United States, health professionals increasingly may encounter people who speak Spanish and have limited English proficiency. Responding to these changes, various health profession educators have incorporated Spanish language training into their curricula. Of 12 doctor of physical therapy (DPT) programs identified as including elective or required Spanish courses, the program at The University of Texas at El Paso is the only one integrating required Spanish language training across the curriculum. The purpose of this case report is to describe the development, implementation, and preliminary outcomes of the evolving educational model at The University of Texas at El Paso. The University of Texas at El Paso is situated immediately across the border from Mexico. Responding to the large population with limited English proficiency in the community, faculty began to integrate required Spanish language training during a transition from a master-level to a DPT curriculum. The Spanish language curriculum pillar includes a Spanish medical terminology course, language learning opportunities threaded throughout the clinical courses, clinical education courses, and service-learning. Forty-five DPT students have completed the curriculum. Assessment methods were limited for early cohorts. Clinically relevant Spanish verbal proficiency was assessed with a practical examination in the Spanish course, a clinical instructor-rated instrument, and student feedback. Preliminary data suggested that the model is improving Spanish language proficiency. The model still is evolving. Spanish language learning opportunities in the curriculum are being expanded. Also, problems with the clinical outcome measure have been recognized. Better definition of intended outcomes and validation of a revised tool are needed. This report should promote opportunities for collaboration with others who are interested in linguistic competence. © 2014

  5. Children with Speech Difficulties: A survey of clinical practice in the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Pascoe

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on a study by Joffe and Pring (2008 which investigated assessment and therapy methods used by Speech Language Therapists (SLTs in the United Kingdom for children with phonological difficulties. Joffe and Pring reported SLTs’ most favoured assessments and therapy approaches in that context. Children with speech difficulties are likely to form a considerable part of SLT caseloads in South Africa, but the choice of assessments may not be so clearcut given the linguistic diversity of the region and the fact that few assessments have been developed specifically for the SA population. Linked to difficulties with assessment, selection of intervention approaches may also pose challenges. This study aimed to investigate the methods of assessment and intervention used by SLTs in the Western Cape when working with children with speech difficulties. A questionnaire was sent to SLTs working with pre and/ or primary school- aged children. Twenty-nine clinicians of varying experience responded. The majority of SLTs (89% use informal assessment tools in combination with formal assessment. When using formal assessments, more than 50% of SLTs make modifications to better suit the population. Participants use a variety of intervention approaches, often in combination, and based on a child’s individual profile of difficulties and available resources. Forty-six percent of SLTs felt unsure about the selection of assessments and intervention for bi/multilingual children with speech difficulties. SLTs suggested that guidelines about accepted / typical speech development in the region would be helpful for their clinical practice. Clinical implications of the findings are discussed together with some suggestions for developing knowledge of children’s speech difficulties in the South African context.

  6. Content Instruction through a Foreign Language. A Report on the 1992-1993 TCE Programme. Research and Fieldwork No. 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasanen, Anne, Ed.; Marsh, David, Ed.

    This volume of articles is a report from the national teacher in-service development program in teaching content through a foreign language at the Continuing Education Centre of the University of Jyvaskyla, Finland. This publication is mainly in English, because of the basic rationale of the Teaching Content through English (TCE) programme, and…

  7. Training and Self-Reported Confidence for Dysphagia Management among Speech-Language Pathologists in the Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Cynthia R.; Dean-Claytor, Ashli

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The number of children requiring dysphagia management in the schools is increasing. This article reports survey findings relative to speech-language pathologists' (SLPs') training and self-rated confidence to treat children with swallowing and feeding disorders in the schools. Method: Surveys were completed by 222 SLPs representing…

  8. A Language for Life: The N.U.T.'s (National Union of Teachers) Commentary on the Bullock Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Union of Teachers, London (England).

    The report of the Bullock Committee of Enquiry was published in January 1975, under the title "A Language for Life," and presented extensive recommendations concerning all aspects of English teaching, including reading, writing, talking, and listening, the role of initial and inservice training, and monitoring of general levels of…

  9. Elicited Imitation: A Vehicle for Assessing the Language Functioning Level of Echolalic Autistic Children. Final Report 53.8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Gudrun

    The booklet discusses and reports on a study of elicited imitation as a vehicle for assessing the language-functioning level of echolalic autistic children. An historical overview is presented of the diagnosis of early infantile autism. The question of whether or not early infantile autism is a distinct syndrome is addressed. The theoretical and…

  10. Parents' Reports of Lexical and Grammatical Aspects of Toddlers' Language in European Portuguese: Developmental Trends, Age and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carla; Cadime, Irene; Ribeiro, Iolanda; Santos, Sandra; Santos, Ana Lúcia; Viana, Fernanda Leopoldina

    2017-01-01

    The results from a large-scale study on toddlers' language acquisition in European Portuguese are presented. Toddlers' lexical and grammatical competencies were assessed using the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory: Words and Sentences. The results, based on 3012 reports completed by parents, indicate an increase in the lexical…

  11. Low income parents' reports of communication problems with health care providers: effects of language and insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemans-Cope, Lisa; Kenney, Genevieve

    2007-01-01

    This study examines how parental reports of communication problems with health providers vary over a wider range of characteristics of low income children than considered in previous studies. Data were drawn from the 1999 and 2002 National Survey of America's Families. Communication problems, insurance type, socioeconomic characteristics, health factors, and provider type were examined. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate techniques. Bivariate analysis identified that the parents of 24.4% of low income children and 36.4% of publicly covered low income children with a Spanish interview reported poor communication with health providers. Coefficients from regression analysis suggest that, controlling for covariates, foreign-born parents with a Spanish interview were 11.8 percentage points (plow income publicly covered children with a Spanish interview, regression analysis suggests that parents of children who used clinics or hospital outpatient departments as their usual source of care were 9.5 percentage points (plow income children, particularly those with foreign-born parents whose native language is not English, may be necessary to reduce health disparities relative to higher income children across a variety of health domains including utilization, satisfaction, and outcomes. Focusing attention on the availability of professional translation services in clinics or hospital outpatient departments may be a cost-effective strategy for reducing communication problems for publicly insured children.

  12. Histoimmunogenetics Markup Language 1.0: Reporting next generation sequencing-based HLA and KIR genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milius, Robert P; Heuer, Michael; Valiga, Daniel; Doroschak, Kathryn J; Kennedy, Caleb J; Bolon, Yung-Tsi; Schneider, Joel; Pollack, Jane; Kim, Hwa Ran; Cereb, Nezih; Hollenbach, Jill A; Mack, Steven J; Maiers, Martin

    2015-12-01

    We present an electronic format for exchanging data for HLA and KIR genotyping with extensions for next-generation sequencing (NGS). This format addresses NGS data exchange by refining the Histoimmunogenetics Markup Language (HML) to conform to the proposed Minimum Information for Reporting Immunogenomic NGS Genotyping (MIRING) reporting guidelines (miring.immunogenomics.org). Our refinements of HML include two major additions. First, NGS is supported by new XML structures to capture additional NGS data and metadata required to produce a genotyping result, including analysis-dependent (dynamic) and method-dependent (static) components. A full genotype, consensus sequence, and the surrounding metadata are included directly, while the raw sequence reads and platform documentation are externally referenced. Second, genotype ambiguity is fully represented by integrating Genotype List Strings, which use a hierarchical set of delimiters to represent allele and genotype ambiguity in a complete and accurate fashion. HML also continues to enable the transmission of legacy methods (e.g. site-specific oligonucleotide, sequence-specific priming, and Sequence Based Typing (SBT)), adding features such as allowing multiple group-specific sequencing primers, and fully leveraging techniques that combine multiple methods to obtain a single result, such as SBT integrated with NGS. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. User perspectives on query difficulty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Schütze, Hinrich

    2011-01-01

    , or to statistical and linguistic features of the queries that may render them difficult. This work addresses query difficulty from a different angle, namely the users’ own perspectives on query difficulty. Two research questions are asked: (1) Are users aware that the query they submit to an IR system may......The difficulty of a user query can affect the performance of Information Retrieval (IR) systems. What makes a query difficult and how one may predict this is an active research area, focusing mainly on factors relating to the retrieval algorithm, to the properties of the retrieval data...... for synthesising the user-assessed causes of query difficulty through opinion fusion into an overall assessment of query difficulty. The resulting assessments of query difficulty are found to agree notably more to the TREC categories than the direct user assessments....

  14. Excellence and Success through Career Understanding and Enriched Language Activities (Project ESCUELA). Community School District 14, Brooklyn. Final Evaluation Report, 1992-93. OER Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Joanne

    This report presents an evaluation of the Excellence and Success through Career Understanding and Enriched Language Activities (Project ESCUELA), an Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title VII-funded project in its second year of operation at five schools in Brooklyn, New York. The project served 415 Spanish-speaking and 178 Yiddish-speaking…

  15. Language impairment from 4 to 12 years: prediction and etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

    2014-06-01

    The authors of this article examined the etiology of developmental language impairment (LI) at 4 and 12 years of age, as well as the relationship between the 2. Phenotypic and quantitative genetic analyses using longitudinal data from the Twins Early Development Study (Oliver & Plomin, 2007) were conducted. A total of 2,923 pairs of twins (1,075 monozygotic [MZ]; 975 dizygotic same sex [DZss]; and 873 dizygotic opposite sex [DZos]) provided data at 4 and 12 years. At 4 years, (a) psychometric LI was defined on the basis of a low parent-reported expressive vocabulary score (-1.25 SDs; 226 MZ and 115 DZss probands for genetic analysis); and (b) parent referral was defined as having seen a medical professional or speech-language pathologist following parental concern (112 MZ and 104 DZss probands). The 12-year language measure was a composite of 4 web-administered receptive language tests. (a) Psychometric LI at 4 years is more predictive than parent referral of poor language performance at age 12 years, and (b) parent referral is substantially and significantly more heritable than psychometric LI. Parents' concern about their child's language development seems to be the marker of a more heritable disorder than poor expressive language skills alone. However, the language difficulties that arouse parental concern in preschool children, although more heritable, are not predictive of language difficulties in early adolescence. Rather, poor expressive language skills at age 4 years, psychometrically defined, are a better predictor than parent referral of continuing language difficulties at age 12 years.

  16. Difficulties in Learning Inheritance and Polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Neomi; Beeri, Catriel; Kolikant, Yifat Ben-David

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on difficulties related to the concepts of inheritance and polymorphism, expressed by a group of 22 in-service CS teachers with an experience with the procedural paradigm, as they coped with a course on OOP. Our findings are based on the analysis of tests, questionnaires that the teachers completed in the course, as well as on…

  17. Heritability and Genetic Relationship of Adult Self-Reported Stuttering, Cluttering and Childhood Speech-Language Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagnani, Corrado; Fibiger, Steen; Skytthe, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Genetic influence and mutual genetic relationship for adult self-reported childhood speech-language disorders, stuttering, and cluttering were studied. Using nationwide questionnaire answers from 34,944 adult Danish twins, a multivariate biometric analysis based on the liability-threshold model...... for monozygotic compared to dizygotic pairs, suggesting genetic influence. Multivariate biometric analyses showed that additive genetic and unique environmental factors best explained the observed concordance patterns. Heritability estimates for males/females were 0.71/0.87 for childhood speech-language disorders......, 0.78/0.80 for stuttering, and 0.53/0.65 for cluttering. For each trait, the same genes were suggested to affect liability in males and females. Furthermore, high genetic correlations between the traits were obtained; the estimates for childhood speech-language disorders and stuttering were 0...

  18. Discussion on Language Requirements for News Reporting%谈新闻报道的语言要求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李阳熙

    2012-01-01

    新闻是新近发生事实的报道,新闻语言承载着传递信息、反映现实生活的使命,它在长期的实践发展中已经形成了独自的特点,准确、具体、简练、通俗是其艺术特点,也是其语言特有要求.%News is a report of the fact taking place recently and journalistic language bears the mission of imparting information and reflecting real life. It has formed the unique characteristics. Accuracy, concreteness, conciseness and popularity are the artistic characteristic of journalistic language, also is the special requirements of journalistic language.

  19. Active citizenship and acquired neurological communication difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Catherine; Bennett, Amanda; Cairney, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    People with communication impairments may face barriers to civic participation, with resulting marginalisation of individuals who wish to be actively involved. The investigation aimed to explore the experience of civically engaged adults with acquired neurological communication difficulties. Six people with acquired neurological communication difficulties were interviewed. Discussion included the definition of active citizenship, their civic involvement, motivations, related barriers and facilitators. Qualitative analysis was undertaken, with data categorised, coded and examined for recurring themes. All participants were active in disability-related organisations and four undertook wider civic roles. Motivations included activity being out with the home and wanting to effect change for themselves and the populations they represented. Disability group meetings were more positive experiences than broader community activities, which were associated with fatigue and frustration, commonly resulting from communication difficulties and unmet support needs. All participants identified a need for professional and public educational about disability and communication and made recommendations on content, methods and priority groups. For these participants civic engagement had positive and negative dimensions. Speech and language therapists should promote reduction of the barriers that impede the active citizenship rights of people with communication support needs. Civic participation may be a relevant measure of outcome in communication impaired populations.

  20. Career Education Infusion with Language Arts/Science Project. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Career and Vocational Education Section.

    To infuse career education with language arts and science, a task force of Oregon educators developed, evaluated, and finalized a set of seven career education competencies for secondary language arts and science teachers, 7-12. These competencies cover the following areas: attitudes toward life and careers; job search method and job adjustment;…

  1. Techniques for Analyzing Second Language Acquistion Data --A Report from the 1974 TESOL Convention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, John H.

    1974-01-01

    This paper summarizes the presentations given at the 1974 TESOL Convention, and includes discussion of second language learning universals, statistical techniques for analyzing morphemes, data collection techniques and tests of hypotheses about the nature of the second language learning process. (CK)

  2. The British Sign Language Variant of Stokoe Notation: Report on a Type-Design Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoutenhoofd, Ernst

    2003-01-01

    Explores the outcome of a publicly-funded research project titled "Redesign of the British Sign Language (BSL) Notation System with a New Font for Use in ICT." The aim of the project was to redesign the British Sign Language variant of Stokoe notation for practical use in information technology systems and software, such as lexical…

  3. Teaching the Basics in the Foreign Language Classroom: Options and Strategies. Report of Central States Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benseler, David P., Ed.

    The following papers on essential issues in foreign language instruction are included: (1) "Futurism, Basic Education, and the Foreign Language Curriculum," by Frank M. Grittner; (2) "The Foreign Language Teacher as 'Con Artist,'" by Jean S. Hughes; (3) "Motivational Factors and Student Retention in School Foreign Language Programs," by Pamela J.…

  4. Students' Difficulties with Quantum Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Guangtian

    2016-01-01

    We describe some common difficulties advanced undergraduate and graduate students have with concepts related to quantum measurement. We administered written tests to students enrolled in quantum mechanics courses and interviewed a subset of them to probe the difficulties in-depth and analyze their possible origins. Results from this research can be applied to develop learning tools to improve students' understanding of quantum measurement.

  5. Early Identification of Reading Difficulties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber; Juul, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Early screening for reading difficulties before the onset of instruction is desirable because it allows intervention that is targeted at prevention rather than remediation of reading difficulties. However, early screening may be too inaccurate to effectively allocate resources to those who need...

  6. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Heiervang, Einar; Rodriguez, Alina;

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) has been translated into the different Nordic languages between 1996 and 2003. During the past few years, SDQs have been completed for nearly 100,000 children and adolescents in population-based studies as well as in clinical samples...

  7. Socioeconomic Status, English Proficiency, and Late-Emerging Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Educators have growing concerns about students who learn to read proficiently by third grade but fall behind in later grades. This study investigates the prevalence of "late-emerging" reading difficulties among English language learners (ELLs) and native English speakers from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds, using longitudinal data on…

  8. Language Arts - Spanish Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Magdalena; Sones, Mary

    This publication presents three suggested language arts curriculum units. They represent a cross-section of materials that have been developed to deal with the learning problems of students with special language difficulties. Originally developed for grades 7-12, these units may be adapted for use in adult education or at other grade levels. They…

  9. Tricotilomania: dificuldades diagnósticas e relato de dois casos Trichotillomania: difficulties in diagnosis and report of two clinical cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina P. Lima

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar dois casos de tricotilomania, um transtorno psiquiátrico ainda subdiagnosticado e que pode estar associado a problemas sociais e clínicos relevantes. Pretende-se destacar as características clínicas, discutindo as implicações do diagnóstico precoce para a evolução dos pacientes. DESCRIÇÃO DO CASO: Uma adolescente com diagnóstico de tricotilomania "pura" e outra menina cujo quadro estava associado ao transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo. Embora com o tratamento, a evolução de ambas tenha sido favorável, houve demora significativa para estabelecer o diagnóstico e encaminhá-las a um serviço de saúde mental, com prejuízos escolares e sociais. COMENTÁRIOS: A tricotilomania difere dos quadros benignos e transitórios de arrancar cabelos observados nos primeiros anos de vida e ainda é subdiagnosticada. A vergonha dos sintomas observada nos portadores e o desconhecimento por parte dos profissionais de saúde contribuem para essa situação. O quadro pode ser grave, particularmente se acompanhado de tricofagia. Profissionais da saúde precisam identificar o transtorno precocemente e encaminhar as crianças para tratamento especializado antes das possíveis complicações clínicas e repercussões psicossociaisOBJECTIVE: To report two cases of trichotillomania, an underdiagnosed psychiatric disorder that may be associated with important social and clinical problems. The clinical features will be highlighted considering the implications of early diagnosis on patients' outcome. CASE DESCRIPTION: An adolescent with isolated trichotillomania and another girl whose symptoms were associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder are described. Although both patients presented a favorable outcome with treatment, there was a significant delay in establishing the diagnosis and in referring them to a mental health service, leading to negative impact in educational and social domains. COMMENTS: Trichotillomania differs from the benign

  10. Infantile Feeding Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. McCarthy DO

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gastric volvulus refers to a torsion of all or part of the stomach that may cause an obstruction of the foregut. The clinical symptoms of gastric volvulus range from asymptomatic to life-threatening and thus must be rapidly diagnosed. However, the presenting symptoms of gastric volvulus vary widely, which may cause diagnosis to be delayed or missed. Objective. Describe varying presentations of gastric volvulus (including a case report of a rare presentation, pathophysiology of the entity, and how to diagnose/treat the phenomenon. Design/Method. Article review and case presentation. Results. Our patient was taken to the operating room for a gastropexy and G-tube placement. During surgery, the stomach was redundant and large, but not currently torsed, consistent with intermittent organoaxial volvulus. There are several approaches to classifying gastric volvulus as well as different theories on how to treat the volvulus based on type and degree of rotation that this article aims to detail more thoroughly. Conclusion. There are a growing number of case reports describing gastric volvulus, which had historically been viewed as a rare finding. The presenting symptoms of gastric volvulus commonly mimic other, more benign newborn diagnoses, and thus can be difficult to diagnose. We present our patient as well as an article review of other cases to highlight the diverse presentations of gastric volvulus so this potentially devastating disease can be diagnosed quickly with prompt treatment initiation.

  11. Entornos virtuales de aprendizaje y didáctica de la lengua. Virtual learning environment and language pedagogy. A proposal for improving difficulties of pre-university students with productive reformulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez Guadalupe

    2010-07-01

    conducted with students of Reading and Writing Pre-university courses of National University of General Sarmiento (Buenos Aires, Argentine. This paper explains from the diagnosis of student´ difficulties in reformulation to the analysis of student relations with new technologies, and an online course implementation in order to improve the difficulties. In conclusion, it shows initial applications of new technologies to improve reformulation skills.

  12. When Literature Language Meets News Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢胡卓越

    2014-01-01

    Literature language and News language are two different language type,while,for attracting readers,writers more likely apply Literature language in News reports.This paper presents some comments on this phenomenon and make analysis,using examples to understand and comment on it.

  13. When Literature Language Meets News Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢胡卓越

    2014-01-01

    Literature language and News language are two different language type, while, for attracting readers, writers more likely apply Literature language in News reports. This paper presents some comments on this phenomenon and make analysis, using examples to understand and comment on it.

  14. Deletion of 7q31.1 supports involvement of FOXP2 in language impairment: clinical report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, P A; Cooper, M L; Peiffer, D A; Gunderson, K L; Patel, A; Peters, Sarika; Cheung, S W; Bacino, C A

    2007-04-15

    We report on a young male with moderate mental retardation, dysmorphic features, and language delay who is deleted for 7q31.1-7q31.31. His full karyotype is 46,XY,der(7)del(7)(q31.1q31.31)ins(10;7)(q24.3;q31.1q31.31)mat. This child had language impairment, including developmental verbal dyspraxia, but did not meet criteria for autism according to standardized ADOS testing. Our patient's deletion, which is the smallest reported deletion including FOXP2, adds to the body of evidence that supports the role of FOXP2 in speech and language impairment, but not in autism. A reported association between autism and deletions of WNT2, a gene also deleted in our patient, is likewise not supported by our case. Previously, fine mapping with microsatellites markers within in a large three-generation family, in which half the members had severe specific language impairment, aided the localization of the SPCH1 locus to 7q31 within markers D7S2459 (107.1 Mb) and D7S643 (120.5 Mb). Additionally, chromosome rearrangement of 7q31 and mutational analyses have supported the growing evidence that FOXP2, a gene within the SPCH1 region, is involved with speech and language development. It is unclear however whether the AUTS1 (autistic spectrum 1) locus, highly linked to 7q31, overlaps with the SPCH1 and FOXP2.

  15. 高校英语教学课程录制的难点及对策分析%Analyses of difficulties and corresponding countermeasures in recording the foreign languages teaching videos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 郭煜; 董闽红

    2013-01-01

    Under the background of the new reform of the college English, there appeared some new characteristics in English teaching, for example, more open and more interactive, the web and multimedia methods more used, more students-centered and teacher-supplement and so on. This article analyzes the difficulties appeared during the teaching video recording under the new teaching modes, and puts forward the corresponding countermeasures, and at last, gives some suggestions to the teachers who need to record the teaching videos themselves.%  新的大学英语改革背景下,高校英语教学课程出现了一些新特点、新情况,如开放性和互动性增强,网络和多媒体手段逐渐加强,课堂以学生为主、教师为辅等。在这些新型的教学模式下,外语课程的录制也出现了新的特点和难点,着重从这些难点分析入手,探讨了录制人员应该采取的相应对策,并分析了教师自录视频所需要注意的一些问题。

  16. DIAGNOSTIC DIFFICULTIES IN BACTERIAL SPONDYLODISCITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Orso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To analyze aspects related to the diagnostic difficulty in patients with bacterial spondylodiscitis. Methods : Cross-sectional observational study with retrospective data collected in the period from March 2004 to January 2014.Twenty-one patients diagnosed with bacterial spondylodiscitis were analyzed. Results : Women were the most affected, as well as older individuals. Pain in the affected region was the initial symptom in 52% of patients, and 45.5% of the patients had low back pain, and those with dorsal discitis had back pain as the main complaint; the patients with thoracolumbar discitis had pain in that region, and only one patient had sacroiliac discitis. The average time between onset of symptoms and treatment was five months. The lumbar segment was the most affected with 11 cases (52%, followed by thoracolumbar in 24%, dorsal in 19% of cases and a case in the sacroiliac segment. Only seven patients had fever. Pain in the affected level was coincidentally the most common symptom. Conclusions : Early diagnosis of bacterial spondylodiscitis remains a challenge due to the nonspecific signs and symptoms reported by the patient and the wide variability of laboratory results and imaging. The basis for early diagnosis remains the clinical suspicion at the time of initial treatment.

  17. Sleeping difficulties reported by patients with heart failure Dificultades para dormir por los pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca Dificuldades do sono relatadas por pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Alvina dos Santos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to describe the reports of heart failure patients on the factors that cause difficulties to sleep and the association of these factors with the quality of sleep. This cross-sectional study involved a non-probabilistic sample of 400 patients (mean age 57.8 years, 64.8% were men, average education of 6.1 years, 82.5% in functional class II or III with heart failure. The main factors associated with sleeping difficulty were: nocturia, interrupted sleep at night and breathing difficulty. Sleeping difficulties in heart failure patients are diverse and there is an association between these difficulties and quality of sleep. Most of these disorders warrant professional nursing interventions.El objetivo del estudio fue describir los informes de los pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca en los factores que causan dificultades para dormir y la asociación de estos factores con la calidad del sueño. Se trata de un estudio transversal con muestra no probabilística de 400 pacientes (edad media de 57,8 años, 64,8% eran hombres, el promedio de escolaridad de 6,1 años, 82,5% en clase funcional II o III con insuficiencia cardíaca. Los principales factores asociados con dificultad para dormir son: nicturia, interrupción del sueño en la noche y dificultad para respirar. Las dificultades en el sueño de los pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca son diversas y existe una asociación entre estas dificultades y la calidad del sueño. Estos trastornos, la mayoría son susceptibles de intervención por el personal de enfermería.O estudo teve o objetivo de descrever os relatos de pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca sobre os fatores que causam dificuldades para dormir e a associação desses fatores com a qualidade do sono. Trata-se de estudo transversal, com amostra não probabilística de 400 pacientes (idade média 57,8 anos; 64,8% eram homens; escolaridade média de 6,1 anos; 82,5% em classe funcional II ou III com insuficiência card

  18. Working memory resources in young children with mathematical difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyttälä, Minna; Aunio, Pirjo; Hautamäki, Jarkko

    2010-02-01

    Working memory (WM) (Baddeley, 1986, 1997) is argued to be one of the most important cognitive resources underlying mathematical competence (Geary, 2004). Research has established close links between WM deficits and mathematical difficulties. This study investigated the possible deficits in WM, language and fluid intelligence that seem to characterize 4- to 6-year-old children with poor early mathematical skills before formal mathematics education. Children with early mathematical difficulties showed poor performance in both verbal and visuospatial WM tasks as well as on language tests and a fluid intelligence test indicating a thoroughly lower cognitive base. Poor WM performance was not moderated by fluid intelligence, but the extent of WM deficits was related to language skills. The educational implications are discussed.

  19. Communication difficulties and strategies used by the nurses and their team in caring for the hearing impaired

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda da Rocha Britto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To identify communication difficulties faced by the nursing staff and to learn the strategies developed for non-oral communication. Methods: This is a descriptive, exploratory, level I study with a quantitative approach. The sample group comprised 37 registered nurses and 63 licensed practical nurses of a private hospital who, after undergoing the ethical-legal procedures, answered a questionnaire to identify difficulties faced and strategies used in the care for hearing-impaired patients. Results: Difficulty in explaining matters of interest to the patient was reported by 66% of professionals; and 32% reported difficulties in understanding patients in their way of communicate. The strategy adopted by 100% of respondents was mimicry, followed by lip reading, used by 94% of respondents; help from a person accompanying the patient was used by 65%, and written communication by 42% of respondents. Only 1% used communication via the Brazilian Sign Language (LIBRAS. Conclusions: The difficulties found and the strategies adopted by the nursing staff in communicating with hearing-impaired patients justify the need to train these professionals to deliver a more humanized care, developing a more inclusive society for those with special needs.

  20. Children of homosexual parents report childhood difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Paul; Cameron, Kirk

    2002-02-01

    Referenced as both supporting and weakening the case for parenting by homosexuals, 57 life-story narratives of children with homosexual parents published by Rafkin in 1990 and Saffron in 1996 were subjected to content analysis. Children mentioned one or more problems or concerns in 48 (92%) of 52 families. Of the 213 scored problems, 201 (94%) were attributed to the homosexual parent(s). Older daughters in at least 8 (27%) of 30 families and older sons in at least 2 (20%) of 10 families described themselves as homosexual or bisexual. These findings are inconsistent with propositions that children of homosexuals do not differ appreciably from those who live with married parents or that children of homosexuals are not more apt to engage in homosexuality.