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Sample records for reported juniperus spp

  1. Final report on the safety assessment of Juniperus communis Extract, Juniperus oxycedrus Extract, Juniperus oxycedrus Tar, Juniperus phoenicea extract, and Juniperus virginiana Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The common juniper is a tree that grows in Europe, Asia, and North America. The ripe fruit of Juniperus communis and Juniperus oxycedrus is alcohol extracted to produce Juniperus Communis Extract and Juniperus Oxycedrus Extract, respectively. Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar is the volatile oil from the wood of J. oxycedrus. Juniperus Phoenicea Extract comes from the gum of Juniperus phoenicea, and Juniperus Virginiana Extract is extracted from the wood of Juniperus virginiana. Although Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar is produced as a by-product of distillation, no information was available on the manufacturing process for any of the Extracts. Oils derived from these varieties of juniper are used solely as fragrance ingredients; they are commonly produced using steam distillation of the source material, but it is not known if that procedure is used to produce extracts. One report does state that the chemical composition of Juniper Communis Oil and Juniperus Communis Extract is similar, each containing a wide variety of terpenoids and aromatic compounds, with the occasional aliphatic alcohols and aldehydes, and, more rarely, alkanes. The principle component of Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar is cadinene, a sesquiterpene, but cresol and guaiacol are also found. No data were available, however, indicating the extent to which there would be variations in composition that may occur as a result of extraction differences or any other factor such as plant growth conditions. Information on the composition of the other ingredients was not available. All of the Extracts function as biological additives in cosmetic formulations, and Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar is used as a hair-conditioning agent and a fragrance component. Most of the available safety test data are from studies using oils derived from the various varieties of juniper. Because of the expected similarity in composition to the extract, these data were considered. Acute studies using animals show little toxicity of the oil or tar. The oils

  2. Conservation opportunities in Spanish Juniper Juniperus thurifera woodlands: the case of migratory thrushes Turdus spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telleria, J.L.; De la Hera, I.; Ramírez, A.; Santos, T.

    2011-01-01

    Conservation opportunities in Spanish juniper Juniperus thurifera woodlands: the case of migratory thrushes Turdus spp. Spanish juniper Juniperus thurifera woodlands are the core habitat of several sites included in the Nature 2000 Network and the wintering ground of many European thrushes Turdus

  3. Use of MODIS Satellite Images and an Atmospheric Dust Transport Model To Evaluate Juniperus spp. Pollen Phenology and Dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, J. C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Levetin, Estelle; Huete, Alfredo; Nickovic, S.; Pejanovic, G. A.; Vukovic, A.; VandeWater, P. K.; Myers, O. B.; Budge, A. M.; Zelicoff, A. P.; Bunderson, L.; Crimmins, T. M.

    2011-01-01

    Pollen can be transported great distances. Van de Water et. al., 2003 reported Juniperus spp. pollen was transported 200-600 km. Hence local observations of plant phenology may not be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. The DREAM (Dust REgional Atmospheric Model, Nickovic et al. 2001) is a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling using MODIS data products to identify source regions and quantities of dust. We are modifying the DREAM model to incorporate pollen transport. Pollen release will be estimated based on MODIS derived phenology of Juniperus spp. communities. Ground based observational records of pollen release timing and quantities will be used as verification. This information will be used to support the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program and the State of New Mexico environmental public health decision support for asthma and allergies alerts.

  4. Use of MODIS Satellite Images and an Atmospheric Dust Transport Model to Evaluate Juniperus spp. Pollen Phenology and Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, J. C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Levetin, E.; Huete, A.; Nickovic, S.; Pejanovic, G. A.; Vukovic, A.; Van de Water, P. K.; Myers, O. B.; Budge, A. M.; Zelicoff, A. P.; Bunderson, L.; Ponce-Campos, G.; Crimmins, T. M.

    2011-01-01

    Pollen can be transported great distances. Van de Water et al., 2003 reported Juniperus spp. pollen, a significant aeroallergen was transported 200-600 km. Hence local observations of plant phenology may not be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. Direct detection of pollen via satellite is not practical. A practical alternative combines modeling and phenological observations using ground based sampling and satellite data. The DREAM (Dust REgional Atmospheric Model) is a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling using MODIS data products to identify source regions and quantities of dust (Nickovic et al. 2001). The use of satellite data products for studying phenology is well documented (White and Nemani 2006). In the current project MODIS data will provide critical input to the PREAM model providing pollen source location, timing of pollen release, and vegetation type. We are modifying the DREAM model (PREAM - Pollen REgional Atmospheric Model) to incorporate pollen transport. The linkages already exist with DREAM through PHAiRS (Public Health Applications in Remote Sensing) to the public health community. This linkage has the potential to fill this data gap so that the potential association of health effects of pollen can better be tracked for possible linkage with health outcome data which may be associated with asthma, respiratory effects, myocardial infarction, and lost workdays. Juniperus spp. pollen phenology may respond to a wide range of environmental factors such as day length, growing degree-days, precipitation patterns and soil moisture. Species differences are also important. These environmental factors vary over both time and spatial scales. Ground based networks such as the USA National Phenology Network have been established to provide national wide observations of vegetation phenology. However, the density of observers is not adequate to sufficiently document the phenology variability

  5. Use of MODIS Satellite Data to Evaluate Juniperus spp. Pollen Phenology to Support a Pollen Dispersal Model, PREAM, to Support Public Health Allergy Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, J. C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Levetin, E.; Huete, A. R.; Nickovic, S.; Prasad, A. K.; Pejanovic, G.; Vukovic, A.; Van De Water, P. K.; Budge, A.; Hudspeth, W. B.; Krapfl, H.; Toth, B.; Zelicoff, A.; Myers, O.; Bunderson, L.; Ponce-Campos, G.; Menache, M.; Crimmins, T. M.; Vujadinovic, M.

    2012-12-01

    Pollen can be transported great distances. Van de Water et. al., 2003 reported Juniperus spp. pollen was transported 200-600 km. Hence local observations of plant phenology may not be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. The DREAM (Dust REgional Atmospheric Model, Nickovic et al. 2001) is a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling using MODIS data products to identify source regions and concentrations of dust. We are modifying the DREAM model to incorporate pollen transport. Pollen emission is based on MODIS-derived phenology of Juniperus spp. communities. Ground-based observational records of pollen release timing and quantities will be used as model verification. This information will be used to support the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program and the State of New Mexico environmental public health decision support for asthma and allergies alerts.

  6. Use of MODIS Satellite Data to Evaluate Juniperus spp. Pollen Phenology to Support a Pollen Dispersal Model, PREAM, to Support Public Health Allergy Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, J. C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Levetin, E.; Huete, A.; Nickovic, S.; Prasad, A.; Pejanovic, G. A.; Vukovic, A.; VandeWater, P. K.; Budge, A. M.; Hudspeth, W.; Krapfl, H.; Toth, B.; Zelicoff, A. P.; Myers, O. B.; Bunderson, L.; Ponce-Campos, G.; Crimmins, T. M.; Menache, M.; Vujadinovic, M.

    2013-01-01

    Pollen can be transported great distances. Van de Water et. al., 2003 reported Juniperus spp. pollen was transported 200-600 km. Hence local observations of plant phenology may not be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. The DREAM (Dust REgional Atmospheric Model) is a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling using MODIS data products to identify source regions and concentrations of dust. We are modifying the DREAM model to incorporate pollen transport. Pollen emission is based on MODIS-derived phenology of Juniperus spp. communities. Ground-based observational records of pollen release timing and quantities will be used as model verification. This information will be used to support the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention s National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program and the State of New Mexico environmental public health decision support for asthma and allergies alerts

  7. Crossdating Juniperus procera from North Gondar, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wils, T.; Robertson, I.; Eshetu, Z.; Touchan, R.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Koprowski, M.

    2011-01-01

    The application of dendrochronology in (sub)tropical regions has been limited by the difficulty in finding trees with distinct annual rings that can be crossdated. Here, we report successful crossdating of Juniperus procera trees from North Gondar, Ethiopia. The trees form annual rings in response t

  8. Crossdating Juniperus procera from North Gondar, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wils, T.; Robertson, I.; Eshetu, Z.; Touchan, R.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Koprowski, M.

    2011-01-01

    The application of dendrochronology in (sub)tropical regions has been limited by the difficulty in finding trees with distinct annual rings that can be crossdated. Here, we report successful crossdating of Juniperus procera trees from North Gondar, Ethiopia. The trees form annual rings in response

  9. Podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin in Juniperus bermudiana and 12 other Juniperus species: optimization of extraction, method validation, and quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouard, Sullivan; Lopez, Tatiana; Hendrawati, Oktavia; Dupre, Patricia; Doussot, Joël; Falguieres, Annie; Ferroud, Clotilde; Hagege, Daniel; Lamblin, Frédéric; Laine, Eric; Hano, Christophe

    2011-08-10

    The lignans podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin are secondary metabolites with potent pharmaceutical applications in cancer therapy. However, the supply of podophyllotoxin from its current natural source, Podophyllum hexandrum, is becoming increasingly problematic, and alternative sources are therefore urgently needed. So far, podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin have been found in some Juniperus species, although at low levels in most cases. Moreover, extraction protocols deserve optimization. This study aimed at developing and validating an efficient extraction protocol of podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin from Juniperus species and applying it to 13 Juniperus species, among which some had never been previously analyzed. Juniperus bermudiana was used for the development and validation of an extraction protocol for podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin allowing extraction yields of up to 22.6 mg/g DW of podophyllotoxin and 4.4 mg/g DW deoxypodophyllotoxin, the highest values found in leaf extract of Juniperus. The optimized extraction protocol and HPLC separation from DAD or MS detections were established and validated to investigate podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin contents in aerial parts of 12 other Juniperus species. This allowed either higher yields to be obtained in some species reported to contain these two compounds or the occurrence of these compounds in some other species to be reported for the first time. This efficient protocol allows effective extraction of podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin from aerial parts of Juniperus species, which could therefore constitute interesting alternative sources of these valuable metabolites.

  10. Fatty acid composition of Juniperus species (Juniperus section) native to Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güvenç, Aysegül; Küçükboyaci, Nurgün; Gören, Ahmet Ceyhan

    2012-07-01

    Fatty acid compositions of seeds of five taxa of the Juniperus section of the genus Juniperus L. (Cupressaceae), i. e. J. drupacea Lab., J. communis L. var. communis, J. communis var. saxatilis Pall., J. oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus, and J. oxycedrus subsp. macrocarpa (Sibth. & Sm.) Ball, were investigated. Methyl ester derivatized fatty acids of the lipophylic extracts of the five species were comparatively analyzed by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Juniperus taxa showed uniform fatty acid patterns, among which linoleic (25.8 - 32.5%), pinolenic (11.9 - 24.1%) and oleic acids (12.4 - 17.2%) were determined to be the main fractions in the seed oils. Juniperonic acid was found to be remarkably high in J. communis var. saxatilis (11.4%), J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus (10.4%), and J. communis var. communis (10.1%). To the best of our knowledge, the present work discloses the first report on the fatty acid compositions of seeds of this Juniperus section grown in Turkey.

  11. First report of Colletotrichum spp. causing diseases on Capsicum spp. in Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia

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    H.K. Yun

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Blackish or orange liquid-like spots were found on (n=100 fruits of chillies (Capsicum sold in five local markets in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici were identified as the causal agents of an anthracnose disease. This is the first report of Colletotrichum spp. as the causal agent of anthracnose infected chillies in Sabah.

  12. Antimycobacterial terpenoids from Juniperus communis L. (Cuppressaceae).

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    Gordien, Andréa Y; Gray, Alexander I; Franzblau, Scott G; Seidel, Véronique

    2009-12-10

    Juniperus communis is a plant which has been reported as a traditional cure for tuberculosis (TB) and other respiratory diseases. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the constituents responsible for the activity of the n-hexane extract of Juniperus communis roots against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37)Rv and Juniperus communis aerial parts against Mycobacterium aurum. Subsequently, it was to evaluate the activity of the pure isolated compounds against (i) drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis variants, (ii) non-replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis and (iii) a range of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). The antimycobacterial activity of Juniperus communis extracts, fractions and constituents was determined against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37)Rv, and against rifampicin-, isoniazid-, streptomycin- and moxifloxacin-resistant variants, using the microplate broth Alamar Blue assay (MABA) method. Isolated constituents were tested against non-replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37)Rv, using the low oxygen recovery assay (LORA), and against NTM (Mycobacterium aurum, Mycobacterium phlei, Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium smegmatis), using a broth microdilution method. Cytotoxicity studies were performed using mammalian Vero cells. The antimycobacterial activity of Juniperus communis was attributed to a sesquiterpene identified as longifolene (1) and two diterpenes, characterised as totarol (2) and trans-communic acid (3). All compounds were identified following analysis of their spectroscopic data (1D- and 2D-NMR, MS) and by comparison with the literature and commercial authentic standards when available. Revised assignments for 3 are reported. Totarol showed the best activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37)Rv (MIC of 73.7 microM). It was also most active against the isoniazid-, streptomycin-, and moxifloxacin-resistant variants (MIC of 38.4, 83.4 and 60 microM, respectively). Longifolene and totarol were most active against

  13. Topical wound-healing effects and phytochemical composition of heartwood essential oils of Juniperus virginiana L., Juniperus occidentalis Hook., and Juniperus ashei Juniperus Buchholz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethnobotanical surveys indicated that several Juniperus species are utilized as an antihelmintic, diuretic, stimulant, antiseptic, carminative, antirheumatic, antifungal and for wound healing. In the present study, essential oils obtained from heartwood samples of Juniperus virginiana L., J. occide...

  14. Evaluación de Trichoderma spp., en asociación con Agave cupreata y Juniperus deppeana en suelos del municipio San Juan Tzicatlacoyan, Puebla- México

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Arenas, Omar; Huato, Miguel Angel Damian; Rivera Tapia, José A.; Aldana, Fernando; Parraguirre Lezama, Conrado

    2015-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio para evaluar la importancia de la adición de cepas nativas de Trichoderma sp a la rizosfera de Juniperus deppeana y Agave cupreata, como alternativa para el establecimiento de una plantación forestal en San Juan Tzicatlacoyan. Estas especies están consideradas recuperadoras de suelos y presentan una amplia distribución en zonas áridas, así como rápido crecimiento y adaptación. El inoculante con base de grano de trigo resultó un excelente sustrato para la cepa (TS1P1) de ...

  15. A new report of Sanbornia juniperi Pergarde ex. Barker, 1920 (Hemiptera: Aphididae in Neotropical region Pulgões; Dispersão de insetos; Plantas ornamentais; Juniperus chinensis; Cupressaceae.

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    Orcial Ceolin Bortolotto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to record new observations of Sanbornia juniperi Pergarde ex. Barker, 1920 (Hemiptera: Aphididae in the Neotropical region associated with Juniperus chinensis L. (Cupressaceae. The aphids were found in September 2010 in Londrina city (23 ° 20 ‘23 “S, 51 ° 12’ 32” W, 532m, Parana state (PR, Brazil. This represents only the second report of S.juniperi in the Neotropical region, and the first report was associated with J. chinensis, thereby indicating that in addition to dispersion, the aphid is colonizing new hosts. O objetivo deste estudo foi registrar nova ocorrência de Sanbornia juniperi Pergarde ex. Barker, 1920 (Hemiptera; Aphididae na região Neotropical, associado à Juniperus chinensis L. (Cupressaceae. Os pulgões foram encontrados em setembro de 2010, na cidade de Londrina, Estado do Paraná. Este é apenas o segundo registro de S. juniperi na região Neotropical, e o primeiro associado à J. chinensis, indicando que além do inseto estar em processo de dispersão, está colonizando novos hospedeiros.

  16. Diplodia africana causing dieback disease on Juniperus phoenicea: a new host and first report in the northern hemisphere

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    BENEDETTO LINALDEDDU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Branch dieback was observed on Phoenicean juniper trees, in a natural growing area on Caprera Island (Italy, during 2009 and 2010. Fungal isolates obtained from symptomatic twigs and branches show­ing dieback and bark necrosis were identified as Diplodia africana by analysis of morphological features and genomic DNA sequences of the ITS region and translation elongation factor 1-α gene. Pathogenicity was verified by stem inoculation of 3-year-old saplings of Phoenicean juniper. This is the first report of D. africana in the northern hemisphere, and of this fungus as a pathogen of Phoenicean juniper

  17. A new lignan glycoside from Juniperus rigida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Kyeong Wan; Choi, Sang Un; Park, Jong Cheol; Lee, Kang Ro

    2011-12-01

    A new lignan glycoside, named juniperigiside (1) was isolated from the CHCl(3) soluble fraction of the MeOH extract of stems and leaves of Juniperus rigida S.et Z. Compound 1 was identified by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy as well as CD analysis as (2R,3S)-2,3-dihydro-7-methoxy-2-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxymethyl-5-benzofuranpropanol 4'-O-(3-O-methyl)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside. Five known lignans, icariside E4 (2), desoxypodophyllotoxin (3), savinin (4), thujastandin (5), and (-)-nortrachelogenin (6) in addition to five known labdane diterpenes including trans-communic acid (7), 13-epi-torulosal (8), 13-epi-cupressic acid (9), imbricatoric acid (10), and isocupressic acid (11) were also isolated and their structures were characterized by comparing their spectroscopic data with those in the literature. All compounds were isolated for the first time from this plant, and 5 and 6 were first reported from the genus Juniperus. The isolated compounds were tested for cytotoxicity against four human tumor cell lines in vitro using a Sulforhodamin B bioassay. Compounds 3, 4, 7, and 8 showed considerable cytotoxicity against four human cancer cell lines in vitro.

  18. Reports of Outbreaks and Isolation on Salmonella Spp. in Colombia

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    Claudia Constanza Pérez Rubiano

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The foodborne diseases are currently one of the problems with great socio-economic impact in the world. According to the Pan American Health Organization, the foodborne diseases are within the five leading causes of death in children under five years in Latin America and the Caribbean. Among the etiologic agents most involved in outbreaks of foodborne diseases is Salmonella spp., this pathogen has often been associated with diarrheal diseases worldwide, caused by the consumption of contaminated food and causes the most prevalent zoonosis in developed countries. The numbers of records of these diseases in some countries, especially those in the developing world, are deficient because information systems as SIRVETA just recently have developed strategies to improve the detection of outbreaks and isolates of foodborne diseases. However, there are still some gaps in the registration and notification procedures. The present review covers general aspects of Salmonella spp., outbreaks and isolates, most frequently reported serotypes and distribution, and behavior of this microorganism to antimicrobial found in Colombia and indicates some control programs and monitoring of Salmonella spp. which have been implemented in the country.

  19. Tyrosinase inhibitory flavonoid from Juniperus communis fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegal, Jonghwan; Park, Sang-A; Chung, KiWung; Chung, Hae Young; Lee, Jaewon; Jeong, Eun Ju; Kim, Ki Hyun; Yang, Min Hye

    2016-12-01

    The fruits of Juniperus communis have been traditionally used in the treatment of skin diseases. In our preliminary experiment, the MeOH extract of J. communis effectively suppressed mushroom tyrosinase activity. Three monoflavonoids and five biflavonoids were isolated from J. communis by bioassay-guided isolation and their inhibitory effect against tyrosinase was evaluated. According to the results of all isolates, hypolaetin 7-O-β-xylopyranoside isolated from J. communis exhibited most potent effect of decreasing mushroom tyrosinase activity with an IC50 value of 45.15 μM. Further study provided direct experimental evidence for hypolaetin 7-O-β-D-xylopyranoside-attenuated tyrosinase activity in α-MSH-stimulated B16F10 murine melanoma cell. Hypolaetin 7-O-β-D-xylopyranoside from the EtOAc fraction of J. communis was also effective at suppressing α-MSH-induced melanin synthesis. This is the first report of the enzyme tyrosinase inhibition by J. communis and its constituent. Therapeutic attempts with J. communis and its active component, hypolaetin 7-O-β-D-xylopyranoside, might be useful in treating melanin pigmentary disorders.

  20. Microstrobiles morphology in Juniperus subgen. Sabina

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    Elena Antonova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and anatomical investigations on male strobiles of Juniperus subgen. Sabina were carried out using of fresh material. Changes and varieties in coloration of microsporangia, as well as anthesis were studied. It was ascertained that number of microsporangia correlates with the position of sporophylles in strobile.

  1. A bioactivity guided study on the antidiabetic activity of Juniperus oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus L. leaves.

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    Orhan, Nilüfer; Aslan, Mustafa; Demirci, Betül; Ergun, Fatma

    2012-03-27

    Juniperus (Cupressaceae) species are widely used as folk medicine in spreading countries. Decoction of Juniperus oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus L. leaves is used internally to lower blood glucose levels in Turkey. To determine hypoglycaemic and antidiabetic activities of Juniperus oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus leaves and to identify active compounds through bioactivity guided isolation technique. Ethanol and water extracts of Juniperus oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus (Joso), leaves on oral administration were studied using in vivo models in normal, glucose-hyperglycemic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Through in vivo bioactivity-guided fractionation processes, a nonpolar fraction was separated from the n-hexane subextract by silica gel column chromatography as the main active fraction. Subfractions of this fraction was found to possess antidiabetic activity and their chemical composition was investigated by GC-FID and GC-MS, simultaneously. This is the first report on the antidiabetic constituents of Joso leaves. Fatty acids, such as palmitic, linoleic and linolenic acid were found as the major compounds in subfractions. Results indicated that Joso leaf extract and its active constituents might be beneficial for diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Flavonoid composition of Juniperus oblonga Bieb.

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    Pisarev, D I; Novikov, O O; Novikova, M Yu; Zhilyakova, E T

    2011-04-01

    Juniperus oblonga Bieb is widely spread in the Caucasus Mountains, particularly in its eastern and southern regions. Diuretic effect of juniper berries is determined by the presence of volatile oils and polyphenol complex, particularly flavonoids. Flavonoids were extracted from raw material with 70% ethanol and then with ethyl acetate. Column chromatography of ethyl acetate fraction on polyamide yielded 5 compounds, which were identified on the basis of physicochemical constants of parent compounds and products of acid hydrolysis and alkaline degradation of aglycones and on the basis of UV-spectroscopy as apigenin, isoquercitrin, apigenin-7-glucoside, quercetin-3-rutinoside, and scutellarin-7-glucoside. Quantitative composition of flavonoid in equivalent to rutin concentration in Juniperus oblonga Bieb was 0.910±0.007% (UV-spectrophotometry data).

  3. Topical wound-healing effects and phytochemical composition of heartwood essential oils of Juniperus virginiana L., Juniperus occidentalis Hook., and Juniperus ashei J. Buchholz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumen, Ibrahim; Süntar, Ipek; Eller, Fred J; Keleş, Hikmet; Akkol, Esra Küpeli

    2013-01-01

    Ethnobotanical surveys indicated that in the traditional medicines worldwide, several Juniperus species are utilized as antihelmintic, diuretic, stimulant, antiseptic, carminative, stomachic, antirheumatic, antifungal, and for wound healing. In the present study, essential oils obtained from heartwood samples of Juniperus virginiana L., Juniperus occidentalis Hook. and Juniperus ashei J. Buchholz were evaluated for wound healing and anti-inflammatory activities by using in vivo experimental methods. The essential oils were obtained by the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction method. Linear incision and circular excision wound models were performed for the wound-healing activity assessment. The tissues were also evaluated for the hydroxyproline content as well as histopathologically. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oils, the test used was an acetic acid-induced increase in capillary permeability. The essential oil of J. occidentalis showed the highest activity on the in vivo biological activity models. Additionaly, the oil of J. virginiana was found highly effective in the anti-inflammatory activity method. The experimental data demonstrated that essential oil of J. occidentalis displayed significant wound-healing and anti-inflammatory activities.

  4. Plant Tissue Cultures of Juniperus virginiana.

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    Kašparová, Marie; Spilková, Jirina; Cvak, Ladislav; Siatka, Tomáš; Martin, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Callus cultures of Juniperus virginiana L. (varieties 'Hetzii', 'Glauca', 'Grey Owl') were derived from fresh leaves of garden-grown trees on Schenk and Hildebrandt medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/L of α-naphthaleneacetic acid, 0.2 mg/L of kinetin and 15 mg/L of ascorbic acid. The growth characteristics of one-year-old and two-years-old cultures were determined. The maximum biomass in all varieties was achieved on the 35th day of the cultivation period. The increase in fresh weights of two-years-old callus cultures, when compared with one-year-old callus cultures, was as follows: variety 'Hetzii' by 25%, variety 'Glauca' by 29% and variety 'Grey Owl' by 49%. J. virginiana suspension cultures (varieties 'Hetzii', 'Glauca', 'Grey Owl') were derived from two-years-old callus cultures on Schenk and Hildebrandt medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/L of α-naphthaleneacetic acid, 0.2 mg/L of kinetin and 15 mg/L of ascorbic acid. The maximum biomass of all varieties was found on the 21st day of the cultivation period. These results indicate that a sub-cultivation interval of 35 days for callus cultures and of 21st days for suspension cultures can be recommended. The callus and suspension cultures of J. virginiana of the variety 'Glauca' have the best survivability and thus provide the most biomass.

  5. Aerobiology of Juniperus Pollen in Oklahoma, Texas, and New Mexico

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    Levetin, Estelle; Bunderson, Landon; VandeWater, Pete; Luvall, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Pollen from members of the Cupressaceae are major aeroallergens in many parts of the world. In the south central and southwest United States, Juniperus pollen is the most important member of this family with J. ashei (JA) responsible for severe winter allergy symptoms in Texas and Oklahoma. In New Mexico, pollen from J. monosperma (JM) and other Juniperus species are important contributors to spring allergies, while J. pinchotii (JP) pollinates in the fall affecting sensitive individuals in west Texas, southwest Oklahoma and eastern New Mexico. Throughout this region, JA, JM, and JP occur in dense woodland populations. Generally monitoring for airborne allergens is conducted in urban areas, although the source for tree pollen may be forested areas distant from the sampling sites. Improved pollen forecasts require a better understanding of pollen production at the source. The current study was undertaken to examine the aerobiology of several Juniperus species at their source areas for the development of new pollen forecasting initiatives.

  6. Genetic variability and differentiation among populations of the Azorean endemic gymnosperm Juniperus brevifolia: baseline information for a conservation and restoration perspective.

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    Silva, Luís; Elias, Rui B; Moura, Mónica; Meimberg, Harald; Dias, Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    The Azorean endemic gymnosperm Juniperus brevifolia (Seub.) Antoine is a top priority species for conservation in Macaronesia, based on its ecological significance in natural plant communities. To evaluate genetic variability and differentiation among J. brevifolia populations from the Azorean archipelago, we studied 15 ISSR and 15 RAPD markers in 178 individuals from 18 populations. The average number of polymorphic bands per population was 65 for both ISSR and RAPD. The majority of genetic variability was found within populations and among populations within islands, and this partitioning of variability was confirmed by AMOVA. The large majority of population pairwise F(ST) values were above 0.3 and below 0.6. The degree of population genetic differentiation in J. brevifolia was relatively high compared with other species, including Juniperus spp. The genetic differentiation among populations suggests that provenance should be considered when formulating augmentation or reintroduction strategies.

  7. First Report of Vannellidae Amoebae (Vannella Spp. Isolated From Biofilm Source

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    F Zaeri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Members of the Vannellidae family are free-living amoebae (FLA distributed mainly in water and soil sources. The present study reports the first isolation of this genus in the biofilm source from hospital environment in Tehran, Iran.Methods: Biofilm samples were collected from hospital environment. Cultivation was performed in non-nutrient agar covered with a heat-killed Escherichia coli. Cloning of the suspected amoe­bae was done. PCR amplification and Homology analysis using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASTn was performed to search for the most similar reference sequences.Results: Microscopic examination showed numerous fan-shaped amoebae and peculiar cysts differ­ent to the usual shape of typical FLA. Sequence analysis of the PCR- product revealed that the suspected amoebae are highly homologous with Vannella spp. gene (99% identity and 100% query coverage available in the gene bank database.Conclusion: Although Vannella spp. is not proved to be pathogenic itself, but they are capable of har­boring pathogenic intracellular organisms such as Microsporidian parasites. Thus, identifica­tion of such amoebae can be of clinical importance, as they could lead to transmission of other pathogens to human.

  8. Etude chimique et biologique des huiles essentielles de Juniperus phoenicea ssp. lycia et Juniperus phoenicea ssp. turbinata du Maroc

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    Mansouri, N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and biological study of essential oils of Moroccan Juniperus phoenicea ssp. lycia and Juniperus phoenicea ssp. turbinata. The composition of the essential oils of the branches and berries of Juniperus phoenicea (Cupressaceae, J. phoenicea ssp. lycia (plain and J. phoenicea ssp. turbinata (mountain, obtained by hydrodistillation, collected from Morocco, was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The yields of essential oils were varying in function of the subspecies and of the part of the plant studied. The essential oils of these tree species are largely dominated by α-pinene and may be an important source of this component of a great interest on the international market. The effectiveness of essential oils from branches of the subspecies lycia against fungi decay wood has also been emphasized.

  9. Antiparasitic, Nematicidal and Antifouling Constituents from Juniperus Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of Juniperus procera berries yielded antiparasitic, nematicidal and antifouling constituents, including a wide range of known abietane, pimarane and labdane diterpenes. Among these, abieta-7,13-diene (1) demonstrated in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium f...

  10. Juniperus extraction: a comparison of species and solvents

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    The effectiveness of the three solvents, hexane, methanol and ethanol were compared for their ability to extract non-polar and polar materials from sawdust from three species of Juniperus (i.e., J. virginianna, J. occidentalis and J. ashei). These species studied represent the junipers with the grea...

  11. New glycosides of acetophenone derivatives and phenylpropanoids from Juniperus occidentalis.

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    Inatomi, Yuka; Murata, Hiroko; Inada, Akira; Nakanishi, Tsutomu; Lang, Frank A; Murata, Jin; Iinuma, Munekazu

    2013-04-01

    New glycosides of seven acetophenone derivatives (1-7) and two phenylpropanoids (8, 9), named juniperosides III-XI, have been isolated from the MeOH extract of the leaves and stems of Juniperus occidentalis Hook. (Cupressaceae), together with eleven other known compounds. The structures of these compounds have been successfully elucidated using a variety of spectroscopic techniques.

  12. Molecular characterization and RAPD analysis of Juniperus species from Iran.

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    Kasaian, J; Behravan, J; Hassany, M; Emami, S A; Shahriari, F; Khayyat, M H

    2011-06-07

    The genus Juniperus L. (Cupressaceae), an aromatic evergreen plant, consists of up to 68 species around the world. We classified five species of Juniperus found in Iran using molecular markers to provide a means for molecular identification of Iranian species. Plants were collected (three samples of each species) from two different provinces of Iran (Golestan and East Azarbayejan). The DNA was extracted from the leaves using a Qiagen Dneasy Plant Mini Kit. Amplification was performed using 18 ten-mer RAPD primers. Genetic distances were estimated based on 187 RAPD bands to construct a dendrogram by means of unweighted pair group method of arithmetic means. It was found that J. communis and J. oblonga were differentiated from the other species. Genetic distance values ranged from 0.19 (J. communis and J. oblonga) to 0.68 (J. communis and J. excelsa). Juniperus foetidissima was found to be most similar to J. sabina. Juniperus excelsa subspecies excelsa and J. excelsa subspecies polycarpos formed a distinct group.

  13. Hygroscopic weight gain of pollen grains from Juniperus species

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    Bunderson, Landon D.; Levetin, Estelle

    2015-05-01

    Juniperus pollen is highly allergenic and is produced in large quantities across Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. The pollen negatively affects human populations adjacent to the trees, and since it can be transported hundreds of kilometers by the wind, it also affects people who are far from the source. Predicting and tracking long-distance transport of pollen is difficult and complex. One parameter that has been understudied is the hygroscopic weight gain of pollen. It is believed that juniper pollen gains weight as humidity increases which could affect settling rate of pollen and thus affect pollen transport. This study was undertaken to examine how changes in relative humidity affect pollen weight, diameter, and settling rate. Juniperus ashei, Juniperus monosperma, and Juniperus pinchotii pollen were applied to greased microscope slides and placed in incubation chambers under a range of temperature and humidity levels. Pollen on slides were weighed using an analytical balance at 2- and 6-h intervals. The size of the pollen was also measured in order to calculate settling rate using Stokes' Law. All pollen types gained weight as humidity increased. The greatest settling rate increase was exhibited by J. pinchotii which increased by 24 %.

  14. Rainfall interception and partitioning by pinus monophylla and juniperus osteosperma

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    This study investigated canopy interception of simulated rainfall by singleleaf piñon (Pinus monophylla) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) in central Nevada. Research has shown that although piñon and juniper occurred historically throughout the western United States, the infilling of woodlan...

  15. Antifungal and Insecticidal Activity from Two Juniperus Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essential oils of two Tibetan Junipers Juniperus saltuaria and J. squamata var. fargesii (Cupressaceae) were obtained by distilling dried leaves and branches using a Clevenger apparatus. Sixty-seven compounds from J. saltuaria and 58 compounds from J. squamata var. fargesii were identified by gas c...

  16. Functional characterization of fifteen hundred transcripts from Ziarat juniper (Juniperus excelsa M.Bieb

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    Humaira Abdul Wahid

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ziarat juniper (Juniperus excelsa M.Bieb is an evergreen and dominant species of Balochistan juniper forests. This forest is providing many benefits to regional ecosystems and surrounding populations. No functional genomics study is reported for this important juniper plant. This research is aimed to characterize the Ziarat juniper functional genome based on the analyses of 1500 transcripts. Methods: Total RNA from shoot of Juniperus excelsa was extracted and subjected for transcriptome sequencing using Illumina HiSeq 2000 with the service from Macrogen, Inc., South Korea. The Illumina sequenced data was subjected to bioinformatics analysis. Quality assessment and data filtration was performed for the removal of low-quality reads, ambiguous reads and adaptor sequences. The high-quality clean reads data was deposited in the Sequence Read Archive (SRA at NCBI, and used for downstream processes. Fifteen hundred transcripts were randomly chosen and used for functional characterization. Results: As a result of homology search 80.3% transcripts showed significant similarities and were placed in significant similarities category, 19.3% transcripts showed low similarities and assigned to the ‘‘unclassified’’ category while 0.4% transcripts are defined as no hits. The functional characterization results showed that most (18% of the transcripts are involved in metabolism, followed by 11.7% in transcription and 11.5% as structural protein. 8.8% transcripts are engaged in stress response, whereas the transcripts involved in growth and development constituted 6.7%. Transcripts involved in signal transduction represented 5.6%, while 3.5% facilitating transport and 34.1% are involved in hypothetical functions. Conclusion: The functional annotation data produced in this study will be very useful for future functional genome analysis of Juniperus excelsa.

  17. Fungal Keratitis Caused by Drechslera spp. Treated with Voriconazole: A Case Report

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    Margarita I. Echavez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To present a case of Drechslera spp. keratitis treated with topical Voriconazole. Method. A case report. Results. A 52-year-old diabetic male presented with a one-week history of foreign body sensation of the left eye, self-medicated with Neomycin, Polymyxin B, and Dexamethasone eye drops, and was diagnosed to have bacterial conjunctivitis, which was treated with Levofloxacin drops. The patient developed a corneal opacity after 2 days and was initially seen with a visual acuity of counting fingers on the left eye, with a 3 mm central corneal ulcer with feathery borders. No hypopyon was noted. The right eye had a visual acuity of 20/20 and had unremarkable findings. Corneal scraping of the ulcer showed no organisms on Gram and Giemsa stain. Cultures were positive for Drechslera spp. and patient was started on Natamycin drops every 15 minutes, Atropine drops 3× a day, and Levofloxacin was continued every 4 hours. The ulcer increased to 4 mm, the infiltrates became deeper involving the midstroma, and there was appearance of a 2 mm hypopyon. Natamycin was shifted to Voriconazole eye drops every 15 minutes. There was note of a decrease in the size of the ulcer and clearing of the infiltrates with the new treatment regimen. Final visual acuity after 29 days of treatment was 20/40 with note of a slight corneal haze in the area of the previous ulcer. Conclusion. Voriconazole may be safe and effective in the treatment of Drechslera keratitis. There was no perforation and there was immediate decrease in the size of the ulcer. This is the first known case of Drechslera keratitis treated with Voriconazole eye drops in the Philippines.

  18. Human Disturbance Threats the Red-Listed Macrolichen Seirophora villosa (Ach.) Frödén in Coastal Juniperus Habitats: Evidence From Western Peninsular Italy

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    Benesperi, Renato; Lastrucci, Lorenzo; Nascimbene, Juri

    2013-10-01

    In Europe, coastal dune systems with Juniperus spp. (Natura 2000 habitat code 2250) are a priority habitat for conservation according to the Natura 2000 policies. Currently, anthropogenic pressure is threatening the biodiversity of this habitat. While the impact of human pressure on animals and vascular plants is already documented, information is still scanty for other organisms such as epiphytic lichens. The main aim of this study is to test the effect of human disturbance on the occurrence and abundance of the red-listed macrolichen Seirophora villosa. We also tested the effect of human disturbance on the whole community of epiphytic lichens in terms of species richness and composition. The study was performed along the coast of Tuscany by comparing both disturbed and undisturbed Juniperus stands according to a stratified random sampling design. Our results provided evidence that in coastal systems the long-term conservation of the red-listed macrolichen S. villosa and its characteristic community composed by several Mediterranean species of conservation concern depends on the maintenance of undisturbed Juniperus habitats. Results also support the possibility of using S. villosa as an indicator species of habitat conservation importance and habitat integrity since its occurrence is predicted on nestedness in term of species composition, assemblages of species poor disturbed stands being subsets of those of richer undisturbed stands.

  19. Novel whole-cell Reporter Assay for Stress-Based Classification of Antibacterial Compounds Produced by Locally Isolated Bacillus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Nithya, Vadakedath; Halami, Prakash M.

    2012-01-01

    Reporter bacteria are beneficial for the rapid and sensitive screening of cultures producing peptide antibiotics, which can be an addition or alternative to the established antibiotics. This study was carried out to validate the usability of specific reporter strains for the target mediated identification of antibiotics produced by native Bacillus spp. isolated from different food sources. During preliminary classification, cell wall stress causing Bacillus isolates were screened by using rep...

  20. Cytotoxicologic Studies of the Extracts of Iranian Juniperus Sabina and Platycladus Orientalis on Cancer Cells

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    A Jafarian-Dehkordi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Isolation and identification of some potent anti-tumor compounds from medicinal plants, has motivated researchers to screen different parts of plant species for anti-tumor effects. It has been reported that several conifers posses cytotoxic activities on some human tumor cell lines. Methods: In this study male and female branchlets or fruits of two different species of Iranian conifers were collected from the northern parts of Iran and identified. Hydroalcoholic extracts of them were prepared by perculation. The cytotoxic effects of the extracts on three human tumor cell lines (Hela, KB, and MDA-MB-468 were determined. Different concentrations of extracts were added to cultured cells and incubated for 72 h. Cell survival was evaluated using MTT-based cytotoxicity assay. Cytotoxicity was considered when mor than 50% decrese was seen in cell survival. Results: Although the extracts from Platycladus orientalis significantly decreased Hela and MDA-MB-468 cell curvival, their effects were not considerable. Extracts from fruit and branchlets of male and female Juniperus sabina showed cytotoxic activities against Hela and MDA-MB-468 cells. Conclusion: It is concluded that extracts of J. sabin have cytotoxic effects on cancer cells. Keywords: Juniperus sabina, Platycladus orientalis, Cytotoxicity, MTT assay, Cancer cells.

  1. [Presence of Legionella spp. in household drinking water reservoirs in Resistencia, Chaco, Argentina. Preliminary report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lösch, Liliana S; Merino, Luis A

    Legionella spp. is an environmental bacterium that can survive in a wide range of physicochemical conditions and may colonize distribution systems of drinking water and storage tanks. Legionella pneumophila is the major waterborne pathogen that can cause 90% of Legionnaires' disease cases. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of Legionella spp. in household drinking water tanks in the city of Resistencia, Chaco. The detection of Legionella in water samples was performed by culture methods as set out in ISO 11731:1998. Thirty two water samples were analyzed and Legionella spp. was recovered in 12 (37.5%) of them. The monitoring of this microorganism in drinking water is the first step towards addressing the control of its spread to susceptible hosts. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. The first report of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and a novel Theileria spp. co-infection in a South African giraffe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Tongyi; Cui, Yanyan; Wang, Jinhong; Lv, Yali; Wang, Rongjun; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Longxian; Wang, Jiantang; Yang, Guangcheng; Ning, Changshen

    2016-08-01

    Organisms of the genera Anaplasma and Theileria are important intracellular bacteria and parasites that cause various tick-borne diseases, threatening the health of numerous animals as well as human beings. In the present study, a 12-month-old male wild South African giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa) originating from South Africa, and living in Zhengzhou Zoo (located in the urban district of Zhengzhou in the provincial capital of Henan), suddenly developed an unknown fatal disease and died 1day after the onset of the clinical signs. By microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears combined with nested PCR and DNA sequence analysis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma bovis and a novel Theileria spp. were found in the blood of this giraffe. The six other Cervidae animals in the zoo and three ruminants living in the same colony house with them were found to be negative for both Anaplasma and Theileria in their blood specimens. We report on the first case of an A. phagocytophilum infection and the occurrence of a novel Theileria spp. in the blood of a giraffe. This is the first reported case of a multi-infection of A. bovis, A. phagocytophilum and Theileria spp. in a giraffe, as revealed by microscopic examination of blood smears and the results of nested PCR and DNA sequencing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Study of cytotoxic activity, podophyllotoxin, and deoxypodophyllotoxin content in selected Juniperus species cultivated in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Och, Marek; Och, Anna; Cieśla, Łukasz; Kubrak, Tomasz; Pecio, Łukasz; Stochmal, Anna; Kocki, Janusz; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna

    2015-06-01

    The demand for podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin is still increasing and commercially exploitable sources are few and one of them, Podophyllum hexandrum Royle (Berberidaceae), is a "critically endangered" species. The first aim was to quantify the amount of podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin in 61 Juniperus (Cupressaceae) samples. Cytotoxic activity of podophyllotoxin and ethanolic leaf extracts of Juniperus scopulorum Sarg. "Blue Pacific" and Juniperus communis L. "Depressa Aurea" was examined against different leukemia cell lines. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) analysis was performed with the use of a Waters ACQUITY UPLC(TM) system (Waters Corp., Milford, MA). The peaks of podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin were assigned on the basis of their retention data and mass-to-charge ratio (m/z). Trypan blue assay was performed to obtain IC50 cytotoxicity values against selected leukemia cell lines. Juniperus scopulorum was characterized with the highest level of podophyllotoxin (486.7 mg/100 g DW) while Juniperus davurica Pall. contained the highest amount of deoxypodophyllotoxin (726.8 mg/100 g DW). Podophyllotoxin IC50 cytotoxicity values against J45.01 and CEM/C1 leukemia cell lines were 0.0040 and 0.0286 µg/mL, respectively. Juniperus scopulorum extract examined against J45.01 and HL-60/MX2 leukemia cell lines gave the respective IC50 values: 0.369-9.225 µg/mL. Juniperus communis extract was characterized with the following IC50 cytotoxity values against J45.01 and U-266B1 cell lines: 3.310-24.825 µg/mL. Juniperus sp. can be considered as an alternative source of podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin. Cytotoxic activity of podophyllotoxin and selected leaf extracts of Juniperus sp. against a set of leukemia cell lines was demonstrated.

  4. Hepatoprotective and nephroprotective activities of Juniperus sabina L. aerial parts

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    Maged S. Abdel-Kader

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Previous studies indicated that Juniperus species exhibited promising hepatoprotective activity. Aims: To evaluate the hepatoprotective and nephroprotective activity of the total alcohol extract of the aerial parts of Juniperus sabina against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 induced toxicity using male Wistar rats as experimental animals. Methods: Daily oral administration of two doses (200 and 400 mg/kg of the total extract of the aerial parts of J. sabina for seven days followed by one dose of CCl4 (1.25 mL/kg at day 6. Liver and kidney functions were monitored via measuring serum and tissue parameters as well as histopathological study. Normal rats, rats treated only with CCl4 and rats treated with CCl4 and silymarin were used as controls. Results: The higher dose showed 47, 50, 38, 17 and 42% decrease in the levels of AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, and bilirubin respectively. Animals received the total extract of J. sabina showed a significant dose-dependent recovery of the NP-SH contents, total proteins, and reduction the level of MDA in both liver and kidney tissues. Histopathological study revealed improvement in the architecture of hepatocytes and kidney cells. Conclusions: The hepatoprotective effect offered by J. sabina crude extract at the two used doses was found to be significant in all serum parameters. Histopathological study revealed moderate improvement in the architecture of the liver cells that add another indication of protection. Improvement of kidney function was less than liver function.

  5. [Juniperus ashei: the gold standard of the Cuppressaceae].

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    André, C; Dumur, J P; Hrabina, M; Lefebvre, E; Sicard, H

    2000-03-01

    The non-standardized Cupressus sempervirens allergen extract currently available for the diagnosis of cypress allergy has a low level of activity. The search for an active material consisted of in vitro and in vivo comparison of three Cupressaceae pollen extracts: Cupressus sempervirens (Cs), Cupressus arizonica (Ca) and Juniperus ashei (Ja) (synonyms: Juniperus sabinoides and Mountain Cedar). These 3 trees belong to the same botanical family of Cupressaceae. While Cs and Ca are commonly encountered in Mediterranean regions, Ja is only present in Europe in the Balkans, but is a major cause of allergy in the USA. In vitro, with a similar protein content, the allergenic properties of Ja extract are 20-Fold higher than those of Cs and 11-fold higher than those of Ca. IgE immunoblotting revealed 14, 42 and 70 kDa allergens common to all 3 extracts. The inhibition curves of the 3 extracts were more than 88% parallel. A significant correlation was observed between serum specific IgE titres for Ja and Cs in 23 patients (r = 0.916; p allergy, the mean diameter of the prick test papule at 1/20 W/V of Ja (8.3 mm) was greater than that of the Cs papule (6.3 mm) (p = 0.001) and the Ca papule (6.7 mm) (p allergy.

  6. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Juniperus excelsa Bieb. (Cupressaceae grown in R. Macedonia

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    Floresha Sela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are no information of the yield, chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of berries (EOB or leaves (EOL of Juniperus excelsa Bieb. (Cupressaceae growing wild in R. Macedonia. Materials and Methods: Plant material was collected from two localities during two seasons. Essential oil composition was analyzed by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector/mass spectrometry (GC/FID/MS and antimicrobial screening was made by disc diffusion and broth dilution method. Results and Discussion: EOB yield ranged from 1.6-9.4 ml/kg and from 8.9-13.9 ml/kg for EOL. Two chemotypes of essential oil were differentiated, α-pinene-type (with 70.81% α-pinene in EOB and 33.83% in EOL, also containing limonene, β-pinene and β-myrcene while the sabinene-type (with 58.85-62.58% sabinene in EOB and 28.52-29.49% in EOL, was rich in α-pinene, β-myrcene, limonene, cis-thujone, terpinolene and α-thujene. The most sensitive bacteria to the antimicrobial activity of EOB was Haemophilus influenzae (MIC = 31 μl/ml. EOL have showed high activity towards: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Haemophilus influenzae (MIC = 125 μl/ml. The pinene-type of essential oil showed moderate activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Corynebacterium spp. and Campylobacter jejuni (MIC >50%. The sabinene-type of the oil showed moderate activity to Streptococcus pyogenes, Haemopilus influenzae, Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli (MIC >50%. No activity was observed toward Candida albicans. Conclusion : The analysis of EOB and EOL revealed two chemotypes (α-pinene and sabinene type clearly depended on the geographical origin of the Macedonian Juniperus excelsa which also affected the antimicrobial activity of these oils.

  7. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Juniperus excelsa Bieb. (Cupressaceae) grown in R. Macedonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, Floresha; Karapandzova, Marija; Stefkov, Gjose; Cvetkovikj, Ivana; Kulevanova, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are no information of the yield, chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of berries (EOB) or leaves (EOL) of Juniperus excelsa Bieb. (Cupressaceae) growing wild in R. Macedonia. Materials and Methods: Plant material was collected from two localities during two seasons. Essential oil composition was analyzed by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector/mass spectrometry (GC/FID/MS) and antimicrobial screening was made by disc diffusion and broth dilution method. Results and Discussion: EOB yield ranged from 1.6-9.4 ml/kg and from 8.9-13.9 ml/kg for EOL. Two chemotypes of essential oil were differentiated, α-pinene-type (with 70.81% α-pinene in EOB and 33.83% in EOL), also containing limonene, β-pinene and β-myrcene while the sabinene-type (with 58.85-62.58% sabinene in EOB and 28.52-29.49% in EOL), was rich in α-pinene, β-myrcene, limonene, cis-thujone, terpinolene and α-thujene. The most sensitive bacteria to the antimicrobial activity of EOB was Haemophilus influenzae (MIC = 31 μl/ml). EOL have showed high activity towards: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Haemophilus influenzae (MIC = 125 μl/ml). The pinene-type of essential oil showed moderate activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Corynebacterium spp. and Campylobacter jejuni (MIC >50%). The sabinene-type of the oil showed moderate activity to Streptococcus pyogenes, Haemopilus influenzae, Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli (MIC >50%). No activity was observed toward Candida albicans. Conclusion: The analysis of EOB and EOL revealed two chemotypes (α-pinene and sabinene type) clearly depended on the geographical origin of the Macedonian Juniperus excelsa which also affected the antimicrobial activity of these oils. PMID:25598638

  8. Antiangiogenic and antihepatocellular carcinoma activities of the Juniperus chinensis extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Zong-Keng; Lin, Mei-Wei; Lu, I-Huang; Yao, Hsin-Jan; Wu, Hsin-Chieh; Wang, Chun-Chung; Lin, Shyh-Horng; Wu, Si-Yuan; Tong, Tien-Soung; Cheng, Yi-Cheng; Yen, Jui-Hung; Ko, Ching-Huai; Chiou, Shu-Jiau; Pan, I-Horng; Tseng, Hsiang-Wen

    2016-08-08

    To identify a novel therapeutic agent for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), for which no promising therapeutic agent exists, we screened a panel of plants and found that Juniperus chinensis exhibited potential antiangiogenic and anti-HCC activities. We further investigated the antiangiogenic and anti-HCC effects of the active ingredient of J. chinensis extract, CBT-143-S-F6F7, both in vitro and in vivo. A tube formation assay conducted using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was first performed to identify the active ingredient of CBT-143-S-F6F7. A series of angiogenesis studies, including HUVEC migration, Matrigel plug, and chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays, were then performed to confirm the effects of CBT-143-S-F6F7 on angiogenesis. The effects of CBT-143-S-F6F7 on tumor growth were investigated using a subcutaneous and orthotopic mouse model of HCC. In vitro studies were performed to investigate the effects of CBT-143-S-F6F7 on the cell cycle and apoptosis in HCC cells. Moreover, protein arrays for angiogenesis and apoptosis were used to discover biomarkers that may be influenced by CBT-143-S-F6F7. Finally, nuclear magnetic resonance analysis was conducted to identify the compounds of CBT-143-S-F6F7. CBT-143-S-F6F7 showed significantly antiangiogenic activity in various assays, including HUVEC tube formation and migration, CAM, and Matrigel plug assays. In in vivo studies, gavage with CBT-143-S-F6F7 significantly repressed subcutaneous Huh7 tumor growth in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, and prolonged the survival of orthotopic Huh7 tumor-bearing SCID mice (a 40 % increase in median survival duration compared with the vehicle-treated mice). Immunohistochemical staining of subcutaneous Huh7 tumors in CBT-143-S-F6F7-treated mice showed a significantly decrease in the cell cycle regulatory protein cyclin D1, cellular proliferation marker Ki-67, and endothelial marker CD31. CBT-143-S-F6F7 caused arrest of the G2/M phase and induced Huh

  9. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of berry essential oil of Juniperus oxycedrus L. (Cupressaceae grown wild in Republic of Macedonia

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    Floresha Sela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil isolated from berries from 2 different samples of Juniperus oxycedrus L. (Cupressaceae, growing wild in Republic of Macedonia was investigated. Performing GC/FID/MS analysis, one hundred components were identified, representing 96.0-98.95% of the oil. The major components were α-pinene (22.54- 27.12%, myrcene (11.26- 15.13% and limonene (2.78-18.06%. Antimicrobial screening of the J. oxycedrus essential oils was made by disc diffusion and broth dilution method against 16 bacterial isolates of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and one strain of Candida albicans. The most sensitive bacteria was Haemophilus influenzae (MIC = 125 ml/ml. The essential oils showed moderate antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Corynebacterium spp., Escherichia coli and Campilobacter jejuni (MIC > 500 ml/ml and no activity against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Acinetobacter spp., Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella flexnery, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus and Proteus mirabilis.

  10. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of leaves essential oil of Juniperus communis (Cupressaceae grown in Republic of Macedonia

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    Floresha Sela

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils isolated from leaves of three different samples of wild growing Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae from R. Macedonia was investigated. Essential oil yield ranged from 7.3 to 9.0 ml/kg. Performing GC/ FID/MS analysis, ninety components were identified, representing 86.07-93.31% of the oil. The major components of the leaves essential oil (LEO were α-pinene (21.37-28.68% and sabinene (2.29-16.27%, followed by limonene, terpinen-4-ol, β-elemene, trans-(E-caryophyllene, germacrene D and δ-cadinene. Antimicrobial screening of the LEO was made by disc diffusion and broth dilution method against 16 bacterial isolates of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and one strain of Candida albicans. Two bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes were sensitive to antimicrobial activity of LEO (MIC = 125 µl/ml. Additionally, LEO showed moderate antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus agalactiae, Haemophilus influnzae, Corynebacterium spp. and Campylobacter jejuni (MIC > 500 µl/ml. Candida albicans, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Acinetobacter spp., Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis were completely resistant to the antimicrobial effects of this.

  11. Genetic population structure of the wind-pollinated, dioecious shrub Juniperus communis in fragmented Dutch heathlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostermeijer, J.G.B.; de Knegt, B

    2004-01-01

    The wind-pollinated, dioecious shrub Juniperus communis L. is declining in Dutch heathlands, mainly because recruitment is scarce. Aside from ecological factors, inbreeding associated with reduced population size and isolation in the currently fragmented landscape might explain this decline.

  12. Influence of resource availability on Juniperus virginiana expansion in a forest–prairie ecotone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite being native to the United States, Juniperus virginiana has rapidly expanded in prairie ecosystems bringing detrimental ecological effects and increased wildfire risk. We transplanted J. virginiana seedlings in three plant communities to investigate mechanisms driving J. ...

  13. Variability of the needle essential oils of Juniperus deltoides R.P.ADAMS from different populations in Serbia and Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajčević, Nemanja; Janaćković, Peđa; Bojović, Srđan; Tešević, Vele; Marin, Petar D

    2013-01-01

    The essential-oil compositions of one Croatian and three Serbian populations of Juniperus deltoides R.P.ADAMS have been determined by GC/MS analysis. In total, 147 compounds were identified, representing 97.3-98.3% of the oil composition. The oils were dominated by monoterpenes, which are characteristic components for the species of the section Juniperus. Two monoterpenes, α-pinene and limonene, were the dominant constituents, with a summed-up average content of 49.45%. Statistical methods were used to determine the diversity of the terpene classes and the common terpenes between the newly described J. deltoides populations from Serbia and Croatia. Only reports on several specimens from this species have been reported so far, and there are no studies that treat population diversity. Cluster analysis of the oil contents of 21 terpenes showed high correlation with the geographical distribution of the populations, separating the Croatian from the Serbian populations. The comparison of the essential-oil compositions obtained in the present study with literature data, showed the separation of J. deltoides and J. oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus from the western Mediterranean region. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  14. New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1-producing Acinetobacter spp. infection: report of a survivor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuelter-Trevisol, Fabiana; Schmitt, Graciane Jacinta; Araújo, Jane Martins de; Souza, Liliane Braga de; Nazário, Juliana Gomes; Januário, Raquel Landuchi; Mello, Rogério Sobroza de; Trevisol, Daisson José

    2016-02-01

    New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) is a bacterial enzyme that renders the bacteria resistant to a variety of beta-lactam antibiotics. A 20-year-old man was hospitalized several times for surgical treatment and complications caused by a right-sided vestibular schwannoma. Although the patient acquired several multidrug-resistant infections, this study focuses on the NDM-1-producing Acinetobacter spp. infection. As it was resistant to all antimicrobials tested, the medical team developed a 20-day regimen of 750mg/day metronidazole, 2,000,000IU/day polymyxin B, and 100mg/day tigecycline. The treatment was effective, and the patient recovered and was discharged from the hospital.

  15. New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1-producing Acinetobacter spp. infection: report of a survivor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Schuelter-Trevisol

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1 is a bacterial enzyme that renders the bacteria resistant to a variety of beta-lactam antibiotics. A 20-year-old man was hospitalized several times for surgical treatment and complications caused by a right-sided vestibular schwannoma. Although the patient acquired several multidrug-resistant infections, this study focuses on the NDM-1-producing Acinetobacter spp. infection. As it was resistant to all antimicrobials tested, the medical team developed a 20-day regimen of 750mg/day metronidazole, 2,000,000IU/day polymyxin B, and 100mg/day tigecycline. The treatment was effective, and the patient recovered and was discharged from the hospital.

  16. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of branches extracts of five Juniperus species from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taviano, Maria Fernanda; Marino, Andreana; Trovato, Ada; Bellinghieri, Valentina; La Barbera, Tommaso Massimo; Güvenç, Ayşegül; Hürkul, Muhammed Mesud; Pasquale, Rita De; Miceli, Natalizia

    2011-10-01

    Several Juniperus species (Cupressaceae) are utilized in folk medicine in the treatment of infections and skin diseases. This work was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of methanol and water branches extracts of Juniperus species from Turkey: Juniperus communis L. var. communis (Jcc), Juniperus communis L. var. saxatilis Pall. (Jcs), Juniperus drupacea Labill. (Jd), Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus (Joo), Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. macrocarpa (Sibth. & Sm.) Ball. (Jom). Total phenolics, total flavonoids and condensed tannins were spectrophotometrically determined. The antioxidant properties were examined using different in vitro systems. The toxicity was assayed by Artemia salina lethality test. The antimicrobial potential against bacteria and yeasts was evaluated using minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration (MIC/MBC) measurements. The effect on bacteria biofilms was tested by microtiter plate assay. Both in the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and TBA (thiobarbituric acid) test Jom resulted the most active (IC(50) = 0.034 ± 0.002 mg/mL and 0.287 ± 0.166 µg/mL). Joo exhibited the highest reducing power (1.78 ± 0.04 ASE/mL) and Fe(2+) chelating activity (IC(50) = 0.537 ± 0.006 mg/mL). A positive correlation between primary antioxidant activity and phenolic content was found. The extracts were potentially non-toxic against Artemia salina. They showed the best antimicrobial (MIC = 4.88-30.10 µg/mL) and anti-biofilm activity (60-84%) against S. aureus. The results give a scientific basis to the traditional utilization of these Juniperus species, also demonstrating their potential as sources of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds.

  17. Modulatory effect of standardised amentoflavone isolated from Juniperus communis L. agianst Freund's adjuvant induced arthritis in rats (histopathological and X Ray anaysis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bais, Souravh; Abrol, Naveena; Prashar, Yash; Kumari, Renu

    2017-02-01

    Juniperus communis. L. is a shrub or small evergreen tree, native to Europe, South Asia, and North America, and belongs to family Cupressaceae. It has been used traditionally in unani system and in Swedish medicine as a decoction in inflammatory diseases. The main chemical constituents, which were reported in J. communis L. was α-pinene,, apigenin, sabinene, β-sitosterol, campesterol, limonene, Amentoflavone (AF), cupressuflavone, and many others. The aim of present study was to isolate the amentoflavone from the plant juniperus communis L. extracts and its protective effects against Freund's adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. Adjuvant arthritis was induced by an injection of 1mg heat killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis (CFA) into the left hind paw of rat by sub planter route (at day 0). The experiment was designed and modified as per method available in literature. The study showed that at a dose of 40mg/kg of amentoflavone (AF) from methanolic extract of Juniperus Communis L. possessed potentially useful anti-arthritic activity as it gave a positive result in controlling inflammation in the adjuvant induced experimental model. From the present experimental findings of both pharmacological and biochemical parameters observed, it had been concluded that at the doses of 20mg/kg and 40mg/kg of AF fraction from methanolic extract of Juniperus communis L. It possesses useful anti-arthritic activity since it gives a positive result in controlling inflammation in the adjuvant induced arthritic model in rats. The drug is a promising anti-arthritic agent of plant origin in the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. The neuroprotective potential of phenolic-enriched fractions from four Juniperus species found in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Lucélia; McDougall, Gordon J; Fortalezas, Sofia; Stewart, Derek; Ferreira, Ricardo B; Santos, Cláudia N

    2012-11-15

    The increase in population lifespan has enhanced the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases, for which there is, as yet, no cure. We aimed to chemically characterize phenolic-enriched fractions (PEFs) from four wild Juniperus sp. found in Portugal (Juniperus navicularis, Juniperus oxycedrus badia, Juniperus phoenicea and Juniperus turbinata) and address their potential as sources of natural products for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Leaves from the four Juniperus sp. evaluated contained a range of phenolic components which differed quantitatively between the species. The PEFs obtained were rich sources of phenolic compounds, exhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity and also displayed effective intracellular radical scavenging properties in neurons submitted to oxidative injury but showed a different order of effectiveness compared to AChE inhibition. These properties made them good candidates for testing in a neurodegeneration cell model. Pre-incubation with J. oxycedrus badia PEF for 24h protected neurons from injury in the neurodegeneration cell model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Insights into cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities of five Juniperus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Nilufer; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Ergun, Fatma

    2011-09-01

    In vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory and antioxidant activities of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaves, ripe fruits, and unripe fruits of Juniperus communis ssp. nana, Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus, Juniperus sabina, Juniperus foetidissima, and Juniperus excelsa were investigated in the present study. Cholinesterase inhibition of the extracts was screened using ELISA microplate reader. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was tested by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radical scavenging, ferrous ion-chelating, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. The extracts had low or no inhibition towards AChE, whereas the leaf aqueous extract of J. foetidissima showed the highest BChE inhibition (93.94 ± 0.01%). The leaf extracts usually exerted higher antioxidant activity. We herein describe the first study on anticholinesterase and antioxidant activity by the methods of ferrous ion-chelating, superoxide radical scavenging, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays of the mentioned Juniperus species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. In vitro effect of branch extracts of Juniperus species from Turkey on Staphylococcus aureus biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Andreana; Bellinghieri, Valentina; Nostro, Antonia; Miceli, Natalizia; Taviano, Maria Fernanda; Güvenç, Ayşegül; Bisignano, Giuseppe

    2010-08-01

    Methanol and aqueous branch extracts of five Juniperus species were examined for their effects on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538P and S. aureus 810 biofilm. The Turkish plant material was Juniperus communis L. var. communis, J. communis L. var. saxatilis Pall., Juniperus drupacea Labill., Juniperus oxycedrus L. ssp. oxycedrus, J. oxycedrus L. ssp. macrocarpa (Sibth. & Sm.) Ball. The Juniperus extracts were subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis by thin-layer chromatography. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The effects of the extracts on biofilm formation and preformed biofilm were quantified by both biomass OD and the CFU counting method. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of polyphenols, coumarins, lignans, steroids, alkaloids and terpenes. For both strains, the MICs of all extracts were in the range of 4.88-78.12 microg mL(-1). On S. aureus ATCC 6538P, the effects of subinhibitory concentration (0.5 MIC) of the extracts were minimal on planktonic growth and on adhering cells, whereas they were greater on biofilm formation. Differently, on S. aureus 810, they showed only a rather low efficacy on biofilm formation. The extracts at 2 MIC demonstrated a good activity on a preformed biofilm of S. aureus ATCC 6538P.

  1. Study of the hepatoprotective effect of Juniperus phoenicea constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqasoumi, Saleh Ibrahim; Farraj, Abdallah Ibrahim; Abdel-Kader, Maged Saad

    2013-09-01

    Different fraction obtained from the aerial parts of Juniperus phoenicea showed significant activity as hepatoprotective when investigated against carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury. The hepatoprotective activity was evaluated through the quantification of biochemical parameters and confirmed using histopathology study. Phytochemical investigation of the petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol fractions utilizing different chromatographic techniques resulted in the isolation of five known diterpenoids namely: 13-epicupressic acid (1), imbricatolic acid (2), 7α-hydroxysandaracopimaric acid (3), 3β-hydroxysandaracopimaric acid (4), isopimaric acid (5), four flavonoid derivatives: cupressuflavone (6), hinokiflavone (7), hypolaetin-7-O-β-xylopyranoside (9), (-) catechin (10), inaddition to sucrose (8). Both physical and spectral data were used for structure determination and all isolates were evaluated for their hepatoprotective activity. Compounds 2 and 6 were effective, however; 7 was the most active. Hepatoprotective activity of 7 is comparable with the standard drug silymarin in reducing the elevated liver enzymes and restoring normal appearance of hepatocytes. Hepatoprotective effect of combination of 6, 7 and silymarin with the diterpene sugiol was also explored.

  2. [Systematics and genegeography of Juniperus communis inferred from isoenzyme data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khantemirova, E V; Berkutenko, A N; Semerikov, V L

    2012-09-01

    Using isoenzyme analysis, 35 populations of Juniperus communis L. from various parts of the Russian species range and by one population from Sweden and Alaska were studied. The total sample size was 1200 plants. As a result, the existence ofJ. communis var. oblonga in North Caucasus and J. communis var. depressa in North America was confirmed, but genetic differences between J. communis var. communis and J. communis var. saxatilis were not detected in the main part of the Russian species range (European part of Russia, Ural, Siberia). These populations proved to be genetically uniform with the same predominant allelic frequencies, which may evidence recent settling of this species from one of Central or East European refugium. J. communis var. saxatilis from northeastern Russia inhabiting the region behind Verkhoyansk mountain and Russian Far East showed considerable differentiation in frequencies of alleles at three loci and geographical subdivision. These populations also exhibit high intrapopulation variation. This can be connected with the refugium in this territory. The origin of this group is probably connected with migrations from Central Asia (Tibet) in the direction to northeastern Russia along mountains connecting Central and North Asia. It is also assumed that migrations of this species previously proceeded across the Beringian land bridge.

  3. Antihyperglycemic effect ofJuniperus phoenicea L. on alloxan-induced diabetic rats and diterpenoids isolated from the fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salma Ahmed El-Sawi; Hemaia Mohamed Motawae; Abdel-Rahman Omar El-Shabrawy; Mohamed Aboul-Fotouh Sleem; Amani Ameen Sleem; Maii Abdel Naby Ismail Maamoun

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the traditional use ofJuniperus phoenicea L. (J. phoenicea) growing in Egypt as antidiabetic herb. Methods: The antihyperglycemic activities of the crude 80% ethanol and successive extracts of leaves and fruits of the plant were investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats after collecting blood samples through retro-orbital puncture technique. As a consequence of the biological results, phytochemical investigation of the chloroform fraction of fruits was carried out by column chromatography and thin layer chromatography. Results: Results revealed the reduction in blood glucose levels in rats, which were significantly different from control at 4 and 8 weeks (P Conclusions: It has become clear that leaves and fruits of the EgyptianJ. phoenicea provide effective antihyperglycemic action in diabetic rats as was reported in folk medicine. The high contents of terpenoids in the non-polar fractions may attribute to the antidiabetic effect of the plant.

  4. [Study on chemical constituents from twig and leaf of Juniperus sabina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang; Zhao, Jun; Xu, Fang; Ji, Teng-fei; Ma, Long

    2013-12-01

    To isolate and determine chemical constituents from twig and leaf of Juniperus sabina. Five compounds were isolated and purified by extraction and different kinds of column chromatography. The structures were determined on the basis of the physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. The structures were elucidated as quercetin-3-O-(6"-O-acetyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside(1), hypolaetin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside(2), isoquercetin(3),4-epi-abietic acid(4), beta-sitosterol(5). Compounds 1-3 are obtained from Juniperus genus for the first time.

  5. First report of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) and cockles (Tivela mactroides) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiguet Leal, Diego Averaldo; Pereira, Mirna Aparecida; Bueno Franco, Regina Maura; Branco, Nilson; Neto, Romeu Cantusio

    2008-12-01

    The consumption of oysters and cockles, which are usually eaten raw or lightly-cooked, can cause outbreaks of human diseases, especially if these shellfish are harvested from polluted areas. In Brazil data about the occurrence of pathogens, like hepatitis A virus, in shellfish have been reported but research on natural contamination for pathogenic protozoa is still non-existent. Cryptosporidium oocyst contamination of oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) and cockles (Tivela mactroides) was evaluated during two different periods in a coastal area from São Paulo, Brazil. From June to November 2005, and from July to December 2006, 180 mollusks were harvested for tissue examination. The gills and gastrointestinal tract (n = 36 pools) were carefully extracted from the animals and homogenized in a tissue homogenizer by adding surfactant Tween 80 (0.1%). Immunofluorescence assays were performed and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 50.0% of gill pools of cockles and 10.0% of gill pools of oysters. In order to evaluate seawater quality in shellfish growing areas, total levels of thermotolerant coliforms, Escherichia coli and enterococci were determined. This is the first time that Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in shellfish from the coastal region of Brazil, and to the best of our knowledge it is also the first report in Latin America and the case might be of public health importance, reflecting the extension of the contamination on seafood, requiring a need for quality control standards. Copyright IWA Publishing 2008.

  6. Prevalence and real clinical impact of Cupressus sempervirens and Juniperus communis sensitisations in Tuscan "Maremma", Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sposato, Bruno; Scalese, Macro

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the impact of Cupressus sempervirens (Cs) and Juniperus communis (Jc) sensitisations in "Maremma" in southern Tuscany. 811 consecutive outpatients (357 F - 57.86%; age: 36.9 ± 16.6) with suspected allergic respiratory symptoms underwent skin prick tests (SPT) for common allergens and for Cs and Jc. SPT resulted negative in 295 (36.37%) subjects. A Cs/Jc sensitisation was found in 294 (36.25%): 289 (98.3%) were sensitised to Cs whereas 198 (67.34%) to Jc. There was a co-sensitisation between Cs and Jc in 193 (65.6%) subjects. Cs/Jc mono-sensitisation was found in 39 (13.6%) subjects. A higher number (p<0.0001) of Cs/Jc sensitised subjects reported winter (131-44.55%) and spring (124-42.2%) symptoms compared to Cs/Jc non-sensitised and non-allergic subjects. Most Cs/Jc sensitised subjects reported rhinitis and conjunctivitis (p<0.0001), whereas only few reported coughing and asthma (p<0.01). The most frequent co-sensitisation was with grass, olive and other trees in Cs/Jc subjects (p<0.001). Those who reported winter symptoms, likely influenced by Cupressaceae, rhinitis was the main symptom whereas asthma was less frequent. Cs/Jc sensitisation resulted to be a risk factor (OR: 1.73 [CI95% 1.18-2.55]) for rhinitis whereas the probability of being asthmatic was reduced (OR: 0.62 [CI95% 0.44-0.85]). The prevalence of Cs/Jc sensitisation is about 36% in "Maremma". However, only in 44% of the patients, Cs/Jc seem to cause typical winter symptoms. Rhinitis is the predominant symptom, whereas asthma is less frequent. Testing Cupressaceae sensitisation using Jc pollen extract, rather than Cs, may result to be less sensitive. Copyright © 2011 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. FIRST REPORT OF METALLO-β-LACTAMASES PRODUCING Enterobacter spp. STRAINS FROM VENEZUELA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Dianny; Rodulfo, Hectorina E.; Rodríguez, Lucy; Caña, Luisa E.; Medina, Belkis; Guzman, Militza; Carreño, Numirin; Marcano, Daniel; Donato, Marcos De

    2014-01-01

    Clinical strains of Enterobacter were isolated from Cumana's Central Hospital in Venezuela, and classified as E. cloacae (21), E. aerogenes (7), E. intermedium (1), E. sakazakii (1) and three unclassified. The strains showed high levels of resistance, especially to SXT (58.1%), CRO (48.8%), CAZ (46.6%), PIP (46.4%), CIP (45.2%) and ATM (43.3%). This is the first report for South America of bla VIM-2 in two E. cloacae and one Enterobacter sp., which also showed multiple mechanisms of resistance. Both E. cloacae showed bla TEM-1, but only one showed bla CTX-M-15 gene, while no bla SHV was detected. PMID:24553611

  8. First report of metallo-β-lactamases producing Enterobacter spp. strains from Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Dianny; Rodulfo, Hectorina E; Rodríguez, Lucy; Caña, Luisa E; Medina, Belkis; Guzman, Militza; Carreño, Numirin; Marcano, Daniel; De Donato, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    Clinical strains of Enterobacter were isolated from Cumana's Central Hospital in Venezuela, and classified as E. cloacae (21), E. aerogenes (7), E. intermedium (1), E. sakazakii (1) and three unclassified. The strains showed high levels of resistance, especially to SXT (58.1%), CRO (48.8%), CAZ (46.6%), PIP (46.4%), CIP (45.2%) and ATM (43.3%). This is the first report for South America of blaVIM-2 in two E. cloacae and one Enterobacter sp., which also showed multiple mechanisms of resistance. Both E. cloacae showed blaTEM-1, but only one showed blaCTX-M-15 gene, while no blaSHV was detected.

  9. FIRST REPORT OF METALLO-β-LACTAMASES PRODUCING Enterobacter spp. STRAINS FROM VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianny Martinez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical strains of Enterobacter were isolated from Cumana's Central Hospital in Venezuela, and classified as E. cloacae (21, E. aerogenes (7, E. intermedium (1, E. sakazakii (1 and three unclassified. The strains showed high levels of resistance, especially to SXT (58.1%, CRO (48.8%, CAZ (46.6%, PIP (46.4%, CIP (45.2% and ATM (43.3%. This is the first report for South America of blaVIM-2 in two E. cloacae and one Enterobacter sp., which also showed multiple mechanisms of resistance. Both E. cloacae showed blaTEM-1, but only one showed blaCTX-M-15 gene, while no blaSHV was detected.

  10. Pharmacognostic standardization of Homoeopathic drug: Juniperus virginiana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Padma Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Juniperus virginiana L., commonly known as ′red cedar′ in English is a well-known evergreen tree belonging to the family Cupressaceae. The leaves and young aerial shoots are used for preparation of medicine in Homoeopathy. Objective: Standardization is the quintessential aspect which ensures purity and quality of drugs. Hence, the pharmacognostic and physico-chemical studies are carried out to facilitate the use of authentic and correct species of raw drug plant material with established parametric standards for manufacturing the drug. Materials and Methods: Pharmacognostic studies on leaves and young aerial parts of authentic samples of J. virginiana L. have been carried out; physico-chemical parameters of raw drug viz., extractive values, ash values, formulation, besides weight per mL, total solids, alcohol content along with High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC and ultraviolet visible studies have been worked out for mother tincture. Results: The leaves are needles, narrow and sharp at tips; stems are round with greyish white to brown bark possessing small lenticels and covered by imbricate leaves. Epidermal cells in the surface have polygonal linear sides with pitted walls containing crystals and starch. Stomata exclusively occur on the adaxial surface in linear rows. Hypodermis of leaf in T.S. is marked with 1-2 layered lignified sclerenchyma. 2-4 secretory canals are present with one conspicuously beneath midvein bundle. The young terminal axis is sheathed by two closely surrounding leaves while the mature stem possess four leaf bases attached. Vascular tissue of stem possesses predominant xylem surrounded by phloem containing sphaeraphides, prismatic crystals and starch grains. Uniseriate rays occur in the xylem. Mature stem possess shrivelled cork, followed by the cortex. Physicochemical properties and HPTLC values of the drug are standardized and presented. Conclusion: The powder microscopic features and

  11. Pollination Drop in Juniperus communis: Response to Deposited Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugnaini, Serena; Nepi, Massimo; Guarnieri, Massimo; Piotto, Beti; Pacini, Ettore

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims The pollination drop is a liquid secretion produced by the ovule and exposed outside the micropyle. In many gymnosperms, pollen lands on the surface of the pollination drop, rehydrates and enters the ovule as the drop retracts. The objective of this work was to study the formation of the pollination drop in Juniperus communis, its carbohydrate composition and the response to deposition of conspecific pollen, foreign pollen and other particulate material, in an attempt to clarify the mechanism of pollination drop retraction. Method Branches with female cones close to pollination drop secretion were collected. On the first day of pollination drop exposure, an eyelash mounted on a wooden stick with paraffin was used to collect pollen or silica gel particles, which were then deposited by contact with the drop. Volume changes in pollination drops were measured by using a stereomicroscope with a micrometer eyepiece 3 h after deposition. The volume of non-pollinated control drops was also recorded. On the first day of secretion, drops were also collected for sugar analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography. Key Results The pollination drop persisted for about 12 d if not pollinated, and formed again after removal for up to four consecutive days. After pollination with viable conspecific pollen, the drop retracted quickly and did not form again. Partial withdrawal occurred after deposition of other biological and non-biological material. Fructose was the dominant sugar; glucose was also present but at a much lower percentage. Conclusions Sugar analysis confirmed the general trend of fructose dominance in gymnosperm pollination drops. Complete pollination drop withdrawal appears to be triggered by a biochemical mechanism resulting from interaction between pollen and drop constituents. The results of particle deposition suggest the existence of a non-specific, particle-size-dependent mechanism that induces partial pollination drop withdrawal

  12. Enantiomeric and non-enantiomeric monoterpenes of Juniperus communis L. and Juniperus oxycedrus needles and berries determined by HS-SPME and enantioselective GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foudil-Cherif, Yazid; Yassaa, Noureddine

    2012-12-01

    For the first time, enantiomeric and non-enantiomeric distribution of monoterpenes in the headspace of Juniperus communis L. and Juniperus oxycedrus needles and berries has been determined using HS-SPME combined with enantioselective GC/MS. The essential oils from needles and berries of both Juniperus species obtained by hydrodistillation were also performed. HS-SPME has shown good potential to reproduce the same results as the commonly used hydrodistillation extraction technique. While needles and berries of J. communis showed high contents of sabinene, α-pinene and β-myrcene with 19-30%, 12-24% and 9-20%, respectively, J. oxycedrus was strongly dominated by α-pinene with 85-92% in both needles and berries. Large variations in chiral distribution of monoterpenes within the same plant species and between the two junipers were observed. Interestingly, similar enantiomeric preferences of monoterpenes were obtained between needles and berries of the two junipers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of regular reporting on local Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. sensitivity to antibiotics on consumption of antibiotics and resistance patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Z M; Folic, M M; Jankovic, S M

    2017-10-01

    Regular surveillance of antimicrobial resistance is an important component of multifaceted interventions directed at the problem with resistance of bacteria causing healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in intensive care units (ICUs). Our aim was to analyse antimicrobial consumption and resistance among isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. causing HAIs, before and after the introduction of mandatory reporting of resistance patterns to prescribers. A retrospective observational study was conducted between January 2011 and December 2015, at an interdisciplinary ICU of the Clinical Centre Kragujevac, Serbia. The intervention consisted of continuous resistance monitoring of all bacterial isolates from ICU patients and biannual reporting of results per isolate to prescribers across the hospital. Both utilization of antibiotics and density of resistant isolates of P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. were followed within the ICU. Resistance densities of P. aeruginosa to all tested antimicrobials were lower in 2015, in comparison with 2011. Although isolates of Acinetobacter spp. had lower resistance density in 2015 than in 2011 to the majority of investigated antibiotics, a statistically significant decrease was noted only for piperacillin/tazobactam. Statistically significant decreasing trends of consumption were recorded for third-generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones, whereas for the piperacillin/tazobactam, ampicillin/sulbactam and carbapenems, utilization trends were decreasing, but without statistical significance. In the same period, increasing trends of consumption were observed for tigecycline and colistin. Regular monitoring of resistance of bacterial isolates in ICUs and reporting of summary results to prescribers may lead to a significant decrease in utilization of some antibiotics and slow restoration of P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. susceptibility. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The first report of Rickettsia spp. in Amblyomma nodosum in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Robson F C; Garcia, Marcos V; Cunha, Rodrigo C; Matias, Jaqueline; Labruna, Marcelo B; Andreotti, Renato

    2013-02-01

    Ticks are vectors of various pathogens, including Rickettsia spp., which are responsible for causing an emerging disease of global significance. In the present study, an epidemiological survey was performed to identify Rickettsia spp. of the spotted fever group (SFG) in ticks and wild hosts in a native forest adjacent to livestock farming activity. The ticks and blood were evaluated by a hemolymph test and by PCR using the primers CS78 and CS323, which target a partial sequence of the enzyme citrate synthase (gltA) gene. Positive samples by PCR were further tested with the primers Rr190.70p and Rr190.602n, which target a 532-bp fragment of the rickettsial 190-kDa outer membrane protein gene (ompA). In addition, an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was performed to detect antibodies against Rickettsia spp. in horses that inhabited the same area. From the 43 animals that were captured, 192 ticks were collected; the ticks belonged to the species Amblyomma cajennense, A. ovale, and A. nodosum. All blood samples and hemolymph tests were negative. Four samples of A. nodosum that were collected from Tamandua tetradactyla were positive for Rickettsia spp. by PCR, and 8 samples of horse serum displayed titers greater than or equal to 1:64 by IFA. The phylogenetic analysis based on the DNA sequence of the ompACG gene demonstrated that Rickettsia spp. CG (the canadensis group) segregate in the same cluster as Rickettsia parkeri strain COOPERI, with a bootstrap value of 78%. These results indicate that Rickettsia spp. CG circulate among the tick population in the study area, which has a constant presence of livestock and humans. This may be the same species of Rickettsia that was recorded in A. nodosum throughout the Atlantic forest.

  15. Entoloma juniperinum: a new species from Juniperus heaths in North-Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barkman, J.J.; Noordeloos, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    During a long-term mycological investigation of Juniperus communities in north-western Europe by the first author, a small Entoloma species was found, which did not seem to fit with one of the known species of Entoloma with a brownish pileus and bluish stipe, because of the small, almost

  16. Soil seed bank composition along a gradient from dry alvar grassland to Juniperus shrubland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.S; Rosén, E; Verweij, G.L.; Bekker, R.M.; Bakker, J.P.

    Dry alvar grasslands on limestone on the Baltic island of Oland, SE Sweden, are very species-rich as long as the traditional agricultural exploitation of grazing and fire wood collection continues. After abandonment, encroachment of Juniperus communis starts and a closed woodland can develop within

  17. Anatomical studies of Juniperus communis L. ssp. communis and J. communis L. ssp. nana Syme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, H.J.

    1974-01-01

    The wood descriptions of Juniperus communis L. ssp. communis are compared with those of earlier authors. The average and maximum tracheid lengths and the ray height distribution frequencies offer a means of separating the wood of the erect J. communis L. ssp. communis from that of the subspecies

  18. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY OF SHOOTS OF JUNIPERUS COMMUNIS L. FROM CUPRESSACEAE FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. K. Serebryanaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have conducted morphological and anatomical studies of Juniperus communis, revealed diagnostic indices of the stamina, stalk, and needle. The leaf is sessile, linear awe shaped, pointed. Stalk form at cross section is cylindrical. Needles are lanceolar with one whitish vertical stripe, with paracytic stomata. 

  19. Anatomical studies of Juniperus communis L. ssp. communis and J. communis L. ssp. nana Syme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, H.J.

    1974-01-01

    The wood descriptions of Juniperus communis L. ssp. communis are compared with those of earlier authors. The average and maximum tracheid lengths and the ray height distribution frequencies offer a means of separating the wood of the erect J. communis L. ssp. communis from that of the subspecies nan

  20. Periodicity of growth rings in Juniperus procera from Ethiopia inferred from crossdating and radiocarbon dating.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wils, T.; Robertson, I.; Eshetu, Z.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Koprowski, M.

    2009-01-01

    African pencil cedar (Juniperus procera Hochst. ex Endlicher 1847) is a tropical, irregularly growing species that can produce annual growth rings in response to an annual cycle of wet and dry seasons. In this paper, we assess the periodicity of growth-ring formation for 13 stem discs from a site in

  1. IIMPLICATIONS OF INVASION BY JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA ON SMALL MAMMALS IN THE SOUTHERN GREAT PLAINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes in landscape cover in the Great Plains are resulting from the range expansion and invasion of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana). By altering the landscape and local vegetation, red cedar is changing the structure and function of habitat for small mammals. We examin...

  2. Diversification and biogeography of Juniperus (Cupressaceae): variable diversification rates and multiple intercontinental dispersals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Kangshan; Hao, Gang; Liu, Jianquan; Adams, Robert P; Milne, Richard I

    2010-10-01

    • A central aim of biogeography is to understand when and how modern patterns of species diversity and distribution developed. Many plant groups have disjunct distributions within the Northern Hemisphere, but among these very few have been studied that prefer warm semi-arid habitats. • Here we examine the biogeography and diversification history of Juniperus, which occurs in semi-arid habitats through much of the Northern Hemisphere. A phylogeny was generated based on > 10,000 bp of cpDNA for 51 Juniperus species plus many outgroups. Phylogenies based on fewer species were also constructed based on nuclear internal transcribed spacer (nrITS) and combined nrITS/cpDNA data sets to check for congruence. Divergence time-scales and ancestral distributions were further inferred. • Both long dispersal and migration across land bridges probably contributed to the modern range of Juniperus, while long-term climatic changes and the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau probably drove its diversification. Diversification apparently slowed down during climate-stable period of the Oligocene, and then speeded up from the Miocene onwards. • Juniperus probably originated in Eurasia, and was a part of the south Eurasian Tethyan vegetation of the Eocene to Oligocene. It reached America once at this time, once in the Miocene and once more recently.

  3. Sagebrush steppe recovery after fire varies by development phase of Juniperus occidentalis woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinus-Juniperus L. (Piñon- juniper) woodlands have expanded into Artemisia tridentata Beetle (big sagebrush) steppe of the western United States primarily as a result of reduced fire disturbances. Woodland control measures, including prescribed fire, have been increasingly employed to restore sagebr...

  4. Anatomical studies of Juniperus communis L. ssp. communis and J. communis L. ssp. nana Syme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, H.J.

    1974-01-01

    The wood descriptions of Juniperus communis L. ssp. communis are compared with those of earlier authors. The average and maximum tracheid lengths and the ray height distribution frequencies offer a means of separating the wood of the erect J. communis L. ssp. communis from that of the subspecies nan

  5. Evidence of recovery of Juniperus virginiana trees from sulfur pollution after the Clean Air Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Richard B; Spal, Scott E; Smith, Kenneth R; Nippert, Jesse B

    2013-09-17

    Using dendroisotopic techniques, we show the recovery of Juniperus virginiana L. (eastern red cedar) trees in the Central Appalachian Mountains from decades of acidic pollution. Acid deposition over much of the 20th century reduced stomatal conductance of leaves, thereby increasing intrinsic water-use efficiency of the Juniperus trees. These data indicate that the stomata of Juniperus may be more sensitive to acid deposition than to increasing atmospheric CO2. A breakpoint in the 100-y δ(13)C tree ring chronology occurred around 1980, as the legacy of sulfur dioxide emissions declined following the enactment of the Clean Air Act in 1970, indicating a gradual increase in stomatal conductance (despite rising levels of atmospheric CO2) and a concurrent increase in photosynthesis related to decreasing acid deposition and increasing atmospheric CO2. Tree ring δ(34)S shows a synchronous change in the sources of sulfur used at the whole-tree level that indicates a reduced anthropogenic influence. The increase in growth and the δ(13)C and δ(34)S trends in the tree ring chronology of these Juniperus trees provide evidence for a distinct physiological response to changes in atmospheric SO2 emissions since ∼1980 and signify the positive impacts of landmark environmental legislation to facilitate recovery of forest ecosystems from acid deposition.

  6. IMPLICATIONS OF INVASION BY JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA ON SMALL MAMMALS IN THE SOUTHERN GREAT PLAINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes in landscape cover in the Great Plains are resulting from the range expansion and invasion of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana). By altering the landscape and local vegetation, red cedar is changing the structure and function of habitat for small mammals. We exam...

  7. Periodicity of growth rings in Juniperus procera from Ethiopia inferred from crossdating and radiocarbon dating.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wils, T.; Robertson, I.; Eshetu, Z.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Koprowski, M.

    2009-01-01

    African pencil cedar (Juniperus procera Hochst. ex Endlicher 1847) is a tropical, irregularly growing species that can produce annual growth rings in response to an annual cycle of wet and dry seasons. In this paper, we assess the periodicity of growth-ring formation for 13 stem discs from a site in

  8. Combining dendrochronology and matrix modelling in demographic studies: An evaluation for Juniperus procera in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couralet, C.; Sass, U.G.W.; Sterck, F.J.; Zuidema, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Tree demography was analysed by applying dendrochronological techniques and matrix modelling on a static data set of Juniperus procera populations of Ethiopian dry highland forests. Six permanent sample plots were established for an inventory of diameters and 11 stem discs were collected for

  9. Studies on the optimal extraction of flavonoids from the fruit of Juniperus virginiana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunči Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The isolation and quantitative determination of flavonoid compounds in fruit of Juniperus virginiana L. (Cupressaceae are described. A method for the detection of those flavonoids was high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Rutin and kaempferol were determined in accordingly extracts and quercetin only in hydrolysated extracts.

  10. Molecular approaches for the analysis of airborne pollen: A case study of Juniperus pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Rashmi Prava; Buchheim, Mark Alan; Levetin, Estelle

    2017-02-01

    Pollen monitoring is a common and vital tool in the field of allergy, creating awareness in pollen sensitive individuals. Traditionally, pollen monitoring has been based on conventional microscopic counting techniques that are labor intensive and limited in the identification to the genus or family level. Molecular techniques provide an alternative approach that is less labor intensive and enable identification of any species by its genetic fingerprint. To use quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to evaluate pollen concentrations in air samples. Juniperus pollen was selected as our model because of the importance of this pollen in the southcentral United States. We analyzed 105 air samples collected with a Burkard spore trap from 2013 to 2015 using species-specific primers and probes. To evaluate the feasibility of a molecular approach, we used duplicate air samples that allowed us to compare results from classical identification based on light microscopy with our qPCR results. Pollen concentrations from the qPCR data were significantly correlated with concentrations determined through light microscopy (R = 0.902, P Juniperus ashei and Juniperus pinchotii and between J ashei and Juniperus virginiana. We found that this method correctly identified different Juniperus species present in mixed air samples in the southcentral United States, an accomplishment that cannot be achieved using microscopic identification. We conclude that the qPCR method is more accurate and sensitive than current pollen monitoring techniques and, therefore, has the potential to be used in various pollen monitoring stations. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. First report of QoI resistance in Alternaria spp. infecting sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) in Michigan, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternaria leaf spot (ALS) of sugar beet is caused by Alternaria spp. in the A. alternata species complex. ALS is common wherever sugar beet is grown, but historically has been a minor issue for sugar beet production in the USA with damage usually not affecting crop yield significantly. Occurrence o...

  12. Environmental, genetic, and ecophysiological variation of western and Utah juniper and their hybrids: A model system for vegetation response to climate change. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, R.S. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Dept. of Environmental and Resource Sciences; Tausch, R.J. [Forest Service, Reno, NV (United States). Rocky Mountain Research Station

    1998-11-01

    This report focuses on the following two research projects relating to the biological effects of climate change: Hybridization and genetic diversity populations of Utah (Juniperus osteosperma) and western (Juniperus occidentalis) juniper: Evidence from nuclear ribosomal and chloroplast DNA; and Ecophysiological patterns of pinyon and juniper.

  13. Arcobacter spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Filipović, Ivana; Zdolec, Nevijo; Benussi Skukan, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Bakterije roda Arcobacter pripadaju porodici Campylobacteriaceae, no od Campylobacter vrsta razlikuje se po sposobnosti rasta na 15 °C i u aerobnim uvjetima. Ove bakterije izolirane su iz oboljelih životinja, ljudi, ali i s trupova životinja nakon klaoničke obrade, te svježeg mesa, kao i vode. Farmske životinje, posebice perad, smatraju se rezervoarima bakterije. Razvijene su različite mikrobiološke metode za izolaciju Arcobacter spp., ali standardni protokol još uvijek ne postoji. Za brzu i ...

  14. Colonization of abandoned land by Juniperus thurifera is mediated by the interaction of a diverse dispersal assemblage and environmental heterogeneity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Escribano-Avila

    Full Text Available Land abandonment is one of the most powerful global change drivers in developed countries where recent rural exodus has been the norm. Abandonment of traditional land use practices has permitted the colonization of these areas by shrub and tree species. For fleshy fruited species the colonization of new areas is determined by the dispersal assemblage composition and abundance. In this study we showed how the relative contribution to the dispersal process by each animal species is modulated by the environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure. This complex interaction caused differential patterns on the seed dispersal in both, landscape patches in which the process of colonization is acting nowadays and mature woodlands of Juniperus thurifera, a relict tree distributed in the western Mediterranean Basin. Thrushes (Turdus spp and carnivores (red fox and stone marten dispersed a high amount of seeds while rabbits and sheeps only a tiny fraction. Thrushes dispersed a significant amount of seeds in new colonization areas, however they were limited by the presence of high perches with big crop size. While carnivores dispersed seeds to all studied habitats, even in those patches where no trees of J. thurifera were present, turning out to be critical for primary colonization. The presence of Pinus and Quercus was related to a reduced consumption of J. thurifera seeds while the presence of fleshy fruited shrubs was related with higher content of J. thurifera seeds in dispersers' faeces. Therefore environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure had a great influence on dispersers feeding behaviour, and should be considered in order to accurately describe the role of seed dispersal in ecological process, such as regeneration and colonization. J. thurifera expansion is not seed limited thanks to its diverse dispersal community, hence the conservation of all dispersers in an ecosystem enhance ecosystems services and resilience.

  15. Colonization of abandoned land by Juniperus thurifera is mediated by the interaction of a diverse dispersal assemblage and environmental heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano-Avila, Gema; Sanz-Pérez, Virginia; Pías, Beatriz; Virgós, Emilio; Escudero, Adrián; Valladares, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Land abandonment is one of the most powerful global change drivers in developed countries where recent rural exodus has been the norm. Abandonment of traditional land use practices has permitted the colonization of these areas by shrub and tree species. For fleshy fruited species the colonization of new areas is determined by the dispersal assemblage composition and abundance. In this study we showed how the relative contribution to the dispersal process by each animal species is modulated by the environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure. This complex interaction caused differential patterns on the seed dispersal in both, landscape patches in which the process of colonization is acting nowadays and mature woodlands of Juniperus thurifera, a relict tree distributed in the western Mediterranean Basin. Thrushes (Turdus spp) and carnivores (red fox and stone marten) dispersed a high amount of seeds while rabbits and sheeps only a tiny fraction. Thrushes dispersed a significant amount of seeds in new colonization areas, however they were limited by the presence of high perches with big crop size. While carnivores dispersed seeds to all studied habitats, even in those patches where no trees of J. thurifera were present, turning out to be critical for primary colonization. The presence of Pinus and Quercus was related to a reduced consumption of J. thurifera seeds while the presence of fleshy fruited shrubs was related with higher content of J. thurifera seeds in dispersers' faeces. Therefore environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure had a great influence on dispersers feeding behaviour, and should be considered in order to accurately describe the role of seed dispersal in ecological process, such as regeneration and colonization. J. thurifera expansion is not seed limited thanks to its diverse dispersal community, hence the conservation of all dispersers in an ecosystem enhance ecosystems services and resilience.

  16. Colonization of Abandoned Land by Juniperus thurifera Is Mediated by the Interaction of a Diverse Dispersal Assemblage and Environmental Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano-Avila, Gema; Sanz-Pérez, Virginia; Pías, Beatriz; Virgós, Emilio; Escudero, Adrián; Valladares, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Land abandonment is one of the most powerful global change drivers in developed countries where recent rural exodus has been the norm. Abandonment of traditional land use practices has permitted the colonization of these areas by shrub and tree species. For fleshy fruited species the colonization of new areas is determined by the dispersal assemblage composition and abundance. In this study we showed how the relative contribution to the dispersal process by each animal species is modulated by the environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure. This complex interaction caused differential patterns on the seed dispersal in both, landscape patches in which the process of colonization is acting nowadays and mature woodlands of Juniperus thurifera, a relict tree distributed in the western Mediterranean Basin. Thrushes (Turdus spp) and carnivores (red fox and stone marten) dispersed a high amount of seeds while rabbits and sheeps only a tiny fraction. Thrushes dispersed a significant amount of seeds in new colonization areas, however they were limited by the presence of high perches with big crop size. While carnivores dispersed seeds to all studied habitats, even in those patches where no trees of J. thurifera were present, turning out to be critical for primary colonization. The presence of Pinus and Quercus was related to a reduced consumption of J. thurifera seeds while the presence of fleshy fruited shrubs was related with higher content of J. thurifera seeds in dispersers’ faeces. Therefore environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure had a great influence on dispersers feeding behaviour, and should be considered in order to accurately describe the role of seed dispersal in ecological process, such as regeneration and colonization. J. thurifera expansion is not seed limited thanks to its diverse dispersal community, hence the conservation of all dispersers in an ecosystem enhance ecosystems services and resilience. PMID:23071692

  17. Management measures to control diseases reported by tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) and whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) farmers in Guangdong, China

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Culture of tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) and whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) has intensified during the last decade in China with increased production, meanwhile it has also brought some problems, including diseases, increased use of antimicrobials and other chemicals for disease control and pond water quality management. This study investigated the knowledge, practices and challenges of tilapia and whiteleg shrimp farmers when preventing and controlling diseases through the use of antimi...

  18. Radical-Scavenging Activity and Ferric Reducing Ability of Juniperus thurifera (L.), J. oxycedrus (L.), J. phoenicea (L.) and Tetraclinis articulata (L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Meryem El Jemli; Rabie Kamal; Ilias Marmouzi; Asmae Zerrouki; Yahia Cherrah; Katim Alaoui

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this work is to study and compare the antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of aqueous leaf extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus Phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata from Morocco. Methods. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging ability, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Also the total phenolic ...

  19. Compatible dominant height - site index model for juniper (Juniperus deppeana Steud.)

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Rodríguez-Carrillo; Francisco Cruz-Cobos; Benedicto Vargas-Larreta; Francisco J. Hernández

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the site quality of juniper (Juniperus deppeana Steud.) in the San Dimas region of the state of Durango, Mexico, using the site index method. The database comes from stem analysis of 43 trees felled in harvesting activities. The Chapman-Richards and Schumacher models, by means of the algebraic difference and generalized algebraic difference approaches, were tested to determine the site index; in addition, the error structure was modeled with a second-ord...

  20. Inhibition of protein glycation by essential oils of branchlets and fruits of Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica

    OpenAIRE

    S Asgary; G.A NADERI; Shams Ardekani, M.R.; A. Sahebkar; Airin,A.; S. Aslani; Kasher,T.; Emami, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and protein glycation play pivotal roles in the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and its vascular complications. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-glycation properties of essential oils obtained from different parts of Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica. The branchlets of male tree (BMT) and branchlets of female (BFT) tree, and fruits of J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica were extracted using steam distillation method. The oils were phytochemically analyz...

  1. The changing epidemiology of Acinetobacter spp. producing OXA carbapenemases causing bloodstream infections in Brazil: a BrasNet report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R; Barth, Afonso L; Zavascki, Alexandre P; Gales, Ana C; Levin, Anna S; Lucarevschi, Bianca R; Cabral, Blenda G; Brasiliense, Danielle M; Rossi, Flavia; Furtado, Guilherme H C; Carneiro, Irna Carla R S; da Silva, Juliana O; Ribeiro, Julival; Lima, Karla V B; Correa, Luci; Britto, Maria H; Silva, Mariama T; da Conceição, Marília L; Moreira, Marina; Martino, Marinês D V; de Freitas, Marise R; Oliveira, Maura S; Dalben, Mirian F; Guzman, Ricardo D; Cayô, Rodrigo; Morais, Rosângela; Santos, Sânia A; Martins, Willames M B S

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the epidemiology of Acinetobacter spp. recovered from patients diagnosed with bloodstream infections in 9 tertiary hospitals located in all Brazilian geographic regions between April and August 2014. Although OXA-23-producing Acinetobacter baumannii clones were disseminated in most hospitals, it was observed for the first time the spread of OXA-72 among clonally related A. baumannii isolated from distinct hospitals. Interestingly, Acinetobacter pittii was the most frequent species found in a Northern region hospital. Contrasting with the multisusceptible profile displayed by A. pittii isolates, the tetracyclines and polymyxins were the only antimicrobials active against all A. baumannii isolates.

  2. Molecular analysis confirms the long-distance transport of Juniperus ashei pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Rashmi Prava; Buchheim, Mark Alan; Anderson, James; Levetin, Estelle

    2017-01-01

    Although considered rare, airborne pollen can be deposited far from its place of origin under a confluence of favorable conditions. Temporally anomalous records of Cupressacean pollen collected from January air samples in London, Ontario, Canada have been cited as a new case of long-distance transport. Data on pollination season implicated Juniperus ashei (mountain cedar), with populations in central Texas and south central Oklahoma, as the nearest source of the Cupressacean pollen in the Canadian air samples. This finding is of special significance given the allergenicity of mountain cedar pollen. While microscopy is used extensively to identify particles in the air spora, pollen from all members of the Cupressaceae, including Juniperus, are morphologically indistinguishable. Consequently, we implemented a molecular approach to characterize Juniperus pollen using PCR in order to test the long-distance transport hypothesis. Our PCR results using species-specific primers confirmed that the anomalous Cupressacean pollen collected in Canada was from J. ashei. Forward trajectory analysis from source areas in Texas and the Arbuckle Mountains in Oklahoma and backward trajectory analysis from the destination area near London, Ontario were completed using models implemented in HYSPLIT4 (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory). Results from these trajectory analyses strongly supported the conclusion that the J. ashei pollen detected in Canada had its origins in Texas or Oklahoma. The results from the molecular findings are significant as they provide a new method to confirm the long-distance transport of pollen that bears allergenic importance.

  3. Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus and Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. macrocarpa (Sibth. & Sm.) Ball. "berries" from Turkey: comparative evaluation of phenolic profile, antioxidant, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taviano, Maria Fernanda; Marino, Andreana; Trovato, Ada; Bellinghieri, Valentina; Melchini, Antonietta; Dugo, Paola; Cacciola, Francesco; Donato, Paola; Mondello, Luigi; Güvenç, Ayşegül; De Pasquale, Rita; Miceli, Natalizia

    2013-08-01

    This work aimed to evaluate and compare the phenolic profile and some biological properties of the ripe "berries" methanol extracts of Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus (Joo) and Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. macrocarpa (Sibth. & Sm.) Ball. (Jom) from Turkey. The total phenolic content resulted about 3-fold higher in Jom (17.89±0.23 mg GAE/g extract) than in Joo (5.14±0.06 mg GAE/g extract). The HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS analysis revealed a similar flavonoid fingerprint in Joo and Jom, whereas a difference in their quantitative content was found (4632 μg/g extract and 12644 μg/g extract). In addition, three phenolic acids were detected in Jom only (5765 μg/g extract), and protocatechuic acid was the most abundant one. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was evaluated by different in vitro assays: in the DPPH and in the TBA tests a stronger activity in Jom was highlighted, while Joo exhibited higher reducing power and metal chelating activity. Joo and Jom did not affect HepG2 cell viability and both extracts resulted virtually non-toxic against Artemia salina. The extracts were also studied for their antimicrobial potential, displaying efficacy against Gram-positive bacteria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Niña con erucismo hemorrágico por Lonomia spp.: reporte de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Peña-Vásquez

    Full Text Available Los accidentes causados por las setas urticantes o venenosas de las orugas de lepidópteros, se conocen como erucismo. Estos accidentes se producen por el contacto accidental, especialmente por los niños, con las cerdas sobre el cuerpo del insecto, conectadas con glándulas venenosas. Los síntomas pueden ser locales o sistémicos, con presentaciones clínicas fatales. El accidente ocasionado por las orugas del género Lonomia spp. puede desencadenar síndromes hemorrágicos, constituyendo estos la forma más grave de erucismo. Se reporta el caso de una niña de 5 años, procedente del poblado de Villarondos, en la Amazonía del Perú, departamento de Huánuco, la cual incidentalmente se hinca con las cerdas de una oruga, cursando luego con anemia hemolítica, plaquetopenia y trastorno de la coagulación. El diagnóstico fue establecido por la anamnesis, cuadro clínico, exámenes de laboratorio y respuesta al suero antilonómico. Se discuten los aspectos clínicos, laboratoriales y terapéuticos de erucismo por Lonomia spp.

  5. First report of predation of Giardia sp. cysts by ciliated protozoa and confirmation of predation of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts by ciliate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira-Castro, Isabel Cristina Vidal; Greinert-Goulart, Juliane Araújo; Bonatti, Tais Rondello; Yamashiro, Sandra; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

    2016-06-01

    Ciliated protozoa are important components of the microbial food web in various habitats, especially aquatic environments. These organisms are useful bioindicators for both environmental quality assessment and the wastewater purification process. The pathogenic parasitic protozoan species Giardia and Cryptosporidium represent a significant concern for human health, being responsible for numerous disease outbreaks worldwide. The predation of cysts and oocysts in 15 ciliate species from water and sewage samples collected in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil were verified under laboratory conditions. The ciliated protozoan species were selected based on their mode of nutrition, and only bacterivorous and suspension-feeders were considered for the experiments. The species Blepharisma sinuosum, Euplotes aediculatus, Sterkiella cavicola, Oxytricha granulifera, Vorticella infusionum, Spirostomum minus, and Stentor coeruleus ingested cysts and oocysts, the resistance forms of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp., respectively. This is the first time that the ingestion of Giardia cysts by ciliated protozoa has been reported. These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the biological removal of these pathogens from aquatic environments.

  6. Leaf n-alkanes as characters differentiating coastal and continental Juniperus deltoides populations from the Balkan Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajčević, Nemanja; Janaćković, Pedja; Dodoš, Tanja; Tešević, Vele; Bojović, Srdjan; Marin, Petar D

    2014-07-01

    The composition of the cuticular n-alkanes isolated from the leaves of nine populations of Juniperus deltoides R.P.Adams from continental and coastal areas of the Balkan Peninsula was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In the leaf waxes, 14 n-alkane homologues with chain-lengths ranging from C22 to C35 were identified. n-Tritriacontane (C33 ) was dominant in the waxes of all populations, but variations between the populations in the contents of all n-alkanes were observed. Several statistical methods (ANOVA, principal component, discriminant, and cluster analyses) were used to investigate the diversity and variability of the cuticular-leaf-n-alkane patterns of the nine J. deltoides populations. This is the first report on the n-alkane composition for this species. The multivariate statistical analyses evidenced a high correlation of the leaf-n-alkane pattern with the geographical distribution of the investigated samples, differentiating the coastal from the continental populations of this taxon.

  7. Widdrol, a sesquiterpene isolated from Juniperus chinensis, inhibits angiogenesis by targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Soojung; Yun, Hee Jung; Jeong, Hyun Young; Oh, You Na; Park, Hyun-Jin; Yun, Seung-Geun; Kim, Byung Woo; Kwon, Hyun Ju

    2015-09-01

    Widdrol is an odorous compound derived from Juniperus chinensis that is widely used in traditional medicine to treat fever, inflammation and cancer. It was previously reported that widdrol has antitumor activity by apoptosis induction in cancer cells in vitro. However, its anti-angiogenic activity remains elusive. In the present study, we investigated the anti‑angiogenic activity of widdrol and the molecular mechanisms involved. Widdrol inhibited cell proliferation via G1 phase arrest induction in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, it was associated with a decreased expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and an increased expression of p21, a CDK inhibitor. Widdrol significantly inhibited the cell migration and tube formation of HUVECs using an in vitro angiogenesis assay. The results showed that widdrol suppressed phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and its downstream proteins, such as AKT, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Moreover, widdrol effectively reduced tumor growth and blood vessel formation in colon tumor xenograft mice. Collectively, these results suggested that widdrol may act as a potential anti-angiogenic agent by inhibiting vessel sprouting and growth, which may have implications for angioprevention.

  8. The Researches on the Terpenoids from Juniperus%圆柏属植物中萜类研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文蜀; 冯金朝; 卢鹏

    2008-01-01

    The studies of the tepennoids in Juniperus from 1980 - 2006 are summarized here. All the terpenoids in Juniperus have complicated structures, including changeful skeletons and abundant functional groups. Furthermore, some of those compounds show kinds of hioactivities. It can be concluded that studies on Juniperus is valuable and continuable.%对1980-2006年期间国内外园柏属植物中的萜类化学成分研究进行综述.园柏属中的所有萜类都有复杂的结构:包括不稳定的碳链和大量的官能团.此外,它们中的一些化合物还显示出较丰富的生物活性.

  9. First Preliminary Report on Isolation and Characterization of Novel Acinetobacter spp. in Casing Soil Used for Cultivation of Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Lange Imbach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Choudhary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite evaluation of large number of agroindustrial wastes for their use as casing material for Agaricus bisporus (Lange Imbach cultivation, scant attention has been given to the importance of biological properties of casing materials. In the present study, an attempt was made to characterize the bacterial flora in casing layer, namely, Farm Yard Manure (FYM and Spent Mushroom Substrate/spent compost (SMS/SC (FYM+SC, 3 : 1 and FYM and Vermi Compost (VC (FYM+VC, 3 : 1, employing partial 16S rDNA sequencing. Available data showed a significant variety of organisms that included Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas of the γ-proteobacteria, that were the most frequently encountered genera. This is the first preliminary report on the microbial diversity of casing soils and demonstrates the presence of Acinetobacter spp. that has not been previously described in casing material.

  10. The serrate leaf margined Juniperus (Section Sabina) of the western hemisphere: systematics and evolution based on leaf essential oils and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams

    2000-12-01

    The volatile leaf essential compositions of all 17 serrate leaf margin species of Juniperus (sect. Sabina) of the western hemisphere are reported and compared: J. angosturana, J. ashei, J. californica, J. coahuilensis, J. comitana, J. deppeana, J. durangensis, J. flaccida, J. gamboana, J. jaliscana, J. monosperma, J. monticola, J. osteosperma, J. occidentalis, J. pinchotii, J. saltillensis, and J. standleyi. A number of previously unidentified compounds of the leaf essential oils have now been identified. In addition, DNA data (RAPDs) of all these species were analyzed. Both the leaf essential oils and DNA show these species to be quite distinct with few apparent subgroups, such that the species groupings were not strong in either data set. These data support the hypothesis that this group of junipers originated in Mexico as part of the Madro-Tertiary flora by rapid radiation into new arid land habitats, leaving few extant intermediate taxa.

  11. Isolamento de Chaetomium spp. em lesões subcutâneas de um cão: relato de caso Isolation of Chaetomium spp. on subcutaneous lesions of a dog: case report

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    C.A.S.B. Braga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Caracterizou-se clinicamente a infecção pelo Chaetomium spp. em um cão, e descreveu-se seu isolamento e identificação. Ao exame dermatológico foram observadas pápulas nas orelhas, no tronco lateral e nos membros pélvicos. Ao rompimento de uma dessas pápulas, fluiu um líquido serosanguinolento com consequente úlcera no local. Foi colhido material para isolamento micológico, por meio de raspado das pápulas da orelha e da cauda. O diagnóstico foi micose subcutânea por Chaetomium spp.This work aimed to clinically characterize the infection by Chaetomium spp. in a dog, as well as describe its isolation and identification. Upon dermatological exam, papules on ears, lateral trunk and pelvic members were noticed. After the disruption of these papules there was serosanguineous secretion flowed by consequent ulcer in the region. Material for mycological isolation was picked, and a scraping of papules from ear and tail was done. The diagnosis was subcutaneous mycosis caused by Chaetomium spp.

  12. [Genetical control of the allozymes in juniper (Juniperus excelsa Bieb.) of the Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Nikolaeva, A V

    2007-01-01

    Genetical control of nine enzyme systems has been studied in preserved juniper species (Juniperus excelsa Bieb.) of the natural population of the mountain Crimea. Isozymes were extracted from the haploid seed endosperms and separated elecrophoretically. As a result 16 loci have been identified. Fourteen of them were polymorphic (14--Gdh, Got-1, Mdh-1, Mdh-2, Mdh-3, Acp-1, Acp-2, Acp-3, Lap-1, Dia-1, Fdh, Sod-1, Sod-2, Sod-3). Analysis of the allele segragation of the heterozygous trees confirmed their monogenic inheritance.

  13. Multi-element determination in medicinal Juniper tree (Juniperus phoenicea by instrumental neutron activation analysis

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    Bouzid Nedjimi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Red Juniper (Juniperus phoenicea, a local medicinal tree was collected and analyzed for 18 essential, non-essential and toxic elements using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA. The GBW 07605 (GSV-4 standard reference material was analyzed simultaneously with the plant samples, the results shown a good recovery and reproducibility of the method. Ca, K and Fe have been detected in good levels in this plant clarifying their possible contribution to curative properties. The data obtained in the present work will be helpful in the synthesis of new synthetic drugs which can be used for medicinal purpose.

  14. Using juniper berry ( Juniperus communis ) as a supplement in Japanese quail diets

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Inci; Gokce Ozdemir; Ahmet Yusuf Sengul; Bunyamin Sogut; Hüseyin Nursoy; Turgay Sengul

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present study was conducted to determine the effects of supplemented juniper berry (Juniperus communis) on fattening performance and some carcass traits of quails. A total of 150 one-day-old Japanese quail chicks were randomly divided into five groups (one control and four treated groups) with three replicates. Four different juniper berry levels (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2%) and a control treatment (0%) were added to the diet. Juniper berry supplementation to the diets initiated at the ...

  15. Saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) and Russian Olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) in the Western United States-A Report on the State of the Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafroth, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The Salt Cedar and Russian Olive Control Demonstration Act of 2006 (Public Law 109-320) directs the Department of the Interior to submit a report to Congress that includes an assessment of several issues surrounding these two nonnative trees, now dominant components of the vegetation along many rivers in the Western United States. This report was published in 2010 as a U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report (available online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2009/5247). The report was produced through a collaborative effort led by the Bureau of Reclamation and U.S. Geological Survey, with critical contributions from the U.S. Department of Agriculture and from university researchers. The document synthesizes the state of the science and key research needs on the following topics related to management of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) and Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) in the Western United States: their distribution and abundance (extent); the potential for water savings associated with controlling these species; considerations related to wildlife use of saltcedar and Russian olive habitat and restored habitats; methods of control and removal; possible utilization of dead biomass following control and removal; and approaches and challenges associated with site revegetation or restoration. A concluding chapter discusses possible long-term management strategies, potentially useful field-demonstration projects, and a planning process for on-the-ground projects involving removal of saltcedar and Russian olive.

  16. Occurrence of Pasteuria spp. in the northeastern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Verdejo Lucas, Soledad; Español Pons, Montserrat; Ornat Longarón, Cèsar; Sorribas Royo, Francisco Javier

    1997-01-01

    The occurrence of Pasteuria spp. In Spanish oils is reported. A total of 160 soil samples were collected from vegetable crops, kiwi and citrus orchards, and deciduous fruit trees. Bacteria were found associated with six nematode genera but they were only observed within females of Meloidogyne spp., second-stage juveniles and males of Tylenchulus semipenetrans, and juveniles of Pratylenchus spp.

  17. Radical-Scavenging Activity and Ferric Reducing Ability of Juniperus thurifera (L.), J. oxycedrus (L.), J. phoenicea (L.) and Tetraclinis articulata (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Jemli, Meryem; Kamal, Rabie; Marmouzi, Ilias; Zerrouki, Asmae; Cherrah, Yahia; Alaoui, Katim

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this work is to study and compare the antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of aqueous leaf extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus Phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata from Morocco. Methods. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging ability, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Also the total phenolic and flavonoids contents of the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. Results. All the extracts showed interesting antioxidant activities compared to the standard antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), quercetin, and Trolox). The aqueous extract of Juniperus oxycedrus showed the highest antioxidant activity as measured by DPPH, TEAC, and FRAP assays with IC50 values of 17.91 ± 0.37 μg/mL, 19.80 ± 0.55 μg/mL, and 24.23 ± 0.07 μg/mL, respectively. The strong correlation observed between antioxidant capacities and their total phenolic contents indicated that phenolic compounds were a major contributor to antioxidant properties of these plants extracts. Conclusion. These results suggest that the aqueous extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata can constitute a promising new source of natural compounds with antioxidants ability.

  18. Radical-Scavenging Activity and Ferric Reducing Ability of Juniperus thurifera (L., J. oxycedrus (L., J. phoenicea (L. and Tetraclinis articulata (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem El Jemli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this work is to study and compare the antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of aqueous leaf extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus Phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata from Morocco. Methods. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical-scavenging ability, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays. Also the total phenolic and flavonoids contents of the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. Results. All the extracts showed interesting antioxidant activities compared to the standard antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, quercetin, and Trolox. The aqueous extract of Juniperus oxycedrus showed the highest antioxidant activity as measured by DPPH, TEAC, and FRAP assays with IC50 values of 17.91±0.37 μg/mL, 19.80±0.55 μg/mL, and 24.23±0.07 μg/mL, respectively. The strong correlation observed between antioxidant capacities and their total phenolic contents indicated that phenolic compounds were a major contributor to antioxidant properties of these plants extracts. Conclusion. These results suggest that the aqueous extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata can constitute a promising new source of natural compounds with antioxidants ability.

  19. Radical-Scavenging Activity and Ferric Reducing Ability of Juniperus thurifera (L.), J. oxycedrus (L.), J. phoenicea (L.) and Tetraclinis articulata (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Rabie; Marmouzi, Ilias; Zerrouki, Asmae; Cherrah, Yahia; Alaoui, Katim

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this work is to study and compare the antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of aqueous leaf extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus Phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata from Morocco. Methods. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging ability, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Also the total phenolic and flavonoids contents of the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. Results. All the extracts showed interesting antioxidant activities compared to the standard antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), quercetin, and Trolox). The aqueous extract of Juniperus oxycedrus showed the highest antioxidant activity as measured by DPPH, TEAC, and FRAP assays with IC50 values of 17.91 ± 0.37 μg/mL, 19.80 ± 0.55 μg/mL, and 24.23 ± 0.07 μg/mL, respectively. The strong correlation observed between antioxidant capacities and their total phenolic contents indicated that phenolic compounds were a major contributor to antioxidant properties of these plants extracts. Conclusion. These results suggest that the aqueous extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata can constitute a promising new source of natural compounds with antioxidants ability. PMID:27293428

  20. Essential oil composition and antioxidant activity of two Juniperus communis L. varieties growing wild in Serbia

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    Rajčević Nemanja F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Juniperus L. (Cupressaceae consists of ca. 67 species and 34 varieties. Juniperus communis L. grows on dry hills or mountainous tracts and is widely distributed in the northern hemisphere. A typical variety J. communis L. var. communis was collected in Deliblatska peščara (Deliblato Sands and variety J. communis L. var. saxatilis Pall. in Kopaonik Mountain. Needle essential oils were obtained using Clevenger apparatus and analyzed using GC/MS and GC/FID. Antioxidant activity of essential oils was evaluated using DPPH assay. A total of 78 compounds were detected and identified. Both oils are characterized by high abundance of monoterpenes. The main constituents of J. communis var. communis essential oil were sabinene (39.4%, α-pinene (13.3%, myrcene (4.7% and terpinen-4-ol (3.7%, while J. communis var. saxatilis essential oil had α-pinene (34.9%, sabinene (20.3%, δ-3-carene (6.4% and germacrene B (6.3% as the most abundant components. DPPH test showed IC50 values 0.66 mg/ml for J. communis var. communis and 0.32 mg/ml for J. communis var. saxatilis. Although antioxidant activity was weaker than used standards (BHT and L-ascorbic acid it is still significant.

  1. Neuroprotective Effect of Juniperus communis on Chlorpromazine Induced Parkinson Disease in Animal Model

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    Souravh Bais

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated anti-Parkinson’s activity of methanolic extract of Juniperus communis (MEJC leaves in chlorpromazine (CPZ induced experimental animal model. In this study effects of Juniperus communis (100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p. were studied using various behavior parameters like catalepsy (bar test, muscle rigidity (rotarod test, and locomotor activity (actophotometer and its effect on neurochemical parameters (TBARS, GSH, nitrite, and total protein in rats. The experiment was designed, by giving chlorpromazine (3 mg/kg, i.p. for 21 days to induce Parkinson’s disease-like symptoms. Chlorpromazine significantly induced motor dysfunctions (catalepsy, muscle rigidity, and hypolocomotion in a period of 21 days. The MEJC significantly (P<0.001 reduced catalepsy and muscle rigidity and significantly (P<0.001 increased locomotor activity in rats. The maximum reduction was observed on the 21st day at a dose of 200 mg/kg (i.p.. The MEJC extract also showed an increase in the level of reduced gutathione (GSH (P<0.001 and total protein (P<0.001 and decreased the elevated levels of TBARS (P<0.001 and nitrite (P<0.001 preferably at a higher dose (200 mg/kg as compared to chlorpromazine group. Thus the present study showed the neuroprotective effect of MEJC against CPZ induced Parkinson’s disease-like symptoms or anti-Parkinson’s activity.

  2. Pharmacological explanation for the medicinal use of Juniperus excelsa in hyperactive gastrointestinal and respiratory disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Munasib; Khan, Arif-ullah; Najeeb-ur-Rehman; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan

    2012-04-01

    Crude extract of Juniperus excelsa (JeExt), which tested positive for the presence of anthraquinone, flavonoids, saponins, sterols, terpenes and tannin, exhibited a protective effect against castor oil-induced diarrhoea in mice at 100-1000 mg/kg. In rabbit jejunum preparations, JeExt (0.01-1.0 mg/mL) caused relaxation of spontaneous and K(+) (80 mM)-induced contractions at similar concentrations to papaverine, whereas verapamil was relatively more potent against K(+). JeExt (0.03-0.3 mg/mL) shifted Ca(2+) concentration-response curves to the right, like papaverine or verapamil. JeExt (0.003-0.01 mg/mL) caused a leftward shift of isoprenaline-induced inhibitory concentration-response curves, similar to papaverine. JeExt (1.0-30 mg/kg) caused suppression of carbachol (CCh, 100 μg/kg)-induced increase in inspiratory pressure of anaesthetized rats. In guinea-pig trachea, JeExt (0.001-3.0 mg/mL) relaxed CCh (1 μM)- and high K(+)-induced contractions and shifted isoprenaline-induced inhibitory curves to the left. This study suggests that Juniperus excelsa possibly exhibits a combination of Ca(2+) antagonist and phosphodiesterase inhibitory effects, which provides a pharmacological basis for its traditional use in disorders of gut and airways hyperactivity, such as diarrhoea, colic and asthma.

  3. High genetic diversity with moderate differentiation in Juniperus excelsa from Lebanon and the eastern Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douaihy, Bouchra; Vendramin, Giovanni G.; Boratyński, Adam; Machon, Nathalie; Bou Dagher-Kharrat, Magda

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Juniperus excelsa is an important woody species in the high mountain ecosystems of the eastern Mediterranean Basin where it constitutes the only coniferous species found at the tree line. The genetic diversity within and among J. excelsa populations of the eastern Mediterranean Basin is studied in the light of their historical fragmentation. Methodology Nuclear microsatellites originally developed for Juniperus communis and J. przewalskii were tested on 320 individuals from 12 different populations originating from Lebanon, Turkey, Cyprus, Greece and the Ukraine. Principal results Among the 31 nuclear microsatellite primers tested, only three produced specific amplification products, with orthology confirmed by sequence analysis. They were then used for genetic diversity studies. The mean number of alleles and the expected heterozygosity means were Na=8.78 and He=0.76, respectively. The fixation index showed a significant deviation from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium and an excess of homozygotes (FIS=0.27–0.56). A moderate level of genetic differentiation was observed among the populations (FST=0.075, P2000 m) in Lebanon. These populations were differentiated from the other populations that are grouped into three sub-clusters. Conclusions High levels of genetic diversity were observed at species and population levels. The high level of differentiation in the high-mountain Lebanese populations reflects a long period of isolation or possibly a different origin. The admixture observed in other populations from Lebanon suggests a more recent separation from the Turkish–southeastern European populations. PMID:22476474

  4. Evaluation of fruit extracts of six Turkish Juniperus species for their antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Mehmet; Tümen, İbrahim; Uğur, Aysel; Aydoğmuş-Öztürk, Fatma; Topçu, Gülaçtı

    2011-03-30

    Juniperus L. (Cupressaceae) species are mostly spread out in the Northern Hemisphere of the world, and some of them are used as folkloric medicines. The fruits of some species are eaten. Since oxidative stress is one of the reasons for neurodegeneration and is associated with the Alzheimer's disease (AD), the extracts prepared from the fruits of six Juniperus species were screened for their antioxidant activity. Therefore, the extracts were also evaluated against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), which are chief enzymes in the pathogenesis of AD. In addition, antimicrobial activity was also evaluated. In the β-carotene-linoleic acid assay, acetone extracts of J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus, J. sabina and J. excelsa, and methanol extracts of J. phoenicea and J. sabina, effectively inhibited oxidation of linoleic acid. The hexane extracts of J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus, J. foetidissima and J. phoenicea showed remarkable inhibitory effect against AChE and BChE. Because of their high antioxidant activity, J. excelsa, J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus, J. sabina and J. phoenicia might be used in the food industry as preservative agents or extension of the shelf-life of raw and processed foods. Since the hexane extracts of J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus and J. foetidissima demonstrated significant anticholinesterase activity they should be considered as a potential source for anticholinesterase agents. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Composition and antimicrobial properties of Sardinian Juniperus essential oils against foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Sofia; Barra, Andrea; Pisano, Barbara; Cabizza, Maddalena; Pirisi, Filippo Maria; Palmas, Francesca

    2003-07-01

    In this work, the chemical compositions and antimicrobial properties of Juniperus essential oils and of their main components were determined. Five berry essential oils obtained from different species of Juniperus growing wild in Sardinia were analyzed. The components of the essential oils were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The antimicrobial activities of the oils and their components against food spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms were determined by a broth microdilution method. The GC-MS analysis showed a certain variability in the concentrations of the main constituents of the oils. Alpha-pinene was largely predominant in the oils of the species J. phoenicea subsp. turbinata and J. oxycedrus. Alpha-pinene and myrcene constituted the bulk (67.56%) of the essential oil of J. communis. Significant quantitative differences were observed for myrcene, delta-3-carene, and D-germacrene. The results of the antimicrobial assay show that the oils of J. communis and J. oxycedrus failed to inhibit any of the microorganisms at the highest concentrations tested (MLC > or = 900 microg/ml), while the oils extracted from J. turbinata specimens were active against fungi, particularly against a strain of Aspergillus flavus (an aflatoxin B1 producer). Of the single compounds tested, delta-3-carene was found to possess the broadest spectrum of activity and appeared to contribute significantly to the antifungal activity observed for J. turbinata oils. This activity may be helpful in the prevention of aflatoxin contamination for many foods.

  6. High genetic diversity with moderate differentiation in Juniperus excelsa from Lebanon and the eastern Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douaihy, Bouchra; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Boratyński, Adam; Machon, Nathalie; Bou Dagher-Kharrat, Magda

    2011-01-01

    Juniperus excelsa is an important woody species in the high mountain ecosystems of the eastern Mediterranean Basin where it constitutes the only coniferous species found at the tree line. The genetic diversity within and among J. excelsa populations of the eastern Mediterranean Basin is studied in the light of their historical fragmentation. Nuclear microsatellites originally developed for Juniperus communis and J. przewalskii were tested on 320 individuals from 12 different populations originating from Lebanon, Turkey, Cyprus, Greece and the Ukraine. Among the 31 nuclear microsatellite primers tested, only three produced specific amplification products, with orthology confirmed by sequence analysis. They were then used for genetic diversity studies. The mean number of alleles and the expected heterozygosity means were N(a)=8.78 and H(e)=0.76, respectively. The fixation index showed a significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and an excess of homozygotes (F(IS)=0.27-0.56). A moderate level of genetic differentiation was observed among the populations (F(ST)=0.075, P2000 m) in Lebanon. These populations were differentiated from the other populations that are grouped into three sub-clusters. High levels of genetic diversity were observed at species and population levels. The high level of differentiation in the high-mountain Lebanese populations reflects a long period of isolation or possibly a different origin. The admixture observed in other populations from Lebanon suggests a more recent separation from the Turkish-southeastern European populations.

  7. Differential Consumption of Eastern Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana) by Avian and Mammalian Guilds: Implications for Tree Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased abundance of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginianus), a native but invasive species in the Great Plains, has been associated with changes in ecosystem functioning and landscape cover. Knowledge of the main consumers and dispersal agents of eastern redcedar fruits is e...

  8. Component composition of essential oils and ultrastructure of secretory cells of resin channel needles Juniperus communis (Cupressaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Gerling

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of determining the qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oil Juniperus communis, growing under the canopy of spruce blueberry sphagnum subzone middle taiga. Juniperus communis essential oil is liquid light yellow color. The content of essential oil was 0.46 % in shoots with needles. 37 substances of components identified. Mass fraction of components in the essential oil of Juniperus communis reached 89 %. The highest percentage of occupied fraction of monoterpenes (82.3 %, the proportion of sesquiterpenes less than 0.5 % of the total composition of essential oils, alcohols 3.5 and 0.7 % esters. In monoterpenes fraction predominant α-pinene (24.5–32.6 %, β-pinene (15–20.3 % and α-phellandrene (6.4–8.8 %. Essential oil of Juniperus communis is characterized by high content of monoterpenoids in contrast to other conifers of the taiga zone. All stages of biosynthesis essential oils occur in the epithelial cells of the resin channel (terpenoidogennyh cells. An oval shape have epithelial cells of the resin channel needles in transverse sections the Juniperus communis, which is situated vacuole in the center. Large number of lipid globules (up to 40 noted in the hyaloplasm of explored cells. Leucoplasts surrounded by membranes of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in cross sections of epithelial cells in resin channel of juniper. Endoplasmic reticulum is poorly developed in epithelial cells, which corresponds to the low content of sesquiterpenes in the needles during the study period. Development of large leucoplasts and large number of mitochondria associated with predominance of synthesis monoterpenoids the in the epithelium cells resin channel.

  9. Phylogenetic Identification of Korean Gymnopus spp. and the First Report of 3 Species: G. iocephalus, G. polygrammus, and G. subnudus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seokyoon; Jang, Yeongseon; Lim, Young Woon; Kim, Changmu; Ahn, Byoung Jun; Lee, Sung-Suk

    2016-01-01

    Gymnopus is a cosmopolitan genus of agaric fungi and consists of ~300 species. In Korea, Gymnopus represents common saprobic mushrooms, and 12 species have been reported in Korea. Several Gymnopus specimens were collected in Korea between 2008 and 2015. To identify them exactly, phylogenetic analysis was performed by means of the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal-DNA sequences from the collected Gymnopus specimens. Among them, G. iocephalus, G. polygrammus, and G. subnudus have not been reported in Korea. A phylogenetic tree and images are provided. PMID:27790063

  10. Management measures to control diseases reported by tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) and whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) farmers in Guangdong, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kang; Liu, Liping; Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    and no antimicrobial residue problems. Local chemical supply shops, with representatives often visiting the farms, were important sources of information that farmers used when diagnosing and treating diseases. Farmers also relied on their own experience and current practices of chemical use do not seem cost...... development. Farmers stated lower costs and stricter regulation on antimicrobial usage as reasons for the popularity of probiotics. Farmers also reported the use of herbal extracts for disease control and water quality improvements, partly because of the low number of reported negative side effects...

  11. LC-MS-MS and GC-MS analyses of biologically active extracts and fractions from Tunisian Juniperus phoenice leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskes, Henda; Belhadj, Sahla; Jlail, Lobna; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Damak, Mohamed; Sayadi, Sami; Allouche, Noureddine

    2017-12-01

    Despite some studies related to Juniperus phoenicea L. (Cupressaceae), phytochemical and biological investigations of this plant remain unexplored. This work is the first report dealing with the identification and characterization of volatile components and flavonoids in hexane and methanol extracts from J. phoenicea leaves Materials and methods: Antioxidant activity of hexane, and methanol extracts from J. phoenicea leaves were determined by DPPH-radical scavenging assay. α-Amylase inhibitory activity was evaluated by enzyme inhibition using in vitro assay (each extract was dissolved in DMSO to give concentrations of 50, 100 and 200 mg/mL). The chemical composition of fractions (Fr1-Fr3) from methanol extract was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS) analysis. The hexane extract was analyzed by GC-MS technique which allowed the identification of 32 compounds. The main constituents were α-humulene (16.9%), pentadecane (10.2%) and α-cubebene (9.7%). Fraction Fr 2 exhibited a strong DPPH radical-scavenging activity (IC50 = 20.1 μg/mL) compared to that of BHT as well as the highest α-amylase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 28.4 μg/mL). Three flavonoids were identified in these fractions using HPLC-MS analysis: Quercetin 3-O-glucoside, isoscutellarein 7-O-pentoside and quercetin 3-O-pentoside. In addition, the more active fraction (Fr 2) was purified with semi-preparative HPLC affording one pure compound (amentoflavone) using (1)H NMR analysis. This compound exhibited powerful DPPH radical-scavenging (IC50 = 14.1 μg/mL) and α-amylase inhibition (IC50 = 20.4 μg/mL) effects. This study provides scientific support to some medicinal uses of J. phoenicea found in North Africa.

  12. Molecular identification of Fusarium spp. causing wilt of chickpea and the first report of Fusarium redolens in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important food legume crop and Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris is one of the most important diseases of chickpea in Turkey. Fusarium redolens is known to cause wilt-like disease of chickpea in other countries, but has not been reported fr...

  13. Pinus monophylla establishment in an expanding Pinus-Juniperus woodland: Environmental conditions, facilitation and interacting factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, Jeanne C. [USDA Forest Service, Reno, NV (United States). Rocky Mountain Research Station

    2001-02-01

    The tree species comprising Pinus-Juniperus woodlands are rapidly expanding into shrub-grasslands throughout their range. Observational studies indicate that establishment is facilitated by nurse plants, but little information exists on the mechanisms involved. I examined both abiotic and biotic factors influencing Pinus monophylla establishment in Artemisia tridentata steppe with expanding populations of P. monophylla and Juniperus osteosperma. I also examined the effects of seed burial and predation on seedling establishment. Microhabitats under trees and shrubs had higher extractable P and K, higher organic matter, total nitrogen and cation exchange capacity than interspace microhabitats. Soil water contents (0-15 cm) were lower in interspaces than under shrubs or trees due to dry surface (0-5 cm) soils. Soil temperatures (at 1 and 15 cm) were lowest under trees, intermediate under shrubs, and highest in interspaces. Timing and rate of seedling emergence were temperature dependent with the order of emergence paralleling mean growing season temperatures: tree interspace = shrub interspace > under shrub > under Juniperus {>=} under Pinus. Seed burial was required for rooting and the highest emergence occurred from depths of 1 and 3 cm indicating that caching by birds and rodents is essential and that animals bury seeds at adequate if not optimal depths for emergence. Seedlings required micro-environmental modification for survival; all seedlings, including those that emerged from seeds and transplants, died within the first year in interspace microhabitats. Survival in under-tree or under-shrub microhabitats depended on soil water availability and corresponded closely to soil water contents over the 3-yr study. Under-shrub microhabitats had more favourable soil and micro-environmental characteristics than under-tree microhabitats and had the highest seedling life spans for the first-year seedling cohort. Predation of Pinus seedlings by rodents was a significant

  14. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Potential of Phenol-Rich Fraction of Juniperus communis Linn. Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ved, Akash; Gupta, Amresh; Rawat, Ajay Kumar Singh

    2017-01-01

    Background: Juniperus communis Linn. is an important plant in India traditional system of medicine which is widely used by different tribes in many countries. Objective: In the present study, the antioxidant, cytotoxic and hepatoprotective activities of Juniperus communis leaves were investigated against various models. Materials and Methods: ethanolic extract (70% v/v) of J. communis leaves was successively extracted using hexane and ethyl acetate to prepare various fractions. Total phenol content was resolute by the Folin-Ciocalteau's process. The antioxidant properties of the different fractions/extract of leaves of J. communis were examined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and Fe2+ chelating ability. Cytotoxic activity was examined by cell viability assay on HepG2 cells. Hepatoprotective activity of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) evaluated against PCM-Paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in Wistar albino rats. Results: Total phenol content was found maximum 315.33 mg/GAE/g in EAF. Significant scavenging activity were found for EAF (IC50 = 177 μg/ml) as compared to standard BHT (IC50 = 138 μg/ml), while EAF showed good Fe2+ chelating ability having an IC50 value of 261 mg/ML compared to standard ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (7.7 mg/mL). It was found that EAF treated group shows remarkable decrease in serum Aspartate aminotransferase, serum Alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase level in treatment group as compared to the hepatotoxic group. Conclusion: EAF of J. communis leaves is found to be potent antioxidant and hepatoprotective without any cytotoxicity and it can also be included in nutraceuticals with notable benefits for mankind or animal health. SUMMARY Phenol-rich fraction (PRF) and other fractions/extract of Juniperus communis leaves were screened for antioxidant, cytotoxic, and hepatoprotective activity.Significant antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity without any

  15. Multiplex PCR for molecular screening of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Islay; Burri, Caroline; Noda, Angel A; Douet, Véronique; Gern, Lise

    2015-01-01

    Ticks transmit a great variety of pathogenic microorganisms to humans and animals. The detection of tick-borne pathogens (TBP) is mainly by molecular techniques based on polymerase chain reactions (PCR). To design and evaluate a multiplex PCR for the molecular screening of zoonotic TBP for exploratory studies. Control DNA from reference strains, DNA from experimentally-infected biological specimens, and from Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks collected from domestic and homeless dogs were used. A multiplex PCR assay to detect the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. was designed and optimized using primers previously reported for B. burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma spp., while for Babesia spp. they were designed in silico. The multiplex PCR was evaluated on the DNA from biological samples. A new set of specific primers for Babesia spp. was designed. Adjustment of the master mix reactive concentrations and amplification conditions for the multiplex PCR allowed the successful amplification of the specific amplicons for each microbial group from the control DNA and experimentally-infected biological specimens. The efficiency of the multiplex PCR amplifying three DNA targets was confirmed. Individual and co-infection of Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. were detected in the R. sanguineus ticks from dogs. A multiplex PCR assay for the screening of three TBP is available. By using it, B. burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. can be detected accurately in one PCR reaction.

  16. First report of Geosmithia langdonii and Geosmithia spp. isolated from a decaying elm (Ulmus minor in Geneva, Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hänzi Martine

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The mortality of a young elm Ulmus minor in 2014 in Geneva prompted a search for the microorganisms potentially involved. Symptoms included foliar chlorosis and wilting followed by defoliation of branches. Wood symptoms included a brown streaking of sap wood and brown stains in trunk and branches. The comparison of the resulting ITS rDNA sequences to the NCBI Nucleotide database allowed to identify 10 different organisms. The genus Geosmithia represented 48% of the isolates belonging to three species: Geosmithia langdonii (7 isolates and 2 unknown morphologically and genetically different Geosmithia sp. 1 and sp. 2 (4 isolates. Geosmithia species are very little known ascomycetes, which have been recently shown to be opportunistic pathogens on broadleaved trees and conifers, living as saprobes in galleries of many bark beetle species. In the case described here, Geosmithia langdonii, and the unknown Geosmithia species were found in symptomatic wood while bark beetle galleries were found in close regions of the symptomatic wood. Geosmithia langdonii was the major fungus retrieved from the symptomatic wood and could have contributed, along with other identified fungal species, to a pathogenic complex producing symptoms similar to the ones of the Dutch Elm Disease and led to the dieback of this elm tree. Geosmithia langdonii and 2 yet unknown Geosmithia species (sp. 1 and sp. 2, different from any other reported Geosmithia species are reported from an elm tree in Switzerland for the first time.

  17. Bioactivity-guided isolation of new antiproliferative compounds from Juniperus foetidissima Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmood; Suleimani Dehkordi, Ibrahim; Ghanadian, Mustafa; Shokrollahi, Ardeshir; Aghaei, Mahmoud; Syed Majid, Ayatollahi; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2016-09-01

    Based on a literature survey on cytotoxic medicinal plants, Juniper species were identified as interesting source of antitumor compounds. Using bioassay-guided fractionation against Caov-4 cancer cells on acetone extract of leaves and branchlets of Juniperus foetidissima led to the isolation of a new 3H-benzofuaran-2-one: 4-methyl-3-methoxy-3H-benzofuaran-2-one (1), a new sesquiterpene: 4,9(α)-dihydroxy-nardosin-6-en (2) and an already known labdane-type diterpene: 15-hydroxy-8(17),13(E)-labdadiene-19-carboxilic acid (3). Compounds 1-3 exhibited cytotoxic effects, with moderate cytotoxicity against the EJ-138 bladder and CAOV-4 ovary cancer cell lines.

  18. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community composition associated with Juniperus brevifolia in native Azorean forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Catarina Drumonde; Luna, Sara; Krüger, Claudia; Walker, Christopher; Mendonça, Duarte; Fonseca, Henrique M. A. C.; Jaizme-Vega, Maria; da Câmara Machado, Artur

    2017-02-01

    The communities of glomeromycotan fungi (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, AMF) under native Juniperus brevifolia forest from two Azorean islands, Terceira and São Miguel, were compared, mainly by spore morphology, and when possible, by molecular analysis. Thirty-nine morphotypes were detected from 12 genera. Glomeromycotan fungal richness was similar in Terceira and São Miguel, but significantly different among the four fragments of native forest. Spore diversity and community composition differed significantly between the two islands. The less degraded island, Terceira, showed 10 exclusive morphotypes including more rare types, whereas the more disturbed forest on São Miguel showed 13 morphs, mostly of common types. Forests from Terceira were dominated by Acaulosporaceae and Glomeraceae. Whereas members of Acaulosporaceae, Glomeraceae and Ambisporaceae were most frequent and abundant in those from São Miguel. Spore abundance was greatest on Terceira, and correlated with soil chemical properties (pH), average monthly temperature and relative humidity.

  19. Chemical composition and antibacterial activities of the essential oils isolated from Juniperus thurifera L. var. Africana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, F; Harrak, R; Achak, N; Romane, A

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the chemical composition and antibacterial activities of essential oils of Moroccan Juniperus thurifera L. var. Africana (Cupressaceae). The essential oil of dried leaves was isolated by hydrodistillation, vapohydrodistillation and microwaves. Sixty-four compounds in J. thurifera L. var. Africana oils were identified (79.9%, 92.4% and 98.4% of the oil, respectively). The most abundant compound in J. thurifera L. var. Africana oils is sabinene (38%, 36.2% and 39.4%). Antibacterial activities of J. thurifera essential oils was tested against bacteria Gram ( - ) and Gram (+). The oil is very active against all bacteria tested except Pseudomonas, which turned out to be very resistant.

  20. Isolation of deoxypodophyllotoxin and podophyllotoxin from Juniperus sabina by high speed counter current chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y.; Yang, Y.; Chen, Q.; Kasimu, R.; Aisa, H.A.

    2016-11-01

    Deoxypodophyllotoxin and podophyllotoxin are known for their excellent anti-proliferative and anti-tumor activities, therefore large amount of pure compounds is urgently needed as authentic standards for various in vivo and in vitro studies. In this paper, an effective, rapid separation and purification method of deoxypodophyllotoxin and podophyllotoxin from the crude extract of Juniperus sabina was established using high speed counter current chromatography (HSCCC). HSCCC was performed with atwo phase solvent system comprising of n-hexane-ethylacetate-methanol-water (3:5:3:5, v/v) at the flow rate of 2mL/min at the speed of 850 rpm. 34.8 mg of deoxypodophyllotoxin and 7.9 mg of podophyllotoxin were obtained from 200 mg crude sample with a purity of 96.5% and 94.4%, respectively, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). (Author)

  1. Female Cone Development in Fokienia, Cupressus, Chamaecyparis and Juniperus (Cupressaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGQuan; Sodmergen; HUYu-Shi; LINJin-Xing

    2004-01-01

    The ontogeny and vascular systems of female cones of the Fokienia, Oupressus, Ohamaecyparis and Juniperus were investigated in detail using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and conventional light microscopy. In the species examined, in the axils of the bracts, the first recognizable structure was a broad meristematic swelling, from which ovules developed. No ovuliferous scales developed during the ontogeny of the female cones. The number of ovules and ovule developing sequence displayed considerable variation in different species. However, development of the bracts was similar in all of the investigated species. Following pollination, the foliage-like bracts became peltate bract scales due to intercalary expansion, and global cones formed. In addition, the vascular system in the bract scales became intricate, and inverted vascular bundles emerged in the adaxial of the mature bracts. Based on these observations, a morphological interpretation and possible evolutionary trend of the Cupressaceae female reproductive structures was discussed.

  2. The Colonization History of Juniperus brevifolia (Cupressaceae) in the Azores Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumeu, Beatriz; Caujapé-Castells, Juli; Blanco-Pastor, José Luis; Jaén-Molina, Ruth; Nogales, Manuel; Elias, Rui B.; Vargas, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Background A central aim of island biogeography is to understand the colonization history of insular species using current distributions, fossil records and genetic diversity. Here, we analyze five plastid DNA regions of the endangered Juniperus brevifolia, which is endemic to the Azores archipelago. Methodology/Principal Findings The phylogeny of the section Juniperus and the phylogeographic analyses of J. brevifolia based on the coalescence theory of allele (plastid) diversity suggest that: (1) a single introduction event likely occurred from Europe; (2) genetic diversification and inter-island dispersal postdated the emergence of the oldest island (Santa Maria, 8.12 Ma); (3) the genetic differentiation found in populations on the islands with higher age and smaller distance to the continent is significantly higher than that on the younger, more remote ones; (4) the high number of haplotypes observed (16), and the widespread distribution of the most frequent and ancestral ones across the archipelago, are indicating early diversification, demographic expansion, and recurrent dispersal. In contrast, restriction of six of the seven derived haplotypes to single islands is construed as reflecting significant isolation time prior to colonization. Conclusions/Significance Our phylogeographic reconstruction points to the sequence of island emergence as the key factor to explain the distribution of plastid DNA variation. The reproductive traits of this juniper species (anemophily, ornithochory, multi-seeded cones), together with its broad ecological range, appear to be largely responsible for recurrent inter-island colonization of ancestral haplotypes. In contrast, certain delay in colonization of new haplotypes may reflect intraspecific habitat competition on islands where this juniper was already present. PMID:22110727

  3. The hydraulic architecture of Juniperus communis L. ssp. communis: shrubs and trees compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beikircher, Barbara; Mayr, Stefan

    2008-11-01

    Juniperus communis ssp. communis can grow like a shrub or it can develop a tree-like habit. In this study, the hydraulic architecture of these contrasting growth forms was compared. We analysed the hydraulic efficiency (leaf-specific conductivity, k(l); specific conductivity, k(s); Huber value, HV) and the vulnerability to cavitation (the water potential corresponding to a 50% loss of conductivity, Psi(50)), as well as anatomical parameters [mean tracheid diameter, d; mean hydraulic diameter, d(h); cell wall reinforcement (t/b)(h)(2)] of shrub shoots, tree stems and tree branches. Shrub shoots were similar to tree branches (especially to lower branches) in growth form and conductivity (k(l) = 1.93 +/- 0.11 m(2) s(-1) MPa(-1) 10(-7), k(s) = 5.71 +/- 0.19 m(2) s(-1) MPa(-1) 10(-4)), but were similar to tree stems in their vulnerability to cavitation (Psi(50) = -5.81 +/- 0.08 MPa). Tree stems showed extraordinarily high k(l) and k(s) values, and HV increased from the base up. Stem xylem was more vulnerable to cavitation than branch xylem, where Psi(50) increased from lower (Psi(50) = -6.44 +/- 0.19 MPa) to upper branches (Psi(50) = -5.98 +/- 0.13 MPa). Conduit diameters were correlated with k(l) and k(s). Data indicate that differences in hydraulic architecture correspond to changes in growth form. In some aspects, the xylem hydraulics of tree-like Juniperus communis differs from that of other coniferous tree species.

  4. The colonization history of Juniperus brevifolia (Cupressaceae) in the Azores Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumeu, Beatriz; Caujapé-Castells, Juli; Blanco-Pastor, José Luis; Jaén-Molina, Ruth; Nogales, Manuel; Elias, Rui B; Vargas, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    A central aim of island biogeography is to understand the colonization history of insular species using current distributions, fossil records and genetic diversity. Here, we analyze five plastid DNA regions of the endangered Juniperus brevifolia, which is endemic to the Azores archipelago. The phylogeny of the section Juniperus and the phylogeographic analyses of J. brevifolia based on the coalescence theory of allele (plastid) diversity suggest that: (1) a single introduction event likely occurred from Europe; (2) genetic diversification and inter-island dispersal postdated the emergence of the oldest island (Santa Maria, 8.12 Ma); (3) the genetic differentiation found in populations on the islands with higher age and smaller distance to the continent is significantly higher than that on the younger, more remote ones; (4) the high number of haplotypes observed (16), and the widespread distribution of the most frequent and ancestral ones across the archipelago, are indicating early diversification, demographic expansion, and recurrent dispersal. In contrast, restriction of six of the seven derived haplotypes to single islands is construed as reflecting significant isolation time prior to colonization. Our phylogeographic reconstruction points to the sequence of island emergence as the key factor to explain the distribution of plastid DNA variation. The reproductive traits of this juniper species (anemophily, ornithochory, multi-seeded cones), together with its broad ecological range, appear to be largely responsible for recurrent inter-island colonization of ancestral haplotypes. In contrast, certain delay in colonization of new haplotypes may reflect intraspecific habitat competition on islands where this juniper was already present.

  5. The colonization history of Juniperus brevifolia (Cupressaceae in the Azores Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Rumeu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A central aim of island biogeography is to understand the colonization history of insular species using current distributions, fossil records and genetic diversity. Here, we analyze five plastid DNA regions of the endangered Juniperus brevifolia, which is endemic to the Azores archipelago. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The phylogeny of the section Juniperus and the phylogeographic analyses of J. brevifolia based on the coalescence theory of allele (plastid diversity suggest that: (1 a single introduction event likely occurred from Europe; (2 genetic diversification and inter-island dispersal postdated the emergence of the oldest island (Santa Maria, 8.12 Ma; (3 the genetic differentiation found in populations on the islands with higher age and smaller distance to the continent is significantly higher than that on the younger, more remote ones; (4 the high number of haplotypes observed (16, and the widespread distribution of the most frequent and ancestral ones across the archipelago, are indicating early diversification, demographic expansion, and recurrent dispersal. In contrast, restriction of six of the seven derived haplotypes to single islands is construed as reflecting significant isolation time prior to colonization. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our phylogeographic reconstruction points to the sequence of island emergence as the key factor to explain the distribution of plastid DNA variation. The reproductive traits of this juniper species (anemophily, ornithochory, multi-seeded cones, together with its broad ecological range, appear to be largely responsible for recurrent inter-island colonization of ancestral haplotypes. In contrast, certain delay in colonization of new haplotypes may reflect intraspecific habitat competition on islands where this juniper was already present.

  6. A phoenix of clinical toxinology: white-tailed spider (Lampona spp.) bites. A case report and review of medical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Julian; Weinstein, Scott A

    2014-09-01

    The Australian white-tailed spiders ("WTS"; Lamponidae: notably Lampona cylindrata &Lampona murina) have a continuing reputation on Internet sites as a cause of skin ulceration, labelled "necrotic arachnidism", despite an increasing number of peer-reviewed publications debunking this reputation, with >135 confirmed cases now reported without any evidence of necrosis. We present here a case of confirmed WTS bite in a 42-year old male, followed for over a month, with photos of bite site signs and no development of skin ulceration/necrosis. The patient was initially alarmed by information on the Internet suggesting local necrosis would result from the bite. We discuss the evolution of knowledge about bites by the WTS, and the persistence of misconceptions about their factually mild medical significance. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. IMPORTANCE OF ARCOBACTER SPP. IN POULTRY MEAT

    OpenAIRE

    Ertaş, Necla

    2009-01-01

    The genus Arcobacter, previously known as aerotolerant Campylobacters were isolated from aborted bovine and porcine fetuses. Arcobacter spp. differ from Campylobacter spp. by their ability to grow at lower temperatures and in air. The genus Arcobacter comprises six species. Arcobacter nitrofigilis, Arcobacter halophilus and Arcobacter sulfidicus are environmental-related species. No association with human or animal infection has been reported. The other species, Arcobacter butzleri,Arcobacter...

  8. Chemical composition of the essential oils of the berries of Juniperus oxycedrus L. ssp. rufescens (L. K.) and Juniperus oxycedrus L. ssp. macrocarpa (S. & m.) Ball. and their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanène, Medini; Ameur, Elaissi; Larbi, Khouja Med; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Falconieri, Danilo; Marongiu, Bruno; Farhat, Farhat; Chemli, Rachid

    2012-01-01

    This study is outlined to probe the chemical composition of essential oil and in vitro antioxidant activity of Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. macrocarpa (S. & m.) Ball. and Juniperus oxycedrus L. ssp. rufescens (L. K.) berries, collected from four sites, according to their maturity phase. The chemical composition of the hydrodistilled essential oil was analysed by GC-MS. Forty-eight compounds were identified, accounting for approximately 79.8-98.9% of the oil. The main constituents were α-pinene, germacrene D, myrcene, abietadiene and cis-calamenene, their mean percentage vary according to their phenological stage. The antioxidant activity of the samples was determined by the ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities. Hawaria essential oil extracted from mature berries showed the highest antioxidant capacity.

  9. A Therapeutic Approach for Wound Healing by Using Essential Oils of Cupressus and Juniperus Species Growing in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Tumen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juniperus and Cupressus genera are mainly used as diuretic, stimulant, and antiseptic, for common cold and wound healing in Turkish folk medicine. In the present study, essential oils obtained from cones of Cupressus and berries of Juniperus were evaluated for their wound healing and anti-inflammatory effects. In vivo wound healing activity was evaluated by linear incision and circular excision experimental wound models, assessment of hydroxyproline content, and subsequently histopathological analysis. The healing potential was comparatively assessed with a reference ointment Madecassol. Additionally acetic-acid-induced capillary permeability test was used for the oils' anti-inflammatory activity. The essential oils of J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus and J. phoenicea demonstrated the highest activities, while the rest of the species did not show any significant wound healing effect. The experimental study revealed that J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus and J. phoenicea display remarkable wound healing and anti-inflammatory activities, which support the folkloric use of the plants.

  10. A therapeutic approach for wound healing by using essential oils of cupressus and juniperus species growing in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumen, Ibrahim; Süntar, Ipek; Keleş, Hikmet; Küpeli Akkol, Esra

    2012-01-01

    Juniperus and Cupressus genera are mainly used as diuretic, stimulant, and antiseptic, for common cold and wound healing in Turkish folk medicine. In the present study, essential oils obtained from cones of Cupressus and berries of Juniperus were evaluated for their wound healing and anti-inflammatory effects. In vivo wound healing activity was evaluated by linear incision and circular excision experimental wound models, assessment of hydroxyproline content, and subsequently histopathological analysis. The healing potential was comparatively assessed with a reference ointment Madecassol. Additionally acetic-acid-induced capillary permeability test was used for the oils' anti-inflammatory activity. The essential oils of J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus and J. phoenicea demonstrated the highest activities, while the rest of the species did not show any significant wound healing effect. The experimental study revealed that J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus and J. phoenicea display remarkable wound healing and anti-inflammatory activities, which support the folkloric use of the plants.

  11. First report of diarrheic shellfish toxins in mollusks from Buenos Aires province (Argentina associated with dinophysis spp.: evidence of okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1 and their acylderivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia A Sar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In January 2010, the toxin-producing dinoflagellates Dinophysis acuminata and D. caudata (10³ cells·l-1 were detected in Mar Azul during routine plankton monitoring in Buenos Aires Province coastal waters, Argentina. Wild clams Mesodesma mactroides and Donax hanleyanus from Mar Azul intertidal beach, which are part of the diet for local inhabitants and tourists, tested positive with the offcial lipophilic mouse bioassay. This paper focuses on the detection of Diarrhetic Shellfsh Poison (DSP toxins in these samples using a HPLC-FLD pre column derivatization procedure. The data showed that shellfish were contaminated with complex DSP toxin profiles composed of Okadaic Acid (OA, Dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1, Acyl-Dinophysistoxin-1 (Acyl-DTX-1 and Acyl-Okadaic Acid (Acyl-OA. The DSP toxins found in this study produce diarrhea symptoms consistent with those experienced by patients who had ingested cooked shellfish in January. This is the first report of Acyl-derivatives in South American Atlantic shellfish samples and of OA in Argentinean shellfish samples.Primer reporte de toxinas diarreicas de moluscos en bivalvos de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina asociado con Dinophysis spp.: evidencia de Ácido Okadaico, Dinophysistoxina-1 y sus acyl-derivados. En enero de 2010, los dinoflagelados productores de toxinas Dinophysis acuminata y D. caudata (10³ cells·l-1 fueron detectados en Mar Azul durante un monitoreo rutinario de fitoplancton realizado en aguas costeras de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mesodesma mactroides (almeja amarilla y Donax hanleyanus (berberecho del intermareal de Mar Azul, que son parte de la dieta de los habitantes del lugar y de turistas, dieron resultado positivo para toxinas lipofílicas mediante bioensayo ratón. Este trabajo está focalizado en la detección de Toxinas Diarreicas de Moluscos (DSP en muestras colectadas durante el evento de toxicidad usando un HPLC-FLD con procedimiento de derivatizaci

  12. Seasonal variation and bioactivity of the essential oils of two Juniperus species against Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1894).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evergetis, E; Michaelakis, A; Papachristos, D P; Badieritakis, E; Kapsaski-Kanelli, V N; Haroutounian, S A

    2016-06-01

    The seasonal variation in respect to the yield and chemical composition of 24 essential oils (EOs) isolated from various parts (leaves and fruits) of two indigenous Greece Juniperus species (family Cupressaceae), namely Juniperus drupacea and Juniperus phoenica, were determined by GC and GC/MS analysis. The larvicidal properties of these EOs were evaluated against 3rd and early 4th instar larvae of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1894) at one screening dose (29 mg L(-1)). Moreover, the repellent activity against adult mosquitoes was also evaluated at one screening dose. The analytical data indicated that the EOs mainly consisted of monoterpenes, mostly cyclic and only occasionally aliphatic and to a lesser percent diterpenes. The EOs yield was sharply increased when the plant material was subjected to pre-treatment before steam distillation. Finally, the influence of plant material collection period on their yield and chemical content was also determined. Bioactivity assessments indicated that three EOs possess very potent larvicidal properties and 12 EOs display significant repellent activities since they were proved to be "DEET-like." Therefore, they represent an inexpensive source of natural mixtures of larvicidal and repellent mixture of natural compounds, with potentials for application for utilization in mosquito control schemes in order to prevent the expansion of viral infections.

  13. Isolation and Antimicrobial Testing of Aeromonas spp., Citrobacter spp., Cronobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., Escherichia spp., Klebsiella spp., and Trabulsiella spp. from the Gallbladder of Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelopoulou, Grammato; Filioussis, Georgios; Kritas, Spyridon; Kantere, Maria; Burriel, Angeliki R

    2015-01-01

    The presence of Gram-negative bacteria species, other than Salmonella spp., in the gallbladder of pigs was examined. Isolated Gram-negative bacteria were assigned to species using the Microgen™ GnA+B-ID Systems. Of the 64 isolated strains 43 were identified as Escherichia coli, seven as Enterobacter spp., three each as Klebsiella spp., Citrobacterfreundii, Aeromonas hydrophila and Cronobacter sakazakii and one each as Escherichiafergusonii and Trabulsiella guamensis. Their antibiograms showed very high resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. It was concluded that the pigs' gallbladder is a reservoir of potentially pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria for pork consumers.

  14. Antibacterial Activity of Eel (Anguilla spp.) Mucus against Salmonella typhi

    OpenAIRE

    Tomy Nurtamin; Resty Yulianita Nurman; Indria Hafizah

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever has become one global health problem. Typhoid fever is caused by a Gram-negative bacterium, Salmonella typhi. Eel (Anguilla spp.) is a fish which lives in the sea or in freshwater. Several previous studies have found that Anguilla spp. mucus has the ability as antibacterial against Gram-positive and negative. Although the antibacterial activity of Anguilla spp. against various pathogens had been reported, very little is known about its activity against Salmonella typ...

  15. Quantification of Juniperus Ashei Pollen Production for the Development of Forecasting Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunderson, L. D.; Levetin, E.

    2010-01-01

    Juniperus ashei pollen is considered one of the most allergenic species of Cupressaceae in North America. Juniperus ashei is distributed throughout central Texas, Northern Mexico, the Arbuckle Mountains of south central Oklahoma, and the Ozark Mountains of northern Arkansas and southwestern Missouri. The large amount of airborne pollen that J. ashei produces affects inhabitants of cities and towns adjacent to juniper woodland areas and because juniper pollen can be transported over long distances, it affects populations that are far away. In order to create a dynamic forecast system for allergy and asthma sufferers, pollen production must be estimated. Estimation of pollen production requires the estimation of male cone production. Two locations in the Arbuckle Mountains of Oklahoma and 4 locations in the Edwards Plateau region of Texas were chosen as sampling sites. Trees were measured to determine approximate size. Male to female ratio was determined and pollen cone production was estimated using a qualitative scale from 0 to 2. Cones were counted from harvested 1/8 sections of representative trees. The representative trees were measured and approximate surface area of the tree was calculated. Using the representative tree data, the number of cones per square meter was calculated for medium production (1) and high production (2) trees. These numbers were extrapolated to calculate cone production in other trees sampled. Calibration was achieved within each location's sub-plot by counting cones on 5 branches collected from 5 sides of both high production and medium production trees. The total area sampled in each location was 0.06 hectare and total cone production varied greatly from location to location. The highest production area produced 5.8 million cones while the lowest production area produced 72,000 cones. A single representative high production tree in the Arbuckle Mountains produced 1.38 million cones. The number of trees per location was relatively

  16. Prevalence of Trichinella spp. in black bears, grizzly bears, and wolves in the Dehcho Region, Northwest Territories, Canada, including the first report of T. nativa in a grizzly bear from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larter, Nicholas C; Forbes, Lorry B; Elkin, Brett T; Allaire, Danny G

    2011-07-01

    Samples of muscle from 120 black bears (Ursus americanus), 11 grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), and 27 wolves (Canis lupus) collected in the Dehcho Region of the Northwest Territories from 2001 to 2010 were examined for the presence of Trichinella spp. larvae using a pepsin-HCl digestion assay. Trichinella spp. larvae were found in eight of 11 (73%) grizzly bears, 14 of 27 (52%) wolves, and seven of 120 (5.8%) black bears. The average age of positive grizzly bears, black bears, and wolves was 13.5, 9.9, and approximately 4 yr, respectively. Larvae from 11 wolves, six black bears, and seven grizzly bears were genotyped. Six wolves were infected with T. nativa and five with Trichinella T6, four black bears were infected with T. nativa and two with Trichinella T6, and all seven grizzly bears were infected with Trichinella T6 and one of them had a coinfection with T. nativa. This is the first report of T. nativa in a grizzly bear from Canada. Bears have been linked to trichinellosis outbreaks in humans in Canada, and black bears are a subsistence food source for residents of the Dehcho region. In order to assess food safety risk it is important to monitor the prevalence of Trichinella spp. in both species of bear and their cohabiting mammalian food sources.

  17. The First Report of the Occurrence of Anthracnose Disease Caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz. Penz. & Sacc. on Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus spp. in Peninsular Malaysia

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    Masanto Masyahit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The increasing of dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp. plantations in Malaysia enhances the researches on this crop, particularly focusing on its physico-chemical characteristics, great potential health benefits and nutritional value. However, its scientific report of disease is still lacking, primarily on anthracnose disease. This study was then conducted to investigate the distribution of anthracnose disease on dragon fruit and to correlate its occurrence with weather and cultural data. Approach: Survey and sampling were conducted on dragon fruit-growing areas in Peninsular Malaysia since December 2007 until August 2008 to measure the Disease Incidence (DI and Disease Severity (DS. The diseased stem and fruit were sampled and brought to laboratory for isolation and identification. DI data were plotted with DS and then correlated using Pearson correlation with weather and cultural data. Results: Of the 43 surveyed-farms in 11 states, DI and DS were successfully recorded on three dragon fruit species from 36 farms (83.72%. The infected stem and fruit had reddish-brown lesions with chlorotic haloes symptoms. The lesion had brown centers and coalesced to rot. Based on its whitish-orange colony, septated hypae and capsule-like conidia and the pathogenicity test, the pathogen was identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. One way ANOVA with DMRT test highlighted that the most disease occurrence was found in Malacca (mean of DI and DS, 57.30 and 21.20%, whereas the lowest in Kelantan state (mean of DI and DS, 6.70 and 4.30%. Pearson coefficient correlations were around 0.107-0.261 for relationships between disease occurrence and age of crops and acreage of farm, from-0.049 to-0.237 for disease prevalence with relative humidity and rainfall and around-0.012-0.173 for disease occurrence with monthly temperature, wind velocity and altitude. Conclusion: The occurrence of anthracnose on dragon fruit in Peninsular Malaysia was more

  18. Compatible dominant height - site index model for juniper (Juniperus deppeana Steud.

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    Antonio Rodríguez-Carrillo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the site quality of juniper (Juniperus deppeana Steud. in the San Dimas region of the state of Durango, Mexico, using the site index method. The database comes from stem analysis of 43 trees felled in harvesting activities. The Chapman-Richards and Schumacher models, by means of the algebraic difference and generalized algebraic difference approaches, were tested to determine the site index; in addition, the error structure was modeled with a second-order autoregressive model to remedy the dependency of existing longitudinal errors. The results showed that the Chapman-Richards model in generalized algebraic difference form provided the best fit according to the adjusted coefficient of determination (R2 adj = 0.98 and root mean square error (RMSE = 0.46 m. Plotting of the quality curves generated with this model, superimposed on the observed heights, corroborated the goodness of fit of the model selected. The equation obtained with the generalized algebraic difference approach directly estimates the dominant height and site index at any height and base age.

  19. Contact and Repellent Activities of the Essential Oil from Juniperus formosana against Two Stored Product Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shanshan; Zhang, Wenjuan; Liang, Junyu; You, Chunxue; Geng, Zhufeng; Wang, Chengfang; Du, Shushan

    2016-04-16

    The chemical composition of the essential oil from Juniperus formosana leaves and its contact and repellent activities against Tribolium castaneum and Liposcelis bostrychophila adults were investigated. The essential oil of J. formosana leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 28 components were identified and the main compounds in the essential oil were α-pinene (21.66%), 4-terpineol (11.25%), limonene (11.00%) and β-phellandrene (6.63%). The constituents α-pinene, 4-terpineol and d-limonene were isolated from the essential oil. It was found that the essential oil exhibited contact activity against T. castaneum and L. bostrychophila adults (LD50 = 29.14 μg/adult and 81.50 µg/cm², respectively). The compound 4-terpineol exhibited the strongest contact activity (LD50 = 7.65 μg/adult). In addition, data showed that at 78.63 nL/cm², the essential oil and the three isolated compounds strongly repelled T. castaneum adults. The compounds α-pinene and d-limonene reached the same level (Class V) of repellency as DEET (p = 0.396 and 0.664) against L. bostrychophila at 63.17 nL/cm² after 2 h treatment. The results indicate that the essential oil and the isolated compounds have potential to be developed into natural insecticides and repellents to control insects in stored products.

  20. Inhibition of protein glycation by essential oils of branchlets and fruits of Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, S; Naderi, G A; Shams Ardekani, M R; Sahebkar, A; Airin, A; Aslani, S; Kasher, T; Emami, S A

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and protein glycation play pivotal roles in the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and its vascular complications. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-glycation properties of essential oils obtained from different parts of Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica. The branchlets of male tree (BMT) and branchlets of female (BFT) tree, and fruits of J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica were extracted using steam distillation method. The oils were phytochemically analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anti-glycation properties were evaluated using hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays. Overall, 18 volatile components were identified in the J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica oils, amounting to 82.1%, 100.0% and 96.4% of the BMT, BFT and fruit oils, respectively. Promising inhibitory activity was observed from all concentrations of the tested oils in the hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays. The inhibitory activities peaked to 89.9% (BFT oil; 200 μg mL(-1)) and 81.0% (BFT oil; 600 μg mL(-1)) in the hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays, respectively. The evidence from this study suggests that essential oils obtained from the fruits and branchlets of J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica possess anti-glycation properties. These activities may find implication for the prevention and treatment of diabetic complications.

  1. Antioxidant activities of Juniperus foetidissima essential oils against several oxidative systems

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    S. A. Emami

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of essential oils obtained from branchlets of male and female trees as well as fruits of Juniperus foetidissima Willd., Cupressaceae, from Iran. For this purpose, essential oils of J. foetidissima were phytochemically analyzed and different concentrations of them were tested in five oxidative systems: 1 low-density lipoprotein oxidation; 2 linoleic acid peroxidation; 3 red blood cell hemolysis; 4 hemoglobin glycation; and 5 insulin glycation assays. In all employed systems, antioxidant effects were observed from the three tested oils though in varying degrees. The most promising activities of the oils were observed against hemoglobin and insulin glycation. Antioxidant activities of the oils did not appear to be dose-dependent. In addition, no consistent superiority in antioxidant effects was observed from a single oil in different assays. In view of the current results, J. foetidissima branchlet and fruit oils could be regarded as effective natural products with anti-glycation activity.

  2. Secondary Growth and Carbohydrate Storage Patterns Differ between Sexes in Juniperus thurifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSoto, Lucía; Olano, José M.; Rozas, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Differences in reproductive costs between male and female plants have been shown to foster sex-related variability in growth and C-storage patterns. The extent to which differential secondary growth in dioecious trees is associated with changes in stem carbohydrate storage patterns, however, has not been fully assessed. We explored the long-term radial growth and the seasonal variation of non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) content in sapwood of 40 males and 40 females Juniperus thurifera trees at two sites. NSC content was analyzed bimonthly for 1 year, and tree-ring width was measured for the 1931–2010 period. Sex-related differences in secondary growth and carbohydrate storage were site-dependent. Under less restrictive environmental conditions females grew more and stored more non-soluble sugars than males. Our results reinforce that sex-related differences in growth and resource storage may be a consequence of local adaptation to environmental conditions. Seasonal variation in soluble sugars concentration was opposite to cambial activity, with minima seen during periods of maximal secondary growth, and did not differ between the sexes or sites. Trees with higher stem NSC levels at critical periods showed higher radial growth, suggesting a common mechanism irrespective of site or sex. Sex-related patterns of secondary growth were linked to differences in non-soluble sugars content indicating sex-specific strategies of long-term performance. PMID:27303418

  3. Increased intake of Juniperus phoenicea L. by supplementation with barley and Optigen® in sheep

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    Tomislav Šarić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dry littoral grasslands and rocky ground pastures throughout the Mediterranean basin are a significant source of forage for small ruminants and as such associated with traditional grazing practices. During the last decade, dissemination of terpene-rich Mediterranean shrubs, Juniperus phoenicea L., onto pastures in Adriatic region of Croatia have caused reduction in forage production and plant diversity. In order to facilitate the intake of this new plant by small ruminants, we investigated the effects of barley and Optigen® (a source of controlled-release non-protein nitrogen mixture to increase consumption of J. phoenicea by sheep. The preliminary results suggest that barley alone, or in combination with Optigen® enhance the intake of J. phoenicea by sheep. Furthermore, this model can be used as an environmentally safe and economically affordable approach to reduce the abundance of less palatable J. phoenicea in the environment and to increase growth of alternate, better quality forage (grasses and forbs on Mediterranean pastures.

  4. Contact and Repellent Activities of the Essential Oil from Juniperus formosana against Two Stored Product Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Guo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oil from Juniperus formosana leaves and its contact and repellent activities against Tribolium castaneum and Liposcelis bostrychophila adults were investigated. The essential oil of J. formosana leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 28 components were identified and the main compounds in the essential oil were α-pinene (21.66%, 4-terpineol (11.25%, limonene (11.00% and β-phellandrene (6.63%. The constituents α-pinene, 4-terpineol and d-limonene were isolated from the essential oil. It was found that the essential oil exhibited contact activity against T. castaneum and L. bostrychophila adults (LD50 = 29.14 μg/adult and 81.50 µg/cm2, respectively. The compound 4-terpineol exhibited the strongest contact activity (LD50 = 7.65 μg/adult. In addition, data showed that at 78.63 nL/cm2, the essential oil and the three isolated compounds strongly repelled T. castaneum adults. The compounds α-pinene and d-limonene reached the same level (Class V of repellency as DEET (p = 0.396 and 0.664 against L. bostrychophila at 63.17 nL/cm2 after 2 h treatment. The results indicate that the essential oil and the isolated compounds have potential to be developed into natural insecticides and repellents to control insects in stored products.

  5. The batch fractionation of Juniperus communis L. essential oil: experimental study, mathematical simulation and process economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetomir Ž. Milojević

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The separation in a batch vacuum column of the essential oil of common juniper berries (Juniperus communis L., from the southern part of Serbia was analyzed. The main goal of the analyzed separation process was to isolate several fractions from the essential oil which mainly contained α-pinene, sabinene and myrcene. These compounds contain about 65 mass% of the essential oil produced by hydrodistillation from the juniper berries originated from the southern part of Serbia. The results of experimental work in a laboratory column with 36 theoretical stages under vacuum (8.0-3.35 kPa was simulated using Aspen software, and a proposed mathematical model was used to analyze some other operating conditions for fractionation of juniper berry’s oil (number of plates: 25, 36 and 45 and reflux ratio: 2-10. According to the results of performed simulations, the most acceptable separation procedure which takes into account the prices of raw materials and distillate (α-pinene as well as consumed energy was proposed.

  6. Using juniper berry ( Juniperus communis as a supplement in Japanese quail diets

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    Hakan Inci

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study was conducted to determine the effects of supplemented juniper berry (Juniperus communis on fattening performance and some carcass traits of quails. A total of 150 one-day-old Japanese quail chicks were randomly divided into five groups (one control and four treated groups with three replicates. Four different juniper berry levels (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2% and a control treatment (0% were added to the diet. Juniper berry supplementation to the diets initiated at the end of the 1st week and sustained for seven weeks. Live weight, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio during the trial and some carcass traits after slaughter were determined. Juniper berry supplementation in the diet during seven weeks of growing period significantly increased body weight, cumulative feed intake, and feed conversion ratio of the treated groups. Carcass weight, carcass yield, and breast yield were also significantly increased by supplemented juniper berry. No significant difference was observed between viability of different groups. Supplementation of 0.5-1% juniper berry in quail diets has positive impacts on fattening performance and carcass traits.

  7. Relictual distribution reaches the top: Elevation constrains fertility and leaf longevity in Juniperus thurifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesinos, D.; García-Fayos, P.; Verdú, M.

    2010-01-01

    Juniperus thurifera populations are scattered throughout the western Mediterranean basin and are relictual from its Tertiary distribution due to progressive climatic warming since the last glacial period. To disentangle the factors responsible for its extremely low fertility we combined a microscale experimental design with a macroscale study. At the microscale we experimentally alleviated environmental stress by watering and fertilizing during two years a set of trees in one population. At macroscale we selected 11 populations across a geographical range and sampled them for three years. Macroscale patterns evidenced that both plant fertility and leaf longevity diminished with increasing elevation. Both microscale and macroscale illustrated the importance of water and nutrient availability on leaf growth and plant fertility: On the microscale experiments, regular supply of water and nutrients increased fruit-set by 300%. Macroscale showed that increases in resource availability (precipitation) resulted in reductions of seed abortion, although paralleled by increases in seed predation. Altogether, our results indicate that fertility is constrained both by elevation and by resource limitation. Therefore any potential lift in the elevational distribution limits will result in synergistic fertility reductions due to harder physical conditions and lower water and nutrient availability. Both will compromise future regeneration of this relictual species, although population decline might be buffered temporary thanks to longevity of adult trees.

  8. Modeling and mapping potential distribution of Crimean juniper (Juniperus excelsa Bieb.) using correlative approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Kürşad; Şentürk, Özdemir; Mert, Ahmet; Negiz, Mehmet Güvenç

    2015-01-01

    Modeling and mapping potential distribution of living organisms has become an important component of conservation planning and ecosystem management in recent years. Various correlative and mechanistic methods can be applied to build predictive distributions of living organisms in terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Correlative methods used to predict species' potential distribution have been described as either group discrimination techniques or profile techniques. We attempted to determine whether group discrimination techniques could perform as well as profile techniques for predicting species potential distributions, using elevation (ELVN), parent material (ROCK), slope (SLOP), radiation index (RI) and topographic position index (TPI)) as explanatory variables. We compared potential distribution predictions made for Crimean juniper (Juniperus excelsa Bieb.) in the Yukan Gokdere forest district of the Mediterranean region, Turkey, applying four group discrimination techniques (discriminate analysis (DA), logistic regression analysis (LR), generalized addictive model (GAM) and classification tree technique (CT)) and two profile techniques (a maximum entropy approach to species distribution modeling (MAXENT), the genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction (GARP)). Visual assessments of the potential distribution probability of the applied models for Crimean juniper were performed by using geographical information systems (GIS). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to objectively assess model performance. The results suggested that group discrimination techniques are better than profile techniques and, among the group discrimination techniques, GAM indicated the best performance.

  9. Critical phases in the seed development of common juniper (Juniperus communis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruwez, R; Leroux, O; De Frenne, P; Tack, W; Viane, R; Verheyen, K

    2013-01-01

    Common juniper (Juniperus communis L.) populations in northwest European lowlands are currently declining in size and number. An important cause of this decline is a lack of natural regeneration. Low seed viability seems to be one of the main bottlenecks in this process. Previous research revealed a negative relation between seed viability and both temperature and nitrogen deposition. Additionally, the seeds of common juniper have a variable ripening time, which possibly influences seed viability. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unresolved. In order to elucidate this puzzle, it is important to understand in which phases of seed production the main defects are situated, together with the influence of ripening time. In this study, we compared seed viability of populations with and without successful recruitment. We examined three seed phases: (i) gamete development; (ii) fertilisation and early-embryo development; and (iii) late-embryo development. After the first two phases, we found no difference in the percentage viable seeds between populations with or without recruitment. After late-embryo development, populations without recruitment showed a significantly lower percentage of viable seeds. These results suggest that late-embryo development is a bottleneck in seed development. However, the complex interaction between seed viability and ripening time suggest that the causes should be in the second seed phase, as the accelerated development of male and female gametophytes may disturb the male-female synchrony for successful mating. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  10. Multilocus Analyses Reveal Postglacial Demographic Shrinkage of Juniperus morrisonicola (Cupressaceae), a Dominant Alpine Species in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Chun; Hsu, Tsai-Wen; Wang, Hao-Ven; Liu, Zin-Huang; Chen, Yi-Yen; Chiu, Chi-Te; Huang, Chao-Li; Hung, Kuo-Hsiang; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh

    2016-01-01

    Postglacial climate changes alter geographical distributions and diversity of species. Such ongoing changes often force species to migrate along the latitude/altitude. Altitudinal gradients represent assemblage of environmental, especially climatic, variable factors that influence the plant distributions. Global warming that triggered upward migrations has therefore impacted the alpine plants on an island. In this study, we examined the genetic structure of Juniperus morrisonicola, a dominant alpine species in Taiwan, and inferred historical, demographic dynamics based on multilocus analyses. Lower levels of genetic diversity in north indicated that populations at higher latitudes were vulnerable to climate change, possibly related to historical alpine glaciers. Neither organellar DNA nor nuclear genes displayed geographical subdivisions, indicating that populations were likely interconnected before migrating upward to isolated mountain peaks, providing low possibilities of seed/pollen dispersal across mountain ranges. Bayesian skyline plots suggested steady population growth of J. morrisonicola followed by recent demographic contraction. In contrast, most lower-elevation plants experienced recent demographic expansion as a result of global warming. The endemic alpine conifer may have experienced dramatic climate changes over the alternation of glacial and interglacial periods, as indicated by a trend showing decreasing genetic diversity with the altitudinal gradient, plus a fact of upward migration.

  11. Chemical variability of the essential oil of Juniperus phoenicea var. turbinata from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhechi, Chahrazed; Atik Bekkara, Fewzia; Consiglio, Danaë; Bighelli, Ange; Tomi, Félix

    2012-12-01

    The chemical composition of 50 samples of leaf oil isolated from Algerian Juniperus phoenicea var. turbinata L. harvested in eight locations (littoral zone and highlands) was investigated by GC-FID (in combination with retention indices), GC/MS, and (13) C-NMR analyses. The composition of the J. phoenicea var. turbinata leaf oils was dominated by monoterpenes. Hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses confirmed the chemical variability of the leaf oil of this species. Indeed, three clusters were distinguished on the basis of the α-pinene, α-terpinyl acetate, β-phellandrene, and germacrene D contents. In most oil samples, α-pinene (30.2-76.7%) was the major compound, associated with β-phellandrene (up to 22.5%) and α-terpinyl acetate (up to 13.4%). However, five out of the 50 samples exhibited an atypical composition characterized by the predominance of germacrene D (16.7-22.7%), α-pinene (15.8-20.4%), and α-terpinyl acetate (6.1-22.6%). Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  12. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Analysis of the Essential Oil of Algerian Juniperus phoenicea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyahyaoui, Ahmed; Bahri, Fouad; Romane, Abderrahmane; Höferl, Martina; Wanner, Juergen; Schmidt, Erich; Jirovetz, Leopold

    2016-04-01

    The essential oils of Juniperus phoenicea L. from Algeria were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Concerning their chemical composition, 74, 61 and 72 volatile compounds were identified from fresh leaves, dried leaves and berries, representing 88.8%, 91.3% and 94.7% of the total composition, respectively. The main monoterpene in the oils of fresh leaves, dried leaves and berries was a-pinene (29.6% / 55.9% / 56.6%), accompanied by lesser amounts of the sesquiterpenes β-caryophyllene (2.6% / 1.6% /1.2%) and germacrene D (2.01% / 1.7% / 1.5%), respectively. Antibacterial activity of J. phoenicea essential oils was tested against one Gram-negative and four Gram-positive bacterial strains and the yeast Candida albicans, responsible for nosocomial infections. As references, 14 antibiotics and 5 antifungal agents were evaluated. The berry essential oil was ineffective against all but two of the strains tested, whereas the essential oil of dried leaves significantly inhibited all strains but Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which turned out to be the most resistant strain overall. However, Escherichia coli was the most susceptible to the essential oils tested. The essential oil of dry leaves was highly active against Candida albicans, outclassing even the standard antifungal substances. These promising results could substantiate the use of essential oils in the treatment of hospital-acquired infections.

  13. Genetic diversity and differentiation of Juniperus thurifera in Spain and Morocco as determined by SSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Helena; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana; Nabais, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Juniperus thurifera L. is an important tree endemic to the western Mediterranean basin that it is able to grow in semi-arid climates. It nowadays exhibits a disjunct distribution pattern, occurring in North Africa, Spain, France and the Italian Alps. The Strait of Gibraltar has acted as an efficient barrier against gene flow between African and European populations, which are considered different subspecies by some authors. We aimed at describing the intraspecific genetic diversity of J. thurifera in populations from the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco and the phylogeographical relationships among these populations. The ploidy level of J. thurifera was examined and eleven nuclear microsatellites (nSSRs) developed for J. thurifera were assessed for genotyping this species. Six nSSRs were polymorphic and subsequently used to assess the genetic diversity and structure of the studied populations. Genotyping of the tetraploid J. thurifera using nuclear microsatellites supports the separation of Moroccan and Spanish populations into two genetically differentiated groups that correspond to the proposed subspecies africana and thurifera. High values of within population genetic diversity were found, that accounted for 90% of the total genetic variance, while population structure was weak. The estimators of genetic diversity were higher in populations of Spain than in populations of Morocco pointing for a possible loss of genetic diversity during the spread of this species to Africa from Europe.

  14. Biogeographic variation of foliar n-alkanes of Juniperus communis var. saxatilis Pallas from the Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajčević, Nemanja; Janaćković, Pedja; Dodoš, Tanja; Tešević, Vele; Marin, Petar D

    2014-12-01

    The composition of the epicuticular n-alkanes isolated from the leaves of ten populations of Juniperus communis L. var. saxatilis Pallas from central (continental) and western (coastal) areas of the Balkan Peninsula was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In the leaf waxes, 14 n-alkane homologues with chain-lengths ranging from C22 to C35 were identified. All samples were dominated by n-tritriacontane (C33 ), but differences in two other dominant n-alkanes allowed separating the coastal from the continental populations. Several statistical methods (ANOVA, principal component, discriminant, and cluster analyses as well as the Mantel test) were deployed to analyze the diversity and variability of the epicuticular-leaf-n-alkane patterns of the ten natural populations of J. communis var. saxatilis and their relation to different geographic and bioclimatic parameters. Cluster analysis showed a high correlation of the leaf-n-alkane patterns with the geographical distribution of the investigated samples, differentiating the coastal from the continental populations of this taxon. Several bioclimatic parameters related to aridity were highly correlated with this differentiation. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  15. Antioxidant activity and chemical composition of Juniperus excelsa ssp. polycarpos wood extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinihashemi, S K; Dadpour, A; Lashgari, A

    2017-03-01

    Extracts from the wood of Juniperus excelsa ssp. polycarpos were analysed for their antioxidant activity using the DPPH method and compared with ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene. The most active extracts were analysed for their chemical composition using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Acetone extract was found to be moderately active as an antioxidant agent at 58.38%, which was lower than the value of vitamin C (98.56%) at the concentration of 14.20 mg/mL. The major components identified in the acetone extract as trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives were pimaric acid TMS (24.56%), followed by α-d-glucopyranoside,1,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(TMS)-β-d-fructofuranosyl 2,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(TMS) (21.39%), triflouromethyl-bis-(TMS)methyl ketone (9.32%), and cedrol (0.72%). The dissolved water:methanol (1:1 v/v) partitioned from acetone extract afforded 12 fractions; among them, the F9 fraction was found to have good antioxidant activity (88.49%) at the concentration of 14.20 mg/mL. The major compounds identified in F9 fraction were α-d-glucopyranoside, 1,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(TMS) (20.22%) and trifluoromethyl-bis-(TMS)methyl ketone (5.10%).

  16. Antileishmanial Activities of Greek Juniper (Juniperus excelsa M.Bieb.) Against Leishmania major Promastigotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moein, Mahmoodreza; Hatam, Gholamreza; Taghavi-Moghadam, Razieh; Zarshenas, Mohammad M

    2017-01-01

    Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol fractions of Greek juniper (Juniperus excelsa M.Bieb. from the family Cupressaceae) were evaluated for antileishmanial activities against Leishmania major promastigotes compared to meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime). In vitro toxicity assay was performed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide and microplate ELISA reader. Extracts were prepared in ethanol/dimethyl sulfoxide (80/20) at 10 to 0.62 mg/mL. The standard was prepared in phosphate-buffered saline at 500 to 15.62 mg/mL. Both leaf and fruit extracts and related fractions showed strong inhibitory effects against promastigotes, significantly different from that of the standard. The leaf extract and the respective petroleum ether fraction showed maximum effectiveness compared to other fractions and also fruit extract and fractions (IC90 = 1.89 ± 0.03 and 0.90 ± 0.03 mg/mL, respectively). Regarding the potent activities of nonpolar fractions of Greek juniper leaf extract, these fractions can be suggested for further investigation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Effects of pre-treatments and temperature on seed viability and germination of Juniperus macrocarpa Sm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Maria Silvia; Mattana, Efisio; Cañadas, Eva Maria; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2014-05-01

    The effects of collecting season, collection site, laboratory pre-treatments and temperatures on seed viability and germination of Juniperus macrocarpa were investigated. Ripe cones were collected in four Sardinian dune systems, in two seasons, from plant and soil. Warm (W) and cold (C) stratifications, two combinations of them (W+C, C+W), and no pre-treatment (0) were applied. Seeds were incubated in a range of constant (10-25°C) and an alternating (25/10°C) temperature regime. Seed viability was low (ca. 40%) and varied significantly according to the collecting season. Seed germination was also low (ca. 10%), the 0 and W were the most effective pre-treatments on stimulating germination. The best germination temperature, without any pre-treatment, was 15°C (ca. 20%). J. macrocarpa seeds are dormant and the achieved results suggested that the presence of secondary dormancy is induced by cold stratification. Spring appeared to be the best season for seed collecting, whereas autumn was the best for sowing. These results give new findings for restoration activities on this species. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  18. Genders in Juniperus thurifera have different functional responses to variations in nutrient availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesinos, D; Villar-Salvador, P; García-Fayos, P; Verdú, M

    2012-02-01

    • Differences in reproductive investment can trigger asymmetric, context-dependent, functional strategies between genders in dioecious species. However, little is known about the gender responses of dioecious species to nutrient availability. • We experimentally fertirrigated a set of male and female Juniperus thurifera trees monthly for 2 yr. Water potential, photosynthesis rate and stomatal conductance were measured monthly for 2 yr, while shoot nitrogen (N) concentration, carbon isotopic composition (δ(13) C), branch growth, trunk radial growth and reproductive investment per branch were measured yearly. • Control males had lower gas exchange rates and radial growth but greater reproductive investment and higher water use efficiency (WUE; as inferred from more positive δ(13) C values) than females. Fertirrigation did not affect water potential or WUE but genders responded differently to increased nutrient availability. The two genders similarly increased shoot N concentration when fertilized. The increase in shoot N was associated with increased photosynthesis in males but not in females, which presented consistently high photosynthetic rates across treatments. • Our results suggest that genders invest N surplus in different functions, with females presenting a long-term strategy by increasing N storage to compensate for massive reproductive masting events, while males seem to be more reactive to current nutrient availability, promoting gas-exchange capacity. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Deoxypodophyllotoxin isolated from Juniperus communis induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzina, Sami; Harquail, Jason; Jean, Stephanie; Beauregard, Annie-Pier; Colquhoun, Caitlyn D; Carroll, Madison; Bos, Allyson; Gray, Christopher A; Robichaud, Gilles A

    2015-01-01

    The study of anticancer properties from natural products has regained popularity as natural molecules provide a high diversity of chemical structures with specific biological and medicinal activity. Based on a documented library of the most common medicinal plants used by the indigenous people of North America, we screened and isolated compounds with anti-breast cancer properties from Juniperus communis (common Juniper). Using bioassay-guided fractionation of a crude plant extract, we identified the diterpene isocupressic acid and the aryltetralin lignan deoxypodophyllotoxin (DPT) as potent inducers of caspase-dependent programmed cell death (apoptosis) in malignant MB231 breast cancer cells. Further elucidation revealed that DPT, in contrast to isocupressic acid, also concomitantly inhibited cell survival pathways mediated by the MAPK/ERK and NFκB signaling pathways within hours of treatment. Our findings emphasize the potential and importance of natural product screening for new chemical entities with novel anticancer activities. Natural products research complemented with the wealth of information available through the ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological knowledge of the indigenous peoples of North America can provide new candidate entities with desirable bioactivities to develop new cancer therapies.

  20. Quantification of viable but nonculturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during sludge anaerobic digestion and their reactivation during cake storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, B; Jiang, Q; Liu, H-B; Liu, H

    2015-10-01

    The presence of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) bacterial pathogens which often fail to be detected by cultivation and can regain the cultivability if the living conditions improve were reported. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in the biosolids during anaerobic digestion and its reactivation during the cake storage. The occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during mesophilic, temperature-phased, thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and the subsequent storage were studied by RT-qPCR and most probable number (MPN) method. The VBNC incidence of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during thermophilic digestion was four orders of magnitude higher than those of mesophilic digestion. Accordingly, higher resuscitation ratio of VBNC pathogens was also achieved in thermophilic digested sludge. As a result, the culturable Salmonella typhimurium contents in thermophilic digested sludge after cake storage were two orders of magnitude higher than mesophilic digestion. Both quantitative PCR and reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay results showed the two bacterial counting numbers remained stable throughout the cake storage. The results indicate that the increase in the culturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. after centrifugal dewatering was attributed to the resuscitation from the VBNC state to the culturable state. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion mainly induced Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. into VBNC state rather than killed them, suggesting that the biological safety of sewage sludge by temperature-phased anaerobic digestion should be carefully assessed. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Crystal Structure of Jun a 1, the Major Cedar Pollen Allergen from Juniperus ashei, Reveals a Parallel β-Helical Core*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwinski, Edmund W.; Midoro-Horiuti, Terumi; White, Mark A.; Brooks, Edward G.; Goldblum, Randall M.

    2008-01-01

    Pollen from cedar and cypress trees is a major cause of seasonal hypersensitivity in humans in several regions of the Northern Hemisphere. We report the first crystal structure of a cedar allergen, Jun a 1, from the pollen of the mountain cedar Juniperus ashei (Cupressaceae). The core of the structure consists primarily of a parallel β-helix, which is nearly identical to that found in the pectin/pectate lyases from several plant pathogenic microorganisms. Four IgE epitopes mapped to the surface of the protein are accessible to the solvent. The conserved vWiDH sequence is covered by the first 30 residues of the N terminus. The potential reactive arginine, analogous to the pectin/pectate lyase reaction site, is accessible to the solvent, but the substrate binding groove is blocked by a histidine-aspartate salt bridge, a glutamine, and an α-helix, all of which are unique to Jun a 1. These observations suggest that steric hindrance in Jun a 1 precludes enzyme activity. The overall results suggest that it is the structure of Jun a 1 that makes it a potent allergen. PMID:15539389

  2. Anti-arthritic Effects of Total Flavonoids from Juniperus sabina on Complete Freund's Adjuvant Induced Arthritis in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Liu, Tao; Xu, Fang; You, Shuping; Xu, Fang; Li, Chenyang; Gu, Zhengyi

    2016-01-01

    Context: Twigs and leaves of Juniperus sabina L. have been traditionally used as the medicinal herb in China for the treatment of many ailments including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Aims: To confirm the therapeutic effect of total flavonoids from J. sabina (JSTF) on RA-induced by Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) in rats. Settings and Design: Wistar rats (200 ± 20 g) were immunized by intradermal injection of 0.1 mL of CFA into the right hind metatarsal footpad. JSTF was administered orally at the dose of 125,250 and 500 mg/kg on 14 days after the induction of adjuvant arthritis. Tripterygium glycoside (20 mg/kg) was used as a positive control. Paw swelling, arthritic score, body weight loss, serum cytokines, inflammatory mediators, and histological change were measured. Results: We found that JSTF could ameliorate paw swelling of CFA rats, and significantly inhibit arthritic score (P Juniperus sabina L. have been traditionally used as the medicinal herb in China for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritisJSTF could ameliorate paw swelling of CFA rats, and significantly inhibit arthritic scoreHistopathological studies showed a marked decrease of synovial inflammatory infiltration and synovial lining hyperplasia in the joints of JSTF-treated animalsSix flavonoids were isolated and from JSTF including: Catechin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, isoscutellarein 7-O-β-D-xylopyranoside, isoscutellarein 7-O-β-D-xylopyranose-(1 → 3)-α-L- rhamnoside, and rutin. Abbreviations used: JSTF: Total flavonoids from Juniperus sabina; CFA: Complete Freund's Adjuvant; TG: Tripterygium glycoside; TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor alpha; IL-1β: Interleukin 1beta; IL-6: Interleukin 6; H and E: Hematoxylin and eosin. PMID:27601846

  3. [Genetic variability of juniper tall (Juniperus excelsa Bieb.) in the northern and southern limits of the natural distribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Nikolaeva, A V

    2013-01-01

    Genetic structure, subdivision and differentiation of six populations of juniper tall (Juniperus excelsa Bieb.) of the Crimean Mountains and of one population in Lebanon were investigated using 18 polymorphic allozyme loci as genetic markers. The high level of genetic variability of J. excelsa was established in the northern and the southern limits of its natural habitat. The mean values of the main indicators of genetic polymorphism were: P99 = 1,000, A = 3,167, H(E) = 0,370, H(o) = 0,405. Subdivision and differentiation of populations were low (F(ST) = 0,032, D(N) = 0,026) indicating similarity of their gene pools.

  4. Nanolipoprotein Particles (NLPs) as Versatile Vaccine Platforms for Co-delivery of Multiple Adjuvants with Subunit Antigens from Burkholderia spp. and F. tularensis - Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, N. O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-01-06

    The goal of this proposal is to demonstrate that colocalization of protein subunit antigens and adjuvants on nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs) can increase the protective efficacy of subunit antigens from Burkholderia spp. and Francisella tularensis against an aerosol challenge. In the second quarter of the third year, LLNL finalized all immunological assessments of NLP vaccine formulations in the F344 model. Battelle has immunized rats with three unique NLP formulations by either intramuscular or intranasal administration. All inoculations have been completed, and protective efficacy against an aerosolized challenge will begin at the end of October, 2014.

  5. Bartonella spp. in Bats, Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    BAI, YING; Kosoy, Michael; Recuenco, Sergio; Alvarez, Danilo; Moran, David; Turmelle, Amy; Ellison, James; Garcia, Daniel L.; Estevez, Alejandra; Lindblade, Kim; Rupprecht, Charles

    2011-01-01

    To better understand the role of bats as reservoirs of Bartonella spp., we estimated Bartonella spp. prevalence and genetic diversity in bats in Guatemala during 2009. We found prevalence of 33% and identified 21 genetic variants of 13 phylogroups. Vampire bat–associated Bartonella spp. may cause undiagnosed illnesses in humans.

  6. Protective role of Juniperus phoenicea and Cupressus sempervirens against CCl4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sanaa; Ahmed; Ali; Maha; Zaki; Rizk; Nabawia; Ali; Ibrahim; Mohga; Shafik; Abdallah; Hayat; Mohamed; Sharara; Magda; Mohamed; Moustafa

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of Cupressus sempervirens (C. sempervirens) and Juniperus phoenicea (J. phoe-nicea) extracts as therapeutic effect against CCl4 with biochemical, histopathological evaluations. METHODS: A single intraperitoneal dose of 10% CCl4 in olive oil (1 mL/kg body weight) was administered to a group of female Wister rats, sacrificed after 24 h (as the injury group). The other groups were given CCl4 as de-scribed above and divided as follows: two groups of ten rats each were orally administered either J. phoenicea extract or C. sempervirens extract three times per week for six weeks and a further group administered CCl4 was left for six weeks to allow self-recovery. At the end of experiment, the rats from all groups were sacrificed for sampling and for biochemical and histological analysis. RESULTS: Remarkable disturbances were observed in the levels of all tested parameters. On the other hand,rats injected with the toxic agent and left for one and a half month to self recover showed moderate improve-ments in the studied parameters while, treatment with both medicinal herbal extracts ameliorated the levels of the disturbed biochemical parameters. The group treated with J. phoenicea extract showed a remarkable improvement in comparison to the CCl4 treated group. The C. sempervirens group revealing an even more re-markable effect showing histopathological liver& kidney profiles close to those of the control group.CONCLUSION: C. sempervirens and J. phoenicea leaf extracts show a remarkable effect in enhancing liver and kidney functions and may thus be of therapeutic potential in treatment hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.

  7. Efficiency of pollination and satiation of predators determine reproductive output in Iberian Juniperus thurifera woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezquida, E T; Rodríguez-García, E; Olano, J M

    2016-01-01

    Fruit production in animal-dispersed plants has a strong influence on fitness because large crops increase the number of seeds dispersed by frugivores. Large crops are costly, and environmental control of plant resources is likely play a role in shaping temporal and spatial variations in seed production, particularly in fluctuating environments such as the Mediterranean. The number of fruits that start to develop and the proportion of viable seeds produced are also linked to the number of flowers formed and the efficiency of pollination in wind-pollinated plants. Finally, large fruit displays also attract seed predators, having a negative effect on seed output. We assessed the relative impact of environmental conditions on fruit production, and their combined effect on seed production, abortion and seed loss through three predispersal predators in Juniperus thurifera L., sampling 14 populations across the Iberian Peninsula. Wetter than average conditions during flowering and early fruit development led to larger crop sizes; this effect was amplified at tree level, with the most productive trees during more favourable years yielding fruits with more viable seeds and less empty and aborted seeds. In addition, large crops satiated the less mobile seed predator. The other two predispersal predators responded to plant traits, the presence of other seed predators and environmental conditions, but did not show a satiation response to the current-year crop. Our large-scale study on a dioecious, wind-pollinated Mediterranean juniper indicates that pollination efficiency and satiation of seed predators, mediated by environmental conditions, are important determinants of reproductive output in this juniper species. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of berries and leaves essential oils of Macedonian Juniperus foetidissima Willd. (Cupressaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floresha Sela

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of leaves and berries essential oils from Juniperus foetidissima Willd. (Cupressaceae grown in R. Macedonia (RM was investigated. GC/FID/MS analysis was carried out and 93 components were identified, representing 89.7-96.5% of the oils. The major components of the berries essential oil were α-pinene (19.2%, limonene (24.9% and cedrol (23.1%, followed by smaller amounts of b-funebrene, trans-caryophyllene, germacrene D and d-cadinene. The composition of the leaves essential oil was variable depending on the region of collection. Accordingly, samples originated from southeastern RM contained essential oil with α-pinene (67.6% and limonene (10.0%, from central part of RM with limonene (17.9-27.1% and cedrol (28.8-33.9%, while samples from southwestern RM contained oil with terpinen-4-ol (19.1%, cis-thujone (8.3%, germacrene D (11.0% and d-cadinene (6.3% as predominant components in the oil. Antimicrobial screening of the essential oils was made by disc diffusion and broth dilution method against 16 bacterial strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and one strain of Candida albicans. The leaves essential oil showed stronger antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Haemophilus influenzae (MIC = 125 ml/ml and moderate activity against Campylobacter jejuni (MIC > 500 ml/ml. Other investigated bacterial strains and Candida albicans were completely resistant to the antimicrobial activity of J. foetidissima essential oils.

  9. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Juniperus thurifera L. essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AZZEDDINE ZERAIB

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative and quantitative composition of the essential oils obtained from male and female leaves of Juniperus thurifera L., (growing in Algeria has been investigated for the first time. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation (0.45% from female trees and 0.53% from male trees, v/w dried material and analyzed by gas choromatography (GC and gas choromatography-mass spectrometery (GC-MS. Seventy-seven compounds were identified, representing more than 97% of the oils. The major components were Sabinene, α-pinene and terpinene-4-ol. The concentrations of the oil constituents: α-thujene, α-pinene, α-phellandrene, p-cymene, linalyl acetate, Δ-amorphene, germacrene D-4-ol, and 4-epi-abietal were greater in the oil of the female tree than in the oil of the male tree. Conversely, the concentrations of α-terpinene, γ-terpinene, terpinene-4-ol, elemol, α-epi-cadinol and α-eudesmol were greater in the oil of the male tree than in the oil of the female tree. However, the concentration gradient trends for both female and male trees were similar for sabinene, myrcene, linalool, β-pinene, limonene, cis-sabinene hydrate terpinolene, α-terpineol. The antimicrobial activity of male and female J. thurifera essential oils was evaluated against 14 bacteria. The results showed a variable degree of antibacterial activity depending from the type of the oil (extracted from male or female trees. Essential oils of female trees were most effective.

  10. Dual extraction of essential oil and podophyllotoxin from creeping juniper (Juniperus horizontalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L Cantrell

    Full Text Available Juniperus horizontalis Moench (Family Cupressaceae, commonly called creeping juniper, is a widely distributed species in the United States and much of Canada. It is potentially a source for two important chemical products, the anticancer drug synthetic precursor, podophyllotoxin and essential oils. The objectives of this study were to ascertain the likelihood of utilizing J. horizontalis needles for the simultaneous production of both (--podophyllotoxin and essential oil components and to determine the optimum distillation time (DT needed for the production of essential oil containing a specific ratio of constituents. Eleven different distillation times were tested in this study: 20, 40, 80, 160, 180, 240, 480, 600, 720, 840, and 960 min. Total essential oil content increased with increasing distillation time from a minimum of 0.023% at 20 min to a maximum of 1.098% at 960 min. The major constituents present in the oil were alpha-pinene, sabinene, and limonene. The percent concentration of sabinene in the essential oil varied from a high of 46.6% at 80 min to a low of 30.2% at 960 min, that of limonene changed very little as a result of distillation time and remained near 30% for all distillation times, whereas the concentration of alpha-pinene was 9.6% at 20 min DT and decreased to 4.2% at 960 min. Post distillation analysis of needles revealed elevated amounts of (--podophyllotoxin remaining in the tissue varied in the amount of podophyllotoxin present, from a low of 0.281% to a high of 0.364% as compared to undistilled needles which gave 0.217% podophyllotoxin. As a result of this study, specific essential oil components can now be targeted in J. horizontalis by varying the distillation time. Furthermore, needles can be successfully utilized as a source of both essential oil and podophyllotoxin, consecutively.

  11. Dual extraction of essential oil and podophyllotoxin from creeping juniper (Juniperus horizontalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Charles L; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Carvalho, Camila R; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2014-01-01

    Juniperus horizontalis Moench (Family Cupressaceae), commonly called creeping juniper, is a widely distributed species in the United States and much of Canada. It is potentially a source for two important chemical products, the anticancer drug synthetic precursor, podophyllotoxin and essential oils. The objectives of this study were to ascertain the likelihood of utilizing J. horizontalis needles for the simultaneous production of both (-)-podophyllotoxin and essential oil components and to determine the optimum distillation time (DT) needed for the production of essential oil containing a specific ratio of constituents. Eleven different distillation times were tested in this study: 20, 40, 80, 160, 180, 240, 480, 600, 720, 840, and 960 min. Total essential oil content increased with increasing distillation time from a minimum of 0.023% at 20 min to a maximum of 1.098% at 960 min. The major constituents present in the oil were alpha-pinene, sabinene, and limonene. The percent concentration of sabinene in the essential oil varied from a high of 46.6% at 80 min to a low of 30.2% at 960 min, that of limonene changed very little as a result of distillation time and remained near 30% for all distillation times, whereas the concentration of alpha-pinene was 9.6% at 20 min DT and decreased to 4.2% at 960 min. Post distillation analysis of needles revealed elevated amounts of (-)-podophyllotoxin remaining in the tissue varied in the amount of podophyllotoxin present, from a low of 0.281% to a high of 0.364% as compared to undistilled needles which gave 0.217% podophyllotoxin. As a result of this study, specific essential oil components can now be targeted in J. horizontalis by varying the distillation time. Furthermore, needles can be successfully utilized as a source of both essential oil and podophyllotoxin, consecutively.

  12. Morphological versus molecular markers to describe variability in Juniperus excelsa subsp. excelsa (Cupressaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douaihy, Bouchra; Sobierajska, Karolina; Jasińska, Anna Katarzyna; Boratyńska, Krystyna; Ok, Tolga; Romo, Angel; Machon, Nathalie; Didukh, Yakiv; Bou Dagher-Kharrat, Magda; Boratyński, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Juniperus excelsa M.-Bieb. is a major forest element in the mountains of the eastern part of Mediterranean and sub-Mediterranean regions. This study comprises the first morphological investigation covering a large part of the geographical range of J. excelsa and aims to verify the congruency between the morphological results and molecular results of a previous study. Methodology We studied 14 populations sampled from Greece, Cyprus, Ukraine, Turkey and Lebanon, 11 of which have previously been investigated using molecular markers. Three hundred and ninety-four individuals of J. excelsa were examined using nine biometric features characterizing cones, seeds and shoots, and eight derived ratios. Statistical analyses were conducted in order to evaluate the intra- and inter-population morphological variability. Principal results The level of intra-population variability observed did not show any geographical trends. The total variation mostly depended on the ratios of cone diameter/seed width and seed width/seed length. The discrimination analysis, the Ward agglomeration method and barrier analysis results showed a separation of the sampled populations into three main clusters. These results confirmed, in part, the geographical differentiation revealed by molecular markers with a lower level of differentiation and a less clear geographical pattern. The most differentiated populations using both markers corresponded to old, isolated populations in the high altitudes of Lebanon (>2000 m). Moreover, a separation of the northern Turkish population from the southern Turkish populations was observed using both markers. Conclusions Morphological variation together with genetic and biogeographic studies make an effective tool for detecting relict plant populations and also populations subjected to more intensive selection. PMID:22822421

  13. Anti-mycobacterial natural products from the Canadian medicinal plant Juniperus communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Caitlyn D; O'Neill, Taryn; Picot, Nadia; Johnson, John A; Robichaud, Gilles A; Webster, Duncan; Gray, Christopher A

    2012-09-28

    Common juniper, Juniperus communis, is amongst the plants most frequently used by the indigenous peoples of North America for medicinal purposes. The First Nations of the Canadian Maritimes use infusions of juniper primarily as a tonic and for the treatment of tuberculosis. Previous investigations of extracts derived from the aerial parts of J. communis have shown it to possess anti-mycobacterial activity. The aim of the study is to isolate and identify anti-mycobacterial constituents from the aerial parts of J. communis. Methanolic extracts of J. communis needles and branches were subjected to bioassay guided fractionation using the microplate resazurin assay (MRA) to assess inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Ra. The anti-mycobacterial constituents were identified by NMR, MS and polarimetry. The diterpenes isocupressic acid and communic acid and the aryltetralin lignan deoxypodophyllotoxin were isolated from the J. communis extract. Isocupressic acid and communic acid (isolated as an inseparable 3:2 mixture of cis and trans isomers) displayed MICs of 78 μM and 31 μM and IC(50)s of 46 μM and 15 μM against M. tuberculosis H37Ra respectively. Deoxypodophyllotoxin was less active, with a MIC of 1004 μM and an IC(50) of 287 μM. Isocupressic acid, communic acid and deoxypodophyllotoxin were identified as the principal constituents responsible for the anti-mycobacterial activity of the aerial parts of J. communis. Although further research will be required to evaluate the relative activities of the two communic acid isomers, this work validates an ethnopharmacological use of this plant by Canadian First Nations and Native American communities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Protective role of Juniperus phoenicea and Cupressus sempervirens against CCl4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sanaa Ahmed; Rizk, Maha Zaki; Ibrahim, Nabawia Ali; Abdallah, Mohga Shafik; Sharara, Hayat Mohamed; Moustafa, Magda Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of Cupressus sempervirens (C. sempervirens) and Juniperus phoenicea (J. phoenicea) extracts as therapeutic effect against CCl4 with biochemical, histopathological evaluations. METHODS: A single intraperitoneal dose of 10% CCl4 in olive oil (1 mL/kg body weight) was administered to a group of female Wister rats, sacrificed after 24 h (as the injury group). The other groups were given CCl4 as described above and divided as follows: two groups of ten rats each were orally administered either J. phoenicea extract or C. sempervirens extract three times per week for six weeks and a further group administered CCl4 was left for six weeks to allow self-recovery. At the end of experiment, the rats from all groups were sacrificed for sampling and for biochemical and histological analysis. RESULTS: Remarkable disturbances were observed in the levels of all tested parameters. On the other hand, rats injected with the toxic agent and left for one and a half month to self recover showed moderate improvements in the studied parameters while, treatment with both medicinal herbal extracts ameliorated the levels of the disturbed biochemical parameters. The group treated with J. phoenicea extract showed a remarkable improvement in comparison to the CCl4 treated group. The C. sempervirens group revealing an even more remarkable effect showing histopathological liver& kidney profiles close to those of the control group. CONCLUSION: C. sempervirens and J. phoenicea leaf extracts show a remarkable effect in enhancing liver and kidney functions and may thus be of therapeutic potential in treatment hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. PMID:21577307

  15. Increased temperatures negatively affect Juniperus communis seeds: evidence from transplant experiments along a latitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruwez, R; De Frenne, P; Vander Mijnsbrugge, K; Vangansbeke, P; Verheyen, K

    2016-05-01

    With a distribution range that covers most of the Northern hemisphere, common juniper (Juniperus communis) has one of the largest ranges of all vascular plant species. In several regions in Europe, however, populations are decreasing in size and number due to failing recruitment. One of the main causes for this failure is low seed viability. Observational evidence suggests that this is partly induced by climate warming, but our mechanistic understanding of this effect remains incomplete. Here, we experimentally assess the influence of temperature on two key developmental phases during sexual reproduction, i.e. gametogenesis and fertilisation (seed phase two, SP2) and embryo development (seed phase three, SP3). Along a latitudinal gradient from southern France to central Sweden, we installed a transplant experiment with shrubs originating from Belgium, a region with unusually low juniper seed viability. Seeds of both seed phases were sampled during three consecutive years, and seed viability assessed. Warming temperatures negatively affected the seed viability of both SP2 and SP3 seeds along the latitudinal gradient. Interestingly, the effect on embryo development (SP3) only occurred in the third year, i.e. when the gametogenesis and fertilisation also took place in warmer conditions. We found strong indications that this negative influence mostly acts via disrupting growth of the pollen tube, the development of the female gametophyte and fertilisation (SP2). This, in turn, can lead to failing embryo development, for example, due to nutritional problems. Our results confirm that climate warming can negatively affect seed viability of juniper. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. Negative effects of temperature and atmospheric depositions on the seed viability of common juniper (Juniperus communis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruwez, R; De Frenne, P; De Schrijver, A; Leroux, O; Vangansbeke, P; Verheyen, K

    2014-02-01

    Environmental change is increasingly impacting ecosystems worldwide. However, our knowledge about the interacting effects of various drivers of global change on sexual reproduction of plants, one of their key mechanisms to cope with change, is limited. This study examines populations of poorly regenerating and threatened common juniper (Juniperus communis) to determine the influence of four drivers of global change (rising temperatures, nitrogen deposition, potentially acidifying deposition and altering precipitation patterns) on two key developmental phases during sexual reproduction, gametogenesis and fertilization (seed phase two, SP2) and embryo development (seed phase three, SP3), and on the ripening time of seeds. In 42 populations throughout the distribution range of common juniper in Europe, 11,943 seeds of two developmental phases were sampled. Seed viability was determined using seed dissection and related to accumulated temperature (expressed as growing degree-days), nitrogen and potentially acidifying deposition (nitrogen plus sulfur), and precipitation data. Precipitation had no influence on the viability of the seeds or on the ripening time. Increasing temperatures had a negative impact on the viability of SP2 and SP3 seeds and decreased the ripening time. Potentially acidifying depositions negatively influenced SP3 seed viability, while enhanced nitrogen deposition led to lower ripening times. Higher temperatures and atmospheric deposition affected SP3 seeds more than SP2 seeds. However, this is possibly a delayed effect as juniper seeds develop practically independently, due to the absence of vascular communication with the parent plant from shortly after fertilization. It is proposed that the failure of natural regeneration in many European juniper populations might be attributed to climate warming as well as enhanced atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and sulfur.

  17. Does plant colour matter? Wax accumulation as an indicator of decline in Juniperus thurifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, R; Fernández-Marín, B; Olano, J M; Becerril, J M; García-Plazaola, J I

    2014-03-01

    The photosynthesis in evergreen trees living in Mediterranean ecosystems is subjected to multiple climatic stresses due to water shortage and high temperatures during the summer and to low temperatures during the winter. Mediterranean perennials deploy different photoprotective mechanisms to prevent damage to the photosynthetic system. Wax accumulation in leaves is a primary response which by enhancing light scattering in the leaf surface reduces incident radiation in the mesophyll. The existence of high variability in wax accumulation levels between coexisting individuals of a species has a visual effect on colour that provides distinguishable green and glaucous phenotypes. We explored this variability in a Mediterranean evergreen tree Juniperus thurifera (L.) to evaluate the impact of epicuticular wax on optical and ecophysiological properties and on the abundance of photoprotective pigments throughout an annual cycle. Because of light attenuation by waxes, we expected that glaucous phenotypes would lower the need for photoprotective pigments. We evaluated the effect of phenotype and season on reflectance, defoliation levels, photochemical efficiency and photoprotective pigment contents in 20 green and 20 glaucous junipers. Contrary to our expectations, the results showed that glaucous trees suffered from a diminution in photochemical efficiency, but there was no reduction in photoprotective pigments. Differences between glaucous and green phenotypes were greater in winter, which is the most stressful season for this species. Glaucous individuals also showed the highest levels of leaf defoliation. The lower photochemical efficiency of glaucous trees, together with higher defoliation rates and equal or greater number of physiological photoprotective mechanisms, suggests that in spite of wax accumulation, glaucous trees suffer from more severe stress than green ones. This result suggests that changes in colouration in Mediterranean evergreens may be a decline

  18. Characterization of geographically distinct bacterial communities associated with coral mucus produced by Acropora spp. and Porites spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKew, B A; Dumbrell, A J; Daud, S D; Hepburn, L; Thorpe, E; Mogensen, L; Whitby, C

    2012-08-01

    Acropora and Porites corals are important reef builders in the Indo-Pacific and Caribbean. Bacteria associated with mucus produced by Porites spp. and Acropora spp. from Caribbean (Punta Maroma, Mexico) and Indo-Pacific (Hoga and Sampela, Indonesia) reefs were determined. Analysis of pyrosequencing libraries showed that bacterial communities from Caribbean corals were significantly more diverse (H', 3.18 to 4.25) than their Indonesian counterparts (H', 2.54 to 3.25). Dominant taxa were Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Cyanobacteria, which varied in relative abundance between coral genera and region. Distinct coral host-specific communities were also found; for example, Clostridiales were dominant on Acropora spp. (at Hoga and the Mexican Caribbean) compared to Porites spp. and seawater. Within the Gammproteobacteria, Halomonas spp. dominated sequence libraries from Porites spp. (49%) and Acropora spp. (5.6%) from the Mexican Caribbean, compared to the corresponding Indonesian coral libraries (<2%). Interestingly, with the exception of Porites spp. from the Mexican Caribbean, there was also a ubiquity of Psychrobacter spp., which dominated Acropora and Porites libraries from Indonesia and Acropora libraries from the Caribbean. In conclusion, there was a dominance of Halomonas spp. (associated with Acropora and Porites [Mexican Caribbean]), Firmicutes (associated with Acropora [Mexican Caribbean] and with Acropora and Porites [Hoga]), and Cyanobacteria (associated with Acropora and Porites [Hoga] and Porites [Sampela]). This is also the first report describing geographically distinct Psychrobacter spp. associated with coral mucus. In addition, the predominance of Clostridiales associated with Acropora spp. provided additional evidence for coral host-specific microorganisms.

  19. Carbon and nitrogen metabolism of free-living Frankia spp. and of Frankia-Alnus symbioses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, J.

    1982-01-01

    The research reported in this thesis deals with the symbiosis of Frankia spp. and Alnus glutinosa. Frankia spp. are actinomycetes giving rise to the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of a number of non-leguminous plants. In these nodules Frankia spp. live within the plant cells and o

  20. Reporte de campo y aislamiento de Streptococcus spp beta hemolítico en aves de línea ligera en el centro de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellanos-Suárez, Omar I.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn una granja avícola del centro de Cuba en aves ligeras en la semana32-33 de vida productiva se observaron síntomas clínicos y lesionesmacroscópicas de una patología en cavidades que permitió la sospecha de un agente bacteriano. Posteriormente se aisló por primera vez en el Laboratorio Provincial de Diagnóstico de Medicina Veterinaria deCienfuegos la presencia del Streptococcus spp beta hemolítico en ovarios y vías respiratorias altas.SummaryIn a poultry farm of central Cuba in light birds during of 32-33 weekproductive life macroscopic lesions and clinical symptoms were observed in cavities a pathology, that allowed thesuspicion of a bacterial agent. Subsequently was isolated for the first time in the Laboratory of Diagnosis of Provincial Veterinary Medicine´ Cienfuegos the presence of Streptococcus spp beta hemolytic in ovaries and upper respiratory tract.

  1. Nanolipoprotein Particles (NLPs) as Versatile Vaccine Platforms for Co-delivery of Multiple Adjuvants with Subunit Antigens from Burkholderia spp. and F. tularensis - Annual Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, N. O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-04-16

    The goal of this proposal is to demonstrate that co-localization of protein subunit antigens and adjuvants on nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs) can increase the protective efficacy of recombinant subunit antigens from Burkholderia spp. and Francisella tularensis against an aerosol challenge. NLPs are are biocompatible, high-density lipoprotein mimetics that are amenable to the incorporation of multiple, chemically-disparate adjuvant and antigen molecules. We hypothesize that the ability to co-localize optimized adjuvant formulations with subunit antigens within a single particle will enhance the stimulation and activation of key immune effector cells, increasing the protective efficacy of subunit antigen-based vaccines. While Burkholderia spp. and F. tularensis subunit antigens are the focus of this proposal, we anticipate that this approach is applicable to a wide range of DOD-relevant biothreat agents. The F344 rat aerosol challenge model for F. tularensis has been successfully established at Battelle under this contract, and Year 3 efficacy studies performed at Battelle demonstrated that an NLP vaccine formulation was able to enhance survival of female F344 rats relative to naïve animals. In addition, Year 3 focused on the incorporation of multiple Burkholderia antigens (both polysaccharides and proteins) onto adjuvanted NLPs, with immunological analysis poised to begin in the next quarter.

  2. Longevity of Juniperus procera seed lots under different storage conditions: implications for ex situ conservation in seed banks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Negash Mamo; Diriba Nigusie; Mulualem Tigabu; Demel Teketay; Miftah Fekadu

    2011-01-01

    Juniperus procera Endl. Is economically important timberspecies, but its populations are extremely small and fragmented in itsnatural habitat, thus, calling for immediate ex situ conservation. Here weexamined the effects of seed sources and storage temperature on thelongevity of Juniperus procera seed lots through collection and preserva-tion of seeds in seed banks. Seeds were collected from nine sites acrossthe species natural distribution in Ethiopia and stored in four warehouses:modern cold room (5℃), mud house (15℃), concrete block house (17℃)or corrugated iron house (20℃) for 42 months. Every three months, arandom sample of stored seeds were drawn and tested for germination. Ahighly significant variation (p 0.80; p<0.01). Cold storage also resulted in enhancement ofgermination through its stratification effect that terminated the non-deepphysiological dormancy of juniper seeds. In conclusion, seed lots withgood initial germination can be effectively stored in cold room (5℃) upto four years. In the absence of modern cold stores, mud houses can beused as a good altemative to store seeds at local level.

  3. Antimicrobial activities of several parts of Pinus brutia, Juniperus oxycedrus, Abies cilicia, Cedrus libani and Pinus nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diğrak, M; Ilçim, A; Hakki Alma, M

    1999-11-01

    In this study, the antimicrobial activities of several parts of various trees grown in the Kahramanmaraş region of Turkey were investigated by the disc diffusion method. Chloroform, acetone and methanol extracts of leaves, resins, barks, cones and fruits of Pinus brutia Ten., Juniperus oxycedrus L., Abies cilicia Ant. & Kotschy Carr., Cedrus libani A. Rich. and Pinus nigra Arn. were prepared and tested against Bacillus megaterium DSM 32, Bacillus subtilis IMG 22, Bacillus cereus FMC 19, Escherichia coli DM, Klebsiella pneumoniae FMC 3, Enterobacter aerogenes CCM 2531, Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1, Mycobacterium smegmatis RUT, Proteus vulgaris FMC 1, Listeria monocytogenes Scoot A, Pseudomonas aeruginosa DSM 5007, Candida albicans CCM 314, Candida tropicalis MDC 86 and Penicillium italicum K. The results showed that antifungal effects were not observed for the whole extracts, E. coli was not inhibited by any of the plant extracts except by the chloroform and acetone extracts of the leaves of A. cilicia, which showed inhibition zones of 16-18 mm, respectively. All the plant extracts used in this study inhibited the development of the other bacteria studied. When the results of this study were compared with an ampicillin standard, it was found that the microorganisms studied were generally susceptible, intermediate or resistant to the extracts of species when compared with the ampicillin standard. On the other hand, the acetone and methanol extracts of Juniperus fruits were found to be quite resistant.

  4. Genetic Variation in Five Mediterranean Populations of Juniperus phoenicea as Revealed by Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MELONI, MARILENA; PERINI, DAVIDE; FILIGHEDDU, ROSSELLA; BINELLI, GIORGIO

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims The assessment of the genetic variability and the identification of isolated populations within a given species represent important information to plan conservation strategies on a genetic basis. In this work, the genetic variability in five natural populations of Juniperus phoenicea, three from Sardinia, one from Cyprus and the last one in the Maritime Alps was analysed by means of ISSRs, on the hypothesis that the latter could have been a refugial one during the last glaciation. • Methods ISSRs were chosen because of their ability to detect variation without any prior sequence information. The use of three primers yielded 45 reproducible, polymorphic bands, which were utilized to estimate the basic parameters of genetic variability and diversity. • Key Results All of the populations analysed harboured an adequate amount of genetic variability, with HS = 0·1299. The proportion of genetic diversity between populations has been estimated by GST = 0·12. The three Sardinian populations are separated, as tested by AMOVA, from the Cyprus and the continental ones. • Conclusions The results indicate that geographical isolation has represented a major barrier to gene flow in Juniperus phoenicea. This work represents a first step towards a full genetic characterization of a conifer from the Mediterranean, a world biodiversity hotspot confronted with climate change, and thus contributes towards the planning of genetics-informed conservation strategies. PMID:16311272

  5. Taxonomy of prickly juniper (Juniperus oxycedrus group): A phytochemical-morphometric combined approach at the contact zone of two cryptospecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma-Marzio, Francesco; Najar, Basma; Alessandri, John; Pistelli, Luisa; Peruzzi, Lorenzo

    2017-09-01

    Based on different essential oil composition paralleling different genotypes, Juniperus deltoides was recently segregated from Juniperus oxycedrus. Despite a clear phytochemical and molecular differentiation, J. deltoides resulted not clearly morphologically discernible from J. oxycedrus, so that it was defined as a cryptospecies. Italy represents the contact zone of their distribution, but the ranges of the two species are not sufficiently known, due to unsatisfactory morphological characterisation. To further complicate the picture, a third closely related species (ecotype), J. macrocarpa, occurs all across the Mediterranean coasts. After a preliminary phytochemical analysis to ascertain the (chemo-)identities of the studied populations, we performed a morphometric investigation to test the degree of morphological distinctiveness among the taxa. According to our analysis, some character (e.g. leaf mucro length, leaf width, seed-cone size and seed size) resulted useful to discriminate these cryptic taxa. Finally, based on these characters, an extensive revision of herbarium specimens allowed us to redefine the distribution pattern of the investigated species in the Central Mediterranean area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Essential oils of Cupressus funebris, juniperus communis, and j. chinensis (cupressaceae) as repellents against ticks (Acari; Ixodidae) and mosquitoes (diptera; Culicidae) and as toxiants against mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juniperus communis leaf oil, J. chinensis wood oil and Cupressus funebris wood oil (Cupressaceae) from China were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified 104 compounds representing 66.8-95.5% of the oils. The major components of J. communis were a-pinen...

  7. Nanolipoprotein Particles (NLPs) as Versatile Vaccine Platforms for Co-delivery of Multiple Adjuvants with Subunit Antigens from Burkholderia spp. and F. tularensis - Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, N. O. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-01-13

    The goal of this proposal is to demonstrate that colocalization of protein subunit antigens and adjuvants on nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs) can increase the protective efficacy of subunit antigens from Burkholderia spp. and Francisella tularensis against an aerosol challenge. In the third quarter of the third year, F344 rats vaccinated with adjuvanted NLP formulations were challenged with F. tularensis SCHU S4 at Battelle. Preliminary data indicate that up to 65% of females vaccinated intranasally with an NLP-based formulation survived this challenge, compared to only 20% survival of naïve animals. In addition, NLPs were successfully formulated with Burkholderia protein antigens. IACUC approval for immunological assessments in BALB/c mice was received and we anticipate that these assessments will begin by March 2015, pending ACURO approval.

  8. Studies on Thiobacilli spp. isolated from sandy beaches of Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gore, P.S.; Raveendran, O.; Unnithan, R.V.

    Occurrence, isolation and oxidative activity of Thiobacilli spp. from some sandy beaches of Kerala are reported. These organisms were encountered in polluted beaches and were dominant during monsoon in all the beaches...

  9. Adhesins of Bartonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Fiona; Schmidgen, Thomas; Kaiser, Patrick O; Linke, Dirk; Kempf, Volkhard A J

    2011-01-01

    Adhesion to host cells represents the first step in the infection process and one of the decisive features in the pathogenicity of Bartonella spp. B. henselae and B. quintana are considered to be the most important human pathogenic species, responsible for cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, trench fever and other diseases. The ability to cause vasculoproliferative disorders and intraerythrocytic bacteraemia are unique features of the genus Bartonella. Consequently, the interaction with endothelial cells and erythrocytes is a focus in Bartonella research. The genus harbours a variety of trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) such as the Bartonella adhesin A (BadA) of B. henselae and the variably expressed outer-membrane proteins (Vomps) of B. quintana, which display remarkable variations in length and modular construction. These adhesins mediate many of the biologically-important properties of Bartonella spp. such as adherence to endothelial cells and extracellular matrix proteins and induction of angiogenic gene programming. There is also significant evidence that the laterally acquired Trw-conjugation systems of Bartonella spp. mediate host-specific adherence to erythrocytes. Other potential adhesins are the filamentous haemagglutinins and several outer membrane proteins. The exact molecular functions of these adhesins and their interplay with other pathogenicity factors (e.g., the VirB/D4 type 4 secretion system) need to be analysed in detail to understand how these pathogens adapt to their mammalian hosts.

  10. Is differential use of Juniperus monosperma by small ruminants driven by terpenoid concentration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estell, R E; Utsumi, S A; Cibils, A F; Anderson, D M

    2014-03-01

    Differential plant use by herbivores has been observed for several woody plant species and has frequently been attributed to plant secondary metabolites. We examined the relationship between terpenoid concentration and Juniperus monosperma herbivory by small ruminants. Two groups of animals (10 goats or 5 goats plus 4 sheep) browsed 16 paddocks (20 × 30 m) containing one-seed juniper for six days during two seasons. Juniper leaves were sampled from 311 saplings immediately after browsing. Saplings were categorized by size (short [1.0 m]), and by browsing intensity (light [66 %]). Juniper bark was collected from 12 saplings during spring. Total estimated terpenoid concentrations in leaves and bark were 18.3 ± 0.3 and 8.9 ± 0.8 mg/g, respectively, and the dominant terpene in both tissues was α-pinene (11.1 ± 0.2 and 7.6 ± 0.7 mg/g, respectively). Total terpenoid concentration of juniper leaves was greater in spring than summer (20.6 ± 0.5 vs. 16.7 ± 0.3 mg/g, respectively) and was lower in short saplings than medium or tall saplings (16.5 ± 0.6 vs. 19.8 ± 0.4 and 19.5 ± 0.4 mg/g, respectively). Total terpenoid concentration of leaves also differed among the three defoliation categories (21.2 ± 0.6, 18.7 ± 0.5, and 16.1 ± 0.4 mg/g for light, moderate, and heavy, respectively). The smallest subset of terpenoids able to discriminate between light and heavy browsing intensity categories included eight compounds ([E]-β-farnesene, bornyl acetate, γ-eudesmol, endo-fenchyl acetate, γ-cadinene, α-pinene, cis-piperitol, and cis-p-menth-2-en-1-ol). Our results suggest terpenoid concentrations in one-seed juniper are related to season, sapling size, and browsing by small ruminants.

  11. Juniperus communis Linn oil decreases oxidative stress and increases antioxidant enzymes in the heart of rats administered a diet rich in cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumral, Nurhan; Kumbul, Duygu Doguc; Aylak, Firdevs; Saygin, Mustafa; Savik, Emin

    2015-01-01

    It has been asserted that consumption of dietary cholesterol (Chol) raises atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and that Chol causes an increase in free radical production. Hypercholesterolemic diet has also been reported to cause changes in the antioxidant system. In our study, different doses of Juniperus communis Linn (JCL) oil, a tree species growing in Mediterranean and Isparta regions and having aromatic characteristics, were administered to rats; and the levels of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay (TBARS) were examined in the heart tissue of rats. In this study, 35 Wistar Albino male adult rats weighing approximately 250-300 g were used. The rats were divided into five groups of seven each. The control group was administered normal pellet chow, and the Chol group was administered pellet chow including 2% Chol, while 50 JCL, 100 JCL, and 200 JCL groups were administered 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg JCL oil dissolved in 0.5% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, respectively, in addition to the pellet chow containing 2% Chol, by gavage. After 30 days, the experiment was terminated and the antioxidant enzyme activities were examined in the heart tissue of rats. While consumption of dietary Chol decreases the activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT in heart tissue of rats (not significant), administeration of 200 mg/kg JCL oil in addition to Chol led to a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Administering Chol led to a significant increase in TBARS level. Administering 100 and 200 mg/kg JCL oil together with Chol prevented significantly the increase in lipid peroxides. As a result of the study, JCL oil showed oxidant-antioxidant effect in the heart tissue of rats. © The Author(s) 2012.

  12. Analytical approaches to the determination of simple biophenols in forest trees such as Acer (maple), Betula (birch), Coniferus, Eucalyptus, Juniperus (cedar), Picea (spruce) and Quercus (oak).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedgood, Danny R; Bishop, Andrea G; Prenzler, Paul D; Robards, Kevin

    2005-06-01

    Analytical methods are reviewed for the determination of simple biophenols in forest trees such as Acer (maple), Betula (birch), Coniferus, Eucalyptus, Juniperus (cedar), Picea (spruce) and Quercus (oak). Data are limited but nevertheless clearly establish the critical importance of sample preparation and pre-treatment in the analysis. For example, drying methods invariably reduce the recovery of biophenols and this is illustrated by data for birch leaves where flavonoid glycosides were determined as 12.3 +/- 0.44 mg g(-1) in fresh leaves but 9.7 +/- 0.35 mg g(-1) in air-dried samples (data expressed as dry weight). Diverse sample handling procedures have been employed for recovery of biophenols. The range of biophenols and diversity of sample types precludes general procedural recommendations. Caution is necessary in selecting appropriate procedures as the high reactivity of these compounds complicates their analysis. Moreover, our experience suggests that their reactivity is very dependent on the matrix. The actual measurement is less contentious and high performance separation methods particularly liquid chromatography dominate analyses whilst coupled techniques involving electrospray ionization are becoming routine particularly for qualitative applications. Quantitative data are still the exception and are summarized for representative species that dominate the forest canopy of various habitats. Reported concentrations for simple phenols range from trace level (<0.1 microg g(-1)) to in excess of 500 microg g(-1) depending on a range of factors. Plant tissue is one of these variables but various biotic and abiotic processes such as stress are also important considerations.

  13. IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENT FUSARIUM SPP. IN ALLIUM SPP. IN GERMANY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, B; Karlovsky, P; Pfohl, K; Gamliel, A; Isack, Y; Dehne, H W

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 Allium cepa bulbs from different fields in Northern and Southern Germany, seeds and sets from onion breeders were analysed for infestation with Fusarium species. The same investigation was done in 2014 with different edible Allium spp. from local markets. Different Fusarium spp. were isolated and identified by morphological characterisation. 24 different Fusarium spp. were identified. The diversity of Fusarium spp. and the intensity of infestation was higher on edible bulbs compared to the younger sets and seeds. The analysed onions and other edible Allium spp. from local markets showed also high contents of different Fusarium species. The most prevalent identified Fusarium sp. in the analysed Allium spp. in Germany was Fusarium oxysporum which can cause the Fusarium Basal Rot, followed by Fusarium solani. Fusarium proliferatum, which can cause the Fusarium Salmon Blotch in onions, could be detected in about half of the sampled onion fields and in approximately 10% of all analysed onions from fields. Also in the onion sets, on the surface of the seeds and in other edible Allium spp. F. proliferatum could be identified. Besides F. proliferatum, further mycotoxin producing Fusarium spp. like Fusarium equiseti or Fusarium tricinctum were identified. Other Fusarium spp. like Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium poae were first described in Allium sp. in this study. The two most prevalent Fusarium spp. F. oxysporum and F. solani are able to produce mycotoxins like enniatins, fumonisins, moniliformin and T-2 toxins. Fusarium sp. like F. proliferatum, F. equiseti and F. tricinctum are able to produce additional toxins like beauvericins, zearalenone and diacetoscirpenol. This high number of Fusarium spp., which are able to produce a broad spectrum of different mycotoxins, could be a potential health risk for human beings and livestock.

  14. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats.

  15. High prevalence of blaOXA-23 in Acinetobacter spp. and detection of blaNDM-1 in A. soli in Cuba: report from National Surveillance Program (2010–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Quiñones

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As a first national surveillance of Acinetobacter in Cuba, a total of 500 Acinetobacter spp. isolates recovered from 30 hospitals between 2010 and 2012 were studied. Acinetobacter baumannii–calcoaceticus complex accounted for 96.4% of all the Acinetobacter isolates, while other species were detected at low frequency (A. junii 1.6%, A. lwoffii 1%, A. haemolyticus 0.8%, A. soli 0.2%. Resistance rates of isolates were 34–61% to third-generation cephalosporins, 49–50% to β-lactams/inhibitor combinations, 42–47% to aminoglycosides, 42–44% to carbapenems and 55% to ciprofloxacin. However, resistance rates to colistin, doxycycline, tetracycline and rifampin were less than 5%. Among carbapenem-resistant isolates, 75% harboured different blaOXA genes (OXA-23, 73%; OXA-24, 18%; OXA-58, 3%. The blaNDM-1 gene was identified in an A. soli strain, of which the species was confirmed by sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene, rpoB, rpoB–rpoC and rpoL–rpoB intergenic spacer regions and gyrB. The sequences of blaNDM-1 and its surrounding genes were identical to those reported for plasmids of A. baumannii and A. lwoffi strains. This is the first report of blaNDM-1 in A. soli, together with a high prevalence of OXA-23 carbapenemase for carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter spp. in Cuba.

  16. High prevalence of blaOXA-23 in Acinetobacter spp. and detection of blaNDM-1 in A. soli in Cuba: report from National Surveillance Program (2010–2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones, D.; Carvajal, I.; Perez, Y.; Hart, M.; Perez, J.; Garcia, S.; Salazar, D.; Ghosh, S.; Kawaguchiya, M.; Aung, M.S.; Kobayashi, N.

    2015-01-01

    As a first national surveillance of Acinetobacter in Cuba, a total of 500 Acinetobacter spp. isolates recovered from 30 hospitals between 2010 and 2012 were studied. Acinetobacter baumannii–calcoaceticus complex accounted for 96.4% of all the Acinetobacter isolates, while other species were detected at low frequency (A. junii 1.6%, A. lwoffii 1%, A. haemolyticus 0.8%, A. soli 0.2%). Resistance rates of isolates were 34–61% to third-generation cephalosporins, 49–50% to β-lactams/inhibitor combinations, 42–47% to aminoglycosides, 42–44% to carbapenems and 55% to ciprofloxacin. However, resistance rates to colistin, doxycycline, tetracycline and rifampin were less than 5%. Among carbapenem-resistant isolates, 75% harboured different blaOXA genes (OXA-23, 73%; OXA-24, 18%; OXA-58, 3%). The blaNDM-1 gene was identified in an A. soli strain, of which the species was confirmed by sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene, rpoB, rpoB–rpoC and rpoL–rpoB intergenic spacer regions and gyrB. The sequences of blaNDM-1 and its surrounding genes were identical to those reported for plasmids of A. baumannii and A. lwoffi strains. This is the first report of blaNDM-1 in A. soli, together with a high prevalence of OXA-23 carbapenemase for carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter spp. in Cuba. PMID:26236494

  17. [Activity of doripenem against Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp. rods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogiel, Tomasz; Deptuła, Aleksander; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2009-01-01

    Doripenem, the newest carbapenem was approved in 2008 by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections and complicated urinary tract infections. Its spectrum of activity is similar to that of meropenem and imipenem/cilastatin. The aim of this study was to compare in vitro activity of doripenem against nonfermentative Gram-negative rods. A total of 235 strains of Pseudomonas spp. (74.9%) and Acinetobacter spp. (25.1%) were included into the study. Strains were isolated in The Department of Clinical Microbiology of the University Hospital No 1 in Bydgoszcz and identified using ID GN tests (bioMérieux). To determine susceptibility to doripenem and other carbapenems disc-diffusion method was applied. Percentage of doripenem resistant strains reached 28.4% and 39.0% for Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp, respectively. All doripenem sensitive or intermediate Acinetobacter spp. strains were simultaneously sensitive to imipenem and meropenem. Activity of imipenem and meropenem among doripenem resistant Acinetobacter spp. were represented by 60.9% and 56.5% strains, respectively. Activity of imipenem and meropenem among doripenem resistant Pseudomonas spp. strains were represented by 12.0% and 18.0%, respectively. Occurence of one doripenem sensitive Pseudomonas spp. strain simultaneously resistant to imipenem and meropenem was observed.

  18. Composition of the essential oils from Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum), Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), and White Sage (Salvia apiana).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochrein, James Michael; Irwin, Adriane Nadine; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus III

    2003-09-01

    The essential oils of Juniperus scopulorum, Artemisia tridentata, and Salvia apiana obtained by steam extraction were analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. For J. scopulorum, twenty-five compounds were identified which accounts for 92.43% of the oil. The primary constituents were sabinene (49.91%), {alpha}-terpinene (9.95%), and 4-terpineol (6.79%). For A. tridentata, twenty compounds were identified which accounts for 84.32% of the oil. The primary constituents were camphor (28.63%), camphene (16.88%), and 1,8-cineole (13.23%). For S. apiana, fourteen compounds were identified which accounts for 96.76% of the oil. The primary component was 1,8-cineole (60.65%).

  19. Seasonal and geographical influences on the chemical composition of Juniperus phoenicea L. essential oil leaves from the Northern Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medini, Hanene; Elaissi, Ameur; Farhat, Farhat; Khouja, Mohamed Larbi; Chemli, Rachid; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fathia

    2009-09-01

    The essential-oil composition of 60 individual trees of Juniperus phoenicea L. from four Tunisian populations in three different periods were investigated by GC and GC/MS analyses. 59 Compounds were identified in the oils, and a relatively high variation in their contents was found. All the oils were dominated by the terpenic hydrocarbon fraction, and the main component was alpha-pinene (20.28-40.86%). The results of the oil compositions were processed by hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis (PCA) allowing establishing four groups of essential-oils differentiated by one compound or more. Pattern of geographic variation in essential-oil composition indicated that individuals from the continental site (Makthar) were clearly distinguished from those from littoral localities (Tabarka, Hawaria, and Rimel).

  20. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and different fractions of Juniperus communis L. and a comparison with some commercial antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDRA B. GLIIC

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of common juniper (Juniperus communis L., from the southern part of Serbia and its fractions of different composition, as well as commercial antibiotics were used for testing their antimicrobial activity against bacteria, yeast and fungi. The essential oil was produced by hydro-distillation in a pilot plant (130 dm3 and then fractionated by distillation over a column, with 36 theoretical stages, under vacuum (26–66 mbar. The essential oil was also fractionated using pure CO2 or CO2 and methanol as co-solvent under supercritical conditions. The native oil showed weak antimicrobial activity, while the fractions with a high content of a-pinene, and mixture of a-pinene and sabinene showed the highest antimicrobial activity, especially against fungi. In comparison to the commercial antibiotics, the oil fractions showed more extensive spectra of antimicrobial activity, as well as wider inhibition zones.

  1. Study of the thermohygrometric conditions of Juniperus turbinata habitat in the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salva-Catarineu, Montserrat; Salvador-Franch, Ferran; López-Bustins, Joan Albert; Padrón-Padrón, Perdro A.; Cortés-Lucas, Amparo

    2015-04-01

    The biggest population of Juniperus turbinata throughout the Canary Islands is located in the island of El Hierro. The current extent of juniper woodlands is very small compared with the potential distribution due to heavy exploitation for centuries. Nowadays, the recovery of its natural habitat has such a high environmental and scenic interest since this is a protected species in Europe; however, an improved understanding of the environmental factors that help or limit its recovery is indispensable. Under the JUNITUR project the populations of juniper woodlands in El Hierro are being studied, which are subjected to highly different environments. These environments are mainly determined by their altitude and exposure to NE trade winds. The main objective of this study is to compare the thermohygrometric conditions of three juniper woodlands, located at different altitude and orientation in El Hierro, which present different recovery rates. We are currently using air sensor data loggers fixed to tree branches for recording hourly temperature and humidity data in the three study areas. For this preliminary approach, we analyse daily data of two annual cycles (from September 2012 to August 2014). Our first results show similar thermohygrometric annual cycles among the three study areas. The largest differences are detected in winter temperature and summer humidity between the north (to windward) and south (to leeward) faces of the island. The juniper woodland with a highest recovery rate shows the most extreme temperature conditions in both winter and summer seasons. This last juniper woodland is located leeward to trade winds at 996 m a.s.l. In general terms, the results of this research project might contribute to the knowledge of the juniper bioclimatology in the westernmost of the Canary Islands. Key words: bioclimatology, El Hierro, habitat, Juniperus turbinata, protected species

  2. Chemometric evaluation of the anti-cancer pro-drug podophyllotoxin and potential therapeutic analogues in Juniperus and Podophyllum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusari, Souvik; Zühlke, Sebastian; Spiteller, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Podophyllotoxin, deoxypodophyllotoxin, demethylpodophyllotoxin and podophyllotoxone are four therapeutically potent secondary metabolites. There is a dearth of information on the holistic analysis of their distribution pattern in both phylogenetic and ecological contexts. To analyse the continuum of the above metabolites in Juniperus and Podophyllum species collected from natural populations in Himalayan environments and the botanical gardens of Rombergpark and Haltern (Germany) using multi-component LC-ESI-MS/MS, coupled with statistically relevant chemometric assessment. We evaluated the individual and holistic metabolite profiles and chemometrically correlated the phytochemical loads between various species (infraspecific), organic and aqueous extracts, and populations of the same species from different locations, different species from same location, different species from different locations and infrageneric populations from same and different locations. Multivariate analysis revealed Juniperus x-media Pfitzeriana as a suitable alternative to Podophyllum hexandrum for commercial exploitation. A significant positive correlation of podophyllotoxone with both podophyllotoxin and demethylpodophyllotoxin, and a negative correlation of podophyllotoxin with both deoxypodophyllotoxin and demethylpodophyllotoxin (infraspecific among Podophyllum), were observed by Kruskal's multidimensional scaling and corroborated by principal component analysis, indicating probable similarity and/or difference between the biosynthetic pathways, and synergistic and/or antagonistic principles, respectively. Finally, linear discriminant analysis and hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis revealed considerable infrageneric and infraspecific variability in secondary compound spectra and load of the different populations under study. Such holistic studies of plants and their therapeutic metabolites ought to assist in selecting plants, geographical areas and environmental conditions for

  3. Diurnal and Seasonal Patterns of Non-Structural Carbohydrates in Pinus edulis and Juniperus monosperma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, D.; Meinzer, F. C.; McDowell, N. G.

    2013-12-01

    Increases in drought-induced tree mortality have recently been documented globally and although less documented, non-lethal reductions in growth that are associated with the observed occurrences of tree mortality could represent an even greater drought-induced loss of net ecosystem productivity. Although carbon starvation has received a great deal of attention recently as a potential cause of drought-related mortality, the role of carbon depletion in the growth reduction and mortality of trees remains unresolved. The difference in mortality rates of piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and one seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma) in response to drought has been hypothesized to be related to their contrasting strategies for avoiding tissue desiccation and hydraulic failure (isohydry for piñon and anisohydry for juniper), and the subsequent impact of these strategies on their carbon balance. Despite intense interest in the role of carbon dynamics in tree survival and productivity, little is known of the short- and long-term consequences of drought on carbon storage and depletion in the context of these two contrasting strategies. Diurnal patterns of concentrations of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) were analyzed in piñon and juniper under ambient growing conditions as well as under experimental drought conditions during May, August, and September of 2012. Our objective was to examine differences in storage, depletion and conversion of starch and sugars in these species at multiple points throughout the growing season and to identify any potential patterns of storage or conversion that could represent distinct vulnerabilities or compensatory responses to drought. Differences in total NSC between species were least pronounced at the beginning of the growing season in May and substantially more pronounced in August and September when NSC in piñon was reduced to approximately 2% tissue dry wt., down from 13-16% during May, whereas NSC in juniper was reduced to 4-6 % tissue

  4. Conifer encroachment and hydrology: Altered above and below ground hydrologic fluxes in western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, R. J.; Link, T. E.; Heinse, R.; Seyfried, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) occupy 9 million acres in Oregon, California, Idaho, and Nevada. In many of these areas juniper has expanded 10-fold since Euro-American settlement into what was mostly sagebrush steppe due to grazing, changes in fire regimes, and climate. Despite the importance of elucidating if juniper encroachment appreciably changes semi-arid hydrology, there have been few process-based studies linking above and below ground hydrologic fluxes or that assess variations across a gradient of shrub to tree-dominated areas. Our objectives are to determine: A) the differences in interception and throughfall at a lower density juniper stand dominated by low sagebrush (Artemisia arbuscula) and a moderate density juniper stand dominated by juniper, B) soil moisture dynamics between lower and moderate density juniper stands, and C) how those above and below ground processes are linked. Our study area was located at the USDA-ARS Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in the Owyhee Mountains of southwestern Idaho. We used multiple methods to measure and estimate above and below ground hydrologic fluxes. Above ground precipitation was estimated with large (approximately 5.5 m2) precipitation lysimeters; two located under tree canopies and two in the open. Soil moisture was measured continuously at four trees and across both plots once every 1 - 2 months once snow melted. Continuous measurements under the canopy consisted of four soil moisture probes each; two outside and under the canopy at 15 cm and 60 cm. Plot wide soil moisture changes were estimated based on changes in conductivity measured with electromagnetic induction (EMI) at both 0-75 cm and 0-150 cm. Results show some clear patterns in differences in hydrologic fluxes across the two stands. Rain and snow throughfall from mid-October through mid-April under the canopy was 289 mm, compared to 381 mm outside the canopy, therefore interception was 24% of incoming precipitation. Snowmelt rates

  5. Chronic otomycosis due to Malassezia Spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Latha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 31-year-old male presenting with complaints of mild pain in the right ear for three months and hypoacusis for 10 days. On otoscopic examination, a thin, papery, white material was extracted from his ear and sent for fungal identification. This material revealed presence of Malassezia spp - with characteristic "spaghetti and meat ball appearance". The patient was treated with 2% acetic acid, hydrocortisone and Clotrimazole powder for one week and he resolved completely.

  6. Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oils of Different Parts of Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb. subsp. excelsa and J. excelsa M. Bieb. subsp. polycarpos (K. Koch) Takhtajan (Cupressaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Sayyed Ahmad; Abedindo, Bibi Fatemeh; Hassanzadeh-Khayyat, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    The essential oils of branchlets and fruits of Juniperus excelsa subsp. excelsa and Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos were examined for their antioxidant activity. The compositions of the essential oils were studied by GC and GC-MS. To evaluation the antioxidants activity of the volatile oils, pure components and positive controls at different concentrations, thin-layer chromatography (TLC) screening methods, diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, deoxyribose degradation test and modified deoxyribose degradation test were employed. The results of the present study demonstrate some antioxidant activity for the tested essential oils obtained from various parts of both plants. It indicates that the use of these essential oils, in very low concentrations, may be useful as a natural preservative. However before any final conclusion, it is suggested that the antioxidant activity of these oils should also be evaluated by using lipid solvent system methods. PMID:24250416

  7. Essential-oil variability of Juniperus deltoides R.P.Adams along the east Adriatic coast - how many chemotypes are there?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajčević, Nemanja; Janaćković, Peđa; Dodoš, Tanja; Tešević, Vele; Marin, Petar D

    2015-01-01

    The composition of the essential oils isolated from twigs of ten Juniperus deltoides R.P. Adams populations from the east Adriatic coast was determined by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. Altogether, 169 compounds were identified, representing 95.6-98.4% of the total oil composition. The oils were dominated by monoterpenes (average content of 61.6%), which are characteristic oil components of species of the Juniperus section. Two monoterpenes, α-pinene and limonene, were the dominant constituents, comprising on average 46.78% of the essential oils. Statistical methods were deployed to determine the diversity of the terpene classes and the common terpenes between the investigated populations. These statistical analyses revealed the existence of three chemotypes within all populations, i.e., a α-pinene, limonene, and limonene/α-pinene type. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  8. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Essential Oils from Wild Growing Aromatic Plant Species of Skimmia laureola and Juniperus macropoda from Western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappen, Iris; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Ali, Abbas; Wedge, David E; Wanner, Jürgen; Kaul, Vijay K; Lal, Brij; Jaitak, Vikas; Gochev, Velizar K; Schmidt, Erich; Jirovetz, Leopold

    2015-06-01

    The Himalayan region is very rich in a great variety of medicinal plants. In this investigation the essential oils of two selected species are described for their antimicrobial and larvicidal as well as biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the odors are characterized. Analyzed by simultaneous GC-MS and GC-FID, the essential oils' chemical compositions are given. The main components of Skimmia laureola oil were linalool and linalyl acetate whereas sabinene was found as the main compound for Juniperus macropoda essential oil. Antibacterial testing by agar dilution assay revealed highest activity of S. laureola oil against all tested bacteria, followed by J. macropoda oil. Antifungal activity was evaluated against the strawberry anthracnose causing plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides. Juniperus macropoda essential oil indicated higher antifungal activity against all three pathogens than S. laureola oil. Both essential oils showed biting deterrent activity above solvent control but low larvicidal activity.

  9. Corynebacterium spp. in dogs and cats with otitis externa and/or media: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneveld, Kerstin; Rosychuk, Rodney A W; Olea-Popelka, Francisco J; Hyatt, Doreene R; Zabel, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    The role of Corynebacterium spp. in the pathogenesis of canine and feline otitis externa/media and their appropriate antimicrobial therapy are unclear. The objectives of this study were to (1) better establish the pathogenicity of Corynebacterium spp. in otitis utilizing reported criteria and by assessing clinical response to antibiotic therapy and (2) to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Corynebacterium spp. associated with otitis. The study was retrospective, targeting cultures positive for Corynebacterium spp. Corynebacterium spp. were part of mixed microbial populations in 79/81 cultures. Corynebacterium spp. pathogenicity was highly questionable because of their almost invariable presence with other microbes and the observation that Corynebacterium spp. usually disappear from the ear with resolution of other infections, even when the Corynebacterium spp. are resistant to the prescribed antibiotic(s). However, 2/81 cultures came from two canine ears wherein Corynebacterium spp. may have been pathogenic. Antimicrobial sensitivities for Corynebacterium spp. were available for 54 isolates. Most isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol (53/54), amikacin (50/54), tetracycline (50/54), gentamicin (46/54), and enrofloxacin (32/54). Among those antibiotics available in otic products, gentamicin and enrofloxacin would be rational choices for the empirical, topical therapy of Corynebacterium spp.

  10. [Blastocystis spp.: Advances, controversies and future challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coco, Valeria F; Molina, Nora B; Basualdo, Juan A; Córdoba, María A

    Blastocystis spp. is the most common protozoan detected in human stool samples. In developing countries, infection rates are higher than 20%. The presence of this parasite in the feces of several host species suggests its zoonotic potential. The clinical relevance and the pathogenic role of Blastocystis spp. in the intestinal tract remain unclear. There are several clinical reports that recognize it as the etiologic agent of several intestinal disorders such as diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease and ulcerative colitis, although the pathogenicity of this parasite has not been proved yet. This wide range of clinical manifestations could be related to the genetic diversity exhibited by this parasite. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Symbiotic relationship of Thiothrix spp. with an echinoderm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); De Ridder, C. [Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium). Lab. de Biologie Marine

    1998-09-01

    Thiothrix-like bacteria have been reported as symbionts in invertebrates from sulfide-rich habitats. Isolation of these symbiotic Thiothrix-like bacteria has failed, and the organisms have not been previously identified with certainty. The genus Thiothrix was created for ensheathed filamentous bacteria that oxidize sulfide and deposit sulfur granules internally, attach to substrates, produce gliding gonidia, and form rosettes. Immunoassay procedures were used to investigate the symbiotic relationship of Thiothrix spp. in the intestinal cecum of the spatangoid species Echinocardium cordatum. Thiothrix spp. were identified in nodule samples from E. cordatum digestive tubes based on microscopic examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and indirect immunofluorescence. Thiothrix spp. protein made up as much as 84% of the total protein content of the nodules. This is the first identification of Thiothrix spp. internally symbiotic with marine invertebrates.

  12. Essential oils of indigenous in Greece six Juniperus taxa: chemical composition and larvicidal activity against the West Nile virus vector Culex pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vourlioti-Arapi, F; Michaelakis, A; Evergetis, E; Koliopoulos, G; Haroutounian, S A

    2012-05-01

    The chemical composition of 14 essential oils (EOs), obtained from various parts (leaves, fruits, wood) of the six indigenous in Greece Juniperus family taxa, was determined by GC and GC/MS analysis. The insecticidal properties of these EOs were evaluated against Culex pipiens L. larvae of 3rd and early 4th instars, in order to delineate the relationship between the phytochemical content of the EOs and their larvicidal activities. The analytical data indicated that the EOs mainly consisted of monoterpenes, mostly cyclic and only occasionally aliphatic, and to a lesser percent, of diterpenes. The larvicidal bioassays against C. pipiens larvae revealed that the most active EO was derived from the wood of Juniperus drupacea and contains mainly non-oxygenated monoterpenes and a significant amount of diterpenes, displaying the highest chemodiversity. Its initial LC(50) value was 26.47 mg L(-1). On the contrary, the EO isolated from J. phoenicea berries, which consisted of monoterpenes (non-oxygenated, cyclic), was the less active displaying an LC(50) value of 96.69 mg L(-1). In respect to the contained phytochemicals, myrcene was assayed as the most toxic, displaying an LC(50) value of 33.83 mg L(-1), while the four isomers of pinene abundant in all EOs were less active exhibiting LC(50) values ranging from 70.40 to 94.88 mg L(-1). Results herein reveal that the EOs isolated from the studied Juniperus family taxa represent an inexpensive source of natural mosquito control mixtures.

  13. Female Cone Development in Fokienia, Cupressus, Chamaecyparis and Juniperus ( Cupressaceae)%柏科4个属(Fokienia、Cupressus、Chamaeyparis 和Juniperus)植物雌球果的发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泉; 苏都莫日根; 胡玉熹; 林金星

    2004-01-01

    通过扫描电镜和常规石蜡切片技术,观察了柏科4个属(Fokienia、Cupressus、Chamaeyparis 和Juniperus)植物雌球果中胚珠的发育及苞片的结构变化.在所有研究的种类中,可育苞片腋部最先观察到的结构是一扁平的突起,并在其上分化出发育为胚珠的胚珠原基.在雌球果的发育过程中,未观察到独立的珠鳞发育.不同的种中,胚珠怕数量和发育顺序有所不同,但苞片的发育是相似的.传粉前,苞片的结构与叶相似.传粉后,由于剧烈的居间维管束发育.我们还对柏科植物雌球果的形态学特性及其可能的演化趋势进行了讨论.%The ontogeny and vascular systems of female cones of the Fokienia, Cupressus, Chamaecyparis and Juniperus were investigated in detail using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and conventional light microscopy. In the species examined, in the axils of the bracts, the first recognizable structure was a broad meristematic swelling, from which ovules developed. No ovuliferous scales developed during the ontogeny of the female cones. The number of ovules and ovule developing sequence displayed considerable variation in different species. However, development of the bracts was similar in all of the investigated species.Following pollination, the foliage-like bracts became peltate bract scales due to intercalary expansion, and global cones formed. In addition, the vascular system in the bract scales became intricate, and inverted vascular bundles emerged in the adaxial of the mature bracts. Based on these observations, a morphological interpretation and possible evolutionary trend of the Cupressaceae female reproductive structures was discussed.

  14. EPA Method 1682: Salmonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Method 1682 describes procedures for analysis of solid samples (biosolids) and may be adapted for assessment of water, liquid, particulate and aerosol samples contaminated with Salmonella spp. using culture and immunoassay.

  15. Improvement of the green fluorescent protein reporter system in Leishmania spp. for the in vitro and in vivo screening of antileishmanial drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, Sergio A; Muñoz, Diana L; Restrepo, Adriana M; Mesa, Carol V; Alzate, Juan F; Vélez, Iván D; Robledo, Sara M

    2012-04-01

    Development of new therapeutic approaches for leishmaniasis treatment requires new high throughput screening methodologies for the antileishmanial activity of the new compounds both in vitro and in vivo. Reporter genes as the GFP have become one of the most promissory and widely used tools for drug screening in several models, since it offers live imaging, high sensibility, specificity and flexibility; additionally, the use of GFP as a reporter gene in screening assays eliminates all the drawbacks presented in conventional assays and also those technical problems found using other reporter genes. The utility of the GFP as a reporter gene in drug screening assays with Leishmania parasites depends on the homogeneity and stability of the GFP transfected strains. Stable expression of the GFP in the Old World Leishmania species has been demonstrated using integration vectors; however, no reports exist yet about the success of this methodology in the New World species. Here we report the generation of New World Leishmania strains expressing the GFP protein from an integration vector, which replaces one copy of the 18S RNA in the chromosome with the GFP coding sequence by homologous recombination. We also prove that the expression of the integrated GFP is stable and homogeneous in the transfected parasites after months in culture without selective pressure or during its use in hamster infection assays. The fluorescent strains are useful for in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo drug screening assays since no considerable variations in virulence or infectivity where seen attributable to the genetic manipulation during both in vitro and in vivo infection experiments. The platform described here for drug testing assays based on the use of stable fluorescent Leishmania strains coupled to flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy is more sensitive, more specific and faster than conventional assays used normally for the evaluation of compounds with potential antileishmanial activity.

  16. THE USE OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI AS BIOPESTICIDE AGAINST DOWNY MILDEW PERONOSCLEROSPORA SPP. ON MAIZE

    OpenAIRE

    AMIN, NUR; La Daha; Nasruddin, Andi; Junaed, M; Iqbal, Andi

    2013-01-01

    Downy mildew is a major disease of maize caused by the fungus Peronosclerospora spp., widely distributed in all corn production centers in Indonesia. The disease can cause considerable losses; even total losses have been reported occurring on susceptible varieties. The purpose of the research was to determine the effectiveness of some isolates of endophytic fungi for the control of downy mildew on maize. The study consisted of four isolate treatments: Aspergillus spp., Trichoderma spp, Beauv...

  17. Chemical Composition of Juniperus communis L. Cone Essential Oil and Its Variability among Wild Populations in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Nebija, Dashnor; Miftari, Elheme; Quave, Cassandra L; Novak, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    Ripe cones of Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae) were collected from five wild populations in Kosovo, with the aim of investigating the chemical composition and natural variation of essential oils between and within wild populations. Ripe cones were collected, air dried, crushed, and the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation. The essential-oil constituents were identified by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The yield of essential oil differed depending on the population origins and ranged from 0.4 to 3.8% (v/w, based on the dry weight). In total, 42 compounds were identified in the essential oils of all populations. The principal components of the cone-essential oils were α-pinene, followed by β-myrcene, sabinene, and D-limonene. Taking into consideration the yield and chemical composition, the essential oil originating from various collection sites in Kosovo fulfilled the minimum requirements for J. communis essential oils of the European Pharmacopoeia. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to determine the influence of the geographical variations on the essential-oil composition. These statistical analyses suggested that the clustering of populations was not related to their geographic location, but rather appeared to be linked to local selective forces acting on the chemotype diversity. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  18. Investigation of antioxidant and anti-glycation properties of essential oils from fruits and branchlets of Juniperus oblonga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed A. Emami

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants represent the best and most extensively studied source of natural antioxidants. The present study investigated the antioxidant and anti-glycation properties of different concentrations of essential oils obtained from fruits and branchlets of Juniperus oblonga M. Bieb., Cupressaceae, using different assays. The essential oils were obtained by steam distillation of the branchlets of male tree (BMT, branchlets of female tree (BFT and fruits of J. oblonga. Compositional analysis of oils was performed using a gas chromatography-mass method. Antioxidant activity was assessed using linoleic acid peroxidation, peroxyl radical mediated hemolysis of red blood cells (RBC and low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation assays. Anti-glycation properties of oils were evaluated using hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays. Seventeen, eighteen and fifteen compounds were identified in the BMT, BFT and fruit oil, which represented 82.51, 55.69 and 96.89% of the total oils, respectively. α-Pinene was the major component of all three oils. All three oils possessed antioxidant effects against LDL oxidation, linoleic acid peroxidation and peroxyl radical mediated RBC hemolysis. Anti-glycation activities against hemoglobin and insulin glycation were also observed from all tested oils. Overall, there was no unique pattern of dose-dependence for the antioxidant properties of oils in different employed systems. The findings of this study suggest that essential oils from fruits and branchlets of J. oblonga possess antioxidant and anti-glycation properties. Therefore, these oils might be of therapeutic efficacy against diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  19. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils and Methanol Extracts of Different Parts from Juniperus rigida Siebold & Zucc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiaoxiao; Li, Dengwu; Wang, Wei; Wang, Dongmei; Meng, Xiaxia; Wang, Yongtao

    2016-09-01

    The chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oils and MeOH extracts of stems, needles, and berries from Juniperus rigida were studied. The results indicated that the yield of essential oil from stems (2.5%) was higher than from needles (0.8%) and berries (1.0%). The gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) analysis indicated that 21, 17, and 14 compounds were identified from stems, needles, and berries essential oils, respectively. Caryophyllene, α-caryophyllene, and caryophyllene oxide were primary compounds in both stems and needles essential oils. However, α-pinene and β-myrcene mainly existed in berries essential oils and α-ionone only in needles essential oils. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that the phenolic profiles of three parts exhibited significant differences. Needles extracts had the highest content of chlorogenic acid, catechin, podophyllotoxin, and amentoflavone, and for berries extracts, the content of those compounds was the lowest. Meanwhile, three in vitro methods (DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP) were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. Stems essential oil and needles extracts exhibited the powerful antioxidant activity than other parts. This is the first comprehensive study on the different parts of J. rigida. The results suggested that stems and needles of J. rigida are useful supplements for healthy products as new resources.

  20. Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oil from Juniperus communis L. subsp. hemisphaerica (Presl Nyman against Two Stored Product Beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Hashemi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, insecticidal activity of essential oil from fruits of Juniperus communis L. subsp. hemisphaerica (Presl Nyman was evaluated against Rhyzopertha dominica (F. and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst by fumigation at 24, 48, and 72 h exposure times. Dry fruits were subjected to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and the chemical composition of the volatile oil studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The major components were identified α−pinene (59.70%, and limonene (9.66%. Insecticidal activity was varying with essential oil concentration and exposure time. Results showed that R. dominica is more susceptible than T. castaneum for all exposure times. LC50 values at 24 h were estimated 36.96 μl/l air for R. dominica, and 107.96 μl/l air for T. castaneum. These results suggested that J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica fruit oil may have potential as a control agent against R. dominica, and T. castaneum.

  1. Effect of using redberry juniper (Juniperus pinchotii) to reduce Haemonchus contortus in vitro motility and increase ivermectin efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, S A; Klein, D R; Whitney, T R; Scott, C B; Muir, J P; Lambert, B D; Craig, T M

    2013-10-18

    A modified larval migration inhibition assay was used to determine if redberry juniper (Juniperus pinchotii Sudw.) can reduce Haemonchus contortus in vitro motility and increase ivermectin (IVM) efficacy. Ruminal fluid was mixed with buffer solution and either no material (CNTL) or Tifton 85 Bermudagrass hay (T85), dried juniper (DRY), fresh juniper (FRE), or distilled juniper terpenoid oil (OIL) to make treatment solutions and anaerobically incubated for 16 h. For Trial 1, larvae were incubated in CNTL, T85, DRY, or IVM. During Trial 2, larvae were incubated in CNTL, DRY, FRE, or OIL for 4h. Trials 3 (CNTL or OIL) and 4 (CNTL, DRY or FRE) evaluated larvae after incubation in treatment solution for 2h, then incubated an additional 2h in various IVM doses (0, 0.1, 1, 3, and 6 μg/mL IVM) and placed onto a screen. Larvae that passed through the 20-μm screen within a 96-well plate were considered motile. Larvae incubated in CNTL or T85 had similar (P=0.12) motility, but larvae incubated in DRY were less (PFRE, or OIL reduced (PFRE. Juniper forage material reduced in vitro H. contortus larval motility, but IVM efficacy was increased only by initially incubating larvae in DRY.

  2. Podophyllotoxin Extracted from Juniperus sabina Fruit Inhibits Rat Sperm Maturation and Fertility by Promoting Epididymal Epithelial Cell Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoting; Qu, Lijuan; Chen, Ping; Lu, Zhigang; Zhou, Jieyun; Guo, Xiangjie; Li, Zhao; Ma, Aying

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antifertility effect of Juniperus sabina fruit on male rats and its possible mechanism, and hence it might be developed as a potential nonhormonal male contraceptive. Male rats were intragastrically fed for consecutive 8-week and 4-week recovery with the fruit of J. Sabina, and sperm maturation, serum testosterone level, and histopathology were analyzed. Epididymal epithelial cell culture was prepared for detection of podophyllotoxin activities. Furthermore, cell proliferation, transmission electron microscopy, Annexin V/Propidium iodide, TUNEL, RT-PCR, ELISA, and western blotting were examined. The results showed that rat sperm motility and fertility were remarkably declined after feeding the fruit. Moreover, the fruit targeted the epididymis rather than the testis. After 4-week recovery, more than half of the male rats resumed normal fertility. It was found that podophyllotoxin significantly inhibited epididymal epithelial cell proliferation, promoted cell apoptosis, and increased the mRNA and protein levels of TNF-α and the expression levels of cytochrome c, caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3. Our findings suggest that the fruit of J. sabina could inhibit male rat sperm maturation and fertility. The potential mechanism might be related to podophyllotoxin, inducing epididymal epithelial cell apoptosis through TNF-α and caspase signaling pathway. PMID:28744317

  3. Anticholinesterase and β-Site Amyloid Precursor Protein Cleaving Enzyme 1 Inhibitory Compounds from the Heartwood of Juniperus chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hee Jin; Jung, Hyun Ah; Min, Byung-Sun; Choi, Jae Sue

    2015-01-01

    Two new compounds (2, 3) and 20 known compounds (1, 4-22) were isolated from the heartwood of Juniperus chinensis LINNE (Cupressaceae), and their structures were elucidated as 9'-methoxycalocedrin (1); α-methyl artoflavanocoumarin (2); 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-2-styrylchromone (3); cedrol (4); widdrol (5); savinin (6); calocedrin (7); 10-oxowiddrol (8); 12-hydroxywiddrol (9); (+)-naringenin (10); vanillic acid methyl ester (11); (+)-taxifolin (12); (+)-aromadendrin (13); kaempferol (14); quercetin (15); (7S,8R)-dihydro-3'-hydroxy-8- hydroxymethyl-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1'-benzofuranpropanol (16); styraxlignolide C (17); protocatechuic acid (18); vanillic acid (19); (7R,8S)-dihydro-3'-methoxy-8-hydroxymethyl-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1'-benzofuranpropanol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (20); (7S,8S)-dihydro-3'-hydroxy-8-hydroxymethyl-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1'-benzofuranpropanol 4-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (21); and (+)-catechin (22) on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. The new compounds (2, 3) exhibited good inhibitory activities against β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), with IC50 values of 6.25, and 11.91 µM, respectively.

  4. Late Miocene lineage divergence and ecological differentiation of rare endemic Juniperus blancoi: clues for the diversification of North American conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Letelier, Alejandra; Mastretta-Yanes, Alicia; Barraclough, Timothy G

    2014-07-01

    Western North America and Mexico contain a large number of conifer species. This diversity could be the product of orographic and climate changes of the late Tertiary and Quaternary. In this study, we focus on the evolutionary history of Juniperus blancoi, in order to determine the impact of climate change and environmental heterogeneity on population differentiation. We estimated the population structure, phylogenetic relationships and historical demography of J. blancoi populations using nuclear genes. We correlated genetic structure with ecological differentiation, divergence times and changes in population size. Populations of J. blancoi are differentiated into three lineages that correspond to low-, mid- and high-altitude populations. The three groups diversified in the late Miocene, early Pliocene, with only a few events of gene flow since then. Two lineages in the north exhibited a pattern of population growth during the Pleistocene that could be linked to climate changes. Populations of J. blancoi experienced significant ecological differentiation and early divergence events, which correspond to periods of global cooling and mountain uplift during the Miocene. This suggests that mountain ranges in tropical and subtropical latitudes play an important role in the speciation and persistence of conifer taxa in diversity hotspots, by providing diverse environmental conditions. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Adjustment of the tree-ring response of Juniperus thurifera to climate in the Western Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varino, Filipa; DeSoto, Lucia; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Gouveia, Célia; Andrade, José; campelo, Filipe; Nabais, Cristina

    2013-04-01

    Juniperus thurifera L. is a long-lived conifer tree endemic to western Mediterranean region. It is well adapted to continental Mediterranean weather conditions such as negative winter temperatures or summer drought and is capable to maintain the photosynthetic activity all year round, making it a suitable species to study tree-ring sensitivity to climate change. In this work we have used tree-ring width data of J. thurifera trees from six stands located in northern Spain (Soria, Barrios de Luna and Desert of Monegros) and High Atlas in Morocco (Armd, Oukaimeden and Ourika) and correlated with climatic information (temperature and precipitation) from the Climate Research Unity (CRU) database. We have evaluated separately the growth patterns and climatic response of the populations from Spain and Morocco as they showed distinct seasonal dependence to temperature and precipitation. Afterwards, according to the length of both databases (ring-width and surface climate variables), we evaluated the role played by the climatic variables on the species growth pattern through time. We observed an increase of growth sensitivity to summer drought in Spain, whereas such sensitivity was not verify in Morocco"

  6. Comprehensive thin-layer chromatography mass spectrometry of flavanols from Juniperus communis L. and Punica granatum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrke, Samo; Vovk, Irena

    2013-05-10

    The coupling of thin-layer chromatography with mass spectrometry (TLC-MS) for the analysis of monomeric flavanols and proanthocyanidins in samples presented as complex matrices has been studied. The elution conditions for TLC-MS were optimised and full scans were compared with selected reaction monitoring for the MS detection of compounds. The performance of silica gel and cellulose plates with different developing solvents in TLC-MS was assessed. Cellulose plates provided superior sensitivity while ionisation suppression was encountered with silica plates. The use of a HILIC guard column beyond the elution head was found to facilitate detection of monomer compounds on silica plates. A new comprehensive TLC×MS procedure for screening flavanols in the entire chromatogram was developed as an alternative to the use of 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde to determine the locations of compounds on the plate. This new procedure was applied to detect flavanols in the peel of Punica granatum L. fruits and in seeds of Juniperus communis L., in which flavanols and proanthocyanidin dimers and trimers were detected for the first time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Linking nonstructural carbohydrate dynamics to gas exchange and leaf hydraulic behavior in Pinus edulis and Juniperus monosperma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, David R; Meinzer, Frederick C; Marias, Danielle E; Sevanto, Sanna; Jenkins, Michael W; McDowell, Nate G

    2015-04-01

    Leaf hydraulics, gas exchange and carbon storage in Pinus edulis and Juniperus monosperma, two tree species on opposite ends of the isohydry-anisohydry spectrum, were analyzed to examine relationships between hydraulic function and carbohydrate dynamics. Leaf hydraulic vulnerability, leaf water potential (Ψl ), leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf ), photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs) and nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) content were analyzed throughout the growing season. Leaf hydraulic vulnerability was significantly lower in the relatively anisohydric J. monosperma than in the more isohydric P. edulis. In P. edulis, Ψl dropped and stayed below 50% loss of leaf hydraulic conductance (P₅₀) early in the day during May, August and around midday in September, leading to sustained reductions in Kleaf . In J. monosperma, Ψl dropped below P₅₀ only during August, resulting in the maintenance of Kleaf during much of the growing season. Mean A and gs during September were significantly lower in P. edulis than in J. monosperma. Foliar total NSC was two to three times greater in J. monosperma than in P. edulis in June, August and September. Consistently lower levels of total NSC in P. edulis suggest that its isohydric strategy pushes it towards the exhaustion of carbon reserves during much of the growing season. No claim to original US Government works New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Juniperus excelsa M.Bieb. growing wild in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Madona; El Beyrouthy, Marc; Ouaini, Naïm; Iriti, Marcello; Eparvier, Véronique; Stien, Didier

    2014-05-01

    The essential oils (EOs) isolated from the leaves and twigs of Juniperus excelsa M.Bieb. growing wild in Lebanon were characterized, and their antimicrobial activity and antiradical capacity were evaluated. The EOs were obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and characterized by GC and GC/MS analyses. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by determining minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against a Gram-positive and a Gram-negative bacterium, a yeast, and a dermatophyte with the broth microdilution technique. A total of 28 constituents was identified and accounted for 90.1 and 95.6% of the twig and leaf EO composition, respectively. Both EOs were essentially composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons (46.7 and 59.6% for twig and leaf EOs, resp.) and sesquiterpenes (39.4 and 32.1%, resp.). The main components were α-pinene, α-cedrol, and δ-car-3-ene. The J. excelsa EOs did not show any antiradical potential, but revealed interesting in vitro antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton rubrum (MICs of 64 and 128 μg/ml, resp.). The three major compounds were tested separately and in combination according to their respective amounts in the oil. δ-Car-3-ene was the most active component and is undoubtedly one of the constituents driving the antifungal activity of J. excelsa essential oil, even though synergies are probably involved. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  9. Predominant and substoichiometric isomers of the plastid genome coexist within Juniperus plants and have shifted multiple times during cupressophyte evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenhu; Grewe, Felix; Cobo-Clark, Amie; Fan, Weishu; Duan, Zelin; Adams, Robert P; Schwarzbach, Andrea E; Mower, Jeffrey P

    2014-03-01

    Most land plant plastomes contain two copies of a large inverted repeat (IR) that promote high-frequency homologous recombination to generate isomeric genomic forms. Among conifer plastomes, this canonical IR is highly reduced in Pinaceae and completely lost from cupressophytes. However, both lineages have acquired short, novel IRs, some of which also exhibit recombinational activity to generate genomic structural diversity. This diversity has been shown to exist between, and occasionally within, cupressophyte species, but it is not known whether multiple genomic forms coexist within individual plants. To examine the recombinational potential of the novel cupressophyte IRs within individuals and between species, we sequenced the plastomes of four closely related species of Juniperus. The four plastomes have identical gene content and genome organization except for a large 36 kb inversion between approximately 250 bp IR containing trnQ-UUG. Southern blotting showed that different isomeric versions of the plastome predominate among individual junipers, whereas polymerase chain reaction and high-throughput read-pair mapping revealed the substoichiometric presence of the alternative isomeric form within each individual plant. Furthermore, our comparative genomic studies demonstrate that the predominant and substoichiometric arrangements of this IR have changed several times in other cupressophytes as well. These results provide compelling evidence for substoichiometric shifting of plastomic forms during cupressophyte evolution and suggest that substoichiometric shifting activity in plastid genomes may be adaptive.

  10. Evolutionary origin and demographic history of an ancient conifer (Juniperus microsperma) in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Hui-Ying; Li, Zhong-Hu; Dong, Miao; Adams, Robert P; Miehe, Georg; Opgenoorth, Lars; Mao, Kang-Shan

    2015-05-15

    All Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) endemic species are assumed to have originated recently, although very rare species most likely diverged early. These ancient species provide an excellent model to examine the origin and evolution of QTP endemic plants in response to the QTP uplifts and the climate changes that followed in this high altitude region. In this study, we examined these hypotheses by employing sequence variation from multiple nuclear and chloroplast DNA of 239 individuals of Juniperus microsperma and its five congeners. Both phylogenetic and population genetic analyses revealed that J. microsperma diverged from its sister clade comprising two species with long isolation around the Early Miocene, which corresponds to early QTP uplift. Demographic modeling and coalescent tests suggest that J. microsperma experienced an obvious bottleneck event during the Quaternary when the global climate greatly oscillated. The results presented here support the hypotheses that the QTP uplifts and Quaternary climate changes played important roles in shaping the evolutionary history of this rare juniper.

  11. Investigation of Antiulcer and Antioxidant Activity of Juniperus phoenicea L. (1753) Essential Oil in an Experimental Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ali, Manel Jemaї; Guesmi, Fatma; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Alwasel, Saleh; Hedfi, Amor; Ncib, Sana; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Aldahmash, Badr; Ben-Attia, Mossadok

    2015-01-01

    Juniperus phoenicea is a tree of the Cupressaceae family that is popularly known in the south of Tunisia because of its wide application in herbal medicine, including the use of its leaves to treat many diseases such as diarrhea, rheumatism, and intestinal disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ulceroprotective and antioxidant activity of essential oil extracted from the leaves of J. phoenicea (EOJp) against hydrogen chloride (HCl)/ethanol-induced ulcers in rats. The antiulcer activities of 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) EOJp were investigated on 0.3 M HCl/ethanol-induced ulcers in rats. The essential oil yield was 0.69% with 48 compounds; α-pinene was the principal component (20.24%). In vivo pretreatment with EOJp given orally provided dose-dependent protection against HCl/ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Furthermore, pretreatment with EOJp significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) content and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The activity of the antiulcerogenic EOJp could be from synergistic antioxidant and anti-secretory effects. Oral use of EOJp has excellent preventive effects on induced gastric ulcers comparable to those of the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) omeprazole.

  12. Leaf essential oil of Juniperus oxycedrus L. (Cupressaceae) harvested in northern Tunisia: composition and intra-specific variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medini, Hanen; Elaissi, Ameur; Khouja, Mohamed L; Chraief, Imed; Farhat, Farhat; Hammami, Mohamed; Chemli, Rachid; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2010-05-01

    The essential oil composition of leaves of 60 individual trees of Juniperus oxycedrus L. growing in four locations in Tunisia harvested in three different seasons were investigated by GC and GC/MS. Seventy compounds were identified in the oils, and a relatively high variation in their contents were found. All the oils were dominated by terpenic hydrocarbons, with alpha-pinene (27.35-58.03%) as the main component, followed by geranyl acetone (13; 1.96-7.14%), 13-epimanoyl oxide (16; 1.35-6.95%), and eudesma-4(15),7-dien-1-ol (11; 1.39-4.18%). The 18 major oil components were processed by hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis (PCA) allowing to establish four groups, one divided into two subgroups, of populations according to the location and season of harvest. Their oils were differentiated by one compound or more, showing a clear seasonal and geographical polymorphism in their chemical composition allowing the identification of specific chemotypes. The pattern of geographic variation in the essential oil composition indicated that the oils of the populations from the continental site (Makthar) were clearly distinguished from those of the littoral localities (Tabarka, Hawaria, and Rimel).

  13. Eumycetoma caused by Diaporthe phaseolorum (Phomopsis phaseoli): a case report and a mini-review of Diaporthe/Phomopsis spp invasive infections in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriart, X; Binois, R; Fior, A; Blanchet, D; Berry, A; Cassaing, S; Amazan, E; Papot, E; Carme, B; Aznar, C; Couppié, P

    2011-10-01

    Diaporthe phaseolorum (syn. Phomopsis phaseoli) is a frequent fungal parasite of plants, present on all continents around the world. It has rarely been involved in human diseases. We report a case of eumycetoma with osteomyelitis of the forefoot caused by this fungus and diagnosed by molecular biology. The patient had positive HTLV-1 serology and was a farmer from French Guiana who walked barefoot. He was successfully treated with long-term oral itraconazole (400 mg/day). A review of the literature underlines the essential roles of plants and host immunosuppression in this infection and the favourable outcome with a triazole antifungal treatment. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  14. Identification of Novel Zoonotic Activity of Bartonella spp., France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Moutailler, Sara; Féménia, Françoise; Raymond, Philippe; Croce, Olivier; La Scola, Bernard; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Raoult, Didier

    2016-03-01

    Certain Bartonella species are known to cause afebrile bacteremia in humans and other mammals, including B. quintana, the agent of trench fever, and B. henselae, the agent of cat scratch disease. Reports have indicated that animal-associated Bartonella species may cause paucisymptomatic bacteremia and endocarditis in humans. We identified potentially zoonotic strains from 6 Bartonella species in samples from patients who had chronic, subjective symptoms and who reported tick bites. Three strains were B. henselae and 3 were from other animal-associated Bartonella spp. (B. doshiae, B. schoenbuchensis, and B. tribocorum). Genomic analysis of the isolated strains revealed differences from previously sequenced Bartonella strains. Our investigation identifed 3 novel Bartonella spp. strains with human pathogenic potential and showed that Bartonella spp. may be the cause of undifferentiated chronic illness in humans who have been bitten by ticks.

  15. Helminth fauna of Talpa spp. in the Palaearctic Realm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, A; Casanova, J C

    2006-03-01

    The helminth fauna of the genus Talpa in the Palaearctic Realm is reviewed. Several helminth species reported in Talpa spp. by a number of authors are discussed, with reference to host specificity, parasite biology, and host ethology, ecology and phylogeny. Twelve species of cestodes were found, two of which exhibit stenoxenous specificity (Staphylocystis bacillaris and Multitesticulata filamentosa). Only three species of trematodes, Ityogonimus lorum, Ityogonimus ocreatus and Combesia macrobursata, are exclusive parasites of Talpa spp. The largest group are nematodes, with 37 species. Species of Tricholinstowia are parasites of holarctic talpids and several species of distinct genera, such as Capillaria, Soboliphyme and Trichuris, are found only in Talpa spp. Only acanthocephalans of the genus Moniliformis have been reported in moles of the genus Talpa. On the basis of these helminthological findings, the close phylogenetic relationship between moles (Talpidae) and shrews (Soricidae) supports the separation of the ordinal levels Soricomorpha and Erinaceomorpha.

  16. Draft Genome Sequences of 10 Microbacterium spp., with Emphasis on Heavy Metal-Contaminated Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corretto, Erika; Antonielli, Livio; Sessitsch, Angela; Kidd, Petra; Weyens, Nele; Brader, Günter

    2015-05-14

    Microbacterium spp. isolated from heavy metal (HM)-contaminated environments (soil and plants) can play a role in mobilization processes and in the phytoextraction of HM. Here, we report the whole-genome sequences and annotation of 10 Microbacterium spp. isolated from both HM-contaminated and -noncontaminated compartments. Copyright © 2015 Corretto et al.

  17. Aeromonas spp.: an emerging pathogen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bartolini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify and monitor the presence of Aeromonas spp. strains in stool cultures. We analyzed 5564 stool cultures from September 2012 to August 2013. Sixty-three patients were positive for Aeromonas spp. The most frequent symptoms were: diarrhea (46.0% and abdominal pain (12.7%. Pediatric subjects were 28. Samples’ microscopic examination showed leukocytes in 38.1% of cases. It is still controversial whether Aeromonas are responsible for human gastroenteritis, but their presence in faecies of symptomatic patients supports their etiologic role. We propose search for toxins by polymerase chain reaction to identify strains that require an antibiotic therapy.

  18. Vitamin, Trace Element, and Fatty Acid Levels of Vitex agnus-castus L., Juniperus oxycedrus L., and Papaver somniferum L. Plant Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ozkaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of fat-soluble vitamin, trace element and fatty acid of Vitex agnus-castus L., Juniperus oxycedrus L., and Papaver somniferum L. seeds in Turkey were determined by using HPLC, ICP-OES, and GC, respectively. In the Vitex agnus-castus L., Juniperus oxycedrus L., and Papaver somniferum L. seeds, linoleic acid (18 : 2 was determined with the highest level rates (%54.11, %28.03, and %72.14, resp.. In the Vitex agnus-castus L. seeds, R-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, and K1 levels were determined as 9.70 μg/g, 18.20 μg/g, and 24.79 μg/g, respectively; In the Juniperus oxycedrus L. seeds, R-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, and K1 were determined as 18.50 μg/g, 0.84 μg/g, and 5.00 μg/g, respectively, and in the Papaver somniferum L. seeds, R-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, K1, and D2 levels were determined as 43.25 μg/g, 122.05 μg/g, 12.01 μg/g, and 0.62 μg/g, respectively. In the Vitex agnus-castus L., Juniperus oxycedrus L., and Papaver somniferum L. seeds, nickel (Ni, zinc (Zn, and iron (Fe were determined with the trace element level rates (4.42 mg/kg, 10.43 mg/kg, 3.71 mg/kg for Ni, 7.00 mg/kg, 7.70 mg/kg, and 24 mg/kg for Zn and 93.73 mg/kg, 187.95 mg/kg, and 149.64 mg/kg for Fe, resp.. These parameters in seeds are very important for human life.

  19. Etude phytochimique et pouvoir antîmicrobien de Juniperusphoenicea L., Juniperus oxycedrus L. et Cupressus sempervirens L. de la région de Tlemcen.

    OpenAIRE

    MAZARI, Khadidja

    2014-01-01

    Ce travail est consacré à l'étude pliytochimique et biologique de trois plantes: Juniperusphoenicea L., Juniperus oxycedrus L. et Cupressus J sempervirens L., poussant à l'état spontané dans la région de Tlemcen. P Des tests phytochimiques réalisés lors de cette étude ont permis de détecter les différentes familles de composés chimiques existantes dans les feuilles de ces plantes. L'extraction des huiles essentielles nous a révélé que le rendement en huile essentielle de J. phoeni...

  20. Differential Legionella spp. survival between intracellular and extracellular forms in thermal spring environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Po-Min; Tung, Min-Che; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Hsu, Shih-Yung; Huang, Jen-Te; Liu, Jorn-Hon; Huang, Yu-Li

    2013-05-01

    Legionella are commonly found in natural and man-made aquatic environments and are able to inhabit various species of protozoa. The relationship between the occurrence of Legionella spp. within protozoa and human legionellosis has been demonstrated; however, the proportions of intracellular and extracellular Legionella spp. in the aquatic environment were rarely reported. In this study, we developed a new method to differentiate intracellular and extracellular Legionella spp. in the aquatic environment. Water samples from three thermal spring recreational areas in southeastern Taiwan were collected and analyzed. For each water sample, concurrent measurements were performed for Legionella spp. and their free-living amoebae hosts. The overall detection rate was 32 % (16/50) for intracellular Legionella spp. and 12 % (6/50) for extracellular Legionella spp. The most prevalent host of Legionella spp. was Hartmannella vermiformis. The identified Legionella spp. differed substantially between intracellular and extracellular forms. The results showed that it may be necessary to differentiate intracellular and extracellular forms of Legionella spp.

  1. Is precipitation a trigger for the onset of xylogenesis in Juniperus przewalskii on the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ping; Rossi, Sergio; Gricar, Jozica; Liang, Eryuan; Cufar, Katarina

    2015-03-01

    A series of studies have shown that temperature triggers the onset of xylogenesis of trees after winter dormancy. However, little is known about whether and how moisture availability influences xylogenesis in spring in drought-prone areas. Xylogenesis was monitored in five mature Qilian junipers (Juniperus przewalskii) by microcore sampling from 2009 to 2011 in a semi-arid area of the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau. A simple physical model of xylem cell production was developed and its sensitivity was analysed. The relationship between climate and growth was then evaluated, using weekly wood production data and climatic data from the study site. Delayed onset of xylogenesis in 2010 corresponded to a negative standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) value and a continuous period without rainfall in early May. The main period of wood formation was in June and July, and drier conditions from May to July led to a smaller number of xylem cells. Dry conditions in July could cause early cessation of xylem differentiation. The final number of xylem cells was mainly determined by the average production rate rather than the duration of new cell production. Xylem growth showed a positive and significant response to precipitation, but not to temperature. Precipitation in late spring and summer can play a critical role in the onset of xylogenesis and xylem cell production. The delay in the initiation of xylogenesis under extremely dry conditions seems to be a stress-avoidance strategy against hydraulic failure. These findings could thus demonstrate an evolutionary adaptation of Qilian juniper to the extremely dry conditions of the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Different growth sensitivity to climate of the conifer Juniperus thurifera on both sides of the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSoto, Lucía; Varino, Filipa; Andrade, José P; Gouveia, Celia M; Campelo, Filipe; Trigo, Ricardo M; Nabais, Cristina

    2014-12-01

    Mediterranean plants cope with cold wet winters and dry hot summers, with a drought gradient from northwest to southeast. Limiting climatic conditions have become more pronounced in the last decades due to the warming trend and rainfall decrease. Juniperus thurifera L., a long-lived conifer tree endemic to the western Mediterranean region, has a disjunct distribution in Europe and Africa, making it a suitable species to study sensitivity to climate in both sides of the Mediterranean Basin. Tree-ring width chronologies were built for three J. thurifera stands at Spain (Europe) and three in Morocco (Africa) and correlated with monthly temperature and precipitation. The temporal stability of climate-growth relationships was assessed using moving correlations; the drought effect on growth was calculated using the monthly standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI) at different temporal scales. In the wettest stands, increasing spring temperature and summer precipitation enhanced growth, while in the driest stands, growth was enhanced by higher spring precipitation and lower summer temperature. The climate-growth correlations shifted during the twentieth century, especially since the 1970s. Particularly noticeable is the recent negative correlation with previous autumn and winter precipitation in the wettest stands of J. thurifera, probably related with an effect of cloud cover or flooding on carbon storage depletion for next year growth. The driest stands were affected by drought at long time scales, while the wettest stands respond to drought at short time scales. This reveals a different strategy to cope with drought conditions, with populations from drier sites able to cope with short periods of water deficit.

  3. Enhanced growth of Juniperus thurifera under a warmer climate is explained by a positive carbon gain under cold and drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Teresa E; Camarero, J Julio; Granda, Elena; Pías, Beatriz; Valladares, Fernando

    2012-03-01

    Juniperus thurifera L. is an endemic conifer of the western Mediterranean Basin where it is subjected to a severe climatic stress characterized by low winter temperatures and summer drought. Given the trend of increased warming-induced drought stress in this area and the climatic sensitivity of this species, we expect a negative impact of climate change on growth and ecophysiological performance of J. thurifera in the harsh environments where it dominates. To evaluate this, we measured long- and short-term radial growth using dendrochronology, photosynthesis and water-use efficiency in males, females and juveniles in three sites in Central Spain. Climate was monitored and completed with historical records. Mean annual temperature has increased +0.2 °C per decade in the study area, and the main warming trends corresponded to spring (+0.2 °C per decade) and summer (+0.3 °C per decade). Radial growth and maximum photosynthesis peaked in spring and autumn. Positive photosynthetic rates were maintained all year long, albeit at reduced rates in winter and summer. Radial growth was enhanced by wet conditions in the previous autumn and by warm springs and high precipitation in summer of the year of tree-ring formation. Cloud cover during the summer increased growth, while cloudy winters led to impaired carbon gain and reduced growth in the long term. We argue that maintenance of carbon gain under harsh conditions (low winter temperatures and dry summer months) and plastic xylogenesis underlie J. thurifera's ability to profit from changing climatic conditions such as earlier spring onset and erratic summer rainfall. Our results highlight that not only the magnitude but also the sign of the impact of climate change on growth and persistence of Mediterranean trees is species specific.

  4. In vitro anti-diabetic, anti-obesity and antioxidant proprieties of Juniperus phoenicea L. leaves from Tunisia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine chemical composition and antioxidant activity as well as the in vitroα-amylase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities of the essential oil and various extracts of Juniperus phoenicea (J. phoenicea). Methods: Essential oil obtained by steam distillation were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil and various extracts of J. phoenicea were determined by DPPH andβ-carotene bleaching methods. Results: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the J. phoenicea essential oil resulted in the identification of 37 compounds, representing 96.98% of the oil; α-Pinene (24.02%), limonene (7.94%), D-3-Carene (16.9%), Germacrene D (11.98%), Germacrene B (5.40%) and δ-cadinene (6.52%) were the major compounds. The IC50 values of essential oil, hexane and methanol extracts against α-amylase were 35.44, 30.15 and 53.76 µg/mL respectively, and those against pancreatic lipase were 66.15, 68.47 and 60.22 µg/mL respectively, suggesting powerful anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects. Antioxidant activity (IC50=2 µg/mL) and total phenolics content (265 mg as gallic acid equivalent/g extract) of the methanol extract were found to be the highest compared to the other extracts. Conclusions:The findings showed that the extents ofα-amylase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities of the J. phoenicea extracts as well as their antioxidant activity are in accordance with total phenolics contents. Leaves of J. phoenicea being rich in phenolics may provide a good source of natural products with interesting medicinal properties.

  5. Different growth sensitivity to climate of the conifer Juniperus thurifera on both sides of the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSoto, Lucía; Varino, Filipa; Andrade, José P.; Gouveia, Celia M.; Campelo, Filipe; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Nabais, Cristina

    2014-12-01

    Mediterranean plants cope with cold wet winters and dry hot summers, with a drought gradient from northwest to southeast. Limiting climatic conditions have become more pronounced in the last decades due to the warming trend and rainfall decrease. Juniperus thurifera L., a long-lived conifer tree endemic to the western Mediterranean region, has a disjunct distribution in Europe and Africa, making it a suitable species to study sensitivity to climate in both sides of the Mediterranean Basin. Tree-ring width chronologies were built for three J. thurifera stands at Spain (Europe) and three in Morocco (Africa) and correlated with monthly temperature and precipitation. The temporal stability of climate-growth relationships was assessed using moving correlations; the drought effect on growth was calculated using the monthly standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI) at different temporal scales. In the wettest stands, increasing spring temperature and summer precipitation enhanced growth, while in the driest stands, growth was enhanced by higher spring precipitation and lower summer temperature. The climate-growth correlations shifted during the twentieth century, especially since the 1970s. Particularly noticeable is the recent negative correlation with previous autumn and winter precipitation in the wettest stands of J. thurifera, probably related with an effect of cloud cover or flooding on carbon storage depletion for next year growth. The driest stands were affected by drought at long time scales, while the wettest stands respond to drought at short time scales. This reveals a different strategy to cope with drought conditions, with populations from drier sites able to cope with short periods of water deficit.

  6. When, How and How Much: Gender-specific Resource-use Strategies in the Dioecious Tree Juniperus thurifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    MONTESINOS, D.; DE LUÍS, M.; VERDÚ, M.; RAVENTÓS, J.; GARCÍA-FAYOS, P.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims In dioecious species male and female plants experience different selective pressures and often incur different reproductive costs. An increase in reproductive investment habitually results in a reduction of the resources available to other demands, such as vegetative growth. Tree-ring growth is an integrative measure that tracks vegetative investment through the plant's entire life span. This allows the study of gender-specific vegetative allocation strategies in dioecious tree species thoughout their life stages. • Methods Standard dendrochronological procedures were used to measure tree-ring width. Analyses of time-series were made by means of General Mixed Models with correction of autocorrelated values by the use of an autoregressive covariance structure of order one. Bootstrapped correlation functions were used to study the relationship between climate and tree-ring width. • Key Results Male and female trees invest a similar amount of resources to ring growth during the early life stages of Juniperus thurifera. However, after reaching sexual maturity, tree-ring growth is reduced for both sexes. Furthermore, females experience a significantly stronger reduction in growth than males, which indicates a lower vegetative allocation in females. In addition, growth was positively correlated with precipitation from the current winter and spring in male trees but only to current spring precipitation in females. • Conclusions Once sexual maturity is achieved, tree rings grow proportionally more in males than in females. Differences in tree-ring growth between the genders could be a strategy to respond to different reproductive demands. Therefore, and responding to the questions of when, how and how much asked in the title, it is shown that male trees invest more resources to growth than female trees only after reaching sexual maturity, and they use these resources in a different temporal way. PMID:16905569

  7. Juniperus rigida Sieb. extract inhibits inflammatory responses via attenuation of TRIF-dependent signaling and inflammasome activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ji-Won; Shim, Do-Wan; Shin, Woo-Young; Kim, Myong-Ki; Shim, Eun-Jeong; Sun, Xiao; Koppula, Sushruta; Kim, Tack-Joong; Kang, Tae-Bong; Lee, Kwang-Ho

    2016-08-22

    Juniperus rigida Sieb. (J. rigida) is used for medicinal purposes in Asian countries to treat inflammation-related disorders, such as neuralgia, dropsy, and gout. The anti-inflammatory effects of J. rigida extract (JR) and its underlying mechanisms were explored both in in vitro cell lines and in vivo metabolic disease models. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 murine macrophages were used to study the changes in inflammatory responses in vitro. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were used to study the regulatory effect of JR on inflammasome activation. The murine model for monosodium urate (MSU)-induced peritonitis and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetes were employed to study the effect of JR on in vivo efficacy. JR suppressed the MSU-induced in vivo inflammatory response by attenuation of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). In the in vitro study, JR suppressed IL-1β secretion via regulation of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) oligomerization, leading to the inhibition of inflammasome activation. JR also inhibited the LPS-stimulated release of proinflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), TNF-α, and IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells. The inhibitory effects of JR were mediated through the regulation of the TRIF-dependent signaling pathway from JAK1/STAT1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, JR showed inhibitory effects on HFD-induced type 2 diabetes in a mouse model through the regulation of blood glucose and serum IL-1β. Our results indicate that JR attenuates both LPS-stimulated and danger-signal-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages via regulation of the key inflammatory mechanisms, providing scientific support for its traditional use in the treatment of various inflammation-related metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Essential oil of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak needles: chemical composition, antifungal activity and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, C; Francisco, V; Cavaleiro, C; Gonçalves, M J; Cruz, M T; Sales, F; Batista, M T; Salgueiro, L

    2012-09-01

    Essential oils are known to possess antimicrobial activity against a wide spectrum of bacteria and fungi. In the present work the composition and the antifungal activity of the oils of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak were evaluated. Moreover, the skin cytotoxicity, at concentrations showing significant antifungal activity, was also evaluated. The oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oil against dermatophytes (Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, T. rubrum, T. verrucosum), yeasts (Candida albicans, C. guillermondii, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, Cryptococcus neoformans) and Aspergillus species (Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger). Cytotoxicity was tested in HaCaT keratinocytes through the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Essential oil of J. communis subsp. alpina needles was predominantly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons (78.4%), with the main compounds being sabinene (26.2%), α-pinene (12-9%) and limonene (10.4%). Results concerning the antifungal activity demonstrated the potential of needle oil against dermatophytes, particularly for Microsporum canis and Trichophyton rubrum with MIC and MLC of 0.32 μL/mL. Furthermore, evaluation of cell viability showed no significant cytotoxicity in HaCaT keratinocytes at concentrations between 0.32 and 0.64 μL/mL. These results show that it is possible to find appropriate doses of J. communis subsp. alpina oil with both antifungal activity and a very low detrimental effect on keratinocytes. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Larvicidal efficacy of Ethiopian ethnomedicinal plant Juniperus procera essential oil against Afrotropical malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaliyaperumal Karunamoorthi; Askual Girmay; Samuel Fekadu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To screen the essential oil of Juniperus procera (J. procera) (Cupressaceae) for larvicidal activity against late third instar larvae of Anopheles arabiensis (An. arabiensis) Patton, the principle malaria vector in Ethiopia.Methods:the laboratory and semi-field conditions by adopting the World Health Organization standard protocols. The larval mortality was observed for 24 h of post exposure.Results:The essential oil of J. procera has demonstrated varying degrees of larvicidal activity The essential oil of J. procera was evaluated against the larvae of An. arabiensis under against An. arabiensis. The LC50 and LC90 values of J. procera were 14.42 and 24.65 mg/L, respectively under the laboratory conditions, and from this data, a Chi-square value 6.662 was observed to be significant at the P=0.05 level. However, under the semi-field conditions the LC50 and LC90 values of J. procera were 24.51 and 34.21 mg/L, respectively and a Chi-square value 4.615 was significant at the P=0.05 level. The observations clearly showed that larval mortality rate is completely time and dose-dependent as compared with the control.Conclusions:This investigation indicates that J. procera could serve as a potential larvicidal agent against insect vector of diseases, particularly An. arabiensis. However further studies are strongly recommended for the identification of the chemical constituents and the mode of action towards the rational design of alternative promising insecticidal agents in the near future.

  10. Recovery of Arcobacter spp. from Non-livestock Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Arcobacter encompasses campylobacter-like organisms which grow in air at 25 deg C. Arcobacter spp. have been either detected and or isolated from livestock and have been incriminated in water-borne outbreaks, reflecting its adaptation to aquatic environments. Reports from non-livestock spe...

  11. Frecuencia de aislamiento de Staphylococcus spp meticilina resistentes y Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistentes en hospitales de Cuba Frequency of methicilline-resistant Staphylococcus spp and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp isolates in Cuban hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora González Mesa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La resistencia a meticilina en el género Staphylococcus spp es un problema creciente en el ámbito mundial. La producción de una PBP alterada (PBP2a con baja afinidad a betalactámicos, mediada por el gen mec A, es la responsable de esta resistencia. Mientras que los Staphylococcus spp todavía permanecen sensibles a vancomicina, algunos Enterococcus spp han adquirido la capacidad de neutralizar esta droga. En nuestro país no se conocen datos actualizados sobre la tasa de infección por S. aureus meticilina resistente (SAMR, ni sobre la circulación de este germen en la comunidad, tampoco existen reportes de Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistente (EVR. En este estudio fueron analizadas 774 cepas, colectadas en hospitales del país. Se determinó el mecanismo de resistencia utilizando métodos sugeridos por las guías NCCLS. El 9.3 % (23 de los S. aureus aislados en los hospitales y 4.0% (7 S. aureus aislados en la comunidad, fueron SAMR, portadores del gen mec A, el 69.9 % (72 de Staphylococcus coagulasa negativo, fueron resistentes a oxacilina. En la detección del Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistente (EVR, se encontró una cepa portadora de este fenotipo. Nuestros resultados revelan que en nuestro país los SAMR no son un problema en los hospitales, ni en el ambiente comunitario, a pesar de que se reporta por primera vez la circulación de estos en la comunidad y la circulación de EVR en el ambiente hospitalario, su frecuencia es muy baja lo que refleja los avances obtenidos en la aplicación de políticas encaminadas a racionalizar el uso y consumo de antibióticos.Resistance to methicilline in Staphylococcus spp genus is a growing problem worldwide. The production of an altered penicillin-fixing protein with low mecA gen-mediated affinity to beta-lactams is responsible for this resistance. Although Staphylococcus spp still remain susceptible to vancomycin, some Enterococcus spp have acquired the capacity of neutralizing this drug. In

  12. [Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp.--environmental studies in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Anna; Bednarska, Małgorzata; Siński, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. are intestinal protozoan parasites of humans and many other species of mammals. The aim of this article was to summarize the last twenty years of research on the environmental distribution of these parasites, with a particular emphasis on the natural reservoir of invasion and human infections in Poland. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia has been studied in different groups of humans, in wildlife, pets and farm animals and in environmental samples. Current knowledge on the distribution of zoonotic and non-zoonotic species/genotypes in reservoir hosts and environmental samples has been summarized. The usefulness of different methods for the detection and identification of the parasites in different types of samples has been presented. Due to the wide distribution and high prevalence of both species in a range of hosts and possible vectors involved in mechanical transmission, the overall risk of outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis and giardiosis in Poland has been assessed as relatively high.

  13. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in Imported Powered Infant Formula (PIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENIS MAÇI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella species are well-known long-standing foodborne human pathogen that demonstrate long-term survival in/on dry or low-water activity (aw in foods. Salmonellosis caused by ingestion of contaminated powdered infant formula has been reported nationwide. In recent years, 8 reported outbreaks of Salmonella infection in infants have been linked to the consumption of powdered infant formula. Outbreaks of Salmonellosis due to contaminated PIF are likely to be under-reported nationwide even in Albania. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential existence of Salmonella spp. in canned powdered infant formula in Albania. During two years investigation Salmonella spp was on the focus and was detected in 1 out of 70 analysed samples (1.43%. The strain of Salmonella spp. was biochemically identified by the analytical profile index (API 20 E system and poly A, H, and Vi antiserum. Food safety criteria are laid down in EU regulation “EC No. 2073/2005” for Salmonella spp. in dried infant formula and dried dietary foods for special medical purposes intended for infants. These criterias are transposed to Albanian Legislation. A laboratory-based on food-borne disease surveillance systems is needed in terms of strethening control and reducing the risk of exposure.

  14. Comparison of the cytotoxic effects of Juniperus sabina and Zataria multiflora extracts with Taxus baccata extract and Cisplatin on normal and cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokrzadeh, M.; Azadbakht, M.; Ahangar, N.; Naderi, H.; Saeedi Saravi, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    Isolation and identification of some potent anti-tumor compounds from medicinal plants has motivated researchers to screen different parts of plant species for the determination of anti-tumor effects. In this study, cytotoxic effects and IC50 of specific concentrations of hydro-alcoholic extracts of fruits of Juniperus sabina and leaves of Zataria multiflora were compared with hydro-alcoholic extract of bark of Taxus baccata and Cisplatin, well-known anticancer compounds, on normal (CHO and rat fibroblast) and cancer (HepG2 and SKOV3) cell lines. The hydro-alcoholic extracts of the plants were prepared by percolation. The cytotoxic effects and IC50 of the extracts on the cell lines were studied followed by colonogenic assay after 72 h incubation. The results showed that the extract of Juniperus sabina possesses lower IC50 in comparison with Zataria multiflora extract on all 4 normal and cancer cell lines (PJuniperus sabina extract was significantly higher than the Taxus baccata extract and Cisplatin on all 4 normal and cancer cell lines (P<0.05). As a result, it is concluded that the extract of J. sabina has almost similar cytotoxicity with the extract of Taxus baccata on cancer cells. PMID:20668574

  15. Effects of Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus on tissue lipid peroxidation, trace elements (Cu, Zn, Fe) and blood glucose levels in experimental diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Nilüfer; Berkkan, Aysel; Deliorman Orhan, Didem; Aslan, Mustafa; Ergun, Fatma

    2011-01-27

    Juniperus oxycedrus L. (Cupressaceae) fruits and leaves are used internally and pounded fruits are eaten for diabetes in Turkey. To evaluate the interrelationships between the levels of chosen trace elements (copper, iron, and zinc) and hepatic, renal lipid peroxidation (TBARS) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus (J.o.s.o.) leaf and fruit extracts for 10 days. J.o.s.o. fruit and leaf extracts were administered in STZ-induced diabetic rats, at doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg. The blood glucose levels were measured in the 1st, 4th, 7th and 10th day of experiment. Fe, Cu, and Zn contents and lipid peroxidation levels of liver and kidney tissues were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and ultraviolet spectrophotometry, respectively. Treatment of diabetic rats with the J.o.s.o. fruit and leaf extracts decreased the blood glucose levels and both the levels of lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney tissues. J.o.s.o. extracts have augmented Zn concentrations in liver of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Results indicated that J.o.s.o. fruit and leaf extracts might be beneficial for diabetes and its complications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Distribution of pathogenic Naegleria spp in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiewcharoen, S; Junnu, V

    2001-01-01

    Research concerning the distribution, isolation, viability, ultrastructure, morphology and immunogenicity of Naegleria fowleri has been increasing in Thailand during 1988-2000. The distribution of the organism was carried out from 1985 to 1987 in Si Sa Ket and Ubon Rachathani Provinces, after the first fatal case was reported in Si Sa Ket. Since then in a 1998 survey of N. fowleri in stagnant water around industrial areas was carried out in Pathum Thani, Samut Prakan and Lopburi provinces. The results showed that 10% of pathogenic Naegleria belonged to species fowleri as characterized by morphology and the occurrence of pathogenesis in mice after nasal inoculation. In the same year, Nacapunchai et al (1999) determined the prevalence of amebae in aquatic habitat of human environments in five parts of Thailand during the summer. Fourteen percent of free living Naegleria spp were found in both soil and water resources. Recent studies of the ultrastructure, factors affecting the viability and SDS-PAGE electrophoretic patterns of 3 Thai strains of pathogenic Naegleria spp indicated their similarities in morphological characteristics of pathogenic reference control, Naegleria fowleri CDC VO 3081. Additional study using a genetic approach to species criteria using allozyme electrophoresis had been conducted.

  17. Genetic engineering of Geobacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kananavičiūtė, Rūta; Čitavičius, Donaldas

    2015-04-01

    Members of the genus Geobacillus are thermophiles that are of great biotechnological importance, since they are sources of many thermostable enzymes. Because of their metabolic versatility, geobacilli can be used as whole-cell catalysts in processes such as bioconversion and bioremediation. The effective employment of Geobacillus spp. requires the development of reliable methods for genetic engineering of these bacteria. Currently, genetic manipulation tools and protocols are under rapid development. However, there are several convenient cloning vectors, some of which replicate autonomously, while others are suitable for the genetic modification of chromosomal genes. Gene expression systems are also intensively studied. Combining these tools together with proper techniques for DNA transfer, some Geobacillus strains were shown to be valuable producers of recombinant proteins and industrially important biochemicals, such as ethanol or isobutanol. This review encompasses the progress made in the genetic engineering of Geobacillus spp. and surveys the vectors and transformation methods that are available for this genus.

  18. The use of successive milking as a procedure for the elimination of infection on due to Prototheca spp in cases of bovine clinical mastitis. (A case report / Utilização de ordenhas sucessivas como procedimento para eliminação de infecção por prototheca spp de casos de mastite clínica bovina (relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Kiyoe Shimada

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This work relates the case of two animals (Black and White Holstein from a bovine milking herd, from north of Paraná State, in which mastitis due Prototheca spp was diagnosed. As a procedure for the infection elimination, it was opted for the use of successive milking performed six times daily, during eight days. The animals were followed up through mycological cultures from milk Samples after 15, 30 and 60 days from the beginning of the procedure. The clinical signs regressed after three days and the mycologicai cultures were negative after the 15th day.O presente trabalho relata um caso de dois animais HPB de um rebanho bovino leiteiro, da região norte do Estado do Paraná, dos quais diagnosticou-se mastite clínica por Prototheca spp. Como procedimento para eliminação da infecção optou-se peta utilização de ordenhas sucessivas praticadas seis vezes diariamente durante oito dias. Os animais foram acompanhados através de culturas micológicas das amostras de leite após 15, 30 e 60 dias do inicio do procedimento. Os sinais clínicos regrediram após três dias, e a partir do 15° dia as culturas foram negativas.

  19. A Ribeiroia spp. (Class: Trematoda) - Specific PCR-based diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinitz, D.M.; Yoshino, T.P.; Cole, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Increased reporting of amphibian malformations in North America has been noted with concern in light of reports that amphibian numbers and species are declining worldwide. Ribeiroia ondatrae has been shown to cause a variety of types of malformations in amphibians. However, little is known about the prevalence of R. ondatrae in North America. To aid in conducting field studies of Ribeiroia spp., we have developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic. Herein, we describe the development of an accurate, rapid, simple, and cost-effective diagnostic for detection of Ribeiroia spp. infection in snails (Planorbella trivolvis). Candidate oligonucleotide primers for PCR were designed via DNA sequence analyses of multiple ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-2 regions from Ribeiroia spp. and Echinostoma spp. Comparison of consensus sequences determined from both genera identified areas of sequence potentially unique to Ribeiroia spp. The PCR reliably produced a diagnostic 290-base pair (bp) product in the presence of a wide concentration range of snail or frog DNA. Sensitivity was examined with DNA extracted from single R. ondatrae cercaria. The single-tube PCR could routinely detect less than 1 cercariae equivalent, because DNA isolated from a single cercaria could be diluted at least 1:50 and still yield a positive result via gel electrophoresis. An even more sensitive nested PCR also was developed that routinely detected 100 fg of the 290-bp fragment. The assay did not detect furcocercous cercariae of certain Schistosomatidae, Echinostoma sp., or Sphaeridiotrema globulus nor adults of Clinostomum sp. or Cyathocotyle bushiensis. Field testing of 137 P. trivolvis identified 3 positives with no overt environmental cross-reactivity, and results concurred with microscopic examinations in all cases. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2007.

  20. Distillation time alters essential oil yield, composition, and antioxidant activity of male Juniperus scopulorum trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina A; Schlegel, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    . scopulorum by varying DT. This study can be used as a reference paper for comparing results of reports where different lengths of the DT were used.

  1. The copepod Calanus spp. (Calanidae) is repelled by polarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Amit; Browman, Howard I

    2016-10-20

    Both attraction and repulsion from linearly polarized light have been observed in zooplankton. A dichotomous choice experiment, consisting of plankton light traps deployed in natural waters at a depth of 30 m that projected either polarized or unpolarized light of the same intensity, was used to test the hypothesis that the North Atlantic copepod, Calanus spp., is linearly polarotactic. In addition, the transparency of these copepods, as they might be seen by polarization insensitive vs. sensitive visual systems, was measured. Calanus spp. exhibited negative polarotaxis with a preference ratio of 1.9:1. Their transparency decreased from 80% to 20% to 30% in the unpolarized, partially polarized, and electric (e-) vector orientation domains respectively - that is, these copepods would appear opaque and conspicuous to a polarization-sensitive viewer looking at them under conditions rich in polarized light. Since the only difference between the two plankton traps was the polarization cue, we conclude that Calanus spp. are polarization sensitive and exhibit negative polarotaxis at low light intensities (albeit well within the sensitivity range reported for copepods). We hypothesize that Calanus spp. can use polarization vision to reduce their risk of predation by polarization-sensitive predators and suggest that this be tested in future experiments.

  2. The copepod Calanus spp. (Calanidae) is repelled by polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Amit; Browman, Howard I.

    2016-10-01

    Both attraction and repulsion from linearly polarized light have been observed in zooplankton. A dichotomous choice experiment, consisting of plankton light traps deployed in natural waters at a depth of 30 m that projected either polarized or unpolarized light of the same intensity, was used to test the hypothesis that the North Atlantic copepod, Calanus spp., is linearly polarotactic. In addition, the transparency of these copepods, as they might be seen by polarization insensitive vs. sensitive visual systems, was measured. Calanus spp. exhibited negative polarotaxis with a preference ratio of 1.9:1. Their transparency decreased from 80% to 20% to 30% in the unpolarized, partially polarized, and electric (e-) vector orientation domains respectively - that is, these copepods would appear opaque and conspicuous to a polarization-sensitive viewer looking at them under conditions rich in polarized light. Since the only difference between the two plankton traps was the polarization cue, we conclude that Calanus spp. are polarization sensitive and exhibit negative polarotaxis at low light intensities (albeit well within the sensitivity range reported for copepods). We hypothesize that Calanus spp. can use polarization vision to reduce their risk of predation by polarization-sensitive predators and suggest that this be tested in future experiments.

  3. [Mycoses and zoonoses: Cryptococcus spp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabañes, F Javier

    2008-03-01

    The term "zoonosis" is difficult to delimit because different authors have various definitions for this term. Few mycoses are usually considered zoonoses. However, the role that animals play in the epidemiology of the main human mycoses is still not well known. Moreover, the environmental niches for these fungal agents have not yet been completely determined. This special issue of the "Revista Iberoamericana de Micología" deals with the talks and round table presented at the VIII Spanish Mycological Congress held in October 2006 in Barcelona, Spain on "Cryptococcus spp. and zoonoses".

  4. Toxomerus duplicatus Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Syrphidae preying on Microtheca spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VS Sturza

    Full Text Available Microtheca spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae are insect pests primarily related to Brassicaceae crops. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, southern Brazil, they are found on forage turnip, Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg., which is commonly grown during fall/winter seasons. This work reports the predation of Microtheca spp. larvae by Toxomerus duplicatus Wiedemann, 1830 (Diptera: Syrphidae larvae, on forage turnip crop, in Santa Maria, RS. This register provides new information about Microtheca spp. natural enemies in Brazil, which might be a new option for integrate pest management of these species.

  5. Carbon and nitrogen metabolism of free-living Frankia spp. and of Frankia-alnus symbioses

    OpenAIRE

    Blom, J.

    1982-01-01

    The research reported in this thesis deals with the symbiosis of Frankia spp. and Alnus glutinosa. Frankia spp. are actinomycetes giving rise to the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of a number of non-leguminous plants. In these nodules Frankia spp. live within the plant cells and obtain all sources of carbon and energy from the plant, giving fixed nitrogen in exchange.
    To answer the question what compou...

  6. TECNOLOGÍA PARA LA PRESERVACIÓN DE Juniperus comitana Mart. y J. deppeana var. gamboana (Mart.) R. P. Adams

    OpenAIRE

    Crisóforo Zamora Serrano; Francisco Javier Cruz Chávez; Jaime López Martínez

    2012-01-01

    Se ha calculado una pérdida de más de la mitad del área original y un empobrecimiento florístico de los bosques en el Centro de Chiapas para los últimos 35 años. A nivel nacional se ha desarrollado investigación en diversas ramas de la mayoría de las especies de coníferas, pero pocas integran conocimientos suficientes para servir de referencia en su manejo y conservación. La Unión Internacional para la Conservación de la Naturaleza (UICN) para México clasifica a Juniperus comitana y a J...

  7. Anti-inflammatory phenolics isolated from Juniperus rigida leaves and twigs in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eun Ju; Seo, Hanee; Yang, Heejung; Kim, Jinwoong; Sung, Sang Hyun; Kim, Young Choong

    2012-12-01

    Inflammation is an essential host defense system particularly in response to infection and injury; however, excessive or undesirable inflammatory responses contribute to acute and chronic human diseases. A high-throughput screening effort searching for anti-inflammatory compounds from medicinal plants deduced that the methanolic extract of Juniperus rigida S. et L. (Cupressaceae) inhibited significantly nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Activity-guided fractionation and isolation yielded 13 phenolic compounds, including one new phenylpropanoid glycosides, 3,4-dimethoxycinnamyl 9-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1). Among the isolated compounds, phenylpropanoid glycosides with p-hydroxy group (2, 4) and massoniaside A (7), (+)-catechin (10), amentoflavone (11) effectively inhibited LPS-induced NO production in RAW264.7 cells.

  8. Survey of Ehrlichia canis, Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. in dogs from a semiarid region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Emmanuelle de Farias Rotondano

    Full Text Available This study assessed the occurrence of Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. infections in 100 tick-harboring dogs from a semiarid region of the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples and ticks were collected from the animals, and a questionnaire was submitted to dog owners to obtain general data. Blood samples were used to perform hemogram, direct blood smear and immunological and molecular hemoparasite detection. The 1,151 ticks collected were identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus; direct smears revealed E. canis-like morulae in the monocytes of 4% (4/100 of the non-vaccinated female dogs, and 34% and 25% of the dogs tested positive for Ehrlichia canis by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR, respectively. Blood smear examination revealed Babesia-suggestive merozoites in the erythrocytes of 2% (2/100 of the animals. Babesia vogeli was detected by PCR in ten animals (10% and was correlated with young age (p = 0.007 and thrombocytopenia (p = 0.01. None of the animals showed Hepatozoon spp. positivity. These results indicate that E. canis is the main tick-borne canine pathogen in the study area and provide the first report of B. vogeli infection in dogs from Paraiba State.

  9. Survey of Ehrlichia canis, Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. in dogs from a semiarid region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotondano, Tereza Emmanuelle de Farias; Almeida, Herta Karyanne Araújo; Krawczak, Felipe da Silva; Santana, Vanessa Lira; Vidal, Ivana Fernandes; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Ade lmeida, Alzira Maria Paiva; de Melo, Marcia Almeida

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the occurrence of Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. infections in 100 tick-harboring dogs from a semiarid region of the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Blood samples and ticks were collected from the animals, and a questionnaire was submitted to dog owners to obtain general data. Blood samples were used to perform hemogram, direct blood smear and immunological and molecular hemoparasite detection. The 1,151 ticks collected were identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus; direct smears revealed E. canis-like morulae in the monocytes of 4% (4/100) of the non-vaccinated female dogs, and 34% and 25% of the dogs tested positive for Ehrlichia canis by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. Blood smear examination revealed Babesia-suggestive merozoites in the erythrocytes of 2% (2/100) of the animals. Babesia vogeli was detected by PCR in ten animals (10%) and was correlated with young age (p = 0.007) and thrombocytopenia (p = 0.01). None of the animals showed Hepatozoon spp. positivity. These results indicate that E. canis is the main tick-borne canine pathogen in the study area and provide the first report of B. vogeli infection in dogs from Paraiba State.

  10. rDNA-based characterization of a new binucleate Rhizoctonia spp. causing root rot on kale in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuramae, E.E.; Buzeto, A.L.; Nakatani, A.K.; Souza, N.L.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present the first report of the occurrence of a binucleate Rhizoctonia spp. causing hypocotyl and root rot in kale in Brazil. Rhizoctonia spp. were isolated from kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) with symptoms of hypocotyl and root rot. The isolates, characterized as binucleate

  11. rDNA-based characterization of a new binucleate Rhizoctonia spp. causing root rot on kale in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuramae, E.E.; Buzeto, A.L.; Nakatani, A.K.; Souza, N.L.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present the first report of the occurrence of a binucleate Rhizoctonia spp. causing hypocotyl and root rot in kale in Brazil. Rhizoctonia spp. were isolated from kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) with symptoms of hypocotyl and root rot. The isolates, characterized as binucleate

  12. On the detection of thermohygrometric differences of Juniperus turbinata habitat between north and south faces in the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salva-Catarineu, Montserrat; Salvador-Franch, Ferran; Lopez-Bustins, Joan A.; Padrón-Padrón, Pedro A.; Cortés-Lucas, Amparo

    2016-04-01

    The current extent of Juniperus turbinata in the island of El Hierro is very small due to heavy exploitation for centuries. The recovery of its natural habitat has such a high environmental and scenic interest since this is a protected species in Europe. The study of the environmental factors that help or limit its recovery is indispensable. Our research project (JUNITUR) studied the populations of juniper woodlands in El Hierro from different environments. These environments are mainly determined by their altitude and exposure to north-easterly trade winds. The main objective of this study was to compare the thermohygrometric conditions of three juniper woodlands: La Dehesa (north-west face at 528 m a.s.l.), El Julan (south face at 996 m a.s.l.) and Sabinosa (north face at 258 m a.s.l.). They are located at different altitude and orientation in El Hierro and present different recovery rates. We used air sensor data loggers fixed to tree branches for recording hourly temperature and humidity data in the three study areas. We analysed daily data of three annual cycles (from September 2012 to August 2015). Similar thermohygrometric annual cycles among the three study areas were observed. We detected the largest differences in winter temperature and summer humidity between the north (to windward) (Sabinosa and La Dehesa) and south (to leeward) (El Julan) faces of the island. The juniper woodland with a highest recovery rate (El Julan) showed the most extreme temperature conditions in both winter and summer seasons. The results of this project might contribute to the knowledge of the juniper bioclimatology in El Hierro, where there is the biggest population of Juniperus turbinata throughout the Canary Islands.

  13. Investigation of the Lignan Content in Extracts from Linum, Callitris and Juniperus Species in Relation to Their In Vitro Antiproliferative Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doussot, Joël; Mathieu, Véronique; Colas, Cyril; Molinié, Roland; Corbin, Cyrielle; Montguillon, Josiane; Moreno Y Banuls, Laeticia; Renouard, Sullivan; Lamblin, Frédéric; Dupré, Patricia; Maunit, Benoit; Kiss, Robert; Hano, Christophe; Lainé, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Podophyllotoxin, a lignan still extracted from the rhizomes of Podophyllum hexandrum (Berberidaceae), is the starting molecule for the semisynthesis of widely used anticancer drugs such as etoposide. However, this source is threatened by the over-collection of P. hexandrum. Plants belonging to the Linaceae and Cupressaceae families could be attractive alternative sources with species that contain the lignan podophyllotoxin or its precursors and derivatives. Wild flax species, such as Linum flavum, as well as some Juniperus and Callitris species were investigated for their lignan content, and the in vitro antiproliferative capacity of their extracts was assayed on four tumor cell lines. Some of the lignans were detected by LC-HRMS for the first time in these extracts.In addition, lignans purified from these plants and compounds semisynthesized from commercially available podophyllotoxin were tested in terms of their in vitro antiproliferative activity. The genus Juniperus was the most promising given its in vitro antiproliferative effects, which were also observed with extracts from L. flavum and Callitris species.The in vitro antiproliferative effect of the plant extracts studied here appears to correlate well with the contents of the aryltetralin lignan podophyllotoxin and its glycoside as well as with deoxypodophyllotoxin and 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin. The strongest correlation between the lignan content of the extracts and the antiproliferative activity was observed for 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin. Regarding the possibility of producing large renewable amounts of 6-methoxypodophyllotoxin, this molecule could be of interest to produce new anticancer drugs and to bypass the resistance mechanisms against podophyllotoxin-derived drugs. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Genetic structure and seed-mediated dispersal rates of an endangered shrub in a fragmented landscape: a case study for Juniperus communis in northwestern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden-Broeck, An; Gruwez, Robert; Cox, Karen; Adriaenssens, Sandy; Michalczyk, Inga M; Verheyen, Kris

    2011-08-22

    Population extinction risk in a fragmented landscape is related to the differential ability of the species to spread its genes across the landscape. The impact of landscape fragmentation on plant population dynamics will therefore vary across different spatial scales. We quantified successful seed-mediated dispersal of the dioecious shrub Juniperus communis in a fragmented landscape across northwestern Europe by using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Furthermore we investigated the genetic diversity and structure on two spatial scales: across northwestern Europe and across Flanders (northern Belgium). We also studied whether seed viability and populations size were correlated with genetic diversity. Unexpectedly, estimated seed-mediated dispersal rates were quite high and ranged between 3% and 14%. No population differentiation and no spatial genetic structure were detected on the local, Flemish scale. A significant low to moderate genetic differentiation between populations was detected at the regional, northwest European scale (PhiPT = 0.10). In general, geographically nearby populations were also genetically related. High levels of within-population genetic diversity were detected but no correlation was found between any genetic diversity parameter and population size or seed viability. In northwestern Europe, landscape fragmentation has lead to a weak isolation-by-distance pattern but not to genetic impoverishment of common juniper. Substantial rates of successful migration by seed-mediated gene flow indicate a high dispersal ability which could enable Juniperus communis to naturally colonize suitable habitats. However, it is not clear whether the observed levels of migration will suffice to counterbalance the effects of genetic drift in small populations on the long run.

  15. Genetic structure and seed-mediated dispersal rates of an endangered shrub in a fragmented landscape: a case study for Juniperus communis in northwestern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriaenssens Sandy

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population extinction risk in a fragmented landscape is related to the differential ability of the species to spread its genes across the landscape. The impact of landscape fragmentation on plant population dynamics will therefore vary across different spatial scales. We quantified successful seed-mediated dispersal of the dioecious shrub Juniperus communis in a fragmented landscape across northwestern Europe by using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP markers. Furthermore we investigated the genetic diversity and structure on two spatial scales: across northwestern Europe and across Flanders (northern Belgium. We also studied whether seed viability and populations size were correlated with genetic diversity. Results Unexpectedly, estimated seed-mediated dispersal rates were quite high and ranged between 3% and 14%. No population differentiation and no spatial genetic structure were detected on the local, Flemish scale. A significant low to moderate genetic differentiation between populations was detected at the regional, northwest European scale (PhiPT = 0.10. In general, geographically nearby populations were also genetically related. High levels of within-population genetic diversity were detected but no correlation was found between any genetic diversity parameter and population size or seed viability. Conclusions In northwestern Europe, landscape fragmentation has lead to a weak isolation-by-distance pattern but not to genetic impoverishment of common juniper. Substantial rates of successful migration by seed-mediated gene flow indicate a high dispersal ability which could enable Juniperus communis to naturally colonize suitable habitats. However, it is not clear whether the observed levels of migration will suffice to counterbalance the effects of genetic drift in small populations on the long run.

  16. Genetic characterization of Salmonella and Shigella spp. isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to investigate the presence of bacterial pathogens Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. ... between river water and riverbed sediment isolates for Salmonella spp. and Shigella .... conditions, and the other was preserved in 1 mL of 15% glycerol.

  17. Isolation of Arcobacter spp from poultry carcasses, in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Sérgio José de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourty eight isolates of Arcobacter spp were obtained from 37 poultry carcasses, from abattoir, among 80 carcasses examined. Attempts for culturing were made from the skin and muscle, resulting on 25 positive cultures from muscle and 23 from skin. Classification was achieved by phenotypic characterization and PCR and multiplex PCR, resulting 41 samples of Arcobacter butzleri and 07 Arcobacter sp. This is the first report on the occurrence of Arcobacter in animal carcasses in Brazil.

  18. SPP: A data base processor data communications protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishwick, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    The design and implementation of a data communications protocol for the Intel Data Base Processor (DBP) is defined. The protocol is termed SPP (Service Port Protocol) since it enables data transfer between the host computer and the DBP service port. The protocol implementation is extensible in that it is explicitly layered and the protocol functionality is hierarchically organized. Extensive trace and performance capabilities have been supplied with the protocol software to permit optional efficient monitoring of the data transfer between the host and the Intel data base processor. Machine independence was considered to be an important attribute during the design and implementation of SPP. The protocol source is fully commented and is included in Appendix A of this report.

  19. Algal Meningoencephalitis due to Prototheca spp. in a Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Le Roux

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 6-year-old Boxer was examined because of progressive neurologic signs, with severe hindlimb ataxia and head tilt on presentation. There was no history of diarrhea or vomiting. MRI of the brain revealed multifocal ill-defined T1-enhancing lesions affecting the cerebrum, brainstem, and cervical meninges, without associated mass effect. Meningoencephalitis was considered the most likely diagnosis. Multiple algae were observed on the cytology of the CSF and were most consistent with Prototheca spp. Antiprotozoal treatment was denied by the owners, and 5 weeks after diagnosis, the dog was euthanized due to progression of the neurologic deficits, and a necropsy was performed. Histological changes in the brain were compatible with severe multifocal protothecal meningoencephalitis. The specific Prototheca species was not identified. The gastrointestinal tract was unremarkable on histology. According to this report, Prototheca spp. should be included in the differentials for neurological deficits even in the absence of gastrointestinal signs.

  20. Investigation of Chlamydophila spp. in dairy cows with reproductive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niskanen Rauni

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reports worldwide indicate high prevalence of Chlamydophila spp. infection in cattle. To assess the prevalence in Sweden, 525 cows in 70 dairy herds with reproductive disorders was investigated. Methods To detect antibodies two commercially available kits were used. Moreover, 107 specimens, including vaginal swabs, organ tissues and milk were analysed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. Results Two (0.4% cows were seropositive in the Pourquier Cp. abortus ELISA. The seroprevalence with the Chekit ELISA was 28% with no difference between cases and controls. Five specimens were positive in real-time PCR and further analysed by nested PCR. Cp. pecorum was confirmed by partial omp1 DNA sequencing of the nested PCR product of vaginal swabs from control cows. Conclusion The results suggest that Cp. abortus infection is absent or rare in Swedish cows whereas Cp. pecorum is probably more spread. They also suggest that Chlamydophila spp. are not related to reproduction disorders in Swedish cattle.

  1. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus) and Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Joāo Carlos Gomes; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Gloria; Marmontel, Miriam

    2011-12-01

    Infections by Cryptosporidium spp. in aquatic mammals is a major concern due to the possibility of the waterborne transmission of oocysts. The aim of the present study was to report the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus) and Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis) from Brazil. Fecal samples were collected and processed using Kinyoun's method. Positive samples were also submitted to the direct immunofluorescence test. The results revealed the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in 12.5% (17/136) of the material obtained from the Antillean manatees and in 4.3% (05/115) of the samples from the Amazonian manatees. Cryptosporidium spp. infection was more prevalent in captive animals than in free-ranging specimens.

  2. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salmonella spp. serological reagents. 866.3550... spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Salmonella spp. serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify Salmonella spp. from...

  3. Fermentability of an enzymatically modified solubilised potato polysaccharide (SPP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, M.; Gudmand-Høyer, E.; Bergsøe, Merete Norsker;

    1998-01-01

    : Seven healthy volunteers ingested in random order on seven different days: 20 g SPP; bread made of 180 g wheat flour served with 20 g raw SPP; bread baked of 180 g wheat flour and 20 g SPP; bread made from 180 g what flour; 20 g lactulose; 20 g oat bran; and 20 g wheat bran. The hydrogen breath test...... of a meal. CONCLUSIONS: SPP is a fermentable, highly concentrated soluble fibre source. Baking SPP did not interfere with the fermentable properties. Thus, SPP may be interesting as a fibre-supplement in fibre-poor diets. The change in oro-coecal transit time for SPP, depending on the composition...

  4. Genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Regine Adelheid Kohler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the third domain of life, the Archaea, is one of the most exciting findings of the last century. These remarkable prokaryotes are well known for their adaptations to extreme environments; however, Archaea have also conquered moderate environments. Many of the archaeal biochemical processes, such as methane production, are unique in nature and therefore of great scientific interest. Although formerly restricted to biochemical and physiological studies, sophisticated systems for genetic manipulation have been developed during the last two decades for methanogenic archaea, halophilic archaea and thermophilic, sulfur-metabolizing archaea. The availability of these tools has allowed for more complete studies of archaeal physiology and metabolism and most importantly provides the basis for the investigation of gene expression, regulation and function. In this review we provide an overview of methods for genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp., a group of methanogenic archaea that are key players in the global carbon cycle and which can be found in a variety of anaerobic environments.

  5. Differentiation of Phytopathogenic Agrobacterium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemanja Kuzmanović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the difficulties in differentiation of phytopathogenic Agrobacterium spp. and lack of a standardized protocol, we carried out selection and evaluation of suitable methods based on the bacterial physiological, genetic and pathogenic properties. Strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, A. rhizogenes and A. vitis were differentiated using standard bacteriological and molecular methods. The biochemical and physiological tests confirmed authenticity of the strains. Two duplex PCR methods were conducted with four different primer pairs. In all strains, presence of plasmid virD2 and virC pathogenicity genes was detected. Chromosomal pehA gene was determined in A. vitis strain. Pathogenicity was confirmed on carrot slices and young plants of tomato and sunflower. Strains of A. tumefaciens and A. vitis were pathogenic on all test plants, while strain of A. rhizogenes induced characteristic symptoms only on carrot slices. The tests used in this study provided reliable discrimination between the three species and confirmed their identity as tumorigenic (TiAgrobacterium tumefaciens and A. vitis, and rhizogenic (Ri A. rhizogenes.

  6. Strongyloides spp. infections of veterinary importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, Stig M.; Ketzis, Jennifer; Horii, Yoichiro

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the occurrence and impact of threadworms, Strongyloides spp., in companion animals and large livestock, the potential zoonotic implications and future research. Strongyloides spp. infect a range of domestic animal species worldwide and clinical disease is most often encountered...... of Strongyloides species in relation to different hosts. More research is urgently needed on the potential zoonotic capacity of Strongyloides from dogs and cats based on molecular typing, information on risk factors and mapping of transmission routes....

  7. Phenotypic characterization of canine Malassezia spp., isolates

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    Angélica Hurtado-Suárez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To characterize and identify yeasts of the genus Malassezia by phenotypic features. Materials and methods. First, the macroscopic and microscopic morphological characteristics were described. In addition we performed biochemical and physiological assays as Tweens and Cremophor, including more. Results. Our results evidenced of 105 isolates obtained from dogs diagnosed with external otitis, it was possible to identify two distinct species from 46 isolates within the Malassezia genus: 36.19% (n=38 were identified as M. pachydermatis and 7.62% (n=8 as M. furfur. According to phenotypic patterns the remaining 56.19% (n=59 were reported as Malassezia spp., possibly corresponding to M. furfur and/or M. pachydermatis. Conclusions. Results emphasize the necessity to characterize according to species. It is not feasible to define Malassezia by species based on morphological, biochemical, and physiological findings. Therefore, molecular genotyping should be performed to identify markers allowing a more precise isolate identification. This would broaden our epidemiological knowledge regarding different species involved in canine otitis pathologies.

  8. Brachiaria spp. poisoning of ruminants in Brazil

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    B. Riet-Correa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Brachiaria species are the most important grasses for cattle production in Brazil. However, a limiting factor for the use of Brachiaria spp. is their toxicity. Most outbreaks of hepatogenous photosensitization are caused by B. decumbens; however B. brizantha, B. humidicola and B. ruziziensis can also cause poisoning. The poisoning affects cattle, sheep, goats and buffalo. Sheep are more susceptible than other animal species and the young are more susceptible than adults. There are differences in susceptibility among animals of the same species and it has been suggested that this resistance is genetic. Also has been suggested that buffalo and probably some sheep are resilient, i.e. when poisoned these animals have histologic lesions and high GGT serum concentrations, but do not show clinical signs. In general, saponin concentrations are higher in growing plants, but outbreaks occur all over the year, probably due to unexplained rise in saponin concentration in the plant. A clinical syndrome of progressive weight loss and death, without photosensitization, has been reported in cattle poisoned by B. decumbens. Main preventive measures are based on the selection of resistant or resilient animals and on the development of Brachiaria species or varieties with low saponin concentration.

  9. Sylvatic Trichinella spp. infection in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airas, Niina; Saari, Seppo; Mikkonen, Taina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Pellikka, Jani; Oksanen, Antti; Isomursu, Marja; Kilpelä, Seija-Sisko; Lim, Chae W; Sukura, Antti

    2010-02-01

    Although human infections caused by Trichinella sp. have not been reported in Finland for several decades and Trichinella sp. infection in pork has become virtually extinct in the last decade, sylvatic Trichinella spp. infection is still highly prevalent in Finland. Muscle digestion of 2,483 carnivorous wild animals from 9 host species during 1999-2005 showed 617 positive animals (24.8%). Molecular identification from 328 larval isolates revealed 4 different endemic Trichinella species, i.e., T. nativa, T. spiralis, T. britovi, and T. pseudospiralis. Seven percent of the infected animals carried mixed infections. Trichinella nativa was the most common species (74%), but T. spiralis was identified in 12%, T. britovi in 6%, and T. pseudospiralis in 1% of the animals. Host species showed different sample prevalence and Trichinella species distribution. Geographical distribution also varied, with the southern part of the country having significantly higher percentages than the northern part. Infection density was dependent on both the infecting Trichinella species and the host species. Trichinella spiralis was discovered in areas with no known domestic infection cases, indicating that it can also occur in the sylvatic cycle. Raccoon dogs and red foxes are the most important reservoir animals for T. spiralis , as well as for the sylvatic Trichinella species in Finland.

  10. Helicobacter spp. other than Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Cinthia G; Mitchell, Hazel M

    2010-09-01

    Over the last 12 months, new insights into the association of non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacters with a range of human diseases in children and adults, including hepatobiliary disease, Crohn's disease, sepsis, and gastric disease were published. Studies investigating the presence of non-H. pylori Helicobacters in domestic animals reinforce previous findings that cats and dogs harbor gastric Helicobacter species and thus may be an important source of these organisms in humans. The confounding effect of enterohepatic Helicobacters on the outcome of biomedical research was investigated in several studies and led to recommendations that animals should be screened prior to performing experiments. A number of important and novel investigations regarding pathogenic mechanisms and immune responses to enterohepatic Helicobacters were conducted. Genomic advances in non-H. pylori Helicobacters included description of the complete genome of Helicobacter canadensis, delineation of two Helicobacter bilis genomospecies, and identification of a novel cis-regulatory RNA. New insights concerning growth conditions, biochemical characterization, and the effect of certain dietary compounds on Helicobacter spp. have also been reported. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Recovery of Arcobacter spp. from nonlivestock species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley, Irene V; Schroeder-Tucker, Linda

    2011-09-01

    The genus Arcobacter encompasses campylobacter-like organisms that grow in air at 25 degrees C. Arcobacter has been detected or isolated from clinically healthy livestock as well as aborted fetuses and has been presumptively identified as either Campylobacter or Leptospira, based on its growth in selective semisolid media. Because reports from nonlivestock species are limited, this study examined nine presumptive isolates of Arcobacter spp. from an alpaca (Vicugna pacos), black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum), gorilla (Troglodytes gorilla), gazelle (Eudorcas thomsoni), rhea (Rhea americana), and aborted equine fetuses. Seven of these nine phenotypically identified isolates of Arcobacter were confirmed by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay. The remaining two isolates were subsequently identified as Arcobacter skirrowii (Case 5) and Campylobacter jejuni (Case 6) by sequence analysis of a 527-base pair fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. Together, these cases underscore the challenges to a clinical laboratory of identifying Arcobacter in cases which mimic vibrionic abortion or leptospirosis.

  12. Antibodies to Leishmania spp. in domestic felines

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    Gabriela Capriogli Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonotic disease caused by protozoa in the genus Leishmania, typical of rural and peri-urban environments. The causative agent of American visceral leishmaniasis is Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi and the main insect vector in Brazil is Lutzomyia longipalpis. Dogs (Canis familiaris are important in the transmission of the disease, as a reservoir closely related to humans and an infection source for phlebotomine vectors. Since 1990, an increasing number of feline leishmaniasis cases have been reported, suggesting that domestic cats (Felis catus might be involved in the epidemiology of the disease. The present study analyzed the prevalence of anti-Leishmania spp. antibodies in naturally infected domestic cats from various neighborhoods in the municipality of Belém, Pará, Brazil, using the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA and the direct agglutination test (DAT. Among the 443 samples tested, 18 (4.06% presented positive reactions in the IFA. The observed titers were 40 IU in 4.97% of the samples and 80 IU in 0.90%. In the DAT test, positive results were found in 25 (5.64% of the samples. The observed titers were also 40 IU (4.97% and 80 IU (0.68%. The agreement rate between the two tests was considered low (Kappa coefficient = 0.10.

  13. Molecular Diversity of Vaccine Candidates in Leptospira spp.

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    Patricia Hernández-Rodríguez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the molecular diversity of OmpL1, LipL32, LipL41, LigA and LigB proteins and that of the genes that encode them using bioinformatic analysis in different pathogenic strains of Leptospira spp. based on the information available in databases. The amino acid sequences of OmpL1, LipL32, LipL41, LigA and LigB proteins were used, as well as the genes encoding them in strains of Leptospira spp. reported at The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI. The analysis of proteins and genes were performed using the Protein, Nucleotide and Gene resources from the NCBI. The alignment of the consensus sequences was performed using the PSI-BLAST and BLASTn tools. The coverage percentage of the selected sequences of the ompL1, lipL32, lipL41, ligA and ligB genes in pathogenic strains of Leptospira spp. is 100% for ompL1, lipL32 and lipL41, 75% for ligA and 99% for ligB with identity percentages of 85, 98, 88, 90 and 80% respectively; the coverage percentage of the selected protein sequences is 100, 77, 99, 100 and 100% with identity percentages of 90, 99, 92, 63 and 60% respectively, indicating that genes and proteins, except LigA and LigB proteins, are highly conserved in various pathogenic serovars of Leptospira spp. According to these results, it is recommended that further analysis of these proteins be made in order to determine the feasibility of its use as vaccine candidates.

  14. The novel Shewanella putrefaciens-infecting bacteriophage Spp001: genome sequence and lytic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Feng; Li, Meng; Lin, Hong; Wang, Jingxue; Cao, Limin; Khan, Muhammad Naseem

    2014-06-01

    Shewanella putrefaciens has been identified as a specific spoilage organism commonly found in chilled fresh fish, which contributes to the spoilage of fish products. Limiting S. putrefaciens growth can extend the shelf-life of chilled fish. Endolysins, which are lytic enzymes produced by bacteriophages, have been considered an alternative to control bacterial growth, and have been useful in various applications, including food preservation. We report here, for the first time, the complete genome sequence of a novel phage Spp001, which lyses S. putrefaciens Sp225. The Spp001 genome comprises a 54,789-bp DNA molecule with 67 open reading frames and an average total G + C content of 49.42 %. In silico analysis revealed that the Spp001 open reading frames encode various putative functional proteins, including an endolysin (ORF 62); however, no sequence for genes encoding the holin polypeptides, which work in concert with endolysins, was identified. To examine further the lytic activity of Spp001, we analyzed the lytic enzyme-containing fraction from phages released at the end of the phage lytic cycle in S. putrefaciens, using diffusion and turbidimetric assays. The results show that the partially purified extract contained endolysin, as indicated by a high hydrolytic activity towards bacterial peptidoglycan decrease in the OD590 value by 0.160 in 15 min. The results will allow further investigation of the purification of natural Spp001 endolysin, the extension of Spp001 host range, and the applications of the phage-encoded enzymes.

  15. Dynamic model for predicting growth of Salmonella spp. in ground sterile pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velugoti, Padmanabha Reddy; Bohra, Lalit K; Juneja, Vijay K; Huang, Lihan; Wesseling, Audrey L; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan

    2011-06-01

    A predictive model for Salmonella spp. growth in ground pork was developed and validated using kinetic growth data. Salmonella spp. kinetic growth data in ground pork were collected at several isothermal conditions (between 10 and 45°C) and Baranyi model was fitted to describe the growth at each temperature, separately. The maximum growth rates (μ(max)) estimated from the Baranyi model were modeled as a function of temperature using a modified Ratkowsky equation. To estimate bacterial growth under dynamic temperature conditions, the differential form of the Baranyi model, in combination with the modified Ratkowsky equation for rate constants, was solved numerically using fourth order Runge-Kutta method. The dynamic model was validated using five different dynamic temperature profiles (linear cooling, exponential cooling, linear heating, exponential heating, and sinusoidal). Performance measures, root mean squared error, accuracy factor, and bias factor were used to evaluate the model performance, and were observed to be satisfactory. The dynamic model can estimate the growth of Salmonella spp. in pork within a 0.5 log accuracy under both linear and exponential cooling profiles, although the model may overestimate or underestimate at some data points, which were generallySalmonella spp., since low temperature conditions could alter the cell physiology. To obtain an accurate estimate of Salmonella spp. growth using the models reported in this work, it is suggested that the models be used at temperatures above 7°C, the minimum growth temperature for Salmonella spp. in pork.

  16. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood) Susceptibility of genotypes of Solanum spp. to the nematode causative of the root knot Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood)

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    Cristian Gelpud Chaves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L.) presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp., en el Departamento de Nariño (Colombia), se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%. En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense L.) en los Departamentos de Nariño y Putumayo y 4 genotipos silvestres (S. mammosum, S. hirtum, S. marginatum y S. umbellatum) buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz) y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en todos los genotipos, 2.04% genotipos resistentes, 34.7% moderadamente resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raíz, (R² = 0.71 y 0.98), el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum) es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.The green orange (Solanum quitoense L.) crop has decreased in its productivity due to the pathogens attack such as the root knot nematode Meloidogyne spp. In the Nariño Department of Colombia, pest incidences near to 79% and losses of 50% have been reported. In this study, 45 genotypes of Solanum quitoense were collected in Nariño and Putumayo

  17. Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany

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    Mahling Monia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010 and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. Results The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25, B. divergens (n = 1, B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1, B. gibsoni-like (n = 1, R. helvetica (n = 272, R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12 and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1. The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27, but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. Conclusions I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green

  18. Detection of Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata and Juniperus procera in the dry Afromontane forest of northern Ethiopia using subpixel analysis of Landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishe, Hadgu; Giday, Kidane; Neka, Mulugeta; Soromessa, Teshome; Van Orshoven, Jos; Muys, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive and less costly forest inventory approaches are required to monitor the spatiotemporal dynamics of key species in forest ecosystems. Subpixel analysis using the earth resources data analysis system imagine subpixel classification procedure was tested to extract Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata and Juniperus procera canopies from Landsat 7 enhanced thematic mapper plus imagery. Control points with various canopy area fractions of the target species were collected to develop signatures for each of the species. With these signatures, the imagine subpixel classification procedure was run for each species independently. The subpixel process enabled the detection of O. europaea subsp. cuspidata and J. procera trees in pure and mixed pixels. Total of 100 pixels each were field verified for both species. An overall accuracy of 85% was achieved for O. europaea subsp. cuspidata and 89% for J. procera. A high overall accuracy level of detecting species at a natural forest was achieved, which encourages using the algorithm for future species monitoring activities. We recommend that the algorithm has to be validated in similar environment to enrich the knowledge on its capability to ensure its wider usage.

  19. Essential Oil from Berries of Lebanese Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb Displays Similar Antibacterial Activity to Chlorhexidine but Higher Cytocompatibility with Human Oral Primary Cells

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    Barbara Azzimonti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chlorhexidine (CHX, one of the most effective drugs administered for periodontal treatment, presents collateral effects including toxicity when used for prolonged periods; here, we have evaluated the bactericidal potency and the cytocompatibility of Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb essential oil (EO in comparison with 0.05% CHX. The EO was extracted from berries by hydrodistillation and components identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Bacterial inhibition halo analysis, quantitative cell viability 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulphophenyl-5-[(phenyl amino carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide assay (XTT, and colony forming unit (CFU count were evaluated against the two biofilm formers Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Streptococcus mutans. Finally, cytocompatibility was assessed with human primary gingival fibroblasts (HGF and mucosal keratinocytes (HK. The resulting EO was mainly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpenes. An inhibition halo test demonstrated that both bacteria were sensitive to the EO; XTT analysis and CFU counts confirmed that 10-fold-diluted EO determined a statistically significant (p < 0.05 reduction in bacteria count and viability towards both biofilm and planktonic forms in a comparable manner to those obtained with CHX. Moreover, EO displayed higher cytocompatibility than CHX (p < 0.05. In conclusion, EO exhibited bactericidal activity similar to CHX, but a superior cytocompatibility, making it a promising antiseptic alternative to CHX.

  20. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Juniper Berry (Juniperus communis L.) Essential Oil. Action of the Essential Oil on the Antioxidant Protection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Model Organism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höferl, Martina; Stoilova, Ivanka; Schmidt, Erich; Wanner, Jürgen; Jirovetz, Leopold; Trifonova, Dora; Krastev, Lutsian; Krastanov, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The essential oil of juniper berries (Juniperus communis L., Cupressaceae) is traditionally used for medicinal and flavoring purposes. As elucidated by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS methods), the juniper berry oil from Bulgaria is largely comprised of monoterpene hydrocarbons such as α-pinene (51.4%), myrcene (8.3%), sabinene (5.8%), limonene (5.1%) and β-pinene (5.0%). The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was evaluated in vitro by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6 sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation scavenging, hydroxyl radical (ОН•) scavenging and chelating capacity, superoxide radical (•O2−) scavenging and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects, hydrogen peroxide scavenging. The antioxidant activity of the oil attributable to electron transfer made juniper berry essential oil a strong antioxidant, whereas the antioxidant activity attributable to hydrogen atom transfer was lower. Lipid peroxidation inhibition by the essential oil in both stages, i.e., hydroperoxide formation and malondialdehyde formation, was less efficient than the inhibition by butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). In vivo studies confirmed these effects of the oil which created the possibility of blocking the oxidation processes in yeast cells by increasing activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). PMID:26784665

  1. Synergistic hepatoprotective potential of ethanolic extract of Solanum xanthocarpum and Juniperus communis against paracetamol and azithromycin induced liver injury in rats

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    Hem Singh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Previously explored combination therapies mostly involved the use of bioactive molecules. It is believed that herbal compounds containing multiple plant products have synergistic hepatoprotective effects and could enhance the desired actions. To investigate the combination of ethanolic fruits extract of Solanum xanthocarpum (SX and Juniperus communis (JC against Paracetamol (PCM and Azithromycin (AZM induced liver toxicity in rats. Liver toxicity was induced by combine oral administration of PCM (250 mg/kg and AZM (200 mg/kg for 7 days in Wistar rats. Fruit extract of SX (200 and 400 mg/kg and JC (200 and 400 mg/kg were administered daily for 14 days. The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using liver functional test, oxidative parameters and histopathological examination. The results demonstrated that combine administration of AZM and PCM significantly produced liver toxicity by increasing the serum level of hepatic enzymes and oxidative parameters in liver of rats. Histopathological examination also indicated that AZM and PCM produced liver damage in rats. Chronic treatment of SX and JC extract significantly and dose-dependently attenuated the liver toxicity by normalizing the biochemical factors and no gross histopathological changes were observed in liver of rats. Furthermore, combine administration of lower dose of SX and JC significantly potentiated their hepatoprotective effect which was significant as compared to their effect per se. The results clearly indicated that SX and JC extract has hepatoprotective potential against AZM and PCM induced liver toxicity due to their synergistic anti-oxidant properties.

  2. The composition, anti-mildew and anti-wood-decay fungal activities of the leaf and fruit oils of Juniperus formosana from Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu-Chang; Hsu, Kuan-Ping; Wang, Eugene I-Chen; Ho, Chen-Lung

    2013-09-01

    In this study, anti-mildew and anti-wood-decay fungal activities of the leaf and fruits essential oil and its constituents from Juniperus formosana were evaluated in vitro against seven mildew fungi and four wood decay fungi, respectively. The main compounds responsible for the anti-mildew and anti-wood-decay fungal activities were also identified. The essential oil from the fresh leaves and fruits of J. formosana were isolated using hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus, and characterized by GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. The leaf oil mainly consisted of alpha-pinene (41.0%), limonene (11.5%), alpha-cadinol (11.0%), elemol (6.3%), and beta-myrcene (5.8%); the fruit oil was mostly alpha-pinene (40.9%), beta-myrcene (32.4%), alpha-thujene (5.9%) and limonene (5.9%). Comparing the anti-mildew and anti-wood-decay fungal activities of the oils suggested that the leaf oil was the most effective. For the anti-mildew and anti-wood-decay fungal activities of the leaf oil, the active source compounds were determined to be alpha-cadinol and elemol.

  3. Sex Ratio and Reproductive Effort in the Dioecious Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak. (Cupressaceae) Along an Altitudinal Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    ORTIZ, PEDRO LUIS; ARISTA, MONTSERRAT; TALAVERA, SALVADOR

    2002-01-01

    The hypothesis that reproductive cost differs between sexes was tested in Juniperus communis subsp. alpina along an altitudinal gradient. Sex ratio (male : female) increased significantly with elevation, and above 2600 m it was significantly male‐biased. The reproductive effort was markedly greater for females than for males at all elevations. However, over 3 years of study, the growth of the females, measured as elongation of the main axes, was similar to that of the males. In both sexes, growth decreased with increasing elevation. Neither size of the ripe seed cones, nor the number of developed seeds per cone varied with elevation. The percentage of filled seeds was significantly greater at higher elevations indicating more favourable conditions for wind pollination in these stands. However, cone production decreased with elevation and so, reproductive success of J. communis subsp. alpina in Sierra Nevada decreases towards both upper and lower altitudinal distribution limits. The results do not support the hypothesis of differential reproductive cost between sexes; thus, alternative arguments to explain the altitudinal variation of sex ratio are discussed. PMID:12099351

  4. Essential Oil from Berries of Lebanese Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb Displays Similar Antibacterial Activity to Chlorhexidine but Higher Cytocompatibility with Human Oral Primary Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzimonti, Barbara; Cochis, Andrea; Beyrouthy, Marc El; Iriti, Marcello; Uberti, Francesca; Sorrentino, Rita; Landini, Manuela Miriam; Rimondini, Lia; Varoni, Elena Maria

    2015-05-21

    Chlorhexidine (CHX), one of the most effective drugs administered for periodontal treatment, presents collateral effects including toxicity when used for prolonged periods; here, we have evaluated the bactericidal potency and the cytocompatibility of Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb essential oil (EO) in comparison with 0.05% CHX. The EO was extracted from berries by hydrodistillation and components identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Bacterial inhibition halo analysis, quantitative cell viability 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulphophenyl)-5-[(phenyl amino) carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide assay (XTT), and colony forming unit (CFU) count were evaluated against the two biofilm formers Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Streptococcus mutans. Finally, cytocompatibility was assessed with human primary gingival fibroblasts (HGF) and mucosal keratinocytes (HK). The resulting EO was mainly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpenes. An inhibition halo test demonstrated that both bacteria were sensitive to the EO; XTT analysis and CFU counts confirmed that 10-fold-diluted EO determined a statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction in bacteria count and viability towards both biofilm and planktonic forms in a comparable manner to those obtained with CHX. Moreover, EO displayed higher cytocompatibility than CHX (p < 0.05). In conclusion, EO exhibited bactericidal activity similar to CHX, but a superior cytocompatibility, making it a promising antiseptic alternative to CHX.

  5. Molecular Detection of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in Ruminants from Twelve Provinces of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Haixiang; Kelly, Patrick John; Zhang, Jilei; Luo, Qinghua; Yang, Yi; Mao, Yongjiang; Yang, Zhangping; Li, Jing; Wu, Hongzhuan

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. are tick-transmitted bacteria that are of significant economic importance as they can infect large and small ruminants and also people. There is little information on anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis in ruminants in China. 16S rRNA FRET-qPCRs were used to screen convenience whole blood samples from 2,240 domestic ruminants in 12 provinces of China for Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. Positive samples were further analyzed with a standard PCR for the gltA. Anaplasma spp. DNA was detected in the sheep (11.7%; 13/111), goats (81.8%; 219/270), cattle (13.2%; 241/1,830), and water buffaloes (6.9%; 2/29). Ehrlichia spp. DNA was detected in sheep (1.8%; 2/111), goats (1.1%; 3/270), and cattle (3.6%; 65/1830) but not in water buffaloes (0/29). Sequencing of gltA PCR products showed that A. marginale, A. ovis, Ehrlichia canis, and Ehrlichia sp. (JX629807) were present in ruminants from China, while the 16S rRNA FRET-qPCR sequence data indicated that there might also be A. platys, A. phagocytophilum, Anaplasma sp. BL126-13 (KJ410243), and Anaplasma sp. JC3-6 (KM227012). Our study shows that domestic ruminants from China are not uncommonly infected with a variety of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. PMID:28096822

  6. Dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton spp. in a Tenerife Lizard (Gallotia galloti): an immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orós, J; Hernández, J D; Gallardo, J; Lupiola, P; Jensen, H E

    2013-01-01

    Reports of dermatophytosis in reptiles are rare. This report describes the microscopical and immunohistochemical findings in a case of dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton spp. in a 2-year-old Tenerife lizard (Gallotia galloti) with ulcerative and pustular skin lesions. Microscopically, the lesions were characterized by superficial epidermal pustules containing heterophils with numerous fungal hyphae that stained by periodic acid-Schiff and Grocott's stain. Fungal culture was not performed, but a panel of polyclonal antibodies specific for different fungal genera was applied to tissue sections. These immunohistochemical studies demonstrated reactivity of the hyphae only with antiserum specific for Trichophyton spp.

  7. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of antibodies against Neospora spp. and Sarcocystis neurona in donkeys from northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Maria Gennari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi are coccidian protozoa that can cause neurological illness in horses in America. In this study we report seroprevalence of Neospora spp. andS. neurona in sera of 333 donkeys from the northeastern region of Brazil. Antibodies to Neospora spp. were detected in 2% (7 donkeys of 333 sera tested by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT with a cut-off dilution of 1:40. Antibodies to S. neurona were found in 3% (10 donkeys of the samples tested by IFAT (cut-off ≥50 and 21% (69 donkeys by the direct agglutination test (SAT ≥50. The SAT and IFAT results for S. neurona showed a poor concordance (value of Kappa=0.051. This is the first report ofNeospora spp. antibodies in Brazilian donkeys and the first detection of antibodies against S. neurona in this animal species.

  9. Prevalence of antibodies against Neospora spp. and Sarcocystis neurona in donkeys from northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennari, Solange Maria; Pena, Hilda Fátima de Jesus; Lindsay, David Scott; Lopes, Marcos Gomes; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Cabral, Aline Diniz; Vitaliano, Sérgio Netto; Amaku, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi are coccidian protozoa that can cause neurological illness in horses in America. In this study we report seroprevalence of Neospora spp. andS. neurona in sera of 333 donkeys from the northeastern region of Brazil. Antibodies to Neospora spp. were detected in 2% (7 donkeys) of 333 sera tested by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) with a cut-off dilution of 1:40. Antibodies to S. neurona were found in 3% (10 donkeys) of the samples tested by IFAT (cut-off ≥50) and 21% (69 donkeys) by the direct agglutination test (SAT ≥50). The SAT and IFAT results for S. neurona showed a poor concordance (value of Kappa=0.051). This is the first report of Neospora spp. antibodies in Brazilian donkeys and the first detection of antibodies against S. neurona in this animal species.

  10. Ocurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis, Natterer, 1883

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida da Glória Faustino

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The apicomplexa protozoa Cryptosporidium infects several mammals, including terrestrial and aquatic species. In the epidemiology of this infection, the ingestion of water and/or food contamined with oocysts comprises the main mechanism of transmission to susceptible animals. Among the Sirenians, the occurrence of this coccidium has been reported in dugongs (Dugong dugon and Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus. The present study was conducted with the aim of verifying the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Amazonian manatee. For this purpose, fecal samples were collected from ten free-ranging Amazonian manatees, two specimens in captivity, and 103 supernatants fecal samples. The samples were processed by the sedimentation method in formol-ether and Kinyoun stain technique for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp.. The positive samples were then submitted to Direct Immunoflorescence Test. The results showed 4.34% (05/115 of positive samples. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium spp. in the Amazonian manatee.

  11. Prevalence of Brucella spp in humans

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    Catharina de Paula Oliveira Cavalcanti Soares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp in humans.Method: this is an observational study, developed with 455 individuals between 18 and 64 years old, who use the Estratégia de Saúde da Família (Brazil's family health strategy. The serum samples of volunteers underwent buffered acid antigen tests, such as screening, agar gel immunodiffusion and slow seroagglutination test in tubes and 2-Mercaptoethanol.Results: among the samples, 1.98% has responded to buffered-acid antigen, 2.85% to agar gel immunodiffusion test and 1.54% to the slow seroagglutination tests on tubes/2-Mercaptoethanol. The prevalence of Brucella spp was 4.4%, represented by the last two tests.Conclusion: the results of this research suggest that the studied population is exposed to Brucella spp infection.

  12. Prevalence of Brucella spp in humans1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Catharina de Paula Oliveira Cavalcanti; Teles, José Andreey Almeida; dos Santos, Aldenir Feitosa; Silva, Stemberg Oliveira Firmino; Cruz, Maria Vilma Rocha Andrade; da Silva-Júnior, Francisco Feliciano

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp in humans. Method: this is an observational study, developed with 455 individuals between 18 and 64 years old, who use the Estratégia de Saúde da Família (Brazil's family health strategy). The serum samples of volunteers underwent buffered acid antigen tests, such as screening, agar gel immunodiffusion and slow seroagglutination test in tubes and 2-Mercaptoethanol. Results: among the samples, 1.98% has responded to buffered-acid antigen, 2.85% to agar gel immunodiffusion test and 1.54% to the slow seroagglutination tests on tubes/2-Mercaptoethanol. The prevalence of Brucella spp was 4.4%, represented by the last two tests. Conclusion: the results of this research suggest that the studied population is exposed to Brucella spp infection. PMID:26487143

  13. Leuconostoc Spp. Bacteremia in a Patient with Sigmoid Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havva Avcikucuk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Leuconostoc species are opportunistic pathogens that rarely encountered as an infection agent. It has been reported that, this pathogen could cause infections especially in immunsupressive patients, after invasive procedures and antibiotic treatment. In this report, we aim to present a case with intrinsically vancomycin resistant Leuconostoc spp. that was isolated in blood culture. Fifty six years old male patient with type II diabetes mellitus and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had been operated for sigmoid colon cancer one a half years ago. He was taken radiotherapy and chemotherapy right after the operation. The patient was admitted to our hospital with a complaint of stenosis in colostomy opening. Empiricial treatment was started for high fever. Gram positive coccus was reported in the blood culture(Bactec 9050, Becton-Dickinson, USA. The isolate was identified as Leuconostoc spp. with API 20 Strep (BioMerieux, French kit. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed by the disk diffusion method according to CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations. The isolate was found susceptible to linezolid and quinupristin-dalfopristine, while it was resistant to penicilin, ampicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, vancomycin and teicoplanin by the disk diffusion method. Vancomycin resistance was confirmed by E-test (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden.

  14. Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora caninum in Brazilian opossums (Didelphis spp.): Molecular investigation and in vitro isolation of Sarcocystis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondim, Leane S Q; Jesus, Rogério F; Ribeiro-Andrade, Müller; Silva, Jean C R; Siqueira, Daniel B; Marvulo, Maria F V; Aléssio, Felipe M; Mauffrey, Jean-François; Julião, Fred S; Savani, Elisa San Martin Mouriz; Soares, Rodrigo M; Gondim, Luís F P

    2017-08-30

    Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora spp. are protozoan parasites that induce neurological diseases in horses and other animal species. Opossums (Didelphis albiventris and Didelphis virginiana) are definitive hosts of S. neurona, which is the major cause of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Neospora caninum causes abortion in cattle and infects a wide range of animal species, while N. hughesi is known to induce neurologic disease in equids. The aims of this study were to investigate S. neurona and N. caninum in tissues from opossums in the northeastern Brazil, and to isolate Brazilian strains of Sarcocystis spp. from wild opossums for comparison with previously isolated strains. Carcasses of 39 opossums from Bahia state were available for molecular identification of Sarcocystis spp. and N. caninum in their tissues, and for sporocyst detection by intestinal scraping. In addition, Sarcocystis-like sporocysts from nine additional opossums, obtained in São Paulo state, were tested. Sarcocystis DNA was found in 16 (41%) of the 39 opossums' carcasses; N. caninum DNA was detected in tissues from three opossums. The sporocysts from the nine additional opossums from São Paulo state were tested by bioassay and induced infection in nine budgerigars, but in none of the gamma-interferon knockout mice. In vitro isolation was successful using tissues from all nine budgerigars. The isolated strains were maintained in CV-1 and Vero cells. Three of nine isolates presented contamination in cell culture and were discarded. Analysis of six isolates based on five loci showed that these parasites were genetically different from each other and also distinct from S. neurona, S. falcatula, S. lindsayi, and S. speeri. In conclusion, opossums in the studied regions were infected with N. caninum and Sarcocystis spp. and represent a potential source of infection to other animals. This is the first report of N. caninum infection in tissues from black-eared opossum (D. aurita or D

  15. Suppression of Pythium spp. by Trichoderma spp. during germination of tomato seeds in soilless growing media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, R; De Schutter, B; Rombouts, L

    2002-01-01

    In the Flemish horticulture Pythium spp. is an important pathogen of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculenthum) in soilless growing media. Therefore some experiments were conducted to evaluate the possibility of decreasing the damage caused by Pythium spp. by Trichoderma spp. In a tray with several growing media, a suspension of Trichoderma conidia (10(6)/ml growing medium) was applied two weeks before sowing. On some objects, a compost extract (Biostimulus) was added. The growing media used in the experiment were rockwool, recycled rockwool and recycled coconut fibre. After sowing, the trays were covered with perlite. Three isolates of Trichoderma spp.: T. asperellum (Biofungus), T. harzianum (Tri 003) and Trichoderma sp. (KHK) and two isolates of Pythium spp.: P. ultimum (MUCL) en P. aphanidermatum (HRI, UK) were used. Propamocarb was used as a chemical standard. The use of coconut fibre growing medium resulted in a higher percentage (36%) of germination than the rockwool media when only Pythium spp. was used. The presence of the spontaneous developing microflora in the coconut fibre medium gave probably also a suppression of Pythium spp. For that reason the results of the suppression by Trichoderma spp. are not easy to explain and very variable on the different objects. Pythium ultimum was more suppressed than P. aphanidermatum on all the growing media and the application of all the Trichoderma isolates increased the germination percentage of tomato seeds. T. asperellum (Biofungus) gave on rockwool also a good result for the suppression of P. aphanidermatum (increasing of germination with 48%). This effect was comparable with the propamocarb treatment (48%). T. harzianum (Tri 003) gave a small suppression (22%) and Trichoderma sp. (KHK) gave almost no suppression of P. aphanidermatum (7%). When less Trichoderma conidia were applied the germination percentage decreased. The adding of a compost extract (Biostimulus) had no influence on the results. This experiment

  16. DNA microarray-based detection of multiple pathogens: Mycoplasma spp. and Chlamydia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnee, Christiane; Sachse, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Rapid detection of slow-growing or non-culturable microorganisms, such as Mycoplasma spp. and Chlamydia spp., is still a challenge to diagnosticians in the veterinary field. In addition, as epidemiological evidence on the frequency of mixed infections involving two and more bacterial species has been emerging, detection methods allowing simultaneous identification of different pathogens are required. In the present chapter, we describe DNA microarray-based procedures for the detection of 83 Mollicutes species (Mycoplasma assay) and 11 Chlamydia spp. (Chlamydia assay). The assays are suitable for use in a routine diagnostic environment, as well as in microbiological research.

  17. Seroprevalence and Potential Risk Factors Associated with Neospora spp. Infection among Asymptomatic Horses in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talafha, Abdelsalam Q; Abutarbush, Sameeh M; Rutley, David L

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence and to identify risk factors associated with Neospora spp. infection in horses in Jordan. Management related data were collected from each farm and individual horses. Sera from 227 horses from 5 of 6 climatic regions in Jordan were analyzed for the presence of antibodies to Neospora spp. by ELISA kit. The study was performed during spring of 2010. The association between seropositivity and risk factors was analyzed. A total of 7 (3%) of 227 sera had antibodies for Neospora spp. There was a significant regional difference (P=0.018) between the 5 climatic regions. Positive cases were located in Amman and Irbid, while the other regions (Zarqa, Jordan Valley, and Wadi Mousa) had zero prevalence. The use of anthelmintics at least once a year resulted in a significant reduction of the seroprevalence to Neospora spp. (1.6% vs 9.8%). However, this might be a phenomenon by chance and a better hygiene since owners can invest in anthelmintics. Other risk factors such as age, gender, breed, usage, body condition score, grazing, presence of other animals mixed with the horses in the same property, and a history of previous diseases were not significantly associated with the seroprevalence to Neospora spp. infection. This is the first study to report on the presence of Neospora seropositive horses in Jordan. Further studies are warranted to better understand the role of certain risk factors in the transmission of Neospora spp. among horse population and to determine which Neospora spp. are responsible for the infection.

  18. Seasonal variability of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in raw milk sold by automatic vending machines in Lombardy Region

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Bertasi; Marina Nadia Losio; Paolo Daminelli; Guido Finazzi; Andrea Serraino; Silvia Piva; Federica Giacometti; Elisa Massella; Fabio Ostanello

    2016-01-01

    In temperate climates, a seasonal trend was observed in the incidence of human campylobacteriosis cases, with peaks reported in spring and autumn in some countries, or in summer in others; a similar trend was observed in Campylobacter spp. dairy cattle faecal shedding, suggesting that cattle may play a role in the seasonal peak of human infection. The objectives of this study were to assess if a seasonal trend in thermophilic Campylobacter spp. contamination of raw milk exists and to evaluate...

  19. Estudio por cromatografía en fase gaseosa de los componentes esenciales, alcoholes, aldehidos, esteres, ácidos grasos y esteroles de bayas de especies delgénero Juniperus

    OpenAIRE

    E. Guerra-Hernández

    2011-01-01

    Se ha realizado el estudio de los componentes integrantes de diferentes especies del gen. juniperus (j.communis l. j.communis subs. clpiro j.-------l. i. thurifera l. y j.sabina l.). A fin de compararlos con los del j.communis l. este incluye el análisis de la fracción grasa e insaponificable la determinación de ácidos grasos y esteroles el análisis cuantitativo de alcoholes aldehidos y esteres la determinación de componentes terpenicos bien en aceite esencial en macerados en 'ol' de 70 gl. E...

  20. Identification of non-Listeria spp. bacterial isolates yielding a β-D-glucosidase-positive phenotype on Agar Listeria according to Ottaviani and Agosti (ALOA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidis, Apostolos S; Kalamaki, Mary S; Georgiadou, Sofia S

    2015-01-16

    Agar Listeria according to Ottaviani and Agosti (ALOA) is the mandatory medium used for the detection and enumeration of Listeria monocytogenes in foods according to the official International Organization for Standardization (ISO) methods. On ALOA, Listeria spp. appear as bluish-green colonies due to the production of β-D-glucosidase, an enzyme that cleaves 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, a chromogenic substrate included in the formulation of the medium. The present work reports on bacterial isolates (n=64) from ready-to-eat soft cheeses, which are able to grow on ALOA, forming bluish-green colonies and therefore phenotypically resemble Listeria spp. All isolates were also capable of growing on the selective media PALCAM and RAPID L'mono. The isolates were characterised with biochemical tests including those specified in the ISO standards for the confirmation of Listeria spp. and identified via partial sequencing of their 16S rRNA gene. According to sequencing results the isolates represented 12 different bacterial species or species-groups belonging to seven different genera: Bacillus spp. (B. circulans, B. clausii, B. licheniformis and B. oleronius), Cellulosimicrobium spp. (C. funkei), Enterococcus spp. (E. faecalis, E. faecium/durans), Kocuria spp. (K. kristinae), Marinilactibacillus spp. (M. psychrotolerans), Rothia spp. (R. terrae) and Staphylococcus spp. (S. sciuri and S. saprophyticus subsp. saprophyticus/xylosus). Cellulosimicrobium spp. have never been previously isolated from foods. These results significantly extend the list of bacteria previously known as capable of growing on ALOA as bluish-green colonies and suggest that there may be room for further improvement in the medium's inhibitory properties towards non-Listeria spp., Gram-positive bacteria present in foods.

  1. You'd better walk alone: Changes in forest composition affect pollination efficiency and pre-dispersal cone damage in Iberian Juniperus thurifera forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-García, E; Mezquida, E T; Olano, J M

    2017-08-19

    Changes in land-use patterns are a major driver of global environmental change. Cessation of traditional land-use practices has led to forest expansion and shifts in forest composition. Consequently, former monospecific forests maintained by traditional management are progressing towards mixed forests. However, knowledge is scarce on how the presence of other tree species will affect reproduction of formerly dominant species. We explored this question in the wind-pollinated tree Juniperus thurifera. We hypothesised that the presence of heterospecific trees would have a negative effect on cone production and on the proportion of cones attacked by specialised predators. We assessed the relative importance of forest composition on cone production, seed development and pre-dispersal cone damage on nine paired pure and mixed J. thurifera forests in three regions across the Iberian Peninsula. The effects of forest composition on crop size, cone and seed characteristics, as well as damage by pre-dispersal arthropods were tested using mixed models. Cone production was lower and seed abortion higher in mixed forests, suggesting higher pollination failure. In contrast, cone damage by arthropods was higher in pure forests, supporting the hypothesis that presence of non-host plants reduces damage rates. However, the response of each arthropod to forest composition was species-specific and the relative rates of cone damage varied depending on individual tree crops. Larger crop sizes in pure forests compensated for the higher cone damage rates, leading to a higher net production of sound seeds compared to mixed forests. This study indicates that ongoing changes in forest composition after land abandonment may impact tree reproduction. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  2. Infestation of Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Carica spp. and Vasconcella spp. genotypes; Infestacao de Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) em genotipos de Carica spp. e Vasconcella spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fancelli, Marilene; Sanches, Nilton F.; Dantas, Jorge L.L.; Caldas, Ranulfo C. [EMBRAPA Mandioca e Fruticultura Tropical, Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil)]. E-mail: fancelli@cnpmf.embrapa.br; Morales, Cinara F.G. [Fundacao Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (FEPAGRO), Ijui, RS (Brazil)

    2008-09-15

    The papaya borer weevil, Pseudopiazurus papayanus (Marshall), is generally considered a secondary pest, but it has been reported in high infestations in Northeast Brazil. This work aimed at evaluating the occurrence of P. papayanus and reporting its infestation level in papaya genotypes kept at the germplasm bank of EMBRAPA Cassava and Tropical Fruits (Cruz das Almas, Bahia, Brazil). The number of larvae, pupae and adults found in each plant of 65 Carica spp. genotypes and of three Vasconcella spp. genotypes was registered in three to five plants of each genotype, by cutting the exsudating trunks lengthwise. Papaya borer weevil was found in C. papaya and V. cauliflora but not in those of V. quercifolia. Among the evaluated genotypes, 52.4% of those belonging to the Solo group were infested, against 25.0% of the Formosa group. Larval infestation was the best criterion for sorting out genotypes concerning this insect infestation. This is also the first occurrence of the papaya borer weevil . (author)

  3. Induced systemic resistance by fluorescent Pseudomonas spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, P.A.H.M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Loon, L.C. van

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. have been studied for decades for their plant growth-promoting effects through effective suppression of soilborne plant diseases. The modes of action that play a role in disease suppression by these bacteria include siderophore-mediated competition for iron, antibiosis,

  4. The case of Artemia spp. in nanoecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libralato, Giovanni

    2014-10-01

    Artemia spp. is one of the most widespread saltwater organism suitable for ecotoxicity testing, but no internationally standardised methods exist. Several endpoints can be considered with Artemia spp. including short-term (24-48 h) and long-term (14 days) mortality, cysts and nauplii hatchability, biomass productivity, biomarkers' expression/inhibition and bioaccumulation on larvae as well as organisms' reproductive ability. Recently, Artemia spp. started to be used as a reference biological model in nanoecotoxicology with both inorganic and organic engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) also in combination with traditional environmental stressors looking for potential interactive effects. Criticisms were detected about the use of Artemia spp. in relation to the hatching phase, the toxicity test design, the occasional use only of reference toxicants and the way testing solution/suspensions were prepared thus potentially compromising the reliability of nanoecotoxicological results. A full list of compulsory information that must accompany Artemia nanoecotoxicity data is provided with positive feedbacks also for other toxicity bioassays. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Genomics of Secondary Metabolism in Pseudomonas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas is a heterogeneous genus of bacteria known for its ubiquity in natural habitats and its prolific production of secondary metabolites. The structurally diverse chemical structures produced by Pseudomonas spp. result from biosynthetic processes with unusual features that have revealed no...

  6. Characterization of Milkweed (Asclepias spp.) Seed Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkweed (Asclepias spp.) is a crop grown mainly for the production of floss used as hypoallergenic fillers in comforters and pillows. The seeds end up as by-products. Milkweed seed contains 21% oil and 30% crude protein (dry basis). The oil is similar in quality to soybean oil, but there is no i...

  7. Variability of Colletotrichum spp in common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, S F; Barcelos, Q L; Dias, M A; Souza, E A

    2016-04-07

    The Colletotrichum genus presents large genetic variability, as demonstrated by the occurrence of several pathogenic races and phenotypic traits. The objective of this study was to characterize 22 strains of C. lindemuthianum and Colletotrichum spp recovered from anthracnose lesions and bean scab, and to verify the relationship between species of the Colletotrichum genus, which inhabit anthracnose and scab lesions. Colony morphology, conidium size, the presence of septa, germination, sporulation, and mycelium growth rates, were analyzed in addition to the presence of mating-type genes, IRAP markers, and pathogenicity. Strains of Colletotrichum spp presented wide variation for all evaluated traits, indicating the presence of different species. Pathogenicity tests verified that the severity of the disease caused by strains of Colletotrichum spp must be evaluated 17 days after inoculation. Molecular analysis showed that only the C. lindemuthianum strains were grouped by the IRAP markers. For the physiological traits, we observed that C. lindemuthianum mycelium growth is slower than that of Colletotrichum spp strains. The information generated in this study confirms variability in the evaluated species of Colletotrichum and may direct future basic and applied studies aiming to control these diseases in common bean.

  8. Toward in vitro fertilization in Brachiaria spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusi, D.; Alves, E.R.; Willemse, M.T.M.; Falcao, R.; Valle, do C.B.; Carneiro, V.T.C.

    2010-01-01

    Brachiaria are forage grasses widely cultivated in tropical areas. In vitro pollination was applied to accessions of Brachiaria spp. by placing pollen of non-dehiscent anthers on a solid medium near isolated ovaries. Viability and in vitro germination were tested in order to establish good condition

  9. COMPARISON BETWEEN THE PERCENTAGE OF INCIDENCE OF MASTITIS CAUSED BY Bacillus spp. AND Staphylococcus spp. IN WINTER SEASON IN KHARTOUM STATE, SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Rabie MOHAMMED SALIH

    2016-07-01

    spp. 1% and the last one was isolated from gangrenous mastitis as first report in Sudan.

  10. Quantitative isolation of biocontrol agents Trichoderma spp., Gliocladium spp. and actinomycetes from soil with culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Gil, S; Pastor, S; March, G J

    2009-01-01

    Soil biodiversity plays a key role in the sustainability of agriculture systems and indicates the level of health of soil, especially when considering the richness of microorganisms that are involved in biological control of soilborne diseases. Cultural practices may produce changes in soil microflora, which can be quantified through the isolation of target microorganisms. Rhizosphere soil samples were taken from an assay with different crop rotations and tillage systems, and populations of Trichoderma spp., Gliocladium spp. and actinomycetes were quantified in order to select the general and selective culture media that better reflect the changes of these microbial populations in soil. The most efficient medium for the isolation of Trichoderma spp. and Gliocladium spp. was potato dextrose agar modified by the addition of chloramphenicol, streptomycin and rose bengal, and for actinomycetes was Küster medium, with cycloheximide and sodium propionate.

  11. Pneumonia associated with Salmonella spp. infection in a cat receiving cyclosporine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegari, C; Palermo, G; Greco, M F; Corrente, M; Piseddu, E; Auriemma, E; Zini, E

    2014-10-01

    Salmonellosis is uncommon in cats, usually affects the gastrointestinal tract or skin, and can be fatal. This report describes a domestic shorthair cat with severe pneumonia caused by Salmonella spp. without accompanying gastrointestinal or skin manifestations, in which previous administration of cyclosporine may have played a permissive role in its development. Clinical and laboratory findings as well as follow-up are described from diagnosis until complete recovery. This unusual presentation serves to alert practitioners to consider Salmonella spp. as a possible cause of lung disease in cats, especially if immunocompromised.

  12. Histopathological findings of the kidney Trematoda Paratanaisia spp. (Digenea: Eucotylidae) in cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, Walied; Sultan, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    Paratanaisia spp. was recorded from the right kidney of a cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) in Kafr Elsheikh governorate, Nile Delta, Egypt. The bird showed marked emaciation and dissipation. Necropsy findings revealed marked enlargement and brownish discoloration of the kidney. Microscopic examination demonstrated marked dilatation of renal tubules with hyperplasia of lining epithelium due to presence of a trematode consistent with Paratanaisia spp. Eggs of this parasite were also noticed deeply within the interstitial tissue, surrounded with mononuclear cell infiltration, thus indicating their pathogenic potential. This result is the first report of trematodes of this genus parasitizing the kidneys of cattle egrets.

  13. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shigella spp. serological reagents. 866.3660... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3660 Shigella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Shigella spp. serological reagents are devices that consist...

  14. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040 Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Aspergillus spp. serological reagents are devices...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3870 - Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3870... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3870 Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents are devices...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415 Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents are devices...

  17. Bartonella spp. in fruit bats and blood-feeding Ectoparasites in Madagascar.

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    Cara E Brook

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We captured, ectoparasite-combed, and blood-sampled cave-roosting Madagascan fruit bats (Eidolon dupreanum and tree-roosting Madagascan flying foxes (Pteropus rufus in four single-species roosts within a sympatric geographic foraging range for these species in central Madagascar. We describe infection with novel Bartonella spp. in sampled Eidolon dupreanum and associated bat flies (Cyclopodia dubia, which nest close to or within major known Bartonella lineages; simultaneously, we report the absence of Bartonella spp. in Thaumapsylla sp. fleas collected from these same bats. This represents the first documented finding of Bartonella infection in these species of bat and bat fly, as well as a new geographic record for Thaumapsylla sp. We further relate the absence of both Bartonella spp. and ectoparasites in sympatrically sampled Pteropus rufus, thus suggestive of a potential role for bat flies in Bartonella spp. transmission. These findings shed light on transmission ecology of bat-borne Bartonella spp., recently demonstrated as a potentially zoonotic pathogen.

  18. Bartonella spp. in fruit bats and blood-feeding Ectoparasites in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Cara E; Bai, Ying; Dobson, Andrew P; Osikowicz, Lynn M; Ranaivoson, Hafaliana C; Zhu, Qiyun; Kosoy, Michael Y; Dittmar, Katharina

    2015-02-01

    We captured, ectoparasite-combed, and blood-sampled cave-roosting Madagascan fruit bats (Eidolon dupreanum) and tree-roosting Madagascan flying foxes (Pteropus rufus) in four single-species roosts within a sympatric geographic foraging range for these species in central Madagascar. We describe infection with novel Bartonella spp. in sampled Eidolon dupreanum and associated bat flies (Cyclopodia dubia), which nest close to or within major known Bartonella lineages; simultaneously, we report the absence of Bartonella spp. in Thaumapsylla sp. fleas collected from these same bats. This represents the first documented finding of Bartonella infection in these species of bat and bat fly, as well as a new geographic record for Thaumapsylla sp. We further relate the absence of both Bartonella spp. and ectoparasites in sympatrically sampled Pteropus rufus, thus suggestive of a potential role for bat flies in Bartonella spp. transmission. These findings shed light on transmission ecology of bat-borne Bartonella spp., recently demonstrated as a potentially zoonotic pathogen.

  19. CarbAcineto NP test for rapid detection of carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dortet, Laurent; Poirel, Laurent; Errera, Caroline; Nordmann, Patrice

    2014-07-01

    Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates, particularly those that produce carbapenemases, are increasingly reported worldwide. The biochemically based Carba NP test, extensively validated for the detection of carbapenemase producers among Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp., has been modified to detect carbapenemase production in Acinetobacter spp. A collection of 151 carbapenemase-producing and 69 non-carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter spp. were tested using the Carba NP test and a modified Carba NP protocol (the CarbAcineto NP test) in this study. The CarbAcineto NP test requires modified lysis conditions and an increased bacterial inoculum compared to those of the original Carba NP test. The Carba NP test detects metallo-β-lactamase producers but failed to detect the production of other carbapenemase types among Acinetobacter spp. In contrast, the newly designed CarbAcineto NP test, which is rapid and reproducible, detects all types of carbapenemases with a sensitivity of 94.7% and a specificity of 100%. This cost-effective technique offers a reliable and affordable technique for identifying carbapenemase production in Acinetobacter spp., which is a marker of multidrug resistance in those species. Its use will facilitate the recognition of these carbapenemases and prevent their spread. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Antibiotic resistance, efflux pump genes and virulence determinants in Enterococcus spp. from surface water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molale, L G; Bezuidenhout, Cornelius Carlos

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to report on antibiotic susceptibility patterns as well as highlight the presence of efflux pump genes and virulence genetic determinants in Enterococcus spp. isolated from South African surface water systems. One hundred and twenty-four Enterococcus isolates consisting of seven species were identified. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed a high percentage of isolates was resistant to β-lactams and vancomycin. Many were also resistant to other antibiotic groups. These isolates were screened by PCR, for the presence of four efflux pump genes (mefA, tetK, tetL and msrC). Efflux genes mefA and tetK were not detected in any of the Enterococcus spp. However, tetL and msrC were detected in 17 % of the Enterococcus spp. The presence of virulence factors in the Enterococcus spp. harbouring efflux pump genes was determined. Virulence determinants were detected in 86 % of the Enterococcus spp. harbouring efflux pump genes. Four (asa1, cylA, gel and hyl) of the five virulence factors were detected. The findings of this study have demonstrated that Enterococcus from South African surface water systems are resistant to multiple antibiotics, some of which are frequently used for therapy. Furthermore, these isolates harbour efflux pump genes coding for resistance to antibiotics and virulence factors which enhance their pathogenic potential.

  1. Physiological and growth response of rice plants (Oryza sativa L.) to Trichoderma spp. inoculants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, Febri; Isahak, Anizan; Che Mohd Zain, Che Radziah; Wan Yusoff, Wan Mohtar

    2014-01-01

    Trichoderma spp., a known beneficial fungus is reported to have several mechanisms to enhance plant growth. In this study, the effectiveness of seven isolates of Trichoderma spp. to promote growth and increase physiological performance in rice was evaluated experimentally using completely randomized design under greenhouse condition. This study indicated that all the Trichoderma spp. isolates tested were able to increase several rice physiological processes which include net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration, internal CO2 concentration and water use efficiency. These Trichoderma spp. isolates were also able to enhance rice growth components including plant height, leaf number, tiller number, root length and root fresh weight. Among the Trichoderma spp. isolates, Trichoderma sp. SL2 inoculated rice plants exhibited greater net photosynthetic rate (8.66 μmolCO2 m(-2) s(-1)), internal CO2 concentration (336.97 ppm), water use efficiency (1.15 μmoCO2/mmoH2O), plant height (70.47 cm), tiller number (12), root length (22.5 cm) and root fresh weight (15.21 g) compared to the plants treated with other Trichoderma isolates tested. We conclude that beneficial fungi can be used as a potential growth promoting agent in rice cultivation.

  2. Molecular characterization of Shigella spp. from patients in Gabon 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumburg, Frieder; Alabi, Abraham S; Kaba, Harry; Lell, Bertrand; Becker, Karsten; Grobusch, Martin P; Kremsner, Peter G; Mellmann, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Shigella spp. dysentery is widespread in developing countries; the incidence is particularly high in children between 1-2 years of age. In sub-Saharan Africa, there is a paucity of epidemiological data on Shigella spp., with possible negative consequences for recognition and correct treatment choice for this life-threatening bacterial infection. We therefore characterized Shigella spp. isolates from Gabon. The antimicrobial resistance, virulence factors, genotypes and mobile genetic elements of Shigella isolates (29 S. flexneri; 5 S. boydii; 3 S. sonnei) from a retrospective strain collection were analyzed. High resistance rates were found for gentamicin and tetracycline (100%, 37/37), cotrimoxazole (92%, 34/37) and ampicillin (84%, 31/37). All isolate harbored ial and ipaH; no isolate produced Shiga toxins (stx1/2); enterotoxins (set1A/B) were only found in S. flexneri (n=19). Multilocus sequence types (MLST) clustered with global clones. A high prevalence of atypical class 1 integrons harboring blaOXA30 and aadA1 were detected in S. flexneri, while all S. sonnei carried class 2 integrons. There is a strong link of Gabonese Shigella spp. isolates with pandemic lineages as they cluster with major global clones and frequently carry atypical class 1 integrons which are frequently reported in Shigella spp. from Asia. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Potentially harmful Ostreopsis spp. in the coastal waters of Alexandria - Egypt

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    A. ISMAEL

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ostreopsis spp. has been reported for the first time from the Egyptian Mediterranean waters. Macroalgal samples were collected monthly between June 2005 and December 2007, from the rocks at Abu Qir, from less than 1.5 m depth, and their associated microalgae examined. Populations of two Ostreopsis morphotypes were found to occur in this location, east of Alexandria, viz., O. cf ovata Fukuyo and Ostreopsis morph1. The Ostreopsis spp. was abundant and dominant during the summer. They were more abundant as epiphytes of the brown algae Padina sp. and Sargassum sp., less abundant on the red algae Corallina sp., Jania sp., Laurencia sp. and even less so on the green algae Ulva spp. Ostreopsis cf. ovata was also identified during the summer months on the same macroalgal species, although in a much lower abundance. Ostreopsis spp. alternated in dominance with the benthic cyanobacteria Oscillatoria spp. and the diatom Licmophora sp. Other benthic dinoflagellates recorded at low abundance included Amphidinium carterae, Gymnodinium sp. and Prorocentrum lima.

  4. Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp., presence and susceptibility in crabs Ucides cordatus Vibrio spp. e Salmonella spp. em caranguejos, Ucides cordatus

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    Regine H.S.F. Vieira

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp. in crabs marketed at the Bezerra de Menezes Ave., Fortaleza, State of Ceará, Brazil, was assessed between February and May, 2003. The number of individuals sampled in each one of the fifteen weekly samplings ranged between four and eight. Seven strains of Salmonella, from four different samplings, were identified, being five of them identified as serotype S. Senftenberg and two as S. Poona. All strains of Salmonella were sensitive to the tested anti-microbial drugs, with the exception of tetracycline and nalidixic acid, for which an intermediary sensibility was found. The MPN's for Vibrio ranged between 110/g and 110,000/g. Of the forty five Vibrio strains isolated from the crab samples, only 10 were identified up to the species level: two V. alginolyticus and eight V. parahaemolyticus. Bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonaceae families were also identified, namely Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Pantoea agglomerans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The proper cooking of the animals is recommended in order to avoid problems for the consumers of this crustacean.Foram pesquisadas a presença de Vibrio spp. e de Salmonella spp. em caranguejos comercializados na Av. Bezerra de Menezes, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil, no período entre fevereiro e maio de 2003. O número de indivíduos em cada, das quinze coletas realizadas, semanalmente, variava entre quatro e oito dependendo do tamanho dos animais, totalizando um número de 90 (noventa animais examinados. Foram identificadas sete cepas de Salmonella spp. provenientes de quatro coletas: cinco foram identificadas como sorovar S. Senftenberg e duas como S. Poona. Todas as cepas de Salmonella, isoladas das amostras de caranguejos, apresentaram sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos testados, com exceção de tetraciclina e ácido nalidíxico para os quais elas apresentaram uma sensibilidade intermediária. Os NMPs

  5. Development of a new PCR protocol to detect and subtype Blastocystis spp. from humans and animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blastocystis spp. is commonly found in the feces of humans worldwide. Infection has been reported as asymptomatic, acute symptomatic, and chronic symptomatic. This wide range of responses to infection could be related to the genetic diversity of morphologically indistinguishable specimens obtained...

  6. Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter spp. from Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) at Deception Island, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Peña, F J; Pérez-Boto, D; Jiménez, C; San Miguel, E; Echeita, A; Rengifo-Herrera, C; García-Párraga, D; Ortega-Mora, L M; Pedraza-Díaz, S

    2010-09-01

    The presence of Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 41 Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) and 9 Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) at Deception Island, Antarctica. Infections were encountered in six Antarctic fur seals. The isolates, the first reported from marine mammals in the Antarctic region, were identified as Campylobacter insulaenigrae and Campylobacter lari.

  7. Diversity and antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas spp. from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M

    2012-06-01

    Pseudomonas spp. are common inhabitants of aquatic environments, including drinking water. Multi-antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa is widely reported and deeply characterized. However, the information regarding other species and environmental isolates of this genus is scant. This study was designed based on the hypothesis that members of the genus Pseudomonas given their high prevalence, wide distribution in waters and genetic plasticity can be important reservoirs of antibiotic resistance in drinking water. With this aim, the diversity and antibiotic resistance phenotypes of Pseudomonas isolated from different drinking water sources were evaluated. The genotypic diversity analyses were based on six housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, rpoD, rpoB, gyrB, recA and ITS) and on pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Susceptibility to 21 antibiotics of eight classes was tested using the ATB PSE EU (08) and disk diffusion methods. Pseudomonas spp. were isolated from 14 of the 32 sampled sites. A total of 55 non-repetitive isolates were affiliated to twenty species. Although the same species were isolated from different sampling sites, identical genotypes were never observed in distinct types of water (water treatment plant/distribution system, tap water, cup fillers, biofilm, and mineral water). In general, the prevalence of antibiotic resistance was low and often the resistance patterns were related with the species and/or the strain genotype. Resistance to ticarcillin, ticarcillin with clavulanic acid, fosfomycin and cotrimoxazol were the most prevalent (69-84%). No resistance to piperacillin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, imipenem or meropenem was observed. This study demonstrates that Pseudomonas spp. are not so widespread in drinking water as commonly assumed. Nevertheless, it suggests that water Pseudomonas can spread acquired antibiotic resistance, preferentially via vertical transmission.

  8. Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. isolated from food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mąka, Łukasz; Popowska, Magdalena

    This review summarizes current data on resistance among Salmonella spp. isolates of food origin from countries in different regions of the world. The mechanisms of resistance to different groups of antimicrobial compounds are also considered. Among strains resistant to quinolones and/or fluoroquinolones the most prevalent mechanism is amino acid substitutions in quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of genes gyrA, parC but mechanism of growing importance is plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) associated with genes qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS but frequency of their detection is different. Resistance to sulfonamides is mostly associated with genes sul1 and sul2, while resistance to trimethoprim is associated with various variants of dhfr ( dfr) genes. Taking into account Salmonella spp. strains isolated from food, resistance to β-lactams is commonly associated with β-lactamases encoding by blaTEM genes. However strains ESBL and AmpC – positive are also detected. Resistance to aminoglicosides is commonly result of enzymatic inactivation. Three types of aminoglycoside modifying enzyme are: acetyltransferases (AAC), adenyltransferases (ANT) and phosphotransferases (APH). Resistance to tetracyclines among Salmonella spp. isolated from food is most commonly associated with active efflux. Among numerous genetic determinants encoding efflux pumps tetA, tetB, tetC, tetD, tetE and tetG are reported predominatingly. One of the most common mechanisms of resistance against chloramphenicol is its inactivation by chloramphenicol acetyltrasferases (CATs), but resistance to this compound can be also mediated by chloramphenicol efflux pumps encoded by the genes cmlA and floR. It is important to monitor resistance of Salmonella isolated from food, because the globalization of trade, leading to the long-distance

  9. Co-infection of Borrelia afzelii and Bartonella spp. in bank voles from a suburban forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet, Jean-Philippe; Marsot, Maud; Vaumourin, Elise; Gasqui, Patrick; Masséglia, Sébastien; Marcheteau, Elie; Huet, Dominique; Chapuis, Jean-Louis; Pisanu, Benoit; Ferquel, Elisabeth; Halos, Lénaïg; Vourc'h, Gwenaël; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

    2012-12-01

    We report the molecular detection of Borrelia afzelii (11%) and Bartonella spp. (56%) in 447 bank voles trapped in a suburban forest in France. Adult voles were infected by significantly more Borrelia afzelii than juveniles (pBartonella spp. between young and adult individuals (p=0.914). Six percent of the animals were co-infected by both bacteria. Analysis of the bank vole carrier status for either pathogen indicated that co-infections occur randomly (p=0.94, CI(95)=[0.53; 1.47]). Sequence analysis revealed that bank voles were infected by a single genotype of Borrelia afzelii and by 32 different Bartonella spp. genotypes, related to three known species specific to rodents (B. taylorii, B. grahamii and B. doshiae) and also two as yet unidentified Bartonella species. Our findings confirm that rodents harbor high levels of potential human pathogens; therefore, widespread surveillance should be undertaken in areas where humans may encounter rodents.

  10. Ichthyobodo spp. Infection in Meagre (Argyrosomus regius) from Turkey: Parasitological and Pathological Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardımcı, Banu; Pekmezci, Gökmen Zafer; Didinen, Behire Işıl; Metin, Seçil

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the first report of Ichthyobodo spp. infection in meagre (Argyrosomus regius) fry in a marine aquaculture facility in Turkey. The material of the study was composed of 30 meagre A. regius in 2-3 g weight taken from the fry adaptation unit of a fish farm in the Aegean Sea. In this study, parasitological and pathological examinations were performed on the meagre. Ichthyobodo spp. was determined on the body surfaces and gills. Pathological examination revealed grayish mucous and erosions between the pin head and lentin over the skin of the examined specimens. Microscopic examinations revealed significant spongiosis, vacuolar degeneration, and hyperplasia in epidermal malpighian cells and hyperplasia in goblet cells. In the present study, Ichthyobodo spp. infection was for the first time determined in an alternative cultured meagre in Turkey.

  11. Molecular diagnosis of non-serotypeable Shigella spp.: problems and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuirulandi Sethuvel, Dhiviya Prabaa; Devanga Ragupathi, Naveen Kumar; Anandan, Shalini; Walia, Kamini; Veeraraghavan, Balaji

    2017-02-01

    It is not always possible to identify Shigella serogroups/serotypes by biochemical properties alone. Specific identification requires serotyping. Occasionally, isolates that resemble Shigella spp. biochemically, but are non-agglutinable with available antisera, have been observed. Several mechanisms have been reported to limit the efficiency of the serotyping assay. Serotype conversion is a major mechanism in Shigella spp. to escape protective host immune responses. This easy conversion through significant modification of the O-antigen backbone results in different serotypes, which makes laboratory identification difficult. Furthermore, members of the family Enterobacteriaceae are closely related and there is antigenic cross-over (intra- and inter-specific cross-reaction) which affects the agglutination reaction. The performance of the available methods for identification of non-serotypeable Shigella is discussed here, and reveals them to be non-reliable. This shows a need for an alternative method for identification and typing of Shigella spp.

  12. Detection of Arcobacter spp. in Mytilus galloprovincialis samples collected from Apulia region

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    Elisabetta Bonerba

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the occurrence of Arcobacter spp. in 20 samples of Mytilus galloprovincialis purchased at fish markets in Apulia region. The detection of Arcobacter spp. was performed, after selective enrichment, on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate (mCCD agar supplemented with Cefoperazone, Amphotericin B and Teicoplanin (CAT. In 6 out of the 20 tested samples the presence of Arcobacter spp. was found and confirmed by genus-based polymerase chain reaction. All the isolates were identified as belonging to the species Arcobacter butzleri using 16S rDNA sequencing and BLAST online. The results represent the first report in Italy of A. butzleri detection in marketed Mytilus galloprovincialis. The survey underlines the epidemiological importance of A. butzleri as an emerging pathogen, and highlights that mussels should be considered as a potential cause of foodborne disease outbreak.

  13. Prey-rolling behavior of coatis ( Nasua spp.) is elicited by benzoquinones from millipedes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, Paul J.; Cranmore, Catherine F.; Chatfield, Jenifer A.

    2006-01-01

    Coatis ( Nasua spp.), gregarious, omnivorous carnivores that range in forests from the southwestern USA to south America, dispatch millipedes by rolling them on the ground using rapid, alternating movements of their forepaws. Prey rolling of millipedes is thought to stimulate the depletion of their defensive secretions and to wipe off secretions before millipedes are consumed. We report that prey-rolling behavior in Nasua spp. is elicited by 1,4-benzoquinone; 2-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone; and 2-methoxy-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone, the chief components of the defensive secretions of julidan, spirobolidan, and spirostreptidan millipedes. Chemicals elaborated for defense sometimes evolutionarily “backfire,” providing cues to predators on the presence or identity of prey. The elicitation of prey-rolling behavior in Nasua spp. by benzoquinones illustrates this effect for millipedes (and possibly other arthropods) that defensively discharge these compounds.

  14. Presence of Staphylococcus spp. and Candida spp. in the human oral cavity

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    Martins Clélia Aparecida de Paiva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of yeasts and staphylococci in the oral cavity is important because they can act as supplementary microbiota and in certain situations can cause oral or systemic diseases. The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in the human oral cavity. Oral rinses were collected from sixty-eight individuals according to the technique described by Samaranayake and MacFarlane and then cultured on Sabouraud medium supplemented with chloramphenicol and Baird-Parker agar. After the incubation period, the microorganisms were isolated and identified through biochemical tests. The data obtained were statistically analysed by ANOVA. Candida spp. were isolated from 61.76% of the examined individuals and C. albicans was the more frequently isolated specie. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 95.60% of the individuals and 41 strains were coagulase negative (63%. Among the coagulase positive strains, nine were S. aureus, 11 S. hyicus and 4 S. schleiferi subspecie coagulans. No correlation was observed between the counts (cfu of the isolated Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp.

  15. Small rodents as reservoirs of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in south-western Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perec-Matysiak, Agnieszka; Buńkowska-Gawlik, Katarzyna; Zaleśny, Grzegorz; Hildebrand, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. have been detected in a range of host species, including rodents. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of these pathogens and recognition of the reservoir role of rodents in the maintenance of these pathogens in south-western Poland. Additionally, preliminary molecular studies were conducted to elucidate the species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia identified in this study. Stool samples (n=266) from A. agrarius, A. flavicollis and M. glareolus, were subjected for analyses. Values of prevalence were 61.7, 68.3 and 68.1%, respectively, for Cryptosporidium spp. and 41.7, 24.4 and 38.4%, respectively, for Giardia spp. There was a statistically significant correlation between host species and Giardia infection where A. agrarius was the species of the highest prevalence. Statistically significant differences were not found for comparisons made for study sites and occurrence of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. Due to preliminary nested PCR results, specific amplifications of Cryptosporidium COWP and SSU rRNA genes were obtained for several isolates taken from rodent host species. One isolate recovered from A. agrarius (from a semi-aquatic, urban area) was identified as C. parvum and revealed 100% similarity with sequences obtained from humans. To the best of the knowledge of the authors, this is the first record of the C. parvum zoonotic species from the striped field mouse. Also recorded were the first findings of C. ubiquitum from three small rodent species.

  16. Molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Shigella spp. of food origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ashraf M; Shimamoto, Tadashi

    2015-02-02

    Shigella spp. are the causative agents of food-borne shigellosis, an acute enteric infection. The emergence of multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Shigella presents an increasing challenge for clinicians in the treatment of shigellosis. Several studies worldwide have characterized the molecular basis of antibiotic resistance in clinical Shigella isolates of human origin, however, to date, no such characterization has been reported for Shigella spp. of food origin. In this study, we characterized the genetic basis of multidrug resistance in Shigella spp. isolated from 1600 food samples (800 meat products and 800 dairy products) collected from different street venders, butchers, retail markets, and slaughterhouses in Egypt. Twenty-four out of 27 Shigella isolates (88.9%) showed multidrug resistance phenotypes to at least three classes of antimicrobials. The multidrug-resistant Shigella spp. were as follows: Shigella flexneri (66.7%), Shigella sonnei (18.5%), and Shigella dysenteriae (3.7%). The highest resistance was to streptomycin (100.0%), then to kanamycin (95.8%), nalidixic acid (95.8%), tetracycline (95.8%), spectinomycin (93.6%), ampicillin (87.5%), and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (87.5%). PCR and DNA sequencing were used to screen and characterize integrons and antibiotic resistance genes. Our results indicated that 11.1% and 74.1% of isolates were positive for class 1 and class 2 integrons, respectively. Beta-lactamase-encoding genes were identified in 77.8% of isolates, and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes were identified in 44.4% of isolates. These data provide useful information to better understand the molecular basis of antimicrobial resistance in Shigella spp. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the molecular characterization of antibiotic resistance in Shigella spp. isolated from food.

  17. Gall production on hawthorns caused by Gymnosporangium spp.in Hatay province, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three hawthorn and related rust diseases caused by Gymnosporangium confusum on Crataegus monogyna, G. clavariiforme on C. orientalis, and G. sabinae on Pyrus communis were detected in Hatay province, Turkey. Gymnosporangium confusum was also found causing telial galls on Juniperus communis. Gymnospo...

  18. A molecular survey of Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and their ticks from Thuringia, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najm, Nour-Addeen; Meyer-Kayser, Elisabeth; Hoffmann, Lothar; Herb, Ingrid; Fensterer, Veronika; Pfister, Kurt; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2014-06-01

    Wild canines which are closely related to dogs constitute a potential reservoir for haemoparasites by both hosting tick species that infest dogs and harbouring tick-transmitted canine haemoparasites. In this study, the prevalence of Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. was investigated in German red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and their ticks. DNA extracts of 261 spleen samples and 1953 ticks included 4 tick species: Ixodes ricinus (n=870), I. canisuga (n=585), I. hexagonus (n=485), and Dermacentor reticulatus (n=13) were examined for the presence of Babesia/Theileria spp. by a conventional PCR targeting the 18S rRNA gene. One hundred twenty-one out of 261 foxes (46.4%) were PCR-positive. Out of them, 44 samples were sequenced, and all sequences had 100% similarity to Theileria annae. Similarly, sequencing was carried out for 65 out of 118 PCR-positive ticks. Theileria annae DNA was detected in 61.5% of the sequenced samples, Babesia microti DNA was found in 9.2%, and Babesia venatorum in 7.6% of the sequenced samples. The foxes were most positive in June and October, whereas the peak of tick positivity was in October. Furthermore, the positivity of the ticks was higher for I. canisuga in comparison to the other tick species and for nymphs in comparison to adults. The high prevalence of T. annae DNA in red foxes in this study suggests a reservoir function of those animals for T. annae. To our knowledge, this is the first report of T. annae in foxes from Germany as well as the first detection of T. annae and B. microti in the fox tick I. canisuga. Detection of DNA of T. annae and B. microti in three tick species collected from foxes adds new potential vectors for these two pathogens and suggests a potential role of the red fox in their natural endemic cycles.

  19. Trichinella spp. imported with live animals and meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozio, Edoardo

    2015-09-30

    Nematodes of the genus Trichinella are widely distributed throughout the world in omnivorous and carnivorous animals (mammals, birds, and reptiles) and in incidental hosts. To prevent the transmission of these zoonotic parasites to humans, meat samples from Trichinella spp. susceptible animals are tested at the slaughterhouse or in game processing plants. The aim of the present review was to collect documented cases on Trichinella infected animals, meat, or meat derived products which reached the international trade or were illegally introduced from one to another country in personal baggage. In the course of the last 60 years in the international literature, there have been 43 reports of importation of Trichinella spp. infected animals or meat, most of which (60%, 26/43) related to live horses or their meat. Meat or meat derived products from pigs, wild boar and bears, account only for 18.6% (8/43), 4.7% (3/43), and 14.3% (6/43), respectively. However, only live horses or their meat intended for human consumption, meat from a single wild boar, and live polar bears caught in the wild for zoos, were imported through the international market; whereas, meat from pigs, wild boars and bears were illegally introduced in a country in personal baggage. Trichinella infected animals or meat which were officially or illegally introduced in a country were the source of 3443 Trichinella infections in humans in a 40-year period (1975-2014). Most of these infections (96.8%) have been linked to horsemeat consumption, whereas meat from pigs, wild boars and bears accounted only for 2.2%, 0.7% and 0.3% of cases, respectively. This review shows the Trichinella spp. risk in the international animal and meat trade has been linked mainly to horses and only one time to wild boar, if they carcasses are not adequately tested, whereas pigs and other wild animals or their derived products infected with Trichinella spp. are unlikely to reach the international market by the official animal and

  20. Amoebic forms of Blastocystis spp. - evidence for a pathogenic role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamanikam, Arutchelvan; Govind, Suresh Kumar

    2013-10-11

    Blastocystis spp. are one of the most prevalent parasites isolated from patients suffering from diarrhea, flatulence, constipation and vomiting. It's pathogenicity and pathophysiology remains controversial to date. Protease activity and amoebic forms have been reported previously in symptomatic isolates but there has been no conclusive evidence provided to correlate the protease activity and any specific life cycle stage of the parasite thus far. Symptomatic isolates with amoebic form were tested for protease activity and compared with symptomatic and asymptomatic isolates without amoebic form for 10 days culture period. The present study demonstrates an elevated protease activity in cultures having a higher percentage of amoebic forms seen in symptomatic isolates. The growth curve demonstrated a significantly (p < 0.05) higher average number of parasite counts in asymptomatic compared to symptomatic isolates. Symptomatic isolates showed amoebic forms with percentages ranging from 5% to 17%. Elevated protease activity was demonstrated in isolates that had higher percentages of amoebic forms with intense bands at higher molecular weight proteases (60 - 100 kDa). As days of culture proceeded, the protease quantification also showed a steady increase. This study elucidates a correlation between protease activity and percentage of amoebic forms. The finding implies that these forms could play a role in exacerbation of intestinal symptoms during Blastocystis spp. infection.

  1. Cryptic Polyketide Synthase Genes in Non-Pathogenic Clostridium SPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnken, Swantje; Hertweck, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Modular type I polyketide synthases (PKS) produce a vast array of bacterial metabolites with highly diverse biological functions. Notably, all known polyketides were isolated from aerobic bacteria, and yet no example has been reported for strict anaerobes. In this study we explored the diversity and distribution of PKS genes in the genus Clostridium. In addition to comparative genomic analyses combined with predictions of modular type I polyketide synthase (PKS) gene clusters in sequenced genomes of Clostridium spp., a representative selection of other species inhabiting a variety of ecological niches was investigated by PCR screening for PKS genes. Our data reveal that all studied pathogenic Clostridium spp. are devoid of putative PKS genes. In stark contrast, cryptic PKS genes are widespread in genomes of non-pathogenic Clostridium species. According to phylogenetic analyses, the Clostridium PKS genes have unusual and diverse origins. However, reverse transcription quantitative PCR demonstrates that these genes are silent under standard cultivation conditions, explaining why the related metabolites have been overlooked until now. This study presents clostridia as a putative source for novel bioactive polyketides. PMID:22235310

  2. Sarcocystis spp. Infection in two Red Panda Cubs (Ailurus fulgens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoll, W M; Needle, D B; French, S J; Lim, A; Bolin, S; Langohr, I; Agnew, D

    2015-01-01

    Two neonatal male red panda (Ailurus fulgens) littermates were submitted for necropsy examination. One animal was found dead with no prior signs of illness; the other had a brief history of laboured breathing. Post-mortem examination revealed disseminated protozoal infection. To further characterize the causative agent, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), immunohistochemistry (IHC), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and amplification and nucleic acid sequencing were performed. IHC was negative for Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum, but was positive for a Sarcocystis spp. TEM of cardiac muscle and lung revealed numerous intracellular apicomplexan protozoa within parasitophorous vacuoles. PCR and nucleic acid sequencing of partial 18S rRNA and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-1 region confirmed a Sarcocystis spp. that shared 99% sequence homology to Sarcocystis neurona and Sarcocystis dasypi. This represents the first report of sarcocystosis in red pandas. The histopathological, immunohistochemical, molecular and ultrastructural findings are supportive of vertical transmission resulting in fatal disseminated disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular identification of Coccidioides spp. in soil samples from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filho Antônio D

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1991 several outbreaks of acute coccidioidomycosis (CM were diagnosed in the semi-arid Northeast of Brazil, mainly related to disturbance of armadillo burrows caused by hunters while digging them for the capture of these animals. This activity causes dust contaminated with arthroconidia of Coccidioides posadasii, which, once inhaled, cause the mycosis. We report on the identification of C. posadasii in soil samples related to outbreaks of CM. Results Twenty four soil samples had their DNA extracted and subsequently submitted to a semi-nested PCR technique using specific primers. While only 6 (25% soil samples were positive for C. posadasii by mice inoculation, all (100% were positive by the molecular tool. Conclusion This methodology represents a simple, sensitive and specific molecular technique to determine the environmental distribution of Coccidioides spp. in endemic areas, but cannot distinguish the species. Moreover, it may be useful to identify culture isolates. Key-words: 1. Coccidioidomycosis. 2. Coccidioides spp. 3. C. posadasii. 4. Semi-arid. 5. Semi-nested PCR

  4. CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp and Escherichia coli isolates in Iranian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialvaei, Abed Zahedi; Kafil, Hossein Samadi; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in Iran in order to assess the distribution of CTX-M type ESBLs producing Enterobacteriaceae. From January 2012 to December 2013, totally 198 E. coli, 139 Klebsiella spp, 54 Salmonella spp and 52 Shigella spp from seven hospitals of six provinces in Iran were screened for resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. After identification and susceptibility testing, isolates presenting multiple-drug resistance (MDR) were evaluated for ESBL production by the disk combination method and by Etest using (cefotaxime and cefotaxime plus clavulanic acid). All isolates were also screened for blaCTX-M using conventional PCR. A total of 42.92%, 33.81%, 14.81% and 7.69% of the E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp isolates were MDR, respectively. The presence of CTX-M enzyme among ESBL-producing isolates was 85.18%, 77.7%, 50%, and 66.7%, in E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp respectively. The overall presence of CTX-M genes in Enterobacteriaceae was 15.4% and among the resistant isolates was 47.6%. This study indicated that resistance to β-lactams mediated by CTX-M enzymes in Iran had similar pattern as in other parts of the world. In order to control the spread of resistance, comprehensive studies and programs are needed.

  5. Activity report SPP 1997-1998; Rapport d'activite SPP 1997-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    In this paper are found technical and scientific papers on the main works of the Department of Astrophysics, Particles physic, Nuclear physic and Associated Instrumentation (DAPNIA) of the CEA. The presented fields are: the research programs; positron and electron collisions; proton-proton and proton-antiproton collisions; electron-proton collisions; CP invariance; neutrino and black matter. (A.L.B.)

  6. Easy storage strategies for Sporothrix spp. strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Silva, Natalya Fechine; Lima, Rita Amanda Chaves de; Caetano, Érica Pacheco; Alencar, Lucas Pereira de; Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Moreira, José Luciano Bezerra; Bandeira, Silviane Praciano; Camargo, Zoilo Pires de; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Monteiro, André Jalles; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2015-04-01

    The present study evaluated the maintenance of Sporothrix spp. (6 Sporothrix brasiliensis; 6 S. schenckii; 5 S. mexicana, and 3 S. globosa) in saline at 4°C, and in 10% glycerol plus either 10% lactose or 10% sucrose, at -20°C and -80°C. Viability was assessed after 3, 6, and 9 months of storage, through the recovery of strains on potato dextrose agar and analysis of macro- and micromorphological features. Conidium quantification was performed before and after storage, at 3, 6 and 9 months. 100% viability was observed, regardless of storage conditions or time period. Storage at 4°C and at -20°C did not alter the number of conidia, but lower conidium counts were observed at -80°C. This study shows that the combination of glycerol with lactose or sucrose is effective to maintain Sporothrix spp. at freezing temperatures.

  7. Bartonella spp. exposure in northern and southern sea otters in Alaska and California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Sebastian E; Chomel, Bruno B; Gill, Verena A; Doroff, Angela M; Miller, Melissa A; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; Kasten, Rickie W; Byrne, Barbara A; Goldstein, Tracey; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2014-12-01

    Since 2002, an increased number of northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) from southcentral Alaska have been reported to be dying due to endocarditis and/or septicemia with infection by Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli. Bartonella spp. DNA was also detected in northern sea otters as part of mortality investigations during this unusual mortality event (UME) in Kachemak Bay, Alaska. To evaluate the extent of exposure to Bartonella spp. in sea otters, sera collected from necropsied and live-captured northern sea otters, as well as necropsied southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) unaffected by the UME, were analyzed using an immunofluorescent antibody assay. Antibodies against Bartonella spp. were detected in sera from 50% of necropsied and 34% of presumed healthy, live-captured northern sea otters and in 16% of necropsied southern sea otters. The majority of sea otters with reactive sera were seropositive for B. washoensis, with antibody titers ranging from 1:64 to 1:256. Bartonella spp. antibodies were especially common in adult northern sea otters, both free-living (49%) and necropsied (62%). Adult stranded northern sea otters that died from infectious causes, such as opportunistic bacterial infections, were 27 times more likely to be Bartonella seropositive than adult stranded northern sea otters that died from noninfectious causes (pBartonella spp. antibodies were detected in necropsied northern sea otters from southcentral (44%) and southwestern (86%) stocks of Alaska, as well as in necropsied southern sea otters (16%) in southcentral California, we concluded that Bartonella spp. exposure is widely distributed among sea otter populations in the Eastern Pacific, providing context for investigating future disease outbreaks and monitoring of Bartonella infections for sea otter management and conservation.

  8. Draft Genome Sequences of Seven Thermophilic Spore-Forming Bacteria Isolated from Foods That Produce Highly Heat-Resistant Spores, Comprising Geobacillus spp., Caldibacillus debilis, and Anoxybacillus flavithermus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, Erwin M; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J; Krawczyk, Antonina O; de Jong, Anne; van Heel, Auke; Holsappel, Siger; Eijlander, Robyn T; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genomes of five strains of Geobacillus spp., one Caldibacillus debilis strain, and one draft genome of Anoxybacillus flavithermus, all thermophilic spore-forming Gram-positive bacteria.

  9. Draft Genome Sequences of Seven Thermophilic Spore-Forming Bacteria Isolated from Foods That Produce Highly Heat-Resistant Spores, Comprising Geobacillus spp., Caldibacillus debilis, and Anoxybacillus flavithermus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendsen, Erwin M.; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H. J.; Krawczyk, Antonina O.; de Jong, Anne; van Heel, Auke; Holsappel, Siger; Eijlander, Robyn T.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genomes of five strains of Geobacillus spp., one Caldibacillus debilis strain, and one draft genome of Anoxybacillus flavithermus, all thermophilic spore-forming Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:27151781

  10. [Demodex spp in chronic blepharitis patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laspina, Florentina; Samudio, Margarita; Arrúa, Martín; Sanabria, Rosa; Fariña, Norma; Carpinelli, Letizia; Cibils, Diógenes; Mino de Kaspar, Herminia

    2015-02-01

    Blepharitis is a very common disease in the ophthalmologic practice generally taking a chronic course with intermittent exacerbations. Several studies have linked the presence of Demodex folliculorum with chronic blepharitis, since the mite has the capacity to perpetuate the follicular inflammatory process. The prevalence of infection by Demodex spp. is variable depending on the population. In Paraguay, information on the frequency of the infestation in patients with chronic blepharitis is not available. To determine the frequency of Demodex spp, and the ocular microbiota in patients with chronic blepharitis attending the Department of Ophthalmology at the Teaching Hospital of the National University of Asuncion. Consecutively, 28 patients with chronic blepharitis, who agreed to participate in the study, were included. Eyes lashes from the upper and lower eyelids were extracted for immediate mite search by direct observation under a light microscope. Samples from eyelids were taken with Kimura spatula and then cultured on blood agar and in enrichment media and incubated in 5% CO2 at 35° C for 72 hours. Among participants, females were more frequent (64%), the age ranged from 17 to 87 years (mean: 38.0; SD: ± 13.5 years). The prevalence of Demodex sp was 54%. Bacteria were isolated 92.9% of cases, most frequently coagulase-negative staphylococci (75%). No association was found between socio-demographic or clinical characteristics and the presence of Demodex sp. The observed high prevalence of infestation by Demodex spp in patients with chronic blepharitis is consistent with other studies.

  11. Micropropagation of Rubus and Ribes spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziedzic, Ewa; Jagła, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Micropropagation is the most appropriate method for large-scale production of Rubus and Ribes spp. The proliferation rate of Rubus spp. differs in shoot tips and nodal segments. The culture media used for raspberry and blackberry propagation are MS-based supplemented with different combination and ratio of plant growth regulators, depending on the stage of culture. The initiation medium containing 0.4 mg L(-1) BA and 0.1 mg L(-1) IBA is used to stabilize shoot cultures. In multiplication media, concentration of cytokinin is doubled. In vitro rooting of shoots is achieved on media supplemented with 1.0 mg L(-1) IBA. Ribes spp. cultures are initiated from shoot tips, meristem, or dormant buds on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L(-1) BA, 0.5 mg L(-1) IBA, and 0.1 mg L(-1) GA(3.) After stabilization of shoot cultures in 3-4-week time, shoot multiplication is carried out on MS medium containing 1.0 mg L(-1) BA and 0.1 mg L(-1) IBA. Shoots 2 cm long are cultured to rooting on a medium amended with 2.0 mg L(-1) IBA and 5.0 mg L(-1) IAA. Rooted plantlets are transferred to universal peat substrate and acclimatized in the greenhouse.

  12. Enrichment of Acinetobacter spp. from food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalheira, Ana; Ferreira, Vânia; Silva, Joana; Teixeira, Paula

    2016-05-01

    Relatively little is known about the role of foods in the chain of transmission of acinetobacters and the occurrence of different Acinetobacter spp. in foods. Currently, there is no standard procedure to recover acinetobacters from food in order to gain insight into the food-related ecology and epidemiology of acinetobacters. This study aimed to assess whether enrichment in Dijkshoorn enrichment medium followed by plating in CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter medium is a useful method for the isolation of Acinetobacter spp. from foods. Recovery of six Acinetobacter species from food spiked with these organisms was compared for two selective enrichment media (Baumann's enrichment and Dijkshoorn's enrichment). Significantly (p Acinetobacter was applied to detect Acinetobacter spp. in different foods. Fourteen different presumptive acinetobacters were recovered and assumed to represent nine different strains on the basis of REP-PCR typing. Eight of these strains were identified by rpoB gene analysis as belonging to the species Acinetobacter johnsonii, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Acinetobacter guillouiae and Acinetobacter gandensis. It was not possible to identify the species level of one strain which may suggests that it represents a distinct species.

  13. Prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. in large game animals intended for consumption: relationship with management practices and livestock influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Sánchez, S; Sánchez, S; Herrera-León, S; Porrero, C; Blanco, J; Dahbi, G; Blanco, J E; Mora, A; Mateo, R; Hanning, I; Vidal, D

    2013-05-03

    Although wild ruminants have been identified as reservoirs of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC), little information is available concerning the role of Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. in large game species. We evaluated the presence of these pathogens in faeces (N=574) and carcasses (N=585) sampled from red deer (N=295), wild boar (N=333) and other ungulates (fallow deer, mouflon) (N=9). Animal sampling was done in situ from 33 hunting estates during two hunting seasons. Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. strains associated with human campylobacteriosis were infrequently detected indicating that both pathogens had a limited zoonotic risk in our study area. The overall STEC prevalence in animals was 21% (134/637), being significantly higher in faeces from red deer (90 out of 264). A total of 58 isolates were serotyped. Serotypes O146:H- and O27:H30 were the most frequent in red deer and the majority of isolates from red deer and wild boar were from serotypes previously found in STEC strains associated with human infection, including the serotype O157:H7. The STEC prevalence in red deer faeces was significantly higher with the presence of livestock (p<0, 01) where high densities of red deer (p<0.001) were present. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the occurrence of Salmonella spp. and STEC in carcasses of large game animals. Furthermore, this study confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) that cross contamination of STEC during carcass dressing occurred, implying the likelihood of these pathogens entering into the food chain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Detection of blaSPM-1, blaKPC, blaTEM and blaCTX-M genes in isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp. and Klebsiella spp. from cancer patients with healthcare-associated infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jácome, Paula Regina Luna de Araújo; Alves, Lílian Rodrigues; Jácome-Júnior, Agenor Tavares; Silva, Maria Jesuíta Bezerra da; Lima, Jailton Lobo da Costa; Araújo, Paulo Sérgio Ramos; Lopes, Ana Catarina S; Maciel, Maria Amélia Vieira

    2016-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp. and Klebsiella spp. are three of the pathogens most frequently involved in infections of cancer patients, and the production of β -lactamases is a major mechanism of resistance due to its wide diversity of existing enzymes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the microbiological profile and data related to patients and infections, and to search for β -lactamase genes in bacterial isolates from hospitalized cancer patients in a hospital in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. A total of 169 isolates were recovered between 2012 and 2014, of which 58 were P. aeruginosa, 36 were Acinetobacter spp. and 75 were Klebsiella spp. A high percentage of carbapenem resistance was observed in P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. Among the carbapenem-resistant bacteria, the blaSPM-1 gene was detected in P. aeruginosa (35.5 %) and Acinetobacter spp. (3.8 %), while blaKPC was detected in P. aeruginosa (25.8 %) only. Among the third- and fourth-generation cephalosporin-resistant strains, in Klebsiella spp. we detected the genes blaTEM (30.6 %), blaCTX-M (58.3 %) and blaKPC (5.6 %), and in Acinetobacter spp. only blaTEM (25.9 %). This the first report of an Acinetobacter baumannii blaSPM-1 gene carrier that has been isolated in Brazil. The most frequent cancer types were bowel tumour [14.8 %; 95 % confidence interval (CI95 %) 9.8-21.1 %], breast cancer (13.6 %; CI95 % 8.8-19.7 %) and prostate cancer (11.2%; CI95 % 6.9-17.0 %). These results therefore provide knowledge of susceptibility profile and resistance mechanisms and thus can contribute to the strategic formulation of hospital infection control plans and the rational use of antimicrobials, reducing mortality from infection levels in cancer patients.

  15. Chemical composition, antibacterial activity and related mechanism of the essential oil from the leaves of Juniperus rigida Sieb. et Zucc against Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiaxia; Li, Dengwu; Zhou, Dan; Wang, Dongmei; Liu, Qiaoxiao; Fan, Sufang

    2016-12-24

    Juniperus rigida is used as Tibetan and Mongolian medicine in China for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, nephritis, brucellosis and other various inflammatory diseases. To evaluate antibacterial potential of essential oils from J. rigida leaves against Klebsiella pneumoniae and to examine its possible related mechanisms. The study was undertaken in order to scientifically validate the traditional use of J. rigida. The essential oil was extracted from the leaves of J. rigida by supercritical CO2 fluid extraction technology. Chemical composition of essential oils was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antibacterial activity was evaluated against 10 bacteria by the paper disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of the essential oil were estimated by agar dilution method. The antibacterial mechanism was evaluated by growth curve, the integrity of cell membrane, the SDS-PAGE of protein patterns and scanning electron microscope (SEM). 61 components were identified from the essential oil. Caryophyllene (13.11%) and α-Caryophyllene (11.72%) were found to be the major components. The antibacterial activities of the essential oil were screened and compared against 10 bacteria. The essential oil showed good antibacterial activity against K. pneumoniae, with the biggest diameters of inhibition zones (DIZ) (16.00±0.25mm) and the lowest MIC and MBC values of 3.125mg/mL. The increase in proteins, 260nm absorbing materials of bacterial cells suspension indicated that the cytoplasmic membranes were broken by the essential oil. The SDS-PAGE of bacterial proteins demonstrated that the essential oil could damage bacterial cells through the destruction of cellular proteins. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the essential oil damaged the morphology of cell wall and membrane. The essential oil of J. rigida has potential antibacterial activities against K

  16. Insecticidal efficacy of silica gel with Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus (Pinales: Cupressaceae) essential oil against Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanassiou, Christos G; Kavallieratos, Nickolas C; Evergetis, Epameinondas; Katsoula, Anna-Maria; Haroutounian, Serkos A

    2013-08-01

    Laboratory bioassays were carried out to evaluate the effect of silica gel enhanced with the essential oil (EO) of Juniperus oxycedrus L. ssp. oxycedrus (Pinales: Cupressaceae) (derived from berry specimens from Greece) against adults of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). For that purpose, a dry mixture consisting of 500 mg of silica gel that had absorbed 2.18 mg of EO (total weight: 502.18 mg) was tested at three doses; 0.125, 0.250, and 0.5 g/kg of wheat, corresponding to 125, 250, and 500 ppm, respectively, and silica gel alone at 0.5 g/kg of wheat corresponding to 500 ppm, at different exposure intervals (24 and 48 h and 7 and 14 d for S. oryzae; 24 and 48 h and 7, 14, and 21 d for T. confusum). The chemical content of the specific EO was determined by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) analyses indicating the presence of 31 constituents with myrcene and germacrene-D being the predominant compounds. The bioactivity results for S. oryzae indicated that 48 h of exposure in wheat resulted in an 82% mortality for treatment with 500 ppm of the enhanced silica gel. For 7 d of exposure, 100 and 98% of S. oryzae adults died when they were treated with 500 and 250 ppm of enhanced silica gel, respectively. At 14 d of exposure, all adults died both at 250 and 500 ppm of enhanced silica gel. At 48 h, 7 and 14 d of exposure significantly less S. oryzae adults died in wheat treated with silica gel alone than at 250 or 500 ppm of enhanced silica gel. In the case of T. confusum, at 7 d of exposure, mortality in wheat treated with silica gel only was significantly higher in comparison to the other treatments. At the 14 d of exposure mortality in wheat treated with 500 ppm of silica gel alone was significantly higher than 125 and 250 ppm of the enhanced silica gel. Similar trends were also noted at 21 d of exposure, indicating that there is no enhancement effect from the addition of

  17. Using Stable Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotopes to Determine Tree Water Source and Depth for Eastern Redcedar (Cupressaceae: Juniperus virginiana) Across Oklahoma's Precipitation Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddens, J.; McCarthy, H. R.

    2016-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is the largest component of the water budget in semiarid regions, accounting for 90% of the total ecosystem water flux, and playing a key role in understanding the effects of other hydrological components, such as streamflow and aquifer recharge. ET rates have been shown to be altered in areas of woody encroachment, as grasslands are converted to woodlands. Understanding the effects on ET, and the movement of water in plants and soil specifically, is crucial to understanding the full impact of woody encroachment by Juniperus virginiana (ERC) on the water budget. In this study, I use stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes to determine the primary water source and depth of water uptake for ERC individuals temporally and spatially across a precipitation gradient in Oklahoma. This allows me to examine differences in rooting strategies of ERC individuals under different, naturally occurring water availability conditions. I expected that individuals located in the western site (least average annual precipitation) would utilize a deeper rooting strategy relative to individuals located in the central and southeastern Oklahoma sites (higher average annual precipitation). For each site, I sampled and analyzed the isotopic ratios of ẟ D and ẟ 18O present in stem, soil, precipitation, surface, and ground water sources in order to distinguish the isotopic signatures of each. I found that average ẟ D and ẟ 18O values of source water were more evaporatively enriched in the winter as compared to summer in all sites. This suggests that deeper soil water (and some groundwater) is being accessed in the winter, as compared to the summer, when there is more precipitation. A repeated measures ANOVA of ẟ D and ẟ 18O values showed that season alone explains 97% and 98% of variation (p<0.001), respectively, while site alone explains 30% and 52% variation (p=0.30, p=0.52). These results suggest that temporal (seasonal) variation has a larger effect on source

  18. Anti-tumor effect of hot aqueous extracts from Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L. and Juniperus sabina L - Two traditional medicinal plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyan, Ting; Li, Qi; Wang, Yi-Lin; Li, Jing; Zhang, Jian-Yang; Liu, Ya-Xiong; Shahid, Muhammad Riaz; Yang, Hui; Li, Huan-Qing

    2016-06-05

    Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L (SO) and Juniperus sabina L (JS) are traditional medicinal plants in China. And the aqueous extracts of them have been used to treat tumor, inflammatory diseases, infection and so on in Chinese folk culture. However, the underlying mechanisms of their anti-tumor activities have not been illustrated yet. This study aims to evaluate the inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts from SO and JS on tumor cells. The prepared aqueous extracts of SO and JS were used to treat HepG-2 and K562 tumor cells, while the human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were set as normal control. The viabilities, cell cycle and apoptosis of tumor cells after extracts treatment were assessed, in addition the expression of apoptosis-related genes (FasL, caspase 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10) were analyzed. Meanwhile, the adherence and migration of HepG-2 were tested, and the expression levels of MMPs and ICAM-1 were analyzed. On top of that, the pSTAT in the two cells were also analyzed and suggested the related signaling pathway that the extracts acted on with in these tumor cells. Results showed that aqueous extracts of SO and JS have inhibitory effects on HepG-2 and K562 cells by decreasing cell viability and inducing apoptosis via up-regulation of the expression of the apoptosis-related genes FasL, caspase 3 and caspase 9. The extracts had different IC50 on tumor cells and PBMCs, which could block the tumor cell cycle at the G(0)/G(1) stage and significantly inhibit the adherence of HepG-2 cells. The extracts inhibited migration of these cells by inhibiting the expression of ICAM-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9. Further study indicated that the inhibition of pSTAT1 and 3 might be responsible for the inhibitory effects of the extracts on tumor cells. The results of this study indicated that SO and JS extracts had the anti-tumor effects, which may be developed as novel anti-tumor drugs and used in cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Does woodland encroachment impact water?: An ecohydrology study of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) and other semi-arid conifers in the western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, R. J.; Link, T. E.; Heinse, R.; Seyfried, M. S.; Flerchinger, G. N.; Klos, P. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Semi-arid conifer species including western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) among other pinyon and juniper (P-J) species have expanded into grass and shrub-dominated landscapes in the western U.S. Despite the importance of land cover changes to hydrological fluxes in these water-limited systems, there have been few process-based ecohydrology studies of western juniper encroachment. Furthermore, many conclusions about the impact of P-J encroachment on streamflow are limited to several studies in the southwestern U.S. Our objectives are to: a) assess how western juniper will impact above-ground hydrological processes, b) assess how western juniper will alter below-ground hydrological processes, c) assess how changes in P-J cover alters deep drainage across diverse climates of the western U.S. To accomplish these objectives we used a combination of continuous lysimeter and soil moisture measurements, periodic snow surveys, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and electromagnetic induction (EMI) surveys, simulations with the Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) model and broad, spatially-coarse simulations with the atmosphere-vegetation-soil component of the HBV model. Juniper trees by both intercepting snow and increasing below-canopy snow melt caused tree wells to form throughout the winter. These tree wells increased snow redistribution to the base of the trees. Soil moisture in the interspace dominated by sagebrush, forbes, and grasses drops early in the season, but late season soil moisture changes are moderated by juniper. There is evidence that junipers continue to transpire soil moisture both late into the summer and at up to 3 meters deep. HBV simulations revealed that the potential for increases in deep drainage with a change from P-J to grass cover is principally controlled by the timing instead of the total precipitation. Simulations confirm previous empirical studies that landscapes in monsoon-dominated climates of the southwestern U.S. show negligible

  20. Essential oils of Cupressus funebris, Juniperus communis, and J. chinensis (Cupressaceae) as repellents against ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and as toxicants against mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, John F; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Kramer, Matthew; Elejalde, Natasha M; Wedge, David E; Bernier, Ulrich R; Coy, Monique; Becnel, James J; Demirci, Betul; Başer, Kemal Husnu Can; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Sui

    2011-12-01

    Juniperus communis leaf oil, J. chinensis wood oil, and Cupressus funebris wood oil (Cupressaceae) from China were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified 104 compounds, representing 66.8-95.5% of the oils. The major components were: α-pinene (27.0%), α-terpinene (14.0%), and linalool (10.9%) for J. communis; cuparene (11.3%) and δ-cadinene (7.8%) for J. chinensis; and α-cedrene (16.9%), cedrol (7.6%), and β-cedrene (5.7%) for C. funebris. The essential oils of C. funebris, J. chinensis, and J. communis were evaluated for repellency against adult yellow fever mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti (L.), host-seeking nymphs of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.), and the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, and for toxicity against Ae. aegypti larvae and adults, all in laboratory bioassays. All the oils were repellent to both species of ticks. The EC(95) values of C. funebris, J. communis, and J. chinensis against A. americanum were 0.426, 0.508, and 0.917 mg oil/cm(2) filter paper, respectively, compared to 0.683 mg deet/cm(2) filter paper. All I. scapularis nymphs were repelled by 0.103 mg oil/cm(2) filter paper of C. funebris oil. At 4 h after application, 0.827 mg oil/cm(2) filter paper, C. funebris and J. chinensis oils repelled ≥80% of A. americanum nymphs. The oils of C. funebris and J. chinensis did not prevent female Ae. aegypti from biting at the highest dosage tested (1.500 mg/cm(2) ). However, the oil of J. communis had a Minimum Effective Dosage (estimate of ED(99) ) for repellency of 0.029 ± 0.018 mg/cm(2) ; this oil was nearly as potent as deet. The oil of J. chinensis showed a mild ability to kill Ae. aegypti larvae, at 80 and 100% at 125 and 250 ppm, respectively.

  1. Meningoencephalitis and Listeria monocytogenes, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. coinfection in a dolphin in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattarola, Carla; Giorda, Federica; Iulini, Barbara; Pintore, Maria Domenica; Pautasso, Alessandra; Zoppi, Simona; Goria, Maria; Romano, Angelo; Peletto, Simone; Varello, Katia; Garibaldi, Fulvio; Garofolo, Giuliano; Di Francesco, Cristina Esmeralda; Marsili, Letizia; Bozzetta, Elena; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Dondo, Alessandro; Mignone, Walter; Casalone, Cristina

    2016-02-25

    Listeria monocytogenes, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. can infect a wide range of species, including humans. In cetaceans, meningoencephalitis has been associated with T. gondii and Brucella spp. infection, whereas to our knowledge, L. monocytogenes infection has not previously been reported. Meningoencephalitis and L. monocytogenes, T. gondii and Brucella spp. were identified by means of both direct and indirect laboratory techniques in an adult female striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba found stranded in January 2015 on the Ligurian Sea coast, northwestern Italy. The animal was emaciated, and histopathology disclosed severe meningoencephalitis. The nature of the inflammatory response and intra-lesional protozoa were consistent with a mixed infection by L. monocytogenes, T. gondii and Brucella spp. We believe this is an unprecedented case of infection by 3 zoonotic pathogens and also the first bacteriologically confirmed case report of neurolisteriosis in cetaceans. Cerebral toxoplasmosis and neurobrucellosis may have led to the animal's disorientation and stranding, with L. monocytogenes having likely exacerbated the coinfection leading to the demise of this dolphin.

  2. Secreted phosphoprotein 24 kD (Spp24) inhibits growth of human pancreatic cancer cells caused by BMP-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chen-Shuang [Department of Orthodontics, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing (China); Tian, Haijun, E-mail: haijuntianmd@gmail.com [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Department of Surgery, Bethune School of Medics, Shijiazhuang (China); Zou, Min [Department of Orthodontics, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Zhao, Ke-Wei [Research Service, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, North Hills, CA (United States); Li, Yawei; Lao, Lifeng [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Brochmann, Elsa J. [Research Service, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, North Hills, CA (United States); Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, North Hills, CA (United States); Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Duarte, M. Eugenia L. [National Institute of Traumatology and Orthopaedics, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Daubs, Michael D. [Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Zhou, Yan-Heng, E-mail: yanhengzhou@vip.163.com [Department of Orthodontics, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing (China); Murray, Samuel S. [Research Service, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, North Hills, CA (United States); Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, North Hills, CA (United States); Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Wang, Jeffrey C. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-10-16

    The emerging role of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in the initiation and progression of multiple cancers has drawn great attention in cancer research. In this study, we report that BMP-2 can promote the proliferation of the pancreatic tumor cell line, PANC-1. Secreted phosphoprotein 24 kD (Spp24), a BMP binding protein, did not affect the proliferation of the cells but promoted the apoptosis of the cells in vitro. In a xeneograft tumor model using PANC-1 cells, BMP-2 dramatically promoted tumor growth, while Spp24 not only abolished the effect of BMP-2, but also dramatically induced tumor shrinking when used alone. Activation of Smad1/5/8 participated in this process as demonstrated by immunohistochemical staining of phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8. We conclude that Spp24 can be developed into a therapeutic agent that could be employed in clinical situations where the inhibition of BMPs and related proteins is advantageous. - Highlights: • Spp24 effectively inhibited the in vivo tumor growth of PANC-1. • BMP-2 dramatically promoted tumor growth by promoting PANC-1 proliferation. • Spp24 abolished the tumor growth effect of BMP-2 by promoting PANC-1 apoptosis. • Spp24 may be a candidate as a therapeutic agent of pancreatic cancer.

  3. A serological survey of Brucella spp., Salmonella spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp. in Iberian fattening pigs reared in free-range systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, M; Gómez-Laguna, J; Tarradas, C; Luque, I; García-Valverde, R; Reguillo, L; Astorga, R J

    2014-10-01

    Zoonotic agents such as Brucella spp., Salmonella spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp., all considered high-risk zoonotic pathogens by the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA), may cause no symptoms of infection in free-range pigs yet still have a significant public health impact. A serological survey was therefore performed to determine the history of occurrence of these pathogens in such pigs in southern Spain. A total of 709 serum samples were collected at abattoir from pigs from 79 farms and analysed for specific antibodies against the above pathogens using commercially available ELISA kits. Encysted Trichinella spp. larvae were also sought following the artificial digestion method of diaphragm pillar muscle. The results showed Salmonella spp. to be widely distributed among the sampled herds [73.42%, 95% confidence interval (CI95 ) 65.6-81.78] and Toxoplasma gondii to be present in over half (58.23%, CI95 47.33-69.07). The seroprevalence of Brucella spp. was very low (3.8%, CI95 0.18-7.42), and antibodies against Trichinella spp. were not detected. No encysted Trichinella spp. larvae were microscopically detected.

  4. Small rodents as reservoirs of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in south-western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Perec-Matysiak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [i]Cryptosporidium[/i] spp. and [i]Giardia[/i] spp. have been detected in a range of host species, including rodents. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of these pathogens and recognition of the reservoir role of rodents in the maintenance of these pathogens in south-western Poland. Additionally, preliminary molecular studies were conducted to elucidate the species and genotypes of [i]Cryptosporidium[/i] and [i]Giardia[/i] identified in this study. Stool samples (n=266 from [i]A. agrarius[/i],[i] A. flavicollis[/i] and [i]M. glareolus[/i], were subjected for analyses. Values of prevalence were 61.7, 68.3 and 68.1%, respectively, for [i]Cryptosporidium[/i] spp. and 41.7, 24.4 and 38.4%, respectively, for [i]Giardia[/i] spp. There was a statistically significant correlation between host species and [i]Giardia[/i] infection where[i] A. agrarius[/i] was the species of the highest prevalence. Statistically significant differences were not found for comparisons made for study sites and occurrence of [i]Giardia[/i] spp. and [i]Cryptosporidium[/i] spp. Due to preliminary nested PCR results, specific amplifications of [i]Cryptosporidium[/i] COWP and SSU rRNA genes were obtained for several isolates taken from rodent host species. One isolate recovered from [i]A. agrarius[/i] (from a semi-aquatic, urban area was identified as [i]C. parvum[/i] and revealed 100% similarity with sequences obtained from humans. To the best of the knowledge of the authors, this is the first record of the [i]C. parvum[/i] zoonotic species from the striped field mouse. Also recorded were the first findings of [i]C. ubiquitum[/i] from three small rodent species.

  5. Standardization of a quantification method for Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in specific liquid media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Patricia Rivera

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chlorination is the most widely used disinfection process for drinking water production. The formation of chlorination carcinogenic by-products and chlorine intoxication by direct manipulation in small communities has motivated the study of alternative disinfection processes. In this sense, processes of advanced oxidation (PAOs have yielded promising results. Escherichia coli (E. coli is customarily used as faecal bacterial indicator to determine the efficiency of disinfection processes. However, it has been shown that E. coli is less resistant to disinfection than other enteric bacteria such as Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. Additionally, the viable non-culturable (VNC state yields bacteria which are not detectable on many culture media.Objective: The main objective is to standardize a method for counting Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in specific liquid media to reliably quantify the bacteriological potential risk related to disinfection processes based on PAO.Methods: The study followed a randomized bi-factorial experimental design and the Duncan multiple comparison test. This design allowed the selection of specific liquid media to fittingly standardize the counting of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp.Results: We found that the best broth for counting Salmonella typhimurium strain at different concentrations in pure and mixed cultures was the Rappaport broth RP, the EE broth also allowed growing the two bacterial species tested in this research. Nonetheless, the latter results suggest the use of additional tests for this particular broth.Discussion: There was a variation in the counting results when pure cultures were used compared to those obtained from mixtures of microorganisms. It was also noted that Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella sonnei, were recovered from minimal concentrations in both RP and EE broths, respectively. To some extent, this suggests an additional confirmative method when using the EE® broth

  6. Standardization of a quantification method for Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in specific liquid media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Patricia Rivera

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chlorination is the most widely used disinfection process for drinking water production. The formation of chlorination carcinogenic by-products and chlorine intoxication by direct manipulation in small communities has motivated the study of alternative disinfection processes. In this sense, processes of advanced oxidation (PAOs have yielded promising results. Escherichia coli (E. coli is customarily used as faecal bacterial indicator to determine the efficiency of disinfection processes. However, it has been shown that E. coli is less resistant to disinfection than other enteric bacteria such as Shigella  spp. and Salmonella  spp. Additionally, the viable non-culturable (VNC state yields bacteria which are not detectable on many culture media. Objective: The main objective is to standardize a method for counting Salmonella  spp. and Shigella  spp. in specific liquid media to reliably quantify the bacteriological potential risk related to disinfection processes based on PAO. Methods: The study followed a randomized bi-factorial experimental design and the Duncan multiple comparison test. This design allowed the selection of specific liquid media to fittingly standardize the counting of Salmonella  spp. and Shigella  spp. Results: We found that the best broth for counting Salmonella typhimurium strain at different concentrations in pure and mixed cultures was the Rappaport broth RP, the EE broth also allowed growing the two bacterial species tested in this research. Nonetheless, the latter results suggest the use of additional tests for this particular broth. Discussion: There was a variation in the counting results when pure cultures were used compared to those obtained from mixtures of microorganisms. It was also noted that Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella sonnei, were recovered from minimal concentrations in both RP and EE broths, respectively. To some extent, this suggests an additional confirmative method when using the

  7. Phenotypical characterization of Candida spp. isolated from crop of parrots (Amazona spp. Caracterização fenotípica de Candida spp. isoladas de inglúvio de papagaios (Amazona spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata G. Vieira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize Candida isolates from crop of parrots. Forty baby parrots of genus Amazona, species aestiva and amazonica that were apprehended from wild animal traffic were used: 18 presented ingluvitis and 22 other alterations, but showing general debilitation. Samples were seeded on Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol after be obtained by the introduction of urethral probe through the esophagus. Based on morphology and biochemical reactions (API 20C Candida was confirmed; it was still searched the production of proteinase and phospholipase, virulence factors for Candida species. Candida spp. were isolated from 57.5% parrots, being 72.2% from birds with ingluvitis and 45.5% from without ones. Twenty-five strains of Candida were isolated, 60% and 40%, respectively from parrots with and without ingluvitis, and were speciated: 28% C. humicola, 24% C. parapsilosis, 20% C. guilliermondii, 20% C. famata, and 8% C. albicans. These results demonstrate that C. albicans is not the most frequent species isolated, and it is the first report that shows C. guilliermondii, C. famata, and C. humicola causing infection in parrots. Many isolates presented filamentation (76%, 100% produced proteinase and 68% phospholipase. The observation of Candida spp. producing virulence factors reinforce the pathogenic role of these yeasts in the cases studied.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar cepas de Candida spp. isoladas de inglúvio de papagaios. Foram utilizados 40 papagaios do gênero Amazona, espécies aestiva e amazonica, apreendidos de tráfico de animais selvagens: 18 apresentavam ingluvite e 22 outras alterações, mas todos mostrando sinais de debilitação geral. Colheram-se as amostras clínicas através da introdução de sonda uretral no esôfago dos animais e estas foram semeadas em ágar Sabouraud dextrose acrescido de cloranfenicol. A identificação das espécies de Candida foi baseada em caracter

  8. Enterobacter spp.: A new evidence causing bacterial wilt on mulberry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PRAPHAT; Kawicha

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-six pathogenetic bacterial strains were isolated from wilted mulberry plants in Hangzhou,Zhejiang province of China.The six representative strains were confirmed to be involved in more than one Enterobacter species by common bacteriological test,electron microscope observation,hypersensitive reaction,Koch’s postulates,physiological and biochemical test,biolog,fatty acid methyl esters analysis (FAMEs),enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR),16s rRNA sequences analysis,and comparative analysis with 7 type strains and 3 reference strains.This is the first report on mulberry disease caused by Enterobacter spp.in the world providing new evidence on induction of the plant disease in this genus.The results are not only important in the mulberry disease management but also have significant scientific value for further studies of opportunistic human pathogens and environmental strains in Enterobacter.

  9. [Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. infection in antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, João Carlos Gomes; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Vergara-Parente, Jociery Einhardt; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Glória; Machado, Erilane de Castro Lima

    2009-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is a zoonosis which can affect man and a wide range of domestic and wild animals, mainly immunodeficient individuals. The objective of this paper was reported the occurrence of a Cryptosporidium infection in Antillean manatee. After an unusual behavior of an Antillean manatee kept in captivity at the Centro Mamíferos Aquáticos, ICMBio--FMA, clinical examination and posterior fecal sampling was performed. Fecal samples were examined by the Kinyoun technique, Direct Immunofluorescence Test and also examined by 4',6'-Diamidino-2-Phenylindole (DAPI) staining. At the clinical examination, the animal showed signs of abdominal pain. The results obtained by light and fluorescence microscopy analysis showed the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocyst in feces of this manatee.

  10. Afritoxinones A and B, dihydrofuropyran-2-ones produced by Diplodia africana the causal agent of branch dieback on Juniperus phoenicea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidente, Antonio; Masi, Marco; Linaldeddu, Benedetto T; Franceschini, Antonio; Scanu, Bruno; Cimmino, Alessio; Andolfi, Anna; Motta, Andrea; Maddau, Lucia

    2012-05-01

    Two phytotoxic dihydrofuropyran-2-ones, named afritoxinones A and B, were isolated from liquid culture of Diplodia africana, a fungal pathogen responsible for branch dieback of Phoenicean juniper in Italy. Additionally, six others known metabolites were isolated and characterized: oxysporone, sphaeropsidin A, epi-sphaeropsidone, R-(-)-mellein, (3R,4R)-4-hydroxymellein and (3R,4S)-4-hydroxymellein. The structures of afritoxinones A and B were established by spectroscopic and optical methods and determined to be as (3aS(*),6R(*),7aS)-6-methoxy-3a,7a-dihydro-3H,6H-furo[2,3-b]pyran-2-one and (3aR(*),6R(*),7aS)-6-methoxy-3a,7a-dihydro-3H,6H-furo[2,3-b]pyran-2-one, respectively. The phytotoxic activity of afritoxinones A and B and oxysporone was evaluated on host (Phoenicean juniper) and non-host plant (holm oak, cork oak and tomato) by cutting and leaf puncture assay. Oxysporone proved to be the most phytotoxic compound. This study represents the first report of secondary metabolites produced by D. africana. In addition, the taxonomic implications of secondary metabolites in Botryosphaeriaceae family studies are discussed.

  11. Isolamento de Pasteurella spp. e Vibrio spp. em robalos (Dicentrarchus labrax: susceptibilidade a diferentes grupos de antibióticos Isolation of Pasteurella spp. and Vibrio spp. in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax: susceptibility to different antibiotic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Saavedra

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent infectious diseases that affect fish are those of bacterial origin. In European sea bass fish farms (Dicentrarchus labrax are included Vibrio spp., Pasteurella piscicida and Myxobacter spp. In addition to these, it is also possible to find, although lesser frequently, other pathogenic agents such as Pseudomonas spp., Aeromonas spp., Staphylococcus epidermis, Streptococcus spp. and Enterobacter spp. The presence of these micro-organisms in fish farms contributes for a significant decrease in fish production and subsequent loss of profitability in these aquaculture units. The use of antibiotics may therefore be necessary as a prophylactic measure although their systematic utilization leads to the development of strains of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Bearing that in mind, a survey was conducted on the susceptibility of isolated strains of bacteria found in juvenile European sea bass. It was concluded that chloranphenicol and tetracycline are two important antibiotic alternatives for therapy against isolated bacterial agents.

  12. Contamination by Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. of most popular chicken- and pork-sausages sold in Reunion Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimoulinard, A; Beral, M; Henry, I; Atiana, L; Porphyre, V; Tessier, C; Leclercq, A; Cardinale, E

    2017-03-27

    One of the most popular meat products of the local "cuisine" is sausage composed with 100% chicken or 100% pork. In this study, we aimed to determine the presence of Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. in chicken- and pork-sausages, quantify Salmonella spp. population and identify the factors that could be associated with contamination in the outlets. Two hundred and three batches of pork and chicken sausages were randomly collected from 67 local outlets (supermarkets, groceries and butcher shops). Salmonella spp. was detected in 11.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): [10.0; 13.5]) of samples, Campylobacter spp. in 1.5% [0.7; 4.2] and Listeria monocytogenes in 5.9% [4.4; 7.3]. Most probable number of Salmonella spp. varied between 6cfu per gram to 320cfu per gram. Salmonella serotypes isolated from pork and chicken sausages were S. Typhimurium (45.8%), S. London (20.8%), S. Derby (16.7%), S. Newport (8.33%), S. Blockley (4.2%) and S. Weltevreden (4.17%). Using a logistic (mixed-effect) regression model, we found that Salmonella spp. contamination was positively associated with sausages sold in papers or plastic bags and no control of rodents. Chicken sausages were associated with a decreasing risk of Salmonella contamination. Listeria monocytogenes contamination was positively associated with the presence of fresh rodent droppings in the outlet and negatively when the staff was cleaning regularly their hands with soap and water or water only. All the sampled outlets of Reunion Island were not equivalent in terms of food safety measures. Increasing awareness of these traders remains a cornerstone to limit the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. in sausages, particularly in a tropical context (high temperature and humidity).

  13. Exotic Small Mammals as Potential Reservoirs of Zoonotic Bartonella spp.

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the risk for emerging human infections caused by zoonotic Bartonella spp. from exotic small mammals, we investigated the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in 546 small mammals (28 species) that had been imported into Japan as pets from Asia, North America, Europe, and the Middle and Near East. We obtained 407 Bartonella isolates and characterized them by molecular phylogenetic analysis of the citrate synthase gene, gltA. The animals examined carried 4 zoonotic Bartonella spp. that cau...

  14. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp isolated from broiler flocks

    OpenAIRE

    Kuana, Suzete Lora; SANTOS Luciana Ruschel dos; RODRIGUES, Laura Beatriz; Anderlise BORSOI; Moraes, Hamilton Luis do Souza; Salle, Carlos Tadeu Pippi; Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro do

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility of 62 Campylobacter spp. strains obtained from broiler flocks using the agar diffusion method. The Campylobacter spp strains were isolated from 22 flocks aged between 3 and 5 weeks of life, isolated from cloacae swabs, stools and cecal droppings in the farm and from the carcass rinsing in the slaughterhouse. Campylobacter spp strains were tested on Mueller-Hilton (MH) agar (27 samples) and MH plus TTC agar (35 samples). The ...

  15. Differential identification of Entamoeba spp. based on the analysis of 18S rRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Helena Lúcia Carneiro; Bandea, Rebecca; Martins, Luci Ana Fernandes; de Macedo, Heloisa Werneck; Peralta, Regina Helena Saramago; Peralta, Jose Mauro; Ndubuisi, Mackevin I; da Silva, Alexandre J

    2010-03-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is known to cause intestinal and extra-intestinal disease while the other Entamoeba species are not considered to be pathogenic. However, all Entamoeba spp. should be reported when identified in clinical samples. Entamoeba polecki, Entamoeba coli, and Entamoeba hartmanii can be differentiated morphologically from E. histolytica, but some of their diagnostic morphologic features overlap. E. histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, and Entamoeba moshkovskii are morphologically identical but can be differentiated using molecular tools. We developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure followed by DNA sequencing of specific regions of 18S rRNA gene to differentiate the Entamoeba spp. commonly found in human stools. This approach was used to analyze 45 samples from cases evaluated for the presence of Entamoeba spp. by microscopy and a real-time PCR method capable of differential detection of E. histolytica and E. dispar. Our results demonstrated an agreement of approximately 98% (45/44) between the real-time PCR for E. histolytica and E. dispar and the 18S rRNA analysis described here. Five previously negative samples by microscopy revealed the presence of E. dispar, E. hartmanii, or E. coli DNA. In addition, we were able to detect E. hartmanii in a stool sample that had been previously reported as negative for Entamoeba spp. by microscopy. Further microscopic evaluation of this sample revealed the presence of E. hartmanii cysts, which went undetected during the first microscopic evaluation. This PCR followed by DNA sequencing will be useful to refine the diagnostic detection of Entamoeba spp. in stool and other clinical specimens.

  16. Application of zinc chloride precipitation method for rapid isolation and concentration of infectious Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp. lytic bacteriophages from surface water and plant and soil extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, Robert; Ozymko, Zofia; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    This is the first report describing precipitation of bacteriophage particles with zinc chloride as a method of choice to isolate infectious lytic bacteriophages against Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp. from environmental samples. The isolated bacteriophages are ready to use to study various (ecological) aspects of bacteria-bacteriophage interactions. The method comprises the well-known precipitation of phages from aqueous extracts of the test material by addition of ZnCl2, resuscitation of bacteriophage particles in Ringer's buffer to remove the ZnCl2 excess and a soft agar overlay assay with the host bacterium to isolate infectious individual phage plaques. The method requires neither an enrichment step nor other steps (e. g., PEG precipitation, ultrafiltration, or ultracentrifugation) commonly used in other procedures and results in isolation of active viable bacteriophage particles.

  17. Transpiration rates of rice plants treated with Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, Febri; Anizan, I.; Che Radziah C. M., Z.; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2014-09-01

    Trichoderma spp. are considered as successful plant growth promoting fungi and have positive role in habitat engineering. In this study, the potential for Trichoderma spp. to regulate transpiration process in rice plant was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. The study revealed that Trichoderma spp. have potential to enhance growth of rice plant through transpirational processes. The results of the study add to the advancement of the understanding as to the role of Trichoderma spp. in improving rice physiological process.

  18. 21 CFR 866.3035 - Arizona spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Arizona and provides epidemiological information on diseases caused by these microorganisms. Arizona spp....

  19. 21 CFR 866.3630 - Serratia spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Serratia and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. Serratia spp. are occasionally associated with...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Bordetella and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. Bordetella spp. cause whooping cough...

  1. Inhibition of Quorum Sensing in Staphylococcus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackman, Gilles; Coenye, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic coccus-shaped bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus are among the most important causative agents of acute and chronic bacterial infections in humans as well as in animals. Treatment of Staphylococcus infections has become increasingly challenging due to the growing problem of antibiotic resistance. For this reason innovative antimicrobials with novel targets and modes of action are needed. Since the discovery that QS is used by Staphylococcus spp. to coordinate the expression of several genes involved in virulence, biofilm formation and pathogenicity, QS inhibition has gained increasing attention as an alternative anti-pathogenic strategy. A major advantage compared with antibiotic therapy is that QSIs are used in concentrations that do not affect bacterial growth. For this reason, it is expected that these compounds would exert less pressure towards the development of resistance. However, some important points still need to be addressed. Although several inhibitors have proven to be active antipathogenic agents in vitro and in several in vivo models, it is still unknown whether these compounds will also be useful in humans. Furthermore, several fundamental mechanisms by which the different QS systems in Staphylococcus spp. exert their regulatory functions and how they are inhibited by QSIs are still poorly understood. In order to achieve real-life applications with QSIs, these challenges should be addressed and more research will be needed. In this article, we will discuss the different QS systems present in Staphylococcus spp., how they are used to control virulence and biofilm formation and how they can be blocked.

  2. Molecular Detection of Theileria spp. in Livestock on Five Caribbean Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jilei; Kelly, Patrick; Li, Jing; Xu, Chuanling; Wang, Chengming

    2015-01-01

    Theileria spp. are tick-transmitted, intracellular apicomplexan protozoan parasites infecting a wide range of animals. As there is very limited information on the prevalence of Theileria spp. in the Caribbean we used the recently described genus-specific pan-Theileria FRET-qPCR to identify infected animals in the region and a standard 18S rRNA gene PCR and sequencing to determine the species involved. We found Theileria spp. in 9% of the convenience samples of animals (n = 752) studied from five Caribbean islands. Donkeys (20.0%: 5/25) were most commonly infected, followed by sheep (17.4%, 25/144), cattle (6.8%; 22/325), goats (5.0%; 12/238), and horses (5.0%; 1/20). Six species of Theileria were identified: T. equi (donkeys, cattle, goats, and sheep), Theileria sp. OT3 (sheep and goats), Theileria sp. NG-2013a (cattle), Theileria sp. YW-2014 (donkeys), Theileria sp. B15a (goats), and Babesia vulpes or a closely related organism (sheep and goats). Only T. equi has been previously reported in the Caribbean. Our findings expand the known host ranges of Theileria spp. and the known distribution of the organisms around the world.

  3. Endophytic Colletrotrichum spp. from Cinchona calisaya wedd. and it's potential quinine production as antibacterial and antimalaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiastuti, Nani; Mutea, Dalli; Sumarlin, La Ode

    2017-02-01

    An endophytic fungus is microorganisms that live inside plant tissues without harming its host and is capable of producing the same secondary metabolites as its host plant. The endophytic fungus is very diverse and important group of microorganisms. The objectives of the study are to identify endophyte Colletotrichum spp. using ITS rDNA analyze, alkaloid cinchona and antibacterial characteristics. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS rDNA regions and morphology are used to identify the species. The Chloroform extracts of filtrate were analyzed using the High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to determine the production of quinine. There were 13 isolates of Colletotrichum spp as endophytes with associated with Cinchona calisaya Wedd. from fruit (6 isolates), leaf (5 isolates), twig (1 isolate) and root (1 isolate). This is the first report as endophytes are associated with C. calisaya. Based on ITS phylogenetic analysis are introduced of 7 strains Colletotrichum sp, 1 strain closely with C. aegnigma, 2 strains closely C. cordylinicola, 1 strains C arxii, 2 strains nested C. karstii. The Colletotrichum sp. M1 (leaf), M3 (bark), M8 (fruit) and C. karstii M5 (fruit) are potential alkaloid quinine. Five strains of Colletotrichum spp. have antibacterial activity are selected against Staphylococcus aureus and nine Colletotrichum spp. against Escherichia coli. The endophyte identification of Colletotrichum species needs another gene other than ITS rDNA.

  4. Low prevalence of human enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. in brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Flanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouffaer, Lieze Oscar; Baert, Kristof; Van den Abeele, Anne-Marie; Cox, Ivo; Vanantwerpen, Gerty; De Zutter, Lieven; Strubbe, Diederik; Vranckx, Katleen; Lens, Luc; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Delmée, Michel; Pasmans, Frank; Martel, An

    2017-01-01

    Brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) have been identified as potential carriers of Yersinia enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis, the etiological agents of yersiniosis, the third most reported bacterial zoonosis in Europe. Enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. are most often isolated from rats during yersiniosis cases in animals and humans, and from rats inhabiting farms and slaughterhouses. Information is however lacking regarding the extent to which rats act as carriers of these Yersinia spp.. In 2013, 1088 brown rats across Flanders, Belgium, were tested for the presence of Yersinia species by isolation method. Identification was performed using MALDI-TOF MS, PCR on chromosomal- and plasmid-borne virulence genes, biotyping and serotyping. Yersinia spp. were isolated from 38.4% of the rats. Of these, 53.4% were designated Y. enterocolitica, 0.7% Y. pseudotuberculosis and 49.0% other Yersinia species. Two Y. enterocolitica possessing the virF-, ail- and ystA-gene were isolated. Additionally, the ystB-gene was identified in 94.1% of the other Y. enterocolitica isolates, suggestive for biotype 1A. Three of these latter isolates simultaneously possessed the ail-virulence gene. Significantly more Y. enterocolitica were isolated during winter and spring compared to summer. Based on our findings we can conclude that brown rats are frequent carriers for various Yersinia spp., including Y. pseudotuberculosis and (human pathogenic) Y. enterocolitica which are more often isolated during winter and spring.

  5. An outbreak of Pantoea spp. in a neonatal intensive care unit secondary to contaminated parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habsah, H; Zeehaida, M; Van Rostenberghe, H; Noraida, R; Wan Pauzi, W I; Fatimah, I; Rosliza, A R; Nik Sharimah, N Y; Maimunah, H

    2005-11-01

    Contaminated parenteral nutrition (PN) is an important source of infection in neonates. Many organisms have been reported to cause contamination that results in outbreaks in intensive care units. The objective of this study was to investigate an outbreak caused by Pantoea spp., which contaminates PN, in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). This was a descriptive study of an outbreak of sepsis in an NICU of a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia. Pantoea spp. infection was detected in eight patients over a three-day period from 24 to 27 January 2004 following the administration of PN. Seven of the eight patients died due to the infection. Extensive environmental samplings for culture were performed. PN solution from the NICU and the pharmacy were also cultured during the outbreak period. Pantoea spp. was isolated from blood cultures of all infected patients, and the unused PN from the pharmacy and the NICU. All the strains of Pantoea spp. had a similar antibiotic susceptibility pattern and biochemical reaction. From the results, we concluded that PN was the source of the outbreak and the contamination may have occurred during its preparation in the pharmacy. A thorough investigation has been carried out and, where possible, corrective measures have been taken to avoid similar outbreaks in the future.

  6. Molecular Detection of Theileria spp. in Livestock on Five Caribbean Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Theileria spp. are tick-transmitted, intracellular apicomplexan protozoan parasites infecting a wide range of animals. As there is very limited information on the prevalence of Theileria spp. in the Caribbean we used the recently described genus-specific pan-Theileria FRET-qPCR to identify infected animals in the region and a standard 18S rRNA gene PCR and sequencing to determine the species involved. We found Theileria spp. in 9% of the convenience samples of animals (n=752 studied from five Caribbean islands. Donkeys (20.0%: 5/25 were most commonly infected, followed by sheep (17.4%, 25/144, cattle (6.8%; 22/325, goats (5.0%; 12/238, and horses (5.0%; 1/20. Six species of Theileria were identified: T. equi (donkeys, cattle, goats, and sheep, Theileria sp. OT3 (sheep and goats, Theileria sp. NG-2013a (cattle, Theileria sp. YW-2014 (donkeys, Theileria sp. B15a (goats, and Babesia vulpes or a closely related organism (sheep and goats. Only T. equi has been previously reported in the Caribbean. Our findings expand the known host ranges of Theileria spp. and the known distribution of the organisms around the world.

  7. Coexistence of Burkholderia, Cupriavidus, and Rhizobium sp. nodule bacteria on two Mimosa spp. in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Craig F; Parker, Matthew A

    2006-02-01

    rRNA gene sequencing and PCR assays indicated that 215 isolates of root nodule bacteria from two Mimosa species at three sites in Costa Rica belonged to the genera Burkholderia, Cupriavidus, and Rhizobium. This is the first report of Cupriavidus sp. nodule symbionts for Mimosa populations within their native geographic range in the neotropics. Burkholderia spp. predominated among samples from Mimosa pigra (86% of isolates), while there was a more even distribution of Cupriavidus, Burkholderia, and Rhizobium spp. on Mimosa pudica (38, 37, and 25% of isolates, respectively). All Cupriavidus and Burkholderia genotypes tested formed root nodules and fixed nitrogen on both M. pigra and M. pudica, and sequencing of rRNA genes in strains reisolated from nodules verified identity with inoculant strains. Inoculation tests further indicated that both Cupriavidus and Burkholderia spp. resulted in significantly higher plant growth and nodule nitrogenase activity (as measured by acetylene reduction assays) relative to plant performance with strains of Rhizobium. Given the prevalence of Burkholderia and Cupriavidus spp. on these Mimosa legumes and the widespread distribution of these plants both within and outside the neotropics, it is likely that both beta-proteobacterial genera are more ubiquitous as root nodule symbionts than previously believed.

  8. The potential role of migratory birds in transmission cycles of Babesia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Anke; Franke, Jan; Meier, Frank; Sachse, Svea; Dorn, Wolfram; Straube, Eberhard

    2010-06-01

    Babesia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia spp. are potentially emerging tick-borne pathogens, whereas many issues about their ecology, e.g. reservoir host specificity, are still unclear. In spring 2007, we collected 191 feeding Ixodes ricinus ticks from 99 birds of 11 different species on a German bird conservation island in the Baltic Sea. Babesia spp. were detected in 4.7% (9/191), A. phagocytophilum was present in 2.6% (5/191), and Rickettsia spp. were identified in 7.3% (14/191) of the investigated ticks. Further characterization of Babesia spp. infections resulted in B. divergens and B. microti. Among the Rickettsia spp. infections, we identified at least 2 different species: R. monacensis and R. helvetica. Furthermore, 2 ticks harboured mixed infections. Our study provides first interesting insights into the role of migratory birds in the distribution of several emerging tick-borne pathogens.

  9. Mysterious chronic urticaria caused by Blastocystis spp.?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepczyńska, Małgorzata; Chen, Wen-Chieh; Dzika, Ewa

    2016-03-01

    Species of the genus Blastocystis, which are single-cell, intestinal protozoan parasites of humans and animals, remain mysterious, with unclear clinical and epidemiologic significance. In recent years, many researchers have suggested a possible connection between Blastocystis spp. infection and chronic urticaria. In the present article, we review the literature and discuss the possible associations between the clinical symptomatology and pathogenicity of this organism in terms of its subtypes, morphologic forms, genetic diversity, and interactions with other intestinal microbiota. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  10. Comparative of Quercus spp. and Salix spp. for phytoremediation of Pb/Zn mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiang; Wang, Shufeng; Sun, Haijing; Chen, Yitai; Wang, Dongxue; Pan, Hongwei; Zou, Yazhu; Liu, Jianfeng; Zheng, Linyu; Zhao, Xiulian; Jiang, Zeping

    2017-02-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using tree seedlings for the phytoremediation of lead/zinc (Pb/Zn) mine tailings. Seedlings of three Quercus spp. (Q. shumardii, Q. phellos, and Q. virginiana) and rooted cuttings of two Salix spp. (S. matsudana and S. integra) were transplanted into pots containing 50 and 100 % Pb/Zn mine tailings to evaluate their tolerance of heavy metals. The five species showed different tolerance levels to the Pb/Zn tailings treatments. Q. virginiana was highly tolerant to heavy metals and grew normally in the Pb/Zn tailings. The root systems showed marked differences between the Quercus spp. and Salix spp., indicating that different mechanisms operated to confer tolerance of heavy metals. The maximum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry value of the five species showed no differences among the treatments, except for Q. shumardii. All species showed low metal translocation factors (TFs). However, S. integra had significantly higher TF values for Zn (1.42-2.18) and cadmium (1.03-1.45) than did the other species. In this respect, Q. virginiana showed the highest tolerance and a low TF, implying that it is a candidate for phytostabilization of mine tailings in southern China. S. integra may be useful for phytoextraction of tailings in temperate regions.

  11. [In vitro activity of Eucalyptus smithii and Juniperus communis essential oils against bacterial biofilms and efficacy perspectives of complementary inhalation therapy in chronic and recurrent upper respiratory tract infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporese, Alessandro

    2013-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa have a high propensity to develop biofilms that are resistant to antimicrobial agents. Eucalyptus smithii and Juniperus communis essential oils are credited with a series of traditional therapeutical properties, including mucolytic effect. As S. aureus and P. aeruginosa biofilms are known to be important factors underlying their virulence and pathogenicity, the aim of this study was to investigate whether E. smithii and J. communis essential oils can interfere with biofilm formation as well as acting on mature biofilms. Tests of two S. aureus and P. aeruginosa clinical strains and two ATCC strains (S. aureus ATCC 25923 and P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853) showed that both E. smithii and J. communis essential oils interfere with the starting phases of biofilm production, as well as with mature biofilms. The results of this study reveal new relevant perspectives for a complementary inhalatory treatment of chronic and/or recurrent upper respiratory tract infections.

  12. Using Pseudomonas spp. for Integrated Biological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Virginia O; Stack, James P

    2007-02-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas spp. have been studied for decades as model organisms for biological control of plant disease. Currently, there are three commercial formulations of pseudomonads registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for plant disease suppression, Bio-Save 10 LP, Bio-Save 11 LP, and BlightBan A506. Bio-Save 10 LP and Bio-Save 11 LP, products of Jet Harvest Solutions, Longwood, FL, contain Pseudomonas syringae strains ESC-10 and ESC-11, respectively. These products are applied in packinghouses to prevent postharvest fungal diseases during storage of citrus, pome, stone fruits, and potatoes. BlightBan A506, produced by NuFarm Americas, Burr Ridge, IL, contains P. fluorescens strain A506. BlightBan A506 is applied primarily to pear and apple trees during bloom to suppress the bacterial disease fire blight. Combining BlightBan A506 with the antibiotic streptomycin improves control of fire blight, even in areas with streptomycin-resistant populations of the pathogen. BlightBan A506 also may reduce fruit russet and mild frost injury. These biocontrol products consisting of Pseudomonas spp. provide moderate to excellent efficacy against multiple production constraints, are relatively easy to apply, and they can be integrated with conventional products for disease control. These characteristics will contribute to the adoption of these products by growers and packinghouses.

  13. Characterizing the nuclear proteome of Paracoccidioides spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Lucas Nojosa; Casaletti, Luciana; Báo, Sônia Nair; Borges, Clayton Luiz; de Sousa Lima, Patrícia; de Almeida Soares, Célia Maria

    2016-10-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is an endemic disease in Latin America, caused by thermo dimorphic fungi of the genus Paracoccidioides. Although previous proteome analyses of Paracoccidioides spp. have been carried out, the nuclear subproteome of this pathogen has not been described. In this way, we aimed to characterize the nuclear proteome of Paracoccidioides species, in the yeast form. For that, yeast cells were disrupted and submitted to cell fractionation. The purity of the nuclear fraction was confirmed by fluorescence and electron microscopy. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) allowed the identification of 867 proteins. In order to support our enrichment method for nuclear proteins, bioinformatics analysis were applied that allowed the identification of 281 proteins with nuclear localization. The analysis revealed proteins related to DNA maintenance, gene expression, synthesis and processing of messenger and ribosomal RNAs, likewise proteins of nuclear-cytoplasmic traffic. It was also possible to detect some proteins that are poorly expressed, like transcription factors involved in important roles such as resistance to abiotic stress, sporulation, cellular growth and DNA and chromatin maintenance. This is the first descriptive nuclear proteome of Paracoccidioides spp. that can be useful as an important platform base for fungi-specific nuclear processes.

  14. Anti- Sporothrix spp. activity of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Bressan Waller

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cases of sporotrichosis in humans and animals without satisfactory clinical response have increased, a warning sign of strains resistant to conventional antifungal agents. The urgent search for alternative therapies was an incentive for research on medicinal plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. properties. A bibliographic survey was performed based on scientific papers about in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of essential oils and extracts of plants in differents solvents against the fungal of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. The study methodology consisted of a literature review in Google Scholar, Science Direct, Pubmed, Bireme and Springer link with papers from 1986 to 2015. We found 141 species of plants that were investigated, of which 100 species were concentrated in 39 botanical families that had confirmed anti-Sporothrix activity. Combretaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae represented the botanical families with the greatest number of plants species with antifungal potential, using different methodologies. However, there are few studies with medicinal plants in experimental infection in animals that prove their activity in the treatment of sporotrichosis. It reinforces the need for further research related to standardization of in vitro methodologies and in vivo studies related to safety and to toxicity potential of these plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. activity.

  15. Phylogenesis of relapsing fever Borrelia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ras, N M; Lascola, B; Postic, D; Cutler, S J; Rodhain, F; Baranton, G; Raoult, D

    1996-10-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of 20 relapsing fever (RF) Borrelia spp. were estimated on the basis of the sequences of rrs genes. Complete sequences were aligned and compared with previously published sequences, and the similarity values were found to be 97.7 to 99.9%. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by using the three neighbor-joining, maximum-parsimony, and maximum-likelihood methods. The results of the comparative phylogenetic analysis divided the RF Borrelia spp. into three major clusters. One cluster included Borrelia crocidurae, Borrelia duttonii, Borrelia recurrentis, and Borrelia hispanica. Another cluster comprised tow main branches with Borrelia coriaceae, Borrelia lonestari, and Borrelia miyamotoi on one side and Borrelia parkeri, Borrelia turicatae, and Borrelia hermsii on the other side. Borrelia anserina constituted the third cluster. The phylogenetic position of Borrelia persica was more uncertain. These results suggested that the taxonomy of these spirochetes should be revised. To overcome the problems of culturing the spirochetes, RF Borrelia primers were defined. Following PCR amplification of the rrs gene, restriction length fragment polymorphism could be used to distinguish between RF Borrelia strains.

  16. Bioethanol production from the macroalgae Sargassum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borines, Myra G; de Leon, Rizalinda L; Cuello, Joel L

    2013-06-01

    Macroalgae, an abundant and carbon-neutral renewable resource, with several species rich in carbohydrates are suitable for bioethanol production. This study focused on the pretreatment, enzyme saccharification and fermentation of Sargassum spp., a brown macroalgae for bioethanol production. The optimal acid pretreatment condition achieved in terms of glucose and reducing sugar yields was 3.4-4.6% (w/v) H2SO4 concentration, 115°C and 1.50h. The pretreated biomass was hydrolyzed with cellulase enzyme system supplemented with β-glucosidase. After fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 40°C, pH of 4.5 for 48 h, the ethanol conversion rate of the enzyme hydrolysate reached 89%, which was markedly higher than the theoretical yield of 51% based on glucose as substrate. Since all the glucose was consumed during fermentation, other sugar sources might be present in the hydrolysate. The macroalgae, Sargassum spp., showed significant potential as a renewable feedstock for the production of bioethanol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of Saprolegnia Spp. Pathogenic in Chinook Salmon : Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whisler, Howard C.

    1997-06-01

    This project has developed procedures to assess the role of the fungal parasite, Saprolegnia in the biology of salmon, particularly adult Chinook, in the Columbia River Basin. Both morphological and DNA ``fingerprinting`` surveys reveal that Saprolegnia parasitica (=S. diclina, Type I) is the most common pathogen of these fish. In the first phase of this study 92% of 620 isolates, from salmon lesions, conformed to this taxa of Saprolegnia. In the current phase, the authors have developed variants of DNA fingerprinting (RAPD and SWAPP analysis) that permit examination of the sub-structure of the parasite population. These results confirm the predominance of S. parasitica, and suggest that at least three different sub-groups of this fungus occur in the Pacific N.W., USA. The use of single and paired primers with PCR amplification permits identification of pathogenic types, and distinction from other species of the genus considered to be more saprophytic in character. A year`s survey of saprolegniaceous fungi from Lake Washington indicated that the fish-pathogen was not common in the water column. Where and how fish encounter this parasite can be approached with the molecular tags identified in this project.

  18. Prevalence of Arcobacter spp. in humans, animals and foods of animal origin including sea food from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyal, A; Rathore, R S; Mohan, H V; Dhama, K; Kumar, A

    2011-10-01

    The present study reports the prevalence of Arcobacter, an emerging pathogen in human, animals and foods of animal origin in India. A total of 600 samples from various sources, viz. diarrhoeal stools of humans and dogs, faecal swabs of animals (pig, poultry), preputial washings of breeding bulls and food samples (chicken, pork, fish) were examined for presence of Arcobacter spp. Using cultural methods, a total of 63 Arcobacter spp. were isolated of 600 (10.50%) samples with highest isolation rate were from pig faeces (21.33%) followed by sea foods (17.33%), poultry faeces (14.67%), pork (16.00%), chicken meat (12.00%) and human stools (2.67%). The isolates were confirmed as arcobacters by genus-based PCR. PCR screening of all the enriched samples revealed the overall prevalence of Arcobacter spp. to be 12.00% with highest in pig (25.33%), followed by sea food (21.33%), poultry (17.33%), pork (16%), chicken meat (12%) and human stools (4.00%). No Arcobacter spp. was isolated or detected from diarrhoeal faecal samples of dogs and preputial washings. With multiplex PCR, three different species were detected (A. butzleri, A. cryaerophilus and A. skirrowii) with most of the samples showing mixed infections. There are only two recent reports from India; one with cultural isolation and another with PCR detection of Arcobacter spp. in stool samples of humans with clinical diarrhoea. In this context, our present report is the first report of isolation and detection of Arcobacter spp. from various sources of animals and foods including diarrhoeic human stool samples, utilizing both cultural and molecular tools identifying arcobacters at genus and species level. These results support the importance of arcobacters as an emerging food-borne pathogen, possessing zoonotic potential.

  19. Evaluation of arboviruses of public health interest in free-living non-human primates (Alouatta spp., Callithrix spp., Sapajus spp.) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of arboviruses from the Flavivirus genus in asymptomatic free-living non-human primates (NHPs) living in close contact with humans and vectors in the States of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: NHP sera samples (total n = 80, Alouatta spp. n = 07, Callithrix spp. n = 29 and Sapajus spp. n = 44) were screened for the presence of viral genomes using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and 10% ...

  20. Preliminary investigations into the bioconversion of gamma irradiated agricultural waste by Pleurotus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbedemah, C. M.; Obodai, M.; Sawyerr, L. C.

    1998-06-01

    The application of gamma irradiation for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials for their hydrolysis and to increase their digestibility for rumen animal have been reported in the literature. Gamma irradiation of corn stover in combination with sodium hydroxide for bioconversion of polysaccharide into protein by Pleurotus spp has also been reported. In this study experiments were designed to find out whether gamma radiation could serve both as a decontaminating agent as well as hydrolytic agent of sawdust for the bioconversion of four varieties of Pleurotus spp. Preliminary results indicate that a dose of 20kGy of gamma irradiation increase the yield of Pleurotus eous var ET-8 whilst decreasing the yield of other varieties.

  1. In vitro interactions between anidulafungin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on biofilms of Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosato, Antonio; Catalano, Alessia; Carocci, Alessia; Carrieri, Antonio; Carone, Addolorata; Caggiano, Giuseppina; Franchini, Carlo; Corbo, Filomena; Montagna, Maria Teresa

    2016-03-01

    Candida spp. are responsible for many biomaterial-related infections; they give rise to infective pathologies typically associated with biofilm formation. We recently reported that the echinocandin anidulafungin (ANF) showed a strong in vitro activity against both planktonic and biofilms cells. Herein, we report the antifungal activities of ANF alone and in association with some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) against nine Candida strain biofilms: four Candida albicans, two Candida glabrata and three Candida guilliermondii. The activity of ANF was assessed using an in vitro microbiological model relevant for clinical practice. ANF proved oneself to be active against biofilms cells, and a clear-cut synergism was found against Candida species biofilms when ANF was used in combination with three NSAIDs: aspirin, diclofenac, ibuprofen. The positive synergism against Candida spp. of ANF in association with aspirin or the other NSAIDs proved to be a very effective antifungal treatment (FICICandida biofilm pathologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Occurrence of Potentially Pathogenic Bacterial-Endosymbionts in Acanthamoeba Spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Niyyati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Acanthamoeba- bacteria interactions enable pathogenic bacteria to tolerate harsh conditions and lead to transmission to the susceptible host. The present study was aimed to address the presence of bacterial endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba isolated from recreational water sources of Tehran, Iran. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study regarding occurrence of bacteria in environmental Acanthamoeba spp. in Iran.A total of 75 samples of recreational water sources were collected. Samples were cultured on non- nutrient agar 1.5% plates. Positive Acanthamoeba spp. were axenically grown. DNA extraction and PCR reaction was performed using JDP1-2 primers. All positive samples of Acanthamoeba were examined for the presence of endosymbionts using staining and molecular methods. The PCR products were then sequenced in order to determine the genotypes of Acanthamoeba and bacteria genera.Out of 75 samples, 16 (21.3% plates were positive for Acanthamoeba according to the morphological criteria. Molecular analysis revealed that Acanthamoeba belonged to T4 and T5 genotypes. Five isolates (35.7% were positive for bacterial endosymbionts using staining method and PCR test. Sequencing of PCR products confirmed the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Agrobacterium tumefasiens.The presence of Acanthamoeba bearing pathogenic endosymbionts in water sources leads us to public health issues including improved sanitation and decontamination measures in recreational water sources in order to prevent amoebae-related infection. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report regarding the isolation of A. tumefasiens from Acanthamoeba in Iran and worldwide.

  3. Yersinia spp. in Wild Rodents and Shrews in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joutsen, Suvi; Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Henttonen, Heikki; Niemimaa, Jukka; Voutilainen, Liina; Kallio, Eva R; Helle, Heikki; Korkeala, Hannu; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria

    2017-05-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis are important zoonotic bacteria causing human enteric yersiniosis commonly reported in Europe. All Y. pseudotuberculosis strains are considered pathogenic, while Y. enterocolitica include both pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains which can be divided into six biotypes (1A, 1B, and 2-5) and about 30 serotypes. The most common types causing yersiniosis in Europe are Y. enterocolitica bioserotypes 4/O:3 and 2/O:9. Strains belonging to biotype 1A are considered as nonpathogenic because they are missing important virulence genes like the attachment-invasion-locus (ail) gene in the chromosome and the virulence plasmid. The role of wild small mammals as a reservoir of enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. is still obscure. In this study, the presence of Yersinia spp. was examined from 1840 wild small mammals, including voles, mice, and shrews, trapped in Finland during a 7-year period. We isolated seven Yersinia species. Y. enterocolitica was the most common species, isolated from 8% of the animals; while most of these isolates represented nonpathogenic biotype 1A, human pathogenic bioserotype 2/O:9 was also isolated from a field vole. Y. pseudotuberculosis of bioserotype 1/O:2 was isolated from two shrews. The ail gene, which is typically only found in the isolates of biotypes 1B and 2-5 associated with yersiniosis, was frequently (23%) detected in the nonpathogenic isolates of biotype 1A and sporadically (6%) in Yersinia kristensenii isolates. Our results suggest that wild small mammals, especially voles, may serve as carriers for ail-positive Y. enterocolitica 1A and Y. kristensenii. We also demonstrate that voles and shrews sporadically excrete pYV-positive Y. enterocolitica 2/O:9 and Y. pseudotuberculosis 1/O:2, respectively, in their feces and, thus, can serve as a contamination source for vegetables by contaminating the soil.

  4. Detection and zoonotic potential of Trichinella spp. from free-range pig farming in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatsiros, V G; Boutsini, S; Ntousi, D; Stougiou, D; Mintza, D; Bisias, A

    2012-06-01

    Trichinellosis is a serious parasitic zoonosis, which is widely distributed around the world. Pork meat is still the predominant source of outbreaks of human trichinellosis in many countries. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of Trichinella spp. as an important risk factor on the free-range pig farming sector in Greece. In 2009, during routine testing for the detection of Trichinella larvae at slaughterhouses and the National Reference Laboratory for Parasites (NRL), a total of 826,426 pigs were tested with the magnetic stirrer method for Trichinella spp. at slaughterhouses, including 2,892 samples from free-range pigs. Two positive samples were detected: one positive for Trichinella britovi and one positive for Trichinella spp. (unspecified) in the samples from wild farmed free-range pigs. It is alarming that one of these cases was connected with clinical signs of trichinellosis in five persons of the same family in northeastern Greece, who consumed undercooked pork meat from a free-range pig farm. During 2010, a total number of 1,295,034 pigs were tested with same method, including 4,159 samples from free-range pig farms. Five positive samples for Trichinella spp. (unspecified) were detected from 4,159 free-range pigs tested by the Greek NRL. Moreover, 363 serum samples from free-range pigs were serologically tested with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Moreover, 363 serum samples from farmed free-range pigs were serologically tested with ELISA, and 15 samples were found positive. Finally, the present study is the first report of detection of T. britovi in Greece. In conclusion, based on the results of the present study, Trichinella spp. is a high-risk factor for the free-range pig farming in Greece.

  5. Bacteriemia by Capnocytophaga spp in patient with chronic limphoblastic leukaemia: a clinical case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Allù

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Capnocytophaga spp., capnophilic and Gram-negative fusiform rods with gliding motility, are common inhabitants of the oral cavity.These microorganisms have been implicated as the causative agent of septicaemia in immunocompromised patients and only occasionally in immunocompetent subjects. In this report, a case of septicaemia caused by Capnocytophaga in a neutropenic patient who had stomatitis and pulmonary infiltrates is described. Antibiotic therapy was adjusted according to the susceptibility pattern of the isolate and the patient subsequentlyrecovered.

  6. Severe Candida spp. infections: new insights into natural immunity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, J.W.M. van der; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Joosten, L.A.B.; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Invasive infections caused by Candida spp. are associated with high mortality. Colonisation by Candida spp. and the capacity of the host to recognise them as potential pathogens are essential steps in the development of these infections. The major pathogen-associated molecular patterns of Candida ar

  7. Isolation of Salmonella spp. from yacare caiman (Caiman yacare) and broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) from the Argentine Chaco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhart, Marcela; Ferreyra, Hebe; Mattiello, Rosana; Caffer, María Inés; Terragno, Raquel; Schettino, Adriana; Prado, Walter

    2011-04-01

    Presence of Salmonella spp. was evaluated in yacare caiman (Caiman yacare) and broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) from a ranching facility in the Argentine Chaco. Crocodilian ranching programs are based on captive breeding of wild-harvested eggs and release of excess hatchlings into the wild. Samples for bacterial isolation were collected from 102 captive (35 C. yacare and 67 C. latirostris) and seven free-ranging caiman (four C. yacare and three C. latirositris) between 2001 and 2005 and from three artificially incubated C. yacare wild eggs. Two Salmonella spp. of known zoonotic potential, S. infantis and S. nottingham, were isolated from captive caiman in 2001 and 2002, respectively. This is the first report for S. nottingham in reptiles and of S. infantis in caiman. Salmonella spp. prevalence varied significantly between years, with a 77% prevalence peak in 2002. Although the cause of this increase was not confirmed, we found no correlation with the type of enclosure, caiman species, or body weight. Deteriorated physical condition of caiman hatchlings due to dietary changes in 2002 could have influenced Salmonella spp. shedding. However, external sources such as food, water, or enclosures could not be ruled out. Pathogenic Salmonella spp. present a risk for human infection. Inadvertent introduction of Salmonella spp. or other bacteria into the environment when caiman are released could pose a threat to wild caiman populations. Prophylactic measures to detect and decrease Salmonella spp. presence in caiman ranching facilities are recommended to reduce risk to humans and make caiman-ranching a sound conservation strategy for crocodilian species.

  8. Cryptosporidium spp. and other zoonotic enteric parasites in a sample of domestic dogs and cats in the Niagara region of Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, Rahul; Giraldo, Patricia; Kraliz, Andrea; Finnigan, Michael; Sanchez, Ana L

    2006-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and other zoonotic enteric parasites in a sample of domestic dogs and cats in the Niagara region, Ontario, 5 of 26 clinics invited by mail survey reported their parasitological findings over 24 months. Stool samples collected by 1 clinic over 68 days were investigated for parasites by using several techniques (fecal concentration, acid-fast staining, and a Cryptosporidium immunoassay). The 5 clinics that provided data indicated Toxocara spp....

  9. Post-traumatic endophthalmitis involving Clostridium tetani and Bacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, M N; Kranias, G; Daun, M E

    2001-07-01

    To report a case of post-traumatic infectious endophthalmitis caused by Clostridium tetani and Bacillus spp. Case report. A 25-year-old man developed endophthalmitis after a traumatic corneoscleral laceration of his right eye by a concrete reinforcement bar. He underwent pars plana lensectomy and vitrectomy with aspiration of vitreous fluid and a conjunctival swab for cultures. Cultures from the conjunctival swab were negative for organisms. Cultures of the vitreous aspirate were positive for Bacillus species and C. tetani. He had received a tetanus toxoid booster at the emergency department. By the time the culture results became available, he had developed severe eye pain associated with marked orbital congestion, increased swelling and erythema of the lids, marked injection and chemosis of the conjunctiva, and subsequently underwent evisceration. The inflammation resolved after evisceration of the right eye, and he was discharged to home on doxycycline 100 mg orally two times daily for 10 days. We are unaware of previous reports of endophthalmitis involving C tetani and could find none in a computerized MEDLINE search. Patients with penetrating eye injury should be assessed for tetanus immunization status, and early intervention with tetanus toxoid booster and/or tetanus immune globulin should be considered if cultures are positive.

  10. INK128 exhibits synergy with azoles against Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lujuan Gao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Infections of Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp. are often chronic and recalcitrant. Systemic disseminations, which mostly occur in immunocompromised patients, are often refractory to available antifungal therapies. The conserved target of rapamycin (TOR orchestrates cell growth and proliferation in response to nutrients and growth factors, which are important for pathogenicity and virulence. INK128 is a second-generation ATP-competitive TOR inhibitor, which binds the TOR catalytic domain and selectively inhibits TOR. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro activities of INK128 alone and the interactions of INK128 with conventional antifungal drugs including itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and amphotericin B against 18 strains of Exophiala spp. and 10 strains of Fusarium spp. via broth microdilution checkerboard technique system adapted from clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method M38-A2. INK128 alone was inactive against all isolates tested. However, favorable synergistic effects between INK128 and voriconazole were observed in 61% Exophiala strains and 60% Fusarium strains, despite Fusarium strains exhibited high MIC values (4-8 μg/ml against voriconazole. In addition, synergistic effects of INK128/itraconazole were shown in 33% Exophiala strains and 30% Fusarium strains, while synergy of INK128/posaconazole were observed in 28% Exophiala strains and 30% Fusarium strains. The effective working ranges of INK128 were 0.125-2 μg/ml and 1-4μg/ml against Exophiala isolates and Fusarium isolates, respectively. No synergistic effect was observed when INK128 was combined with amphotericin B. No antagonism was observed in all combinations. In conclusion, INK128 could enhance the in vitro antifungal activity of voriconazole, itraconazole and posaconazole against Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp., suggesting that azoles, especially voriconazole, combined with TOR kinase inhibitor might provide a

  11. Cryptosporidium spp. and other zoonotic enteric parasites in a sample of domestic dogs and cats in the Niagara region of Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Rahul; Giraldo, Patricia; Kraliz, Andrea; Finnigan, Michael; Sanchez, Ana L

    2006-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and other zoonotic enteric parasites in a sample of domestic dogs and cats in the Niagara region, Ontario, 5 of 26 clinics invited by mail survey reported their parasitological findings over 24 months. Stool samples collected by 1 clinic over 68 days were investigated for parasites by using several techniques (fecal concentration, acid-fast staining, and a Cryptosporidium immunoassay). The 5 clinics that provided data indicated Toxocara spp. as the most frequent finding. Parasitological study of 111 stool samples showed a high overall positivity rate in samples from both dogs (40%) and cats (36.6%). Cryptosporidium spp. antigen was detected in 7.4% and 7.3%, Toxocara spp. in 14.2% and 12.2%, and Giardia spp. 7.1% and 2.4% of dog and cat samples, respectively. The high prevalence of zoonotic parasites in the Niagara region is important, and increased awareness of their potential threat to human health is necessary. Additionally, further research into the zoonotic capacity of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. is necessary.

  12. Echinococcus and Taenia spp. from captive mammals in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, B; Stidworthy, M F; Bell, S; Chantrey, J; Masters, N; Unwin, S; Wood, R; Lawrence, R P; Potter, A; McGarry, J; Redrobe, S; Killick, R; Foster, A P; Mitchell, S; Greenwood, A G; Sako, Y; Nakao, M; Ito, A; Wyatt, K; Lord, B; Craig, P S

    2012-11-23

    Taeniid tapeworms which include Echinococcus and Taenia spp. are obligatory parasites of mammals with pathogenicity usually related to the larval stages of the life cycle. Two species (or genotypes) of Echinococcus, E. granulosus sensu stricto and E. equinus, as well as several Taenia spp. are endemic in the UK. Here we report on the occurrence of larval cystic stages of Echinococcus and Taenia spp. in captive mammals in the UK. Using molecular techniques we have identified E. granulosus (G1 genotype) in a guenon monkey and a Philippine spotted deer; E. equinus in a zebra and a lemur; E. ortleppi in a Philippine spotted deer; E. multilocularis in a macaque monkey and Taenia polyacantha in jumping rats. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of E. multilocularis in a captive primate translocated to the UK. As far as we know these are the first reports of E. equinus in a primate (lemur) and in a zebra; as well as E. granulosus (G1 genotype) and E. ortleppi in a cervid translocated to the UK. These infections and implications of the potential establishment of exotic species of cestodes are discussed.

  13. Deciphering the biodiversity of fish-pathogenic Flavobacterium spp. recovered from the Great Lakes basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Thomas P; Faisal, Mohamed

    2014-11-13

    Flavobacterial diseases negatively impact wild and cultured fishes worldwide. We recently reported on the presence of a large and diverse group of flavobacteria, many of which were associated with lesions in a number of Great Lakes fish species. Herein, we report on the characterization of 65 fish-associated Flavobacterium spp. isolates using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and phylogenetic analyses based upon neighbor-joining and Bayesian methodologies. Thirteen isolates were identified as the newly described fish-associated F. plurextorum, F. spartansii, and F. tructae, while 3 isolates were similar to F. frigidimaris; however, the remaining Flavobacterium spp. isolates did not conclusively match any described Flavobacterium spp. and thus were suspected as comprising novel flavobacterial species. A more comprehensive polyphasic characterization was undertaken on 6 isolates, representing a range of association with disease signs in hatchery-raised or free-ranging fish and genetic distinctness. Polyphasic characterization included physiological, morphological, and biochemical analyses, as well as additional phylogenetic analyses based upon near-complete sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Our findings demonstrated that that at least 5 of the 6 isolates are most likely novel species within the genus Flavobacterium that have never before been reported from fish. Pilot experimental challenge studies suggested that some of these Flavobacterium spp. can cause pathological lesions in fish and were re-isolated from the brains, spleens, livers, and kidneys of experimentally infected fish. The findings underscore the growing number and heterogeneity of flavobacteria now known to be capable of infecting fish.

  14. Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani with Trichoderma Spp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ From over 800 fungal strains of Trichoderma Spp. , 6 strains were found to greatly inhibit the growing of Rhizocotonia solani, the pathogen of rice sheath blight in dual culture. Among them, strain T3 was the best antagonist,which reduced the growing of the pathogen by 52.54% (Table 1). In field, both the pesticide Jinggangmycin and the mixture of T1 T6 could reduce the severity of rice sheath blight(Table 2), which resulted in the increases of seed setting rate and 1000 grain weight. Because the effect of the antagonists on the control of the pathogen could be partially realized in the watery environment, studies on the biocontrol mechanism of the fungi should be strengthened to help the establishment of a best way of antagonist utilization.

  15. Design Studies with DEMIRCI for SPP RFQ

    CERN Document Server

    Yasatekin, B; Alacakir, A; Unel, G

    2014-01-01

    To design a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) is a onerous job which requires a good understanding of all the main parameters and the relevant calculations. Up to the present there are only a few software packages performing this task in a reliable way. These legacy software, though proven in time, could benefit from the modern software development tools like Object Oriented (OO) programming. In this note, a new RFQ design software, DEMIRCI is introduced. It is written entirely from scratch using C++ and based on CERN's OO ROOT library. It has a friendly graphical user interface and also a command line interface for batch calculations. It can also interact by file exchange with similar software in the field. After presenting the generic properties of DEMIRCI, its compatibility with similar software packages is discussed based on the results from the reference design parameters of SPP (SNRTC Project Prometheus), a demonstration accelerator at Ankara, Turkey.

  16. Rhabdochlamydia spp. in an Oregon raptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouffroy, Sophie J; Schlueter, Andrew H; Bildfell, Robert J; Rockey, Daniel D

    2016-07-01

    PCR-based approach was used to examine the rate of Chlamydia positivity in raptors from wild bird rehabilitation centers in Oregon. Three of 82 birds were identified as positive for Chlamydia with this PCR. Sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA from 2 of these birds confirmed the presence of DNA from phylum Chlamydiae. One bird was positive for Chlamydia psittaci in both choanal and cloacal swabs. The second bird, a louse-infested red-tailed hawk, had evidence of choanal colonization by "Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia" spp. Our study describes evidence of this Chlamydia-like organism in the United States. This survey also suggests that the carriage rate of C. psittaci is low in raptors in Oregon wild bird rehabilitation centers, and that care must be taken in the design of PCR primers for phylum Chlamydiae such that colonization by insect endosymbionts is not mistaken for an infection by known chlamydial pathogens.

  17. Helicobacter spp. other than H. pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Mirko; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2012-09-01

    Significant advances have been made over the last 12 months in the understanding of the biology of non-H. pylori Helicobacter species (NHPH). Several studies have investigated the association between NHPH and human disease, including Crohn's disease, lithiasis, liver disease, coronary disease, gastritis, and pyoderma gangrenosum-like ulcers. Novel Helicobacter taxa were identified in new vertebrate hosts, and new methodologies in the fields of identification of Helicobacter spp. and evaluation of antibiotic resistance were described. The genome of the first human-derived gastric NHPH strain (Helicobacter bizzozeronii CIII-1) was sequenced, and several studies elucidated functions of different genes in NHPH. A number of important investigations regarding pathogenesis and immunopathobiology of NHPH infections have been published including the description of a new urease in Helicobacter mustelae. Finally, the effects of the gut microbiota and probiotics on NHPH infections were investigated.

  18. Trypanosoma spp. in Swedish game animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumüller, Magnus; Nilsson, Kenneth; Påhlson, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Serum and blood samples from 36 game animals, shot during the hunting seasons 2007-2009, were collected and analyzed for the presence of Trypanosoma spp. by three methods: isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and serology. Only fissiped animals were included, four different ruminants and wild boar. Trypanosomes could be isolated from two of the animals, and eight had detectable parasite DNA. Seven animals had high titers of anti-trypanosoma IgG antibodies. The two isolated strains, one from roe dear and one from European elk, were determined to Trypanosoma theileri by partial DNA sequencing of the 18S ribosomal gene. In the seven boars, no Trypanosoma were detected, but four out of seven strongly positive serological samples came from this group. This is the first study in Scandinavia on the presence of Trypanosoma in game animals. The results indicate that trypanosomiasis is frequently occurring among Swedish game animals.

  19. Isolation, characterization, and sensitivity to 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol of isolates of Phialophora spp. from Washington wheat fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Youn-Sig; Bakker, Peter A H M; Glandorf, Debora C M; Rice, Jennifer T; Paulitz, Timothy C; Weller, David M

    2010-05-01

    Dark pigmented fungi of the Gaeumannomyces-Phialophora complex were isolated from the roots of wheat grown in fields in eastern Washington State. These fungi were identified as Phialophora spp. on the basis of morphological and genetic characteristics. The isolates produced lobed hyphopodia on wheat coleoptiles, phialides, and hyaline phialospores. Sequence comparison of internal transcribed spacer regions indicated that the Phialophora isolates were clearly separated from other Gaeumannomyces spp. Primers AV1 and AV3 amplified 1.3-kb portions of an avenacinase-like gene in the Phialophora isolates. Phylogenetic trees of the avenacinase-like gene in the Phialophora spp. also clearly separated them from other Gaeumannomyces spp. The Phialophora isolates were moderately virulent on wheat and barley and produced confined black lesions on the roots of wild oat and two oat cultivars. Among isolates tested for their sensitivity to 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG), the 90% effective dose values were 11.9 to 48.2 microg ml(-1). A representative Phialophora isolate reduced the severity of take-all on wheat caused by two different isolates of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. To our knowledge, this study provides the first report of an avenacinase-like gene in Phialophora spp. and demonstrated that the fungus is significantly less sensitive to 2,4-DAPG than G. graminis var. tritici.

  20. Seasonal variability of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in raw milk sold by automatic vending machines in Lombardy Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bertasi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In temperate climates, a seasonal trend was observed in the incidence of human campylobacteriosis cases, with peaks reported in spring and autumn in some countries, or in summer in others; a similar trend was observed in Campylobacter spp. dairy cattle faecal shedding, suggesting that cattle may play a role in the seasonal peak of human infection. The objectives of this study were to assess if a seasonal trend in thermophilic Campylobacter spp. contamination of raw milk exists and to evaluate a possible relation between this and the increase of human campylobacteriosis incidence in summer months. The results showed a mean prevalence of 1.6% of milk samples positive for thermophilic Campylobacter spp. with a wide range (0.0-3.1% in different months during the three years considered. The statistical analysis showed a significant difference (PCampylobacter spp. between warmer and cooler months (2.3 vs 0.6%. The evidence of a seasonal trend in thermophilic Campylobacter spp. contamination of raw milk sold for direct consumption, with an increase of the prevalence in warmer months, may represent one of the possible links between seasonal trend in cattle faecal shedding and seasonal trend in human campylobacteriosis.

  1. Detection of protozoan and bacterial pathogens of public health importance in faeces of Corvus spp. (large-billed crow).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H Y; Stephen, A; Sushela, D; Mala, M

    2008-08-01

    Parasites and bacteria are reported in the faeces of birds in the current study. Fresh faecal samples of the large-billed crow (Corvus spp.) were collected from the study site at Bangsar, an urban setting in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. These samples were transported to laboratory and analysed for parasites and bacteria. Pre-prepared XLD agar plates were used for culturing the bacteria in the laboratory. Using the API 20ETM Test Strips, 9 different species of bacteria were identified belonging to the family Enterobacteriacea. They were Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Kluyvera ascorbata, Salmonella arizonae, Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei. The protozoan parasites detected include Cryptosporidium spp., Cyclospora spp., Blastocystis spp., and Capillaria hepatica and Ascaris lumbricoidus ova. Environmental air samples collected on agar plates using an air sampler in the area only produced fungal colonies. Some of these pathogens found in the crows are of zoonotic importance, especially Cryptosporidium, Blastocystis, Cyclopsora, Salmonella, Shigella and Kluyvera. The finding of Kluyvera spp. in crows in our current study highlights its zoonotic potential in an urban setting.

  2. Antifungal Streptomyces spp. Associated with the Infructescences of Protea spp. in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Zander R.; Moon, Kyuho; Bae, Munhyung; de Beer, Z. Wilhelm; Cha, Sangwon; Wingfield, Michael J.; Slippers, Bernard; Oh, Dong-Chan; Venter, Stephanus N.

    2016-01-01

    Common saprophytic fungi are seldom present in Protea infructescences, which is strange given the abundance of mainly dead plant tissue in this moist protected environment. We hypothesized that the absence of common saprophytic fungi in Protea infructescences could be due to a special symbiosis where the presence of microbes producing antifungal compounds protect the infructescence. Using a culture based survey, employing selective media and in vitro antifungal assays, we isolated antibiotic producing actinomycetes from infructescences of Protea repens and P. neriifolia from two geographically separated areas. Isolates were grouped into three different morphological groups and appeared to be common in the Protea spp. examined in this study. The three groups were supported in 16S rRNA and multi-locus gene trees and were identified as potentially novel Streptomyces spp. All of the groups had antifungal activity in vitro. Streptomyces sp. Group 1 had inhibitory activity against all tested fungi and the active compound produced by this species was identified as fungichromin. Streptomyces spp. Groups 2 and 3 had lower inhibition against all tested fungi, while Group 3 showed limited inhibition against Candida albicans and Sporothrix isolates. The active compound for Group 2 was also identified as fungichromin even though its production level was much lower than Group 1. The antifungal activity of Group 3 was linked to actiphenol. The observed antifungal activity of the isolated actinomycetes could contribute to protection of the plant material against common saprophytic fungi, as fungichromin was also detected in extracts of the infructescence. The results of this study suggest that the antifungal Streptomyces spp. could play an important role in defining the microbial population associated with Protea infructescences. PMID:27853450

  3. Antifungal Streptomyces spp. associated with the infructescences of Protea spp. in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zander Human

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Common saprophytic fungi are seldom present in Protea infructescences, which is strange given the abundance of mainly dead plant tissue in this moist protected environment. We hypothesized that the absence of common saprophytic fungi in Protea infructescences could be due to a special symbiosis where the presence of microbes producing antifungal compounds protect the infructescence. Using a culture based survey, employing selective media and in vitro antifungal assays, we isolated antibiotic producing actinomycetes from infructescences of Protea repens and P. neriifolia from two geographically separated areas. Isolates were grouped into three different morphological groups and appeared to be common in the Protea spp. examined in this study. The three groups were supported in 16S rRNA and multi-locus gene trees and were identified as potentially novel Streptomyces spp. All of the groups had antifungal activity in vitro. Streptomyces sp. Group 1 had inhibitory activity against all tested fungi and the active compound produced by this species was identified as fungichromin. Streptomyces spp. Groups 2 and 3 had lower inhibition against all tested fungi, while Group 3 showed limited inhibition against Candida albicans and Sporothrix isolates. The active compound for Group 2 was also identified as fungichromin even though its production level was much lower than Group 1. The antifungal activity of Group 3 was linked to actiphenol. The observed antifungal activity of the isolated actinomycetes could contribute to protection of the plant material against common saprophytic fungi, as fungichromin was also detected in extracts of the infructescence. The results of this study suggest that the antifungal Streptomyces spp. could play an important role in defining the microbial population associated with Protea infructescences.

  4. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Gelpud Chaves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L. presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp., en el Departamento de Nariño (Colombia, se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%. En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense L. en los Departamentos de Nariño y Putumayo y 4 genotipos silvestres (S. mammosum, S. hirtum, S. marginatum y S. umbellatum buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en todos los genotipos, 2.04% genotipos resistentes, 34.7% moderadamente resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raíz, (R² = 0.71 y 0.98, el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.

  5. Sixteen-year review of the population trends and mortality causes for catipve Woolly monkey Lagothrix spp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2011-01-01

    Woolly monkeys Lagothrix spp are difficult to maintain and breed successfully. These species are threatened in the wild and conservationists need to be aware of their plight in captivity if attempts to sustain the species are ultimately required. Written survey reports, International Species Informa

  6. Genome Sequences of Eight Aspergillus flavus spp. and One A. parasiticus sp., Isolated From Peanut Seeds in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus fungi, carcinogen-mycotoxins producers, infect peanut seeds, causing considerable impact on both human health and the economy. Here we report 9 genome sequences of Aspergillus spp. isolated from peanut seeds. The information obtained will allow conducting biodiv...

  7. Complete genome sequence of Spiroplasma citri strain R8-A2T, causal agent of stubborn disease in Citrus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiroplasma citri is the causal agent of stubborn disease in Citrus spp., as well as the cause of diseases in numerous other plant genera. Here we report the nucleotide sequence of the 1,599,709 bp circular chromosome and two plasmids of strain R8-A2T. This information will facilitate comparative ...

  8. First Indonesian record of Fungiacava eilatensis Goreau et al., 1968 (Bivalvia: Mytilidae), endosymbiont of Fungia spp. (Scleractinia: Fungiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, B.W.; Achituv, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The mytilid bivalve Fungiacava eilatensis Goreau, Goreau, Neumann & Yonge, 1968, previously mistakenly referred to as F. eilatensis Soot-Ryen, 1969, is reported for the first time from Indonesia. It lives as an obligate endosymbiont of mushroom corals, particulary Fungia spp., reef-dwelling corals r

  9. The identification of Anaplasma spp. isolated from fallow deer (Dama dama) on a free-range farm in eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaszek, L; Klimiuk, P; Skrzypczak, M; Górna, M; Zietek, J; Winiarczyk, S

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Anaplasma spp. in group of 50 fallow deer (Dama dama) from free-range farm in eastern Poland and determine what species of Anaplasma could infect these animals based on PCR gene sequencing. The PCR technique revealed the presence of 16S RNA Anaplasma spp. genetic material in the blood of 7 out of 50 examined animals. The sequences of the PCR products obtained showed a 100% homology with each other and 100% homology with GU 183908 sequence of A. phagocytophilum, isolated in our earlier study from a horse with clinical form of anaplasmosis. Here, we report the first molecular evidence of Anaplasma spp. among naturally infected fallow deer in eastern Poland.

  10. Development and validation of an extensive growth and growth boundary model for psychrotolerant Lactobacillus spp. in seafood and meat products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Dalgaard, Paw

    2013-01-01

    A new and extensive growth and growth boundary model for psychrotolerant Lactobacillus spp. was developed and validated for processed and unprocessed products of seafood and meat. The new model was developed by refitting and expanding an existing cardinal parameter model for growth and the growth...... of psychrotolerant LAB (Tmin), the existing LAB model was refitted to data from experiments with seafood and meat products reported not to include nitrite or any of the four organic acids evaluated in the present study. Next, dimensionless terms modelling the antimicrobial effect of nitrite, and acetic, benzoic......, was successfully validated using 229 growth rates (μmax values) for psychrotolerant Lactobacillus spp. in seafood and meat products. Average bias and accuracy factor values of 1.08 and 1.27, respectively, were obtained when observed and predicted μmax values of psychrotolerant Lactobacillus spp. were compared...

  11. Detection of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) from Diporeia spp. (Pontoporeiidae, Amphipoda) in the Laurentian Great Lakes, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Mohamed; Winters, Andrew D

    2011-01-06

    The mode of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) transmission in the Great Lakes basin is largely unknown. In order to assess the potential role of macroinvertebrates in VHSV transmission, Diporeia spp., a group of amphipods that are preyed upon by a number of susceptible Great Lakes fishes, were collected from seven locations in four of the Great Lakes and analyzed for the presence of VHSV. It was demonstrated that VHSV is present in some Diporeia spp. samples collected from lakes Ontario, Huron, and Michigan, but not from Lake Superior. Phylogenetic comparison of partial nucleoprotein (N) gene sequences (737 base pairs) of the five isolates to sequences of 13 other VHSV strains showed the clustering of Diporeia spp. isolates with the VHSV genotype IVb. This study reports the first incidence of a fish-pathogenic rhabdovirus being isolated from Diporeia, or any other crustacean and underscores the role macroinvertebrates may play in VHSV ecology.

  12. Detection of Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHSV from Diporeia spp. (Pontoporeiidae, Amphipoda in the Laurentian Great Lakes, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The mode of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV transmission in the Great Lakes basin is largely unknown. In order to assess the potential role of macroinvertebrates in VHSV transmission, Diporeia spp., a group of amphipods that are preyed upon by a number of susceptible Great Lakes fishes, were collected from seven locations in four of the Great Lakes and analyzed for the presence of VHSV. It was demonstrated that VHSV is present in some Diporeia spp. samples collected from lakes Ontario, Huron, and Michigan, but not from Lake Superior. Phylogenetic comparison of partial nucleoprotein (N gene sequences (737 base pairs of the five isolates to sequences of 13 other VHSV strains showed the clustering of Diporeia spp. isolates with the VHSV genotype IVb. This study reports the first incidence of a fish-pathogenic rhabdovirus being isolated from Diporeia, or any other crustacean and underscores the role macroinvertebrates may play in VHSV ecology.

  13. Occurrence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Lepstospira spp. in manatees (Trichechus inunguis) of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Patrick D; da Silva, Vera M F; Rosas, Fernando C W; d'Affonseca Neto, José A; Lazzarini, Stella M; Ribeiro, Daniella C; Dubey, Jitender P; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Gennari, Solange M

    2012-03-01

    The presence of Toxoplasma gondii and Leptospira spp. antibodies was investigated in 74 manatees (Trichechus inunguis [Mammalia: Sirenia]) kept in captivity in two rescue units in the northern region of Brazil. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 29 (39.2%) of 74 animals by using the modified agglutination test (titer, 1:25). For antibodies against Leptospira spp., sera were diluted 1:50 and tested against 24 strains ofleptospires by microscopic agglutination microtechnique, and positive samples were end titrated. Twenty-three (31.1%) of 74 animals were reactive to four serovars (Patoc 21/23, Castellonis 2/23, Icterohaemorrhagiae 1/23, and Butembo 1/ 23), with titers ranging from 100 to 1,600. This is the first report of antibodies against T. gondii and Leptospira spp. in T. inunguis from the Brazilian Amazon.

  14. Secreted phosphoprotein 24 kD (Spp24) inhibits growth of human pancreatic cancer cells caused by BMP-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen-Shuang; Tian, Haijun; Zou, Min; Zhao, Ke-Wei; Li, Yawei; Lao, Lifeng; Brochmann, Elsa J; Duarte, M Eugenia L; Daubs, Michael D; Zhou, Yan-Heng; Murray, Samuel S; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2015-10-16

    The emerging role of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in the initiation and progression of multiple cancers has drawn great attention in cancer research. In this study, we report that BMP-2 can promote the proliferation of the pancreatic tumor cell line, PANC-1. Secreted phosphoprotein 24 kD (Spp24), a BMP binding protein, did not affect the proliferation of the cells but promoted the apoptosis of the cells in vitro. In a xeneograft tumor model using PANC-1 cells, BMP-2 dramatically promoted tumor growth, while Spp24 not only abolished the effect of BMP-2, but also dramatically induced tumor shrinking when used alone. Activation of Smad1/5/8 participated in this process as demonstrated by immunohistochemical staining of phosphorylated Smad 1/5/8. We conclude that Spp24 can be developed into a therapeutic agent that could be employed in clinical situations where the inhibition of BMPs and related proteins is advantageous.

  15. First clinical isolates of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii) in Argentina: characterization and subtyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asato, Valeria C; Vilches, Viviana E; Pineda, María G; Casanueva, Enrique; Cane, Alejandro; Moroni, Mirian P; Brengi, Silvina P; Pichel, Mariana G

    2013-01-01

    Cronobacter species are opportunistic pathogens associated with severe infections in neonates and immunocompromised infants. From January 2009 through September 2010, two cases of neonatal infections associated with Cronobacter malonaticus and one case associated with Cronobacter sakazakii, two of them fatal, were reported in the same hospital. These are the first clinical isolates of Cronobacter spp. in Argentina. The objective of this work was to characterize and subtype clinical isolates of Cronobacter spp. in neonate patients, as well as to establish the genetic relationship between these isolates and the foodborne isolates previously identified in the country. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis showed a genetic relationship between the C. malonaticus isolates from two patients. Different results were found when the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of clinical isolates were compared with those deposited in the National Database of Cronobacter spp.

  16. Spatial distribution of risk factors for Cryptosporidium spp. transport in an Irish catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadder, S R; Ziegler, P; Murphy, T M; Holden, N M

    2010-08-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. has become a major public health concern in many parts of the globe, including Ireland, as a result of recent reported waterborne outbreaks of Cryptosporidiosis. Continuous monitoring of Cryptosporidium spp. in water supplies is not feasible, so a risk-forecasting approach is required. This study reports a globally applicable approach for evaluating the spatial variation in relative risk of contaminating surface water by Cryptosporidium spp. based on a risk potential index (RPI) as an indicator of the potential pollution of surface water. The RPI is predicted by readily available data on land use, rainfall, soil type, slope, soil moisture deficit, and distance from water course. A small catchment in County Meath, Ireland, was chosen to illustrate the analysis of the approach. Data for the study area were digitized and rectified using surveyed ground control points to capture each of the RPI factors, field boundaries, and land use. The six parameters were classified and assigned a relative risk score out of 5. A Geographic Information Systems overlay analysis then was used to calculate a cumulative relative risk score for each month of the year. The analysis indicated that April and June experienced a relatively low risk of Cryptosporidium spp. transport compared with other months of the year. June had the least risk, because more than 98% of the catchment was estimated to be of low or moderate risk (RPI ranges = 0 to 2). December had the highest risk of Cryptosporidium spp. transport, because approximately 20% of the catchment area had a moderately high to very high risk (RPI ranges = 2 to 5). The study also made an attempt to reduce the risk of contaminating surface water by alternative land-use practice and relocating the field boundaries. The study demonstrated a semi-quantitative and readily implemented method for using spatial risk assessment for planning land management to reduce the risk of surface water contamination by Cryptosporidium

  17. Prevalence of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. in Ticks Collected from Korean Water Deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun-Gu; Ko, Sungjin; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Jo, Yong-Sun; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Park, Bae-Keun; Park, Jinho; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2016-02-01

    Deer serve as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens that impact on medical and veterinary health worldwide. In the Republic of Korea, the population of Korean water deer (KWD, Hydropotes inermis argyropus) has greatly increased from 1982 to 2011, in part, as a result of reforestation programs established following the Korean War when much of the land was barren of trees. Eighty seven Haemaphysalis flava, 228 Haemaphysalis longicornis, 8 Ixodes nipponensis, and 40 Ixodes persulcatus (21 larvae, 114 nymphs, and 228 adults) were collected from 27 out of 70 KWD. A total of 89/363 ticks (266 pools, 24.5% minimum infection rate) and 5 (1.4%) fed ticks were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum using nested PCR targeting the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 88/89 (98.9%) of positive samples for A. phagocytophilum corresponded to previously described gene sequences from KWD spleen tissues. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 20/363 (5.5%) of the ticks were positive for A. bovis and were identical to previously reported sequences. Using the ITS specific nested PCR, 11/363 (3.0%) of the ticks were positive for Bartonella spp. This is the first report of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. detected in ticks collected from KWD, suggesting that ticks are vectors of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. between reservoir hosts in natural surroundings.

  18. Prevalence and concentration of Arcobacter spp. on Australian Beef Carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Lesley L; Fegan, Narelle

    2012-08-01

    The International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) classified Arcobacter spp. as emerging pathogens in 2002. Arcobacter spp. have been isolated from numerous food products at retail and from animal carcasses and feces at slaughter. A survey was conducted to determine both the prevalence and concentration of Arcobacter spp. on pre-chill beef carcasses. Surface swab samples were collected from 130 beef carcasses at the end of processing, prior to chilling. The concentration of Arcobacter spp. was determined by a most-probable-number per square centimeter (3 by 3) method with a limit of detection of 0.12 CFU/cm(2). Of the 100 carcasses examined from export abattoirs, 20 (20.0%) were contaminated with Arcobacter spp., and 5 of these had quantifiable levels of contamination ranging from 0.12 to 0.31 CFU/cm(2). Of the 30 carcasses examined at a pet food abattoir, 25 (83.3%) were contaminated with Arcobacter spp., and 10 of these had quantifiable levels of contamination ranging from 0.12 to 0.95 CFU/cm(2). Three species of Arcobacter, A. butzleri, A. cryaerophilus, and A. skirowii, were identified by PCR. Each of the species was present in an approximately equal ratio from export abattoirs. This study demonstrates that slaughter practices at export abattoirs are sufficient to maintain both low prevalence and low levels of contamination of beef carcasses with Arcobacter spp.

  19. An Arthrobacter spp. bacteremia leading to fetal death and maternal disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, Naoya; Ozaki, Kimiaki; Hori, Kensuke; Ito, Kimihiko; Nakayama, Masahiro; Nakahira, Kumiko; Yanagihara, Itaru

    2013-02-01

    A 34-year-old parous woman developed high fever and threatened preterm labor after a 1-day trip, for which she was receiving prenatal care at a hospital. Three days after onset, at 24 4/7 weeks of gestation, she was transferred to our hospital in an emergency. Soon after the woman's arrival at our hospital, the infant was spontaneously stillborn via a transvaginal delivery. Laboratory tests revealed severe maternal disseminated intravascular coagulation with renal and liver insufficiency. Histopathologic examination of the placenta revealed vast fibrin deposition and remarkable neutrophilic infiltration in the intervillous space, suggesting a rare bacterial infection caused by Arthrobacter spp. The bacteria were predominantly detected in the placenta and maternal blood serum by common bacterial 16S rRNA sequencing after polymerase chain reaction amplification. We report the first case, to our knowledge, of bacteremia with Arthrobacter spp., which may lead to maternal disseminated intravascular coagulation and intrauterine fetal death.

  20. Aspergillus spp. invasive external otitis: favourable outcome with a medical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchionni, E; Parize, P; Lefevre, A; Vironneau, P; Bougnoux, M E; Poiree, S; Coignard-Biehler, H; DeWolf, S E; Amazzough, K; Barchiesi, F; Jullien, V; Alanio, A; Garcia-Hermoso, D; Wassef, M; Kania, R; Lortholary, O; Lanternier, F

    2016-05-01

    Aspergillus spp. invasive external otitis (IEO) is a rare infection. We performed a seven-year, single-centre retrospective study from 2007 to 2014 including all patients with proven Aspergillus spp. IEO. Twelve patients were identified. All patients had a poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and one underwent solid organ transplant. The most frequently isolated species was Aspergillus flavus (n = 10) and voriconazole was the first-line therapy in all cases, with a median length of treatment of 338.5 days (158-804 days). None of the patients underwent extensive surgery. The clinical outcome was excellent. However, otological sequelae were reported, including hearing impairment (n = 7) and facial palsy (n = 3).

  1. Impacto de herbicidas em isolados de Trichoderma spp. Impact of herbicides on strains of Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Reis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O uso de microrganismos é uma alternativa para o controle de doenças em plantas. Todavia, é prudente verificar a interação desse com os demais métodos de controle empregados em determinada cultura. Dessa forma, objetivou-se avaliar a fungitoxicidade dos herbicidas sobre o crescimento e desenvolvimento dos isolados de Trichoderma spp. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 6 x 6 x 4, com quatro repetições. O fator A correspondeu aos herbicidas pendimethalin, clomazone, carfentrazone-ethyl, oxadiazon, thiobencarb + propanil e byspiribac-sodium; o fator B, às doses dos herbicidas - 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 e 200% da dose recomendada; e o fator C, aos isolados de Trichoderma spp. AJAM 18, CE 66, TRI 01 e TRI 02. O ensaio foi realizado em condições in vitro; avaliaram-se o crescimento micelial radial (CMR e a esporulação dos isolados após aplicação dos herbicidas. Observaram-se diferenças de sensibilidade dos isolados para o mesmo produto testado. O oxadiazon reduziu o CMR dos isolados AJAM 18 e TRI 01 em 66 e 35%, respectivamente. No entanto, reduziu apenas 16% do CMR do isolado TRI 02 e não alterou o CMR do isolado CE 66 mesmo em 200% da dose recomendada. Verificaram-se diferentes efeitos dos produtos em cada isolado. A mistura comercial de thiobencarb+propanil foi altamente tóxica aos isolados de Trichoderma spp., com reduções em torno de 85% no CMR e no número de esporos. Por outro lado, o byspiribac-sodium pouco afetou os isolados, apresentando reduções inferiores a 10% no CMR e na esporulação. O carfentrazone-ethyl e byspiribac-sodium demonstraram ser compatíveis com os isolados de Trichoderma spp. estudados.The use of microorganisms is an alternative for the control of plant diseases. However, one should verify its interaction with other methods of control used for a particular crop. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of herbicide fungitoxicity on the growth and

  2. Intoxicação natural por Brachiaria spp. em ovinos no Brasil Central Brachiaria spp. poisoning in sheep in Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa S. Mustafa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brachiaria spp. é a principal forrageira utilizada para ruminantes no Brasil Central, mas a sua toxicidade, devida à presença de saponinas esteroidais, torna-se um importante entrave à sua utilização. Neste trabalho descrevem-se 34 surtos e um foco de intoxicação por Brachiaria spp em ovinos, que ocorreram em diferentes épocas do ano. A morbidade geral foi de 23,2% e a letalidade foi 88,3%. O tempo que os animais permaneceram no pasto até o surgimento dos sinais clínicos da intoxicação por Brachiaria spp. variou de 15 dias até mais de 12 meses. Em 90,1% dos surtos os animais eram menores de 12 meses de idade. O curso clínico da intoxicação variou de 2 a 45 dias. Os sinais clínicos e as lesões macroscópicas foram características de fotossenssibilização hepatógena, no entanto, nos casos mais agudos não foram observadas dermatite nem icterícia, ocorrendo severo edema em face e orelhas. Na histologia do fígado as lesões mais características foram a presença de macrófagos com citoplasma espumoso, encontrados principalmente nos sinusoides hepáticos e, às vezes, com imagens negativas de cristais acutiformes no citoplasma. Em oito das 11 fazendas visitadas os surtos ocorreram em pastagens de Brachiaria decumbens; em duas em pastagens de B. brizantha e uma em pastagem de B. decumbens, B. humidicola e Andropogon sp. As concentrações de saponinas nas pastagens, em 5 surtos, variou de 0.3% a 2.56%. As informações geradas neste trabalho permitem a proposta de medidas para controle e profilaxia da intoxicação por Brachiaria spp. no Brasil Central.Brachiaria spp. is the main pasture for ruminants in Central-Brazil, but the crucial problem for their utilization is the toxicity due to the presence of steroidal saponins. This paper reports 35 outbreaks of poisoning by Brachiaria spp in sheep. The poisoning occurred in different seasons of the year. Mean morbidity was 23.2% and mean lethality was 88.3%. The occurrence of

  3. Chemical and ecological control methods for Epitrix spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. S. Cuthbertson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Very little information exists in regards to the control options available for potato flea beetles, Epitrix spp. This short review covers both chemical and ecological options currently available for control of Epitrix spp. Synthetic pyrethroids are the weapon of choice for the beetles. However, the impetus in integrated pest management is to do timely (early-season applications with something harsh which will give long-term protection at a time when there are not a lot of beneficials in the field. Finding the balance for control of Epitrix spp. is proving difficult.

  4. Multiple Wavelength-Channels in SPP Waveguides for Optical Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-You; HUANG Peng; GUO Xiao-Wei; WANG Jing-Quan; FANG Lang; DU Jing-Lei; LUO Xian-Gang; DU Chun-Lei

    2008-01-01

    @@ Surface plasmon polaritons(SPPs)can be excited,meanwhile some peculiar optical phenomena will appear when light irradiates metal structures under some conditions.Based on photonic band gap theory,in this Letter we present a kind of SPP waveguide with multiple wavelength-channels.By using the Bragg effect and introducing some geometric defect layers into a quasi-periodic metal heterowaveguide,the multiple SPP forbidden bands(SPFBs)in a given waveband can be generated,and the multiple SPP pass bands(SPPBs)with narrow bandwidth in each SPFB can be realized.

  5. A simple method for DNA isolation from Xanthomonas spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Luiz Humberto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple DNA isolation method was developed with routine chemicals that yields high quality and integrity preparations when compared to some of the most well known protocols. The method described does not require the use of lysing enzymes, water bath and the DNA was obtained within 40 minutes The amount of nucleic acid extracted (measured in terms of absorbancy at 260 nm from strains of Xanthomonas spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Erwinia spp. was two to five times higher than that of the most commonly used method.

  6. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system, Paraná, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatas Campos Almeida

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system. Samples of raw and treated water were collected and concentrated using the membrane filtration technique. Direct Immunofluorescence Test was performed on the samples. DNA extraction using a commercial kit was performed and the DNA extracted was submitted to a nested-PCR reaction (n-PCR and sequencing. In the immunofluorescence, 2/24 (8.33% samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp.. In n-PCR and sequencing, 2/24 (8.33% samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp., and 2/24 (8.33% samples were positive for Cryptosporidium spp.. The sequencing showed Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis DNA. In raw water, there was moderate correlation among turbidity, color and Cryptosporidium spp. and between turbidity and Giardia spp.. The presence of these protozoans in the water indicates the need for monitoring for water-treatment companies.

  7. Inactivation of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. by Palmitic, Stearic, and Oleic Acid Sophorolipids and Thiamine Dilauryl Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuejie; Ashby, Richard; Solaiman, Daniel K. Y.; Uknalis, Joseph; Fan, Xuetong

    2016-01-01

    Food contaminated with human pathogens, such as Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, frequently causes outbreaks of foodborne illness. Consumer concern over the use of synthesized antimicrobials to enhance microbial food safety has led to a search of natural alternatives. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of various types of sophorolipids (SLs) and thiamine dilauryl sulfate (TDS) against pathogenic Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. Both free and lactonic forms of SLs were synthesized from Candida bombicola using palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids as co-feedstocks. TDS and purified SLs were used to treat cocktails of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. Results showed that lactonic SLs had higher antimicrobial activity than the free-acid form, and Gram-positive Listeria spp. were more susceptible to SLs and TDS than Gram-negative Salmonella spp. Listeria populations were reduced from an initial concentration of 7.2 log CFU/mL to a non-detectible level within a 1 min treatment of 0.1% (w/v) lactonic SLs and TDS in the presence of 20% ethanol, which itself did not significantly reduce the populations. There were no significant differences in the antimicrobial efficacy among palmitic, stearic, and oleic acid-based SLs against Salmonella or Listeria spp. Ethanol was utilized to improve the antimicrobial activity of free-acid SLs against Gram-negative bacteria. In general, TDS was more effective than the SLs against Salmonella and Listeria spp. scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed that SLs and TDS damaged Listeria cell membranes and resulted in cell lysis. Overall, our results demonstrated that SLs and TDS in the presence of ethanol can be used to inactivate foodborne pathogens, especially Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:28066390

  8. Inactivation of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. by Palmitic, Stearic, and Oleic Acid Sophorolipids and Thiamine Dilauryl Sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuejie; Ashby, Richard; Solaiman, Daniel K Y; Uknalis, Joseph; Fan, Xuetong

    2016-01-01

    Food contaminated with human pathogens, such as Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, frequently causes outbreaks of foodborne illness. Consumer concern over the use of synthesized antimicrobials to enhance microbial food safety has led to a search of natural alternatives. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of various types of sophorolipids (SLs) and thiamine dilauryl sulfate (TDS) against pathogenic Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. Both free and lactonic forms of SLs were synthesized from Candida bombicola using palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids as co-feedstocks. TDS and purified SLs were used to treat cocktails of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. Results showed that lactonic SLs had higher antimicrobial activity than the free-acid form, and Gram-positive Listeria spp. were more susceptible to SLs and TDS than Gram-negative Salmonella spp. Listeria populations were reduced from an initial concentration of 7.2 log CFU/mL to a non-detectible level within a 1 min treatment of 0.1% (w/v) lactonic SLs and TDS in the presence of 20% ethanol, which itself did not significantly reduce the populations. There were no significant differences in the antimicrobial efficacy among palmitic, stearic, and oleic acid-based SLs against Salmonella or Listeria spp. Ethanol was utilized to improve the antimicrobial activity of free-acid SLs against Gram-negative bacteria. In general, TDS was more effective than the SLs against Salmonella and Listeria spp. scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed that SLs and TDS damaged Listeria cell membranes and resulted in cell lysis. Overall, our results demonstrated that SLs and TDS in the presence of ethanol can be used to inactivate foodborne pathogens, especially Gram-positive bacteria.

  9. Prevalence study of Legionella spp. contamination in ferries and cruise ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masia Maria

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last years, international traffic volume has significantly increased, raising the risk for acquisition of infectious diseases. Among travel-associated infections, increased incidence of legionellosis has been reported among travellers. Aim of our study was: to describe the frequency and severity of Legionella spp. contamination in ferries and cruise ships; to compare the levels of contamination with those indicated by the Italian ministerial guidelines for control and prevention of legionellosis, in order to assess health risks and to adopt control measures. Method A prevalence study was carried out on 9 ships docked at the seaports of northern Sardinia in 2004. Water samples were collected from critical sites: passenger cabins, crew cabins, kitchens, coffee bars, rooms of the central air conditioning system. It was performed a qualitative and quantitative identification of Legionella spp. and a chemical, physical and bacteriological analysis of water samples. Results Forty-two percent (38/90 water samples were contaminated by Legionella spp.. Positive samples were mainly drawn from showers (24/44, washbasins (10/22. L. pneumophila was isolated in 42/44 samples (95.5%, followed by L. micdadei (4.5%. Strains were identified as L. pneumophila serogroup 6 (45.2%; 19 samples, 2–14 (42.9%, 5 (7.1% and 3 (4.8%. Legionella spp. load was high; 77.8% of the water samples contained > 104 CFU/L. Low residual free chlorine concentration (0–0,2 mg/L was associated to a contamination of the 50% of the water samples. Conclusion Legionella is an ubiquitous bacterium that could create problems for public health. We identified Legionella spp. in 6/7 ferries. Microbial load was predominantly high (> 104 CFU/L or ranging from 103 to 104 CFU/L. It is matter of concern when passengers are subjects at risk because of Legionella spp. is an opportunist that can survive in freshwater systems; high bacterial load might be an important

  10. Genomic, proteomic and morphological characterization of two novel broad host lytic bacteriophages ΦPD10.3 and ΦPD23.1 infecting pectinolytic Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, Robert; Ozymko, Zofia; de Jager, Victor; Siwinska, Joanna; Smolarska, Anna; Ossowicki, Adam; Narajczyk, Magdalena; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Pectinolytic Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp. are necrotrophic bacterial pathogens of many important crops, including potato, worldwide. This study reports on the isolation and characterization of broad host lytic bacteriophages able to infect the dominant Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp. affecting potato in Europe viz. Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc), P. wasabiae (Pwa) and Dickeya solani (Dso) with the objective to assess their potential as biological disease control agents. Two lytic bacteriophages infecting stains of Pcc, Pwa and Dso were isolated from potato samples collected from two potato fields in central Poland. The ΦPD10.3 and ΦPD23.1 phages have morphology similar to other members of the Myoviridae family and the Caudovirales order, with a head diameter of 85 and 86 nm and length of tails of 117 and 121 nm, respectively. They were characterized for optimal multiplicity of infection, the rate of adsorption to the Pcc, Pwa and Dso cells, the latent period and the burst size. The phages were genotypically characterized with RAPD-PCR and RFLP techniques. The structural proteomes of both phages were obtained by fractionation of phage proteins by SDS-PAGE. Phage protein identification was performed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), genome sequencing and comparative genome analysis were used to gain knowledge of the length, organization and function of the ΦPD10.3 and ΦPD23.1 genomes. The potential use of ΦPD10.3 and ΦPD23.1 phages for the biocontrol of Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp. infections in potato is discussed.

  11. Genomic, proteomic and morphological characterization of two novel broad host lytic bacteriophages ΦPD10.3 and ΦPD23.1 infecting pectinolytic Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Czajkowski

    Full Text Available Pectinolytic Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp. are necrotrophic bacterial pathogens of many important crops, including potato, worldwide. This study reports on the isolation and characterization of broad host lytic bacteriophages able to infect the dominant Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp. affecting potato in Europe viz. Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc, P. wasabiae (Pwa and Dickeya solani (Dso with the objective to assess their potential as biological disease control agents. Two lytic bacteriophages infecting stains of Pcc, Pwa and Dso were isolated from potato samples collected from two potato fields in central Poland. The ΦPD10.3 and ΦPD23.1 phages have morphology similar to other members of the Myoviridae family and the Caudovirales order, with a head diameter of 85 and 86 nm and length of tails of 117 and 121 nm, respectively. They were characterized for optimal multiplicity of infection, the rate of adsorption to the Pcc, Pwa and Dso cells, the latent period and the burst size. The phages were genotypically characterized with RAPD-PCR and RFLP techniques. The structural proteomes of both phages were obtained by fractionation of phage proteins by SDS-PAGE. Phage protein identification was performed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS analysis. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, genome sequencing and comparative genome analysis were used to gain knowledge of the length, organization and function of the ΦPD10.3 and ΦPD23.1 genomes. The potential use of ΦPD10.3 and ΦPD23.1 phages for the biocontrol of Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp. infections in potato is discussed.

  12. New geographic records of Hamlets, Hypoplectrus spp. (Serranidae), in the Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E.H.; Bunkley-Williams, L.; Rogers, C.S.; Fenner, R.

    2006-01-01

    The exact number of species of hamlets, Hypoplectrus spp., in the Caribbean is controversial and the geographic distributions of these species/forms are poorly documented. We report Curac??ao, Netherlands Antilles, as a new locality for the Barred Hamlet, H. puella (Cuvier), and Shy Hamlet, H. guttavarius (Poey); and St. John and St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, for the Tan Hamlet, Hypoplectrus sp. The Black Hamlet, H. nigricans (Poey), has previously been reported from Curac??ao, but we did not see it there.

  13. Incidence and inactivation of Listeria spp. on frozen shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne illness outbreaks occasionally occur as a result of microbiologically contaminated crustaceans, including shrimp. Foodborne pathogens occasionally found on shrimp include Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrios. In this study the microbiological qualit...

  14. Impacto de herbicidas em isolados de Trichoderma spp

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reis, M.R; Leão, E.U; Santos, G.R; Sarmento-Brum, R.B.C; Gonçalves, C.G; Cardon, C.H; Silva, D.B

    2013-01-01

    ... a interação desse com os demais métodos de controle empregados em determinada cultura. Dessa forma, objetivou-se avaliar a fungitoxicidade dos herbicidas sobre o crescimento e desenvolvimento dos isolados de Trichoderma spp...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3300 - Haemophilus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Haemophilus and provides epidemiological information on diseases cause by these microorganisms. Diseases most often caused by Haemophilus spp. include pneumonia, pharyngitis,...

  16. Interlaboratorium vergelijking van het onderzoek naar Aeromonas spp. in drinkwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar AH; During M; Versteegh JFM

    1986-01-01

    Door middel van onderzoek van zes kunstmatig besmette gesimuleerde monsters drinkwater ( 4 Aeromonas spp., 1 Klebsiella oxytoca, 1 Pseudomonas aeruginosa) werd een vergelijking gemaakt van de resultaten van Aeromonas onderzoek in 14 laboratoria. De tellingen in de deelnemende laboratoria vertoonde

  17. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in pet turtles and their environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Du-San; Shin, Gee-Wook; Wendt, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Pet turtles are known as a source of Salmonella infection to humans when handled in captivity. Thirty four turtles purchased from pet shops and online markets in Korea were examined to determine whether the turtles and their environment were contaminated with Salmonella spp. Salmonella spp. were isolated from fecal samples of 17 turtles. These isolates were identified as S. enterica through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolation rate of Salmonella spp. from the soil and water samples increased over time. We concluded that a high percentage of turtles being sold in pet shops were infected with Salmonella spp., and their environments tend to become contaminated over time unless they are maintained properly. These results indicate that pet turtles could be a potential risk of salmonellosis in Korea. PMID:27729933

  18. Biopharmaceutical potentials of Prosopis spp. (Mimosaceae, Leguminosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhaseelan Henciya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis is a commercially important plant genus, which has been used since ancient times, particularly for medicinal purposes. Traditionally, Paste, gum, and smoke from leaves and pods are applied for anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial purposes. Components of Prosopis such as flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, quinones, or phenolic compounds demonstrate potentials in various biofunctions, such as analgesic, anthelmintic, antibiotic, antiemetic, microbial antioxidant, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antipustule, and antiulcer activities; enhancement of H+, K+, ATPases; oral disinfection; and probiotic and nutritional effects; as well as in other biopharmaceutical applications, such as binding abilities for tablet production. The compound juliflorine provides a cure in Alzheimer disease by inhibiting acetylcholine esterase at cholinergic brain synapses. Some indirect medicinal applications of Prosopis spp. are indicated, including antimosquito larvicidal activity, chemical synthesis by associated fungal or bacterial symbionts, cyanobacterial degradation products, “mesquite” honey and pollens with high antioxidant activity, etc. This review will reveal the origins, distribution, folk uses, chemical components, biological functions, and applications of different representatives of Prosopis.

  19. Aeromonas spp.: ubiquitous or specialized bugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Maria Elena; Fasolato, Luca; Montemurro, Filomena; Novelli, Enrico; Cardazzo, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    The genus Aeromonas comprises ubiquitous bacteria that are known to play several roles in the environment. These bacteria were first described as fish pathogens, but their presence was documented in other reservoirs, such as animals and humans. Today, these bacteria are described as emerging pathogens, but their effective role in human pathogenicity is still controversial. In addition, their taxonomy is heavily debated, as species distinction is often difficult to achieve. To study the interspecies relationships and to investigate their connection with the environment, a multilocus sequence typing scheme previously developed for Aeromonas spp. was applied to 258 strains, and the genetic data were analysed by population software. Sampling was a fundamental step, including several of the main sources of Aeromonas: fish, food products and human cases of disease. The objective was to characterize the isolates and to find potential associations among them according to the following: species, sharing of virulence factors, source and adaptation to a specific habitat. The strains were characterized and demonstrated exceptionally high nucleotide variability in the Aeromonas genus. Among the sampled sources, different species distributions were found, highlighting the occurrence of adaptation processes towards specific habitats.

  20. In vitro susceptibility of Bacillus spp. to selected antimicrobial agents.

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    Although often dismissed as contaminants when isolated from blood cultures, Bacillus spp. are increasingly recognized as capable of causing serious systemic infections. As part of a clinical-microbiological study, 89 strains of Bacillus spp. isolated from clinical blood cultures between 1981 and 1985 had their species determined and were tested for antimicrobial agent susceptibility to 18 antibiotics. Species of isolates were determined by the API 50CH and API 20E systems. Bacillus cereus (54...