WorldWideScience

Sample records for reported insufficient sleep

  1. Prevalence of insufficient, borderline, and optimal hours of sleep among high school students - United States, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Danice K; McKnight-Eily, Lela R; Lowry, Richard; Perry, Geraldine S; Presley-Cantrell, Letitia; Croft, Janet B

    2010-04-01

    We describe the prevalence of insufficient, borderline, and optimal sleep hours among U.S. high school students on an average school night. Most students (68.9%) reported insufficient sleep, whereas few (7.6%) reported optimal sleep. The prevalence of insufficient sleep was highest among female and black students, and students in grades 11 and 12. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Why Sleep Matters—The Economic Costs of Insufficient Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Marco; Stepanek, Martin; Taylor, Jirka; Troxel, Wendy M.; van Stolk, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States has declared insufficient sleep a “public health problem.” Indeed, according to a recent CDC study, more than a third of American adults are not getting enough sleep on a regular basis. However, insufficient sleep is not exclusively a US problem, and equally concerns other industrialised countries such as the United Kingdom, Japan, Germany, or Canada. According to some evidence, the proportion of people sleeping less than the recommended hours of sleep is rising and associated with lifestyle factors related to a modern 24/7 society, such as psychosocial stress, alcohol consumption, smoking, lack of physical activity and excessive electronic media use, among others. This is alarming as insufficient sleep has been found to be associated with a range of negative health and social outcomes, including success at school and in the labour market. Over the last few decades, for example, there has been growing evidence suggesting a strong association between short sleep duration and elevated mortality risks. Given the potential adverse effects of insufficient sleep on health, well-being and productivity, the consequences of sleep-deprivation have far-reaching economic consequences. Hence, in order to raise awareness of the scale of insufficient sleep as a public-health issue, comparative quantitative figures need to be provided for policy- and decision-makers, as well as recommendations and potential solutions that can help tackling the problem. PMID:28983434

  3. Insufficient sleep in adolescents: causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Judith A; Weiss, Miriam R

    2017-08-01

    Insufficient sleep poses an important and complicated set of health risks in the adolescent population. Not only is deficient sleep (defined as both sleep duration inadequate to meet sleep needs and sleep timing misaligned with the body's circadian rhythms) at epidemic levels in this population, but the contributing factors are both complex and numerous and there are a myriad of negative physical and mental health, safety and performance consequences. Causes of inadequate sleep identified in this population include internal biological processes such as the normal shift (delay) in circadian rhythm that occurs in association with puberty and a developmentally-based slowing of the "sleep drive", and external factors including extracurricular activities, excessive homework load, evening use of electronic media, caffeine intake and early school start times. Consequences range from inattentiveness, reduction in executive functioning and poor academic performance to increased risk of obesity and cardio-metabolic dysfunction, mood disturbances which include increased suicidal ideation, a higher risk of engaging in health risk behaviors such as alcohol and substance use, and increased rates of car crashes, occupational injuries and sports-related injuries. In response to these concerns, a number of promising measures have been proposed to reduce the burden of adolescent sleep loss, including healthy sleep education for students and families, and later school start times to allow adolescents to obtain sufficient and appropriately-timed sleep.

  4. Poor sleep quality and insufficient sleep of a collegiate student-athlete population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Cheri D; Kezirian, Eric J; Marcello, Brandon M; Dement, William C

    2018-06-01

    Poor and inadequate sleep negatively impact cognitive and physical functioning and may also affect sports performance. The study aim is to examine sleep quality, sleep duration, and daytime sleepiness in collegiate student-athletes across a wide range of sports. Questionnaire. University setting. 628 athletes across 29 varsity teams at Stanford University. Athletes completed a questionnaire inquiring about sleep quality via a modified Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), sleep duration, and daytime sleepiness via Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Sleep quality on campus and while traveling for competition was rated on a 10-point scale. Collegiate athletes were classified as poor sleepers (PSQI 5.38 ± 2.45), and 42.4% of athletes experience poor sleep quality (reporting PSQI global scores >5). Athletes reported lower sleep quality on campus than when traveling for competition (7.1 vs 7.6, Pquality, regularly obtain insufficient sleep, and commonly exhibit daytime sleepiness. Copyright © 2018 National Sleep Foundation. All rights reserved.

  5. Academic performance among adolescents with behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu Jin; Park, Juhyun; Kim, Soohyun; Cho, Seong-Jin; Kim, Seog Ju

    2015-01-15

    The present study investigated academic performance among adolescents with behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome (BISS) and attempted to identify independent predictors of academic performance among BISS-related factors. A total of 51 students with BISS and 50 without BISS were recruited from high schools in South Korea based on self-reported weekday sleep durations, weekend oversleep, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Participants reported their academic performance in the form of class quartile ranking. The Korean version of the Composite Scale (KtCS) for morningness/eveningness, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) for depression, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-II (BIS-II) for impulsivity were administered. Adolescents with BISS reported poorer academic performance than adolescents without BISS (p = 0.02). Adolescents with BISS also exhibited greater levels of eveningness (p academic performance among adolescents with BISS even after controlling for ESS, KtCS, BDI, and BIS-II (β = 0.42, p academic performance and that sleep debt, as represented by weekend oversleep, predicts poorer academic performance independent of depression, impulsiveness, weekday sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and morningness/eveningness among adolescents with BISS. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  6. Health consequences of shift work and insufficient sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecklund, Göran; Axelsson, John

    2016-11-01

    This review summarises the literature on shift work and its relation to insufficient sleep, chronic diseases, and accidents. It is based on 38 meta-analyses and 24 systematic reviews, with additional narrative reviews and articles used for outlining possible mechanisms by which shift work may cause accidents and adverse health. Evidence shows that the effect of shift work on sleep mainly concerns acute sleep loss in connection with night shifts and early morning shifts. A link also exists between shift work and accidents, type 2 diabetes (relative risk range 1.09-1.40), weight gain, coronary heart disease (relative risk 1.23), stroke (relative risk 1.05), and cancer (relative risk range 1.01-1.32), although the original studies showed mixed results. The relations of shift work to cardiometabolic diseases and accidents mimic those with insufficient sleep. Laboratory studies indicate that cardiometabolic stress and cognitive impairments are increased by shift work, as well as by sleep loss. Given that the health and safety consequences of shift work and insufficient sleep are very similar, they are likely to share common mechanisms. However, additional research is needed to determine whether insufficient sleep is a causal pathway for the adverse health effects associated with shift work. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Multimodal Emotion Recognition Is Resilient to Insufficient Sleep: Results From Cross-Sectional and Experimental Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holding, Benjamin C; Laukka, Petri; Fischer, Håkan; Bänziger, Tanja; Axelsson, John; Sundelin, Tina

    2017-11-01

    Insufficient sleep has been associated with impaired recognition of facial emotions. However, previous studies have found inconsistent results, potentially stemming from the type of static picture task used. We therefore examined whether insufficient sleep was associated with decreased emotion recognition ability in two separate studies using a dynamic multimodal task. Study 1 used a cross-sectional design consisting of 291 participants with questionnaire measures assessing sleep duration and self-reported sleep quality for the previous night. Study 2 used an experimental design involving 181 participants where individuals were quasi-randomized into either a sleep-deprivation (N = 90) or a sleep-control (N = 91) condition. All participants from both studies were tested on the same forced-choice multimodal test of emotion recognition to assess the accuracy of emotion categorization. Sleep duration, self-reported sleep quality (study 1), and sleep deprivation (study 2) did not predict overall emotion recognition accuracy or speed. Similarly, the responses to each of the twelve emotions tested showed no evidence of impaired recognition ability, apart from one positive association suggesting that greater self-reported sleep quality could predict more accurate recognition of disgust (study 1). The studies presented here involve considerably larger samples than previous studies and the results support the null hypotheses. Therefore, we suggest that the ability to accurately categorize the emotions of others is not associated with short-term sleep duration or sleep quality and is resilient to acute periods of insufficient sleep. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Why Sleep Matters-The Economic Costs of Insufficient Sleep: A Cross-Country Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Marco; Stepanek, Martin; Taylor, Jirka; Troxel, Wendy M; van Stolk, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States has declared insufficient sleep a "public health problem." Indeed, according to a recent CDC study, more than a third of American adults are not getting enough sleep on a regular basis. However, insufficient sleep is not exclusively a US problem, and equally concerns other industrialised countries such as the United Kingdom, Japan, Germany, or Canada. According to some evidence, the proportion of people sleeping less than the recommended hours of sleep is rising and associated with lifestyle factors related to a modern 24/7 society, such as psychosocial stress, alcohol consumption, smoking, lack of physical activity and excessive electronic media use, among others. This is alarming as insufficient sleep has been found to be associated with a range of negative health and social outcomes, including success at school and in the labour market. Over the last few decades, for example, there has been growing evidence suggesting a strong association between short sleep duration and elevated mortality risks. Given the potential adverse effects of insufficient sleep on health, well-being and productivity, the consequences of sleep-deprivation have far-reaching economic consequences. Hence, in order to raise awareness of the scale of insufficient sleep as a public-health issue, comparative quantitative figures need to be provided for policy- and decision-makers, as well as recommendations and potential solutions that can help tackling the problem.

  9. Health consequences of shift work and insufficient sleep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kecklund, L.G.; Axelsson, J.

    2016-01-01

    This review summarises the literature on shift work and its relation to insufficient sleep, chronic diseases, and accidents. It is based on 38 meta-analyses and 24 systematic reviews, with additional narrative reviews and articles used for outlining possible mechanisms by which shift work may cause

  10. Sleep Insufficiency, Sleep Health Problems and Performance in High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ming, Xue; Koransky, Rebecca; Kang, Victor; Buchman, Sarah; Sarris, Christina E.; Wagner, George C.

    2011-01-01

    A survey on sleep schedule, sleep health, school performance and school start times was conducted in 1,941 adolescents. A high level of early and circadian-disadvantaged sleep/wake schedules during weekdays was observed. Shorter sleep duration on weekdays was reported, especially in upper classmen. Complaints of inadequate sleep and sleepiness during weekdays, alarm clock use, and napping were prevalent. Night awakening and prolonged sleep onset were common and associated with poor school per...

  11. Sleep Insufficiency, Sleep Health Problems and Performance in High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Ming

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey on sleep schedule, sleep health, school performance and school start times was conducted in 1,941 adolescents. A high level of early and circadian-disadvantaged sleep/wake schedules during weekdays was observed. Shorter sleep duration on weekdays was reported, especially in upper classmen. Complaints of inadequate sleep and sleepiness during weekdays, alarm clock use, and napping were prevalent. Night awakening and prolonged sleep onset were common and associated with poor school performance. Students with a sleep length of less than 7 hours on both weekdays and weekends exhibited poorer performance, while those who made up this sleep loss on weekends did not. The total number of poor sleep factors in an individual also correlated with poor school performance. Earlier school start times were associated with a perception of poor sleep quality, shorter sleep duration and more sleep health problems. We conclude that sleep inadequacies and sleep health problems were prevalent in this population, especially in those who started school earlier in the morning, and that these poor sleep factors were associated with school performance.

  12. Bedtime procrastination: A self-regulation perspective on sleep insufficiency in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroese, Floor M; Evers, Catharine; Adriaanse, Marieke A; de Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-05-01

    Getting insufficient sleep has serious consequences in terms of mental and physical health. The current study is the first to approach insufficient sleep from a self-regulation perspective by investigating the phenomenon of bedtime procrastination: going to bed later than intended, without having external reasons for doing so. Data from a representative sample of Dutch adults (N = 2431) revealed that a large proportion of the general population experiences getting insufficient sleep and regularly goes to bed later than they would like to. Most importantly, a relationship between self-regulation and experienced insufficient sleep was found, which was mediated by bedtime procrastination. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Bedtime procrastination: a self-regulation perspective on sleep insufficiency in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroese, Floor|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313869871; Evers, Catharine|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/280594232; Adriaanse, Marieke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823023; de Ridder, Denise|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070706174

    2016-01-01

    Getting insufficient sleep has serious consequences in terms of mental and physical health. The current study is the first to approach insufficient sleep from a self-regulation perspective by investigating the phenomenon of bedtime procrastination: going to bed later than intended, without having

  14. Adverse childhood experiences and frequent insufficient sleep in 5 U.S. States, 2009: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman Daniel P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although adverse childhood experiences (ACEs have previously been demonstrated to be adversely associated with a variety of health outcomes in adulthood, their specific association with sleep among adults has not been examined. To better address this issue, this study examines the relationship between eight self-reported ACEs and frequent insufficient sleep among community-dwelling adults residing in 5 U.S. states in 2009. Methods To assess whether ACEs were associated with frequent insufficient sleep (respondent did not get sufficient rest or sleep ≥14 days in past 30 days in adulthood, we analyzed ACE data collected in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a random-digit-dialed telephone survey in Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Tennessee, and Washington. ACEs included physical abuse, sexual abuse, verbal abuse, household mental illness, incarcerated household members, household substance abuse, parental separation/divorce, and witnessing domestic violence before age 18. Smoking status and frequent mental distress (FMD (≥14 days in past 30 days when self-perceived mental health was not good were assessed as potential mediators in multivariate logistic regression analyses of frequent insufficient sleep by ACEs adjusted for race/ethnicity, gender, education, and body mass index. Results Overall, 28.8% of 25,810 respondents reported frequent insufficient sleep, 18.8% were current smokers, 10.8% reported frequent mental distress, 59.5% percent reported ≥1 ACE, and 8.7% reported ≥ 5 ACEs. Each ACE was associated with frequent insufficient sleep in multivariate analyses. Odds of frequent insufficient sleep were 2.5 (95% CI, 2.1-3.1 times higher in persons with ≥5 ACEs compared to those with no ACEs. Most relationships were modestly attenuated by smoking and FMD, but remained significant. Conclusions Childhood exposures to eight indicators of child maltreatment and household dysfunction were significantly

  15. Adverse childhood experiences and frequent insufficient sleep in 5 U.S. States, 2009: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Daniel P; Liu, Yong; Presley-Cantrell, Letitia R; Edwards, Valerie J; Wheaton, Anne G; Perry, Geraldine S; Croft, Janet B

    2013-01-03

    Although adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have previously been demonstrated to be adversely associated with a variety of health outcomes in adulthood, their specific association with sleep among adults has not been examined. To better address this issue, this study examines the relationship between eight self-reported ACEs and frequent insufficient sleep among community-dwelling adults residing in 5 U.S. states in 2009. To assess whether ACEs were associated with frequent insufficient sleep (respondent did not get sufficient rest or sleep ≥ 14 days in past 30 days) in adulthood, we analyzed ACE data collected in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a random-digit-dialed telephone survey in Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Tennessee, and Washington. ACEs included physical abuse, sexual abuse, verbal abuse, household mental illness, incarcerated household members, household substance abuse, parental separation/divorce, and witnessing domestic violence before age 18. Smoking status and frequent mental distress (FMD) (≥ 14 days in past 30 days when self-perceived mental health was not good) were assessed as potential mediators in multivariate logistic regression analyses of frequent insufficient sleep by ACEs adjusted for race/ethnicity, gender, education, and body mass index. Overall, 28.8% of 25,810 respondents reported frequent insufficient sleep, 18.8% were current smokers, 10.8% reported frequent mental distress, 59.5% percent reported ≥ 1 ACE, and 8.7% reported ≥ 5 ACEs. Each ACE was associated with frequent insufficient sleep in multivariate analyses. Odds of frequent insufficient sleep were 2.5 (95% CI, 2.1-3.1) times higher in persons with ≥ 5 ACEs compared to those with no ACEs. Most relationships were modestly attenuated by smoking and FMD, but remained significant. Childhood exposures to eight indicators of child maltreatment and household dysfunction were significantly associated with frequent insufficient sleep during

  16. Increased Risk for School Violence-Related Behaviors among Adolescents with Insufficient Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, Aimee K.; Daly, Brian P.; Nicholls, Elizabeth; Brooks-Holliday, Stephanie; Kloss, Jacqueline D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: School violence is associated with significant acute and long-term negative health outcomes. Previous investigations have largely neglected the role of pertinent health behaviors in school violence, including sleep. Insufficient sleep is associated with adverse physical, behavioral, and psychosocial consequences among adolescents, many…

  17. Why do patients with severe arterial insufficiency get pain during sleep?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, Rolf; Bülow, J; Tønnesen, K H

    1987-01-01

    Simultaneous measurement during 24 h of mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and forefoot subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow (SBF) was undertaken in eight patients (15 feet) with different degrees of arterial insufficiency. The recordings were undertaken with the patients in the supine positio...... was reduced by 32 +/- 12% during sleep. It is concluded that nocturnal hypotension is the major aethiological factor for the symptom ischaemic nocturnal rest pain....

  18. Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Institute (NHLBI). 1 Mood. Sleep affects your mood. Insufficient sleep can cause irritability that can lead to trouble with relationships, ... basics/understanding_sleep.htm#dynamic_activity Centers for Disease ... insufficient rest or sleep among adults—United States, 2008. MMWR, 58 (42), ...

  19. Modifiable predictors of insufficient sleep durations: A longitudinal analysis of youth in the COMPASS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patte, Karen A; Qian, Wei; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to simultaneously examine commonly proposed risk and protective factors for sleep deprivation over time among a large cohort of Ontario and Alberta secondary school students. Using 4-year linked longitudinal data from youth in years 1 through 4 (Y 1 [2012/2013], Y 2 [2013/2014], Y 3 [2014/2015], Y 4 [2015/2016]) of the COMPASS study (n=26,205), the likelihood of students meeting contemporary sleep recommendations was tested based on their self-reported substance use, bullying victimization, physical activity, and homework and screen time. Models controlled for the effect of student-reported gender, race/ethnicity, grade, school clustering, and all other predictor variables. Relative to baseline, students became less likely to meet the sleep recommendations if at follow-up they had initiated binge drinking, experienced cyber bullying victimization, or were spending more time doing homework, with other factors held constant. The likelihood of reporting sufficient sleep increased if students had begun engaging in resistance training at least three times a week. No longitudinal effect was observed when students increased their caffeine consumption (energy drinks, coffee/tea), initiated cannabis or tobacco use, experienced other forms of bullying victimization (physical, verbal, or belongings), engaged in more moderate-vigorous physical activity, or increased their screen use of any type. Few of the commonly purported modifiable risk and protective factors for youth sleep deprivation held in multinomial longitudinal analyses. Causal conclusions appear premature, with further research required to confirm the targets likely to be most effective in assisting more youth in meeting the sleep recommendations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Revisiting safe sleep recommendations for African-American infants: why current counseling is insufficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, Laura M; Blake, Sarah C; Gazmararian, Julie A; Woodruff, Whitney; Thompson, Winifred W; Dalmida, Safiya George

    2015-03-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that children be placed in the supine position on firm bedding and not bed share with parents or other children. Health professionals increasingly understand that many African-American parents do not follow these recommendations, but little research exists on provider reactions to this non-compliance. This study was intended to better understand how low-income, African-American mothers understand and act upon safe sleep recommendations for newborns and how providers counsel these mothers. We conducted focus groups with 60 African-American, low-income, first-time mothers and telephone interviews with 20 providers serving these populations to explore provider counseling and patient decision making. The large majority of mothers reported understanding, but not following, the safe-sleeping recommendations. Key reasons for non-compliance included perceived safety, convenience, quality of infant sleep and conflicting information from family members. Mothers often take measures intended to mitigate risk associated with noncompliance, instead increasing SIDS risk. Providers recognize that many mothers are non-compliant and attribute non-compliance largely to cultural and familial influence. However, few provider attempts are made to mitigate SIDS risks from non-compliant behaviors. We suggest that counseling strategies should be adapted to: (1) provide greater detailed rationale for SIDS prevention recommendations; and (2) incorporate or acknowledge familial and cultural preferences. Ignoring the reasons for sleep decisions by African-American parents may perpetuate ongoing racial/ethnic disparities in SIDS.

  1. Association between perceived insufficient sleep, frequent mental distress, obesity and chronic diseases among US adults, 2009 behavioral risk factor surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although evidence suggests that poor sleep is associated with chronic disease, little research has been conducted to assess the relationships between insufficient sleep, frequent mental distress (FMD ≥14 days during the past 30 days, obesity, and chronic disease including diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, asthma, and arthritis. Methods Data from 375,653 US adults aged ≥ 18 years in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to assess the relationships between insufficient sleep and chronic disease. The relationships were further examined using a multivariate logistic regression model after controlling for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, and potential mediators (FMD and obesity. Results The overall prevalence of insufficient sleep during the past 30 days was 10.4% for all 30 days, 17.0% for 14–29 days, 42.0% for 1–13 days, and 30.6% for zero day. The positive relationships between insufficient sleep and each of the six chronic disease were significant (p  Conclusions Assessment of sleep quantity and quality and additional efforts to encourage optimal sleep and sleep health should be considered in routine medical examinations. Ongoing research designed to test treatments for obesity, mental distress, or various chronic diseases should also consider assessing the impact of these treatments on sleep health.

  2. Effects of Insufficient Sleep on Pituitary-Adrenocortical Response to CRH Stimulation in Healthy Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyon, Aurore; Morselli, Lisa L; Balbo, Marcella L; Tasali, Esra; Leproult, Rachel; L'Hermite-Balériaux, Mireille; Van Cauter, Eve; Spiegel, Karine

    2017-06-01

    Severe sleep restriction results in elevated evening cortisol levels. We examined whether this relative hypercortisolism is associated with alterations in the pituitary-adrenocortical response to evening corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulation. Eleven subjects participated in 2 sessions (2 nights of 10 hours vs. 4 hours in bed) in randomized order. Sleep was polygraphically recorded. After the second night of each session, blood was sampled at 20-minute intervals from 09:00 to 24:00 for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol measurements, and perceived stress was assessed hourly. Ovine CRH was injected at 18:00 (1 µg/kg body weight). Prior to CRH injection, baseline ACTH, but not cortisol, levels were elevated after sleep restriction. Relative to the well-rested condition, sleep restriction resulted in a 27% decrease in overall ACTH response to CRH (estimated by the incremental area under the curve from 18:00 to 24:00; p = .002) while the cortisol response was decreased by 21% (p = .083). Further, the magnitude of these decreases was correlated with the individual amount of sleep loss (ACTH: rSp = -0.65, p = .032; cortisol: rSp = -0.71, p = .015). The acute post-CRH increment of cortisol was reduced (p = .002) without changes in ACTH reactivity, suggesting decreased adrenal sensitivity. The rate of decline from peak post-injection levels was reduced for cortisol (p = .032), but not for ACTH. Scores of perceived stress were unaffected by CRH injection and were low and similar under both sleep conditions. Sleep restriction is associated with a reduction of the overall ACTH and cortisol responses to evening CRH stimulation, and a reduced reactivity and slower recovery of the cortisol response. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Psychosocial job strain and sleep quality interaction leading to insufficient recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydstedt, Leif W; Devereux, Jason J

    2013-11-05

    The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of job strain and sleep quality on the diurnal pattern of cortisol reactivity, measured by awakening and evening (10 PM) saliva cortisol. The sample consisted of 76 British white-collar workers (24 women, 52 men; mean age 45.8 years). Sleep quality and job strain were assessed in a survey distributed just before the cortisol sampling. Both input variables were dichotomized about the median and factorial ANOVA was used for the statistical analysis. Low sleep quality was significantly associated with lower morning cortisol secretion. While job strain had no main effects on the cortisol reactivity there was a significant interaction effect between the input variables on morning cortisol secretion. These findings tentatively support the hypothesis that lack of sleep for workers with high job strain may result in a flattened diurnal cortisol reactivity.

  4. Psychosocial Job Strain and Sleep Quality Interaction Leading to Insufficient Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif W. Rydstedt

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of job strain and sleep quality on the diurnal pattern of cortisol reactivity, measured by awakening and evening (10 PM saliva cortisol. The sample consisted of 76 British white-collar workers (24 women, 52 men; mean age 45.8 years. Sleep quality and job strain were assessed in a survey distributed just before the cortisol sampling. Both input variables were dichotomized about the median and factorial ANOVA was used for the statistical analysis. Low sleep quality was significantly associated with lower morning cortisol secretion. While job strain had no main effects on the cortisol reactivity there was a significant interaction effect between the input variables on morning cortisol secretion. These findings tentatively support the hypothesis that lack of sleep for workers with high job strain may result in a flattened diurnal cortisol reactivity.

  5. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CHRONOTHERAPY IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS WITH AN INSUFFICIENT DEGREE OF SLEEP-TIME SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE DECLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrenko O. V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure (BP circadian rhythm violation, manifested as an insufficient degree of its sleep-time relative decline, is an independent cardiovascular risk factor. The main method of the correction is chronotherapeutic approach, when at least one antihypertensive drug is taken at bedtime. However, most researchers focus on normalizing the daily profile of systolic blood pressure (SBP and do not pay enough attention to changes in the daily profile of diastolic blood pressure (DBP and blood pressure in general. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the chronotherapeutic approach on the SBP and DBP levels and the DBP daily profile in hypertensive patients with an insufficient degree of sleep-time relative SBP decline. The study included 12 patients with arterial hypertension (AH with an insufficient degree of sleep-time relative SBP decline. Participants were divided into two groups: group 1 included patients who take at least one antihypertensive drug at bedtime, group 2 – patients who take all antihypertensive drugs in the morning. All patients underwent 24-hour blood pressure monitoring using the computer system «Cardiosens» (KhAI Medica, Ukraine, with the oscillometric method of BP measuring when enrolling in the study and after 3 months. The type of SBP and DBP diurnal profile, the mean values of SBP, DBP and hyperbaric indices were determined and compared between groups 1 and 2 at each visit, as well as within groups between visits. The results showed that the SBP daily profile normalization in patients with insufficient degree of sleep-time relative SBP decline from group 2 was achieved only in 11 % of cases, and in group 1 SBP and DBP daily profile normalized in 1/3 patients. In some patients from group 2 SBP and DBP daily profile converted into the overdipper type, while in group 1 overdippers did not appear at the end of the study. It was concluded that conversion of daily DBP profile to overdipper as a consequence

  6. Psychosocial Job Strain and Sleep Quality Interaction Leading to Insufficient Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Rydstedt, Leif W.; Devereux, Jason J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of job strain and sleep quality on the diurnal pattern of cortisol reactivity, measured by awakening and evening (10 PM) saliva cortisol. The sample consisted of 76 British white-collar workers (24 women, 52 men; mean age 45.8 years). Sleep quality and job strain were assessed in a survey distributed just before the cortisol sampling. Both input variables were dichotomized about the median and factorial ANOVA was used for the statistical analy...

  7. Why do patients with severe arterial insufficiency get pain during sleep?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelnes, Rolf; Bülow, J; Tønnesen, K H

    1987-01-01

    Simultaneous measurement during 24 h of mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and forefoot subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow (SBF) was undertaken in eight patients (15 feet) with different degrees of arterial insufficiency. The recordings were undertaken with the patients in the supine position...

  8. Screening for Sleep Reduction in Adolescents through Self-Report: Development and Validation of the Sleep Reduction Screening Questionnaire (SRSQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maanen, Annette; Dewald-Kaufmann, Julia F.; Oort, Frans J.; de Bruin, Eduard J.; Smits, Marcel G.; Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Kerkhof, Gerard A.; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sleep reduction, resulting from insufficient or poor sleep, is a common phenomenon in adolescents. Due to its severe negative psychological and behavioral daytime consequences, it is important to have a short reliable and valid measure to assess symptoms of sleep reduction. Objective: This study aims to validate the Sleep Reduction…

  9. Post-traumatic tricuspid insufficiency: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tütün, Ufuk; Aksöyek, Ayşen; Parlar, Ali Ihsan; Cobanoğlu, Adnan

    2011-11-01

    Post-traumatic tricuspid insufficiency is a rare complication of chest trauma. An 18-year-old male patient was injured in a bicycle accident from his abdominal and anterior chest wall. The tear on the inferior diaphragmatic surface of the heart was repaired with primary sutures by the attending surgeon. Eighteen years later, he was admitted to the hospital with severe tricuspid regurgitation (3+/4+). During the operation, the valve was determined unsuitable for repair and was replaced with a bioprosthesis. The hemodynamic aberrations relevant to an isolated tricuspid valve injury are very often well-tolerated. Reconstructive surgery may be possible in the early period. In the late cases, repair is sometimes not feasible due to degeneration of the valvular apparatus. Replacement with a biological prosthesis may give the best long-term results in longstanding cases.

  10. Self-reported sleep quality, strain and health in relation to perceived working conditions in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edéll-Gustafsson, Ulla M; Kritz, Eivor I K; Bogren, I Kristina

    2002-06-01

    Self-reported sleep quality, strain and health in relation to perceived working conditions in females The aims of this study were to examine self-reported sleep quality, perceived strain and health in relation to working conditions; the prevalence and severity of sleep disturbances and daytime distress arising from poor sleep in women on different work shifts. Furthermore, to see whether females with gastrointestinal symptoms, joint-, back- or muscle-pain and who are dissatisfied with working hours differ with regard to the above aspects. Finally, degree of strain-related symptoms and sleep difficulties were tested as predictors of sleep quality and general health outcome. Important research questions are whether registered nurses and those on rotating work shifts have greater sleep problems than others. A total of 156 females, aged 20-59 years, working at three different casualty departments, answered structured questionnaires. The results showed a persistently high rate of psycho-physiological long-term effects of stress related to working conditions. Thirty-four per cent were dissatisfied with their working hours, and exhibited significantly more mental strain, fatigue/excessive tiredness and inability to relax after work because of involuntary thoughts, in relation to working conditions than others did. Sixty-two females (39.7%) complained of insufficient sleep. The sleep quality outcome was significantly predicted by difficulty falling asleep (odds ratio 8.4), difficulty in falling asleep after nocturnal awakening (odds ratio 3.4) and perceived exhaustion (odds ratio 2.6). Females suffering from gastrointestinal symptoms and joint-, back- and muscle symptoms for several days in a week or even everyday were especially sensitive to worse sleep quality. Independent of work shifts, registered nurses exhibited a higher degree of mental strain and prolonged recovery in comparison with others. In conclusions, sleep initiation difficulties, troubled sleep and

  11. Renal and suprarenal insufficiency secondary to familial Mediterranean fever associated with amyloidosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Nagehan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Familial Mediterranean fever is an autosomal recessive disease that predominantly affects people of the Mediterranean coast. One of the most frequent complications of the disease is amyloidosis. This clinical entity is known as secondary (also called AA amyloidosis. Case presentation In this report, we describe the case of a 33-year-old Turkish man with familial Mediterranean fever and chronic renal insufficiency. He was admitted to our clinic with symptoms of suprarenal insufficiency. The patient died three months later as a result of cardiac arrest. Conclusion Our aim is to make a contribution to the literature by reporting a case of combined insufficiency due to the accumulation of renal and adrenal amyloid in a patient with familial Mediterranean fever, which has very rarely been described in the literature. We hope that adrenal insufficiency, which becomes fatal if not diagnosed and treated rapidly, will come to mind as easily as chronic renal failure in clinical practice.

  12. Insufficient and excessive amounts of sleep increase the risk of premature death from cardiovascular and other diseases: the Multiethnic Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeonju; Wilkens, Lynne R; Schembre, Susan M; Henderson, Brian E; Kolonel, Laurence N; Goodman, Marc T

    2013-10-01

    To explore an independent association between self-reported sleep duration and cause-specific mortality. Data were obtained from the Multiethnic Cohort Study conducted in Los Angeles and Hawaii. Among 61,936 men and 73,749 women with no history of cancer, heart attack or stroke, 19,335 deaths occurred during an average 12.9year follow-up. Shorter (≤5h/day) and longer (≥9h/day) sleepers of both sexes (vs. 7h/day) had an increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, but not of cancer mortality. Multivariable hazard ratios for CVD mortality were 1.13 (95% CI 1.00-1.28) for ≤5h/day and 1.22 (95% CI 1.09-1.35) for ≥9h/day among men; and 1.20 (95% CI 1.05-1.36) for ≤5h/day and 1.29 (95% CI 1.13-1.47) for ≥9h/day among women. This risk pattern was not heterogeneous across specific causes of CVD death among men (Phetero 0.53) or among women (Phetero 0.72). The U-shape association for all-cause and CVD mortality was observed in all five ethnic groups included in the study and by subgroups of age, smoking status, and body mass index. Insufficient or excessive amounts of sleep were associated with increased risk of mortality from CVD and other diseases in a multiethnic population. © 2013.

  13. Adrenal Insufficiency as a Cause of Acute Liver Failure: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshid Vafaeimanesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Many diseases and conditions can contribute to elevated liver enzymes. Common causes include viral and autoimmune hepatitis, fatty liver, and bile duct diseases, but, in uncommon cases like liver involvement in endocrine disorders, liver failure is also seen. Adrenal insufficiency is the rarest endocrine disorder complicating the liver. In the previously reported cases of adrenal insufficiency, mild liver enzymes elevation was seen but we report a case with severe elevated liver enzymes and liver failure due to adrenal insufficiency. Based on our knowledge, this is the first report in this field. Case Report. A 39-year-old woman was referred to emergency ward due to drowsiness and severe fatigue. Her laboratory tests revealed prothrombin time: 21 sec, alanine aminotransferase (ALT: 2339 IU/L, aspartate aminotransferase (AST: 2002 IU/L, and ALP: 90 IU/L. No common cause of liver involvement was discovered, and eventually, with diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency and corticosteroid therapy, liver enzymes and function became normal. Finally, the patient was discharged with good general condition. Conclusion. With this report, we emphasize adrenal insufficiency (primary or secondary as a reason of liver involvement in unexplainable cases and recommend that any increase in the liver enzymes, even liver failure, in these patients should be observed.

  14. Sleep Characteristics of Self-Reported Long Sleepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sanjay R.; Blackwell, Terri; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Stone, Katie L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Self-reported long habitual sleep durations (≥ 9 h per night) consistently predict increased mortality. We compared objective sleep parameters of self-reported long versus normal duration sleepers to determine whether long sleepers truly sleep more or have an underlying sleep abnormality. Methods: Older men participating in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS) were recruited for a comprehensive sleep assessment, which included wrist actigraphy, overnight polysomnography (PSG), and a question about usual nocturnal sleep duration. Results: Of the 3134 participants (mean age 76.4 ± 5.6; 89.9% Caucasian), 1888 (60.2%) reported sleeping 7-8 h (normal sleepers) and 174 (5.6%) reported ≥ 9 h (long sleepers). On actigraphy, long sleepers spent on average 63.0 min more per night in bed (P sleep stage distribution did not differ. After adjusting for differences in demographics, comorbidities, and medication usage, self-reported long sleepers continued to spend more time in bed and sleep more, based on both actigraphy and PSG. Each additional 30 min in bed or asleep as measured by actigraphy increased the odds of being a self-reported long-sleeper 1.74-fold and 1.33-fold, respectively (P sleep disorders. Citation: Patel SR; Blackwell T; Ancoli-Israel S; Stone KL. Sleep characteristics of self-reported long sleepers. SLEEP 2012;35(5):641-648. PMID:22547890

  15. Ecstasy use and self-reported disturbances in sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogeil, Rowan P; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W; Phillips, James G; Redman, Jennifer R; Broadbear, Jillian H

    2011-10-01

    Ecstasy users report a number of complaints after its use including disturbed sleep. However, little is known regarding which attributes of ecstasy use are associated with sleep disturbances, which domains of sleep are affected or which factors may predict those ecstasy users likely to have poor sleep quality and/or excessive daytime sleepiness. This study examined questionnaire responses of social drug users (n = 395) to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. A significant proportion of ecstasy users (69.5%) had Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores above the threshold used to identify sleep disturbance. Although frequency of ecstasy use did not affect the degree of reported sleep disturbance, participants who used larger amounts of ecstasy had poorer sleep. In addition, participants who perceived harmful consequences arising from their ecstasy use or had experienced remorse following ecstasy use had poorer sleep. Clinically relevant levels of sleep disturbance were still evident after controlling for polydrug use. Risk factors for poor sleep quality were younger age, injury post-ecstasy use and having been told to cut down on ecstasy use. Many ecstasy users report poor sleep quality, which likely contributes to the negative effects reported following ecstasy use. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Effects of Sleep Hygiene Education on Subjective Sleep Quality and Academic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Erkan Sahin

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Sleep problems are common in students with one third of university students reporting insufficient sleep. It is known that sleep quality and daytime sleepiness cause decrasing academic performans. For this reason we aimed to investigate the effects of a sleep hygiene education on sleep quality and academic performance of first year medical students. Material and Method: Self-reported sleep data and academic performance of 131 first grade medical students were collected. To all students e...

  17. Technical Report: Sleep-Route - Routing through Sleeping Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Chayan; Rao, Vijay S.; Prasad, R. Venkatesha

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we propose an energy-efficient data gathering scheme for wireless sensor network called Sleep-Route, which splits the sensor nodes into two sets - active and dormant (low-power sleep). Only the active set of sensor nodes participate in data collection. The sensing values of the dormant sensor nodes are predicted with the help of an active sensor node. Virtual Sensing Framework (VSF) provides the mechanism to predict the sensing values by exploiting the data correlation among ...

  18. Insufficient evidence to confirm effectiveness of oral appliances in treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Nigel A

    2007-01-01

    Searches were made using the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, Embase, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia and SciELO (the Scientific Electronic Library Online). Studies chosen were randomised controlled trials (RCT) or quasi-RCT comparing all types of oral and functional orthopaedic appliances with placebo or no treatment, in children of 15 years old or younger. Data were independently extracted by two review authors. Authors were contacted for additional information. Risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for all important dichotomous outcomes. A total of 384 trials were identified, of which only one, reporting results from a total of 23 patients, was suitable for inclusion in the review. Data provided in the published report did not answer all the questions from this review, but did answer some: the results presented favour treatment. At present there is not sufficient evidence to state that oral appliances or functional orthopaedic appliances are effective in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) syndrome in children. Oral appliances or functional orthopaedic appliances may be helpful in the treatment of children with craniofacial anomalies which are risk factors for apnoea.

  19. Physiological Sleep Propensity Might Be Unaffected by Significant Variations in Self-Reported Well-Being, Activity, and Mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcady A. Putilov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Depressive state is often associated with such physical symptoms as general weakness, fatigue, tiredness, slowness, reduced activity, low energy, and sleepiness. The involvement of the sleep-wake regulating mechanisms has been proposed as one of the plausible explanations of this association. Both physical depressive symptoms and increased physiological sleep propensity can result from disordered and insufficient sleep. In order to avoid the influence of disordered and insufficient sleep, daytime and nighttime sleepiness were tested in winter depression characterized by normal night sleep duration and architecture. Materials and Methods. A total sample consisted of 6 healthy controls and 9 patients suffered from depression in the previous winter season. Sleep latency was determined across 5 daytime and 4 nighttime 20-min attempts to nap in summer as well as in winter before and after a week of 2-hour evening treatment with bright light. Results and Conclusions. Patients self-reported abnormally lowered well-being, activity, and mood only in winter before the treatment. Physiological sleep propensity was neither abnormal nor linked to significant changes in well-being, activity, and mood following the treatment and change in season. It seems unlikely that the mechanisms regulating the sleep-wake cycle contributed to the development of the physical depressive symptoms.

  20. Effect of Inhaled Lavender and Sleep Hygiene on Self-Reported Sleep Issues: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillehei, Angela Smith; Savik, Kay; Reis, Reilly

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To compare the effectiveness of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and sleep hygiene versus sleep hygiene alone on sleep quantity and sleep quality and to determine sustained effect at two-week follow-up. Design: A randomized controlled trial with investigator blinding and steps taken to blind the participants. Setting: Participants' usual sleep setting. Subjects: Seventy-nine college students with self-reported sleep issues. Interventions: The intervention took place over five nights with baseline, postintervention, and two-week follow-up assessments. Both groups practiced good sleep hygiene and wore an inhalation patch on their chest at night. One group wore a patch with 55 μl of lavender essential oil and the other group wore a blank patch. Outcome measures: Sleep quantity was measured using a Fitbit® tracker and a sleep diary, and sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the NIH Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) sleep disturbance short form. Results: The lavender and sleep hygiene group demonstrated better sleep quality at postintervention and two-week follow-up (PSQI p=0 .01, <0.001 and PROMIS p=0.04, 0.007, respectively). The sleep-hygiene-only group also demonstrated better sleep quality but to a lesser extent (PSQI p=0.02, 0.06 and PROMIS p=0.03, 0.03, respectively). Additionally, a clinical effect was found for the lavender group at postintervention, along with a significant finding for waking feeling refreshed (p=0.01). Sleep quantity did not differ between groups. Conclusions: Lavender and sleep hygiene together, and sleep hygiene alone to a lesser degree, improved sleep quality for college students with self-reported sleep issues, with an effect remaining at follow-up. PMID:26133206

  1. Ideal Timing of Starting Weight-Bearing After Calcaneal Insufficiency Fracture: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Imamura; Mochizuki; Kawakami; Momohara

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Criteria for starting weight-bearing on the heel with a symptomatic calcaneal insufficiency fracture have not yet been reported. Case Presentation We describe a rare case of a 52-year-old woman with a calcaneal insufficiency fracture who sustained a second ipsilateral calcaneal insufficiency fracture within a short time span. The initial fracture was not evident radiographically, but was detected using magnetic resona...

  2. Sleep spindle activity in double cortex syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforza, Emilia; Marcoz, Jean-Pierre; Foletti, Giovanni

    2010-09-01

    Cortical dysgenesis is increasingly recognised as a cause of epilepsy. We report a case with double cortex heterotopia and secondarily generalized seizures with a generalised spike wave pattern. During the course of the disease, the child developed electrical status epilepticus in slow wave sleep. From the first examination, sleep pattern revealed increased frequency and amplitude of spindle activity, more evident in anterior areas. The role of the thalamocortical pathway in increased sleep spindle activity is discussed with emphasis on the possible role of altered thalamocortical pathways in abnormal cortical migration. A strong suspicion of cortical dysgenesis may therefore be based on specific EEG sleep patterns.

  3. Sleep behaviors in older African American females reporting nonmalignant chronic pain: understanding the psychosocial implications of general sleep disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Tamara A; Whitfield, Keith E

    2014-01-01

    This study examined factors that influence sleep quality in older African American women (N = 181) reporting chronic pain. Participants completed a series of questions assessing demographic and behavioral characteristics, health status, pain intensity, and sleep disturbance. Findings indicated that younger participants and those experiencing poorer physical functioning reported more difficulty sleeping due to pain. Similarly, participants who reported being awakened from sleep due to pain were younger and experienced greater pain intensity. Understanding the relationship between sleep and pain in this group of women may be useful in promoting effective disease management and sleep awareness among patients, caregivers, and healthcare professionals.

  4. Sleep Duration and Quality in Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Survey in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglong Xu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Good maternal health and fetal development require sufficient and good quality of sleep during pregnancy. This study investigated sleep duration and quality in pregnant women, assessing factors with possibly influence on sleep. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on pregnant women between June and August in 2015 in 16 hospitals in five provinces in China. A total of 2345 pregnant women aged 18 years and older were surveyed. Insufficient sleeping duration was defined as sleeping of less than 7 h per day. Excessive sleep duration was defined as sleeping of more than 9 h per day. Results: A total of 561 (23.9% participants reported insufficient sleeping duration, whereas 485 (20.9% claimed excessive sleep duration. A total of 358 (15.2% of pregnant women reported problems regarding sleep quality. Compared to pregnant women with sufficient sleeping duration, those with insufficient sleeping duration were prone to have poor sleep quality, whereas those with excessive sleeping duration featured low possibility of poor sleep quality. High-risk groups of insufficient sleep duration include women of Han nationality, with siblings, in their first trimester of pregnancy, receiving care in low-capacity/quality hospital settings, and with daily or 1–3 days of secondhand smoke exposure. High-risk groups of excessive sleep duration include women living in rural areas, unemployed, in their third trimester of pregnancy, and receiving care in medium-capacity/quality hospital settings. High-risk groups of poor sleep quality include women of non-Han nationality, low income level, in their third trimester of pregnancy, and with insufficient sleep duration. Conclusions: Insufficient/excessive sleep duration and poor sleep quality commonly occur during pregnancy in China. Findings provide a better understanding of the influencing factors of insufficient/excessive sleep duration and poor quality of sleep. These findings have some implications

  5. The Future of Sleep Technology: Report from an American Association of Sleep Technologists Summit Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Rita; Trimble, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    integrated care will include an increased focus on patient education, monitoring, and follow-up. The most effective treatments will require an individualized, patient-centered approach. A workforce analysis shows that the number of trained physician specialists will be inadequate to provide this care. Well-trained sleep medicine practitioners at many levels will be needed to meet treatment goals, including some roles appropriate for sleep technologists. These factors provide challenges and opportunities for sleep technologists. In order to maintain viability as an allied health profession, the majority of sleep technologists will need to be better educated and demonstrate competency in more roles than overnight monitoring and record scoring. Models for this transition already exist, with several programs moving technologists from night work to days and from diagnosis to patient education, provision of treatment, and monitoring of adherence. The challenge for the professional association is to define new roles for sleep technologists and provide the education that the membership will require to flourish in those new roles. Citation: Brooks R, Trimble M. The future of sleep technology: report from an American Association of Sleep Technologists summit meeting. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(5):589-593. PMID:24812546

  6. Sleep and dream habits in a sample of French college students who report no sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallat, Raphael; Eskinazi, Mickael; Nicolas, Alain; Ruby, Perrine

    2018-02-06

    There is a lack of up-to-date data on sleep and dream habits of college students. To fill in this gap, we used an online questionnaire sent to the student mailing lists of two major universities of Lyon (Lyon 1 and Lyon 2) for the recruitment of an functional magnetic resonance imaging study with sleep disorders as exclusion criteria. In the sample (1,137 French college students, 411 males, mean age = 22.2 ± 2.4 years, body mass index = 22.0 ± 3.2 kg m -2 ), on average, the participants reported spending about 8 hr in bed during weekdays, 9 hr during the weekends, and 90.9% of them reported no difficulty falling asleep. Less than 0.4% of students reported to have sleep-walking episodes regularly, but nearly 7% reported regular sleep-talking episodes. The average dream recall frequency was about 3 mornings per week with a dream in mind. Dream recall frequency was positively correlated with the clarity of dream content and the frequency of lucid dreaming, and was negatively correlated with age. Fourteen percent of the students reported frequent lucid dreams, and 6% reported frequent recurrent dreams. We found a gender effect for several sleep and dream parameters, including dream recall frequency and time in bed, both of which were higher in women than in men. We have also observed differences between academic disciplines, namely humanities students (Lyon 2) reported spending more time in bed than sciences students (Lyon 1). These results confirm a gender difference for several sleep and dream parameters, and suggest a link between academic disciplines and sleep duration. © 2018 European Sleep Research Society.

  7. PROMIS Sleep Disturbance and Sleep-Related Impairment in Adolescents: Examining Psychometrics Using Self-Report and Actigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanish, Alyson E; Lin-Dyken, Deborah C; Han, Joan C

    The National Institutes of Health Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) has self-reported health measures available for both pediatric and adult populations, but no pediatric measures are available currently in the sleep domains. The purpose of this observational study was to perform preliminary validation studies on age-appropriate, self-reported sleep measures in healthy adolescents. This study examined 25 healthy adolescents' self-reported daytime sleepiness, sleep disturbance, sleep-related impairment, and sleep patterns. Healthy adolescents completed a physical exam at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (Bethesda, MD), had no chronic medical conditions, and were not taking any chronic medications. The Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire (CASQ), PROMIS Sleep Disturbance (v. 1.0; 8a), and PROMIS Sleep-Related Impairment (v. 1.0; 8b) questionnaires were completed, and sleep patterns were assessed using actigraphy. Total scores on the three sleep questionnaires were correlated (all Spearman's r > .70, p psychometrically sound sleep questionnaires. Findings suggest the potential research and clinical utility of adult versions of PROMIS sleep measures in adolescents. Future studies should include larger, more diverse samples and explore additional psychometric properties of PROMIS sleep measures to provide age-appropriate, validated, and reliable measures of sleep in adolescents.

  8. Sleep Quality and Factors Influencing Self-Reported Sleep Duration and Quality in the General Internal Medicine Inpatient Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina Dobing

    Full Text Available Sleep quality in hospitalized Canadian General Internal Medicine patients is not well characterized. Our goals were to characterize hospital sleep quality in this population and identify potentially modifiable barriers to good sleep.GIM inpatients at a quaternary centre in Edmonton, Canada completed a survey, including the Verran-Snyder Halpern (VSH questionnaire, to characterize the previous night's sleep within 48 hours prior to discharge. A chart review was also completed to assess comorbidities, discharge diagnoses, and pharmaceutical sleep aid use.Patients reported significantly worse nighttime sleep duration in hospital compared with home (mean 5.5 versus 7.0 hours per night, p < 0.0001. Sleep quality was poor, as measured by the VSH disturbance (mean 371, effectiveness (190, and supplementation (115 subscales. Variables independently associated with poorer sleep duration in multivariable regression include prior diagnosis of sleep disorder and multi-patient occupancy rooms. Age, sex, admitting diagnosis, length of stay, frequency of vital checks, and use of sleep pharmaceuticals during the index hospitalization were not associated with sleep duration. The most frequently reported reasons for poor sleep included noise (59%, nursing interruptions (30%, uncomfortable beds (18%, bright lights (16%, unfamiliar surroundings (14%, and pain (9%.Sleep quality for GIM inpatients is significantly worse in hospital than at home. There is a need to test non-pharmacologic interventions to address the most frequently identified factors causing poor sleep hygiene for GIM inpatients.

  9. Traumatic Tricuspid Insufficiency with Chordae Tendinae Rupture: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Jing Lin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available With the increase in the number of automobile accidents, traumatic tricuspid insufficiency, a rare complication of non-penetrating blunt chest injury, has become an important problem. This kind of injury has been found more frequently during the last decade, partly because of better diagnostic procedures and a better understanding of the pathology. Here, we report a 22-year-old male patient who suffered chest trauma from an automobile accident. Echocardiography demonstrated tricuspid chordae tendinae rupture with remarkable tricuspid regurgitation. We discuss this case in comparison with the previous literature. This case reminds us that physicians in the emergency department should be aware of this potential complication following non-penetrating chest trauma.

  10. Hypopituitarism Presenting as Adrenal Insufficiency and Hypothyroidism in a Patient with Wilson's Disease: a Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae Won; Kang, Jin Du; Yeo, Chang Woo; Yoon, Sung Woon; Lee, Kwang Jae; Choi, Mun Ki

    2016-08-01

    Wilson's disease typically presents symptoms associated with liver damage or neuropsychiatric disturbances, while endocrinologic abnormalities are rare. We report an unprecedented case of hypopituitarism in a patient with Wilson's disease. A 40-year-old woman presented with depression, general weakness and anorexia. Laboratory tests and imaging studies were compatible with liver cirrhosis due to Wilson's disease. Basal hormone levels and pituitary function tests indicated secondary hypothyroidism and adrenal insufficiency due to hypopituitarism. Brain MRI showed T2 hyperintense signals in both basal ganglia and midbrain but the pituitary imaging was normal. She is currently receiving chelation therapy along with thyroid hormone and steroid replacement. There may be a relationship between Wilson's disease and hypopituitarism. Copper deposition or secondary neuronal damage in the pituitary may be a possible explanation for this theory.

  11. Aortic insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page, please enable JavaScript. Aortic insufficiency is a heart valve disease in which the aortic valve does not close ... aortic insufficiency Images Aortic insufficiency References Carabello BA. Valvular heart disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  12. Mother-reported sleep, accelerometer-estimated sleep and weight status in Mexican American children: sleep duration is associated with increased adiposity and risk for overweight/obese status

    Science.gov (United States)

    We know of no studies comparing parent-reported sleep with accelerometer-estimated sleep in their relation to paediatric adiposity. We examined: (i) the reliability of mother-reported sleep compared with accelerometer-estimated sleep; and (ii) the relationship between both sleep measures and child a...

  13. Loyes-Dietz syndrome presenting with severe aortic insufficiency – case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunovsky, P.; Dinka, R.; Krissakova, A.; Culen, M.; Nosal, M.; Kovacik, J.; Ilencikova, D.; Outrata, R.

    2013-01-01

    Severe aortic insufficiency (AI) in childhood is very rare cause of heart failure. Mostly is associated with connective tissue disorders as Marfan syndrome (MFS) or recently described Loyes-Dietz syndrome (LDS) (1). Authors present a case report of 9 years old girl with severe AI caused by aneurysm of aortic root. Typical findings associated with LDS are wide spread aneurysms of aorta, hypertelorism, cleft palate or split uvula (bifida uvula) and generalized arterial tortuosity. LDS is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder of the connective tissue; caused by mutation in the genes encoding the transforming growth factor beta receptor 1 and 2 (TGFBR1 and TGFRB2). Afflicted patients demonstrate different involvement of cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and central nervous system. From prognostic point of view the most consequential is widespread involvement of arterial system, when in addition to ascending aorta other parts of aorta and their branches might be also afflicted. Life threatening dissection and ruptures can occur earlier and at less dilated aneurysms than in MFS, requiring more aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic management with timely surgical intervention. Incidence of LDS is less frequent than serious congenital heart defects but due to its catastrophic potential even in early childhood as well as possible preventive intervention the importance of early diagnosis and treatment should be emphasized. (author)

  14. Association of Velopharyngeal Insufficiency With Quality of Life and Patient-Reported Outcomes After Speech Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuskute, Aditi; Skirko, Jonathan R; Roth, Christina; Bayoumi, Ahmed; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe; Tollefson, Travis T

    2017-09-01

    Patients with cleft palate and other causes of velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) suffer adverse effects on social interactions and communication. Measurement of these patient-reported outcomes is needed to help guide surgical and nonsurgical care. To further validate the VPI Effects on Life Outcomes (VELO) instrument, measure the change in quality of life (QOL) after speech surgery, and test the association of change in speech with change in QOL. Prospective descriptive cohort including children and young adults undergoing speech surgery for VPI in a tertiary academic center. Participants completed the validated VELO instrument before and after surgical treatment. The main outcome measures were preoperative and postoperative VELO scores and the perceptual speech assessment of speech intelligibility. The VELO scores are divided into subscale domains. Changes in VELO after surgery were analyzed using linear regression models. VELO scores were analyzed as a function of speech intelligibility adjusting for age and cleft type. The correlation between speech intelligibility rating and VELO scores was estimated using the polyserial correlation. Twenty-nine patients (13 males and 16 females) were included. Mean (SD) age was 7.9 (4.1) years (range, 4-20 years). Pharyngeal flap was used in 14 (48%) cases, Furlow palatoplasty in 12 (41%), and sphincter pharyngoplasty in 1 (3%). The mean (SD) preoperative speech intelligibility rating was 1.71 (1.08), which decreased postoperatively to 0.79 (0.93) in 24 patients who completed protocol (P Speech Intelligibility was correlated with preoperative and postoperative total VELO score (P speech intelligibility. Speech surgery improves VPI-specific quality of life. We confirmed validation in a population of untreated patients with VPI and included pharyngeal flap surgery, which had not previously been included in validation studies. The VELO instrument provides patient-specific outcomes, which allows a broader understanding of the

  15. Prevalence of sleep breathing complaints reported by treatment-seeking chronic insomnia disorder patients on presentation to a sleep medical center: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakow, Barry; Ulibarri, Victor A

    2013-03-01

    Few studies have examined the co-morbidity between insomnia and sleep-disordered breathing in the clinical setting. This study evaluated treatment-seeking insomnia patients and their self-report of sleep breathing complaints. A retrospective chart review was conducted on 1,035 consecutive treatment-seeking, chronic insomnia patients who reported insomnia as their primary problem upon seeking care at a private, community-based sleep medical center. Measurements included the insomnia severity index, standard subjective sleep measures as well as rankings, attributions, and self-reports about sleep breathing disorders, problems, and symptoms. A total of 1,035 adult, treatment-seeking insomnia patients indicated insomnia interfered with daytime functioning, and their average insomnia severity was in the range of a clinically relevant problem: total sleep time (5.50 h, SD = 1.60), sleep efficiency (71.05 %, SD = 18.26), wake time after sleep onset (120.70 min, SD = 92.56), and an insomnia severity index (18.81, SD = 5.09). Of these 1,035 insomnia patients, 42 % also ranked a sleep breathing disorder among their list of reasons for seeking treatment, another 13 % revealed a concern about a sleep breathing problem, and another 26 % reported awareness of sleep breathing symptoms. Only 19 % of this clinical insomnia sample reported no awareness or concerns about sleep breathing disorders, problems, or symptoms. A greater proportion of men than women reported significantly more sleep breathing disorders, problems, or symptoms. Sleep breathing complaints were extremely common among a large sample of treatment-seeking, self-identified, adult chronic insomnia patients. Prospective prevalence research is needed to corroborate or revise these findings, and polysomnography should be considered in appropriate cohorts to determine the clinical relevance of treatment-seeking chronic insomnia patients' sleep breathing complaints.

  16. Moderate Exercise Plus Sleep Education Improves Self-Reported Sleep Quality, Daytime Mood, and Vitality in Adults with Chronic Sleep Complaints: A Waiting List-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gebhart

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that physical exercise can contribute to better sleep quality. This study investigates the six-week influence of a combined intervention on self-rated sleep quality, daytime mood, and quality of life. A nonclinical sample of 114 adults with chronic initiating and the maintaining of sleep complaints participated in the study. The intervention group of 70 adults underwent moderate physical exercise, conducted weekly, plus sleep education sessions. Improvements among participants assigned to the intervention group relative to the waiting-list control group (n=44 were noted for subjective sleep quality, daytime mood, depressive symptoms and vitality. Derived from PSQI subscores, the intervention group reported increased sleep duration, shortened sleep latency, fewer awakenings after sleep onset, and overall better sleep efficiency compared to controls. The attained scores were well sustained and enhanced over a time that lasted through to the follow-up 18 weeks later. These findings have implications in treatment programs concerning healthy lifestyle approaches for adults with chronic sleep complaints.

  17. Moderate Exercise Plus Sleep Education Improves Self-Reported Sleep Quality, Daytime Mood, and Vitality in Adults with Chronic Sleep Complaints: A Waiting List-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhart, Carmen; Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that physical exercise can contribute to better sleep quality. This study investigates the six-week influence of a combined intervention on self-rated sleep quality, daytime mood, and quality of life. A nonclinical sample of 114 adults with chronic initiating and the maintaining of sleep complaints participated in the study. The intervention group of 70 adults underwent moderate physical exercise, conducted weekly, plus sleep education sessions. Improvements among participants assigned to the intervention group relative to the waiting-list control group (n = 44) were noted for subjective sleep quality, daytime mood, depressive symptoms and vitality. Derived from PSQI subscores, the intervention group reported increased sleep duration, shortened sleep latency, fewer awakenings after sleep onset, and overall better sleep efficiency compared to controls. The attained scores were well sustained and enhanced over a time that lasted through to the follow-up 18 weeks later. These findings have implications in treatment programs concerning healthy lifestyle approaches for adults with chronic sleep complaints. PMID:23471095

  18. Moderate exercise plus sleep education improves self-reported sleep quality, daytime mood, and vitality in adults with chronic sleep complaints: a waiting list-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhart, Carmen; Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that physical exercise can contribute to better sleep quality. This study investigates the six-week influence of a combined intervention on self-rated sleep quality, daytime mood, and quality of life. A nonclinical sample of 114 adults with chronic initiating and the maintaining of sleep complaints participated in the study. The intervention group of 70 adults underwent moderate physical exercise, conducted weekly, plus sleep education sessions. Improvements among participants assigned to the intervention group relative to the waiting-list control group (n = 44) were noted for subjective sleep quality, daytime mood, depressive symptoms and vitality. Derived from PSQI subscores, the intervention group reported increased sleep duration, shortened sleep latency, fewer awakenings after sleep onset, and overall better sleep efficiency compared to controls. The attained scores were well sustained and enhanced over a time that lasted through to the follow-up 18 weeks later. These findings have implications in treatment programs concerning healthy lifestyle approaches for adults with chronic sleep complaints.

  19. Relationship between Self-Reported Dietary Nutrient Intake and Self-Reported Sleep Duration among Japanese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Komada

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported that short sleep duration is a risk factor for obesity and metabolic disease. Moreover, both sleep duration and sleep timing might independently be associated with dietary nutrient intake. In this study, we investigated the associations between self-reported sleep duration and dietary nutrient intake, with and without adjustments for variations in sleep timing (i.e., the midpoint of sleep. We conducted a questionnaire survey, comprising a validated brief self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ and the Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI among 1902 healthy Japanese adults and found that the dietary intakes of several nutrients correlated with sleep duration among men regardless of adjustment for the midpoint of sleep. Particularly, (1 small but significant correlations were observed between sleep duration and the percentage of energy from protein, regardless of adjustment for the midpoint of sleep; (2 energy-adjusted intakes of sodium, vitamin D, and vitamin B12 also significantly correlated with sleep duration; and (3 intakes of bread, pulses, and fish and shellfish correlated with sleep duration. In contrast, no significant correlations were observed between sleep duration and dietary intakes among women. This study revealed that after controlling for the midpoint of sleep, sleep duration correlated significantly with the dietary intake of specific nutrients and foods in a population of Japanese men.

  20. Sleep deprivation and injuries in part-time Kentucky farmers: impact of self reported sleep habits and sleep problems on injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, Susan E; Browning, Steven R; Reed, Deborah B

    2004-09-01

    Part-time farmers who hold off-farm jobs may be at risk for injuries because of impaired performance resulting from inadequate sleep. For this study, 1004 part-time male Kentucky farmers completed a telephone interview for the 1994 to 1995 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health-funded Farm Family Health and Hazard Surveillance Project. Questions were included about demographics, sleep habits, and injury occurrence. Twelve percent of the farmers reported an injury requiring medical intervention in the previous year. Farmers reported sleeping an average of 7.6 hours daily. Approximately 6.7% of the sample had three symptoms of sleep apnea. Although hours of sleep were not related to injury incidence, sleep medication use (odds ratio [OR] = 2.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01 to 4.40) and presence of three sleep apnea symptoms (OR = 2.48, 95% CI = 1.13 to 5.41) were related to injury incidence. These data support the need for further research to examine sleep habits and promote strategies that reduce the risk for injuries caused by lack of sleep.

  1. Decreases in self-reported sleep duration among U.S. adolescents 2009-2015 and association with new media screen time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M; Krizan, Zlatan; Hisler, Garrett

    2017-11-01

    Insufficient sleep among adolescents carries significant health risks, making it important to determine social factors that change sleep duration. We sought to determine whether the self-reported sleep duration of U.S. adolescents changed between 2009 and 2015 and examine whether new media screen time (relative to other factors) might be responsible for changes in sleep. We drew from yearly, nationally representative surveys of sleep duration and time use among adolescents conducted since 1991 (Monitoring the Future) and 2007 (Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System of the Centers for Disease Control; total N = 369,595). Compared to 2009, adolescents in 2015 were 16%-17% more likely to report sleeping less than 7 h a night on most nights, with an increase in short sleep duration after 2011-2013. New media screen time (electronic device use, social media, and reading news online) increased over this time period and was associated with increased odds of short sleep duration, with a clear exposure-response relationship for electronic devices after 2 or more hours of use per day. Other activities associated with short sleep duration, such as homework time, working for pay, and TV watching, were relatively stable or reduced over this time period, making it unlikely that these activities caused the sudden increase in short sleep duration. Increased new media screen time may be involved in the recent increases (from 35% to 41% and from 37% to 43%) in short sleep among adolescents. Public health interventions should consider electronic device use as a target of intervention to improve adolescent health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Parent and adolescent reports in assessing adolescent sleep problems: results from a large population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Yaqoot; Doi, Suhail A R; O'Callaghan, Michael; Williams, Gail; Najman, Jake M; Mamun, Abdullah Al

    2016-09-01

    To compare parent and adolescent reports in exploring adolescent sleep problems and to identify the factors associated with adolescent sleep problem disclosures. Parent (n = 5185) and adolescent reports (n = 5171, age=13.9 ± 0.3 years), from a birth cohort were used to explore adolescent sleep problems. Kappa coefficients were used to assess the agreement, whereas, conditional agreement and disagreement ratios were used to identify the optimal informant. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors affecting adolescent sleep problem disclosure. Parental reports identified only about one-third of the sleep problems reported by adolescents. Whereas adolescent reports identified up to two-thirds of the sleep problems reported by parents. Combined reports of parents and adolescent did not show any considerable difference from the adolescent report. Adolescent and parent health, maternal depression, and family communication were significantly associated with adolescents sleep problem disclosures. Adolescent reports could be used as the preferred source to explore adolescent sleep problems. Parental reports should be used when parents as observers are more reliable reporters, or where adolescents are cognitively unable to report sleep problems. Additionally, the impact of poor health, maternal depression and family communication on sleep problems disclosure should be considered for adolescent sleep problem diagnosis. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The association of mothers' and fathers' insomnia symptoms with school-aged children's sleep assessed by parent report and in-home sleep-electroencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urfer-Maurer, Natalie; Weidmann, Rebekka; Brand, Serge; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Grob, Alexander; Weber, Peter; Lemola, Sakari

    2017-10-01

    Sleep plays an essential role for children's well-being. Because children's sleep is associated with parental sleep patterns, it must be considered in the family context. As a first aim of the present study, we test whether parental insomnia symptoms are related to children's in-home sleep-electroencephalography (EEG). Second, we examine the association between parental insomnia symptoms and maternal and paternal perception of children's sleep using actor-partner interdependence models. A total of 191 healthy children enrolled in public school and aged 7-12 years took part in the study. Ninety-six were formerly very preterm born children. Children underwent in-home sleep-EEG, and parents reported children's sleep-related behavior by using the German version of the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire. Further, parents completed the Insomnia Severity Index to report their own insomnia symptoms. Maternal but not paternal insomnia symptoms were related to less children's EEG-derived total sleep time, more stage 2 sleep, less slow wave sleep, later sleep onset time, and later awakening time. Mothers' and fathers' own insomnia symptoms were related to their reports of children's bedtime resistance, sleep duration, sleep anxiety, night wakings, and/or daytime sleepiness. Moreover, maternal insomnia symptoms were associated with paternal reports of children's bedtime resistance, sleep anxiety, and sleep-disordered breathing. The associations between parental insomnia symptoms and parents' perception of children's sleep could not be explained by children's objectively measured sleep. Mothers' insomnia symptoms and children's objective sleep patterns are associated. Moreover, the parents' own insomnia symptoms might bias their perception of children's sleep-related behavior problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sleep apnea in patients reporting insomnia or restless legs symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, M T; Goparaju, B; Moro, M

    2016-01-01

    Insomnia and restless legs syndrome (RLS) are defined by self-reported symptoms, and polysomnography (PSG) is not routinely indicated. Occult obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), common even in asymptomatic adults, may complicate management of patients presenting with insomnia or restless legs. To this end, we investigated objective sleep apnea metrics in a large retrospective cohort according to self-reported symptom profiles. We compared sleep apnea findings in patients referred to our center according to self-reported symptoms associated with insomnia, sleep apnea, and restless legs. The cohort included over 1900 adults who underwent diagnostic (n = 1418) or split-night (n = 504) PSGs and completed a symptom and medical history questionnaire. More than 30% of patients who did not endorse any OSA symptoms, but did endorse insomnia or restless legs symptoms, were found to have OSA based on apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) >5 during overnight laboratory testing. Regression models of the full cohort showed that the risk of OSA was related, as expected, to older age, male sex, elevated body mass index, and presence of OSA symptoms. The presence of insomnia symptoms did not alter the risk of OSA. The presence of restless legs symptoms showed a small odds ratio for lowered OSA risk. Objective evidence of OSA occurs similarly in those with insomnia or restless legs symptoms, even among those without self-reported OSA symptoms. Providers should be aware of the potential for occult OSA in populations with insomnia and restless legs, which may complicate their management in addition to presenting an independent medical risk itself. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Exploring sex and gender differences in sleep health: a Society for Women's Health Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampalli, Monica P; Carter, Christine L

    2014-07-01

    Previous attempts have been made to address sleep disorders in women; however, significant knowledge gaps in research and a lack of awareness among the research community continue to exist. There is a great need for scientists and clinicians to consider sex and gender differences in their sleep research to account for the unique biology of women. To understand the role of sex differences in sleep and the state of women's sleep health research, the Society for Women's Health Research convened an interdisciplinary expert panel of well-established sleep researchers and clinicians for a roundtable meeting. Focused discussions on basic and clinical research along with a focus on specific challenges facing women with sleep-related problems and effective therapies led to the identification of knowledge gaps and the development of research-related recommendations. Additionally, sex differences in sleep disorders were noted and discussed in the context of underlying hormonal differences. Differences in sleep behavior and sleep disorders may not only be driven by biological factors but also by gender differences in the way women and men report symptoms. Progress has been made in identifying sex and gender differences in many areas of sleep, but major research gaps in the areas of epidemiology, sleep regulation, sleep quality, diagnosis, and treatment need to be addressed. Identifying the underlying nature of sex and gender differences in sleep research has potential to accelerate improved care for both men and women facilitating better diagnosis, treatment, and ultimately prevention of sleep disorders and related comorbid conditions.

  6. Parents of children referred to a sleep laboratory for disordered breathing reported anxiety, daytime sleepiness and poor sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadart, Marion; De Sanctis, Livio; Khirani, Sonia; Amaddeo, Alessandro; Ouss, Lisa; Fauroux, Brigitte

    2018-07-01

    We evaluated the impact that having a child with sleep-disordered breathing had on their parents, including their own sleep quality. Questionnaires were completed by 96 parents of 86 children referred for a sleep study or control of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or noninvasive ventilation (NIV) at the sleep laboratory of the Necker Hospital, Paris, France, between October 2015 and January 2016. The questionnaires evaluated anxiety and depression, family functioning, the parents' quality of life, daytime sleepiness and sleep quality. The children had a mean age of seven ±five years and most of the responses (79%) came from their mothers. These showed that 26% of parents showed moderate-to-severe anxiety, 8% moderate-to-severe depression, 6% complex family cohesion, 59% moderate-to-severe daytime sleepiness and 54% poor sleep quality. Anxiety was higher in mothers than in fathers (p parents of children referred to a sleep laboratory reported frequent anxiety, daytime sleepiness and poor sleep quality. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Sleep patterns and insomnia among portuguese adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odete Amaral

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: There are high prevalence of inadequate sleep patterns, insufficient sleep and insomnia among Portuguese adolescents. Insufficient sleep is associated with sleep patterns and social and behavioural factors. These results add to our knowledge of adolescent sleep worldwide.

  8. The effect of self-reported habitual sleep quality and sleep length on autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murre, Jaap M J; Kristo, Gert; Janssen, Steve M J

    2014-01-01

    A large number of studies have recently shown effects of sleep on memory consolidation. In this study the effects of the sleep quality and sleep length on the retention of autobiographical memories are examined, using an Internet-based diary technique (Kristo, Janssen, & Murre, 2009). Each of over 600 participants recorded one recent personal event and was contacted after a retention interval that ranged from 2 to 46 days. Recall of the content, time, and details of the event were scored and related to sleep quality and sleep length as measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that poor sleep quality, but not short sleep length, was associated with significantly lower recall at the longer retention periods (30-46 days), but not at the shorter ones (2-15 days), although the difference in recall between good and poor sleepers was small.

  9. [The importance of sleep in the mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizume, Yuji

    2014-02-01

    Japanese average sleeping time is decreasing year by year. The National Sleep Foundation of United States of America released that Japan reports the least amount of sleep. Japanese reports sleeping about 30 to 40 minutes less on workdays than those in the other countries surveyed, averaging 6 hours 22 minutes of sleep. There are many reports that insomnia has been suggested to cause depression and other mental disorders. And epidemiological evidence supports a link between sleep loss and obesity. Obesity is one of risk factors of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome which causes cognitive dysfunction, mood disorders and so on. Sleep loss and sleep insufficiency can cause mental disorders and be impaired cognitive function and performance.

  10. Sleep in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: How Are Measures of Parent Report and Actigraphy Related and Affected by Sleep Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veatch, Olivia J; Reynolds, Ann; Katz, Terry; Weiss, Shelly K; Loh, Alvin; Wang, Lily; Malow, Beth A

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is common in children with autism, resulting in a great need for effective treatments. To evaluate treatments for sleep disturbance in this population, it is critical to understand the relationship between measures of sleep captured by parent report and objective measures. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and actigraphy-measured data from 80 children with autism and sleep-onset delay were evaluated. Reported problems with sleep-onset delay were concurrent with sleep duration problems in 66% of children, night wakings in 72% of children, and bedtime resistance in 66% of children; 38% of children were reported to have problems with all CSHQ insomnia domains. Actigraphy-measured sleep duration was correlated with estimates using CSHQ-reported bed and wake times.

  11. Effects of Sleep Hygiene Education on Subjective Sleep Quality and Academic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Sahin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Sleep problems are common in students with one third of university students reporting insufficient sleep. It is known that sleep quality and daytime sleepiness cause decrasing academic performans. For this reason we aimed to investigate the effects of a sleep hygiene education on sleep quality and academic performance of first year medical students. Material and Method: Self-reported sleep data and academic performance of 131 first grade medical students were collected. To all students enrolled Pittsburg Sleep Quality Scale in the assessment of sleep quality and Epworth Sleepiness Scale for assessment of daytime sleepiness in the evaluation.The students were divided into two subgroups and the intervention group received a 30 minute structured sleep hygiene education. Global academic performance was assessed by grade point average at the end of the year. Results: Mean Pittsburgh sleep quality index score of the students was 7.9±3.5 and 106 (82.8% of then had a score %u22655.After intervention, .the worse the initial sleep quality, the more improvement by the sleep hygiene education on sleep quality and academic performance. Discussion: An education on sleep hygiene might improve subjective sleep quality and academic performance of medical students.

  12. The effect of self-reported habitual sleep quality and sleep length on autobiographical memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murre, J.M.J.; Kristo, G.; Janssen, S.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    A large number of studies have recently shown effects of sleep on memory consolidation. In this study the effects of the sleep quality and sleep length on the retention of autobiographical memories are examined, using an Internet-based diary technique (Kristo, Janssen, & Murre, 2009). Each of over

  13. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Sleep Disorders and Reporting of Trouble Sleeping Among Women of Childbearing Age in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyx, Melissa; Xiong, Xu; Xie, Yiqiong; Buekens, Pierre

    2017-02-01

    Objectives Whether racial/ethnic differences in prevalence/reporting of sleep disorders exist in pregnant women/women of child-bearing age is unknown. Study objectives were to estimate prevalence of sleep disorders and to examine racial/ethnic differences in sleep disorders, reporting of sleep issues, and amount of sleep among women of child-bearing age (15-44 years) in the US. Methods Through a secondary analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2010 (3175 non-pregnant, 432 pregnant women in main analysis), prevalence of sleep disorders, reporting of sleep disorders to a physician/health professional, and amount of sleep were estimated overall, by pregnancy status, and by race/ethnicity stratified by pregnancy status. Racial/ethnic differences in reporting of trouble sleeping by pregnancy status were examined using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results Prevalence of diagnosed sleep disorders among women of childbearing age was 4.9 % [3.9 % pregnant; 5.1 % non-pregnant (p sleep (7-8 h) than non-Hispanic white (white) women (p sleeping were significantly higher for white compared to black (aOR 0.47 [95 % CI 0.36, 0.61]) or Mexican-American women (aOR 0.29 [95 % CI 0.21, 0.41]); non-pregnant minority women were also significantly less likely to report trouble sleeping than white women when controlling for amount of sleep. Among pregnant women, these same trends were found. Discussion Compared to white women, minority women, despite reporting less adequate sleep, are less likely to report trouble sleeping, providing evidence of an important health disparity.

  14. Actigraphic and parental reports of sleep difficulties in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvolby, Allan; Jørgensen, Jan; Bilenberg, Niels

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe actigraphically detected and parent-reported sleep problems in nonmedicated children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); to clarify whether or not comorbid oppositional defiant disorder contributes to sleep difficulties; and to compare objectively measured...... subjects. Average sleep onset latencies were 26.3 minutes in the ADHD group, 18.6 minutes in the psychiatric control group, and 13.5 minutes in the healthy reference group. There was no apparent relationship between sleep problems and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder. We found discrepancies between...... the objectively measured sleep variables and those reported by parents, who overestimated sleep onset latency. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study allow us to conclude that some children with ADHD have impaired sleep that cannot be referred to comorbid oppositional defiant disorder. However, it is important...

  15. The association of self-reported sleep, weight status, and academic performance in fifth-grade students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebele, Nanette; McNally, Janise; Plog, Amy; Siegfried, Scott; Hill, James O

    2013-02-01

    To improve support and justification for health promotion efforts in schools, it is helpful to understand how students' health behaviors affect academic performance. Fifth-grade students completed an online school-administered health survey with questions regarding their eating behavior, physical activity, academic performance, and sleep patterns. Differences in health behaviors were examined by sex, self-reported weight status, and sufficient (≥9 hours) versus insufficient sleep. Logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between academic performance and the health behaviors. One third of the sample did not get the recommended amount of physical activity and more than half of the students watched television ≥ 2 hours/day. Self-reported overweight status was related to lower self-reported academic performance, fewer lunch and breakfast occasions, less physical activity, not meeting the recommendations for vegetable and soda consumption as well as hours of television watching. Sufficient sleep (≥9 hours/night) was associated with better grades, meeting the recommended hours of daily television watching and video game playing, being more physically active and increased breakfast and lunch frequency. Percentage of serving free/reduced lunch, soda consumption, breakfast frequency, amount of physical activity, and television watching were associated with academic performance. More positive health behaviors generally were associated with better academic performance. Promoting healthy behaviors in schools might improve not only students' health academic performance as well. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  16. Is sleep deprivation a contributor to obesity in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Chronic lack of sleep (called "sleep deprivation") is common in modern societies with 24/7 availability of commodities. Accumulating evidence supports the role of reduced sleep as contributing to the current obesity epidemic in children and youth. Longitudinal studies have consistently shown that short sleep duration is associated with weight gain and the development of obesity. Recent experimental studies have reported that sleep restriction leads to weight gain in humans. Increased food intake appears to be the main mechanism by which insufficient sleep results in weight gain. Voluntary sleep restriction has been shown to increase snacking, the number of meals eaten per day, and the preference for energy-dense foods. Although the causes of sleep loss in the pediatric population are numerous, more research looking at screen exposure before bedtime and its effects on sleep is needed given the pervasiveness of electronic media devices in today's environment. Health professionals should routinely ask questions about sleep and promote a good night's sleep because insufficient sleep impacts activity and eating behaviors. Future research should examine the clinical benefits of increasing sleep duration on eating behaviors and body weight control and determine the importance of adequate sleep to improve the treatment of obesity.

  17. Self-reported sleep parameters among secondary school teenagers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Available evidences seem to suggest increasing trend in sleep deficit among teenagers worldwide, and there is limited information on this among Nigerian teenagers. This study was carried out to determine the basic sleep schedule and sleep duration among schooling teenagers in Ilorin, Nigeria. Methods: ...

  18. Bilateral undisplaced insufficiency neck of femur fractures associated with short-term steroid use: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurdezi Sabahat

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We present an interesting and unusual case of a 61-year-old woman with bilateral, undisplaced, stress neck of femur fractures associated with short-term steroid use. Insufficiency fractures of the neck of femur without preceding trauma have been described in the literature, although bilateral involvement is infrequent. These fractures have been associated with strenuous exercise, seizures, renal osteodystrophy, fluoride treatment, long-term corticosteroid use, amenorrhoea, abnormal anatomy and osteomalacia due to nutritional and/or hormonal factors. Case Presentation The case we present differs from other published reports, in that the patient's symptoms developed acutely after only a short course of steroids and with no associated trauma or strenuous exercise. It is also the only case described where no operative intervention was required. Conclusion Our case reiterates the importance of considering insufficiency or stress fractures in high-risk patients who present with musculoskeletal pain. Institution of bone protection should also be considered in these patients. Morbidity related to delayed treatment has been well documented, so a high level of clinical suspicion is imperative.

  19. Effects of Wind Turbine Noise on Self-Reported and Objective Measures of Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, David S; Feder, Katya; Keith, Stephen E; Voicescu, Sonia A; Marro, Leonora; Than, John; Guay, Mireille; Denning, Allison; Murray, Brian J; Weiss, Shelly K; Villeneuve, Paul J; van den Berg, Frits; Bower, Tara

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association between self-reported and objective measures of sleep and wind turbine noise (WTN) exposure. The Community Noise and Health Study, a cross-sectional epidemiological study, included an in-house computer-assisted interview and sleep pattern monitoring over a 7 d period. Outdoor WTN levels were calculated following international standards for conditions that typically approximate the highest long-term average levels at each dwelling. Study data were collected between May and September 2013 from adults, aged 18-79 y (606 males, 632 females) randomly selected from each household and living between 0.25 and 11.22 kilometers from operational wind turbines in two Canadian provinces. Self-reported sleep quality over the past 30 d was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Additional questions assessed the prevalence of diagnosed sleep disorders and the magnitude of sleep disturbance over the previous year. Objective measures for sleep latency, sleep efficiency, total sleep time, rate of awakening bouts, and wake duration after sleep onset were recorded using the wrist worn Actiwatch2® from a subsample of 654 participants (289 males, 365 females) for a total of 3,772 sleep nights. Participant response rate for the interview was 78.9%. Outdoor WTN levels reached 46 dB(A) with an arithmetic mean of 35.6 and a standard deviation of 7.4. Self-reported and objectively measured sleep outcomes consistently revealed no apparent pattern or statistically significant relationship to WTN levels. However, sleep was significantly influenced by other factors, including, but not limited to, the use of sleep medication, other health conditions (including sleep disorders), caffeine consumption, and annoyance with blinking lights on wind turbines. Study results do not support an association between exposure to outdoor WTN up to 46 dB(A) and an increase in the prevalence of disturbed sleep. Conclusions are based on WTN levels averaged over 1 y and, in

  20. The Sleep-Time Cost of Parenting: Sleep Duration and Sleepiness Among Employed Parents in the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Erika W.; Mirer, Anna G.; Palta, Mari; Peppard, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is associated with poor health and increased mortality. Studies on whether parenthood (including consideration of number and ages of children) is associated with sleep duration or sleep problems are scant and inconclusive. Using data collected in the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study (n = 4,809) between 1989 and 2008, we examined cross-sectional associations of number and ages of children with self-reported parental sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and dozing among employed adults. Longitudinal change in sleep duration over 19 years was examined to evaluate changes in parental sleep associated with children transitioning into adulthood (n = 833). Each child under age 2 years was associated with 13 fewer minutes of parental sleep per day (95% confidence interval (CI): 5, 21); each child aged 2–5 years was associated with 9 fewer minutes of sleep (95% CI: 5, 13); and each child aged 6–18 years was associated with 4 fewer minutes (95% CI: 2, 6). Adult children were not associated with shorter parental sleep duration. Parents of children over age 2 years were significantly more likely to experience daytime sleepiness and dozing during daytime activities. Parents of minor children at baseline had significantly greater increases in sleep duration over 19 years of follow-up. Parenting minor children is associated with shorter sleep duration. As children age into adulthood, the sleep duration of parents with more children approaches that of parents with fewer children. PMID:23378502

  1. Altered sleep composition after traumatic brain injury does not affect declarative sleep-dependent memory consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna eMantua

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI often report sleep disturbances, which may be caused by changes in sleep architecture or reduced sleep quality (greater time awake after sleep onset, poorer sleep efficiency, and sleep stage proportion alterations. Sleep is beneficial for memory formation, and herein we examine whether altered sleep physiology following TBI has deleterious effects on sleep-dependent declarative memory consolidation. Participants learned a list of word pairs in the morning or evening, and recall was assessed 12-hrs later, following an interval awake or with overnight sleep. Young adult participants (18-22 yrs were assigned to one of four experimental groups: TBI Sleep (n=14, TBI Wake (n=12, non-TBI Sleep (n=15, non-TBI Wake (n=15. Each TBI participant was >1 yr post-injury. Sleep physiology was measured with polysomnography. Memory consolidation was assessed by comparing change in word-pair recall over 12-hr intersession intervals. The TBI group spent a significantly greater proportion of the night in SWS than the non-TBI group at the expense of NREM1. The TBI group also had marginally lower EEG delta power during SWS in the central region. Intersession changes in recall were greater for intervals with sleep than without sleep in both groups. However, despite abnormal sleep stage proportions for individuals with a TBI history, there was no difference in the intersession change in recall following sleep for the TBI and non-TBI groups. In both Sleep groups combined, there was a positive correlation between Intersession Change and the proportion of the night in NREM2 + SWS. Overall, sleep composition is altered following TBI but such deficits do not yield insufficiencies in sleep-dependent memory consolidation.

  2. Lip muscle training improves obstructive sleep apnea and objective sleep: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Suzuki

    Full Text Available The present study assessed the potential of lip muscle training for improving sleep. A patient with heavy snoring, daytime sleepiness and dry mouth underwent lip muscle training. Lip closure force LCFmax increased by 67.3% and LCFmin by 152% post-training. AHI decreased from 12.2 to 3.9 events/h by reducing hypopneic episodes. TST, sleep stage N3 and REM sleep increased, and WASO, sleep stage N1, and AI decreased. The patient switched from mouth to nose breathing during sleep and stopped snoring. Improved LCF, by moving the tongue into the anterior-superior oral cavity, may increase upper airway space and reduce the hypopnea index.

  3. Intraoperative Adrenal Insufficiency in a Patient with Prader-Willi Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara, David W.; Hannon, James D.; Hartman, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PW) is a rare genetic disorder with multi-organ system involvement. These patients present many perioperative challenges including sleep-related breathing disorders, morbid obesity, thick salivary secretions, mental retardation, and difficult intravenous access. PW has been suggested to be associated with central adrenal insufficiency. We report a novel case of persistent severe hypotension from previously undiagnosed and asymptomatic adrenal insufficiency in a pediatri...

  4. Caffeine: sleep and daytime sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrs, Timothy; Roth, Thomas

    2008-04-01

    Caffeine is one of the most widely consumed psychoactive substances and it has profound effects on sleep and wake function. Laboratory studies have documented its sleep-disruptive effects. It clearly enhances alertness and performance in studies with explicit sleep deprivation, restriction, or circadian sleep schedule reversals. But, under conditions of habitual sleep the evidence indicates that caffeine, rather then enhancing performance, is merely restoring performance degraded by sleepiness. The sleepiness and degraded function may be due to basal sleep insufficiency, circadian sleep schedule reversals, rebound sleepiness, and/or a withdrawal syndrome after the acute, over-night, caffeine discontinuation typical of most studies. Studies have shown that caffeine dependence develops at relatively low daily doses and after short periods of regular daily use. Large sample and population-based studies indicate that regular daily dietary caffeine intake is associated with disturbed sleep and associated daytime sleepiness. Further, children and adolescents, while reporting lower daily, weight-corrected caffeine intake, similarly experience sleep disturbance and daytime sleepiness associated with their caffeine use. The risks to sleep and alertness of regular caffeine use are greatly underestimated by both the general population and physicians.

  5. Oral appliance therapy versus nasal continuous positive airway pressure in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial on self-reported symptoms of common sleep disorders and sleep-related problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikolopoulou, M.; Byraki, A.; Ahlberg, J.; Heymans, M. W.; Hamburger, H. L.; de Lange, J.; Lobbezoo, F.; Aarab, G.

    2017-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with several sleep disorders and sleep-related problems. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of a mandibular advancement device (MAD) with those of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) on self-reported

  6. Obstructive Sleep Syndrom in Patient with Plonjon Guatr: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haldun sevketbeyoglu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A large number of predisposing factors (obesity, nasal obstruction, adenoid hypertrophy, macroglossia, etc. are reported to be associated with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OUAS. In addition to these factors, the large goiter and hypothyroidism were reported to be associated with OSAS as well. However, this relationship could not yet be fully demonstrated. In our case related to plonjon goiter, we wanted to show the effect of hyroidectomy to OSAS and #8211;if there is- and the relationship between pressure and OSAS. Two years ago, a 72-year-old female with BMI: 26.8 kg/m2 patient was admitted to our clinic with complaints of respiratory standstill during sleep, snoring, morning headaches and drowsiness during daylight. In the chest X-ray, chest computed tomography and ultrasonography applied to the patient, it was detected that the trachea was deviated to the left due to euthyroid plonjon goiter and severe OSAS and polisomnografisi (PSG was diagnosed for the patient. The patients apnea-hypopnea index (AHI was measured 63.1/h. With the aim of treatment, in 7cm H2O pressure, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP was applied to the patient and AHI decreased to the level of 11.4/h. Thyroidectomy was performed one month after the diagnosis. AHI was found 34.8 /h on the PSG applied for the purpose of 8 week-postoperative control. There were recovery on the levels of total sleep time, AHI, obstructive apnea index, hypopnea index, average desaturation index, stage 3 and REM as 16%, 44.8%, 84.7%, 19%, 38.3%, 52.4% and 28% respectively when compared the preoperative term with and postoperative term. It was demonstrated that there was no change of the in the degree of OSAS after thyroidectomy but only some partial improvement in the OSAS. The conclusion that there may be some improvements in nCPAP pressures after thyroidectomy and nCPAP treatment should not be stopped was reached. Also, it should be kept in mind that patients who apply to

  7. Self-Reported Perceptions of Sleep Quality and Resilience Among Dance Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbinaga, F

    2018-04-01

    This study examined relationships between self-perceived sleep quality and resilience among 116 dance students (Mean age = 21.6 years; SD = 4.348). who self-reported sleep quality with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and personal resilience with the Resilience Scale (RS). Most participants (59.5%) reported poor sleep quality on the PSQI, with 62.9% of the women and 42.1% of the men ( p = .092) scoring higher than five points on this instrument. On the RS, a large majority of the participants (75%) obtained scores less than 147, indicating low resilience, with no significant gender differences observed. Those reporting poor sleep quality (PSQI scores > 5) obtained lower resilience scores (RS resilience (Odds Ratio = 3.273) relative to those with good sleep quality ( p = .006). Those with shorter duration sleep (claiming they slept resilience (Odds Ratio = 3.266), relative to those with longer duration sleep (>7 hours/night). These findings can help students and dance professionals improve their performance and face pressures inherent in dance practice. Follow-up research should verify these findings in varied populations with objective sleep measures and observational data from multiple respondents.

  8. A population-based investigation into the self-reported reasons for sleep problems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Armstrong

    Full Text Available Typologies of sleep problems have usually relied on identifying underlying causes or symptom clusters. In this study the value of using the patient's own reasons for sleep disturbance are explored. Using secondary data analysis of a nationally representative psychiatric survey the patterning of the various reasons respondents provided for self-reported sleep problems were examined. Over two thirds (69.3% of respondents could identify a specific reason for their sleep problem with worry (37.9% and illness (20.1% representing the most commonly reported reasons. And while women reported more sleep problems for almost every reason compared with men, the patterning of reasons by age showed marked variability. Sleep problem symptoms such as difficulty getting to sleep or waking early also showed variability by different reasons as did the association with major correlates such as worry, depression, anxiety and poor health. While prevalence surveys of 'insomnia' or 'poor sleep' often assume the identification of an underlying homogeneous construct there may be grounds for recognising the existence of different sleep problem types particularly in the context of the patient's perceived reason for the problem.

  9. Effectiveness of sleep education programs to improve sleep hygiene and/or sleep quality in college students: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Shellene K; Francis-Jimenez, Coleen M; Knibbs, Melida Delcina; Umali, Ismael L; Truglio-Londrigan, Marie

    2016-09-01

    -analysis was not possible due to limited studies and variability of design and interventions; therefore, results are presented in narrative form. This systematic review yielded three RCTs and one quasi-experimental study for inclusion. Two studies reported outcomes on sleep hygiene knowledge; one showing a statistically significant improvement (P = 0.025) and the other reported no difference (test of significance not provided). Two studies reported on sleep hygiene behavior; one showing no difference (P > 0.05) and the other reporting a statistically significant improvement (P = 0.0001). Four studies reported on sleep quality; three reporting no difference (P > 0.05) and the other reporting a statistically significant improvement (P = 0.017). This reviewed article identified insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of sleep education on sleep hygiene knowledge, sleep hygiene behavior or sleep quality in this population.

  10. Habitual Sleep Duration, Unmet Sleep Need, and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwangbo, Young; Kim, Won Joo; Chu, Min Kyung; Yun, Chang Ho; Yang, Kwang Ik

    2016-04-01

    Sleep need differs between individuals, and so the same duration of sleep will lead to sleep insufficiency in some individuals but not others. The aim of this study was to determine the separate and combined associations of both sleep duration and unmet sleep need with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in Korean adults. The participants comprised 2,769 Korean adults aged 19 years or older. They completed questionnaires about their sleep habits over the previous month. The question regarding sleep need was "How much sleep do you need to be at your best during the day?" Unmet sleep need was calculated as sleep need minus habitual sleep duration. Participants with a score of >10 on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale were considered to have EDS. The overall prevalence of EDS was 11.9%. Approximately one-third of the participants (31.9%) reported not getting at least 7 hours of sleep. An unmet sleep need of >0 hours was present in 30.2% of the participants. An adjusted multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a significant excess risk of EDS in the groups with unmet sleep needs of ≥2 hours [odds ratio (OR), 1.80; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.27-2.54] and 0.01-2 hours (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.02-1.98). However, habitual sleep duration was not significantly related to EDS. EDS was found to be associated with unmet sleep need but not with habitual sleep duration when both factors were examined together. We suggest that individual unmet sleep need is more important than habitual sleep duration in terms of the relation to EDS.

  11. The biologic effects of grounding the human body during sleep as measured by cortisol levels and subjective reporting of sleep, pain, and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaly, Maurice; Teplitz, Dale

    2004-10-01

    Diurnal cortisol secretion levels were measured and circadian cortisol profiles were evaluated in a pilot study conducted to test the hypothesis that grounding the human body to earth during sleep will result in quantifiable changes in cortisol. It was also hypothesized that grounding the human body would result in changes in sleep, pain, and stress (anxiety, depression, irritability), as measured by subjective reporting. Twelve (12) subjects with complaints of sleep dysfunction, pain, and stress were grounded to earth during sleep for 8 weeks in their own beds using a conductive mattress pad. Saliva tests were administered to establish pregrounding baseline cortisol levels. Levels were obtained at 4-hour intervals for a 24-hour period to determine the circadian cortisol profile. Cortisol testing was repeated at week 6. Subjective symptoms of sleep dysfunction, pain, and stress were reported daily throughout the 8-week test period. Measurable improvements in diurnal cortisol profiles were observed, with cortisol levels significantly reduced during night-time sleep. Subjects' 24-hour circadian cortisol profiles showed a trend toward normalization. Subjectively reported symptoms, including sleep dysfunction, pain, and stress, were reduced or eliminated in nearly all subjects. Results indicate that grounding the human body to earth ("earthing") during sleep reduces night-time levels of cortisol and resynchronizes cortisol hormone secretion more in alignment with the natural 24-hour circadian rhythm profile. Changes were most apparent in females. Furthermore, subjective reporting indicates that grounding the human body to earth during sleep improves sleep and reduces pain and stress.

  12. An initial report of sleep disturbance in inactive inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Laurie; Stepanski, Edward J; Ranjbaran, Ziba; Benson, Laura M; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2006-10-15

    There is an increased prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms, peptic ulcer disease, and colon cancer in night-shiftworkers, whose sleep is commonly disrupted. Sleep complaints are an extrapyramidal symptom of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Sleep disruption may contribute to increased medical morbidity by weakening the ability of the immune system to protect against endotoxins-this pathway could be of potential importance to the pathogenesis and/or clinical course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a chronic immunoinflammatory gastrointestinal disorder associated with marked reductions in quality of life. This is the first study to comprehensively examine sleep concerns in patients with IBD. Sixteen patients with biopsy-proven inactive IBD (8 with Crohn disease and 8 with ulcerative colitis), 9 patients with IBS, and 7 healthy controls completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire, SF-12, and a single overnight polysomnogram. Polysomnography and arousals were scored according to standard criteria. Multivariate analyses were used to compare subjective and objective sleep parameters between groups and to identify associations between sleep complaints and quality of life. Patients with IBD did not seem to significantly differ from patients with IBS, who have established sleep complaints. On polysomnography, total sleep time differentiated the 3 groups well, with the IBS and IBD groups appearing numerically similar. Whereas IBS and IBD groups were similar with respect to observed sleep parameters, IBS patients did report the most concerns, consistent with earlier research suggesting that hyperarousal and perceptual differences may contribute to symptom reporting. Sleep parameters greatly influenced quality of life in both groups and highlight the need to address sleep concerns as part of IBD management.

  13. Physical activity, sleep quality, and self-reported fatigue across the adult lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Anita D; Seery, Emily; Kent, Jane A

    2016-05-01

    Deteriorating sleep quality and increased fatigue are common complaints of old age, and poor sleep is associated with decreased quality of life and increased mortality rates. To date, little attention has been given to the potential effects of physical activity on sleep quality and fatigue in aging. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between activity, sleep and fatigue across the adult lifespan. Sixty community-dwelling adults were studied; 22 younger (21-29 years), 16 middle-aged (36-64 years), and 22 older (65-81 years). Physical activity was measured by accelerometer. Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index. Self-reported fatigue was evaluated with the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Regression analysis revealed a positive relationship between activity and sleep quality in the older (r(2)=0.18, p=0.05), but not the younger (r(2) = 0.041, p = 0.35) or middle-aged (r(2) = 0.001, p = 0.93) groups. This association was mainly established by the relationship between moderate-vigorous activity and sleep quality (r(2)=0.37, p=0.003) in older adults. No association was observed between physical activity and self-reported fatigue in any of the groups (r(2) ≤ 0.14, p ≥ 0.15). However, an inverse relationship was found between sleep quality and fatigue in the older (r(2) = 0.29, p = 0.05), but not the younger or middle-aged (r(2) ≤ 0.13, p ≥ 0.10) groups. These results support the hypothesis that physical activity may be associated with sleep quality in older adults, and suggest that improved sleep may mitigate self-reported fatigue in older adults in a manner that is independent of activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Insufficient Living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Trine Bernholdt; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Moons, Philip

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a traumatic health event, and recovery is often associated with massive physical deconditioning and reduced quality of life. Patients also report reduced cognitive functioning and are at risk of developing anxiety and depression as well as posttraumatic......." Patients experience an altered life and shocking weakness, and on the road to recovery, support is needed. Research in follow-up care, supporting patients' ability to cope with potential physical and psycho-emotional consequences of IE, is encouraged as a result of these findings....

  15. Relationship between weekend catch-up sleep and poor performance on attention tasks in Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seog Ju; Lee, Yu Jin; Cho, Seong-Jin; Cho, In-Hee; Lim, Weonjeong; Lim, Wonshin

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the relationship between insufficient sleep and poor attention in Korean adolescents, adjusting for potential confounding factors of depressed mood and habitual snoring. School-based cross-sectional study. Eight high schools in 3 cities in the Republic of Korea. A sample of 2638 urban high school students (42.2% male and 57.8% female; mean [SD] age, 17.3 [0.6] years [age range, 14-19 years]) completed questionnaires and computerized attention tasks during the school term. Weekend catch-up sleep. Self-reported sleep schedules and habits, including sleep duration, bedtime, wake-up time, depressed mood, and habitual snoring. Also measured were numbers of omission and commission errors on computerized attention tasks. The mean (SD) sleep duration on weekdays was 5 hours 42 minutes (1 hour 0 minutes) per day and on weekends was 8 hours 24 minutes (1 hour 36 minutes) per day. The mean (SD) weekend catch-up sleep was 2 hours 42 minutes (1 hour 42 minutes) per day. After adjusting for age, sex, depressed mood (Beck Depression Inventory score, ≥10), habitual snoring, and weekday sleep duration, increased weekend catch-up sleep was significantly associated with more omission and commission errors on sustained attention tasks (P sleep as an indicator of insufficient weekday sleep is associated with poor performance on objective attention tasks. Assessment of catch-up sleep and sleep duration may be useful for physicians to evaluate sleep insufficiency and its adverse effects on attention in adolescents.

  16. Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Report High Symptom Levels of Troubled Sleep, Restless Legs, and Cataplexy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Bjorvatn

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the occurrence of a spectrum of different self-reported sleep problems in adults with ADHD and a control group, and to study the impact of current ADHD medication use and clinical ADHD subtype.Method: Cross-sectional study of 268 clinically ascertained adult ADHD patients (DSM-IV criteria and 202 randomly selected controls. Sleep problems were self-reported using validated questions, partly from Global Sleep Assessment Questionnaire.Results: ADHD patients reported more sleep problems than controls: Lifetime occurrence of sleep problems (82.6 vs. 36.5%, hypnotics use (61.4 vs. 20.2%, current sleep duration below 6 h (26.6 vs. 7.6%, and symptoms/signs during the past 4 weeks of excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, loud snoring, breathing pauses during sleep, restless legs, and periodic limb movements in sleep (significant odds ratios ranged from 1.82 to 14.55. Current ADHD medication use was associated with less cataplexy compared with not using medication. Patients with inattentive subtype reported better sleep quality and less restless legs than patients with hyperactive/impulsive subtypes.Conclusions: Adults with ADHD reported a very high occurrence of many different self-reported sleep problems, underlining the importance of screening for sleep disorders. Among the ADHD patients, medication use was not associated with more sleep-related symptoms, but in fact less cataplexy. When comparing ADHD subtypes, the inattentive subtype was associated with less sleep problems.

  17. Discrimination, other psychosocial stressors, and self-reported sleep duration and difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slopen, Natalie; Williams, David R

    2014-01-01

    To advance understanding of the relationship between discrimination and sleep duration and difficulties, with consideration of multiple dimensions of discrimination, and attention to concurrent stressors; and to examine the contribution of discrimination and other stressors to racial/ ethnic differences in these outcomes. Cross-sectional probability sample. Chicago, IL. There were 2,983 black, Hispanic, and white adults. Outcomes included self-reported sleep duration and difficulties. Discrimination, including racial and nonracial everyday and major experiences of discrimination, workplace harassment and incivilities, and other stressors were assessed via questionnaire. In models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, greater exposure to racial (β = -0.14)) and nonracial (β = -0.08) everyday discrimination, major experiences of discrimination attributed to race/ethnicity (β = -0.17), and workplace harassment and incivilities (β = -0.14) were associated with shorter sleep (P discrimination attributed to race/ethnicity and sleep duration (β = -0.09, P discrimination and racial (β = 0.04) and nonracial (β = 0.04) major experiences of discrimination, and workplace harassment and incivilities (β = 0.04) were also associated with more (log) sleep difficulties, and associations between racial and nonracial everyday discrimination and sleep difficulties remained after adjustment for other stressors (P discrimination (P > 0.05). Discrimination was associated with shorter sleep and more sleep difficulties, independent of socioeconomic status and other stressors, and may account for some of the racial/ethnic differences in sleep.

  18. Self-reported Sleep Duration and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in a General Population of Japanese Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Sentaro; Arima, Hisatomi; Miyazaki, Soichiro; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Kadota, Aya; Takashima, Naoyuki; Hisamatsu, Takashi; Kadowaki, Sayaka; Zaid, Maryam; Torii, Sayuki; Horie, Minoru; Murata, Kiyoshi; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2018-01-01

    Aim: There are few data regarding associations between sleep duration and subclinical atherosclerosis in Japan. The aim of this study was to evaluate associations of self-reported sleep duration with calcification in the coronary arteries (CAC) and carotid intima media thickness (IMT) in Japanese men. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey of 1093 randomly selected men from Kusatsu City, Japan. Average sleep duration on weekdays was estimated through questionnaire; CAC by computed tomography; and carotid IMT by ultrasonography. Results: The prevalence of CAC was 50.0% for participants with sleep duration 0.1). Conclusion: Self-reported sleep duration was not associated with increased CAC or carotid IMT in a general population of Japanese men. PMID:28747590

  19. Acupuncture treatment for sleep disturbances patients: A case report with inflammatory cytokine levels evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Jin Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbance is one of the more common risk factors, numerous other negative physical health outcomes, and it is defined as self-reported poor quality of sleep, short sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and insomnia symptoms. It is a common risk factor for depression and anxiety. Here, a case of sleep disturbance that received 72 sessions of acupuncture treatment delivered is reported. After acupuncture treatment, the patient’s PSQI, HDRS, and SAS score decreased, as well as the plasma TNF-α, and IL-6 being reduced. No adverse effects were observed. The clinical studies findings provide evidence supporting the acupuncture aimed at the cause of sleep disturbance symptoms can also be useful.

  20. Preprohypocretin polymorphisms in Parkinson disease patients reporting "sleep attacks".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissling, Ida; Körner, Yvonne; Geller, Frank; Stiasny-Kolster, Karin; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Möller, J Carsten

    2005-07-01

    Previously, we found a significant association between the dopamine D2 receptor gene polymorphism Taq IA and sudden onset of sleep in patients with Parkinson disease. Here we evaluated the association between the preprohypocretin (-909T/C), (-22C/T), and (-20C/A) polymorphisms and sudden onset of sleep in the same population of patients with Parkinson disease. We conducted an association study analyzing the distribution of preprohypocretin polymorphisms in Germanic, caucasian Parkinson disease patients with and without sudden onset of sleep, matched according to drug therapy, disease duration, sex, and age. Movement disorders section at a university hospital. 132 Parkinson disease patients with sudden onset of sleep and 132 Parkinson disease patients without sudden onset of sleep. Blood samples were taken from each participant and used for DNA extraction. Polymorphisms were analyzed by established polymerase chain reaction protocols or direct sequencing. The variant allele T of the (-909T/C) preprohypocretin polymorphism was more commonly found in Parkinson disease patients with sudden onset of sleep. Statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences in the genotype (P = .024) and allele (P = .018) distribution between both groups. For heterozygous and homozygous carriers of allele T, the genotype relative-risk estimates for the presence of sudden onset of sleep were 2.01 (95% confidence interval: 0.76-5.34) and 2.81 (95% confidence interval: 1.09-7.25), respectively. Our results show a significant association between the (-909T/C) preprohypocretin polymorphism and sudden onset of sleep in Parkinson disease. However, we could not demonstrate any interaction between the Taq IA and (-909T/C) polymorphisms with respect to the occurrence of sudden onset of sleep, suggesting that multiple genetic factors may contribute to the pathogenesis of this phenomenon.

  1. Menopause is associated with self-reported poor sleep quality in women without vasomotor symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Hao-Chang; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Ou, Horng-Yih; Wu, Jin-Shang; Yang, Yi-Ching; Chang, Chih-Jen

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between menopause and self-reported sleep quality in Chinese women without vasomotor symptoms. Cross-sectional data were collected from a decoded database of the National Cheng Kung University Hospital. Menopause was defined as absence of menses for at least 12 months or a history of hysterectomy and oophorectomy. Self-reported sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). A higher global PSQI score indicates poorer self-reported sleep quality, and a global PSQI score greater than 5 differentiates poor sleepers from good sleepers. Of the 1,088 women recruited, 353 (32.4%) were in postmenopause status. Postmenopausal women had higher mean (SD) global PSQI scores (8.0 [3.3] vs. 6.1 [2.2], P menopause (β = 1.532; 95% CI, 1.135 to 1.949; P menopause (odds ratio, 1.453; 95% CI, 1.030 to 2.051; P menopause and snoring are associated with an increased risk of poor self-reported sleep quality independently of cardiometabolic factors and lifestyle, whereas long sleep duration is associated with a decreased risk of poor self-reported sleep quality.

  2. Sleep-Related Orgasms in a 57-Year-Old Woman: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Muna; Schenck, Carlos H

    2018-01-15

    We report a case of problematic spontaneous orgasms during sleep in a 57-year-old woman who also complained of hypnic jerks and symptoms of exploding head syndrome. To our knowledge, this is the first case report in the English language literature of problematic spontaneous orgasms during sleep. She had a complex medical and psychiatric history, and was taking oxycontin, venlafaxine, amitriptyline, and lurasidone. Prolonged video electroencephalogram monitoring did not record any ictal or interictal electroencephalogram discharges, and nocturnal video polysomnography monitoring did not record any behavioral or orgasmic event. Periodic limb movement index was zero events/h. Severe central sleep apnea was detected with apnea-hypopnea index = 130 events/h, but she could not tolerate positive airway pressure titration. Sleep architecture was disturbed, with 96.4% of sleep spent in stage N2 sleep. Bedtime clonazepam therapy (1.5 mg) was effective in suppressing the sleep-related orgasms and hypnic jerks. © 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  3. Satisfaction with Life of Schizophrenia Outpatients and Their Caregivers: Differences between Patients with and without Self-Reported Sleep Complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Brissos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia often present sleep complaints, but its relationship with general satisfaction with life (SWL and burden for caregivers has been understudied. We aimed to assess the differences in SWL between patients with and without self-reported sleep disturbances and that of their caregivers. In a noninterventional study, 811 schizophrenia adult outpatients were screened for their subjective perception of having (or not sleep disturbances and evaluated with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Patients self-reporting sleep disturbances were significantly more symptomatic (P<0.001, presented significantly worse family support (P=0.0236, and self-reported worse SWL in all domains. Caregivers of patients with schizophrenia self-reporting sleep disturbances also reported worse SWL in all domains, as compared to caregivers of patients without subjective sleep disturbances. Patient and caregivers’ SWL was significantly correlated to patients’ quality of sleep (P<0.0001 for all domains. Patient’ and caregivers’ SWL was negatively affected by patients’ poor quality of sleep. We found that patients self-reporting sleep disturbances showed greater symptom severity, worse quality of sleep, worse SWL, and less caregiver support. SWL was also worse for caregivers of patients with schizophrenia reporting sleep disturbances.

  4. Satisfaction with Life of Schizophrenia Outpatients and Their Caregivers: Differences between Patients with and without Self-Reported Sleep Complaints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Pedro; Cañas, Fernando; Bobes, Julio; Bernardo Fernandez, Ivan; Guzman, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia often present sleep complaints, but its relationship with general satisfaction with life (SWL) and burden for caregivers has been understudied. We aimed to assess the differences in SWL between patients with and without self-reported sleep disturbances and that of their caregivers. In a noninterventional study, 811 schizophrenia adult outpatients were screened for their subjective perception of having (or not) sleep disturbances and evaluated with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Patients self-reporting sleep disturbances were significantly more symptomatic (P < 0.001), presented significantly worse family support (P = 0.0236), and self-reported worse SWL in all domains. Caregivers of patients with schizophrenia self-reporting sleep disturbances also reported worse SWL in all domains, as compared to caregivers of patients without subjective sleep disturbances. Patient and caregivers' SWL was significantly correlated to patients' quality of sleep (P < 0.0001 for all domains). Patient' and caregivers' SWL was negatively affected by patients' poor quality of sleep. We found that patients self-reporting sleep disturbances showed greater symptom severity, worse quality of sleep, worse SWL, and less caregiver support. SWL was also worse for caregivers of patients with schizophrenia reporting sleep disturbances. PMID:24288609

  5. Associations of self-reported sleep disturbance and duration with academic failure in community-dwelling Swedish adolescents: sleep and academic performance at school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titova, Olga E; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Jacobsson, Josefin A; Feldman, Inna; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2015-01-01

    To examine associations of self-reported sleep disturbance and short sleep duration with the risk for academic failure. A cohort of ~40,000 adolescents (age range: 12-19 years) who were attending high school grades 7, 9, and 2nd year of upper secondary school in the Swedish Uppsala County were invited to participate in the Life and Health Young Survey (conducted between 2005 and 2011 in Uppsala County, Sweden). In addition to the question how many subjects they failed during the school year (outcome variable), subsamples of adolescents also answered questions related to subjective sleep disturbance (n = 20,026) and habitual sleep duration (n = 4736) (exposure variables). Binary logistic regression analysis was utilized to explore if self-reported sleep disturbances and habitual short sleep duration (defined as less than 7-8 h sleep per night) increase the relative risk to fail subjects during the school year (controlled for possible confounders, e.g. body-mass-index). Adolescents with self-reported sleep disturbances had an increased risk for academic failure (i.e., they failed at least one subject during the school year; OR: boys, 1.68; girls, 2.05, both P sleep disturbances. In addition, adolescents who reported short sleep duration on both working and weekend days were more likely to fail at least one subject at school than those who slept at least 7-8 h per night (OR: boys, 4.1; girls, 5.0, both P sleep disturbance and short sleep duration are linked to academic failure in adolescents. Based on our data, causality cannot be established. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Sleep patterns and predictors of disturbed sleep in a large population of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Hannah G; Reider, Brian D; Whiting, Annie B; Prichard, J Roxanne

    2010-02-01

    To characterize sleep patterns and predictors of poor sleep quality in a large population of college students. This study extends the 2006 National Sleep Foundation examination of sleep in early adolescence by examining sleep in older adolescents. One thousand one hundred twenty-five students aged 17 to 24 years from an urban Midwestern university completed a cross-sectional online survey about sleep habits that included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the Horne-Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Scale, the Profile of Mood States, the Subjective Units of Distress Scale, and questions about academic performance, physical health, and psychoactive drug use. Students reported disturbed sleep; over 60% were categorized as poor-quality sleepers by the PSQI, bedtimes and risetimes were delayed during weekends, and students reported frequently taking prescription, over the counter, and recreational psychoactive drugs to alter sleep/wakefulness. Students classified as poor-quality sleepers reported significantly more problems with physical and psychological health than did good-quality sleepers. Students overwhelmingly stated that emotional and academic stress negatively impacted sleep. Multiple regression analyses revealed that tension and stress accounted for 24% of the variance in the PSQI score, whereas exercise, alcohol and caffeine consumption, and consistency of sleep schedule were not significant predictors of sleep quality. These results demonstrate that insufficient sleep and irregular sleep-wake patterns, which have been extensively documented in younger adolescents, are also present at alarming levels in the college student population. Given the close relationships between sleep quality and physical and mental health, intervention programs for sleep disturbance in this population should be considered. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Challenges in the diagnosis and management of sleeping sickness in Tanzania: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindato, C; Kibona, S N; Nkya, G M; Mbilu, T J N K; Manga, C; Kaboya, J S; Rawille, F

    2008-07-01

    In Tanzania sleeping sickness presents a serious threat to human health with a country-wide average of 400 cases reported annually. Both wild and domestic animals have been found to play a significant role in the epidemiology of sleeping sickness. Serengeti National Park in northern Tanzania, has experienced a number of sleeping sickness epidemics since 1922. The epidemics were associated with abundant game animals in the areas and Glossina swynnertoni was incriminated as the main vector. However since 2001 there has been no case of sleeping sickness reported from the park. This case report highlights on the possibility of resurgence and challenges in the diagnosis and management of sleeping sickness in Serengeti. A 38 years old Tanzanian man working in the Serengeti National Park who had experienced various tsetse bites was presented with a febrile condition and history of unsuccessful case management at different health facilities. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were examined for the presence oftrypanosomes using wet film, Field's stain and concentration techniques. Typanosoma brucei rhodesiense were detected in both the blood and CSF samples. The patient was treated successfully with melarsoprol. The results of this case study highlight the possibility of resurgence of sleeping sickness in the park hence calls for the need to create more awareness among the community and clinicians. There is need for early reporting to health facility and strengthening the diagnostic capacity of healthcare facilities in and around national parks endemic for sleeping sickness.

  8. A cohort study on self-reported role stressors at work and poor sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Rugulies, Reiner

    2018-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the present study was to examine the bidirectional associations between subjective role ambiguity and role conflicts at work, respectively, and self-reported sleep 2 years later. In addition, we also examine whether sense of coherence (SOC) moderate or mediate the association...... were estimated using structural equation modelling. RESULTS: We found a prospective association between role stressors and sleep problems [beta values were 0.07 (95% CI 0.03-0.11) and 0.05 (CI 0.01-0.10) for DSI and AWI, respectively] when adjusting for sleep problems at baseline, age, sex, and life...... between role stressors and sleep problems. We also found support for sleep problems at baseline and role stressors 2 years later [DSI 0.04 (CI 0.00-0.08) and 0.15 (CI 0.09-0.21)] for role ambiguity and role conflicts, respectively. Similar results were observed for AWI. CONCLUSION: Subjective role...

  9. Oral appliance therapy versus nasal continuous positive airway pressure in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial on self-reported symptoms of common sleep disorders and sleep-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, M; Byraki, A; Ahlberg, J; Heymans, M W; Hamburger, H L; De Lange, J; Lobbezoo, F; Aarab, G

    2017-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with several sleep disorders and sleep-related problems. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of a mandibular advancement device (MAD) with those of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) on self-reported symptoms of common sleep disorders and sleep-related problems in mild and moderate OSAS patients. In this randomised placebo-controlled trial, sixty-four OSAS patients (52·0 ± 9·6 years) were randomly assigned to an MAD, nCPAP or an intra-oral placebo appliance in a parallel design. All participants filled out the validated Dutch Sleep Disorders Questionnaire (SDQ) twice: one before treatment and one after six months of treatment. With 88 questions, thirteen scales were constructed, representing common sleep disorders and sleep-related problems. Linear mixed model analyses were performed to study differences between the groups for the different SDQ scales over time. The MAD group showed significant improvements over time in symptoms corresponding with 'insomnia', 'excessive daytime sleepiness', 'psychiatric sleep disorder', 'periodic limb movements', 'sleep apnoea', 'sleep paralysis', 'daytime dysfunction', 'hypnagogic hallucinations/dreaming', 'restless sleep', 'negative conditioning' and 'automatic behaviour' (range of P values: 0·000-0·014). These improvements in symptoms were, however, not significantly different from the improvements in symptoms observed in the nCPAP and placebo groups (range of P values: 0·090-0·897). It can be concluded that there is no significant difference between MAD and nCPAP in their positive effects on self-reported symptoms of common sleep disorders and sleep-related problems in mild and moderate OSAS patients. These beneficial effects may be a result of placebo effects. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Association between Self-Reported Bruxism and Sleeping Patterns among Dental Students in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokry, Shereen M; El Wakeel, Eman E; Al-Maflehi, Nassr; RasRas, Zaheera; Fataftah, Nida; Abdul Kareem, Enam

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify sleeping patterns among dental students and their association with self-reported bruxism in Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy (RCsDP). Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed including 549 students (67 men and 482 women). A structured questionnaire was adopted from The PSQI (The Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index) used for data collection. It included questions which are categorized into sleeping habits, sleep-related symptoms, and additional questions concerning bruxism. This questionnaire was randomly distributed among all college preclinical and postclinical students. Sleep bruxism diagnosis was based on self-reported data. The data were analyzed using Chi-square tests through SPSS software for Windows. Results. Statistical analyses revealed significant correlations between self-reported bruxism and sleeping habits including sleep initiation (χ (2) = 22.6, p = 0.000), continuous sleep until morning (χ (2) = 19.2, p = 0.001), nighttime sleep duration (χ (2) = 20.2, p = 0.000), and length of daytime naps (χ (2) = 28.35, p = 0.000). There was an association between self-reported bruxism and sleeping-related symptoms including awakening early in the morning before the usual time without a cause (χ (2) = 16.52, p = 0.000) and increased nightmares (χ (2) = 13.7, p = 0.001). Conclusions. Poor sleeping pattern was an important factor among dental students, who reported sleep bruxism.

  11. Association between Self-Reported Bruxism and Sleeping Patterns among Dental Students in Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen M. Shokry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify sleeping patterns among dental students and their association with self-reported bruxism in Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy (RCsDP. Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed including 549 students (67 men and 482 women. A structured questionnaire was adopted from The PSQI (The Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index used for data collection. It included questions which are categorized into sleeping habits, sleep-related symptoms, and additional questions concerning bruxism. This questionnaire was randomly distributed among all college preclinical and postclinical students. Sleep bruxism diagnosis was based on self-reported data. The data were analyzed using Chi-square tests through SPSS software for Windows. Results. Statistical analyses revealed significant correlations between self-reported bruxism and sleeping habits including sleep initiation (χ2=22.6, p=0.000, continuous sleep until morning (χ2=19.2, p=0.001, nighttime sleep duration (χ2=20.2, p=0.000, and length of daytime naps (χ2=28.35, p=0.000. There was an association between self-reported bruxism and sleeping-related symptoms including awakening early in the morning before the usual time without a cause (χ2=16.52, p=0.000 and increased nightmares (χ2=13.7, p=0.001. Conclusions. Poor sleeping pattern was an important factor among dental students, who reported sleep bruxism.

  12. Discrimination, Other Psychosocial Stressors, and Self-Reported Sleep Duration and Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slopen, Natalie; Williams, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To advance understanding of the relationship between discrimination and sleep duration and difficulties, with consideration of multiple dimensions of discrimination, and attention to concurrent stressors; and to examine the contribution of discrimination and other stressors to racial/ ethnic differences in these outcomes. Design: Cross-sectional probability sample. Setting: Chicago, IL. Participants: There were 2,983 black, Hispanic, and white adults. Measurements and Results: Outcomes included self-reported sleep duration and difficulties. Discrimination, including racial and nonracial everyday and major experiences of discrimination, workplace harassment and incivilities, and other stressors were assessed via questionnaire. In models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, greater exposure to racial (β = -0.14)) and nonracial (β = -0.08) everyday discrimination, major experiences of discrimination attributed to race/ethnicity (β = -0.17), and workplace harassment and incivilities (β = -0.14) were associated with shorter sleep (P stressors (i.e., acute events, childhood adversity, and financial, community, employment, and relationship stressors). Racial (β = 0.04) and non-racial (β = 0.05) everyday discrimination and racial (β = 0.04) and nonracial (β = 0.04) major experiences of discrimination, and workplace harassment and incivilities (β = 0.04) were also associated with more (log) sleep difficulties, and associations between racial and nonracial everyday discrimination and sleep difficulties remained after adjustment for other stressors (P 0.05). Conclusions: Discrimination was associated with shorter sleep and more sleep difficulties, independent of socioeconomic status and other stressors, and may account for some of the racial/ethnic differences in sleep. Citation: Slopen N; Williams DR. Discrimination, other psychosocial stressors, and self-reported sleep duration and difficulties. SLEEP 2014;37(1):147-156. PMID:24381373

  13. Self-reported sleep quality, weight status and depression in young adult twins and siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Alexia; Fisher, Abi; Llewellyn, Clare; Gregory, Alice M

    2015-01-01

    Research supporting relationships between sleep quality, weight, depression and anxiety has typically examined the relationships separately rather than simultaneously, potentially hampering insights into the characteristics of reported links. This study aimed to fill this gap in the research to provide further insight into the factors associated with sleep. Data from wave 4 of the G1219 cohort were used in cross-sectional analyses. The sample comprised 1392 adult twins and siblings aged 18-27 years. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire which included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index as a measure of sleep quality, the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire as a measure of depression symptoms and the Revised Symptoms of Anxiety Scale as a measure of anxiety symptoms. Participants were asked to self-report general health and weight and height so researchers could derive weight status from measures of body mass index. An analysis of covariance including weight status, depression, anxiety and general health as predictors and sleep quality as the outcome revealed main effects of depression (F(3,1163) = 10.93, p relationship between weight and sleep should not be assumed as it is possible that the relationship is at least in part accounted for by depression symptoms or general health. Depression symptoms and general health may also account for the association between sleep quality and anxiety symptoms in young adults.

  14. Predialysis volume overload and patient-reported sleep duration and quality in patients receiving hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreo, Adrian P; Dalrymple, Lorien S; Chertow, Glenn M; Kaysen, George A; Herzog, Charles A; Johansen, Kirsten L

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies of patients with end-stage renal disease have examined the role of fluid shifts on apnea-hypopnea episodes, but the association between volume overload and patient-reported sleep quality or duration has not been well-established. We studied the association between predialysis bioimpedance spectroscopy-derived volume estimates and self-reported sleep quality and duration in 638 patients in the United States Renal Data System ACTIVE/ADIPOSE study receiving hemodialysis from 2009 to 2011. We used questionnaires to assess self-reported sleep duration and quality. We used relative hydration status (fluid overload/extracellular water; FO/ECW) as the primary predictor and examined associations with hours of sleep duration using linear regression. We used multivariable ordinal logistic regression to determine the association between categories of relative hydration status (normal hydration [FO/ECW  15%]) and four levels of difficulty with falling asleep, waking, and returning to sleep. Higher relative hydration status was associated with fewer hours of sleep (-0.31 hours per 10%, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.49 to -0.13). Compared to the normal hydration group, there was a statistically significant association between higher relative hydration status category and more frequent nighttime waking (OR: mild overhydration 1.92 [95% CI 1.23-2.99], hyperhydration 1.87 [95% CI 1.16-2.99]), a trend toward more difficulty returning to sleep (OR: mild overhydration 1.46 [95% CI 0.94-2.27], hyperhydration 1.52 [95% CI 0.95-2.43]), and no association between relative hydration category and difficulty falling asleep. Hydration status was associated with self-reported sleep duration in patients on dialysis. Future studies should prospectively examine the effects of optimizing fluid status on sleep duration and quality. © 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  15. Convergent validity of actigraphy with polysomnography and parent reports when measuring sleep in children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbensen, A J; Hoffman, E K; Stansberry, E; Shaffer, R

    2018-04-01

    There is a need for rigorous measures of sleep in children with Down syndrome as sleep is a substantial problem in this population and there are barriers to obtaining the gold standard polysomnography (PSG). PSG is cost-prohibitive when measuring treatment effects in some clinical trials, and children with Down syndrome may not cooperate with undergoing a PSG. Minimal information is available on the validity of alternative methods of assessing sleep in children with Down syndrome, such as actigraphy and parent ratings. Our study examined the concurrent and convergent validity of different measures of sleep, including PSG, actigraphy and parent reports of sleep among children with Down syndrome. A clinic (n = 27) and a community (n = 47) sample of children with Down syndrome were examined. In clinic, children with Down syndrome wore an actigraph watch during a routine PSG. In the community, children with Down syndrome wore an actigraph watch for a week at home at night as part of a larger study on sleep and behaviour. Their parent completed ratings of the child's sleep during that same week. Actigraph watches demonstrated convergent validity with PSG when measuring a child with Down syndrome's total amount of sleep time, total wake time after sleep onset and sleep period efficiency. In contrast, actigraph watches demonstrated poor correlations with parent reports of sleep, and with PSG when measuring the total time in bed and total wake episodes. Actigraphy, PSG and parent ratings of sleep demonstrated poor concurrent validity with clinical diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnoea. Our current data suggest that actigraph watches demonstrate convergent validity and are sensitive to measuring certain sleep constructs (duration, efficiency) in children with Down syndrome. However, parent reports, such as the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, may be measuring other sleep constructs. These findings highlight the importance of selecting measures of sleep related to

  16. Antimony and sleep-related disorders: NHANES 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scinicariello, Franco; Buser, Melanie C; Feroe, Aliya G; Attanasio, Roberta

    2017-07-01

    Antimony is used as a flame-retardant in textiles and plastics, in semiconductors, pewter, and as pigments in paints, lacquers, glass and pottery. Subacute or chronic antimony poisoning has been reported to cause sleeplessness. The prevalence of short sleep duration (sleep apnea (OSA) affects 12-28 million US adults. Insufficient sleep and OSA have been linked to the development of several chronic conditions including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, obesity and depression, conditions that pose serious public health threats. To investigate whether there is an association between antimony exposure and sleep-related disorders in the US adult population using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2008. We performed multivariate logistic regression to analyze the association of urinary antimony with several sleep disorders, including insufficient sleep and OSA, in adult (ages 20 years and older) participants of NHANES 2005-2008 (n=2654). We found that participants with higher urinary antimony levels had higher odds to experience insufficient sleep (≤6h/night) (OR 1.73; 95%CI; 1.04, 2.91) as well as higher odds to have increased sleep onset latency (>30min/night). Furthermore, we found that higher urinary antimony levels in participants were associated with OSA (OR 1.57; 95%CI; 1.05, 2.34), sleep problems, and day-time sleepiness. In this study, we found that urinary antimony was associated with higher odds to have insufficient sleep and OSA. Because of the public health implications of sleep disorders, further studies, especially a prospective cohort study, are warranted to evaluate the association between antimony exposure and sleep-related disorders. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Self-Reported Sleep Duration and Self-Rated Health in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štefan, Lovro; Juranko, Dora; Prosoli, Rebeka; Barić, Renata; Sporiš, Goran

    2017-07-15

    This study aimed to determine the associations between the self-reported sleep duration and self-rated health in young adults. In this cross-sectional study, participants were 689 young adults (mean age 20 ± 1.35 years, 49.8% female). Sleep duration and self-rated health, as the main outcome of interest, were measured as self-reported. As potential covariates, we included sex, age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, sedentary behavior, psychological distress, and body mass index. Approximately 30% of participants slept 7-8 hours, 17.4% were short sleepers (categories 10 hours of sleep). In an unadjusted model, compared with the reference category (7-8 hours of sleep), those who slept health. In an adjusted model, short (sleep (> 10 hours) were both associated with poor self-rated health. Our results suggest that both short ( 10 hours) sleepers have lower odds of having good self-rated health after adjusting for potential covariates. Health professionals should pay more attention to young adults, who have both short and long period of sleep, in order to prevent health problems and potential acute or chronic diseases. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  18. Sleep Habits of Elementary and Middle School Children in South Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surani, Salim; Hesselbacher, Sean; Surani, Saherish; Sadasiva, Sreevidya; Surani, Zoya; Surani, Sara S; Khimani, Amina; Subramanian, Shyam

    2015-01-01

    Background. Sleep difficulties, including insufficient sleep and inadequate sleep hygiene, have been prevalent among children. Sleep deprivation can lead to poor grades, sleepiness, and moodiness. We undertook this study to assess the prevalence of sleep abnormalities among elementary and middle school students in South Texas and how the groups compare with one another. Method. After approval from the appropriate school district for a sleep education program, a baseline survey was taken of elementary and middle school students, using the Children's Sleep Habit Questionnaire-Sleep Self-Report Form, which assessed the domains of bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, sleep anxiety, sleep duration, night awakening, and daytime sleepiness. Results. The survey was completed by 499 elementary and 1008 middle school children. Trouble sleeping was reported by 43% in elementary school, compared with 29% of middle school children. Fifty percent of middle school children did not like sleeping, compared with 26% in elementary school. Bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, and nighttime awakening were more common among elementary school students. Daytime sleepiness was more common among the middle school children when compared to elementary school children. Conclusions. Sleep abnormalities are present in elementary school children with changes in sleep habits into middle school.

  19. Sleep Habits of Elementary and Middle School Children in South Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Surani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sleep difficulties, including insufficient sleep and inadequate sleep hygiene, have been prevalent among children. Sleep deprivation can lead to poor grades, sleepiness, and moodiness. We undertook this study to assess the prevalence of sleep abnormalities among elementary and middle school students in South Texas and how the groups compare with one another. Method. After approval from the appropriate school district for a sleep education program, a baseline survey was taken of elementary and middle school students, using the Children’s Sleep Habit Questionnaire-Sleep Self-Report Form, which assessed the domains of bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, sleep anxiety, sleep duration, night awakening, and daytime sleepiness. Results. The survey was completed by 499 elementary and 1008 middle school children. Trouble sleeping was reported by 43% in elementary school, compared with 29% of middle school children. Fifty percent of middle school children did not like sleeping, compared with 26% in elementary school. Bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, and nighttime awakening were more common among elementary school students. Daytime sleepiness was more common among the middle school children when compared to elementary school children. Conclusions. Sleep abnormalities are present in elementary school children with changes in sleep habits into middle school.

  20. Sleep-related violence and sexual behavior in sleep: a systematic review of medical-legal case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingravallo, Francesca; Poli, Francesca; Gilmore, Emma V; Pizza, Fabio; Vignatelli, Luca; Schenck, Carlos H; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2014-08-15

    To review systematically medical-legal cases of sleep-related violence (SRV) and sexual behavior in sleep (SBS). We searched Pubmed and PsychINFO (from 1980 to 2012) with pre-specified terms. We also searched reference lists of relevant articles. Case reports in which a sleep disorder was purported as the defense during a criminal trial and in which information about the forensic evaluation of the defendant was provided. Information about legal issues, defendant and victim characteristics, circumstantial factors, and forensic evaluation was extracted from each case. A qualitative-comparative assessment of cases was performed. Eighteen cases (9 SRV and 9 SBS) were included. The charge was murder or attempted murder in all SRV cases, while in SBS cases the charge ranged from sexual touching to rape. The defense was based on sleepwalking in 11 of 18 cases. The trial outcome was in favor of the defendant in 14 of 18 cases. Defendants were relatively young males in all cases. Victims were usually adult relatives of the defendants in SRV cases and unrelated young girls or adolescents in SBS cases. In most cases the criminal events occurred 1-2 hours after the defendant's sleep onset, and both proximity and other potential triggering factors were reported. The forensic evaluations widely differed from case to case. SRV and SBS medical-legal cases did not show apparent differences, except for the severity of the charges and the victim characteristics. An international multidisciplinary consensus for the forensic evaluation of SRV and SBS should be developed as an urgent priority.

  1. Sleep-Related Eating Disorder: A Case Report of a Progressed Night Eating Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Shahabuddin Hoseini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Night eating syndrome is a common disorder in eating behaviors that occurs in close relation to the night time sleep cycle. Although eating disorders are common in society, night eating syndrome has been left neglected by health care professionals. In this report we present a case of eating disorder that exhibits some novel features of night eating syndrome. Our case was a progressed type of eating disorder which may increase awareness among physicians about sleep-related eating disorders.

  2. Association between unhealthy behavior and sleep quality and duration in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Peter Hoefelmann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n3p318   Inadequate sleep has been associated with unhealthy behavior in adolescence. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of negative sleep indicators (perceived poorquality sleep and insufficient sleep duration among students and to identify unhealthy behaviors associated with this outcome. This study is part of a school-based, cross-sectional survey conducted in 2011 in adolescents from Santa Catarina State, Brazil. High school students aged 15 to 19 years (n = 6,529 and enrolled in state public schools participated in the study. The students responded to a questionnaire on the number of hours slept (insufficient: < 8 h, sufficient: ≥ 8 h; perceived sleep quality (good or poor; and behavioral variables. Multinomial logistic regression was performed using reports of positive sleep indicators, and negative reports of one or two sleep indicators. Approximately 30% of adolescents reported a negative perception of sleep, indicating poor quality and insufficient duration. The use of computers/videogames (≥ 4 h/d and excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages, salty snacks or sweets were associated with negative sleep indicators. A high number of young people displayed one or two negative sleep indicators, and it was found an association between these indicators and a number of unhealthy behaviors.

  3. Investigating the associations between work hours, sleep status, and self-reported health among full-time employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Akinori

    2012-04-01

    The extent to which work hours and sleep are associated with self-rated health (SRH) was investigated in full-time employees of small- and medium-scale businesses (SMBs) in a suburb of Tokyo. A total of 2,579 employees (1,887 men and 692 women), aged 18-79 (mean 45) years, in 296 SMBs were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire from August to December 2002. Work hours, sleep, and SRH were evaluated. Compared with those working 6-8 h/day, participants working >8 to 10 h/day and >10 h/day had significantly higher odds of suboptimal SRH [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.36 and 1.87, respectively]. Similarly, compared with those sleeping 6+ h/day and sufficient sleep, participants with short sleep (work hours with short sleep (aOR 3.30) or insufficient sleep (aOR 3.40) exerted synergistic negative associations on SRH. This study suggests that long work hours and poor sleep and its combination are associated with suboptimal SRH.

  4. Sleep fragmentation exacerbates mechanical hypersensitivity and alters subsequent sleep-wake behavior in a mouse model of musculoskeletal sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Blair C; Opp, Mark R

    2014-03-01

    Sleep deprivation, or sleep disruption, enhances pain in human subjects. Chronic musculoskeletal pain is prevalent in our society, and constitutes a tremendous public health burden. Although preclinical models of neuropathic and inflammatory pain demonstrate effects on sleep, few studies focus on musculoskeletal pain. We reported elsewhere in this issue of SLEEP that musculoskeletal sensitization alters sleep of mice. In this study we hypothesize that sleep fragmentation during the development of musculoskeletal sensitization will exacerbate subsequent pain responses and alter sleep-wake behavior of mice. This is a preclinical study using C57BL/6J mice to determine the effect on behavioral outcomes of sleep fragmentation combined with musculoskeletal sensitization. Musculoskeletal sensitization, a model of chronic muscle pain, was induced using two unilateral injections of acidified saline (pH 4.0) into the gastrocnemius muscle, spaced 5 days apart. Musculoskeletal sensitization manifests as mechanical hypersensitivity determined by von Frey filament testing at the hindpaws. Sleep fragmentation took place during the consecutive 12-h light periods of the 5 days between intramuscular injections. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and body temperature were recorded from some mice at baseline and for 3 weeks after musculoskeletal sensitization. Mechanical hypersensitivity was determined at preinjection baseline and on days 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 after sensitization. Two additional experiments were conducted to determine the independent effects of sleep fragmentation or musculoskeletal sensitization on mechanical hypersensitivity. Five days of sleep fragmentation alone did not induce mechanical hypersensitivity, whereas sleep fragmentation combined with musculoskeletal sensitization resulted in prolonged and exacerbated mechanical hypersensitivity. Sleep fragmentation combined with musculoskeletal sensitization had an effect on subsequent sleep of mice as demonstrated by increased

  5. Usefulness of Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the brain for diagnosis of sleep disturbances - preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodziak, A.; Ziolko, E.; Kwiatkowska, A.; Muc-Wierzgon, M.; Wojtek, P.; Trejtowicz, D.

    2006-01-01

    We studied sleep disturbances reported by patients admitted to the Department of Internal Medicine. According to history of disease in each case the sleep disturbances had a chronic character and lasted several months. All patients received the questionnaire we designed. The idea of the questionnaire was to objectively assess the disorder. We assumed that there are rational medical indications for MRI of the brain examination in the selected group of 10 patients. Our study proved that this imaging technique (MRI) is very useful in detection of ischemic lesions related to long-term sleep disturbances. Lesions of the type are observed in most patients with such disturbances. The lesions we found in the so called 'sleep areas' have also been discussed in other papers published recently. (author)

  6. Bilateral atypical insufficiency fractures of the proximal tibia and a unilateral distal femoral fracture associated with long-term intravenous bisphosphonate therapy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imbuldeniya Arjuna

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Atypical insufficiency fractures of the femur in patients on long-term bisphosphonate therapy have been well described in recent literature. The majority of cases are associated with minimal or no trauma and occur in the subtrochanteric or diaphyseal region. Case presentation We describe the case of a 76-year-old British Caucasian woman who presented initially to an emergency department and then to her primary care physician with a long-standing history of bilateral knee pain after minor trauma. Plain radiographs showed subtle linear areas of sclerosis bilaterally in her proximal tibiae. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the presence of insufficiency fractures in these areas along with her left distal femur. There are very few reports of atypical insufficiency fractures involving the tibia in patients on long-term bisphosphonate therapy and this appears to be the only documented bilateral case involving the metaphyseal regions of the proximal tibia and distal femur. Conclusion In addition to existing literature describing atypical fractures in the proximal femur and femoral shaft, there is a need for increased awareness that these fractures can also occur in other weight-bearing areas of the skeleton. All clinicians involved in the care of patients taking long-term bisphosphonates need to be aware of the growing association between new onset lower limb pain and atypical insufficiency fractures.

  7. Self-reported sleep lengths ≥ 9 hours among Swedish patients with stress-related exhaustion: Associations with depression, quality of sleep and levels of fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Giorgio; Jeding, Kerstin; Söderström, Marie; Osika, Walter; Levander, Maria; Perski, Aleksander

    2015-05-01

    Insomnia-type sleep disturbances are frequent among patients suffering from stress-related exhaustion disorder. However, clinical observations indicate that a subgroup suffer from sleep lengths frequently exceeding 9 hours, coupled with great daytime sleepiness. The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in socio-demographic variables, use of medications, sleep parameters, anxiety, depression and fatigue, between individuals with varying sleep lengths, in a sample of 420 Swedish patients (mean age 42 ± 9 years; 77% women) referred to treatment for exhaustion disorder. Patients were allocated to the groups: "never/seldom ≥ 9 hours" (n = 248), "sometimes ≥ 9 hours" (n = 115) and "mostly/always ≥ 9 hours" (n = 57), based on their self-rated frequency of sleep lengths ≥ 9 hours. The design was cross-sectional and data was collected by means of questionnaires at pre-treatment. Univariate analyses showed that patients in the "mostly/always ≥ 9 hours" group were more often on sick leave, and reported more depression and fatigue, better sleep quality and more daytime sleepiness, than patients in the other groups. Multivariate analyses showed that these patients scored higher on measures of fatigue than the rest of the sample independently of gender, use of antidepressants, sick leave, depression and quality of sleep. Patients suffering from exhaustion disorder and reporting excessive sleep seem to have a generally poorer clinical picture but better quality of sleep than their counterparts with shorter sleep lengths. The mechanisms underlying these differences, together with their prognostic value and implications for treatment remain to be elucidated in future studies.

  8. Association between self-reported sleep duration and serum vitamin D level in elderly Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Hong; Chang, Jung Hyun; Kim, Dong Young; Kang, Ju Wan

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the association between self-reported sleep duration and serum vitamin D level in elderly Korean adults. Cross-sectional data analysis. Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010. Noninstitutionalized adults aged 60 to 80 (N = 1,614). The confounding variables were serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D level, age, sex, body mass index, smoking history, alcohol consumption, and self-reported daily sun exposure and sleep duration. Self-reported daily sleep duration was divided into four groups: Q1 (≤4 hours), Q2 (5-6 hours), Q3 (7-8 hours), and Q4 (≥9 hours). Mean serum vitamin D levels of subjects in the Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4 groups were 44.18, 48.08, 48.83, and 51.78 nmol/L, respectively. On multivariate linear regression analysis, subjects in the Q2 (B = 3.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.42-7.19), Q3 (B = 4.89, 95% CI = 1.54-8.24), and Q4 (B = 5.18, 95% CI = 0.78-9.58) groups had significantly higher serum vitamin D levels than subjects in the Q1 group. Serum vitamin D level is positively associated with self-reported daily sleep duration in elderly Korean individuals. These results suggest that inadequate sleep duration may be associated with lower vitamin D levels in elderly adults. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  9. Insufficiency fracture after radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Dong Ryul; Huh, Seung Jae [Dept.of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Insufficiency fracture occurs when normal or physiological stress applied to weakened bone with demineralization and decreased elastic resistance. Recently, many studies reported the development of IF after radiation therapy (RT) in gynecological cancer, prostate cancer, anal cancer and rectal cancer. The RT-induced insufficiency fracture is a common complication during the follow-up using modern imaging studies. The clinical suspicion and knowledge the characteristic imaging patterns of insufficiency fracture is essential to differentiate it from metastatic bone lesions, because it sometimes cause severe pain, and it may be confused with bone metastasis.

  10. Self-Reported Sleep Duration, Napping, and Incident Heart Failure: Prospective Associations in the British Regional Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannamethee, S Goya; Papacosta, Olia; Lennon, Lucy; Whincup, Peter H

    2016-09-01

    To examine the associations between self-reported nighttime sleep duration and daytime sleep and incident heart failure (HF) in men with and without preexisting cardiovascular disease (CVD). Population-based prospective study. General practices in 24 British towns. Men aged 60-79 without prevalent HF followed for 9 years (N = 3,723). Information on incident HF cases was obtained from primary care records. Assessment of sleep was based on self-reported sleep duration at night and daytime napping. Self-reported short nighttime sleep duration and daytime sleep of longer than 1 hour were associated with preexisting CVD, breathlessness, depression, poor health, physical inactivity, and manual social class. In all men, self-reported daytime sleep of longer than 1 hour duration was associated with significantly greater risk of HF after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.06-2.71) than in those who reported no daytime napping. Self-reported nighttime sleep duration was not associated with HF risk except in men with preexisting CVD (napping of longer than 1 hour is associated with greater risk of HF in older men. Self-reported short sleep (<6 hours) in men with CVD is associated with particularly high risk of developing HF. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of the American Geriatrics Society published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American Geriatrics Society.

  11. Aripiprazole-induced sleep-related eating disorder: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Takano, Masahiro

    2018-04-05

    Sleep-related eating disorder is characterized by parasomnia with recurrent episodes of nocturnal eating or drinking during the main sleep period. Several drugs, including atypical antipsychotics, induce sleep-related eating disorder. However, aripiprazole has not previously been associated with sleep-related eating disorder. A 41-year-old Japanese man visited our clinic complaining of depression. The patient was treated with sertraline, which was titrated up to 100 mg for 4 weeks. A sleep inducer and an anxiolytic were coadministered. His depressive mood slightly improved, but it continued for an additional 4 months. Subsequently, aripiprazole (3 mg) was added as an adjunctive therapy. After 3 weeks, the patient's mother found that the patient woke up and ate food at night. The next morning, the patient was amnesic for this event, felt full, and wondered why the bags of food were empty. This episode lasted for 2 days. The patient gained 5 kg during these 3 weeks. After the aripiprazole dose was reduced to 1.5 mg, the patient's nocturnal eating episodes rapidly and completely disappeared. To the best of our knowledge, this is first report of sleep-related eating disorder induced by aripiprazole, and it indicates that this disorder should be considered a possible side effect of aripiprazole. Although aripiprazole is used mainly in patients with schizophrenia, its recently documented use as an adjunctive therapy in patients with depression might induce hitherto unknown side effects.

  12. Predictors of improvement in subjective sleep quality reported by older adults following group-based cognitive behavior therapy for sleep maintenance and early morning awakening insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, Nicole; Lack, Leon; Wright, Helen; Kennaway, David J

    2013-09-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy is an effective nonpharmacologic treatment for insomnia. However, individualized administration is costly and often results in substantial variability in treatment response across individual patients, particularly so for older adults. Group-based administration has demonstrated impressive potential for a brief and inexpensive answer to the effective treatment of insomnia in the older population. It is important to identify potential predictors of response to such a treatment format to guide clinicians when selecting the most suitable treatment for their patients. The aim of our study was to identify factors that predict subjective sleep quality of older adults following group-based administration of cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I). Eighty-six adults (41 men; mean age, 64.10 y; standard deviation [SD], 6.80) with sleep maintenance or early morning awakening insomnia were selected from a community-based sample to participate in a 4-week group-based treatment program of CBT-I. Participants were required to complete 7-day sleep diaries and a comprehensive battery of questionnaires related to sleep quality and daytime functioning. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to identify factors predicting subjective sleep quality immediately following treatment and at 3-month follow-up. Sleep diaries reported average nightly sleep efficiency (SE), which was used as the outcome measure of sleep quality. Participants with the greatest SE following treatment while controlling for pretreatment SE were relatively younger and had more confidence in their ability to sleep at pretreatment. These characteristics may be useful to guide clinicians when considering the use of a group-based CBT-I for sleep maintenance or early morning awakening insomnia in older adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Medialization thyroplasty in glottis insufficiency due to unilateral vocal fold paralysis and after laser cordectomies - preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzepakowska, Anna; Osuch-Wójcikiewicz, Ewa; Sielska-Badurek, Ewelina; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2017-02-28

    Medialization thyroplasty (type I) is surgical procedure performed on the thyroid cartilage. The major indication for this surgery is significant glottis insufficiency due to unilateral vocal fold paresis. However the proce¬dure is also performed after vocal fold resections during cordectomy. The evaluation of voice results in patients after medialisation throplasty. In Otolaryngology Department of Medical University of Warsaw there were performed so far 8 thyroplasty procedures under local anaesthesia with implantation of medical silicon protesis. 6 patients had unilat¬eral vocal fold paresis and the rest two underwent in the past laser cordectomy due to T1a vocal carcinoma. There were no complications during and post the surgery. The follow up examination in 1st , 3rd, 6th i 12th months postoperatively revealed for all patients significant improvement of glottal closure in laryngeal videostrobos¬copy. The voice quality improved both in perceptual evaluation (GRBAS scale) and acoustic analysis (F0, jitter, shim¬mer, NHR) in both patients groups. However the rate of improvement was much more significant in group with uni¬lateral vocal fold paresis. In all patients the maximum phonation time (MPT) increased. The self-evaluation of voice quality with Voice Handicap Index questionnaire confirmed also individual improvement. The speech rehabilitations is not successful in each patient with glottis insufficiency. The medialisation thyroplasty remains the standard procedure for permanent improvement of voice quality in those cases.

  14. Relationship between shift work schedule and self-reported sleep quality in Chinese employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yifei; Wei, Fu; Nie, Guanghui; Zhang, Li'e; Qin, Jian; Peng, Suwan; Xiong, Feng; Zhang, Zhiyong; Yang, Xiaobo; Peng, Xiaowu; Wang, Mingjun; Zou, Yunfeng

    2018-02-01

    Few studies have reported on the effects of fixed and rotating shift systems on the prevalence of sleep disturbance. Thus, in this study, the relationships between different work schedules and sleep disturbance in Chinese workers were investigated. A total of 2180 workers aged 19-65 years responded to the self-report questionnaire on shift work schedule (fixed day-shift, fixed night-shift, two-shift or three-shift system), working hours a day, and working days a week, physical effort, subjective sleep quality and subjective mental state. It was found that the rotating shift workers, namely, two- and three-shift workers, exhibited higher risks of sleep disturbance than with the fixed day-shift workers did (OR 1.37; 95% CI 1.07to 1.74; and OR 2.19; 95% CI 1.52 to 3.15, respectively). The risk was particularly high among two- or three-shift workers who worked more than 8 hours a day or more than 5 days a week and among three-shift workers who reported both light and heavy physical effort at work. Moreover, the two- and three-shift workers (rotating shift workers) suffered from poorer sleep quality than the fixed night shift workers did (OR 1.84; 95% CI 1.01 to 3.32; and OR 2.94; 95% CI 1.53 to 5.64, respectively). Consequently, rotating shift work (two- and three-shift work) is a risk factor for sleep disturbance, and the fixed work rhythm may contribute to the quality of sleep.

  15. Moderate Exercise Plus Sleep Education Improves Self-Reported Sleep Quality, Daytime Mood, and Vitality in Adults with Chronic Sleep Complaints: A Waiting List-Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gebhart, Carmen; Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that physical exercise can contribute to better sleep quality. This study investigates the six-week influence of a combined intervention on self-rated sleep quality, daytime mood, and quality of life. A nonclinical sample of 114 adults with chronic initiating and the maintaining of sleep complaints participated in the study. The intervention group of 70 adults underwent moderate physical exercise, conducted weekly, plus sleep education sessions. Improvements among participa...

  16. Bilateral Avascular Necrosis and Pelvic Insufficiency Fractures Developing after Pelvic Radiotherapy in a Patient with Prostate Cancer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayet Sarı

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignancies in men. Pelvic radiotherapy is commonly used in both radical and palliative treatment for prostate cancer. Radiation-induced adverse effects might be seen on adjacent healthy tissues (such as vessels, bones and soft tissues with the exception of targeted area. Particularly several years after radiotherapy, low back and hip pain may occur due to bone edema, necrosis or fractures. In these cases, whether complaints due to the degenerative, metastatic or radiotherapy complications must be examined and appropriate treatment should be arranged. For this purpose, we present our elderly patient who received radiotherapy for prostate cancer, and thereafter, developed bilateral avascular hip necrosis and pelvic insufficiency fractures.

  17. Self-reported health and sleep complaints among nursing personnel working under 12 h night and day shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, Luciana F; Rotenberg, Lúcia; Waissmann, William

    2004-01-01

    This cross-sectional exploratory study involved health care workers of various skill types and levels. We tested the hypothesis that the prevalence of diseases, sleep complaints, and insufficient time for nonprofessional activities (family, leisure, and rest) are higher among night than day workers. Data collection was carried out in two public hospitals using questionnaires and other forms. Night work was explored as a risk factor, considering a night worker as one who had at least one night job on the occasion of the research. Data were assessed by a univariate analysis. The association between work schedule and the dependent variables--health conditions, sleep complaints, and insufficient time for nonprofessional activities--was evaluated through the estimation of the prevalence ratio, with a confidence interval of 95%. Two hundred and fifty-eight female nursing personnel participated; 41.5% were moonlighters, and only 20 worked a shift of less than 12h in length. Reports of migraine and need of medical care the 2 weeks before the survey were more prevalent among day than night workers (PR=0.71; CI=0.55-0.92 and PR=0.71; CI=0.52-0.95, respectively). Migraine headaches occurred less frequently among night than day workers as confirmed by comparing the reports of the night workers and day workers whose work history was always day shifts (PR = 0.74; CI = 0.57-0.96). Reports of mild emotional disorders (mild depression, tension, anxiety, or insomnia) were less frequent among night (PR=0.76; CI=0.59-0.98) and ex-night workers (PR=0.68; CI=0.50-0.91) than day workers who never had worked a night job. The healthy worker effect does not seem to explain the results of the comparisons between day and night workers. The possible role of exposure by day workers to some risk factors, such as stress, was suggested as an explanation for these results. No significant difference was observed between night and day workers as to sleep complaints, a result that may have been

  18. Motivation and affect in REM sleep and the mentation reporting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark R; Antrobus, John S; Gordon, Evelyn; Tucker, Matthew A; Hirota, Yasutaka; Wamsley, Erin J; Ross, Lars; Doan, Tieu; Chaklader, Annie; Emery, Rebecca N

    2004-09-01

    Although the emotional and motivational characteristics of dreaming have figured prominently in folk and psychoanalytic conceptions of dream production, emotions have rarely been systematically studied, and motivation, never. Because emotions during sleep lack the somatic components of waking emotions, and they change as the sleeper awakens, their properties are difficult to assess. Recent evidence of limbic system activation during REM sleep suggests a basis in brain architecture for the interaction of motivational and cognitive properties in dreaming. Motivational and emotional content in REM and NREM laboratory mentation reports from 25 participants were compared. Motivational and emotional content was significantly greater in REM than NREM sleep, even after controlling for the greater word count of REM reports.

  19. Stimulus-induced, sleep-bound, focal seizures: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siclari, Francesca; Nobili, Lino; Lo Russo, Giorgio; Moscato, Alessio; Buck, Alfred; Bassetti, Claudio L; Khatami, Ramin

    2011-12-01

    In nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE), seizures occur almost exclusively during NREM sleep. Why precisely these seizures are sleep-bound remains unknown. Studies of patients with nonlesional familial forms of NFLE have suggested the arousal system may play a major role in their pathogenesis. We report the case of a patient with pharmaco-resistant, probably cryptogenic form of non-familial NFLE and strictly sleep-bound seizures that could be elicited by alerting stimuli and were associated with ictal bilateral thalamic and right orbital-insular hyperperfusion on SPECT imaging. Case report. University Hospital Zurich. One patient with pharmaco-resistant epilepsy. This case shows that the arousal system plays a fundamental role also in cryptogenic non-familial forms of NFLE.

  20. Comparision of Parent Reported Sleeping Habits and Sleep Problems Between Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ozturk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD children has been shown to affect the quality of sleep. In this study it is aimed to evaluate sleep habits and sleep problems between the cases who are diagnosed with ADHD and healthy controls. The study group consisted of 61 children (8-12 years old with ADHD; the control group (87 children comprised patients of other clinics at hospital. The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL and DuPaul ADHD Rating Scale vere used. Children's sleep habits and sleep problems were assessed with the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire. ADHD group compared to healthy controls; statistical significant difference was found in bedtime resistance, the sleep onset delay, the sleep duration, the sleep anxiety, the night wakings, the parasomnias and the daytime sleepiness but statistical significant difference wasn’t found the sleep disordered breathing. In our study, problems in the sleep habits evaluated by parents ADHD are more than campared with healty controls likewise literature. However, further studies with larger sample size and objective measures such as actigraphy and polysomnography may allow us to have more knowledge in this area. [JCBPR 2017; 6(3.000: 108-114

  1. Racial Differences in Reported Napping and Nocturnal Sleep in 2- to 8-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Brian; LeBourgeois, Monique K.; Harsh, John

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to examine racial differences in reported napping and nighttime sleep of 2- to 8-year-old children, to identify factors accounting for these differences, and to determine if variability in napping was related to psychosocial functioning. Methods Caretakers of 1043 children (73.5% non-Hispanic white; 50.4% male) 2 to 8 years old from a community sample reported on their children’s napping behavior and nighttime sleep. Caretakers of 255 preschool children (3–5 years old) also completed the Behavior Assessment System for Children. Results A more gradual age-related decline in napping was found for black children. At age 8, 39.1% of black children were reported to nap, compared with only 4.9% of white children. Black children also napped significantly more days per week, had shorter average nocturnal sleep durations, and slept significantly less on weekdays than on weekend nights. Despite differences in sleep distribution, total weekly sleep duration (diurnal and nocturnal) was nearly identical for the 2 racial groups at each year of age. Logistic regression analysis revealed that demographic variables were related to but did not fully explain napping differences. Napping in a subset of preschoolers was not significantly related to psychosocial functioning. Conclusions There are remarkable racial differences in reported napping and nighttime sleep patterns beginning as early as age 3 and extending to at least 8 years of age. These differences are independent of commonly investigated demographic factors. Differences in napping behavior do not seem to have psychosocial significance in a sample of preschool children. PMID:15866856

  2. Neurobehavioral Performance Impairment in Insomnia: Relationships with Self-Reported Sleep and Daytime Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekleton, Julia A.; Flynn-Evans, Erin E.; Miller, Belinda; Epstein, Lawrence J.; Kirsch, Douglas; Brogna, Lauren A.; Burke, Liza M.; Bremer, Erin; Murray, Jade M.; Gehrman, Philip; Lockley, Steven W.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M. W.

    2014-01-01

    . Neurobehavioral performance impairment in insomnia: relationships with self-reported sleep and daytime functioning. SLEEP 2014;37(1):107-116. PMID:24470700

  3. Trauma-Related Sleep Disturbance and Self-Reported Physical Health Symptoms in Treatment-Seeking Female Rape Victims

    OpenAIRE

    CLUM, GRETCHEN A.; NISHITH, PALLAVI; RESICK, PATRICIA A.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between trauma-related sleep disturbance and physical health symptoms in treatment-seeking female rape victims. A total of 167 participants were assessed for PTSD symptoms, depression, sleep disturbance, and frequency of self-reported health symptoms. Results demonstrated that trauma-related sleep disturbance predicted unique variance in physical health symptoms after other PTSD and depression symptoms were controlled. The findings sugge...

  4. The Relations of Sleep and Quality of Life to School Performance in Youth with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfect, Michelle M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined parent and youth self-reports to test the hypothesis that perceived insufficient sleep duration, inconsistent sleep habits, reduced quality of life, less frequent blood glucose monitoring, and higher hemoglobin A1c would predict poorer school functioning among 50 youth with type 1 diabetes. The data suggested that a delay in…

  5. Sleep deficiency and motor vehicle crash risk in the general population: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Daniel J; Ellenbogen, Jeffrey M; Bianchi, Matt T; Czeisler, Charles A

    2018-03-20

    Insufficient sleep duration and obstructive sleep apnea, two common causes of sleep deficiency in adults, can result in excessive sleepiness, a well-recognized cause of motor vehicle crashes, although their contribution to crash risk in the general population remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relation of sleep apnea, sleep duration, and excessive sleepiness to crash risk in a community-dwelling population. This was a prospective observational cohort study nested within the Sleep Heart Health Study, a community-based study of the health consequences of sleep apnea. The participants were 1745 men and 1456 women aged 40-89 years. Sleep apnea was measured by home polysomnography and questionnaires were used to assess usual sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. A follow-up questionnaire 2 years after baseline ascertained driving habits and motor vehicle crash history. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relation of sleep apnea and sleep duration at baseline to the occurrence of motor vehicle crashes during the year preceding the follow-up visit, adjusting for relevant covariates. The population-attributable fraction of motor vehicle crashes was estimated from the sample proportion of motor vehicle crashes and the adjusted odds ratios for motor vehicle crash within each exposure category. Among 3201 evaluable participants, 222 (6.9%) reported at least one motor vehicle crash during the prior year. A higher apnea-hypopnea index (p vehicle crashes was 10% due to sleep apnea and 9% due to sleep duration less than 7 hours. Sleep deficiency due to either sleep apnea or insufficient sleep duration is strongly associated with motor vehicle crashes in the general population, independent of self-reported excessive sleepiness.

  6. Sleep-Associated Torsades de Pointes: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Carmelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Torsades de Pointes (TdP is a polymorphic ventricular tachycardia that occurs in the presence of an acquired or congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS. We present the case of a 57 year-old man with end-stage renal disease on methadone maintenance in which there occurred multiple episodes of TdP during sleep. The patient was found to have a QTc interval of 548 milliseconds, and the dysrhythmia was successfully treated with isoproterenol infusion and methadone substitution. It is surmised that the patient had a multifactorial, acquired LQTS that during somnolence, reached a critical threshold of QT prolongation to lead to the development of TdP.

  7. Sacral insufficiency fractures: a report of three cases; Fracturas por insuficiencia del sacro: a proposito de tres casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armesto, V.; Pulpeiro, J. R.; Lauda Corchon, M. [Clinica Nosa Senora dos Ollos Grandes. Lugo (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Sacral insufficiency fractures pose a diagnostic problem because of the nonspecific clinical signs and the absence of distinguishing features in standard radiological studies. The main causes are osteoporosis, making women reaching the age of menopause among the populations most commonly affected, and a history of radiotherapy, leading to the inclusion of neoplastic disease in the differential diagnosis. The characteristic site is ala sacralis, usually bilateral, and the fracture is vertical, running parallel to the sacroiliac joints. The sacral bone may also be involved (H pattern), as well as the medial region of the ilium. It is frequently associated with fractures of the supraacetabular region and the pubic symphysis. Computed tomography is the technique of choice for detecting the fracture line and/or sclerosis, although it is less sensitive than magnetic resonance (MR) imaging or scintigraphy during acute phases. MR of the above regions shows nonspecific edema, contrasting with hypointense signals indicating the general path of the fracture line in T2-weighted images. The use of gadolinium or fat suppression greatly increases the sensitivity. Bone scintigraphy is a highly sensitive diagnostic tool, although the H pattern occurs in less than 50% of cases. (Author) 24 refs.

  8. Sleep Sleeping Patch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Sleep Sleeping Patch is a new kind of external patch based on modern sleep medicine research achievements, which uses the internationally advanced transdermal therapeutic system (TTS). The Sleep Sleeping Patch transmits natural sleep inducers such as peppermint and liquorice extracts and melatonin through the skin to induce sleep. Clinical research proves that the Sleep Sleeping Patch can effectively improve insomnia and the quality of sleep. Highly effective: With the modern TTS therapy,

  9. Trauma-related sleep disturbance and self-reported physical health symptoms in treatment-seeking female rape victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clum, G A; Nishith, P; Resick, P A

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between trauma-related sleep disturbance and physical health symptoms in treatment-seeking female rape victims. A total of 167 participants were assessed for PTSD symptoms, depression, sleep disturbance, and frequency of self-reported health symptoms. Results demonstrated that trauma-related sleep disturbance predicted unique variance in physical health symptoms after other PTSD and depression symptoms were controlled. The findings suggest that trauma-related sleep disturbance is one potential factor contributing to physical health symptoms in rape victims with PTSD.

  10. The Association Between Trait Gratitude and Self-Reported Sleep Quality Is Mediated by Depressive Mood State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkozei, Anna; Smith, Ryan; Kotzin, Megan D; Waugaman, Debby L; Killgore, William D S

    2017-01-27

    It has been shown that higher levels of trait gratitude are associated with better self-reported sleep quality, possibly due to differences in presleep cognitions. However previous studies have not taken into account the role of depressive symptoms in this relationship. In this study, 88 nonclinical 18-29-year-olds completed the Gratitude Resentment and Appreciation Test (GRAT) as a measure of trait gratitude. The Glasgow Content of Thought Inventory (GCTI) was used to measure the intrusiveness of cognitions prior to sleep onset, the Motivation and Energy Inventory (MEI) assessed daytime fatigue, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess self-reported sleep quality. The BDI-II assessed self-reported depressive symptoms. Consistent with previous work, GRAT scores were positively associated with higher daytime energy and greater number of hours of sleep per night. Importantly, however, we further observed that depressive symptoms mediated the relationships between gratitude scores and sleep metrics. Depressive mood state appears to mediate the association between gratitude and self-reported sleep quality metrics. We suggest, as one plausible model of these phenomena, that highly grateful individuals have lower symptoms of depression, which in turn leads to fewer presleep worries, resulting in better perceived sleep quality. Future work should aim to disentangle the causal nature of these relationships in order to better understand how these important variables interact.

  11. Genetic correlation analysis suggests association between increased self reported sleep duration in adults and schizophrenia and type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Byrne (Enda); P.R. Gehrman (Philip); Trzaskowski, M. (Maciej); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); Pack, A.I. (Allan I.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractStudy Objectives: We sought to examine how much of the heritability of self-report sleep duration is tagged by common genetic variation in populations of European ancestry and to test if the common variants contributing to sleep duration are also associated with other diseases and

  12. Reversible exacerbation of obstructive sleep apnea by α1-adrenergic blockade with tamsulosin: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by repeated involuntary closure of the pharyngeal airspace during sleep. Normal activity of the genioglossus (GG) muscle is important in maintaining airway patency, and inhibition of GG activity can contribute to airway closure. Neurons in the hypoglossal motor nucleus (HMN) regulate GG activity. Adrenergic tone is an important regulator of HMN neuronal excitability. In laboratory models α 1 -adrenergic antagonists inhibit HMN neurons and GG activity, suggesting that α 1 -adrenergic antagonism might adversely affect patients with OSA. To date there has been no report of such a case. The patient was a 67-year old man with a 27-month history of obstructive sleep apnea. Diagnostic polysomnography demonstrated a baseline apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 21.3 and a trough oxygen saturation of 84%. Treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was initiated. The AHI in year 1 averaged 1.0 ± 0.1 (mean ± SD) and 0.8 ± 0.1 in year 2. Other medical conditions included hypertension controlled with losartan and benign prostatic hypertrophy not well controlled by finasteride monotherapy. The α 1 -adrenergic receptor antagonist tamsulosin 0.4 mg daily was added. Shortly after initiation of tamsulosin, subjective sleep quality deteriorated. Significant surges in obstructive events, apneic episodes, and AHI were also recorded, and nocturnal airway pressure was frequently sustained at the CPAP device maximum of 20 cm H 2 O. Tamsulosin was discontinued. CPAP parameters and sleep quality returned to the pre-tamsulosin baselines within 10 days. These findings suggest that α 1 -adrenergic blockade with tamsulosin may exacerbate sleep-disordered breathing in susceptible patients.

  13. Increased deep sleep in a medication-free, detoxified female offender with schizophrenia, alcoholism and a history of attempted homicide: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailas Eila

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychiatric sleep research has attempted to identify diagnostically sensitive and specific sleep patterns associated with particular disorders. Both schizophrenia and alcoholism are typically characterized by a severe sleep disturbance associated with decreased amounts of slow wave sleep, the physiologically significant, refreshing part of the sleep. Antisocial behaviour with severe aggression, on the contrary, has been reported to associate with increased deep sleep reflecting either specific brain pathology or a delay in the normal development of sleep patterns. The authors are not aware of previous sleep studies in patients with both schizophrenia and antisocial personality disorder. Case presentation The aim of the present case-study was to characterize the sleep architecture of a violent, medication-free and detoxified female offender with schizophrenia, alcoholism and features of antisocial personality disorder using polysomnography. The controls consisted of three healthy, age-matched women with no history of physical violence. The offender's sleep architecture was otherwise very typical for patients with schizophrenia and/or alcoholism, but an extremely high amount of deep sleep was observed in her sleep recording. Conclusions The finding strengthens the view that severe aggression is related to an abnormal sleep pattern with increased deep sleep. The authors were able to observe this phenomenon in an antisocially behaving, violent female offender with schizophrenia and alcohol dependence, the latter disorders previously reported to be associated with low levels of slow wave sleep. New studies are, however, needed to confirm and explain this preliminary finding.

  14. Sleep Patterns in Chinese Preschool Children: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ran; Wang, Guang-Hai; Zhu, Hong; Jiang, Fan; Jiang, Chun-Lei

    2018-04-15

    This study aimed to (1) provide data on normal sleep patterns in Chinese preschool children, (2) identify cross-cultural differences of sleep patterns among children from China and other countries, (3) estimate the prevalence of sleep duration not meeting the optimal amount, and (4) characterize delayed weekend sleep pattern. A population-based sample of 1,610 children aged 3-6 years was recruited from 10 cities across China. Parents completed questions about their child's sleep patterns adapted from the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ). The mean bedtime was 9:31 PM, wake time was 7:27 AM, nighttime sleep duration was 9 hours 30 minutes, daytime sleep duration was 1 hour 31 minutes, and total sleep duration was 11 hours 2 minutes. The children had a shorter nighttime sleep duration but longer daytime naps, resulting in no differences in total sleep duration compared with counterparts predominantly in the west. Of the children, 85.3% met the recommended amount of sleep of 10 to 13 hours, and 10.8% slept fewer than 10 hours. The prevalence of sleep less than 10 hours was higher in older children and children from eastern China. Children went to bed and woke up more than 30 minutes later on weekends than weekdays, accounting for 40.1% and 50%, respectively. Children in western China showed longer delay than children in eastern China ( P < .05). Age- and region-specific variability of sleep patterns are reported as well as insufficient sleep and delayed weekend sleep pattern in Chinese preschool children. The cross-cultural difference of sleep patterns was in temporal placement rather than sleep duration. © 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  15. Systematic review: relationships between sleep and gastro-oesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, J; Holloway, R H; Eastwood, P R

    2013-10-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) adversely impacts on sleep, but the mechanism remains unclear. To review the literature concerning gastro-oesophageal reflux during the sleep period, with particular reference to the sleep/awake state at reflux onset. Studies identified by systematic literature searches were assessed. Overall patterns of reflux during the sleep period show consistently that oesophageal acid clearance is slower, and reflux frequency and oesophageal acid exposure are higher in patients with GERD than in healthy individuals. Of the 17 mechanistic studies identified by the searches, 15 reported that a minority of reflux episodes occurred during stable sleep, but the prevailing sleep state at the onset of reflux in these studies remains unclear owing to insufficient temporal resolution of recording or analysis methods. Two studies, in healthy individuals and patients with GERD, analysed sleep and pH with adequate resolution for temporal alignment of sleep state and the onset of reflux: all 232 sleep period reflux episodes evaluated occurred during arousals from sleep lasting less than 15 s or during longer duration awakenings. Six mechanistic studies found that transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations were the most common mechanism of sleep period reflux. Contrary to the prevailing view, subjective impairment of sleep in GERD is unlikely to be due to the occurrence of reflux during stable sleep, but could result from slow clearance of acid reflux that occurs during arousals or awakenings from sleep. Definitive studies are needed on the sleep/awake state at reflux onset across the full GERD spectrum. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Associations of self-reported and objectively measured sleep disturbances with depression among primary caregivers of children with disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orta OR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Olivia R Orta,1 Clarita Barbosa,1 Juan Carlos Velez,2 Bizu Gelaye,1 Xiaoli Chen,1 Lee Stoner,3 Michelle A Williams,1 1Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA; 2Worker's Hospital, The Chilean Safety Association, Santiago, Chile; 3School of Sport and Exercise, Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the association between sleep and depression using both self-reported (subjective and actigraphic (objective sleep traits. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 175 female primary caregivers of children with disabilities receiving care at a rehabilitation center in Punta Arenas, Chile. The eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire was used to ascertain participants' depression status. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to define subjective, or perceived, sleep quality. Wrist-worn actigraph monitors, worn for seven consecutive nights, were used to characterize objective sleep quality and disturbances. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Linear regression models were fit using continuous sleep parameters as the dependent variables and depression status as the independent variable. Multivariable models were adjusted for body mass index, marital status, smoking status, education level, and children's disabilities. Results: Using an eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire score ≥10, 26.3% of participants presented with depression. Depressed women were more likely to self-report overall poorer (subjective sleep compared to non-depressed women; however, differences in sleep were not consistently noted using actigraphic (objective sleep traits. Among the depressed, both sleep duration and total time in bed were significantly underestimated. In multivariable models, depression was negatively associated with sleep duration using both subjective (β=–0

  17. The Link of Self-Reported Insomnia Symptoms and Sleep Duration with Metabolic Syndrome: A Chinese Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Chieh; Sun, Chien-An; You, San-Lin; Hwang, Lee-Ching; Liang, Chun-Yu; Yang, Tsan; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Chen, Chien-Hua; Wei, Cheng-Yu; Chou, Yu-Ching

    2016-06-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate the relationships of metabolic syndrome (MetS) with insomnia symptoms and sleep duration in a Chinese adult population. Data from a nationwide epidemiological survey conducted on residents from randomly selected districts in Taiwan in 2007 were used for this cross-sectional population-based study. A total of 4,197 participants were included in this study. Insomnia symptoms, including difficulty initiating sleep (DIS), difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS), early morning awakening (EMA), were assessed using the Insomnia Self-Assessment Inventory questionnaire. Subjects were divided into 3 groups based upon their reported sleep duration (insomnia symptoms (OR [95% CI] was 1.54 [1.05-2.47]). However, there was no significant combined effect of insomnia symptoms and sleep duration on the prevalence of MetS. The current investigation shows that short sleep duration and insomnia symptoms, specifically DIS and DMS, were significant correlates of MetS. These findings should be replicated in prospective studies using both sleep duration and sleep quality measures. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  18. Validity of self-reported sleep bruxism among myofascial temporomandibular disorder patients and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, K G; Janal, M N; Sirois, D A; Dubrovsky, B; Klausner, J J; Krieger, A C; Lavigne, G J

    2015-10-01

    Sleep bruxism (SB), primarily involving rhythmic grinding of the teeth during sleep, has been advanced as a causal or maintenance factor for a variety of oro-facial problems, including temporomandibular disorders (TMD). As laboratory polysomnographic (PSG) assessment is extremely expensive and time-consuming, most research testing this belief has relied on patient self-report of SB. The current case-control study examined the accuracy of those self-reports relative to laboratory-based PSG assessment of SB in a large sample of women suffering from chronic myofascial TMD (n = 124) and a demographically matched control group without TMD (n = 46). A clinical research coordinator administered a structured questionnaire to assess self-reported SB. Participants then spent two consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory. Audiovisual and electromyographic data from the second night were scored to assess whether participants met criteria for the presence of 2 or more (2+) rhythmic masticatory muscle activity episodes accompanied by grinding sounds, moderate SB, or severe SB, using previously validated research scoring standards. Contingency tables were constructed to assess positive and negative predictive values, sensitivity and specificity, and 95% confidence intervals surrounding the point estimates. Results showed that self-report significantly predicted 2+ grinding sounds during sleep for TMD cases. However, self-reported SB failed to significantly predict the presence or absence of either moderate or severe SB as assessed by PSG, for both cases and controls. These data show that self-report of tooth grinding awareness is highly unlikely to be a valid indicator of true SB. Studies relying on self-report to assess SB must be viewed with extreme caution. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Recurrent Tricuspid Insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Ibrahim; Koksal, Cengiz; Cakalagaoglu, Canturk; Sahin, Muslum; Yanartas, Mehmet; Ay, Yasin; Demir, Serdar

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the medium-term results of De Vega, modified De Vega, and ring annuloplasty techniques for the correction of tricuspid insufficiency and investigates the risk factors for recurrent grades 3 and 4 tricuspid insufficiency after repair. In our clinic, 93 patients with functional tricuspid insufficiency underwent surgical tricuspid repair from May 2007 through October 2010. The study was retrospective, and all the data pertaining to the patients were retrieved from hospital records. Functional capacity, recurrent tricuspid insufficiency, and risk factors aggravating the insufficiency were analyzed for each patient. In the medium term (25.4 ± 10.3 mo), the rates of grades 3 and 4 tricuspid insufficiency in the De Vega, modified De Vega, and ring annuloplasty groups were 31%, 23.1%, and 6.1%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction, tricuspid insufficiency. Medium-term survival was 90.6% for the De Vega group, 96.3% for the modified De Vega group, and 97.1% for the ring annuloplasty group. Ring annuloplasty provided the best relief from recurrent tricuspid insufficiency when compared with DeVega annuloplasty. Modified De Vega annuloplasty might be a suitable alternative to ring annuloplasty when rings are not available. PMID:23466680

  20. Imaging of insufficiency fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krestan, Christian [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna General Hospital, Waehringerstr. 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: christian.krestan@meduniwien.ac.at; Hojreh, Azadeh [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna General Hospital, Waehringerstr. 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2009-09-15

    This review focuses on the occurrence, imaging and differential diagnosis of insufficiency fractures. Prevalence, the most common sites of insufficiency fractures and their clinical implications are discussed. Insufficiency fractures occur with normal stress exerted on weakened bone. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is the most common cause of insufficiency fractures. Other conditions which affect bone turnover include osteomalacia, hyperparathyroidism, chronic renal failure and high-dose glucocorticoid therapy. It is a challenge for the radiologist to detect and diagnose insufficiency fractures, and to differentiate them from other bone lesions. Radiographs are still the most widely used imaging method for identification of insufficiency fractures, but sensitivity is limited, depending on the location of the fractures. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a very sensitive tool to visualize bone marrow abnormalities associated with insufficiency fractures. Thin section, multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) depicts subtle fracture lines allowing direct visualization of cortical and trabecular bone. Bone scintigraphy still plays a role in detecting fractures, with good sensitivity but limited specificity. The most important differential diagnosis is underlying malignant disease leading to pathologic fractures. Bone densitometry and clinical history may also be helpful in confirming the diagnosis of insufficiency fractures.

  1. Perceived fitness protects against stress-based mental health impairments among police officers who report good sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Markus; Kellmann, Micheal; Elliot, Catherine; Hartmann, Tim; Brand, Serge; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    This study examined a cognitive stress-moderation model that posits that the harmful effects of chronic stress are decreased in police officers who perceive high levels of physical fitness. It also determined whether the stress-buffering effect of perceived fitness is influenced by officers' self-reported sleep. A total of 460 police officers (n=116 females, n=344 males, mean age: M=40.7; SD=9.7) rated their physical fitness and completed a battery of self-report stress, mental health, and sleep questionnaires. Three-way analyses of covariance were performed to examine whether officers' self-reported mental health status depends on the interaction between stress, perceived fitness and sleep. Highly stressed officers perceived lower mental health and fitness and were overrepresented in the group of poor sleepers. Officers with high fitness self-reports revealed increased mental health and reported good sleep. In contrast, poor sleepers scored lower on the mental health index. High stress was more closely related to low mental health among poor sleepers. Most importantly, perceived fitness revealed a stress-buffering effect, but only among officers who reported good sleep. High perceived fitness and good sleep operate as stress resilience resources among police officers. The findings suggest that multimodal programs including stress management, sleep hygiene and fitness training are essential components of workplace health promotion in the police force.

  2. Sleeping position and reported night-time asthma symptoms and medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalolella, Admirabilis Beno

    2016-01-01

    A 49 years old man, known case of bronchial asthma for 43 years, with history of frequent asthmatic attacks, usually responding to double dose of intravenous Aminophylline and double dose of Hydrocortisone was received at medical emergency care unit at midnight with night-time asthma attack. The attack did not settle with Aminophylline single Intravenous injection. He was then admitted and put in supine sleep position for re-evaluation while his asthma symptoms were monitored while waiting for the medical officer's evaluation of his asthma status. After 3 hours of observation, asthma symptoms were relieved, and patient was discharged home and advised to sleep in supine position throughout every night to prevent asthma symptoms. The patient was followed up through nighttime sleep diary for one month. After one month period of monitoring, the patient had significance reduction in asthma symptoms and reduced night time medication, reduced episodes of night awakening due to asthma symptoms, and improved capability for normal works. This case report describes a novel approach of management and prophylaxis of asthmatic episodes through sleeping position that reduces and control asthma symptoms resulting in reduced drug consumption.

  3. Short Sleep as an Environmental Exposure: A Preliminary Study Associating 5-HTTLPR Genotype to Self-Reported Sleep Duration and Depressed Mood in First-Year University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carskadon, Mary A.; Sharkey, Katherine M.; Knopik, Valerie S.; McGeary, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined whether the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the SLC6A4 gene is associated with self-reported symptoms of depressed mood in first-year university students with a persistent pattern of short sleep. Design: Students provided DNA samples and completed on-line sleep diaries and a mood scale during the first semester. A priori phenotypes for nocturnal sleep and mood scores were compared for the distribution of genotypes. Setting: Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. Participants: A sample of 135 first-year students, 54 male, 71 Caucasian, mean age 18.1 (± 0.5) yr. Interventions: None. Measurements: Students completed on-line sleep diaries daily across the first term (21-64 days; mean = 51 days ± 11) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) mood scale after 8 wk. DNA was genotyped for the triallelic 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. Low-expressing S and LGpolymorphisms were designated S′, and high-expressing LA was designated L′. Phenotype groups were identified from a combination of CES-D (median split: high > 12; low sleep time (TST) from diaries: (shorter ≤ 7 hr; longer ≥ 7.5 hr). Three genotypes were identified (S′S′, S′L′, L′L′); the S′S′ genotype was present in a higher proportion of Asian than non-Asian students. Results: Four phenotype groups were compared: 40 students with shorter TST/high CES-D; 34 with shorter TST/low CES-D; 29 with longer TST/high CES-D; 32 with longer TST/low CES-D. Female:male distribution did not vary across phenotype groups (chi-square = 1.39; df = 3; P = 0.71). S′S′ participants (n = 23) were overrepresented in the shorter TST/high CES-D group (chi- square = 15.04; df = 6; P sleep and higher depressed mood are more likely than others to carry a variant of the SLC6A4 gene associated with low expression of the serotonin transporter. Citation: Carskadon MA; Sharkey KM; Knopik VS; McGeary JE. Short sleep as an environmental exposure: a preliminary study associating 5-HTTLPR

  4. Sleep disorders among French anaesthesiologists and intensivists working in public hospitals: a self-reported electronic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Elisa; Blasco, Valery; Antonini, François; Rey, Marc; Reydellet, Laurent; Harti, Karim; Nafati, Cyril; Albanèse, Jacques; Leone, Marc

    2015-02-01

    Sleep disorders can affect the health of physicians and patient outcomes. To determine the prevalence of sleep disorders among French anaesthesiologists and intensivists working in a public hospital. A cross-sectional survey. Anaesthesiologists and intensivists working in French public hospitals. Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was used to assess the degree of excessive daytime sleepiness. Among 1504 responders, 677 (45%) physicians reported sleep disorders. The independent factors associated with sleep disorders were reporting of sleep disorders [odds ratio (OR) 12.04, 95% CI (95% confidence interval) 8.89 to 16.46], sleep time less than 7 h (OR 8.86, 95% CI 6.50 to 12.20), work stress (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.49 to 2.83), stress at home (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.53), anxiolytic use (OR 3.69, 95% CI 2.23 to 6.25), psychotropic drug use (OR 3.91, 95% CI 1.51 to 11.52) and excessive daytime sleepiness (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.34 to 2.45). Six hundred and seventy-six (44%) responders reported excessive daytime sleepiness during their professional activity. The independent factors associated with excessive daytime sleepiness were female sex (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.49 to 2.34), tea consumption (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.91), regular practice of nap (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.34 to 2.09), stress at home (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.68), more than four extended work shifts monthly (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.56) and sleep disorders (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.31 to 2.29). Reporting sleep disorder duration and a sleep time less than 7 h were the two major risk factors for sleep disorders. Female sex was the major risk factor for excessive daytime sleepiness. French anaesthesiologists did not report more sleep disorders than the general population, but their alertness is impaired by a factor of two.

  5. Sleeping sickness in Buikwe South Health sub-district: Neuroinfection situation report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrodenkova, Silvia

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the incidence of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense sleeping sickness in the last functioning treatment centre in Buikwe South HSD in Southeast Uganda, in Mukono District, for a 19-year period (1989-2008). This is a report on the treatment outcome, structure of population affected, comparison with the published data on general incidence of T. b rhodesiensae in Uganda and functioning of sleeping sickness control program. Cross-sectional sleeping sickness data from 1989 to 2008 were collected retrospectively in 2009 at Buikwe Sleeping Sickness Center to identify case counts and measures of disease magnitude per sub-county per year. Data were collected from all available records of sleeping sickness patients. Case counts from the Buikwe South sub-counties, and even some neighboring sub-counties for 19 years (1989-2008) were collected and analyzed by Microsoft Excel and EpiInfo program. In the period from 1989 to 2008, 372 cases of sleeping sickness were diagnosed and treated. Children under 5 years were 12 (3.22%) - males 6, females 6, patients in the age from 6 to 15 years were 51 (13.7%) - males 30, females 21, and patients above 15 were 309 (83.06%) - males 176, females 133. In the category 5-15 years and above 15 years there was a significant gender difference closely connected to the professional exposure. The oldest patient was 80 years old, the youngest was 3 moths old. The average age of the patients was 30.8 years. From all 372 patients with trypanosomiasis 30 had died - 10 females and 20 males, which means 8% case fatality. The case fatality rate in the late stage of the disease was 14%. From this group 6 patients (20%) had negative BS. The average interval between the diagnosis and death was 14.4 days, in 10 patients the exact date of death was not recorded. Average age of the patients that died was 30.6 years. Sleeping sickness still remains a serious public health problem. Since the preventive and educational activities

  6. Effects of Psychological and Social Work Factors on Self-Reported Sleep Disturbance and Difficulties Initiating Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vleeshouwers, Jolien; Knardahl, Stein; Christensen, Jan Olav

    2016-04-01

    This prospective cohort study examined previously underexplored relations between psychological/social work factors and troubled sleep in order to provide practical information about specific, modifiable factors at work. A comprehensive evaluation of a range of psychological/social work factors was obtained by several designs; i.e., cross-sectional analyses at baseline and follow-up, prospective analyses with baseline predictors (T1), prospective analyses with average exposure across waves as predictor ([T1 + T2] / 2), and prospective analyses with change in exposure from baseline to follow-up as predictor. Participants consisted of a sample of Norwegian employees from a broad spectrum of occupations, who completed a questionnaire at two points in time, approximately two years apart. Cross-sectional analyses at T1 comprised 7,459 participants, cross-sectional analyses at T2 included 6,688 participants. Prospective analyses comprised a sample 5,070 of participants who responded at both T1 and T2. Univariable and multivariable ordinal logistic regressions were performed. Thirteen psychological/social work factors and two aspects of troubled sleep, namely difficulties initiating sleep and disturbed sleep, were studied. Ordinal logistic regressions revealed statistically significant associations for all psychological and social work factors in at least one of the analyses. Psychological and social work factors predicted sleep problems in the short term as well as the long term. All work factors investigated showed statistically significant associations with both sleep items, however quantitative job demands, decision control, role conflict, and support from superior were the most robust predictors and may therefore be suitable targets of interventions aimed at improving employee sleep. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  7. Prefronto-Cerebellar Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Improves Sleep Quality in Euthymic Bipolar Patients: A Brief Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo Minichino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sleep problems are common in bipolar disorder (BD and may persist during the euthymic phase of the disease. The aim of the study was to improve sleep quality of euthymic BD patients through the administration of prefronto-cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS. Methods. 25 euthymic outpatients with a diagnosis of BD Type I or II have been enrolled in the study. tDCS montage was as follows: cathode on the right cerebellar cortex and anode over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC; the intensity of stimulation was set at 2 mA and delivered for 20 min/die for 3 consecutive weeks. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI was used to assess sleep quality at baseline and after the tDCS treatment. Results. PSQI total score and all PSQI subdomains, with the exception of “sleep medication,” significantly improved after treatment. Discussion. This is the first study where a positive effect of tDCS on the quality of sleep in euthymic BD patients has been reported. As both prefrontal cortex and cerebellum may play a role in regulating sleep processes, concomitant cathodal (inhibitory stimulation of cerebellum and anodal (excitatory stimulation of DLPFC may have the potential to modulate prefrontal-thalamic-cerebellar circuits leading to improvements of sleep quality.

  8. Relationship Between Short Sleep Duration and Preseason Concussion Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Noah D; Berkner, Paul D; Atkins, Joseph E; Zafonte, Ross; Iverson, Grant L

    2016-05-01

    Baseline, preseason assessment of cognition, symptoms, and balance has been recommended as part of a comprehensive sport concussion management program. We examined the relationship between sleep and baseline test results. We hypothesized that adolescents who slept fewer hours the night before would report more symptoms and perform more poorly on cognitive testing than students who had a full night sleep. Cross-sectional observation study. Preseason concussion testing for high school athletes. A large sample (n = 2928) of student athletes from Maine, USA, between the ages of 13 and 18 years completed preseason testing. Participants with developmental problems, a history of treatment for neurological or psychiatric problems, recent concussion, or 3 or more prior concussions were excluded. Athletes were divided into 4 groups based on their sleep duration the night before testing. Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT; ImPACT Applications, Inc, Pittsburgh, PA) cognitive composite scores and the embedded Post-Concussion Symptom Scale. Sleep was not related to any ImPACT cognitive composite score, after covarying for age and controlling for multiple comparisons. In contrast, there were sleep duration, sex, and sleep duration by sex effects on the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale. The effect of sleep duration on symptom reporting was more pronounced in girls. Supplementary analyses suggested that sleep insufficiency was associated with a diverse array of postconcussion-like symptoms. Poor sleep the night before baseline or postinjury testing may be an important confound when assessing postconcussion symptoms. Girls may be more vulnerable to experiencing and reporting symptoms following insufficient sleep. Clinicians should routinely ask how the athlete slept the night before preseason baseline testing and consider deferring the symptom assessment or later retesting athletes who slept poorly.

  9. High Flow Nasal Cannula Therapy for Improving Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Joong Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although continuous positive airway pressure is the treatment of choice for obstructive sleep apnea, its compliance is low. Therefore, alternative therapeutic strategies are often required. High flow nasal cannula therapy uses an air compressor to deliver a constant flow of oxygen via the nasal cannula at a maximum of 60 L/m. It can produce positive end expiratory pressure and increase end expiratory pharyngeal pressure, which can help to alleviate upper airway obstruction. This is a case report of high flow nasal cannula therapy for a 71 year-old man. He had an obstructive sleep apnea and severe desaturation but failed to use continuous positive airway pressure. He underwent titration with high flow nasal cannula under polysomnography. Using high flow nasal cannula at an airflow of 45 L/m, his apnea-hypopnea, respiratory arousal and oxygen desaturation were improved. Importantly, he is very compliant with high flow nasal cannula therapy.

  10. Self-reported napping and duration and quality of sleep in the lifestyle interventions and independence for elders pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picarsic, Jennifer L; Glynn, Nancy W; Taylor, Christopher A; Katula, Jeffrey A; Goldman, Suzanne E; Studenski, Stephanie A; Newman, Anne B

    2008-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of self-reported napping and its association with subjective nighttime sleep duration and quality, as measured according to sleep-onset latency and sleep efficiency. Cross-sectional study. Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot Study. Community-dwelling older adults (N=414) aged 70 to 89. Self-report questionnaire on napping and sleep derived from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scale. Fifty-four percent of participants reported napping, with mean nap duration of 55.0+/-41.2 minutes. Nappers were more likely to be male (37.3% vs 23.8%, P=.003) and African American (20.4% vs 14.4%, P=.06) and to have diabetes mellitus (28% vs 14.3%, P=.007) than non-nappers. Nappers and non-nappers had similar nighttime sleep duration and quality, but nappers spent approximately 10% of their 24-hour sleep occupied in napping. In a multivariate model, the odds of napping were higher for subjects with diabetes mellitus (odds ratio (OR)=1.9, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.2-3.0) and men (OR=1.9, 95% CI=1.2-3.0). In nappers, diabetes mellitus (beta=12.3 minutes, P=.005), male sex (beta=9.0 minutes, P=.04), higher body mass index (beta=0.8 minutes, P=.02), and lower Mini-Mental State Examination score (beta=2.2 minutes, P=.03) were independently associated with longer nap duration. Napping was a common practice in community-dwelling older adults and did not detract from nighttime sleep duration or quality. Given its high prevalence and association with diabetes mellitus, napping behavior should be assessed as part of sleep behavior in future research and in clinical practice.

  11. Association between reported sleep need and sleepiness at the wheel: comparative study on French highways between 1996 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quera-Salva, M A; Hartley, S; Sauvagnac-Quera, R; Sagaspe, P; Taillard, J; Contrand, B; Micoulaud, J A; Lagarde, E; Barbot, F; Philip, P

    2016-12-21

    To investigate the evolution over 15 years of sleep schedules, sleepiness at the wheel and driving risk among highway drivers. Comparative survey including questions on usual sleep schedules and before the trip, sleepiness at the wheel, the Epworth sleepiness scale, Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire (BNSQ) and a travel questionnaire. 80% of drivers stopped by the highway patrol agreed to participate in both studies with a total of 3545 drivers in 2011 and 2196 drivers in 1996 interviewed. After standardisation based on sex, age and mean annual driving distance, drivers in 2011 reported shorter sleep time on week days (psleep time (p15 indicating severe sleepiness. Even if drivers in 2011 reported good sleep hygiene prior to a highway journey, drivers have reduced their mean weekly sleep duration over 15 years and have a higher risk of sleepiness at the wheel. Sleep hygiene for automobile drivers remains an important concept to address. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Impact of wind turbine sound on annoyance, self-reported sleep disturbance and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, R H; Pedersen, E; van den Berg, G P; Stewart, R E; Lok, W; Bouma, J

    2012-05-15

    The present government in the Netherlands intends to realize a substantial growth of wind energy before 2020, both onshore and offshore. Wind turbines, when positioned in the neighborhood of residents may cause visual annoyance and noise annoyance. Studies on other environmental sound sources, such as railway, road traffic, industry and aircraft noise show that (long-term) exposure to sound can have negative effects other than annoyance from noise. This study aims to elucidate the relation between exposure to the sound of wind turbines and annoyance, self-reported sleep disturbance and psychological distress of people that live in their vicinity. Data were gathered by questionnaire that was sent by mail to a representative sample of residents of the Netherlands living in the vicinity of wind turbines A dose-response relationship was found between immission levels of wind turbine sound and selfreported noise annoyance. Sound exposure was also related to sleep disturbance and psychological distress among those who reported that they could hear the sound, however not directly but with noise annoyance acting as a mediator. Respondents living in areas with other background sounds were less affected than respondents in quiet areas. People living in the vicinity of wind turbines are at risk of being annoyed by the noise, an adverse effect in itself. Noise annoyance in turn could lead to sleep disturbance and psychological distress. No direct effects of wind turbine noise on sleep disturbance or psychological stress has been demonstrated, which means that residents, who do not hear the sound, or do not feel disturbed, are not adversely affected. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychometric properties of parent and child reported sleep assessment tools in children with cerebral palsy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Manuel; Whittingham, Koa; Edwards, Priya; Boyd, Roslyn N

    2018-02-01

    To determine whether any parent and child report sleep measure tools have been validated in children aged 0-18 years with cerebral palsy (CP). A systematic search of five databases was performed up to June 2017. Studies were included if a sleep measure tool was used to evaluate sleep in children 0-18 years with CP based on international classifications of sleep. Sleep measures were assessed for psychometric data in children with CP. Only one paper which used the Schlaffragebogen für Kinder mit Neurologischen und Anderen Komplexen Erkrankungen (SNAKE) questionnaire met the study criteria. The four other measures frequently used in children with CP had no psychometric data available for their use in children with CP. The SNAKE questionnaire has been validated only in children with CP in Gross Motor Function Classification System level V. The Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children and the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire had the strongest psychometric properties in typically developing children, but has not yet been validated in children with CP. Current sleep measures being administered in typically developing children are also often used in children with CP, but have not been well validated in this group of children. There are no condition specific measures of sleep in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The Schlaffragebogen für Kinder mit Neurologischen und Anderen Komplexen Erkrankungen (SNAKE) questionnaire is validated for children with CP in Gross Motor Function Classification System level V. A framework to design a CP specific sleep questionnaire is provided. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  14. Habitual Sleep Duration, Unmet Sleep Need, and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Korean Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Hwangbo, Young; Kim, Won-Joo; Chu, Min Kyung; Yun, Chang-Ho; Yang, Kwang Ik

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Sleep need differs between individuals, and so the same duration of sleep will lead to sleep insufficiency in some individuals but not others. The aim of this study was to determine the separate and combined associations of both sleep duration and unmet sleep need with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in Korean adults. Methods The participants comprised 2,769 Korean adults aged 19 years or older. They completed questionnaires about their sleep habits over the previous...

  15. Consolidating the effects of waking and sleep on motor-sequence learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawn, Timothy P; Fenn, Kimberly M; Nusbaum, Howard C; Margoliash, Daniel

    2010-10-20

    Sleep is widely believed to play a critical role in memory consolidation. Sleep-dependent consolidation has been studied extensively in humans using an explicit motor-sequence learning paradigm. In this task, performance has been reported to remain stable across wakefulness and improve significantly after sleep, making motor-sequence learning the definitive example of sleep-dependent enhancement. Recent work, however, has shown that enhancement disappears when the task is modified to reduce task-related inhibition that develops over a training session, thus questioning whether sleep actively consolidates motor learning. Here we use the same motor-sequence task to demonstrate sleep-dependent consolidation for motor-sequence learning and explain the discrepancies in results across studies. We show that when training begins in the morning, motor-sequence performance deteriorates across wakefulness and recovers after sleep, whereas performance remains stable across both sleep and subsequent waking with evening training. This pattern of results challenges an influential model of memory consolidation defined by a time-dependent stabilization phase and a sleep-dependent enhancement phase. Moreover, the present results support a new account of the behavioral effects of waking and sleep on explicit motor-sequence learning that is consistent across a wide range of tasks. These observations indicate that current theories of memory consolidation that have been formulated to explain sleep-dependent performance enhancements are insufficient to explain the range of behavioral changes associated with sleep.

  16. Increased Risk of Upper Respiratory Infection in Military Recruits Who Report Sleeping Less Than 6 h per night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentz, Laurel M; Ward, Mark D; Potter, Claire; Oliver, Samuel J; Jackson, Sarah; Izard, Rachel M; Greeves, Julie P; Walsh, Neil P

    2018-05-09

    Professional sleep associations recommend 7-9 h of sleep per night for young adults. Habitually sleeping less than 6 h per night has been shown to increase susceptibility to common cold in otherwise healthy, adult civilians. However, no investigations have examined the importance of sleep duration on upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and loss of training days in military recruits. The purpose of this study was to describe self-reported sleep duration in a large cohort of military recruits and to assess the relationship between reported sleep duration and incidence of URTI's. We hypothesized that recruits who reported sleeping less than the recommended 7-9 h per night during training suffered a greater incidence of URTI and, as a consequence, lost more training days compared with recruits who met sleep recommendations. Participants included 651 British Army recruits aged 22 ± 3 yr who completed 13 wk of basic military training (67% males, 33% females). Participants were members of 21 platoons (11 male, 10 female) who commenced training across four seasons (19% winter, 20% spring, 29% summer, and 32% autumn). At the start and completion of training, participants completed a questionnaire asking the typical time they went to sleep and awoke. Incidence of physician-diagnosed URTI and lost training days due to URTI were retrieved from medical records. Self-reported sleep duration decreased from before to during training (8.5 ± 1.6 vs. 7.0 ± 0.8 h; p h sleep per night; however, this increased to 38% during training (X2 = 3.8; p= 0.05). Overall, 49 participants (8%) were diagnosed by a physician with at least one URTI and 3 participants (h per night during training were four times more likely to be diagnosed with URTI compared with participants who slept 7-9 h per night in a logistic regression model (OR 4.4; 95% CI, 1.5-12.9, p h per night were four times more likely to be diagnosed with an URTI and lost more training days due to URTI. Since sleep restriction

  17. The impact of prolonged violent video-gaming on adolescent sleep: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel L; Gradisar, Michael; Drummond, Aaron; Lovato, Nicole; Wessel, Jason; Micic, Gorica; Douglas, Paul; Delfabbro, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Video-gaming is an increasingly prevalent activity among children and adolescents that is known to influence several areas of emotional, cognitive and behavioural functioning. Currently there is insufficient experimental evidence about how extended video-game play may affect adolescents' sleep. The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term impact of adolescents' prolonged exposure to violent video-gaming on sleep. Seventeen male adolescents (mean age = 16 ± 1 years) with no current sleep difficulties played a novel, fast-paced, violent video-game (50 or 150 min) before their usual bedtime on two different testing nights in a sleep laboratory. Objective (polysomnography-measured sleep and heart rate) and subjective (single-night sleep diary) measures were obtained to assess the arousing effects of prolonged gaming. Compared with regular gaming, prolonged gaming produced decreases in objective sleep efficiency (by 7 ± 2%, falling below 85%) and total sleep time (by 27 ± 12 min) that was contributed by a near-moderate reduction in rapid eye movement sleep (Cohen's d = 0.48). Subjective sleep-onset latency significantly increased by 17 ± 8 min, and there was a moderate reduction in self-reported sleep quality after prolonged gaming (Cohen's d = 0.53). Heart rate did not differ significantly between video-gaming conditions during pre-sleep game-play or the sleep-onset phase. Results provide evidence that prolonged video-gaming may cause clinically significant disruption to adolescent sleep, even when sleep after video-gaming is initiated at normal bedtime. However, physiological arousal may not necessarily be the mechanism by which technology use affects sleep. © 2012 European Sleep Research Society.

  18. The Impact of a Randomized Sleep Education Intervention for College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershner, Shelley; O'Brien, Louise M

    2018-03-15

    Sleep deprivation can impair attention, mood, and performance; however, few effective sleep education programs are available. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a sleep education website, Sleep to Stay Awake (sleeptostayawake.org), on sleep behaviors of college students. College students (age 18 years or older) attending a public Midwestern university were randomized to control or intervention groups. All subjects completed baseline surveys that included demographics, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Patient Health Questionnaire, sleep knowledge, and measures of sleepiness and circadian rhythm. The intervention group then undertook the online intervention. Surveys were repeated at 1 week and at 8 weeks. Students who participated included 295 controls and 254 intervention subjects. The mean age was 21.9 ± 4.1 years and 41.7% were male. Survey results at 8 weeks showed that more intervention subjects reported improved sleep behaviors (50.3% versus 39.5%, P = .04). Intervention subjects were more likely to stop electronics use earlier (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.5 [1.0-2.4]), keep a more regular sleep schedule (1.6 [1.06-2.4]), have an earlier weekday rise time (2.4 [1.3-4.4]), and have a lower likelihood of insufficient sleep prior to examinations (0.46 [0.28-0.76]). The intervention group had improvement in mean sleep quality (odds ratio = 5.8 versus 6.6, P sleep education intervention improved sleep behaviors, sleep quality, and depressions scores. This novel approach to address sleep deprivation, poor sleep habits, and mood among college students may offer an effective and inexpensive remedy. © 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  19. Trends in self-reported sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms in Finland from 1972 to 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronholm, Erkki; Partonen, Timo; Laatikainen, Tiina

    2008-01-01

    A hypothesis concerning habitual sleep reduction and its adverse consequences among general population in modern societies has received wide publicity in the mass media, although scientific evidence supporting the hypothesis is scarce. Similarly, there is an extensively distributed belief, at least...... in Finland, that the prevalence of insomnia-related symptoms is increasing, but evidence for this is even sparser. These issues are important because of the known increased risk of mortality and health risks associated with sleep duration deviating from 7 to 8 h. To reveal possible trends in self......-reported sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms, we reanalyzed all available data from surveys carried out in Finland from 1972 to 2005. The main results were that a minor decrease of self-reported sleep duration has taken place in Finland, especially among working aged men. However, the size...

  20. Are qualitative and quantitative sleep problems associated with delinquency when controlling for psychopathic features and parental supervision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Heidi; Laajasalo, Taina; Saukkonen, Suvi; Salmi, Venla; Kivivuori, Janne; Aronen, Eeva T

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between sleep, including both qualitative and quantitative aspects, and delinquent behaviour while controlling for psychopathic features of adolescents and parental supervision at bedtime. We analysed data from a nationally representative sample of 4855 Finnish adolescents (mean age 15.3 years, 51% females). Sleep problems, hours of sleep and delinquency were evaluated via self-report. Psychopathic features were measured with the Antisocial Process Screening Device - Self-Report. In negative binomial regressions, gender and sleep-related variables acted as predictors for both property and violent crime after controlling for psychopathic features and parental supervision at bedtime. The results suggest that both sleep problems (at least three times per week, at least for a year) and an insufficient amount of sleep (less than 7 h) are associated with property crime and violent behaviour, and the relationship is not explained by gender, degree of parental supervision at bedtime or co-occurring psychopathic features. These results suggest that sleep difficulties and insufficient amount of sleep are associated with delinquent behaviour in adolescents. The significance of addressing sleep-related problems, both qualitative and quantitative, among adolescents is thus highlighted. Implications for a prevention technique of delinquent behaviour are discussed. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  1. Cross-sectional study of anxiety symptoms and self-report of awake and sleep bruxism in female TMD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Luisa Maria Faria; da Silva Parente Macedo, Leonora Cristina; Duarte, Cristina Maria Rabelais; de Goffredo Filho, Gilberto Senechal; de Souza Tesch, Ricardo

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between levels of anxiety symptoms and prevalence of self-report of awake and sleep bruxism in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). One hundred and eighty-one female patients, aged 19-77 years, were consecutively evaluated. The patients were selected from among those who sought treatment at the TMD and Orofacial Pain Outpatient Clinic of the Petrópolis School of Medicine. All patients completed the questionnaire and underwent clinical examination, both components of the RDC/TMD, in addition to answering questions pertaining to the assessment of levels of anxiety symptoms, taken from the Symptom Check List 90 self-report instrument. The subjects were classified according to the presence of self-reported only awake bruxism, only sleep bruxism, both, or none. A logistic regression procedure was performed to evaluate the possible association through odds ratio between anxiety symptoms and self-reported awake or sleep bruxism. The cofactors for each outcome were age, self-reported bruxism during the circadian period other than the one being evaluated, and the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. It was possible to demonstrate the presence of a positive and statistically significant relationship between anxiety levels and self-reported awake bruxism. This finding was not observed in those subjects who reported sleep bruxism. A positive relationship was found between self-reported awake bruxism and levels of anxiety symptoms, but not between sleep bruxism and anxiety.

  2. The relationship between sleep time and self-rated health: an analysis based on Italian survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Citoni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: a growing and broadly discussed literature has shown that the relationship between sleep duration and health is not linear. Not only are insomnia and insufficient sleep harmful to one’s health, but excessive sleep too is also not beneficial. This study tests the association between selfrated state of health and the duration and pattern of sleep: we discuss the losses and costs in terms of quality of life deriving from excessive sleep time.Methods: we use an ordered probit specification, applied to the Italian Survey on the Use of Time (sample of Italians aged fifteen and over who keep a diary for a working day.Results: we show that greater sleep duration is negatively correlated both with self-reported state of health and with self-reported health satisfaction, while respondents’ subjective perceptions of too much and too little sleep are associated with health conditions in the usual u-shaped way.Conclusions: the negative impact of long sleep on self-reported health is confirmed. However, the effect of short sleep on health conditions is positive, while a measure of decreasing sleep quality - comprising number of interruptions of sleep, insomnia and napping - is correlated to some extent with decreasing health. The public health consequences are still to be explored: the potential gains from sleep restriction are substantial, but little is known about the causal link or the risks. Further research is needed before taking policy decisions.

  3. Sleep wake pattern analysis: Study of 131 medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Nita Ninama; Jaydeep Kangathara

    2012-01-01

    Objective:Sleep is part of the rhythm of life. Without a good sleep the mind is less adapts, mood is altered and the body loses the ability to refresh. The sleep wake cycle of the students is quite different and characterized by delayed onset, partial sleep deprivation, poor sleep quality, insufficient sleep duration and occurrence of napping episodes during the day The aim of the present study is to know sleep wake pattern in medical student, role of residence and individual characterization...

  4. Watching television for more than two hours increases the likelihood of reporting poor sleep quality among Brazilian schoolteachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Sara Carolina Scremin; Campanini, Marcela Zambrim; de Andrade, Selma Maffei; González, Alberto Durán; de Melo, Juliana Moura; Mesas, Arthur Eumann

    2017-10-01

    Although time spent watching television and sleep problems have increased in the last few decades, it is unclear whether these conditions are associated in working adults after controlling for lifestyle, job characteristics and other individual aspects. The present study analyzed the association between time spent watching television and sleep quality among teachers from public schools in Londrina, Brazil. In this cross-sectional study, information from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and about time spent watching television was obtained during personal interviews. Logistic regression models adjusted by the main confounders (sociodemographic, occupational and lifestyle variables) were used in the analyses. Among the 959 studied teachers (68.2% women, median age: 42years), teachers who watched >120min/day had a higher likelihood of reporting poor sleep quality (PSQI>5) (odds ratio=1.41; 95% confidence interval=1.01; 1.98) compared with those who watched television for up to 60min/day, regardless of gender, age, work hours, leisure time physical activity and other lifestyle variables. This association did not remain significant after the adjustment for health conditions, i.e., obesity, anxiety, depression and chronic pain, which may act as confounding variables in the relationship between watching television and poor sleep quality. Watching television for >120min/day was independently associated with poorer sleep quality, which should be considered in the prevention and treatment of sleep disturbances among working population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Start Later, Sleep Later: School Start Times and Adolescent Sleep in Homeschool vs. Public/Private School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Lisa J.; Shaheed, Keisha; Ambler, Devon

    2014-01-01

    Homeschool students provide a naturalistic comparison group for later/flexible school start times. This study compared sleep patterns and sleep hygiene for homeschool students and public/private school students (grades 6-12). Public/private school students (n=245) and homeschool students (n=162) completed a survey about sleep patterns and sleep hygiene. Significant school group differences were found for weekday bedtime, wake time, and total sleep time, with homeschool students waking later and obtaining more sleep. Homeschool students had later school start times, waking at the same time that public/private school students were starting school. Public/private school students had poorer sleep hygiene practices, reporting more homework and use of technology in the hour before bed. Regardless of school type, technology in the bedroom was associated with shorter sleep duration. Later school start times may be a potential countermeasure for insufficient sleep in adolescents. Future studies should further examine the relationship between school start times and daytime outcomes, including academic performance, mood, and health. PMID:25315902

  6. The impact of psychological factors on self-reported sleep disturbance among people living in the vicinity of wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Leila; Nezhad-Ahmadi, Mohammad-Reza; Gohari, Mahmood; Bigelow, Philip; McColl, Stephen

    2016-07-01

    Canada's wind energy capacity has grown from approximately 137MW (MW) in 2000 to over 9700MW in 2014, and this progressive development has made Canada the fifth-largest market in the world for the installation of new wind turbines (WTs). Although wind energy is now one of the fastest growing sources of power in Canada and many other countries, the growth in both number and size of WTs has raised questions regarding potential health impacts on individuals who live close to such turbines. This study is the first published research using a prospective cohort design, with noise and sleep measurements obtained before and after installation of WTs to investigate effect of such turbines on self-reported sleep disturbances of nearby residents. Subjective assessment of sleep disturbance was conducted in Ontario, Canada through standard sleep and sleepiness scales, including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and Epworth daytime Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Both audible and infra-sound noises were also measured inside the bedroom. Descriptive and comparison analyses were performed to investigate the effect of WT exposure on sleep data. Results of the analysis show that participants reported poorer sleep quality if they had a negative attitude to WTs, if they had concerns related to property devaluation, and if they could see turbines from their properties. This study provides evidence for the role of individual differences and psychological factors in reports of sleep disturbance by people living in the vicinity of WTs. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sex-Specific Associations Between Self-reported Sleep Duration, Cardiovascular Disease, Hypertension, and Mortality in an Elderly Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broström, Anders; Wahlin, Ake; Alehagen, Urban; Ulander, Martin; Johansson, Peter

    2017-01-05

    Both short and long sleep durations have been associated to increased mortality. Knowledge about sex-specific differences among elderly regarding associations between sleep duration, cardiovascular health, and mortality is sparse. The aims of this study are to examine the association between self-reported sleep duration and mortality and to investigate whether this association is sex specific and/or moderated by cardiovascular morbidity, and also to explore potential mediators of sleep duration effects on mortality. A population-based, observational, cross-sectional design with 6-year follow-up with mortality as primary outcome was conducted. Self-rated sleep duration, clinical examinations, echocardiography, and blood samples (N-terminal fragment of proBNP) were collected. A total of 675 persons (50% women; mean age, 78 years) were divided into short sleepers (≤6 hours; n = 231), normal sleepers (7-8 hours; n = 338), and long sleepers (≥9 hours; n = 61). Data were subjected to principal component analyses. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and hypertension factors were extracted and used as moderators and as mediators in the regression analyses. During follow-up, 55 short sleepers (24%), 68 normal sleepers (20%), and 21 long sleepers (34%) died. Mediator analyses showed that long sleep was associated with mortality in men (hazard ratio [HR], 1.8; P = .049), independently of CVD and hypertension. In men with short sleep, CVD acted as a moderator of the association with mortality (HR, 4.1; P = .025). However, when using N-terminal fragment of proBNP, this effect became nonsignificant (HR, 3.1; P = .06). In woman, a trend to moderation involving the hypertension factor and short sleep was found (HR, 4.6; P = .09). Short and long sleep duration may be seen as risk markers, particularly among older men with cardiovascular morbidity.

  8. Aerobic exercise improves self-reported sleep and quality of life in older adults with insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Kathryn J; Baron, Kelly Glazer; Lu, Brandon; Naylor, Erik; Wolfe, Lisa; Zee, Phyllis C

    2010-10-01

    To assess the efficacy of moderate aerobic physical activity with sleep hygiene education to improve sleep, mood and quality of life in older adults with chronic insomnia. Seventeen sedentary adults aged >or=55 years with insomnia (mean age 61.6 [SD±4.3] years; 16 female) participated in a randomized controlled trial comparing 16 weeks of aerobic physical activity plus sleep hygiene to non-physical activity plus sleep hygiene. Eligibility included primary insomnia for at least 3 months, habitual sleep duration 5. Outcomes included sleep quality, mood and quality of life questionnaires (PSQI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS], Short-form 36 [SF-36], Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale [CES-D]). The physical activity group improved in sleep quality on the global PSQI (pimprovements in vitality (p=.017) compared to baseline scores. Aerobic physical activity with sleep hygiene education is an effective treatment approach to improve sleep quality, mood and quality of life in older adults with chronic insomnia.

  9. Work-family conflict, psychological distress, and sleep deficiency among patient care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Henrik B; Reme, Silje Endresen; Sembajwe, Grace; Hopcia, Karen; Stoddard, Anne M; Kenwood, Christopher; Stiles, Tore C; Sorensen, Glorian; Buxton, Orfeu M

    2014-07-01

    This study examined whether work-family conflict was associated with sleep deficiencies, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. In this two-phase study, a workplace health survey was completed by a cohort of patient care workers (n = 1,572). Additional data were collected 2 years later from a subsample of the original respondents (n = 102). Self-reported measures included work-family conflict, workplace factors, and sleep outcomes. The participants were 90% women, with a mean age of 41 ± 11.7 years. At baseline, after adjusting for covariates, higher levels of work-family conflict were significantly associated with sleep deficiency. Higher levels of work-family conflict also predicted sleep insufficiency nearly 2 years later. The first study to determine the predictive association between work-family conflict and sleep deficiency suggests that future sleep interventions should include a specific focus on work-family conflict. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Sleep Stage Transition Dynamics Reveal Specific Stage 2 Vulnerability in Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yishul; Colombo, Michele A; Ramautar, Jennifer R; Blanken, Tessa F; van der Werf, Ysbrand D; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Feige, Bernd; Riemann, Dieter; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2017-09-01

    Objective sleep impairments in insomnia disorder (ID) are insufficiently understood. The present study evaluated whether whole-night sleep stage dynamics derived from polysomnography (PSG) differ between people with ID and matched controls and whether sleep stage dynamic features discriminate them better than conventional sleep parameters. Eighty-eight participants aged 21-70 years, including 46 with ID and 42 age- and sex-matched controls without sleep complaints, were recruited through www.sleepregistry.nl and completed two nights of laboratory PSG. Data of 100 people with ID and 100 age- and sex-matched controls from a previously reported study were used to validate the generalizability of findings. The second night was used to obtain, in addition to conventional sleep parameters, probabilities of transitions between stages and bout duration distributions of each stage. Group differences were evaluated with nonparametric tests. People with ID showed higher empirical probabilities to transition from stage N2 to the lighter sleep stage N1 or wakefulness and a faster decaying stage N2 bout survival function. The increased transition probability from stage N2 to stage N1 discriminated people with ID better than any of their deviations in conventional sleep parameters, including less total sleep time, less sleep efficiency, more stage N1, and more wake after sleep onset. Moreover, adding this transition probability significantly improved the discriminating power of a multiple logistic regression model based on conventional sleep parameters. Quantification of sleep stage dynamics revealed a particular vulnerability of stage N2 in insomnia. The feature characterizes insomnia better than-and independently of-any conventional sleep parameter. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Self-reported sleep disturbances due to railway noise: exposure-response relationships for nighttime equivalent and maximum noise levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Moum, Torbjorn; Engdahl, Bo

    2008-07-01

    The objective of the present survey was to study self-reported sleep disturbances due to railway noise with respect to nighttime equivalent noise level (L(p,A,eq,night)) and maximum noise level (L(p,A,max)). A sample of 1349 people in and around Oslo in Norway exposed to railway noise was studied in a cross-sectional survey to obtain data on sleep disturbances, sleep problems due to noise, and personal characteristics including noise sensitivity. Individual noise exposure levels were determined outside of the bedroom facade, the most-exposed facade, and inside the respondents' bedrooms. The exposure-response relationships were analyzed by using logistic regression models, controlling for possible modifying factors including the number of noise events (train pass-by frequency). L(p,A,eq,night) and L(p,A,max) were significantly correlated, and the proportion of reported noise-induced sleep problems increased as both L(p,A,eq,night) and L(p,A,max) increased. Noise sensitivity, type of bedroom window, and pass-by frequency were significant factors affecting noise-induced sleep disturbances, in addition to the noise exposure level. Because about half of the study population did not use a bedroom at the most-exposed side of the house, the exposure-response curve obtained by using noise levels for the most-exposed facade underestimated noise-induced sleep disturbance for those who actually have their bedroom at the most-exposed facade.

  12. Self-reported sleep and nap habits and risk of mortality in a large cohort of older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Katie L; Ewing, Susan K; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Ensrud, Kristine E; Redline, Susan; Bauer, Douglas C; Cauley, Jane A; Hillier, Teresa A; Cummings, Steven R

    2009-04-01

    To determine the association between self-reported sleep and nap habits and mortality in a large cohort of older women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures prospective cohort study. Four communities within the United States. Eight thousand one hundred one Caucasian women aged 69 and older (mean age 77.0). Sleep and nap habits were assessed using a questionnaire at the fourth clinic visit (1993/94). Deaths during 7 years of follow-up were confirmed with death certificates. Underlying cause of death was assigned according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. In multivariate models, women who reported napping daily were 44% more likely to die from any cause (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.23-1.67), 58% more likely to die from cardiovascular causes (95% CI=1.25-2.00), and 59% more likely to die from noncardiovascular noncancer causes (95% CI=1.24-2.03) than women who did not nap daily. This relationship remained significant in relatively healthy women (those who reported no comorbidities). Women who slept 9 to 10 hours per 24 hours were at greater risk of death from cardiovascular and other (noncardiovascular, noncancer) causes than those who reported sleeping 8 to 9 hours. Older women who reported napping daily or sleeping at least 9 hours per 24 hours are at greater risk of death from all causes except cancer. Future research could determine whether specific sleep disorders contribute to these relationships.

  13. One explanatory basis for the discrepancy of reported prevalences of sleep paralysis among healthy respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, K

    1993-12-01

    In a previous study, the author and coworkers found 39.8% of healthy young adults had experienced sleep paralysis. Some other studies reported prevalence as about the same or higher (i.e., 40.7% to 62.0%) than that previous estimate, while yet other studies, including Goode's work cited by ASDC and ASDA classifications, suggested much lower prevalences (i.e., 4.7% to 26.2%). The author tested the hypothesis that this discrepancy among the reported prevalences is partly due to the expression used in each questionnaire. University students who answered the questionnaire using the term 'transient paralysis' reported the lower prevalence (26.4%), while the second group of respondents who answered the questionnaire using the term kanashibari, the Japanese folklore expression for sleep paralysis, gave the higher prevalence (39.3%). The third group who answered the questionnaire with the term 'condition,' probably a rather neutral expression, marked the middle (31.0%) of these.

  14. Good and Bad Sleep in Childhood: A Questionnaire Survey amongst School Children in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficca, Gianluca; Conte, Francesca; De Padova, Vittoria; Zilli, Iole

    2011-01-01

    Despite its clinical importance, the issue of subjective sleep quality in children remains unexplored. Here we investigate, in school-aged children, the prevalence of bad sleep perception and its relationships with sleep habits and daytime functioning, to provide hints on its possible determinants. Subjective sleep perception, sleep habits, and daytime functioning were studied through a questionnaire survey in a sample of 482 children (6-12 yrs.). Being "bad sleeper" was reported by 6.9% of the sample. Compared to the "good sleepers", these subjects displayed shorter sleep duration on schooldays, longer sleep latencies, and a more pronounced evening preference, beyond more frequent insufficient sleep. Though no differences emerged in sleepiness, bad sleepers showed higher impairments in daytime functioning, indicated by more frequent depressed mood and impulsivity. These distinctive features might be very important to precociously detect those children who are possibly more vulnerable to sleep disturbances and whose sleep-wake rhythms evolution should be paid particular attention thereafter. "The good people sleep much better at night than the bad people.Of course, the bad people enjoy the waking hours much more"Woody Allen.

  15. Prevalence of sleep duration on an average school night among 4 nationally representative successive samples of American high school students, 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Charles E; Basch, Corey H; Ruggles, Kelly V; Rajan, Sonali

    2014-12-11

    Consistency, quality, and duration of sleep are important determinants of health. We describe sleep patterns among demographically defined subgroups from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System reported in 4 successive biennial representative samples of American high school students (2007 to 2013). Across the 4 waves of data collection, 6.2% to 7.7% of females and 8.0% to 9.4% of males reported obtaining 9 or more hours of sleep. Insufficient duration of sleep is pervasive among American high school students. Despite substantive public health implications, intervention research on this topic has received little attention.

  16. Parental professional help-seeking for infant sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pei-Wen; Wu, Wei-Wen; Tung, Yi-Ching; Thomas, Karen A; Tsai, Shao-Yu

    2017-12-01

    To explore the perceptions and experiences of parental professional help-seeking for infant sleep and sleep-related concerns. Infant sleep is a frequent concern for parents. However, very little is known about the reasons parents seek, do not seek or delay seeking professional attention about their concerns related to infant sleep. A qualitative study design was used. Twenty audio-taped interviews with parents of healthy 12-month-old infants were conducted at a university-affiliated hospital or parents' homes depending on where parents felt more comfortable discussing their personal views and medical help-seeking experiences. Thematic content analysis was performed to determine specific patterns and similarities within and between interview data. Three main themes developed from the interviews were as follows: (i) uncertainty about infant sleep; (ii) I can handle infant sleep; and (iii) I am not satisfied with the professional services provided for infant sleep. Overall, parents knew little about or misunderstood infant sleep behaviours. Lack of proper information and knowledge about infant sleep influenced parents' motivation for professional help-seeking and help-receiving. Parents who have consulted a healthcare professional but received unsatisfactory responses, such as an ambivalent attitude or insufficient assessment, reported being less motivated or unwilling to seek medical help again. Our study demonstrates the complexity of parental professional help-seeking and receiving for infant sleep. Findings suggest that parents perceive a wide range of barriers that influence the likelihood that they will seek professional advice for infant sleep. Reducing knowledge barriers and providing adequate attention at all well-infant visits would facilitate parental use of healthcare services to manage problematic infant sleep behaviours. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Retrospectively reported month-to-month variation in sleeping problems of people naturally exposed to high-amplitude annual variation in daylength and/or temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcady A. Putilov

    Full Text Available Compared to literature on seasonal variation in mood and well-being, reports on seasonality of trouble sleeping are scarce and contradictive. To extend geography of such reports on example of people naturally exposed to high-amplitude annual variation in daylength and/or temperature. Participants were the residents of Turkmenia, West Siberia, South and North Yakutia, Chukotka, and Alaska. Health and sleep-wake adaptabilities, month-to-month variation in sleeping problems, well-being and behaviors were self-assessed. More than a half of 2398 respondents acknowledged seasonality of sleeping problems. Four of the assessed sleeping problems demonstrated three different patterns of seasonal variation. Rate of the problems significantly increased in winter months with long nights and cold days (daytime sleepiness and difficulties falling and staying asleep as well as in summer months with either long days (premature awakening and difficulties falling and staying asleep or hot nights and days (all 4 sleeping problems. Individual differences between respondents in pattern and level of seasonality of sleeping problems were significantly associated with differences in several other domains of individual variation, such as gender, age, ethnicity, physical health, morning-evening preference, sleep quality, and adaptability of the sleep-wake cycle. These results have practical relevance to understanding of the roles playing by natural environmental factors in seasonality of sleeping problems as well as to research on prevalence of sleep disorders and methods of their prevention and treatment in regions with large seasonal differences in temperature and daylength.

  18. Self-reported sleep duration and weight-control strategies among U.S. high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Anne G; Perry, Geraldine S; Chapman, Daniel P; Croft, Janet B

    2013-08-01

    To determine if self-reported sleep duration was associated with weight-control behaviors among US high school students. National Youth Risk Behavior Survey. United States, 2007. US high school students (N = 12,087). Students were asked if they had engaged in several weight-control behaviors during the 30 days before the survey to lose or maintain weight. Self-reported sleep duration categories included very short (≤ 5 h), short (6 or 7 h), referent moderate (8 or 9 h), and long (≥ 10 h). Sex-specific logistic regression analyses with race/ethnicity, grade, and body mass index category as covariates were conducted using SUDAAN to account for complex study design. Approximately half the students reported short sleep duration (51.8% of males and 54.3% of females), whereas very short sleep durations were reported by another 14.8% of males and 16.9% of females. Among males, very short sleepers were significantly (P sleep duration was associated with dieting and three unhealthy weight-control behaviors in this population. If our findings are confirmed, intervention studies should be conducted to examine the effect of educational interventions.

  19. Obstructive sleep apnea alters sleep stage transition dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt T Bianchi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced characterization of sleep architecture, compared with routine polysomnographic metrics such as stage percentages and sleep efficiency, may improve the predictive phenotyping of fragmented sleep. One approach involves using stage transition analysis to characterize sleep continuity.We analyzed hypnograms from Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS participants using the following stage designations: wake after sleep onset (WASO, non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep, and REM sleep. We show that individual patient hypnograms contain insufficient number of bouts to adequately describe the transition kinetics, necessitating pooling of data. We compared a control group of individuals free of medications, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, medical co-morbidities, or sleepiness (n = 374 with mild (n = 496 or severe OSA (n = 338. WASO, REM sleep, and NREM sleep bout durations exhibited multi-exponential temporal dynamics. The presence of OSA accelerated the "decay" rate of NREM and REM sleep bouts, resulting in instability manifesting as shorter bouts and increased number of stage transitions. For WASO bouts, previously attributed to a power law process, a multi-exponential decay described the data well. Simulations demonstrated that a multi-exponential process can mimic a power law distribution.OSA alters sleep architecture dynamics by decreasing the temporal stability of NREM and REM sleep bouts. Multi-exponential fitting is superior to routine mono-exponential fitting, and may thus provide improved predictive metrics of sleep continuity. However, because a single night of sleep contains insufficient transitions to characterize these dynamics, extended monitoring of sleep, probably at home, would be necessary for individualized clinical application.

  20. Imaging and histopathological evaluation of a cystlike formation in subchondral insufficiency fracture of the femoral head: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Kiyokazu; Kaneuji, Ayumi; Fukushima, Mana; Matsumoto, Tadami

    2014-01-01

    In the majority of subchondral insufficiency fractures (SIFs) of the femoral head, T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging shows an irregular, serpiginous, low-intensity band that is convex to the articular surface. We report a case of a cystlike formation in SIF of the femoral head in an elderly woman. A 71-year-old woman reported right hip pain without any history of antecedent trauma. The initial radiograph showed a slight narrowing of the joint space in the right hip. The patient was treated with conservative therapy for 2 months. Radiographs obtained 3 months after the onset of pain showed non-progressive joint-space narrowing. T1-weighted magnetic resonance images obtained 2 months after pain onset revealed a round, cystlike, low-intensity area just beneath the articular cartilage. The patient underwent total hip arthroplasty. Histopathological examination showed fracture callus and granulation tissue in the subchondral area, surrounded by vascular-rich granulation tissue and fibrous tissue, which corresponded to the round, low-intensity band observed on the T1-weighted image. This case was a rare SIF of the femoral head which had a cystlike formation with a low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and a very high signal intensity on STIR sequences in the superolateral portion of the femoral head, surrounded by a pattern of edema in the bone marrow. To our knowledge, no similar cases were cited in the literature. It is important for surgeons to keep in mind that sometimes SIFs of the femoral head can appear as a round cystlike formation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Sleep Duration and Injury-Related Risk Behaviors Among High School Students--United States, 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Anne G; Olsen, Emily O'Malley; Miller, Gabrielle F; Croft, Janet B

    2016-04-08

    Insufficient sleep is common among high school students and has been associated with an increased risk for motor vehicle crashes (1), sports injuries (2), and occupational injuries (3). To evaluate the association between self-reported sleep duration on an average school night and several injury-related risk behaviors (infrequent bicycle helmet use, infrequent seatbelt use, riding with a driver who had been drinking, drinking and driving, and texting while driving) among U.S. high school students, CDC analyzed data from 50,370 high school students (grades 9-12) who participated in the national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBSs) in 2007, 2009, 2011, or 2013. The likelihood of each of the five risk behaviors was significantly higher for students who reported sleeping ≤7 hours on an average school night; infrequent seatbelt use, riding with a drinking driver, and drinking and driving were also more likely for students who reported sleeping ≥10 hours compared with 9 hours on an average school night. Although insufficient sleep directly contributes to injury risk, some of the increased risk associated with insufficient sleep might be caused by engaging in injury-related risk behaviors. Intervention efforts aimed at these behaviors might help reduce injuries resulting from sleepiness, as well as provide opportunities for increasing awareness of the importance of sleep.

  2. Agreement between two different approaches to assess parent-reported sleep bruxism in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Duarte

    Full Text Available Introduction: Parents' report is the most used method for the study of sleep bruxism (SB in children, especially in research with large samples. However, there is no consensus about the questions used to assess SB, what may difficult the comparisons between studies. Objective: The aim of this research was to evaluate the agreement between two different approaches to assess possible sleep bruxism (PSB in children using parents' report. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 201 parents/caregivers. Prior to the questionnaire completion, all participants received a standard explanation of SB concept. Subsequently, the parents/caregivers answered a general question (GQ and a frequency-time question (FTQ about SB, and the answers were compared. Results: The majority of the participants were the children's mothers (73% and the childrens mean age was 7.5 years (SD: 2.25. PSB frequency in children did not differ statistically through the two questions [GQ: 30.7% (CI95%: 24.2 - 37.1 and FTQ: 26.6% (CI95%: 20.4 - 32.8], and an almost perfect agreement was observed between the answers (kp=0.812. Nevertheless, the FTQ showed a more coherent relation with the factors already recognized as associated with childhood bruxism than GQ. Conclusions: Different approaches result in similar PSB frequency, however, they show different ability to identify PSB associated factors and suggest the need of questions including frequency and time in further studies.

  3. Sleep Talking (Somniloquy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radius (in miles): 10 25 50 Share: Essentials in Sleep Insomnia Overview & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis & Self Tests Treatment ... Sleep talking is very common. It is reported in 50% of young children. About 5% of adults are reported to talk in their sleep. It ...

  4. Short sleep as an environmental exposure: a preliminary study associating 5-HTTLPR genotype to self-reported sleep duration and depressed mood in first-year university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carskadon, Mary A; Sharkey, Katherine M; Knopik, Valerie S; McGeary, John E

    2012-06-01

    This study examined whether the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the SLC6A4 gene is associated with self-reported symptoms of depressed mood in first-year university students with a persistent pattern of short sleep. Students provided DNA samples and completed on-line sleep diaries and a mood scale during the first semester. A priori phenotypes for nocturnal sleep and mood scores were compared for the distribution of genotypes. Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. A sample of 135 first-year students, 54 male, 71 Caucasian, mean age 18.1 (± 0.5) yr. None. Students completed on-line sleep diaries daily across the first term (21-64 days; mean = 51 days ± 11) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) mood scale after 8 wk. DNA was genotyped for the triallelic 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. Low-expressing S and L(G)polymorphisms were designated S', and high-expressing L(A) was designated L'. Phenotype groups were identified from a combination of CES-D (median split: high > 12; low sleep time (TST) from diaries: (shorter ≤ 7 hr; longer ≥ 7.5 hr). Three genotypes were identified (S'S', S'L', L'L'); the S'S' genotype was present in a higher proportion of Asian than non-Asian students. FOUR PHENOTYPE GROUPS WERE COMPARED: 40 students with shorter TST/high CES-D; 34 with shorter TST/low CES-D; 29 with longer TST/high CES-D; 32 with longer TST/low CES-D. Female:male distribution did not vary across phenotype groups (chi-square = 1.39; df = 3; P = 0.71). S'S' participants (n = 23) were overrepresented in the shorter TST/high CES-D group (chi- square = 15.04; df = 6; P sleep and higher depressed mood are more likely than others to carry a variant of the SLC6A4 gene associated with low expression of the serotonin transporter.

  5. [Traumatic tricuspid insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayre, F; Richard, P; Ollivier, J P

    1996-04-01

    Traumatic tricuspid insufficiency is a rare condition. The diagnosis is difficult because of the slow progression of this pathology and the presence of more clinically acute lesions. Non-penetrating chest trauma is responsible for 90% of cases. Echocardiography is the investigation of choice for assessing the mechanism of the tricuspid regurgitation and for diagnosing associated lesions. It should be performed systematically in patients with multiple trauma. The surgical indications are difficult to determine and depend on the patients' symptoms and the type of anatomical lesions. It should be undertaken before right ventricular myocardial dysfunction. Several techniques may be used from valvuloplasty to valve replacement mainly with bioprostheses in symptomatic patients.

  6. Relationship between Job Stress and 5-HT2A Receptor Polymorphisms on Self-Reported Sleep Quality in Physicians in Urumqi (Xinjiang, China): A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoyan; Ge, Hua; Jiang, Yu; Lian, Yulong; Zhang, Chen; Liu, Jiwen

    2018-05-21

    The serotonin receptor (5-HTR) plays a key role in sleep quality regulation. Job-related stress is an important factor that influences sleep quality. However, few reports on the interaction between 5-HTR2A polymorphisms and job stress, and how they may impact upon sleep quality are available. Therefore this study investigated the effects of job stress, 5-HTR2A polymorphisms, and their interaction on sleep quality, in physicians. Using a two-stage stratified sampling method, 918 participants were initially invited to participate in the study. After screening for study inclusion and exclusion criteria, 504 subjects were eventually included in the study. Job stress and sleep quality were assessed using the Job Stress Survey (JSS) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), respectively. The 5-HTR2A receptor gene polymorphisms T102C and -1438G/A of were determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Job stress was significantly associated with sleep quality. High levels of job stress were linked to a higher risk of poor sleep quality compared to low or moderate levels [odds ratio (OR) = 2.909, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.697⁻4.986]. High levels of stress may reduce subjects’ sleep quality, leading to an increase the likelihood of sleep disturbances and subsequent daytime dysfunction. The 5-HTR2A receptor gene polymorphism T102C was not significantly associated with sleep quality in this study, however, the -1438G/A polymorphism was significantly associated with sleep quality. The GG genotype of the -1438G/A polymorphism was linked to poorer sleep quality. When compared with subjects with low job-related stress levels×AG/AA genotype (OR = 2.106, 95% CI: 1.278⁻3.471), physicians with high job-related stress levels×GG genotype had a higher risk of experiencing poor sleep quality (OR = 13.400, 95% CI: 3.143⁻57.137). The findings of our study indicate that job stress and 5-HTR2A receptor gene polymorphisms are associated

  7. Need for recovery from work and sleep-related complaints among nursing professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Costa, Aline; Griep, Rosane Harter; Fischer, Frida Marina; Rotenberg, Lúcia

    2012-01-01

    The concept of need for recovery from work (NFR) was deduced from the effort recuperation model. In this model work produces costs in terms of effort during the working day. When there is enough time and possibilities to recuperate, a worker will arrive at the next working day with no residual symptoms of previous effort. NFR evaluates work characteristics such as psychosocial demands, professional work hours or schedules. However, sleep may be an important part of the recovery process. The aim of the study was to test the association between sleep-related complaints and NFR. A cross-sectional study was carried out at three hospitals. All females nursing professionals engaged in assistance to patients were invited to participate (N = 1,307). Participants answered a questionnaire that included four sleep-related complaints (insomnia, unsatisfactory sleep, sleepiness during work hours and insufficient sleep), work characteristics and NRF scale. Binomial logistic regression analysis showed that all sleep-related complaints are associated with a high need for recovery from work. Those who reported insufficient sleep showed a greater chance of high need for recovery; OR=2.730 (CI 95% 2.074 - 3.593). These results corroborate the hypothesis that sleep is an important aspect of the recovery process and, therefore, should be thoroughly investigated.

  8. Poor self-reported sleep quality and health-related quality of life in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Marrero, Jesús; Zaragozá, Maria C; González-Garcia, Sergio; Aliste, Luisa; Sáez-Francàs, Naia; Romero, Odile; Ferré, Alex; Fernández de Sevilla, Tomás; Alegre, José

    2018-05-16

    Non-restorative sleep is a hallmark symptom of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis. However, little is known about self-reported sleep disturbances in these subjects. This study aimed to assess the self-reported sleep quality and its impact on quality of life in a Spanish community-based chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis cohort. A prospective cross-sectional cohort study was conducted in 1,455 Spanish chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis patients. Sleep quality, fatigue, pain, functional capacity impairment, psychopathological status, anxiety/depression and health-related quality of life were assessed using validated subjective measures. The frequencies of muscular, cognitive, neurological, autonomic and immunological symptom clusters were above 80%. High scores were recorded for pain, fatigue, psychopathological status, anxiety/depression, and low scores for functional capacity and quality of life, all of which correlated significantly (all p quality of sleep as measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Multivariate regression analysis showed that after adjusting for age and gender, the pain intensity (odds ratio, 1.11; p quality of life (odds ratio, 0.96; both p quality. These findings suggest that this large chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis sample presents poor sleep quality, as assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and that this poor sleep quality is associated with many aspects of quality of life. © 2018 European Sleep Research Society.

  9. Prenatal Care: Medicaid Recipients and Uninsured Women Obtain Insufficient Care. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Human Resources and Intergovernmental Relations, Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    Women who had no health insurance or who were enrolled in Medicaid were interviewed to determine the extent of their prenatal care. Those most likely to obtain insufficient care were the women who were uninsured, poorly educated, Black or Hispanic, or teenagers from large urban areas. Barriers to earlier or more frequent prenatal care were the…

  10. Management of pregnancy in pancreas alone transplant recipient complicated with stage-4 chronic renal insufficiency and superimposed pre-eclampsia: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Shih Lee

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: Child-bearing in solid organ transplantation recipients has become more promising nowadays, even for a difficult case of pancreas-alone transplant recipient complicated with chronic renal insufficiency and superimposed pre-eclampsia. Thorough antepartum counseling and cautious monitoring of maternal, fetal and graft conditions by multidisciplinary specialties are key to favorable pregnancy outcomes.

  11. Digital Media and Sleep in Childhood and Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBourgeois, Monique K; Hale, Lauren; Chang, Anne-Marie; Akacem, Lameese D; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E; Buxton, Orfeu M

    2017-11-01

    Given the pervasive use of screen-based media and the high prevalence of insufficient sleep among American youth and teenagers, this brief report summarizes the literature on electronic media and sleep and provides research recommendations. Recent systematic reviews of the literature reveal that the vast majority of studies find an adverse association between screen-based media consumption and sleep health, primarily via delayed bedtimes and reduced total sleep duration. The underlying mechanisms of these associations likely include the following: (1) time displacement (ie, time spent on screens replaces time spent sleeping and other activities); (2) psychological stimulation based on media content; and (3) the effects of light emitted from devices on circadian timing, sleep physiology, and alertness. Much of our current understanding of these processes, however, is limited by cross-sectional, observational, and self-reported data. Further experimental and observational research is needed to elucidate how the digital revolution is altering sleep and circadian rhythms across development (infancy to adulthood) as pathways to poor health, learning, and safety outcomes (eg, obesity, depression, risk-taking). Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Sleep deprivation impairs cAMP signalling in the hippocampus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecsey, Christopher G; Baillie, George S; Jaganath, Devan; Havekes, Robbert; Daniels, Andrew; Wimmer, Mathieu; Huang, Ted; Brown, Kim M; Li, Xiang-Yao; Descalzi, Giannina; Kim, Susan S; Chen, Tao; Shang, Yu-Ze; Zhuo, Min; Houslay, Miles D; Abel, Ted

    2009-01-01

    Millions of people regularly obtain insufficient sleep. Given the effect of sleep deprivation on our lives, understanding the cellular and molecular pathways affected by sleep deprivation is clearly of social and clinical importance. One of the major effects of sleep deprivation on the brain is to

  13. Hypnotic Relaxation and Yoga to Improve Sleep and School Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfect, Michelle M.; Smith, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Sleep insufficiency, defined as inadequate sleep duration, poor sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness, has been linked with students' learning and behavioral outcomes at school. However, there is limited research on interventions designed to improve the sleep of school-age children. In order to promote more interest on this critical topic, we…

  14. The relationship between sleep habits and academic performance in dental students in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valic, M; Pecotic, R; Lusic, L; Peros, K; Pribudic, Z; Dogas, Z

    2014-11-01

    It is well accepted that sleep and lifestyle habits affect academic success in students. However, sleep patterns and sleep problems amongst dental students have been insufficiently addressed in the literature. The purpose of this study was to evaluate sleep habits of dental students and the relationship between sleep habits and academic performance. A self-administered questionnaire on sleep habits, academic performance and lifestyle was administered. The participants were 447 dental students from Split University Dental Medicine School and Zagreb University Dental Medicine School from the six academic years. The subjects were classified into two groups based on academic success (high-performing vs. low-performing students) for comparison of sleep and lifestyle habits. Amongst the whole group of students, average bedtime and wake time during weekday was significantly earlier compared with weekend. Main findings indicate that students with high academic performance had earlier bedtimes during weekdays and weekends, earlier wake times during weekends and shorter sleep latency compared with low academic performing students. Self-reported academic performance of dental students in Croatia is associated with timing of sleep and wakefulness, rather than with total sleep time duration. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Good and Bad Sleep in Childhood: A Questionnaire Survey amongst School Children in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Ficca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its clinical importance, the issue of subjective sleep quality in children remains unexplored. Here we investigate, in school-aged children, the prevalence of bad sleep perception and its relationships with sleep habits and daytime functioning, to provide hints on its possible determinants. Subjective sleep perception, sleep habits, and daytime functioning were studied through a questionnaire survey in a sample of 482 children (6–12 yrs.. Being “bad sleeper” was reported by 6.9% of the sample. Compared to the “good sleepers”, these subjects displayed shorter sleep duration on schooldays, longer sleep latencies, and a more pronounced evening preference, beyond more frequent insufficient sleep. Though no differences emerged in sleepiness, bad sleepers showed higher impairments in daytime functioning, indicated by more frequent depressed mood and impulsivity. These distinctive features might be very important to precociously detect those children who are possibly more vulnerable to sleep disturbances and whose sleep-wake rhythms evolution should be paid particular attention thereafter.

  16. Fatigue and insufficiency fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodwick, G.S.; Rosenthal, D.I.; Kattapuram, S.V.; Hudson, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    The incidence of stress fracture is increasing. In our younger society this is due largely to a preocupation with physical conditioning, but in our elderly population it is due to improved recognition and better methods of detection and diagnosis. Stress fracture of the elderly is an insufficiency fracture which occurs in the spine, the pelvis, the sacrum and other bones afflicted with disorders which cause osteopenia. Stress fracture is frequently misdiagnosed as a malignant lesion of bone resulting in biopsy. Scintiscanning provides the greatest frequency of detection, while computed tomography often provides the definitive diagnosis. With increased interest and experience a better insight into the disease has been achieved, and what was once thought of as a simple manifestation of mechanical stress is now known to be an orderly, complex pattern of physiological changes in bone which conform to a model by Frost. The diffuse nature of these changes can be recognized by scintigraphy, radiography and magnetic resonance imaging. 27 refs.; 8 figs

  17. High-Flow Nasal Oxygen in Patient With Obstructive Sleep Apnea Undergoing Awake Craniotomy: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jaclyn W M; Kong, Amy H S; Lam, Sau Yee; Woo, Peter Y M

    2017-12-15

    Patients with obstructive sleep apnea are frequently considered unsuitable candidates for awake craniotomy due to anticipated problems with oxygenation, ventilation, and a potentially difficult airway. At present, only a handful of such accounts exist in the literature. Our report describes the novel use of high-flow nasal oxygen therapy for a patient with moderate obstructive sleep apnea who underwent an awake craniotomy under deep sedation. The intraoperative application of high-flow nasal oxygen therapy achieved satisfactory oxygenation, maintained the partial carbon dioxide pressure within a reasonable range even during periods of deep sedation, permitted responsive patient monitoring during mapping, and provided excellent patient and surgeon satisfaction.

  18. Infant sleep problems: The sleep characteristics of the "Don't Know" response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shao-Yu; Lee, Chien-Chang; Chen, Li-Chiou; Tung, Yi-Ching

    2018-01-01

    To examine the sleep characteristics of infants with parentally reported sleep problems, with parentally reported no sleep problems and with parentally reported uncertain sleep conditions. Infant sleep problems are recognized as a major health issue worldwide. However, in our daily clinical practices, it is not uncommon for parents not to know whether their infant sleep is problematic. A prospective study conducted between 2012 - 2015 where 219 parents completed questionnaires and infants wore an actigraph monitor for 7 days. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to evaluate the actigraphic and parentally reported infant sleep behaviours between the groups. Thirty-two (14.61%) parents did not know whether their infant sleep was problematic and 118 (53.88%) parents considered their infant sleep a problem. Compared with infants without sleep problems, infants with uncertain sleep conditions had significantly increased odds of having shortened longest sleep duration according to parental report. A significant association was found for infants without sleep problems compared with those with sleep problems who had significantly more wake after sleep onset as measured by actigraphy, as well as reduced longest sleep duration according to parental report. Infants with uncertain sleep conditions have the same problematic sleep behaviours resembling those of children with reported sleep problems. Healthcare professionals should actively disseminate sleep knowledge to help parents interpret infant sleep behaviours and consider possible intervention strategies for improving parental sleep-related knowledge and infant sleep. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Self-Reported Napping Behavior Change After Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Treatment in Older Adults with Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Cheng-Fang; Riha, Renata L; Morrison, Ian; Hsu, Chung-Yao

    2016-08-01

    To assess the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on napping behavior in adults aged 60 and older with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Retrospective cohort study using questionnaires. Sleep center. Individuals starting CPAP treatment between April 2010 and March 2012 (mean age 65.2 ± 4.7; M:F = 3.9:1; N = 107). All subjects underwent sleep studies, clinical reviews, and CPAP adherence checks and completed a questionnaire regarding CPAP adherence, current employment status, sleep patterns before and after CPAP, and factors affecting their current sleep patterns. CPAP treatment duration was 82.7 ± 30.0 weeks, and objective adherence was 5.4 ± 2.0 hours per night overall. Daytime nap frequency before CPAP treatment was higher in those with a history of stroke or cardiovascular disease. Both sexes had a significant reduction in daytime napping (men, P napping (men, P nap duration (men, P nap duration was associated with younger age (odds ratio (OR) = 0.86, P = .04), a decrease in ESS score (OR = 1.20, P = .03), and longer self-reported daily nap duration at baseline (OR = 31.52, P nap frequency and daily nap duration. Aging or shorter baseline daily nap duration may attenuate this effect. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  20. The relationship between planned and reported home infant sleep locations among mothers of late preterm and term infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Kristin P; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Brandon, Debra

    2015-07-01

    To compare maternal report of planned and practiced home sleep locations of infants born late preterm (34 0/7 to 36 6/7 gestational weeks) with those infants born term (≥37 0/7 gestational weeks) over the first postpartum month. Open-ended semi-structured maternal interviews were conducted in a US hospital following birth and by phone at 1 month postpartum during 2010-2012. Participants were 56 mother-infant dyads: 26 late preterm and 30 term. Most women planned to room share at home with their infants and reported doing so for some or all of the first postpartum month. More women reported bed sharing during the first postpartum month than had planned to do so in both the late preterm and term groups. The primary reason for unplanned bed sharing was to soothe nighttime infant fussiness. Those participants who avoided bed sharing at home commonly discussed their fear for infant safety. A few parents reported their infants were sleeping propped on pillows and co-sleeping on a recliner. Some women in both the late preterm and term groups reported lack of opportunity to obtain a bassinet prior to childbirth. The discrepancy between plans for infant sleep location at home and maternally reported practices were similar in late preterm and term groups. Close maternal proximity to their infants at night was derived from the need to assess infant well-being, caring for infants, and women's preferences. Bed sharing concerns related to infant safety and the establishment of an undesirable habit, and alternative arrangements included shared recliner sleep.

  1. "Is there an Association Between Self-Reported Sleep Duration, Body Mass Index and Waist-Hip Ratio in Young Adults? A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, M Ganesh; Prakash, Jay; Dash, Sambit; Chowdhury, Sudipta; Ahmed, Zuhilmi Bin; Yusof, Muhammad Zaim Zharif Bin Mohd

    2014-09-01

    Sleep is vital for mental and physical health of an individual. Duration of sleep influences the metabolism and regulates body weight. To assess the cross-sectional association of sleep duration with body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio in Malaysian students. Eighty-nine Malaysian students of both genders, and with a mean (standard deviation) age of 21.2 (0.9) years were included. Institutional Ethics Committee clearance was obtained prior to the start of study. The subjects were interviewed regarding the average hours of sleep/day, their self-reported sleep duration was categorized as 7hour/day. Their height (in meters), weight (in kilograms), waist and hip circumference (in centimetre) were measured. BMI and waist-hip ratio were calculated using appropriate formulas and expressed as mean (standard deviation). The duration of sleep was compared with BMI and waist-hip ratio using one way ANOVA. No statistical significance was observed when sleep duration was associated with BMI (p=0.65) and waist-hip ratio (p=0.95). Duration of sleep did not affect BMI and waist hip ratio in the Malaysian students in our study. The age and healthy lifestyle of the subjects in this study may have been a reason for no significant influence of short sleep duration on the BMI and waist-hip ratio. No association was found between sleep duration with BMI and waist hip ratio in the Malaysian students.

  2. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome in a patient with retrosternal goiter: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevketbeyoglu, H.; Kara, K.; Ince, M.; Karaagac, H.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with a large number of predisposing factors (obesity, nasal obstruction, adenoid hypertrophy, macroglossia etc.). In addition to these factors goiter and hypothyroidism have been reported to be associated with OSAS. Objectives and tasks: In our case with retrosternal goiter, values of OSAS before and after thyroidectomy were shown. Materials and methods: Seventy-two years old, BMI: 26,8 kg/m 2 , female patient was admitted our hospital because of complaints to stop breathing during sleep, snoring, morning headache and daytime drowsiness. Results: Thorax CT and ultrasonography of thyroid shown retrosternal goiter and left tracheal deviation. Severe OSAS was diagnosed by polysomnography (PSG). Thyroid function tests were normal. Apneahypopnea index (AHI) was 63,1/h. Patients was performed 7 cm H 2 O nasal continuous positive airway pressure (gvrnCPAP). AHI was 11,4/h under nCPAP. One month after OSAS diagnosis the patient underwent thyroidectomy operation. Pathological examination was reported as multinodular GOITER. In postoperative period CPAP treatment couldn't continue, because patient was not compliant. In postoperative 8-th weeks, PSG was performed; AHI was 34,8/h. The patient's weight and BMI didn't change. Conclusion: In our case, despite absence of continued CPAP treatment after thyroidectomy, symptoms and PSG values improved partially. As a result of these findings, especially, compression of upper airway and deterioration of venous circulation of patients with large goiter may lead to an increase in OSAS symptoms. During patients with OSAS are treated with CPAP, goiter needs to be investigated

  3. The Chronic Sleep Reduction Questionnaire (CSRQ): a cross-cultural comparison and validation in Dutch and Australian adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewald, Julia F.; Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Oort, Frans J.; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2012-01-01

    Although adolescents often experience insufficient and/or poor sleep, sleep variables such as total sleep time do not account for individuals' sleep need and sleep debt and may therefore be an inadequate representation of adolescents' sleep problems and its daytime consequences. This problem can be

  4. The Chronic Sleep Reduction Questionnaire (CSRQ): a cross-cultural comparison and validation in Dutch and Australian adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewald, J.F.; Short, M.A.; Gradisar, M.; Oort, F.J.; Meijer, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Although adolescents often experience insufficient and/or poor sleep, sleep variables such as total sleep time do not account for individuals’ sleep need and sleep debt and may therefore be an inadequate representation of adolescents’ sleep problems and its daytime consequences. This problem can be

  5. Parent reported sleep problems in preschool children with sickle cell anemia and controls in East London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Michelle; de Haan, Michelle; Kirkham, Fenella J; Telfer, Paul T

    2017-06-01

    Snoring and poor sleep may affect cognition, particularly in young children with chronic conditions. Parents of London preschoolers with sickle cell anemia (SCA; n = 22), matched controls (n = 24), and unselected typically developing (n = 142) preschoolers completed sleep questionnaires. Preschoolers with SCA had significantly more sleep problems when compared to matched controls and the larger population. Snoring occurred at least one to two nights a week for 79% of the SCA group. This is compared with 25% of matched controls and 33% of larger population. Randomized controlled trials to improve sleep in young children with SCA already at-risk for cognitive dysfunction should be considered. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A new type of defecation disorder due to insufficient fixation of the rectum to the sacrum is improved by rectopexy: A report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Sumida

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic constipation is the most common clinical disorder in children. However, some cases of constipation do not meet the criteria defined by Rome III. We encountered such defecation disorders in three patients who presented with constipation as a chief complaint along with excessive strain and bleeding hemorrhoids during defecation despite normal stools. Contrast enema revealed that the rectum was separated from the sacrum in each patient, which may have been caused by insufficient fixation of the rectum. Conservative treatment with laxatives and suppositories failed to achieve improvement. Therefore, all underwent a laparoscopic rectopexy. After surgery, each patient was able to evacuate without strain and the hemorrhoids disappeared. Insufficient fixation of the rectum should be considered as a potential cause of defecation disorders. Rectopexy is effective for this type of defecation disorder.

  7. A cohort study on self-reported role stressors at work and poor sleep: does sense of coherence moderate or mediate the associations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Rugulies, Reiner; Conway, Paul Maurice; Garde, Anne Helene; Török, Eszter; Mikkelsen, Eva Gemzøe; Persson, Roger; Hogh, Annie

    2018-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the bidirectional associations between subjective role ambiguity and role conflicts at work, respectively, and self-reported sleep 2 years later. In addition, we also examine whether sense of coherence (SOC) moderate or mediate the association between role stressors and poor sleep and between poor sleep and role stressors. We used questionnaire data collected in 2006 and 2008 from the Workplace Bullying and Harassment cohort. In 2006, 3363 responded to the questionnaire and in 2008 1671 responded. In total, 1569 participants responded in both 2006 and 2008 to the questions on role stressors (in terms of role ambiguity and role conflicts at work) and sleep problems in both 2006 and 2008. Sleep problems were assessed with the awakening index (AWI) and the disturbed sleep index (DSI). Moderation and mediation analyses of the association were estimated using structural equation modelling. We found a prospective association between role stressors and sleep problems [beta values were 0.07 (95% CI 0.03-0.11) and 0.05 (CI 0.01-0.10) for DSI and AWI, respectively] when adjusting for sleep problems at baseline, age, sex, and life style factors (i.e. alcohol, smoking, and leisure time physical activity). SOC moderated the association showing that participants with lower SOC scores who reported higher role ambiguity reported sleep problems to a higher extent than participants with high SOC scores. SOC also mediated the association between role stressors and sleep problems. We also found support for sleep problems at baseline and role stressors 2 years later [DSI 0.04 (CI 0.00-0.08) and 0.15 (CI 0.09-0.21)] for role ambiguity and role conflicts, respectively. Similar results were observed for AWI. Subjective role stressors were prospectively associated with sleep problems. Yet, sleep problems could also prospectively predict subjective role stressors (i.e. reverse causation). The analyses also showed that SOC may be regarded as both

  8. Adolescents' sleep behaviors and perceptions of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Heather; Price, James H; Dake, Joseph; Telljohann, Susan K

    2009-05-01

    Sleep duration affects the health of children and adolescents. Shorter sleep durations have been associated with poorer academic performance, unintentional injuries, and obesity in adolescents. This study extends our understanding of how adolescents perceive and deal with their sleep issues. General education classes were randomly selected from a convenience sample of three high schools in the Midwest. Three hundred eighty-four ninth- to twelfth-grade students (57%) completed a self-administered valid and reliable questionnaire on sleep behaviors and perceptions of sleep. Most respondents (91.9%) obtained inadequate sleep (sleep each week night. The majority indicated that not getting enough sleep had the following effects on them: being more tired during the day (93.7%), having difficulty paying attention (83.6%), lower grades (60.8%), increase in stress (59.0%), and having difficulty getting along with others (57.7%). Some students reported engaging in harmful behaviors to help them sleep: taking sleeping pills (6.0%), smoking a cigarette to relax (5.7%), and drinking alcohol in the evening (2.9%). Students who received fewer hours of sleep were significantly more likely to report being stressed (p = .02) and were more likely to be overweight (p = .04). Inadequate sleep time may be contributing to adolescent health problems such as increased stress and obesity. Findings indicate a need for sleep hygiene education for adolescents and their parents. A long-term solution to chronic sleep deprivation among high school students could include delaying high school start times, such as was done successfully in the Minneapolis Public School District.

  9. A work-life perspective on sleep and fatigue—looking beyond shift workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    SKINNER, Natalie; DORRIAN, Jill

    2015-01-01

    This study examines sleep and fatigue through a work-life lens. Whilst most often thought of as an issue for shift workers, this study observed that self-reported insufficient sleep and fatigue were prevalent for workers on standard daytime schedules. Using a representative sample of 573 daytime workers (51.3% men; 70.7% aged 25−54 yr) from one Australian state, it was observed that 26.4% of daytime workers never or rarely get the seven hours of sleep a night that is recommended for good health. Those with parenting responsibilites (29.4%) or working long (45+) hours (37.4%) were most likely to report insufficient sleep. Whereas mothers in full-time work were most likely to report frequent fatigue (42.5%). This study highlights the common experience of insufficient sleep and fatigue in a daytime workforce, with significant implications for health and safety at work and outside of work. Stronger and more effective legislation addressing safe and ‘decent’ working time is clearly needed, along with greater awareness and acceptance within workplace cultures of the need to support reasonable workloads and working hours. PMID:26027709

  10. Prevalence of Healthy Sleep Duration among Adults--United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Wheaton, Anne G; Chapman, Daniel P; Cunningham, Timothy J; Lu, Hua; Croft, Janet B

    2016-02-19

    To promote optimal health and well-being, adults aged 18-60 years are recommended to sleep at least 7 hours each night (1). Sleeping disease, stroke, frequent mental distress, and all-cause mortality (2-4). Insufficient sleep impairs cognitive performance, which can increase the likelihood of motor vehicle and other transportation accidents, industrial accidents, medical errors, and loss of work productivity that could affect the wider community (5). CDC analyzed data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to determine the prevalence of a healthy sleep duration (≥ 7 hours) among 444,306 adult respondents in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. A total of 65.2% of respondents reported a healthy sleep duration; the age-adjusted prevalence of healthy sleep was lower among non-Hispanic blacks, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and multiracial respondents, compared with non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, and Asians. State-based estimates of healthy sleep duration prevalence ranged from 56.1% in Hawaii to 71.6% in South Dakota. Geographic clustering of the lowest prevalence of healthy sleep duration was observed in the southeastern United States and in states along the Appalachian Mountains, and the highest prevalence was observed in the Great Plains states. More than one third of U.S. respondents reported typically sleeping sleep health; worksite shift policies that ensure healthy sleep duration for shift workers, particularly medical professionals, emergency response personnel, and transportation industry personnel; and opportunities for health care providers to discuss the importance of healthy sleep duration with patients and address reasons for poor sleep health.

  11. Sleep Restriction Enhances the Daily Rhythm of Circulating Levels of Endocannabinoid 2-Arachidonoylglycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Erin C; Tasali, Esra; Leproult, Rachel; Stuhr, Kara L; Doncheck, Elizabeth; de Wit, Harriet; Hillard, Cecilia J; Van Cauter, Eve

    2016-03-01

    Increasing evidence from laboratory and epidemiologic studies indicates that insufficient sleep may be a risk factor for obesity. Sleep curtailment results in stimulation of hunger and food intake that exceeds the energy cost of extended wakefulness, suggesting the involvement of reward mechanisms. The current study tested the hypothesis that sleep restriction is associated with activation of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system, a key component of hedonic pathways involved in modulating appetite and food intake. In a randomized crossover study comparing 4 nights of normal (8.5 h) versus restricted sleep (4.5 h) in healthy young adults, we examined the 24-h profiles of circulating concentrations of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and its structural analog 2-oleoylglycerol (2-OG). We concomitantly assessed hunger, appetite, and food intake under controlled conditions. A robust daily variation of 2-AG concentrations with a nadir around the middle of the sleep/overnight fast, followed by a continuous increase culminating in the early afternoon, was evident under both sleep conditions but sleep restriction resulted in an amplification of this rhythm with delayed and extended maximum values. Concentrations of 2-OG followed a similar pattern, but with a lesser amplitude. When sleep deprived, participants reported increases in hunger and appetite concomitant with the afternoon elevation of 2-AG concentrations, and were less able to inhibit intake of palatable snacks. Our findings suggest that activation of the eCB system may be involved in excessive food intake in a state of sleep debt and contribute to the increased risk of obesity associated with insufficient sleep. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 495. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  12. Naturally occurring circadian rhythm and sleep duration are related to executive functions in early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuula, Liisa; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Heinonen, Kati; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan Gunnar; Andersson, Sture; Lano, Aulikki; Lahti, Jari; Wolke, Dieter; Räikkönen, Katri

    2018-02-01

    Experimental sleep deprivation studies suggest that insufficient sleep and circadian misalignment associates with poorer executive function. It is not known whether this association translates to naturally occurring sleep patterns. A total of 512 of full-term-born members of the Arvo Ylppö Longitudinal Study [mean age = 25.3, standard deviation (SD) = 0.65] (44.3% men) wore actigraphs to define sleep duration, its irregularity and circadian rhythm (sleep mid-point) during a 1-week period (mean 6.9 nights, SD = 1.7). Performance-based executive function was assessed with the Trail-Making Test, Conners' Continuous Performance Test and Stroop. The self-rated adult version of Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function was used to assess trait-like executive function. We found that performance-based and self-reported trait-like executive function correlated only modestly (all correlations ≤0.17). Shorter sleep duration associated with more commission errors. Later circadian rhythm associated with poorer trait-like executive function, as indicated by the Brief Metacognitive Index and the Behavior Regulation Index. Those belonging to the group with the most irregular sleep duration performed slower than others in the Trail-Making Test Part A. All associations were adjusted for sex, age, socioeconomic status and body mass index. In conclusion, naturally occurring insufficient sleep and later circadian rhythm showed modest associations with poorer executive function. Shorter habitual sleep duration was associated with lower scores of performance-based tests of executive function, and later circadian rhythm was associated mainly with poorer trait-like executive function characteristics. Our findings suggest additionally that sleep duration and circadian rhythm associate with different domains of executive function, and there are no additive effects between the two. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  13. Sleepless in Fairfax: the difference one more hour of sleep can make for teen hopelessness, suicidal ideation, and substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsler, Adam; Deutsch, Aaron; Vorona, Robert Daniel; Payne, Phyllis Abramczyk; Szklo-Coxe, Mariana

    2015-02-01

    Insufficient sleep is a risk factor for depression, suicidality, and substance use, yet little is known about gender, ethnic, and community-level differences in sleep and its associated outcomes, especially during adolescence. Further, much of the prior work has compared groups of teens getting plenty as opposed to insufficient amounts of sleep rather than examine sleep hours continuously. The present study examined adolescent weekday self-reported sleep duration and its links with hopelessness, suicidality, and substance use in a suburban community with very early high school start times. We utilized a large (N = 27,939, 51.2% female) and ethnically diverse sample of adolescents from the 2009 Fairfax County (Virginia) Youth Survey, an anonymous, self-report, population-level survey administered to all 8th, 10th and 12th grade students in public schools in the county. High-school students reported an average 6.5 h of sleep per school night, with 20% obtaining ≤5 h, and only 3% reporting the recommended 9 h/night. Females and minority youth obtained even less sleep on average, and the reduction in sleep in the transition from middle school to high school was more pronounced for females and for Asian students. Hierarchical, multivariate, logistic regression analyses, controlling for background variables, indicated that just 1 h less of weekday sleep was associated with significantly greater odds of feeling hopeless, seriously considering suicide, suicide attempts, and substance use. Relationships between sleep duration and suicidality were stronger for male teens, and sleep duration was more associated with hopelessness for white students compared to most ethnic minority groups. Implications for intervention at multiple levels are discussed.

  14. Systematic literature review of patient-reported outcome measures used in assessment and measurement of sleep disorders in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrow, Adam P; Yorke, Janelle; Khan, Naimat; Vestbo, Jørgen; Singh, Dave; Tyson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Sleep problems are common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but the validity of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) that measure sleep dysfunction has not been evaluated. We have reviewed the literature to identify disease-specific and non-disease-specific sleep PROMs that have been validated for use in COPD patients. The review also examined the psychometric properties of identified sleep outcome measures and extracted point and variability estimates of sleep instruments used in COPD studies. The online EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS databases for all years to May 2014 were used to source articles for the review. The review was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Criteria from the Medical Outcomes Trust Scientific Advisory Committee guidelines were used to evaluate the psychometric properties of all sleep PROMs identified. One COPD-specific and six non-COPD-specific sleep outcome measures were identified and 44 papers met the review selection criteria. We only identified one instrument, the COPD and Asthma Sleep Impact Scale, which was developed specifically for use in COPD populations. Ninety percent of the identified studies used one of two non-disease-specific sleep scales, ie, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and/or the Epworth Sleep Scale, although neither has been tested for reliability or validity in people with COPD. The results highlight a need for existing non-disease-specific instruments to be validated in COPD populations and also a need for new disease-specific measures to assess the impact of sleep problems in COPD.

  15. Parent-Reported Psychological and Sleep Problems in a Preschool-Aged Community Sample: Prevalence of Sleep Problems in Children with and without Emotional/Behavioural Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Salater, Julie; Røhr, Marthe

    2010-01-01

    Objective : To examine (a) the prevalence of sleep problems among 4-year-olds in the general population, (b) the prevalence of sleep problems among children with emotional and/or behavioural problems, and (c) whether specific sleep problems are associated with particular emotional/behavioural problems. Method: Using The Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA) , data about sleep and emotional/behavioural problems was obtained from 727 parents of 4-year-olds, recruited for a large...

  16. Associations of sleep disturbance with ADHD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvolby, A.

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly associated with disordered or disturbed sleep. The relationships of ADHD with sleep problems, psychiatric comorbidities and medications are complex and multidirectional. Evidence from published studies comparing sleep in individuals......, difficulty with morning awakenings, sleep onset difficulties, sleep-disordered breathing, night awakenings and daytime sleepiness in subjective studies. ADHD is also frequently coincident with sleep disorders (obstructive sleep apnea, peripheral limb movement disorder, restless legs syndrome and circadian......-rhythm sleep disorders). Psychostimulant medications are associated with disrupted or disturbed sleep, but also 'paradoxically' calm some patients with ADHD for sleep by alleviating their symptoms. Long-acting formulations may have insufficient duration of action, leading to symptom rebound at bedtime. Current...

  17. Economic implications of sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaer, Tracy L; Sclar, David A

    2010-01-01

    Sleep disorders such as insomnia, obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and fatigue, sleep deprivation and restless legs syndrome (RLS) are increasingly seen in clinical practice. Sleep is considered vital for preserving daytime cognitive function and physiological well-being. Sleep insufficiency may have deleterious effects on work-life balance, overall health and safety. The consequential economic burden at both the individual and societal levels is significant. Moreover, sleep disorders are commonly associated with other major medical problems such as chronic pain, cardiovascular disease, mental illness, dementias, gastrointestinal disorders and diabetes mellitus. Thus, in order to properly care for patients presenting with sleep-related morbidity, and to reduce the consequential economic burden, accurate screening efforts and efficacious/cost-effective treatments need to be developed and employed.

  18. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI Correlates of Self-Reported Sleep Quality and Depression Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C. Raikes

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs are a significant social, sport, and military health issue. In spite of advances in the clinical management of these injuries, the underlying pathophysiology is not well-understood. There is a critical need to advance objective biomarkers, allowing the identification and tracking of the long-term evolution of changes resulting from mTBI. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI allows for the assessment of white-matter properties in the brain and shows promise as a suitable biomarker of mTBI pathophysiology.Methods: 34 individuals within a year of an mTBI (age: 24.4 ± 7.4 and 18 individuals with no history of mTBI (age: 23.2 ± 3.4 participated in this study. Participants completed self-report measures related to functional outcomes, psychological health, post-injury symptoms, and sleep, and underwent a neuroimaging session that included DWI. Whole-brain white matter was skeletonized using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS and compared between groups as well as correlated within-group with the self-report measures.Results: There were no statistically significant anatomical differences between the two groups. After controlling for time since injury, fractional anisotropy (FA demonstrated a negative correlation with sleep quality scores (higher FA was associated with better sleep quality and increasing depressive symptoms in the mTBI participants. Conversely, mean (MD and radial diffusivity (RD demonstrated positive correlations with sleep quality scores (higher RD was associated with worse sleep quality and increasing depressive symptoms. These correlations were observed bilaterally in the internal capsule (anterior and posterior limbs, corona radiata (anterior and superior, fornix, and superior fronto-occipital fasciculi.Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the clinical presentation of mTBI, particularly with respect to depression and sleep, is associated with reduced white

  19. Interactive vs passive screen time and nighttime sleep duration among school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yland, Jennifer; Guan, Stanford; Emanuele, Erin; Hale, Lauren

    2015-09-01

    Insufficient sleep among school-aged children is a growing concern, as numerous studies have shown that chronic short sleep duration increases the risk of poor academic performance and specific adverse health outcomes. We examined the association between weekday nighttime sleep duration and 3 types of screen exposure: television, computer use, and video gaming. We used age 9 data from an ethnically diverse national birth cohort study, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, to assess the association between screen time and sleep duration among 9-year-olds, using screen time data reported by both the child (n = 3269) and by the child's primary caregiver (n= 2770). Within the child-reported models, children who watched more than 2 hours of television per day had shorter sleep duration by approximately 11 minutes per night compared to those who watched less than 2 hours of television (β = -0.18; P computer use were associated with reduced sleep duration. For both child- and parent-reported screen time measures, we did not find statistically significant differences in effect size across various types of screen time. Screen time from televisions and computers is associated with reduced sleep duration among 9-year-olds, using 2 sources of estimates of screen time exposure (child and parent reports). No specific type or use of screen time resulted in significantly shorter sleep duration than another, suggesting that caution should be advised against excessive use of all screens.

  20. Weekend catch-up sleep is independently associated with suicide attempts and self-injury in Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seung-Gul; Lee, Yu Jin; Kim, Seog Ju; Lim, Weonjeong; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Park, Young-Min; Cho, In Hee; Cho, Seong-Jin; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2014-02-01

    The current study aims to determine the associations of insufficient sleep with suicide attempts and self-injury in a large, school-based Korean adolescent sample. A sample of 4553 middle- and high-school students (grades 7-10) was recruited in this study. Finally, 4145 students completed self-report questionnaires including items on sleep duration (weekday/weekend), self-injury, suicide attempts during the past year, the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire (SIQ), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). A multiple linear regression model showed that higher SIQ scores were associated with longer weekend catch-up sleep duration (p=0.009), higher BDI score (psleep duration (p=0.011), higher BDI score (psleep duration--which is an indicator of insufficient weekday sleep--might be associated with suicide attempts and self-injury in Korean adolescents. © 2014.

  1. Does self-reported sleep quality predict poor cognitive performance among elderly living in elderly homes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Motassem S; Hamza, Sarah A; El Akkad, Rania M; Abdel Galeel, Yamen I I

    2013-01-01

    Sleep complaints are common among elderly, especially institutionalized elderly, as they experience poorer sleep quality and higher use of sedative hypnotics, when compared to community-dwelling elderly. Recent findings suggest that there may be a relationship between poor quality of sleep and cognitive deficits. This study aimed at studying the relation between sleep quality and cognitive performance in older adults living in elderly homes. 100 elderly living in an elderly home in El Mansoura, Egypt, were recruited in this study, 50 cases with subjective poor quality of sleep and 50 controls with subjective good quality of sleep as assessed by Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI). Each participant went through comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA), including geriatric depression scale (GDS), assessment of cognitive function by mini mental state examination (MMSE). 52% of poor sleepers showed impaired MMSE, while only 24% of good sleepers had impaired MMSE. Both orientation and (attention and calculation) were more affected (P = 0.027 and 0.035, respectively). Linear correlation coefficient between PSQI and different variables revealed significant negative correlation with total MMSE score, attention and calculation. Poor quality of sleep is related to cognitive impairment among elderly living in elderly homes and this problem should be taken in consideration among this group of elders.

  2. Sleep duration and disruption and prostate cancer risk: a 23-year prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markt, Sarah C.; Flynn-Evans, Erin E.; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur A.; Sigurdardottir, Lara G.; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Batista, Julie L.; Haneuse, Sebastien; Lockley, Steven W.; Stampfer, Meir; Wilson, Kathryn M.; Czeisler, Charles A.; Rider, Jennifer R.; Mucci, Lorelei A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleep deficiency is a major public health problem. There are limited human data on whether sleep duration or disruption are risk factors for prostate cancer. Methods We prospectively followed 32,141 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS) who reported their typical sleep duration in 1987, 2000 and 2008. We identified 4,261 incident prostate cancer cases, including 563 lethal cases through 2010. Sleep disruption was assessed in 2004 among 19,639 men, with 930 prostate cancer cases (50 lethal) identified from 2004-2010. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association between sleep insufficiency and risk of overall and lethal prostate cancer. Results In 1987, 2% of men reported sleeping ≤5 hours/night. We found no association between habitual sleep duration or change in sleep duration with risk of advanced or lethal prostate cancer. We also found no association between waking up during the night, difficulty falling asleep, or waking up too early and risk of prostate cancer. In 2004, 6% of men reported never feeling rested when they woke up; these men had an increased risk of developing lethal prostate cancer compared to those who reported always feeling rested when they woke up (RR=3.05, 95% CI=1.15-8.10). Conclusions We found no consistent association between self-reported sleep duration or sleep disruption and any of our prostate cancer outcomes. Impact We did not find support for a consistent association between self-reported sleep and risk of advanced or lethal prostate cancer in this large cohort of men. PMID:26677208

  3. Association between workaholism and sleep problems among hospital nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Kazumi; Shimazu, Akihito; Kawakami, Norito; Takahashi, Masaya; Nakata, Akinori; Schaufeli, Wilmar B

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the association between workaholism, the tendency to work excessively hard in a compulsive fashion, and sleep problems among Japanese nurses. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 600 nurses from 2 university hospitals in Japan using a self-reported questionnaire on workaholism, sleep, job-related variables (i.e., job demands, job control, and worksite support), and demographic variables. A total of 394 nurses returned the questionnaire (response rate=65.7%) and complete data from 312 female nurses were used for analyses (final coverage rate=52.0%). Workaholics, as measured using the Japanese version of the Dutch Workaholism Scale, were defined as those having high scores on both the "work excessively" and "work compulsively" subscales. Logistic regression analyses revealed that workaholics had higher risks for sleep problems in terms of subjective sleep insufficiency, excessive daytime sleepiness at work, difficulty awakening in the morning, and feeling tired when waking up in the morning (odds ratios [OR] of 4.40, 3.18, 3.48, and 4.61, respectively, p<0.05). These remained significant even after adjusting for demographic and job-related variables (OR 3.41, 5.36, 2.56, and 2.77, respectively). However, no significant associations were found between workaholism and insomnia symptoms. These results suggest that workaholic nurses had higher risks for impaired awakening, insufficient sleep, and workplace sleepiness.

  4. [Sleep and academic performance in young elite athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poussel, M; Laure, P; Genest, J; Fronzaroli, E; Renaud, P; Favre, A; Chenuel, B

    2014-07-01

    In French law (Code du Sport), the status of elite athlete is allowed for young athletes beginning at the age of 12 years. For these young athletes, the aim is to reach the highest level of performance in their sport without compromising academic performance. Training time is therefore often substantial and sleep patterns appear to play a key role in performance recovery. The aim of this study was to assess sleep patterns and their effects on academic performance in young elite athletes. Sleep patterns were assessed using questionnaires completed during a specific information-based intervention on sports medicine topics. The academic performance of young elite athletes was assessed by collecting their grades (transmitted by their teachers). Sleep patterns were assessed for 137 young elite athletes (64 females, 73 males; mean age, 15.7 years) and academic performance for 109 of them. Daily sleep duration during school periods (8h22 ± 38 min) were shorter compared to holidays and week-ends (10h02 ± 1h16, Psleep quality as poor or just sufficient. Poor sleep quality was correlated with poor academic performance in this specific athlete population. Sleep is the most important period for recovery from daily activity, but little information is available regarding the specific population of young elite athletes. The results reported herein suggest insufficiency (quantitatively and qualitatively) of sleep patterns in some of the young athletes, possibly leading to detrimental effects on athletic performance. Moreover, disturbed sleep patterns may also impact academic performance in young elite athletes. Teachers, athletic trainers, physicians, and any other professionals working with young elite athletes should pay particular attention to this specific population regarding the possible negative repercussions of poor sleep patterns on academic and athletic performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of lifestyle and technology developments on sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shochat T

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tamar ShochatDepartment of Nursing, Faculty of Social Welfare and Health Sciences, University of Haifa, Haifa, IsraelAbstract: Although the physiological and psychological mechanisms involved in the development of sleep disorders remain similar throughout history, factors that potentiate these mechanisms are closely related to the "zeitgeist", ie, the sociocultural, technological and lifestyle trends which characterize an era. Technological advancements have afforded modern society with 24-hour work operations, transmeridian travel and exposure to a myriad of electronic devices such as televisions, computers and cellular phones. Growing evidence suggests that these advancements take their toll on human functioning and health via their damaging effects on sleep quality, quantity and timing. Additional behavioral lifestyle factors associated with poor sleep include weight gain, insufficient physical exercise and consumption of substances such as caffeine, alcohol and nicotine. Some of these factors have been implicated as self-help aids used to combat daytime sleepiness and impaired daytime functioning. This review aims to highlight current lifestyle trends that have been shown in scientific investigations to be associated with sleep patterns, sleep duration and sleep quality. Current understanding of the underlying mechanisms of these associations will be presented, as well as some of the reported consequences. Available therapies used to treat some lifestyle related sleep disorders will be discussed. Perspectives will be provided for further investigation of lifestyle factors that are associated with poor sleep, including developing theoretical frameworks, identifying underlying mechanisms, and establishing appropriate therapies and public health interventions aimed to improve sleep behaviors in order to enhance functioning and health in modern society.Keywords: sleep, technology, lifestyle, behavior

  6. Self-reported nonrestorative sleep in fibromyalgia – relationship to impairments of body functions, personal function factors, and quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liedberg GM

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gunilla M Liedberg,1 Mathilda Björk,2 Björn Börsbo31Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Norrköping, 2Rehabilitation Centre and Department of Medical and Health Sciences, 3Rehabilitation Medicine, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences (IMH, Linköping University, Linköping, SwedenPurpose: The purpose of this study was: 1 to determine variables that might characterize good or bad sleep; and 2 to describe the relationship between sleep, impairment of body functions, personal function factors, and quality of life based on quality of sleep in women with fibromyalgia (FM. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study included 224 consecutive patients diagnosed at a specialist center. These patients were mailed a questionnaire concerning sleep, body functions, personal factors, and health-related quality of life. In total, 145 completed questionnaires were collected. Results: Using sleep variables (sleep quality, waking up unrefreshed, and tiredness when getting up, we identified two subgroups – the good sleep subgroup and the bad sleep subgroup – of women with FM. These subgroups exhibited significantly different characteristics concerning pain intensity, psychological variables (depressed mood, anxiety, catastrophizing, and self-efficacy, impairments of body functions, and generic and health-related quality of life. The good sleep subgroup reported a significantly better situation, including higher employment/study rate. The bad sleep subgroup reported a greater use of sleep medication. Five variables determined inclusion into either a good sleep or a bad sleep subgroup: pain in the evening, self-efficacy, anxiety, and according to the Short Form health survey role emotional and physical functioning. Conclusion: This study found that it was possible to identify two subgroups of women with FM based on quality of sleep variables. The two subgroups differed significantly with respect to pain, psychological

  7. Self-reported sleep duration and daytime napping are associated with renal hyperfiltration in general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Miao; Su, Qing; Wen, Junping; Wei, Shichao; Yao, Jin; Huang, Huibin; Liang, Jixing; Li, Liantao; Lin, Wei; Lin, Lixiang; Lu, Jieli; Bi, Yufang; Wang, Weiqing; Ning, Guang; Chen, Gang

    2018-03-01

    Renal hyperfiltration (RHF) has emerged as a novel marker of early renal damage in various conditions such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Aberrant sleep duration and excessive daytime napping may affect the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study, the association between sleep duration, daytime napping, and renal hyperfiltration was assessed. This study was conducted in three communities in China. A total of 16,119 community volunteers (5735 males and 10,384 females) aged 40-65 years without CKD were included for the study. Participants with short sleep duration (naps longer than 1.5 h per day had a higher risk of renal hyperfiltration compared with those without napping (OR 1.400, 95% CI 1.018-1.924). Further joint analysis indicated that participants with long sleep duration (≥10 h/day) had a more than twofold increased risk of RHF regardless of nap status compared with those who slept 8-9 h per day without daytime napping. The association between sleep duration or daytime napping and RHF could not be explained by the influence of sleep quality. Additional subgroup analysis showed long sleep duration (≥9 h/day) and long daytime napping (≥1.5 h) were associated with an increased risk of RHF among individuals with good sleep quality. Sleep duration less than 6 h/day or more than 10 h/day and long daytime napping tend to be associated with an increased risk of renal hyperfiltration in middle-aged general population, and this relationship was independent of diabetes, hypertension, obesity, or poor sleep quality.

  8. Successful pregnancy with donor eggs in-vitro fertilization after premature ovarian insufficiency in a tertiary hospital in a low-income setting: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Obinchemti Egbe

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Premature Ovarian Insufficiency (POI is classically defined as 4–6 months of cessation of menses (amenorrhea in women under 40, associated with menopausal level of serum gonadotropins FSH > 40 IU/L and hypo-estrogenism and is also referred to as hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. This disorder can manifest as primary amenorrhea without the onset of menses (menarche, or as secondary amenorrhea after menarche and pubertal development. The diagnosis of this condition in Cameroon is sometimes difficult because of the high cost of hormonal assays and the few laboratories offering these services. Case presentation The patient was a 38-year-old G2P0020, blood group O Rh positive, genotype AA and BMI 19 kg/m2 who came to our service because of secondary amenorrhea and infertility of 2 years’ duration. She has a history of pulmonary tuberculosis that was treated in Cameroon. After laparoscopy and hormonal profile, the diagnosis of premature ovarian insufficiency was reached. The woman underwent a successful donor egg in-vitro fertilization cycle and delivered a female fetus. Two years later YE requested IVF with autologous eggs, which was not possible, and since then she has remained with one child. Conclusion The diagnosis of premature ovarian insufficiency is difficult in Cameroon because of the high cost of laboratory investigations and difficult access to the tests. In-vitro fertilization with donor egg is a better treatment option. Unfortunately, it is not accessible to most Cameroonians because of lack of technical ability and the existence of cultural and financial barriers.

  9. Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the day, even if you have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard time falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea - breathing interruptions during sleep Restless legs syndrome - ...

  10. Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... 101 KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...

  11. [Addison's disease : Primary adrenal insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulzer, A; Burger-Stritt, S; Hahner, S

    2016-05-01

    Adrenal insufficiency, a rare disorder which is characterized by the inadequate production or absence of adrenal hormones, may be classified as primary adrenal insufficiency in case of direct affection of the adrenal glands or secondary adrenal insufficiency, which is mostly due to pituitary or hypothalamic disease. Primary adrenal insufficiency affects 11 of 100,000 individuals. Clinical symptoms are mainly nonspecific and include fatigue, weight loss, and hypotension. The diagnostic test of choice is dynamic testing with synthetic ACTH. Patients suffering from chronic adrenal insufficiency require lifelong hormone supplementation. Education in dose adaption during physical and mental stress or emergency situations is essential to prevent life-threatening adrenal crises. Patients with adrenal insufficiency should carry an emergency card and emergency kit with them.

  12. Sleep, School Performance, and a School-Based Intervention among School-Aged Children: A Sleep Series Study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenghui; Arguelles, Lester; Jiang, Fan; Chen, Wenjuan; Jin, Xingming; Yan, Chonghuai; Tian, Ying; Hong, Xiumei; Qian, Ceng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xiaobin; Shen, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Background Sufficient sleep during childhood is essential to ensure a transition into a healthy adulthood. However, chronic sleep loss continues to increase worldwide. In this context, it is imperative to make sleep a high-priority and take action to promote sleep health among children. The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children. Methods and Findings A serial sleep researches, including a national cross-sectional survey, a prospective cohort study, and a school-based sleep intervention, were conducted in China from November 2005 through December 2009. The national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8 cities and a random sample of 20,778 children aged 9.0±1.61 years participated in the survey. The five-year prospective cohort study included 612 children aged 6.8±0.31 years. The comparative cross-sectional study (baseline: n = 525, aged 10.80±0.41; post-intervention follow-up: n = 553, aged 10.81±0.33) was undertaken in 6 primary schools in Shanghai. A battery of parent and teacher reported questionnaires were used to collect information on children’s sleep behaviors, school performance, and sociodemographic characteristics. The mean sleep duration was 9.35±0.77 hours. The prevalence of daytime sleepiness was 64.4% (sometimes: 37.50%; frequently: 26.94%). Daytime sleepiness was significantly associated with impaired attention, learning motivation, and particularly, academic achievement. By contrast, short sleep duration only related to impaired academic achievement. After delaying school start time 30 minutes and 60 minutes, respectively, sleep duration correspondingly increased by 15.6 minutes and 22.8 minutes, respectively. Moreover, intervention significantly improved the sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. Conclusions Insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness commonly existed and

  13. Sleep, school performance, and a school-based intervention among school-aged children: a sleep series study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenghui; Arguelles, Lester; Jiang, Fan; Chen, Wenjuan; Jin, Xingming; Yan, Chonghuai; Tian, Ying; Hong, Xiumei; Qian, Ceng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xiaobin; Shen, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Sufficient sleep during childhood is essential to ensure a transition into a healthy adulthood. However, chronic sleep loss continues to increase worldwide. In this context, it is imperative to make sleep a high-priority and take action to promote sleep health among children. The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children. A serial sleep researches, including a national cross-sectional survey, a prospective cohort study, and a school-based sleep intervention, were conducted in China from November 2005 through December 2009. The national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8 cities and a random sample of 20,778 children aged 9.0±1.61 years participated in the survey. The five-year prospective cohort study included 612 children aged 6.8±0.31 years. The comparative cross-sectional study (baseline: n = 525, aged 10.80±0.41; post-intervention follow-up: n = 553, aged 10.81±0.33) was undertaken in 6 primary schools in Shanghai. A battery of parent and teacher reported questionnaires were used to collect information on children's sleep behaviors, school performance, and sociodemographic characteristics. The mean sleep duration was 9.35±0.77 hours. The prevalence of daytime sleepiness was 64.4% (sometimes: 37.50%; frequently: 26.94%). Daytime sleepiness was significantly associated with impaired attention, learning motivation, and particularly, academic achievement. By contrast, short sleep duration only related to impaired academic achievement. After delaying school start time 30 minutes and 60 minutes, respectively, sleep duration correspondingly increased by 15.6 minutes and 22.8 minutes, respectively. Moreover, intervention significantly improved the sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. Insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness commonly existed and positively associated with the impairment of

  14. Sleep, school performance, and a school-based intervention among school-aged children: a sleep series study in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghui Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sufficient sleep during childhood is essential to ensure a transition into a healthy adulthood. However, chronic sleep loss continues to increase worldwide. In this context, it is imperative to make sleep a high-priority and take action to promote sleep health among children. The present series of studies aimed to shed light on sleep patterns, on the longitudinal association of sleep with school performance, and on practical intervention strategy for Chinese school-aged children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A serial sleep researches, including a national cross-sectional survey, a prospective cohort study, and a school-based sleep intervention, were conducted in China from November 2005 through December 2009. The national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8 cities and a random sample of 20,778 children aged 9.0±1.61 years participated in the survey. The five-year prospective cohort study included 612 children aged 6.8±0.31 years. The comparative cross-sectional study (baseline: n = 525, aged 10.80±0.41; post-intervention follow-up: n = 553, aged 10.81±0.33 was undertaken in 6 primary schools in Shanghai. A battery of parent and teacher reported questionnaires were used to collect information on children's sleep behaviors, school performance, and sociodemographic characteristics. The mean sleep duration was 9.35±0.77 hours. The prevalence of daytime sleepiness was 64.4% (sometimes: 37.50%; frequently: 26.94%. Daytime sleepiness was significantly associated with impaired attention, learning motivation, and particularly, academic achievement. By contrast, short sleep duration only related to impaired academic achievement. After delaying school start time 30 minutes and 60 minutes, respectively, sleep duration correspondingly increased by 15.6 minutes and 22.8 minutes, respectively. Moreover, intervention significantly improved the sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness

  15. Unihemispheric sleep and asymmetrical sleep: behavioral, neurophysiological, and functional perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascetti GG

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gian Gastone Mascetti Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy Abstract: Sleep is a behavior characterized by a typical body posture, both eyes' closure, raised sensory threshold, distinctive electrographic signs, and a marked decrease of motor activity. In addition, sleep is a periodically necessary behavior and therefore, in the majority of animals, it involves the whole brain and body. However, certain marine mammals and species of birds show a different sleep behavior, in which one cerebral hemisphere sleeps while the other is awake. In dolphins, eared seals, and manatees, unihemispheric sleep allows them to have the benefits of sleep, breathing, thermoregulation, and vigilance. In birds, antipredation vigilance is the main function of unihemispheric sleep, but in domestic chicks, it is also associated with brain lateralization or dominance in the control of behavior. Compared to bihemispheric sleep, unihemispheric sleep would mean a reduction of the time spent sleeping and of the associated recovery processes. However, the behavior and health of aquatic mammals and birds does not seem at all impaired by the reduction of sleep. The neural mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep are unknown, but assuming that the neural structures involved in sleep in cetaceans, seals, and birds are similar to those of terrestrial mammals, it is suggested that they involve the interaction of structures of the hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and brain stem. The neural mechanisms promoting wakefulness dominate one side of the brain, while those promoting sleep predominates the other side. For cetaceans, unihemispheric sleep is the only way to sleep, while in seals and birds, unihemispheric sleep events are intermingled with bihemispheric and rapid eye movement sleep events. Electroencephalogram hemispheric asymmetries are also reported during bihemispheric sleep, at awakening, and at sleep onset, as well as being associated with a use

  16. Effect of 5-HT2A receptor polymorphisms and occupational stress on self-reported sleep quality: a cross-sectional study in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Cui, Changyong; Ge, Hua; Guan, Suzhen; Lian, Yulong; Liu, Jiwen

    2016-04-01

    Occupational stress and the serotonin receptor (5-HTR) play a key role in the regulation of sleep quality. Previous studies on the relationship between work-related stress, 5-HTR2A polymorphism, and sleep complaints found that 5-HTR2A modulates the response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to stress and the maintenance of circadian rhythm. However, the effect of 5-HTR2A polymorphism and occupational stress on sleep quality has not been reported. The present study investigated the effects of 5-HTR2A genotypes, occupational stress, and gene-environment interactions on the sleep quality. Using a three-stage stratified sampling method, 1181 participants were recruited. Then, according to the study exclusion criteria, 810 subjects remained eligible. Finally, because some of subjects did not agree to being involved in this study, 700 workers were included. Of 700 workers finally included in the study, 251 had poor sleep quality based on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The 5-HTR2A genotypes were determined with the SNaPshot single nucleotide polymorphism assay. Occupational stress was assessed with the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised questionnaire. 5-HTR2A genotype was significantly associated with sleep quality. The CT genotype of rs1923884 was detected at a higher frequency among individuals with low sleep efficiency; the AA genotype of rs2070040 was associated with long sleep duration and more daytime dysfunction; and the CC genotype of rs6313 was linked to long sleep latency and duration and poor sleep quality. A high level of occupational stress was linked to higher risk of poor sleep quality than low or moderate levels (odds ratio [OR] = 12.55, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.02-22.43). A crossover analysis demonstrated an occupational stress × 5-HTR2A interaction. Compared to participants with low occupational stress and a CT/TT genotype, those with high occupational stress and a CC genotype had a higher risk of poor sleep quality (OR

  17. Behavioural hyperventilation as a novel clinical condition associated with central sleep apnoea: a report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pevernagie, Dirk; Mariman, An; Vandenbussche, Nele; Tobback, Els; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Delesie, Liesbeth; Janssen, Hennie; Vogelaers, Dirk

    2012-12-01

    Central sleep apnoea (CSA) is a disorder characterised by repetitive episodes of decreased ventilation due to complete or partial reduction in the central neural outflow to the respiratory muscles. Hyperventilation plays a prime role in the pathogenesis of CSA. Chronic heart failure and dwelling at high altitude are classical conditions in which CSA is induced by hyperventilation. Hyperventilation syndrome (HVS) is a prevalent behavioural condition in which minute ventilation exceeds metabolic demands, resulting in haemodynamic and chemical changes that produce characteristic dysphoric symptoms. HVS is frequently caused by anxiety disorders and panic attacks. Until now, medical literature has focussed primarily on daytime symptoms of behavioural hyperventilation. It is currently unknown how this condition may affect sleep. Three cases are reported in which behavioural hyperventilation was associated with occurrence of significant central sleep apnoea, which was not present during normal tidal breathing in steady sleep. Therefore, behavioural hyperventilation should be added to the list of known clinical conditions associated with CSA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sleep Disturbances in Mood Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, Meredith E; White, Kaitlin Hanley; Benca, Ruth M

    2015-12-01

    The article provides an overview of common and differentiating self-reported and objective sleep disturbances seen in mood-disordered populations. The importance of considering sleep disturbances in the context of mood disorders is emphasized, because a large body of evidence supports the notion that sleep disturbances are a risk factor for onset, exacerbation, and relapse of mood disorders. In addition, potential mechanisms for sleep disturbance in depression, other primary sleep disorders that often occur with mood disorders, effects of antidepressant and mood-stabilizing drugs on sleep, and the adjunctive effect of treating sleep in patients with mood disorders are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sleep education in college: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ling-Ling; Li, Sheng-Ping

    2004-12-01

    In this study we evaluated the effect of a two-credit (100 min./week) "Sleep Management" course on the sleep patterns of college students as the course progressed over an 18-wk. semester. Curricular activity included lectures, group discussions, and practice of self-evaluation of sleep. Instead of giving the students the whole list of sleep hygiene at the outset of the course, each concept of sleep hygiene was introduced and discussed under related lecture topics. A total of 241 students (131 men and 110 women) took the course and kept 7-day sleep logs three times. Concurrently, sleep-log data were collected from 65 students (32 men and 33 women) who were not taking the course. Both groups showed similar varieties of academic backgrounds and characteristics of sleep patterns at the beginning. Similarly, their sleep patterns, namely, rise time, nighttime awakenings, time asleep, time in bed, sleep efficiency, and rise time regularity, changed over the semester. Women in both groups had more nighttime awakenings. In contrast, sleep quality was progressively better for the group in the course but not for the control group. Only women in the course decreased their nap time in the second and third months. Thus, the course of "Sleep Management" only had a mild and limited effect on sleep patterns. The course content needs refinement to maximize influence on students' sleep patterns and habits, particularly, on reduction of insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness which are the highest ranking sleep problems among college students.

  20. The challenge of sleep management in military operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesensten, Nancy J; Balkin, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    It has long been known that short-term (days) insufficient sleep causes decrements in mental effectiveness that put individuals at increased risk of committing errors and causing accidents. More recently, it has been discovered that chronic poor sleep (over years) is associated with a variety of negative health outcomes (metabolic syndrome, obesity, degraded behavioral health). Implementing an effective sleep health program is, therefore, in the best interests of active duty personnel and their families both in the short- and long-term. Like managing physical activity or nutrition, effectively managing sleep health comes with its unique set of challenges arising from the fact that individuals who routinely do not obtain sufficient sleep are generally desensitized to feeling sleepy and are poor at judging their own performance capabilities--and individuals cannot be compelled to sleep. For these reasons, an optimally effective sleep health program requires 3 components: (1) a rigorous, evidence-based sleep education component to impart actionable knowledge about optimal sleep amounts, healthy sleep behaviors, the known benefits of sleep, the short- and long-term consequences of insufficient sleep, and to dispel myths about sleep; (2) a nonintrusive device that objectively and accurately measures sleep to empower the individual to track his/her own sleep/wake habits; and (3) a meaningful, actionable metric reflecting sleep/wake impact on daily effectiveness so that the individual sees the consequences of his/her sleep behavior and, therefore, can make informed sleep health choices.

  1. Emotion, emotion regulation and sleep: An intimate relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Vandekerckhove; Yu-lin Wang

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, research has witnessed an increasing interest in the bidirectional relationship between emotion and sleep. Sleep seems important for restoring daily functioning, whereas deprivation of sleep makes us more emotionally aroused and sensitive to stressful stimuli and events. Sleep appears to be essential to our ability to cope with emotional stress in everyday life. However, when daily stress is insufficiently regulated, it may result in mental health problems and sleep disturban...

  2. Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Using Temporary Mandible Advancement Device: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Chan Choi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is the most prevalent type of sleep apnea, and oral appliance may be one of the options for treatment of OSA. But, the problems with the oral appliance are high cost, possible low compliance, and complications such as temporomandibular disorder. In this article, we described a severe OSA case that was successfully improved by using temporary mandible advancement device, which was designed for therapeutic effect of mandible advancement with low cost and simplified fabrication procedure.

  3. Cortical Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid and Glutamate in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Their Relationships to Self-Reported Sleep Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Mon, Anderson; Metzler, Thomas; Neylan, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    their relationships to self-reported sleep quality. SLEEP 2014;37(5):893-900. PMID:24790267

  4. Unihemispheric sleep and asymmetrical sleep: behavioral, neurophysiological, and functional perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascetti, Gian Gastone

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is a behavior characterized by a typical body posture, both eyes' closure, raised sensory threshold, distinctive electrographic signs, and a marked decrease of motor activity. In addition, sleep is a periodically necessary behavior and therefore, in the majority of animals, it involves the whole brain and body. However, certain marine mammals and species of birds show a different sleep behavior, in which one cerebral hemisphere sleeps while the other is awake. In dolphins, eared seals, and manatees, unihemispheric sleep allows them to have the benefits of sleep, breathing, thermoregulation, and vigilance. In birds, antipredation vigilance is the main function of unihemispheric sleep, but in domestic chicks, it is also associated with brain lateralization or dominance in the control of behavior. Compared to bihemispheric sleep, unihemispheric sleep would mean a reduction of the time spent sleeping and of the associated recovery processes. However, the behavior and health of aquatic mammals and birds does not seem at all impaired by the reduction of sleep. The neural mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep are unknown, but assuming that the neural structures involved in sleep in cetaceans, seals, and birds are similar to those of terrestrial mammals, it is suggested that they involve the interaction of structures of the hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and brain stem. The neural mechanisms promoting wakefulness dominate one side of the brain, while those promoting sleep predominates the other side. For cetaceans, unihemispheric sleep is the only way to sleep, while in seals and birds, unihemispheric sleep events are intermingled with bihemispheric and rapid eye movement sleep events. Electroencephalogram hemispheric asymmetries are also reported during bihemispheric sleep, at awakening, and at sleep onset, as well as being associated with a use-dependent process (local sleep).

  5. The influence of intermittent fasting on the circadian pattern of melatonin while controlling for caloric intake, energy expenditure, light exposure, and sleep schedules: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljohara S Almeneessier

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: In this preliminary report, under controlled conditions of light exposure, meal composition, energy expenditure, and sleep-wake schedules, intermittent fasting has no significant influence on the circadian pattern of melatonin.

  6. Self-reported sleep disturbances in patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and how they relate to cognitive failures and fantasy proneness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalena eVan Heugten - Van Der Kloet

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbances, fantasy proneness, cognitive failures, and dissociative symptoms are related to each other. However, the co-occurrence of these phenomena has been primarily studied in non-clinical samples. We investigated the correlations between these phenomena in dissociative identity disorder patients, post-traumatic stress disorder patients, and healthy controls. Both patient groups reported more sleep problems and lower sleep quality and displayed higher levels of fantasy proneness and cognitive failures than controls. However, the two patient groups did not differ with regard to these variables. Moreover, a higher level of unusual sleep experiences tended to predict participants belonging to the DID group, while specifically a lower sleep quality and more cognitive failures tended to predict participants belonging to the PTSD group.

  7. Self-reported sleep disturbances in patients with dissociative identity disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder and how they relate to cognitive failures and fantasy proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heugten-van der Kloet, Dalena; Huntjens, Rafaele; Giesbrecht, Timo; Merckelbach, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disturbances, fantasy proneness, cognitive failures, and dissociative symptoms are related to each other. However, the co-occurrence of these phenomena has been primarily studied in non-clinical samples. We investigated the correlations between these phenomena in dissociative identity disorder (DID) patients, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients, and healthy controls. Both patient groups reported more sleep problems and lower sleep quality and displayed higher levels of fantasy proneness and cognitive failures than controls. However, the two patient groups did not differ with regard to these variables. Moreover, a higher level of unusual sleep experiences tended to predict participants belonging to the DID group, while specifically a lower sleep quality and more cognitive failures tended to predict participants belonging to the PTSD group.

  8. Self-Reported Sleep Bruxism and Nocturnal Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Relationship to Gender and Ethnicity§

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselbacher, Sean; Subramanian, Shyam; Rao, Shweta; Casturi, Lata; Surani, Salim

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives : Nocturnal bruxism is associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and GERD is strongly associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Gender and ethnic differences in the prevalence and clinical presentation of these often overlapping sleep disorders have not been well documented. Our aim was to examine the associations between, and the symptoms associated with, nocturnal GERD and sleep bruxism in patients with OSA, and to examine the influence of gender and ethn...

  9. Dissecting the impact of sleep and stress on the cortisol awakening response in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Ivan; Lopez-Duran, Nestor

    2014-02-01

    Cortisol rises precipitously upon awakening, in what has been called the cortisol awakening response (CAR). Atypical CARs have been linked to a number of negative health outcomes. Yet, our understanding of the possible mechanisms creating these associations remains unclear. Both stress and sleep can influence CAR, and may potentially explain its links to health. However, these factors also impact each other, and their influence on CAR has rarely been studied simultaneously. In order to differentiate their effects, this study examined the impact of daily life hassles, anticipatory stress, and subjectively reported sleep on CAR among 58 college students. Self-reported stress and sleep, as well as salivary cortisol (collected during the first hour after awakening) were obtained across two consecutive days. Total sleep time predicted CAR magnitude, but daily hassles and anticipatory stress did not after accounting for the effect of sleep. Lower total sleep time was associated with lower awakening cortisol and greater CAR. These results provide further evidence for the impact of sleep insufficiency on CAR, and suggest future efforts to use CAR as a stress biomarker should take the impact of sleep into consideration. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. [Association between Williams syndrome and adrenal insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rchachi, Meryem; Larwanou, Maazou Mahamane; El Ouahabi, Hanan; Ajdi, Farida

    2017-01-01

    Williams syndrome is a developmental disorder including dysmorphia, cardiovascular malformations and a specific neuropsychological profile together with other associated disorders. We report the case of a 17-year old girl, born of a non-inbred marriage, with Williams syndrome discovered during an assessment of degree of failure to thrive. Its association with primary adrenal insufficiency makes it unique. Diagnosis is confirmed by cytogenetic and molecular analysis. Its management consists of the implementation of treatment for adrenal insufficiency associated with a clinico-biological monitoring.

  11. Sleep deprivation: consequences for students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhefka, Julie King

    2011-09-01

    During the adolescent years, a delayed pattern of the sleep-wake cycle occurs. Many parents and health care providers are not aware that once established, these poor sleep habits can continue into adulthood. Early school hours start a pattern of sleep loss that begins a cycle of daytime sleepiness, which may affect mood, behavior, and increase risk for accidents or injury. These sleep-deprived habits established in adolescence can often lead to problems during college years. Sleep hygiene can be initiated to help break the cycle, along with education and implementation of a strict regimen. Monitoring all adolescents and college-aged students for sleep insufficiency is imperative to improve both academic and emotional well-being. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. The association between self-reported sleep quality and metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Chang Hung

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Short and long sleep duration are associated with metabolic syndrome. However, there is limited research on the association between sleep quality and metabolic syndrome, and thus the aim of this study is to investigate this relationship. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cross-sectional baseline data were collected from the decoded database of the Prevention Health Center of National Cheng Kung University Hospital from 2002 to 2006. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was according to the statement of the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. A higher global PSQI score indicates poorer sleep quality, and a global PSQI score greater than five differentiates poor from good sleepers. RESULTS: Of the 3,435 subjects recruited, 899 (26.2% had metabolic syndrome. Subjects with metabolic syndrome had higher PSQI and prevalence of poor sleepers than those without metabolic syndrome. The multivariate lineal regression analysis showed that female gender, metabolic syndrome, sleep duration, snoring, alcohol drinking, and habitual exercise were independent predictors of PSQI. When substituting metabolic syndrome with the five components, hyperglycemia and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C were positively associated with PSQI. The multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that female gender, metabolic syndrome, sleep duration, and snoring were independently associated with being poor sleepers. Of the five components, only low HDL-C was an independent predictor of being poor sleepers. CONCLUSIONS: Subjects with metabolic syndrome have higher global PSQI scores and a higher risk of being poor sleepers. Of the five components of metabolic syndrome, hyperglycemia and low HDL-C are independently associated with the global PSQI scores, while low HDL-C is an independent predictor of being poor sleepers.

  13. Primary Ovarian Insufficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Lawrence M.

    2009-01-01

    A 30-year-old woman presents with a history of no menses since she stopped taking oral contraceptives 6 months ago in order to conceive. She had undergone puberty that was normal in both timing and development, with menarche at 12 years of age. At 18 years of age, she started taking oral contraceptives for irregular menses. She reports stress at work. Her weight is 59 kg, and her height 1.66 m; her body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) is 21.3...

  14. Sleep Habits and Sleep Problems in Healthy Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, C L Srinivasa; Bharti, Bhavneet; Malhi, Prahbhjot; Khadwal, Alka

    2015-07-01

    To describe the sleep patterns and problems in children aged between 12 and 36 mo of age. This cross sectional survey was collected over a span of 1 y in Advanced Pediatric Centre, PGIMER, Chandigarh and crèches of Chandigarh. Children in the age group of 12 to 36 mo were included in study. Children with chronic illness, developmental delay, seizure disorder and lack of consent were excluded. A total of 368 children were enrolled. Main outcome measures were sleep duration over 1 to 3 y of life; sleep behavior at onset, during and waking of sleep and parent reported sleep problems and their predictors. The average duration of sleep was 12.5 h (S.D = 1.9). The mean total sleep duration and mean day time sleep duration decreased, while mean night time sleep increased as the age advanced from 12 to 36 mo. Following were the frequency of sleep habits seen in the index study; bed time routine was seen only in 68(18.5 %), a regular bed time ritual was seen in 281(76.4 %), 329(89.4 %) children frequently required 0-20 min time to fall asleep, 11(3 %) parents used sleep inducing drugs. Night waking (1 to 3 times a night) was seen in 297(80.7 %) and its frequency declined with age. Parent reported sleep problems were seen in 12.8 % (47/368). Lack of co-sleeping and night waking were considered as strongest predictors of parent reported sleep problems. Toddlers' sleep duration, night waking behavior, and day time naps decrease as the age progress while night time sleep duration increases with age. Lack of co-sleeping and night waking are considered as strongest predictors of parent reported sleep problems.

  15. Sleep in trigeminal autonomic cephalagias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barløse, Mads; Lund, Nunu; Jensen, Rigmor Højland

    2014-01-01

    and eventually to more effective therapeutic regimens. This review aims to evaluate the existing literature on the subject of TACs and sleep. An association between episodic CH and distinct macrostructural sleep phases, especially the relation to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, has been described in some older...... studies but could not be confirmed in other, more recent studies. Investigations into the microstructure of sleep in these patients are lacking. Only a few case reports exist on the relation between sleep and other TACs. SUMMARY: Recent studies do not find an association between CH and REM sleep. One...... older study suggests chronic paroxysmal hemicranias may be locked to REM sleep but otherwise the relation is unknown. Reports indicate that CH and obstructive sleep apnoea are associated in some individuals but results are diverging. Single cases show improvement of CH upon treatment of sleep apnoea...

  16. Sleep duration and mortality: The effect of short or long sleep duration on cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in working men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heslop, Pauline; Smith, George Davey; Metcalfe, Chris; Macleod, John; Hart, Carole

    2002-07-01

    There is evidence to suggest that insufficient sleep may have an adverse effect on physical and psychological health. Previous studies have reported that when adjusting for major risk factors for cardiovascular disease and a number of demographic and social variables, sleeping 7-8 h each night is associated with lower mortality. These studies, however, have excluded any consideration of stress, which is known to be related to a number of behavioural risk factors for disease and, like sleep, may influence neurochemical, hormonal and immunological functioning. This study revisits the associations between sleep duration, cardiovascular disease risk factors and mortality, taking into account the perceived stress of individuals. The data come from a cohort of working Scottish men and women recruited between 1970 and 1973; approximately half of the cohort was screened for a second time, 4-7 years after the baseline examination. For both men and women, higher self-perceived stress was associated with a reduction in the hours of sleep reported. The pattern of mortality from all causes and the pattern of mortality from cardiovascular disease were consistent for both men and women. When sleep was measured on one occasion only, the risk of dying was reduced for men sleeping more than 8 h in every 24 h compared with those sleeping 7-8 h over the same period. This was after adjustment had been made for age, marital status, social class, cardiovascular risk factors and stress. The risk of dying was increased for women sleeping less than 7 h in every 24 h compared with those sleeping 7-8 h over the same period, after similar adjustments. When the data from the 1st and 2nd screening were considered longitudinally, both men and women who reported that they slept less than 7 h on both occasions that they were questioned, had a greater risk of dying from any cause than those who had reported sleeping 7-8 h at both screenings, after adjusting for age, marital status, social class and

  17. Physical neighborhood and social environment, beliefs about sleep, sleep hygiene behaviors, and sleep quality among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Soohyun; Whittemore, Robin; Jung, Sunyoung; Latkin, Carl; Kershaw, Trace; Redeker, Nancy S

    2018-06-01

    African Americans (AAs) have a higher prevalence of sleep disorders than other racial/ethnic groups. However, little is known about the relationships among individual and neighborhood factors related to sleep quality in AAs. The purposes of this study were to (1) describe beliefs about sleep, sleep hygiene behaviors, and sleep quality among AAs; and (2) examine the relationships among sociodemographic characteristics, neighborhood environment, beliefs about sleep, sleep hygiene behaviors, and sleep quality. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 252 AA men and women in the Greater New Haven, CT, USA community. We assessed their sociodemographic characteristics, neighborhood environment, beliefs about sleep, sleep hygiene, and sleep quality with the following measures, respectively: the Neighborhood Environment Scale, the brief version of Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep, the Sleep Hygiene Practice Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. We performed descriptive statistics, correlations and multiple hierarchical regression. About 72% of the participants (mean age: 53.88 ± 14.17 years, 77.8% women) reported experiencing sleep disturbance. People with poor sleep quality were more likely to report poorer neighborhood social environment (social cohesion), poorer overall neighborhood environment, more dysfunctional beliefs toward sleep, and poorer sleep hygiene than those who had good sleep quality. In the final multivariate model that controlled for a number of chronic comorbid conditions, neighborhood environment, beliefs about sleep, and sleep hygiene behaviors were significantly associated with sleep quality. Future efforts are needed to improve sleep among AAs by considering both the individual's belief about sleep, sleep hygiene behaviors and neighborhood factors. Copyright © 2018 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sleep duration and sleep-related problems in different occupations in the Hordaland Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursin, Reidun; Baste, Valborg; Moen, Bente E

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between occupation and sleep duration, sleepiness, insufficient sleep, and insomnia in day and shift workers (including night work and watches). The study was population-based and cross-sectional, and relied on self-administered questionnaires. It was conducted as part of the 1997-1999 Hordaland Health Study in collaboration with the Norwegian National Health Screening Service. Aged 40-45 years, 7782 participants answered a sleep questionnaire, reporting their occupation and whether or not they were employed in shift work. Our study found differences in sleep duration during the working week between occupational groups; in both shift and day workers. Craft workers, plant operators, and drivers slept less than leaders, and non-personal and personal service workers. Within some occupations (leaders, personal service workers, and plant operators), shift workers slept less than day workers. The mean sleep duration of shift workers was 15 minutes shorter than that of day workers. Rise times, but not bedtimes, were earlier in craft-and construction workers, plant operators, and drivers than in leaders and non-personal and personal service workers, particularly day workers. When adjusted for shift work and working hours - compared to leaders - craft workers, plant operators, and drivers had an increased risk of daytime sleepiness (odds ratio 1.5, 1.8, and 1.8 respectively) and of falling asleep at work (odds ratio 1.6, 2.1 and 2.0 respectively). Shift workers had an increased risk of falling asleep at work and insomnia. Occupation has separate effects on sleep duration and sleep-related problems, independent of the effects of shift work.

  19. Sleep Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek Kornum, Birgitte; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    mediates circadian regulation of sleep. Misalignment with the rhythm of the sun results in circadian disorders and jet lag. The molecular basis of homeostatic sleep regulation is mostly unknown. A network of mutually inhibitory brain nuclei regulates sleep states and sleep-wake transitions. Abnormalities...... in these networks create sleep disorders, including rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, sleep walking, and narcolepsy. Physiological changes associated with sleep can be imbalanced, resulting in excess movements such as periodic leg movements during sleep or abnormal breathing in obstructive sleep apneas....... As every organ in the body is affected by sleep directly or indirectly, sleep and sleep-associated disorders are frequent and only now starting to be understood....

  20. European guidelines for the certification of professionals in sleep medicine: report of the task force of the European Sleep Research Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pevernagie, Dirk; Stanley, Neil; Berg, Sören; Krieger, Jean; Amici, Roberto; Bassetti, Claudio; Billiard, Michel; Cirignotta, Fabio; Garcia-Borreguero, Diego; Tobler, Irene; Fischer, Jürgen

    2009-03-01

    In recent years, sleep medicine has evolved into a full-grown discipline, featuring a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis and treatment of patients with sleep disorders. Sleep medicine cuts across the boundaries of different conventional disciplines and is therefore open to medical and non-medical professionals with different specialty backgrounds. The aim of the current paper is to introduce a qualification for those professionals whose main occupation is to practice sleep medicine in the setting of a sleep medicine centre. The drafting of guidelines dealing with requirements for such qualification was entrusted to a task force by the European Sleep Research Society. The guidelines are the result of a progressive consensus procedure in which standards were defined for education, training, and evaluation. The final step along this pathway is a theoretical and practical examination, providing proof of proficiency in the field of sleep medicine. This paper describes the object of specific competences, the scope of sleep medicine, and the qualification procedures that pertain to three professional categories: medical specialists, non-medical professionals with a university master degree (such as psychologists and biologists), and nurses and technologists. Indices of preceding practical experience and theoretical knowledge are presented in Appendices 1 and 2. These guidelines are a European standard. They may be adapted in the future according to new scientific insights. National certification programs that comply with these guidelines may be subject to homologation by the ESRS.

  1. Self-reported Napping, Sleep Duration and Quality in the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot (LIFE-P) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picarsic, Jennifer L.; Glynn, Nancy W.; Taylor, Christopher A.; Katula, Jeffery; Goldman, Suzanne E.; Studenski, Stephanie; Newman, Anne B.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence of self-reported napping and its association with subjective nighttime sleep duration and quality, as measured by sleep-onset latency and sleep efficiency. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elder’s Pilot Study. PARTICIPANTS Community-dwelling older adults (N=414), aged 70 to 89 years. MEASUREMENTS Self-report questionnaire on napping and sleep, derived from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scale. RESULTS A total of 54 percent of participants reported napping with mean nap duration of 55 minutes, (SD 41.2 minutes). Compared to non-nappers, nappers were more often men (37.3% vs. 23.8%, P = .003), African American (20.4% vs.14.4%, P = .06), or diabetic (28% vs. 14.3%, P = .007). Nappers and non-nappers had similar nighttime sleep duration and quality, but nappers spent about 10 percent of their 24-hour sleep occupied in napping. In a multivariate model, the odds of napping were higher for diabetics (OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2–3.0) and men (OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2–3.0)). In nappers, diabetes mellitus (β = 12.3 minutes, P =.005), male gender (β = 9.0 minutes, P = .04), higher BMI (β = 0.8 minutes, P = .02), and lower MMSE (β = 2.2, P = .03) were independently associated with longer nap duration. CONCLUSION Napping was a common practice in community-dwelling older adults and did not detract from nighttime sleep duration or quality. Given its high prevalence and association with diabetes, napping behavior should be assessed as part of sleep behavior, both in future research and in clinical practice. PMID:18662202

  2. Post-Encephalitic Parkinsonism and Sleep Disorder Responsive to Immunological Treatment: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Valerio; Testani, Elisa; Iorio, Raffaele; Frisullo, Giovanni; Luigetti, Marco; Di Giuda, Daniela; Marca, Giacomo Della

    2016-10-01

    We describe a 70-year-old man who, after a viral encephalitis associated with pneumonia, progressively developed a parkinsonism associated with lethargy. Encephalitis manifested with persistent hiccups, seizures and impairment of consciousness. After 2 weeks, the initial neurologic symptoms subsided and the patient progressively developed movement disorders (rigidity and bradykinesia, resistant to L-DOPA), lethargy and behavioral hypersomnia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed thalamic and hippocampal signal abnormalities, immunohistochemistry on a mouse brain substrate revealed serum autoantibodies binding to the brainstem neuropil. Polysomnographic monitoring was consistent with a very severe disruption of sleep: the sleep-wake cycle was fragmented, and the NREM-REM ultradian cycle was irregular. Intravenous immune globulin therapy resulted in the complete reversal of the movement and the sleep disorders. Our observation confirms that parkinsonism and sleep disorders may be consequences of encephalitis, that an immune-mediated pathogenesis is likely, and, consequently, that immunotherapy can be beneficial in these patients. The polysomnographic monitoring suggests that lethargia, rather than a mere hypersomnia, is the result of a combination between sleep disruption and altered motor control. © EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ECNS) 2016.

  3. Neurobehavioral performance impairment in insomnia: relationships with self-reported sleep and daytime functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekleton, Julia A; Flynn-Evans, Erin E; Miller, Belinda; Epstein, Lawrence J; Kirsch, Douglas; Brogna, Lauren A; Burke, Liza M; Bremer, Erin; Murray, Jade M; Gehrman, Philip; Lockley, Steven W; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of insomnia, daytime consequences of the disorder are poorly characterized. This study aimed to identify neurobehavioral impairments associated with insomnia, and to investigate relationships between these impairments and subjective ratings of sleep and daytime dysfunction. Cross-sectional, multicenter study. Three sleep laboratories in the USA and Australia. Seventy-six individuals who met the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for Primary Insomnia, Psychophysiological Insomnia, Paradoxical Insomnia, and/or Idiopathic Childhood Insomnia (44F, 35.8 ± 12.0 years [mean ± SD]) and 20 healthy controls (14F, 34.8 ± 12.1 years). N/A. Participants completed a 7-day sleep-wake diary, questionnaires assessing daytime dysfunction, and a neurobehavioral test battery every 60-180 minutes during an afternoon/evening sleep laboratory visit. Included were tasks assessing sustained and switching attention, working memory, subjective sleepiness, and effort. Switching attention and working memory were significantly worse in insomnia patients than controls, while no differences were found for simple or complex sustained attention tasks. Poorer sustained attention in the control, but not the insomnia group, was significantly associated with increased subjective sleepiness. In insomnia patients, poorer sustained attention performance was associated with reduced health-related quality of life and increased insomnia severity. We found that insomnia patients exhibit deficits in higher level neurobehavioral functioning, but not in basic attention. The findings indicate that neurobehavioral deficits in insomnia are due to neurobiological alterations, rather than sleepiness resulting from chronic sleep deficiency.

  4. Remission of severe restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements in sleep after bilateral excision of multiple foot neuromas: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lettau Ludwig A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Restless legs syndrome is a sensorimotor neurological disorder characterized by an urge to move the legs in response to uncomfortable leg sensations. While asleep, 70 to 90 percent of patients with restless legs syndrome have periodic limb movements in sleep. Frequent periodic limb movements in sleep and related brain arousals as documented by polysomnography are associated with poorer quality of sleep and daytime fatigue. Restless legs syndrome in middle age is sometimes associated with neuropathic foot dysesthesias. The causes of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements in sleep are unknown, but the sensorimotor symptoms are hypothesized to originate in the central nervous system. We have previously determined that bilateral forefoot digital nerve impingement masses (neuromas may be a cause of both neuropathic foot dysesthesias and the leg restlessness of restless legs syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, this case is the first report of bilateral foot neuromas as a cause of periodic limb movements in sleep. Case presentation A 42-year-old Caucasian woman with severe restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements in sleep and bilateral neuropathic foot dysesthesias was diagnosed as having neuromas in the second, third, and fourth metatarsal head interspaces of both feet. The third interspace neuromas represented regrowth (or 'stump' neuromas that had developed since bilateral third interspace neuroma excision five years earlier. Because intensive conservative treatments including repeated neuroma injections and various restless legs syndrome medications had failed, radical surgery was recommended. All six neuromas were excised. Leg restlessness, foot dysesthesias and subjective sleep quality improved immediately. Assessment after 18 days showed an 84 to 100 percent reduction of visual analog scale scores for specific dysesthesias and marked reductions of pre-operative scores of the Pittsburgh sleep

  5. Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... These conditions can lead to an adrenal crisis. Pregnancy Women with adrenal insufficiency who become pregnant are ... can benefit from following a diet rich in sodium. A health care provider or a dietitian can ...

  6. [Sleep disorders and epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Ryo; Ito, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    It has been reported that patients with epilepsy often have insomnia and/or daytime sleepiness; the symptomatologic features differ in seizure types. Not only the administration of anti-epileptics, but also inappropriate sleep hygiene cause daytime sleepiness. In subjective assessment of sleepiness, we need to pay attention if it can correctly assess or not. The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with epilepsy is approximately 10-30%. Sleep apnea deteriorates the seizure control because of worsen sleep condition by sleep apnea, especially in elderly patients. Some researchers report that continuous positive airway pressure was effective for seizure control. Patients with epilepsy occasionally have REM sleep behavior disorder as comorbidity. Examination using polysomnography is required for differential diagnosis.

  7. School Start Times, Sleep, Behavioral, Health, and Academic Outcomes: a Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Daniel P.; Croft, Janet B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Insufficient sleep in adolescents has been shown to be associated with a wide variety of adverse outcomes, from poor mental and physical health to behavioral problems and lower academic grades. However, most high school students do not get sufficient sleep. Delaying school start times for adolescents has been proposed as a policy change to address insufficient sleep in this population and potentially to improve students’ academic performance, reduce engagement in risk behaviors, and improve health. METHODS This paper reviews 38 reports examining the association between school start times, sleep, and other outcomes among adolescent students. RESULTS Most studies reviewed provide evidence that delaying school start time increases weeknight sleep duration among adolescents, primarily by delaying rise times. Most of the studies saw a significant increase in sleep duration even with relatively small delays in start times of half an hour or so. Later start times also generally correspond to improved attendance, less tardiness, less falling asleep in class, better grades, and fewer motor vehicle crashes. CONCLUSIONS Although additional research is necessary, research results that are already available should be disseminated to stakeholders to enable the development of evidence-based school policies. PMID:27040474

  8. School Start Times, Sleep, Behavioral, Health, and Academic Outcomes: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Anne G; Chapman, Daniel P; Croft, Janet B

    2016-05-01

    Insufficient sleep in adolescents has been shown to be associated with a wide variety of adverse outcomes, from poor mental and physical health to behavioral problems and lower academic grades. However, most high school students do not get sufficient sleep. Delaying school start times for adolescents has been proposed as a policy change to address insufficient sleep in this population and potentially to improve students' academic performance, reduce engagement in risk behaviors, and improve health. This article reviews 38 reports examining the association between school start times, sleep, and other outcomes among adolescent students. Most studies reviewed provide evidence that delaying school start time increases weeknight sleep duration among adolescents, primarily by delaying rise times. Most of the studies saw a significant increase in sleep duration even with relatively small delays in start times of half an hour or so. Later start times also generally correspond to improved attendance, less tardiness, less falling asleep in class, better grades, and fewer motor vehicle crashes. Although additional research is necessary, research results that are already available should be disseminated to stakeholders to enable the development of evidence-based school policies. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Persistent high serum bicarbonate and the risk of heart failure in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD): A report from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobre, Mirela; Yang, Wei; Pan, Qiang; Appel, Lawrence; Bellovich, Keith; Chen, Jing; Feldman, Harold; Fischer, Michael J; Ham, L L; Hostetter, Thomas; Jaar, Bernard G; Kallem, Radhakrishna R; Rosas, Sylvia E; Scialla, Julia J; Wolf, Myles; Rahman, Mahboob

    2015-04-20

    Serum bicarbonate varies over time in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, and this variability may portend poor cardiovascular outcomes. The aim of this study was to conduct a time-updated longitudinal analysis to evaluate the association of serum bicarbonate with long-term clinical outcomes: heart failure, atherosclerotic events, renal events (halving of estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] or end-stage renal disease), and mortality. Serum bicarbonate was measured annually, in 3586 participants with CKD, enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study. Marginal structural models were created to allow for integration of all available bicarbonate measurements and proper adjustment for time-dependent confounding. During the 6 years follow-up, 512 participants developed congestive heart failure (26/1000 person-years) and 749 developed renal events (37/1000 person-years). The risk of heart failure and death was significantly higher for participants who maintained serum bicarbonate >26 mmol/L for the entire duration of follow-up (hazard ratio [HR] 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23 to 2.23, and HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.82, respectively) compared with participants who kept their bicarbonate 22 to 26 mmol/L, after adjusting for demographics, co-morbidities, medications including diuretics, eGFR, and proteinuria. Participants who maintained serum bicarbonate renal disease progression (HR 1.97; 95% CI, 1.50 to 2.57) compared with participants with bicarbonate 22 to 26 mmol/L. In this large CKD cohort, persistent serum bicarbonate >26 mmol/L was associated with increased risk of heart failure events and mortality. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal range of serum bicarbonate in CKD to prevent adverse clinical outcomes. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  10. Persistent High Serum Bicarbonate and the Risk of Heart Failure in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): A Report From the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobre, Mirela; Yang, Wei; Pan, Qiang; Appel, Lawrence; Bellovich, Keith; Chen, Jing; Feldman, Harold; Fischer, Michael J.; Ham, L. L.; Hostetter, Thomas; Jaar, Bernard G.; Kallem, Radhakrishna R.; Rosas, Sylvia E.; Scialla, Julia J.; Wolf, Myles; Rahman, Mahboob

    2015-01-01

    Background Serum bicarbonate varies over time in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, and this variability may portend poor cardiovascular outcomes. The aim of this study was to conduct a time‐updated longitudinal analysis to evaluate the association of serum bicarbonate with long‐term clinical outcomes: heart failure, atherosclerotic events, renal events (halving of estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] or end‐stage renal disease), and mortality. Methods and Results Serum bicarbonate was measured annually, in 3586 participants with CKD, enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study. Marginal structural models were created to allow for integration of all available bicarbonate measurements and proper adjustment for time‐dependent confounding. During the 6 years follow‐up, 512 participants developed congestive heart failure (26/1000 person‐years) and 749 developed renal events (37/1000 person‐years). The risk of heart failure and death was significantly higher for participants who maintained serum bicarbonate >26 mmol/L for the entire duration of follow‐up (hazard ratio [HR] 1.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23 to 2.23, and HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.82, respectively) compared with participants who kept their bicarbonate 22 to 26 mmol/L, after adjusting for demographics, co‐morbidities, medications including diuretics, eGFR, and proteinuria. Participants who maintained serum bicarbonate renal disease progression (HR 1.97; 95% CI, 1.50 to 2.57) compared with participants with bicarbonate 22 to 26 mmol/L. Conclusion In this large CKD cohort, persistent serum bicarbonate >26 mmol/L was associated with increased risk of heart failure events and mortality. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal range of serum bicarbonate in CKD to prevent adverse clinical outcomes. PMID:25896890

  11. Poor sleep quality diminishes cognitive functioning independent of depression and anxiety in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Andreana; Gunstad, John

    2012-01-01

    Sufficient sleep is essential for optimum cognitive and psychological functioning. Diminished sleep quality is associated with depression and anxiety, but the extent to which poor sleep quality uniquely impacts attention and executive functions independent of the effects of the common underlying features of depression and anxiety requires further exploration. Here 67 healthy young adults were given the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, second edition (MMPI-2), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and tests of attention and executive functions. Similar to findings from a previous study with healthy community-based older adults (Nebes, Buysse, Halligan, Houck, & Monk, 2009), participants who reported poor sleep quality on the PSQI endorsed significantly greater scores on MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical scales related to depression and anxiety (Cohen's d = 0.77-1.05). In addition, PSQI component scores indexing poor sleep quality, duration, and medication use were associated with diminished attention and executive functions, even after controlling for emotional reactivity or demoralization (rs = 0.21-0.27). These results add to the concurrent validity of the PSQI, and provide further evidence for subtle cognitive decrements related to insufficient sleep even in healthy young adults. Future extension of these findings is necessary with larger samples and clinical comparison groups, and using objective indices of sleep dysfunction such as polysomnography.

  12. Renal tubular acidosis complicated with hyponatremia due to cortisol insufficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Izumi, Yuichiro; Nakayama, Yushi; Onoue, Tomoaki; Inoue, Hideki; Mukoyama, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Adrenocortical insufficiency such as occurs in Addison's disease causes hyponatremia and renal tubular acidosis (RTA). Hyponatremia results from both aldosterone and cortisol insufficiency. RTA is due to aldosterone insufficiency. The involvement of cortisol in RTA is unclear. Here, we report a woman in her 70s who was admitted to our hospital with severe hyponatremia (106 mEq/l) and RTA. The patient exhibited low plasma cortisol levels with little response to rapid adrenocorticotropic hormon...

  13. Sleep Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Sleep Quiz Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents ... on. Photo: iStock Take the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research Sleep Quiz TRUE OR FALSE ? _____1. ...

  14. Sleep duration moderates the association between insula activation and risky decisions under stress in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uy, Jessica Phuong; Galván, Adriana

    2017-01-27

    Insufficient sleep has been associated with increased risk-taking and poor decision-making, enhanced physiological responses to stress, and attenuated anterior insula (AI) activity to risk. The AI has also been linked to risky decision-making under acute stress. However, it is yet unknown how naturalistic sleep habits affect risky decision-making and AI activity when individuals feel stressed. In the current study, a daily diary approach was used to document participants' daily stress. Adolescents and adults reported their recent sleep duration and completed two fMRI visits during which they performed a risky decision-making task: once each when they endorsed a high and low level of stress. Results revealed that, regardless of age, individuals who reported receiving more sleep took fewer non-advantageous risks during high stress relative to those who reported receiving fewer hours of sleep per night while sleep duration was not associated with risky behavior under low stress. Among individuals who reported less sleep, those who exhibited reduced AI activation during risk-taking under high stress also took more disadvantageous risks whereas this effect was attenuated for those who reported longer sleep duration. Moreover, longer sleep duration was associated with greater functional coupling between the AI and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) under high stress whereas sleep duration was not associated with AI-DLPFC functional coupling under low stress. These findings suggest that naturalistic sleep duration may amplify the effects of daily stress and alter risky decision-making behavior through interactions with the AI. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Self-Reported Sleep Bruxism and Nocturnal Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Relationship to Gender and Ethnicity§

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselbacher, Sean; Subramanian, Shyam; Rao, Shweta; Casturi, Lata; Surani, Salim

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives : Nocturnal bruxism is associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and GERD is strongly associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Gender and ethnic differences in the prevalence and clinical presentation of these often overlapping sleep disorders have not been well documented. Our aim was to examine the associations between, and the symptoms associated with, nocturnal GERD and sleep bruxism in patients with OSA, and to examine the influence of gender and ethnicity. Methods : A retrospective chart review was performed of patients diagnosed with OSA at an academic sleep center. The patients completed a sleep questionnaire prior to undergoing polysomnography. Patients with confirmed OSA were evaluated based on gender and ethnicity. Associations were determined between sleep bruxism and nocturnal GERD, and daytime sleepiness, insomnia, restless legs symptoms, and markers of OSA severity in each group. Results : In these patients with OSA, the prevalence of nocturnal GERD (35%) and sleep bruxism (26%) were higher than the general population. Sleep bruxism was more common in Caucasians than in African Americans or Hispanics; there was no gender difference. Nocturnal GERD was similar among all gender and ethnic groups. Bruxism was associated with nocturnal GERD in females, restless legs symptoms in all subjects and in males, sleepiness in African Americans, and insomnia in Hispanics. Nocturnal GERD was associated with sleepiness in males and African Americans, insomnia in females, and restless legs symptoms in females and in Caucasians. Conclusion : Patients with OSA commonly have comorbid sleep bruxism and nocturnal GERD, which may require separate treatment. Providers should be aware of differences in clinical presentation among different ethnic and gender groups. PMID:25352924

  16. Self-reported sleep bruxism and nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux disease in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: relationship to gender and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselbacher, Sean; Subramanian, Shyam; Rao, Shweta; Casturi, Lata; Surani, Salim

    2014-01-01

    Nocturnal bruxism is associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and GERD is strongly associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Gender and ethnic differences in the prevalence and clinical presentation of these often overlapping sleep disorders have not been well documented. Our aim was to examine the associations between, and the symptoms associated with, nocturnal GERD and sleep bruxism in patients with OSA, and to examine the influence of gender and ethnicity. A retrospective chart review was performed of patients diagnosed with OSA at an academic sleep center. The patients completed a sleep questionnaire prior to undergoing polysomnography. Patients with confirmed OSA were evaluated based on gender and ethnicity. Associations were determined between sleep bruxism and nocturnal GERD, and daytime sleepiness, insomnia, restless legs symptoms, and markers of OSA severity in each group. In these patients with OSA, the prevalence of nocturnal GERD (35%) and sleep bruxism (26%) were higher than the general population. Sleep bruxism was more common in Caucasians than in African Americans or Hispanics; there was no gender difference. Nocturnal GERD was similar among all gender and ethnic groups. Bruxism was associated with nocturnal GERD in females, restless legs symptoms in all subjects and in males, sleepiness in African Americans, and insomnia in Hispanics. Nocturnal GERD was associated with sleepiness in males and African Americans, insomnia in females, and restless legs symptoms in females and in Caucasians. Patients with OSA commonly have comorbid sleep bruxism and nocturnal GERD, which may require separate treatment. Providers should be aware of differences in clinical presentation among different ethnic and gender groups.

  17. Sleep As A Strategy For Optimizing Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, Angela M; Deuster, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Recovery is an essential component of maintaining, sustaining, and optimizing cognitive and physical performance during and after demanding training and strenuous missions. Getting sufficient amounts of rest and sleep is key to recovery. This article focuses on sleep and discusses (1) why getting sufficient sleep is important, (2) how to optimize sleep, and (3) tools available to help maximize sleep-related performance. Insufficient sleep negatively impacts safety and readiness through reduced cognitive function, more accidents, and increased military friendly-fire incidents. Sufficient sleep is linked to better cognitive performance outcomes, increased vigor, and better physical and athletic performance as well as improved emotional and social functioning. Because Special Operations missions do not always allow for optimal rest or sleep, the impact of reduced rest and sleep on readiness and mission success should be minimized through appropriate preparation and planning. Preparation includes periods of "banking" or extending sleep opportunities before periods of loss, monitoring sleep by using tools like actigraphy to measure sleep and activity, assessing mental effectiveness, exploiting strategic sleep opportunities, and consuming caffeine at recommended doses to reduce fatigue during periods of loss. Together, these efforts may decrease the impact of sleep loss on mission and performance. 2016.

  18. Non drowsy obstructive sleep apnea as a potential cause of resistant hypertension: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirrakhimov Aibek E

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and arterial hypertension (AH are common and underrecognized medical disorders. OSA is a potential risk factor for the development of AH and/or may act as a factor complicating AH management. The symptoms of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS are considered essential for the initiation of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP therapy, which is a first line treatment of OSA. The medical literature and practice is controversial about the treatment of people with asymptomatic OSA. Thus, OSA patients without EDS may be left at increased cardiovascular risk. Case presentation The report presents a case of 42year old Asian woman with symptoms of heart failure and angina like chest pain upon admission. She didnt experience symptoms of EDS, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale was seven points. Snoring was reported on direct questioning. The patient had prior medical history of three unsuccessful pregnancies complicated by gestational AH and preeclampsia with C-section during the last pregnancy. The admission blood pressure (BP was 200/120mm Hg. The patients treatment regimen consisted of five hypotensive medications including diuretic. However, a target BP wasnt achieved in about one and half month. The patient was offered to undergo a polysomnography (PSG study, which she rejected. One month after discharge the PSG study was done, and this showed an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI of 46 events per hour. CPAP therapy was initiated with a pressure of 11H20cm. After 2months of compliant CPAP use, adherence to pharmacologic regimen and lifestyle modifications the patients BP decreased to 134/82mm Hg. Conclusions OSA and AH are common and often underdiagnosed medical disorders independently imposing excessive cardiovascular risk on a diseased subject. When two conditions coexist the cardiovascular risk is likely much greater. This case highlights a possible clinical phenotype of OSA without EDS and its association

  19. Why does sleep stop migraine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigal, Marcelo E; Hargreaves, Richard J

    2013-10-01

    The relationship between sleep and migraine headaches is complex. Changes in sleep patterns can trigger migraine attacks, and sleep disorders may be associated with increased migraine frequency. Furthermore, migraine patients and their doctors very consistently report that sleep relieves already established migraine attacks. Herein we will try to answer the question, "Why does sleep stop migraine?" Since evidence for this relationship is largely based on empirical clinical observation, we will not provide a clinical review of the association. Instead, we will focus on the pathophysiology of migraine attacks and its intersections with sleep biology.

  20. Sleep Habits of Elementary and Middle School Children in South Texas

    OpenAIRE

    Surani, Salim; Hesselbacher, Sean; Surani, Saherish; Sadasiva, Sreevidya; Surani, Zoya; Surani, Sara S.; Khimani, Amina; Subramanian, Shyam

    2015-01-01

    Background. Sleep difficulties, including insufficient sleep and inadequate sleep hygiene, have been prevalent among children. Sleep deprivation can lead to poor grades, sleepiness, and moodiness. We undertook this study to assess the prevalence of sleep abnormalities among elementary and middle school students in South Texas and how the groups compare with one another. Method. After approval from the appropriate school district for a sleep education program, a baseline survey was taken of el...

  1. Report: EPA’s Information Systems and Data Are at Risk Due to Insufficient Training of Personnel With Significant Information Security Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #14-P-0142, March 21, 2014. The EPA places its information systems and data at risk due to an organizational structure that has not specified required duties and responsibilities to ensure personnel are trained on key information security roles.

  2. [Atypical retinitis pigmentosa in Laurence-Moon-Biedl-Bardet syndrome. Report of a case of chronic renal insufficiency under periodic hemodialysis treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, G; Carlesimo, S C; Mazzarrino, R; Palestini, M

    1993-03-01

    A case of Laurence-Moon-Biedl-Bardet syndrome in a patient undergoing hemodialysis is reported. The principal characteristics of this congenital syndrome are described. A possible pathogenetic mechanism of the atypical form of retinitis pigmentosa (sine pigmento) is discussed.

  3. Neurobiology of Sleep and Sleep Treatment Response in PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    conducted in PTSD samples, these sleep measurement methods do not allow the identification of neurobio - logical underpinnings of trauma-related...vided valuable insights into the potential neurobio - logical underpinnings of altered REM and NREM sleep mechanisms following stress exposure PTSD...nightmare patients often report improvements In sleep quality, feeling more rested upon awakening and having more davtime energy , and reduction in

  4. The associations between self-reported sleep duration and adolescent health outcomes: what is the role of time spent on Internet use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Young Kyung; Shin, Eunhae; Bautista, Mary Ann; Foo, Kelvin

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the associations of self-reported sleep duration with adolescent health outcomes, taking into account time spent on Internet use. We used data from the 2008-2009 Korea Youth Behavioral Risk Factor Survey, a cross-sectional online survey of middle and high school students aged 13-18years in South Korea (N=136,589) to examine the associations of self-reported sleep duration with four mental and physical health measures, e.g. self-report of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, weight status, and self-rated health. The binary logit and generalized ordered logit models controlled for time spent on Internet use for non-study purposes and other factors. Shorter self-reported sleep duration was associated with a higher likelihood of reporting depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and overweight or obese status, and a lower likelihood of reporting better self-rated health, even after accounting for time spent on Internet use. Excessive Internet use was found to be an independent risk factor for these outcomes. Among in-school adolescents in South Korea, shorter sleep duration and excessive Internet use are independently and additively associated with multiple indicators of adverse health status. Excessive Internet use may have not only direct adverse health consequences, but also have indirect negative effects through sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Human and rat gut microbiome composition is maintained following sleep restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Shirley L; Bai, Lei; Goel, Namni; Bailey, Aubrey; Jang, Christopher J; Bushman, Frederic D; Meerlo, Peter; Dinges, David F; Sehgal, Amita

    Insufficient sleep increasingly characterizes modern society, contributing to a host of serious medical problems. Loss of sleep is associated with metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, and neurological and cognitive impairments. Shifts in gut microbiome

  6. Can a Brief Educational Intervention Improve Parents' Knowledge of Healthy Children's Sleep? A Pilot-Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Caroline H. D.; Owens, Judith A.; Pham, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Insufficient and poor quality sleep is prevalent in children, and is a significant public health concern due to the negative consequences for health. Certain sleep-related behaviours are associated with improved sleep, and sleep behaviours are amenable to efforts targeted towards behaviour change. Parental educational interventions have…

  7. Drug Dosing in Patients with Renal Insufficiency in a Hospital Setting using Electronic Prescribing and Automated Reporting of Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anita L.; Henriksen, Daniel Pilsgaard; Marinakis, Christianna

    2014-01-01

    In patients with impaired renal function, drug dose adjustment is often required. Non-adherence to clinical prescribing recommendations may result in severe adverse events. In previous studies, the prevalence rate of non-adherence to recommended dosing has been reported to be 19-67%. Using the cl...... decision support systems should be explored. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  8. Sleep-related problems in common medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, James M

    2009-02-01

    Common medical problems are often associated with abnormalities of sleep. Patients with chronic medical disorders often have fewer hours of sleep and less restorative sleep compared to healthy individuals, and this poor sleep may worsen the subjective symptoms of the disorder. Individuals with lung disease often have disturbed sleep related to oxygen desaturations, coughing, or dyspnea. Both obstructive lung disease and restrictive lung diseases are associated with poor quality sleep. Awakenings from sleep are common in untreated or undertreated asthma, and cause sleep disruption. Gastroesophageal reflux is a major cause of disrupted sleep due to awakenings from heartburn, dyspepsia, acid brash, coughing, or choking. Patients with chronic renal disease commonly have sleep complaints often due to insomnia, insufficient sleep, sleep apnea, or restless legs syndrome. Complaints related to sleep are very common in patients with fibromyalgia and other causes of chronic pain. Sleep disruption increases the sensation of pain and decreases quality of life. Patients with infectious diseases, including acute viral illnesses, HIV-related disease, and Lyme disease, may have significant problems with insomnia and hypersomnolence. Women with menopause have from insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing, restless legs syndrome, or fibromyalgia. Patients with cancer or receiving cancer therapy are often bothered by insomnia or other sleep disturbances that affect quality of life and daytime energy. The objective of this article is to review frequently encountered medical conditions and examine their impact on sleep, and to review frequent sleep-related problems associated with these common medical conditions.

  9. Surgical treatment of a Pattern I Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome individual - clinical case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Cavalcante Feitoza

    Full Text Available Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSA is a multifactorial disease that highly alters a persons quality of life. It is characterized by the repeated interruption of breathing during sleep, due to an obstruction or the collapse of the upper airways. Since it is a multifactorial etiological disorder, it requires a thorough diagnosis and treatment with an interdisciplinary team, which comprises several professionals such as a surgical dentist, phonoaudiologist, otorhinolaryngologist, sleep doctor, neurologist and physiotherapist. The diagnosis and the degree of severity of the syndrome is determined through a polysomnography examination. After that, the best form of treatment is devised depending on the gravity of the case. In cases of moderate to severe apnea, invasive treatment through surgical procedures such as maxillomandibular advancement remains the preferred option as it increases the posterior air space, reducing and/or eliminating the obstruction. Thus, improving the patients respiratory function and, consequently, his quality of life as it is shown in the clinical case at hand. In which the male patient, facial pattern type I, 41 years of age, diagnosed with moderate OSA (Apnea-Hypopnea Index - AHI of 23.19, decided to have a surgical treatment instead of a conservative one, resulting in the cure of apnea (AHI of 0.3.

  10. Association Between Short Sleep Duration and Risk Behavior Factors in Middle School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Judith; Wang, Guanghai; Lewin, Daniel; Skora, Elizabeth; Baylor, Allison

    2017-01-01

    To examine the association between self-reported sleep duration (SD) and peer/individual factors predictive of risky behaviors (risk behavior factors) in a large socioeconomically diverse school-based sample of early adolescents. Survey data collected from 10718 and 11240 eighth-grade students in 2010 and 2012, respectively, were analyzed. N/A. Self-reported school night SD was grouped as ≤4 hours, 5 hours, 6 hours, 7 hours, 8 hours, 9 hours, and ≥10 hours. Scores on 10 peer/individual risk behavior factor scales were dichotomized according to national eigth-grade cut points. The percentage of students reporting an "optimal" SD of 9 hours was 14.8% and 15.6% in 2010 and 2012, respectively; 45.6% and 46.1% reported sleep compared to an SD of 9 hours. For example, ORs for students sleeping school students are at high risk of insufficient sleep; in particular, an SD Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Investigating the associations between productive housework activities, sleep hours and self-reported health among elderly men and women in western industrialised countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjei, Nicholas Kofi; Brand, Tilman

    2018-01-11

    After retirement, elderly men and women allocate more time to housework activities, compared to working-age adults. Nonetheless, sleep constitutes the lengthiest time use activity among the elderly, but there has not been any study on the associations between time spent on housework activities, sleep duration and self-reported health among the older population. This study not only examined individual associations between self-reported health and both housework activities and sleep duration, but it also explored self-reported health by the interaction effect between housework activities and sleep duration separately for men and women. Pooled data from the Multinational Time Use Study (MTUS) on 15,333 men and 20,907 women from Germany, Italy, Spain, UK, France, the Netherlands and the US were analysed. Multiple binary logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between three broad categories of housework activities ((1) cooking, cleaning and shopping, (2) gardening and maintenance; (3) childcare) and health. We further investigated the extent to which total housework hours and sleep duration were associated with self-reported health for men and women separately. We found a positive association between time devoted to housework activities, total housework and health status among elderly men and women. Compared to those who spent 1 to 3 h on total productive housework, elderly people who spent >3 to 6 h/day had higher odds of reporting good health (OR = 1.25; 95% CI = 1.14-1.37 among men and OR = 1.10; 95% CI = 1.01-1.20 among women). Both short (8 h) sleep duration were negatively associated with health for both genders. However, the interactive associations between total productive housework, sleep duration, and self-reported health varied among men and women. Among women, long hours of housework combined with either short or long sleep was negatively associated with health. Although time allocation to housework activities may

  12. Sleep Habits and Patterns of College Students: An Expanded Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buboltz, Walter, Jr., Jenkins, Steve M.; Soper, Barlow; Woller, Kevin; Johnson, Patrick; Faes, Theresa

    2009-01-01

    This study represents an expansion of previous research investigating the prevalence of sleep difficulties in college students. Sleep quality and sleep habits were assessed via self-report questionnaires. Poor sleep quality was reported by 22.6% of participants, whereas 65.9% replied that they experienced occasional sleep problems. More than half…

  13. Respiratory insufficiency with preserved diaphragmatic function in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Rika; Imai, Tomihiro; Tsuda, Emiko; Hozuki, Takayoshi; Yamamoto, Daisuke; Shimohama, Shun

    2014-01-01

    We performed a longitudinal study to elucidate the correlation between respiratory insufficiency and respiratory biomarkers, including diaphragmatic compound muscle action potential (DCMAP), at the initiation of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The patients were assessed at least every six months. Additional assessments were performed at the start of respiratory therapy when the patients met the criteria for the initiation of NIV. Each assessment consisted of a full neurological examination, a phrenic nerve conduction study, respiratory function tests, and nocturnal pulsed oximetry. We enrolled 43 patients with either definite or probable ALS as defined by the revised El Escorial criteria. The patients were divided into two groups according to the timing of the initiation of respiratory therapy. Seventeen patients (group A) met the criteria for NIV initiation when their DCMAP remained normal. Twenty-six patients (group B) met the criteria when their DCMAP decreased below normal limits. Although respiratory function parameters were significantly worse in group B compared with group A at NIV initiation, more than 80% of the patients in both groups developed nocturnal desaturation during sleep. DCMAP is not always a reliable indicator for determining the optimal timing for NIV initiation during the progression of respiratory insufficiency in ALS. Physicians should be aware of the risk of respiratory insufficiency during sleep in patients with ALS.

  14. Sleep Disorders: Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Deepa

    2017-09-01

    Insomnia is the most common type of sleep disorder in the family medicine population. It is defined as a persistent difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, or a report of nonrestorative sleep, accompanied by related daytime impairment. Insomnia is a significant public health problem because of its high prevalence and management challenges. There is increasing evidence of a strong association between insomnia and various medical and psychiatric comorbidities. Diagnosis of insomnia and treatment planning rely on a thorough sleep history to address contributing and precipitating factors as well as maladaptive behaviors resulting in poor sleep. Using a sleep diary or sleep log is more accurate than patient recall to determine sleep patterns. A sleep study is not routinely indicated for evaluation of insomnia. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is the mainstay of treatment and is a safe and effective approach. The key challenge of CBT-I is the lack of clinicians to implement it. The newer generation nonbenzodiazepines (eg, zolpidem, zaleplon) are used as first-line pharmacotherapy for chronic insomnia. Newer drugs active on targets other than the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor are now available, but clear treatment guidelines are needed. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  15. Frontal Underactivation During Working Memory Processing in Adults With Acute Partial Sleep Deprivation: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Yeung

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with partial sleep deprivation may have working memory (WM impairment, but the underlying neural mechanism of this phenomenon is relatively unknown. The present study examined neural processing during WM performance in individuals with and without partial sleep deprivation using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Forty college students (10 males were equally split into Sufficient Sleep (SS and Insufficient Sleep (IS groups based on self-reports of previous night's sleep duration. Participants in the SS group obtained the recommended amounts of sleep according to various sleep organizations (i.e., >7.0 h, whereas those in the IS group obtained amounts of sleep no greater than the lower limit of the recommendation (i.e., ≤7.0 h. All participants underwent an n-back paradigm with a WM load (i.e., 3-back and a control condition (i.e., 0-back while their prefrontal hemodynamics were recorded by NIRS. The IS and SS groups performed the tasks comparably well. However, unlike the SS group, which exhibited bilateral frontal activation indicated by increased oxyhemoglobin concentration and decreased deoxyhemoglobin concentration during WM processing (i.e., 3-back > 0-back, the IS group did not exhibit such activation. In addition, levels of WM-related frontal activation, especially those on the left side, correlated with sleep duration the night before, even when habitual sleep duration was controlled for. The findings suggest the presence of frontal lobe dysfunction in the absence of evident WM difficulties in individuals with acute partial sleep deprivation. They also highlight the importance of a good night's sleep to brain health.

  16. Associations between sleep disturbance and alcohol drinking: A large-scale epidemiological study of adolescents in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Hisayoshi; Itani, Osamu; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Ikeda, Maki; Kondo, Shuji; Yamamoto, Ryuichiro; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kanda, Hideyuki; Higuchi, Susumu; Ohida, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we attempted to clarify the associations between various sleep disturbance symptoms and the frequency and amount of alcohol use among Japanese adolescents. This study was designed as a cross-sectional sampling survey. A self-administered questionnaire survey was administered to students enrolled in randomly selected junior and senior high schools throughout Japan. A total of 99,416 adolescents responded, and 98,867 questionnaires were subjected to analysis. The prevalence rates of sleep disturbance in the 30 days preceding the day of the survey were as follows: subjectively insufficient sleep (SIS) (boys: 37.6%, girls: 38.7%); short sleep duration (SSD) with less than 6 h of sleep (boys: 28.0%, girls: 33.0%); difficulty initiating sleep (DIS) (boys: 12.5%, girls: 14.1%); difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS) (boys: 10.1%, girls: 10.9%); and early morning awakening (EMA) (boys: 5.1%, girls: 5.0%). Adolescents reporting one or more symptoms of DIS, DMS, and EMA were classified as having insomnia, and its prevalence was 21.5%. The prevalence of each symptom of sleep disturbance increased significantly with the number of days on which alcohol was consumed in the previous 30 days and the amount of alcohol consumed per drinking session (p sleep disturbance, except SIS and EMA, tended to increase with the number of days on which alcohol was consumed and the amount of alcohol consumed per drinking session. The prevalence of sleep disturbance is particularly high among adolescents drinking alcohol. The risk of having each symptom of sleep disturbance, except SIS and EMA, increases with the number of days on which alcohol was consumed and the amount of alcohol consumed per drinking session. These findings reconfirm the need to eliminate underage drinking to ensure good sleep among adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sleep: important considerations for the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandner, Michael A; Alfonso-Miller, Pamela; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Shetty, Safal; Shenoy, Sundeep; Combs, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    Sleep plays many roles in maintenance of cardiovascular health. This review summarizes the literature across several areas of sleep and sleep disorders in relation to cardiometabolic disease risk factors. Insufficient sleep duration is prevalent in the population and is associated with weight gain and obesity, inflammation, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and mortality. Insomnia is also highly present and represents an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, especially when accompanied by short sleep duration. Sleep apnea is a well-characterized risk factor for cardiometabolic disease and cardiovascular mortality. Other issues are relevant as well. For example, sleep disorders in pediatric populations may convey cardiovascular risks. Also, sleep may play an important role in cardiovascular health disparities. Sleep and sleep disorders are implicated in cardiometabolic disease risk. This review addresses these and other issues, concluding with recommendations for research and clinical practice.

  18. Acquired auditory agnosia in childhood and normal sleep electroencephalography subsequently diagnosed as Landau-Kleffner syndrome: a report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bogaert, Patrick; King, Mary D; Paquier, Philippe; Wetzburger, Catherine; Labasse, Catherine; Dubru, Jean-Marie; Deonna, Thierry

    2013-06-01

      We report three cases of Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS) in children (two females, one male) in whom diagnosis was delayed because the sleep electroencephalography (EEG) was initially normal.   Case histories including EEG, positron emission tomography findings, and long-term outcome were reviewed.   Auditory agnosia occurred between the age of 2 years and 3 years 6 months, after a period of normal language development. Initial awake and sleep EEG, recorded weeks to months after the onset of language regression, during a nap period in two cases and during a full night of sleep in the third case, was normal. Repeat EEG between 2 months and 2 years later showed epileptiform discharges during wakefulness and strongly activated by sleep, with a pattern of continuous spike-waves during slow-wave sleep in two patients. Patients were diagnosed with LKS and treated with various antiepileptic regimens, including corticosteroids. One patient in whom EEG became normal on hydrocortisone is making significant recovery. The other two patients did not exhibit a sustained response to treatment and remained severely impaired.   Sleep EEG may be normal in the early phase of acquired auditory agnosia. EEG should be repeated frequently in individuals in whom a firm clinical diagnosis is made to facilitate early treatment. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2012 Mac Keith Press.

  19. Sleep Deficiency and Sleep Health Problems in Chinese Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Kang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of sleep schedules, sleep health, and the impact on school performance was conducted in 585 adolescents in a high school in China. A high level of early and circadian-disadvantaged sleep/wake schedules during weekdays was observed. Significantly shorter sleep duration on weekdays was reported ( P < 0.0001. Older teenagers slept significantly less than the younger teenagers ( P < 0.0001. Complaints of inadequate sleep and sleepiness during weekdays were prevalent. Night awakenings were reported in 32.2% of students. Students with a sleep length of less than 7 hours, complaint of inadequate sleep, or excessive daytime sleepiness during weekdays were more likely to report an adverse effect of poor sleep on performance. The present observations are qualitatively similar to those reported in our study in American adolescents, particularly with respect to Chinese adolescents exhibiting a similar sleep deficiency on weekdays. We concluded that sleep deficiency and sleep health problems were prevalent in the participating adolescents in China, and were perceived to adversely affect school performance.

  20. Sleep-related movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlino, Giovanni; Gigli, Gian Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Several movement disorders may occur during nocturnal rest disrupting sleep. A part of these complaints is characterized by relatively simple, non-purposeful and usually stereotyped movements. The last version of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders includes these clinical conditions (i.e. restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, sleep-related leg cramps, sleep-related bruxism and sleep-related rhythmic movement disorder) under the category entitled sleep-related movement disorders. Moreover, apparently physiological movements (e.g. alternating leg muscle activation and excessive hypnic fragmentary myoclonus) can show a high frequency and severity impairing sleep quality. Clinical and, in specific cases, neurophysiological assessments are required to detect the presence of nocturnal movement complaints. Patients reporting poor sleep due to these abnormal movements should undergo non-pharmacological or pharmacological treatments.

  1. Brief Behavioral Sleep Intervention for Adolescents: An Effectiveness Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavonen, E Juulia; Huurre, Taina; Tilli, Maija; Kiviruusu, Olli; Partonen, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common among adolescents, but there are no brief interventions to treat them. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief semistructured, individually delivered sleep intervention to ameliorate adolescents' sleeping difficulties and lengthen sleep duration. All students aged 16-18 years in a high school were screened for sleeping difficulties and 36 students with the highest sleep problem scores were invited to the intervention. Postintervention improvements were observed on self-reported and actiwatch-registered sleep duration, self-reported sleep quality and sleep latency, perceived stress and anxiety (all p values sleep efficiency and sleep latency did not change (p > 0.05). A brief individual sleep intervention can be effective in lengthening sleep duration and improving subjective sleep quality and well-being among adolescents.

  2. Later school start time is associated with improved sleep and daytime functioning in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boergers, Julie; Gable, Christopher J; Owens, Judith A

    2014-01-01

    Chronic insufficient sleep is a growing concern among adolescents and is associated with a host of adverse health consequences. Early school start times may be an environmental contributor to this problem. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a delay in school start time on sleep patterns, sleepiness, mood, and health-related outcomes. Boarding students (n = 197, mean age = 15.6 yr) attending an independent high school completed the School Sleep Habits Survey before and after the school start time was experimentally delayed from 8:00 a.m. to 8:25 a.m. The delay in school start time was associated with a significant (29 min) increase in sleep duration on school nights. The percentage of students receiving 8 or more hours of sleep on a school night increased to more than double, from 18% to 44%. Students in 9th and 10th grade and those with lower baseline sleep amounts were more likely to report improvements in sleep duration after the schedule change. Daytime sleepiness, depressed mood, and caffeine use were all significantly reduced after the delay in school start time. Sleep duration reverted to baseline levels when the original (earlier) school start time was reinstituted. A modest (25 min) delay in school start time was associated with significant improvements in sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, mood, and caffeine use. These findings have important implications for public policy and add to research suggesting the health benefits of modifying school schedules to more closely align with adolescents' circadian rhythms and sleep needs.

  3. Upper airway surgery of obstructive sleep apnea in pycnodysostosis: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testani, Elisa; Scarano, Emanuele; Leoni, Chiara; Dittoni, Serena; Losurdo, Anna; Colicchio, Salvatore; Gnoni, Valentina; Vollono, Catello; Zampino, Giuseppe; Paludetti, Gaetano; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2014-08-01

    Pycnodysostosis is an autosomal recessive disorder due to a mutation in the cathepsin K gene, which causes a decrease of the bone turnover; a review of the literature suggests that pycnodysostosis is frequently associated with severe respiratory obstruction, which needs surgical treatment. The aim of this paper is to describe the surgical treatment of a 3½-year-old girl affected by Pycnodysostosis complicated by a severe sleep-related respiratory disorder. The surgical treatment, consisting of adenotonsillectomy and palatoplasty, resulted in a striking amelioration of respiratory parameters and increased posterior airway space, and allowed the patient to avoid tracheotomy while awaiting for maxillo-mandibular surgery. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. [Adrenal insufficiency of the adult].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jublanc, C; Bruckert, E

    2016-12-01

    Adrenal insufficiency is a rare but life-threatening disorder. Clinical manifestations include fatigue, weight loss, gastrointestinal manifestations and skin hyperpigmentation, the latter being specific of primary adrenal failure. Because of non-specific clinical features of this rare disorder, diagnosis can be delayed and adrenal failure be revealed by an acute crisis. Adrenal insufficiency can be primary (Addison disease), most frequently autoimmune, or secondary, resulting from long term administration of exogenous glucocorticoids or more rarely from pituitary disorders. Monitoring of substitutive treatment is now well codified. Patient education is very important in this chronic disease that remains associated with a persistent high risk of adrenal crisis. Copyright © 2016 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Primary ovarian insufficiency: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox L

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Leticia Cox, James H LiuUH Case Medical Center, MacDonald Women's Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Department of Reproductive Biology, Cleveland, OH, USAAbstract: Primary ovarian insufficiency is a condition that represents impaired ovarian function on a continuum with intermittent ovulation. This condition commonly leads to premature menopause, defined as cessation of ovulation prior to the age of 40 years. Because there are potential immediate and long-term consequences of hypoestrogenism, a timely diagnosis is invaluable. This comprehensive review will discuss identifiable causes for primary ovarian insufficiency, including genetic disorders and metabolic abnormalities, as well as review current strategies for diagnosis, evaluation, and management of women with this condition.Keywords: premature ovarian failure, premature menopause, ovarian dysfunction

  6. Pubic insufficiency fracture: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Tae Kyu; Lee, Yeon Soo; Park, Jeong Mi; Kim, Jee Young; Chung, Hong Jun; Lee, Eun Hee; Lee, Eun Ja; Kang, So Won; Han Tae Il

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the characteristic MRI findings of pubic insufficiency fracture. In nine cases of pubic insufficiency fracture, the findings of plain radiography (n=9), MRI (n=9), and bone scintigraphy (n=8) were reviewed. We retrospectively analyzed, with regard to fracture site, the destructive pattern revealed by plain radiography, and uptake by other pelvic bones, as demonstrated by RI bone scanning. The MR findings evaluated were the fracture gap and its signal intensity, the site and signal intensity of the soft tissue mass, and other pelvic bone fractures. Plain radiography revealed osteolysis and sclerosis of pubic bone in eight of nine cases (89%), and parasymphyseal fractures in seven (78%). RI indicated uptake by the sacrum in six cases (66%), and by the ilium in three (33%). MR findings of fracture gap (seven cases, 78%) were hypo to isointensity on T1WI, hyper intensity on T2WI and the absence of contrast enhancement. Soft tissue masses were found in seven cases (78%); in four of these the location was parasymphyseal, and in three, surrounding muscle was involved. Hypo to isointensity was revealed by T1WI, hyperintensity by T2WI, and there was peripheral enhancement. Other associated pelvic bone fractures involved the sacrum in seven cases and the ilium in four. The characteristic MR findings of pubic insufficiency fracture were parasymphyseal location, fracture gap, peripherally enhanced soft tissue mass formation, and fractures of other pelvic bones, namely the sacrum and ilium

  7. Infant attachment and toddlers' sleep assessed by maternal reports and actigraphy: different measurement methods yield different relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Valérie; Bernier, Annie; Bélanger, Marie-Ève; Carrier, Julie

    2013-06-01

    To investigate relations between children's attachment and sleep, using objective and subjective sleep measures. Secondarily, to identify the most accurate actigraphy algorithm for toddlers. 55 mother-child dyads took part in the Strange Situation Procedure (18 months) to assess attachment. At 2 years, children wore an Actiwatch for a 72-hr period, and their mothers completed a sleep diary. The high sensitivity (80) and smoothed actigraphy algorithms provided the most plausible sleep data. Maternal diaries yielded longer estimated sleep duration and shorter wake duration at night and showed poor agreement with actigraphy. More resistant attachment behavior was not associated with actigraphy-assessed sleep, but was associated with longer nocturnal wake duration as estimated by mothers, and with a reduced actigraphy-diary discrepancy. Mothers of children with resistant attachment are more aware of their child's nocturnal awakenings. Researchers and clinicians should select the best sleep measurement method for their specific needs.

  8. Effects of long work hours and poor sleep characteristics on workplace injury among full-time male employees of small- and medium-scale businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Akinori

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long work hours and poor sleep characteristics on workplace injury. A total of 1891 male employees, aged 18-79 years (mean 45 years), in 296 small- and medium-scale businesses in a suburb of Tokyo were surveyed by means of a self-administered questionnaire during August-December 2002. Work hours and sleep characteristics, including daily sleep hours, subjective sleep sufficiency, sleep quality and easiness to wake up in the morning, were evaluated. Information on workplace injury in the past 1-year period was self-reported. The risk of workplace injury associated with work hours and poor sleep was estimated using multivariate logistic regression with odds ratio (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals as measures of associations. Compared with those working 6-8 h day(-1) with good sleep characteristics, positive interactive effects for workplace injury were found between long work hours (>8-10 h day(-1) or >10 h day(-1) ) and short sleep duration (Long work hours (aOR, 1.31-1.48), subjective insufficient sleep (aOR, 1.49) and sleeping poorly at night (aOR, 1.72) were also independently associated with workplace injury. This study suggests that long work hours coupled with poor sleep characteristics are synergistically associated with increased risk of workplace injury. Greater attention should be paid to manage/treat poor sleep and reduce excessive work hours to improve safety at the workplace. 2011 European Sleep Research Society.

  9. Subjective sleep quality in sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse-Henck, Andrea; Wirtz, Hubert; Hinz, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Poor sleep is common among patients with medical disorders. Sleep disturbances can be a cause of fatigue and poor quality of life for patients suffering from sarcoidosis. Studies on subjective sleep quality or prevalence of insomnia have not been reported so far. The aim of this study was to investigate the subjectively reported sleep quality and its relation to psychological and physical factors in sarcoidosis patients. 1197 patients from Germany diagnosed with sarcoidosis were examined using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnea scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI). 802 patients (67%) had PSQI global scores >5, indicating subjectively poor quality of sleep. The mean PSQI score was 7.79 ± 4.00. Women reported a significantly inferior individual quality of sleep than men. The subjective quality of sleep was lowered significantly with increasing dyspnea for men and women. 294 patients (25%) had PSQI global scores >10 usually found in patients with clinically relevant insomnia. In this group 86% had high values for fatigue, 69% for anxiety, and 59% for depression. The prevalence of known sleep apnea was 8.7% and 15.7% for restless legs. Poor subjective sleep quality in sarcoidosis patients is about twice as common as in the general population and is associated with fatigue, anxiety, depression and dyspnea. Questions about sleep complaints should therefore be included in the management of sarcoidosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence and impact of sleep disorders and sleep habits in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Saravanan; Seirawan, Hazem; Kumar, Satish K S; Clark, Glenn T

    2010-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies on sleep disorders in the USA have mostly focused on specific disorders in specific groups of individuals. Most studies on sleep habits and sleep-related difficulties have focused on children and adolescents. The authors describe the prevalence of the three common physician-diagnosed sleep disorders (insomnia, sleep apnea, and restless legs syndrome (RLS)) by age, gender, and race in the US population. In addition, the authors describe the sleep habits and sleep-related difficulties in carrying routine daily activities. The authors also investigate the impact of the sleep disorders on performing routine daily activities. Data from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 6,139 individuals over the age of 16 was analyzed for sleep-related parameters. The prevalence was highest for sleep apnea (4.2%), followed by insomnia (1.2%) and RLS (0.4%). Hispanics and Whites reported longer sleep duration than Blacks by 24 to 30 min. The predominant sleep habits were snoring while sleeping (48%), feeling unrested during the day (26.5%), and not getting enough sleep (26%). Difficulty concentrating (25%) or remembering (18%) were the main sleep-related difficulties in our sample. Insomnia, sleep apnea, and RLS had the highest impact on concentration and memory. Our findings suggest that the prevalence of sleep disorders in the USA is much lower than previously reported in the literature suggesting under diagnosis of sleep disorders by primary care physicians.

  11. Differences in suprathreshold heat pain responses and self-reported sleep quality between patients with temporomandibular joint disorder and healthy controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Dasilva, M.C.; Goodin, B.R.; Fillingim, R.B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in heat pain threshold (HPTh) and heat pain tolerance (HPTo) between temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJD) patients and healthy controls. Using suprathreshold heat pain, this study also examined between-group (i.e. TMJD vs. healthy controls) differences in hyperalgesia and temporal summation (TS) of heat pain. Lastly, whether between-group differences in these heat pain outcomes were mediated by self-reported sleep quality was also tested. A total of 119 participants (41% TMJD) completed the current study. HPTh and HPTo responses were assessed at the ventral forearm with an ascending method of limits, while hyperalgesia and TS responses were assessed at the dorsal forearm at temperatures of 46, 48 and 50 °C. Prior to completion of heat pain procedures, participants completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Significant between-group differences in HPTh and HPTo were not observed. TMJD patients demonstrated significantly greater hyperalgesia than healthy controls at 46 °C only, but there were no differences for TS. Furthermore, TMJD patients reported significantly poorer sleep quality compared with healthy controls. Data analysis revealed a significant simple mediation effect whereby the presence of TMJD was strongly associated with poorer self-reported sleep quality, which, in turn, was related to enhanced hyperalgesia at 46 °C. These findings support the hypothesis that the thermal hyperalgesia demonstrated by TMJD patients may be related to poor quality of their self-reported sleep. The ability of interventions that improve sleep quality to also affect pain sensitivity is currently the topic of ongoing investigation. PMID:22344627

  12. Atypical sexual behavior during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilleminault, Christian; Moscovitch, Adam; Yuen, Kin; Poyares, Dalva

    2002-01-01

    This article reports a case series of atypical sexual behavior during sleep, which is often harmful to patients or bed partners. Eleven subjects underwent clinical evaluation of complaints of sleep-related atypical sexual behavior. Complaints included violent masturbation, sexual assaults, and continuous (and loud) sexual vocalizations during sleep. One case was a medical-legal case. Sleep logs, clinical evaluations, sleep questionnaires, structured psychiatric interviews, polysomnography, actigraphy, home electroencephalographic monitoring during sleep, and clinical electroencephalographic monitoring while awake and asleep were used to determine clinical diagnoses. Atypical sexual behaviors during sleep were associated with feelings of guilt, shame, and depression. Because of these feelings, patients and bed partners often tolerated the abnormal behavior for long periods of time without seeking medical attention. The following pathologic sleep disorders were demonstrated on polysomnography: partial complex seizures, sleep-disordered breathing, stage 3 to 4 non-rapid eye movement (REM) sleep parasomnias, and REM sleep behavior disorder. These findings were concurrent with morning amnesia. The atypical behaviors were related to different syndromes despite the similarity of complaints from bed partners. In most cases the disturbing and often harmful symptoms were controlled when counseling was instituted and sleep disorders were treated. In some cases treatment of seizures or psychiatric disorders was also needed. Clonazepam with simultaneous psychotherapy was the most common successful treatment combination. The addition of antidepressant or antiepileptic medications was required in specific cases.

  13. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome as a novel cause for Ménière's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Meiho; Kabaya, Kayoko

    2013-10-01

    Several recent reports have described the relation between sleep disorders and inner ear function. There are also many reports that insomnia is observed in Ménière's patients. However, the possibility that obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) might affect Ménière's disease or other neurotological consequences was not noticed, until studies using polysomnography for these patients. OSAS may cause not only vestibular but also auditory dysfunction. Several reports suggest that insufficient supply of blood via the vertebral basilar artery, which supplies the inner ear, may cause hydropic distension of the endolymphatic system and lead to Ménière's disease. However, few people noticed that in OSAS this insufficient supply might be exacerbated in the night while patients are sleeping. Even more, we should note that Ménière's patients may not only suffer from insomnia, but also that the impaired sleep might be caused by OSAS. Physicians routinely prescribe benzodiazepines or other drugs that have hypnotic, muscle relaxing, antianxiety, and anticonvulsant properties for insomnia, but these properties may have the effect of aggravating OSAS symptoms. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is an effective therapy used worldwide for the treatment of OSAS. CPAP or surgeries for OSAS may also be useful as one aspect of treatment for Ménière's disease patients with OSAS.

  14. Sleep and metabolic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, Lisa L; Guyon, Aurore; Spiegel, Karine

    2012-01-01

    Evidence for the role of sleep on metabolic and endocrine function has been reported more than four decades ago. In the past 30 years, the prevalence of obesity and diabetes has greatly increased in industrialized countries, and self-imposed sleep curtailment, now very common, is starting to be recognized as a contributing factor, alongside with increased caloric intake and decreased physical activity. Furthermore, obstructive sleep apnea, a chronic condition characterized by recurrent upper airway obstruction leading to intermittent hypoxemia and sleep fragmentation, has also become highly prevalent as a consequence of the epidemic of obesity and has been shown to contribute, in a vicious circle, to the metabolic disturbances observed in obese patients. In this article, we summarize the current data supporting the role of sleep in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and the hormones involved in the regulation of appetite. We also review the results of the epidemiologic and laboratory studies that investigated the impact of sleep duration and quality on the risk of developing diabetes and obesity, as well as the mechanisms underlying this increased risk. Finally, we discuss how obstructive sleep apnea affects glucose metabolism and the beneficial impact of its treatment, the continuous positive airway pressure. In conclusion, the data available in the literature highlight the importance of getting enough good sleep for metabolic health.

  15. Sleep and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenzhao Ding

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rising global prevalence and incidence of obesity lead to increased cardiovascular-renal complications and cancers. Epidemiological studies reported a worldwide trend towards suboptimal sleep duration and poor sleep quality in parallel with this obesity epidemic. From rodents and human models, it is highly plausible that abnormalities in sleep, both quantity and quality, impact negatively on energy metabolism. While excess dietary intake and physical inactivity are the known drivers of the obesity epidemic, promotion of healthy sleep habits has emerged as a new target to combat obesity. In this light, present review focuses on the existing literature examining the relationship between sleep physiology and energy homeostasis. Notably, sleep dysregulation perturbs the metabolic milieu via alterations in hormones such as leptin and ghrelin, eating behavior, neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous systems. In addition, shift work and trans-meridian air travel may exert a negative influence on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and trigger circadian misalignment, leading to impaired glucose tolerance and increased fat accumulation. Amassing evidence has also suggested that uncoupling of the circadian clock can increase the risk of adverse metabolic health. Given the importance of sleep in maintaining energy homeostasis and that it is potentially modifiable, promoting good sleep hygiene may create new avenues for obesity prevention and treatment.

  16. Healthy Sleep Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleep Apnea Testing CPAP Healthy Sleep Habits Healthy Sleep Habits Your behaviors during the day, and especially ... team at an AASM accredited sleep center . Quick Sleep Tips Follow these tips to establish healthy sleep ...

  17. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a ... find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a ...

  18. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a ... find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a ...

  19. Post-partum pituitary insufficiency and livedo reticularis presenting a diagnostic challenge in a resource limited setting in Tanzania: a case report, clinical discussion and brief review of existing literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheriff Faheem G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pituitary disorders following pregnancy are an important yet under reported clinical entity in the developing world. Conversely, post partum panhypopituitarism has a more devastating impact on women in such settings due to high fertility rates, poor obstetric care and scarcity of diagnostic and therapeutic resources available. Case presentation A 37 year old African female presented ten years post partum with features of multiple endocrine deficiencies including hypothyroidism, hypoadrenalism, lactation failure and secondary amenorrhea. In addition she had clinical features of an underlying autoimmune condition. These included a history of post-partum thyroiditis, alopecia areata, livedo reticularis and deranged coagulation indices. A remarkable clinical response followed appropriate hormone replacement therapy including steroids. This constellation has never been reported before; we therefore present an interesting clinical discussion including a brief review of existing literature. Conclusion Post partum pituitary insufficiency is an under-reported condition of immense clinical importance especially in the developing world. A high clinical index of suspicion is vital to ensure an early and correct diagnosis which will have a direct bearing on management and patient outcome.

  20. Habitual sleep duration and insomnia and the risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause death: report from a community-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Kuo-Liong; Chen, Pei-Chung; Hsu, Hsiu-Ching; Su, Ta-Chen; Sung, Fung-Chang; Chen, Ming-Fong; Lee, Yuan-Teh

    2010-02-01

    To investigate the relationship between sleep duration and insomnia severity and the risk of all-cause death and cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. Prospective cohort study. Community-based. A total of 3,430 adults aged 35 years or older. None. During a median 15.9 year (interquartile range, 13.1 to 16.9) follow-up period, 420 cases developed cardiovascular disease and 901 cases died. A U-shape association between sleep duration and all-cause death was found: the age and gender-adjusted relative risks (95% confidence interval [CI]) of all-cause death (with 7 h of daily sleep being considered for the reference group) for individuals reporting or = 9 h were 1.15 (0.91-1.45), 1.02 (0.85-1.25), 1.05 (0.88-1.27), and 1.43 (1.16-1.75); P for trend, 0.019. However, the relationship between sleep duration and risk of CVD were linear. The multivariate-adjusted relative risk (95% CI) for all-cause death (using individuals without insomnia) were 1.02 (0.86-1.20) for occasional insomnia, 1.15 (0.92-1.42) for frequent insomnia, and 1.70 (1.16-2.49) for nearly everyday insomnia (P for trend, 0.028). The multivariate adjusted relative risk (95% CI) was 2.53 (1.71-3.76) for all-cause death and 2.07 (1.11-3.85) for CVD rate in participants sleeping > or = 9 h and for those with frequent insomnia. Sleep duration and insomnia severity were associated with all-cause death and CVD events among ethnic Chinese in Taiwan. Our data indicate that an optimal sleep duration (7-8 h) predicted fewer deaths.

  1. Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes your breathing to stop or get very shallow. Breathing ... an hour. The most common type is obstructive sleep apnea. It causes your airway to collapse or ...

  2. Sleep in intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyko, Yuliya; Jennum, Poul; Nikolic, Miki

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine if improving intensive care unit (ICU) environment would enhance sleep quality, assessed by polysomnography (PSG), in critically ill mechanically ventilated patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Randomized controlled trial, crossover design. The night intervention "quiet routine...... Medicine) sleep scoring criteria were insufficient for the assessment of polysomnograms. Modified classification for sleep scoring in critically ill patients, suggested by Watson et al. (Crit Care Med 2013;41:1958-1967), was used. RESULTS: Sound level analysis showed insignificant effect...... patients. We were not able to further reduce the already existing low noise levels in the ICU and did not find any association between the environmental intervention and the presence of normal sleep characteristics in the PSG....

  3. Relationship between sleep duration and self-reported health-related quality of life among US adults with or without major chronic diseases, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Wheaton, Anne G; Croft, Janet B; Xu, Fang; Cunningham, Timothy J; Greenlund, Kurt J

    2018-06-01

    To assess the association between sleep duration and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among adults with or without chronic conditions. Using the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we analyzed self-reported data from adult respondents aged ≥18 years with (n=277,757, unhealthy group) and without (n=172,052. healthy group) reported history of any of nine chronic conditions (coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, asthma, arthritis, depression, chronic kidney disease). Multivariable logistic regressions were separately constructed to assess the associations between sleep duration and four self-reported HRQOL measures after adjustment for sociodemographics, leisure-time physical activity, body mass index, and smoking status among unhealthy and healthy adults. The prevalence of poor/fair health, frequent physical distress, frequent mental distress, frequent activity limitation, and short sleep duration was 27.9%, 19.3%, 17.0%, 13.6%, and 38.3% in the unhealthy group and 6.9%, 4.0%, 5.3%, 2.1%, and 31.0% in the healthy group, respectively. U-shaped relationships of sleep duration to all four HRQOL indicators were observed among the unhealthy group and to poor/fair health, frequent mental distress, and frequent activity limitation among the healthy group. The relationships further varied by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and BMI category among the healthy group. Relationships between extreme sleep duration and HRQOLs were observed among both healthy and unhealthy groups. These results can help inform public awareness campaigns and physician-counseling regarding the importance of sleep for mental health and well-being. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Sleep less and bite more: sleep disorders associated with occlusal loads during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takafumi; Yamaguchi, Taihiko; Okura, Kazuo; Abe, Susumu; Lavigne, Gilles J

    2013-04-01

    Occlusal overload during sleep is a significant clinical issue that has negative impacts on the maintenance of teeth and the longevity of dental prostheses. Sleep is usually viewed as an 'out-of-functional' mode for masticatory muscles. However, orodental structures and prostheses are not free from occlusal loads during sleep since masticatory muscles can be activated at a low level within normal sleep continuity. Thus, an increase in masticatory muscle contractions, by whatever the cause, can be associated with a risk of increased occlusal loads during sleep. Among such conditions, sleep bruxism (SB) is a type of sleep-related movement disorders with potential load challenge to the tooth and orofacial structures. Patients with SB usually report frequent tooth grinding noises during sleep and there is a consecutive increase in number and strength of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA). Other types of masticatory muscle contractions can be non-specifically activated during sleep, such as brief contractions with tooth tapping, sleep talking, non-rhythmic contractions related to non-specific body movements, etc.; these occur more frequently in sleep disorders. Studies have shown that clinical signs and symptoms of SB can be found in patients with sleep disorders. In addition, sleep becomes compromised with aging process, and a prevalence of most sleep disorders is high in the elderly populations, in which prosthodontic rehabilitations are more required. Therefore, the recognition and understanding of the role of sleep disorders can provide a comprehensive vision for prosthodontic rehabilitations when prosthodontists manage complex orodental cases needing interdisciplinary collaborations between dentistry and sleep medicine. Copyright © 2013 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sleep habits and strategies of ultramarathon runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Tristan; Arnal, Pierrick J.; Hoffman, Martin D.; Millet, Guillaume Y.

    2018-01-01

    Among factors impacting performance during an ultramarathon, sleep is an underappreciated factor that has received little attention. The aims of this study were to characterize habitual sleep behaviors in ultramarathon runners and to examine strategies they use to manage sleep before and during ultramarathons. Responses from 636 participants to a questionnaire were considered. This population was found to sleep more on weekends and holidays (7–8 h to 8–9 h) than during weekdays (6–7 h to 7–8 h; p sleep disorders, with more women (38.9%) reporting sleep problems than men (22.0%; p sleep preceding an ultramarathon, with 54.7% trying to increase their opportunities for sleep. Only 21% of participants reported that they had a strategy to manage sleep during ultramarathons, with micronaps being the most common strategy specified. Sub-analyses from 221 responses indicated that sleep duration during an ultramarathon was correlated with finish time for races lasting 36–60 h (r = 0.48; p 60 h (r = 0.44; p sleep duration among ultramarathon runners was comparable to the general population and other athletic populations, yet they reported a lower prevalence of sleep disorders. Daytime sleepiness was among the lowest rates encountered in athletic populations, which may be related to the high percentage of nappers in our population. Sleep extension, by increasing sleep time at night and daytime napping, was the main sleep strategy to prepare for ultramarathons. PMID:29742118

  6. The impact of sleep loss on hippocampal function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Toni-Moi; Abel, Ted

    2013-01-01

    Hippocampal cellular and molecular processes critical for memory consolidation are affected by the amount and quality of sleep attained. Questions remain with regard to how sleep enhances memory, what parameters of sleep after learning are optimal for memory consolidation, and what underlying hippocampal molecular players are targeted by sleep deprivation to impair memory consolidation and plasticity. In this review, we address these topics with a focus on the detrimental effects of post-learning sleep deprivation on memory consolidation. Obtaining adequate sleep is challenging in a society that values “work around the clock.” Therefore, the development of interventions to combat the negative cognitive effects of sleep deprivation is key. However, there are a limited number of therapeutics that are able to enhance cognition in the face of insufficient sleep. The identification of molecular pathways implicated in the deleterious effects of sleep deprivation on memory could potentially yield new targets for the development of more effective drugs. PMID:24045505

  7. Sociodemographic and Cultural Determinants of Sleep Deficiency: Implications for Cardiometabolic Disease Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Knutson, Kristen L.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is a biological imperative associated with cardiometabolic disease risk. As such, a thorough discussion of the sociocultural and demographic determinants of sleep is warranted, if not overdue. This paper begins with a brief review of the laboratory and epidemiologic evidence linking sleep deficiency, which includes insufficient sleep and poor sleep quality, with increased risk of chronic cardiometabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes and hypertension. Identification of the determina...

  8. Sleep Deprivation and Recovery Sleep Prior to a Noxious Inflammatory Insult Influence Characteristics and Duration of Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanini, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient sleep and chronic pain are public health epidemics. Sleep loss worsens pain and predicts the development of chronic pain. Whether previous, acute sleep loss and recovery sleep determine pain levels and duration remains poorly understood. This study tested whether acute sleep deprivation and recovery sleep prior to formalin injection alter post-injection pain levels and duration. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 48) underwent sleep deprivation or ad libitum sleep for 9 hours. Thereafter, rats received a subcutaneous injection of formalin or saline into a hind paw. In the recovery sleep group, rats were allowed 24 h between sleep deprivation and the injection of formalin. Mechanical and thermal nociception were assessed using the von Frey test and Hargreaves' method. Nociceptive measures were performed at 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17 and 21 days post-injection. Formalin caused bilateral mechanical hypersensitivity (allodynia) that persisted for up to 21 days post-injection. Sleep deprivation significantly enhanced bilateral allodynia. There was a synergistic interaction when sleep deprivation preceded a formalin injection. Rats allowed a recovery sleep period prior to formalin injection developed allodynia only in the injected limb, with higher mechanical thresholds (less allodynia) and a shorter recovery period. There were no persistent changes in thermal nociception. The data suggest that acute sleep loss preceding an inflammatory insult enhances pain and can contribute to chronic pain. The results encourage studies in a model of surgical pain to test whether enhancing sleep reduces pain levels and duration. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  9. Sleep duration, subjective sleep need, and sleep habits of 40- to 45-year-olds in the Hordaland Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursin, Reidun; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Holsten, Fred

    2005-10-01

    To report the distribution of various sleep parameters in a population-based study. Population-based cross-sectional study with self-administered questionnaires. Conducted as part of the Hordaland Health Study '97-'99 in collaboration with the Norwegian National Health Screening Service. 8860 subjects, aged 40 to 45 years, answered the sleep questionnaire part of the study. N/A. Reports on habitual bedtimes, rise times, subjective sleep need, and various sleep characteristics were used in this study. Mean (+/- SD) nocturnal sleep duration during weekdays in men was 6 hours 52 minutes (+/- 55 minutes); in women 7 hours 11 minutes (+/- 57 minutes). Mean subjective sleep need was 7 hours 16 minutes (+/- 52 minutes) in men; 7 hours 45 minutes (+/- 52 minutes) in women. Sleep duration was shorter in shift workers and longer in married subjects and in those living in rural areas. Subjective sleep need was higher in subjects reporting poor subjective health and in subjects living in rural areas. In total, these variables accounted for only around 3% of the variance in sleep duration and sleep need. Ten percent of the men and 12.2% of the women reported frequent insomnia. The wide distribution of sleep duration and subjective sleep need indicate large interindividual variations in these parameters. There were pronounced sex differences in these variables and in most of the sleep characteristics studied. Shift work, urban-rural living, marital status, and education in men were sources of significant, but small, variations in sleep duration.

  10. Aging induced ER stress alters sleep and sleep homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Marishka K.; Chan, May T.; Zimmerman, John E.; Pack, Allan I.; Jackson, Nicholas E.; Naidoo, Nirinjini

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in the quality, quantity and architecture of baseline and recovery sleep have been shown to occur during aging. Sleep deprivation induces endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress and upregulates a protective signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). The effectiveness of the adaptive UPR is diminished by age. Previously, we showed that endogenous chaperone levels altered recovery sleep in Drosophila melanogaster. We now report that acute administration of the chemical chaperone sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) reduces ER stress and ameliorates age-associated sleep changes in Drosophila. PBA consolidates both baseline and recovery sleep in aging flies. The behavioral modifications of PBA are linked to its suppression of ER stress. PBA decreased splicing of x-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) and upregulation of phosphorylated elongation initiation factor 2 α (p-eIF2α), in flies that were subjected to sleep deprivation. We also demonstrate that directly activating ER stress in young flies fragments baseline sleep and alters recovery sleep. Alleviating prolonged/sustained ER stress during aging contributes to sleep consolidation and improves recovery sleep/ sleep debt discharge. PMID:24444805

  11. Aging induced endoplasmic reticulum stress alters sleep and sleep homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Marishka K; Chan, May T; Zimmerman, John E; Pack, Allan I; Jackson, Nicholas E; Naidoo, Nirinjini

    2014-06-01

    Alterations in the quality, quantity, and architecture of baseline and recovery sleep have been shown to occur during aging. Sleep deprivation induces endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress and upregulates a protective signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response. The effectiveness of the adaptive unfolded protein response is diminished by age. Previously, we showed that endogenous chaperone levels altered recovery sleep in Drosophila melanogaster. We now report that acute administration of the chemical chaperone sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) reduces ER stress and ameliorates age-associated sleep changes in Drosophila. PBA consolidates both baseline and recovery sleep in aging flies. The behavioral modifications of PBA are linked to its suppression of ER stress. PBA decreased splicing of X-box binding protein 1 and upregulation of phosphorylated elongation initiation factor 2 α, in flies that were subjected to sleep deprivation. We also demonstrate that directly activating ER stress in young flies fragments baseline sleep and alters recovery sleep. Alleviating prolonged or sustained ER stress during aging contributes to sleep consolidation and improves recovery sleep or sleep debt discharge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sleep disruption in chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavinia, Mahboobeh; Schleimer, Robert P; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2017-05-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common disease of the upper airways and paranasal sinuses with a marked decline in quality of life (QOL). CRS patients suffer from sleep disruption at a significantly higher proportion (60 to 75%) than in the general population (8-18 %). Sleep disruption in CRS causes decreased QOL and is linked to poor functional outcomes such as impaired cognitive function and depression. Areas covered: A systematic PubMed/Medline search was done to assess the results of studies that have investigated sleep and sleep disturbances in CRS. Expert commentary: These studies reported sleep disruption in most CRS patients. The main risk factors for sleep disruption in CRS include allergic rhinitis, smoking, and high SNOT-22 total scores. The literature is inconsistent with regard to the prevalence of sleep-related disordered breathing (e.g. obstructive sleep apnea) in CRS patients. Although nasal obstruction is linked to sleep disruption, the extent of sleep disruption in CRS seems to expand beyond that expected from physical blockage of the upper airways alone. Despite the high prevalence of sleep disruption in CRS, and its detrimental effects on QOL, the literature contains a paucity of studies that have investigated the mechanisms underlying this major problem in CRS.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging in osteomalacic insufficiency fractures of the pelvis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanberoglu, K. [Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: zkanber@istanbul.edu.tr; Kantarci, F. [Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Cebi, D. [Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Yilmaz, M.H. [Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Kurugoglu, S. [Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Bilici, A. [Department of Internal Medicine, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Koyuncu, H. [Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: To report the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of osteomalacic insufficiency fractures of the pelvis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In all, 12 persons presenting with chronic pelvic pain and with a definitive diagnosis of osteomalacia (OM) were enrolled in this study. Radiological work-up included direct radiographs (n=12), computed tomography (n=5), scintigraphy n=12) and MRI (n=12). The location of the insufficiency fractures and corresponding MRI appearances were evaluated. Depending on the presence or absence of signal intensity around the fractures, the lesions were grouped into active and chronic forms. RESULTS: A total of 34 insufficiency fractures were depicted on imaging studies. MRI demonstrated 33 of the lesions. All the insufficiency fractures were seen as a hypointense lines or fissures on T1- and T2-weighted and STIR MR images. There was a high frequency of insufficiency fractures at the sacrum and iliac bone (16/34, 47%). Overall, 11 chronic-type (no abnormal signal intensity around the fissure) and 22 active-type (abnormal signal intensity around the fissure) insufficiency fractures were detected by MRI. Follow-up MR examinations of 2 subjects showed that abnormal signal intensity had disappeared after appropriate treatment. CONCLUSION: The results of this study showed that the iliac and sacral bones are frequently involved in patients with OM. MRI can determine the clinical activity of the disease, and can monitor the response to treatment of the active type of insufficiency fractures.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging in osteomalacic insufficiency fractures of the pelvis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanberoglu, K.; Kantarci, F.; Cebi, D.; Yilmaz, M.H.; Kurugoglu, S.; Bilici, A.; Koyuncu, H.

    2005-01-01

    AIMS: To report the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of osteomalacic insufficiency fractures of the pelvis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In all, 12 persons presenting with chronic pelvic pain and with a definitive diagnosis of osteomalacia (OM) were enrolled in this study. Radiological work-up included direct radiographs (n=12), computed tomography (n=5), scintigraphy n=12) and MRI (n=12). The location of the insufficiency fractures and corresponding MRI appearances were evaluated. Depending on the presence or absence of signal intensity around the fractures, the lesions were grouped into active and chronic forms. RESULTS: A total of 34 insufficiency fractures were depicted on imaging studies. MRI demonstrated 33 of the lesions. All the insufficiency fractures were seen as a hypointense lines or fissures on T1- and T2-weighted and STIR MR images. There was a high frequency of insufficiency fractures at the sacrum and iliac bone (16/34, 47%). Overall, 11 chronic-type (no abnormal signal intensity around the fissure) and 22 active-type (abnormal signal intensity around the fissure) insufficiency fractures were detected by MRI. Follow-up MR examinations of 2 subjects showed that abnormal signal intensity had disappeared after appropriate treatment. CONCLUSION: The results of this study showed that the iliac and sacral bones are frequently involved in patients with OM. MRI can determine the clinical activity of the disease, and can monitor the response to treatment of the active type of insufficiency fractures

  15. The Effects of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Workplace Intervention on Sleep and Work-Family Conflict Outcomes in an Extended Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Miguel; Killerby, Marie; Lee, Soomi; Klein, Laura Cousino; Moen, Phyllis; Olson, Ryan; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; King, Rosalind; Erickson, Leslie; Berkman, Lisa F; Buxton, Orfeu M

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of a workplace-based intervention on actigraphic and self-reported sleep outcomes in an extended care setting. Cluster randomized trial. Extended-care (nursing) facilities. US employees and managers at nursing homes. Nursing homes were randomly selected to intervention or control settings. The Work, Family and Health Study developed an intervention aimed at reducing work-family conflict within a 4-month work-family organizational change process. Employees participated in interactive sessions with facilitated discussions, role-playing, and games designed to increase control over work processes and work time. Managers completed training in family-supportive supervision. Primary actigraphic outcomes included: total sleep duration, wake after sleep onset, nighttime sleep, variation in nighttime sleep, nap duration, and number of naps. Secondary survey outcomes included work-to-family conflict, sleep insufficiency, insomnia symptoms and sleep quality. Measures were obtained at baseline, 6-months and 12-months post-intervention. A total of 1,522 employees and 184 managers provided survey data at baseline. Managers and employees in the intervention arm showed no significant difference in sleep outcomes over time compared to control participants. Sleep outcomes were not moderated by work-to-family conflict or presence of children in the household for managers or employees. Age significantly moderated an intervention effect on nighttime sleep among employees (p=0.040), where younger employees benefited more from the intervention. In the context of an extended-care nursing home workplace, the intervention did not significantly alter sleep outcomes in either managers or employees. Moderating effects of age were identified where younger employees' sleep outcomes benefited more from the intervention.

  16. [Quantified research about the effects of sleep quality on attention in class and acadamic achievements in primary school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang-Yun; Qian, Yan-Fei; Gong, Sheng-Cheng; Tan, Mo; Tan, Xin; Yang, Yan; Li, Ling-Di; Huang, Chao-Quan

    2011-12-01

    To study the adverse effects of sleep problems and sleep insufficiency on attention in class and pupils' acadamic achievements. A total of 1138 students from four primary schools at ages of 6-12 years were randomly sampled from four districts of Changsha city, Hunan Province June 2009 to April 2010. The inquired items included sleep problems, sleep time, sleep quality, attention in class and academic achievements. Teachers and parents observed the pupils according to the unified requirements for 3 months and then filled out the questionnaires. The total valid inquiry tables were 1091 with the answering rate of 95.87%, including 549 boys and 542 girls. The sleep quality was more poor in children with sleep problems or sleep insufficiency than in children with normal sleep. The sleep quality was reduced and aggravated along with the increasing sleep problems and the reducing sleep time. The attention in class and academic achievements in children with sleep problems or sleep insufficiency were more poor than in children with normal sleep. The sleep quality index was negatively correlated with attention in class and academic achievements. The attention in class was positively correlated with academic achievements. The decline in sleep quality directly affects the attention in class and reduce the academic achievements in primary school children.

  17. Insomnia and sleep misperception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, C H; Ceklic, T; St-Hilaire, P; Desmarais, F; Pérusse, A D; Lefrançois, J; Pedneault-Drolet, M

    2014-10-01

    Sleep misperception is often observed in insomnia individuals (INS). The extent of misperception varies between different types of INS. The following paper comprised sections which will be aimed at studying the sleep EEG and compares it to subjective reports of sleep in individuals suffering from either psychophysiological insomnia or paradoxical insomnia and good sleeper controls. The EEG can be studied without any intervention (thus using the raw data) via either PSG or fine quantitative EEG analyses (power spectral analysis [PSA]), identifying EEG patterns as in the case of cyclic alternating patterns (CAPs) or by decorticating the EEG while scoring the different transient or phasic events (K-Complexes or sleep spindles). One can also act on the on-going EEG by delivering stimuli so to study their impact on cortical measures as in the case of event-related potential studies (ERPs). From the paucity of studies available using these different techniques, a general conclusion can be reached: sleep misperception is not an easy phenomenon to quantify and its clinical value is not well recognized. Still, while none of the techniques or EEG measures defined in the paper is available and/or recommended to diagnose insomnia, ERPs might be the most indicated technique to study hyperarousal and sleep quality in different types of INS. More research shall also be dedicated to EEG patterns and transient phasic events as these EEG scoring techniques can offer a unique insight of sleep misperception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. The metabolic burden of sleep loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Sebastian M; Hallschmid, Manfred; Schultes, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    In parallel with the increasing prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, sleep loss has become common in modern societies. An increasing number of epidemiological studies show an association between short sleep duration, sleep disturbances, and circadian desynchronisation of sleep with adverse metabolic traits, in particular obesity and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, experimental studies point to distinct mechanisms by which insufficient sleep adversely affects metabolic health. Changes in the activity of neuroendocrine systems seem to be major mediators of the detrimental metabolic effects of insufficient sleep, through favouring neurobehavioural outcomes such as increased appetite, enhanced sensitivity to food stimuli, and, ultimately, a surplus in energy intake. The effect of curtailed sleep on physical activity and energy expenditure is less clear, but changes are unlikely to outweigh increases in food intake. Although long-term interventional studies proving a cause and effect association are still scarce, sleep loss seems to be an appealing target for the prevention, and probably treatment, of metabolic disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Erectile insufficiency as first symptom of HTLV-I/II associated myelopathy: case report Insuficiência erétil como primeiro sintoma da mielopatia associada ao HTLV I/II: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ TEOTONIO OLIVEIRA

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A case of HTLV-I/II myelopathy in which the initial complaint was erectile insufficiency (EI is reported. The only abnormalities found on the neurological exam were discrete weakness of the psoas and increased knee jerk reflexes. Diagnosis was made by demonstrating antibodies anti-HTLV I/II in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (with the techniques of ELISA and Western blot, with confirmation by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. EI can thus be the first symptom of HTLV-I/II infection and patients with EI of unknown etiology should be tested for HTLV-I/II in endemic areas.É relatado um caso de mielopatia associada ao HTLV I/II cuja primeira manifestação foi insuficiência erétil (IE. O exame neurológico do paciente apresentava somente discreta fraqueza dos psoas e aumento dos reflexos patelares. O diagnóstico foi feito pelo achado de anticorpos anti-HTLV I/II no soro e no líquor (com as técnicas de ELISA e Western blot e confirmado pela reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR. Insuficiência erétil pode ser a primeira manifestação clínica de infecção pelo HTLV I/II e pacientes com IE de etiologia desconhecida devem ser testados para HTLV-I/II em áreas endêmicas.

  20. Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Color-Word, Emotional, and Specific Stroop Interference and on Self-Reported Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagaspe, Patricia; Sanchez-Ortuno, Montserrat; Charles, Andre; Taillard, Jacques; Valtat, Cedric; Bioulac, Bernard; Philip, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was principally to assess the impact of sleep deprivation on interference performance in short Stroop tasks (Color-Word, Emotional, and Specific) and on subjective anxiety. Subjective sleepiness and performance on a psychomotor sustained attention task were also investigated to validate our protocol of sleep deprivation.…

  1. Sleep and Women’s Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Nowakowski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in sleep begin at a very early age and women report poorer sleep quality and have higher risk for insomnia than do men. Sleep may be affected by variation in reproductive hormones, stress, depression, aging, life/role transitions, and other factors. The menstrual cycle is associated with changes in circadian rhythms and sleep architecture. Menstruating women (even without significant menstrual-related complaints often report poorer sleep quality and greater sleep disturbance during the premenstrual week compared to other times of her menstrual cycle. In addition to these sleep disturbances, women with severe premenstrual syndrome often report more disturbing dreams, sleepiness, fatigue, decreased alertness and concentration during the premenstrual phase. Sleep disturbances are also commonly reported during pregnancy and increase in frequency and duration as the pregnancy progresses. The precipitous decline in hormones and unpredictable sleep patterns of the newborn contribute to and/or exacerbate poor sleep and daytime sleepiness during the early postpartum period. Insomnia is also among the most common health complaints that are reported by perimenopausal women. Women are particularly vulnerable to developing insomnia disorder during these times of reproductive hormonal change. In this review, we present a discussion on the most relevant and recent publications on sleep across the woman’s lifespan, including changes in sleep related to menstruation, pregnancy, postpartum, and the menopausal transition. Treatment for sleep disturbances and insomnia disorder and special considerations for treating women will also be discussed.

  2. Aging induced ER stress alters sleep and sleep homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Marishka K.; Chan, May T.; Zimmerman, John E.; Pack, Allan I.; Jackson, Nicholas E.; Naidoo, Nirinjini

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in the quality, quantity and architecture of baseline and recovery sleep have been shown to occur during aging. Sleep deprivation induces endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress and upregulates a protective signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). The effectiveness of the adaptive UPR is diminished by age. Previously, we showed that endogenous chaperone levels altered recovery sleep in Drosophila melanogaster. We now report that acute administration of the chemical ...

  3. Mammalian sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, Hugh

    2005-05-01

    This review examines the biological background to the development of ideas on rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep), so-called paradoxical sleep (PS), and its relation to dreaming. Aspects of the phenomenon which are discussed include physiological changes and their anatomical location, the effects of total and selective sleep deprivation in the human and animal, and REM sleep behavior disorder, the latter with its clinical manifestations in the human. Although dreaming also occurs in other sleep phases (non-REM or NREM sleep), in the human, there is a contingent relation between REM sleep and dreaming. Thus, REM is taken as a marker for dreaming and as REM is distributed ubiquitously throughout the mammalian class, it is suggested that other mammals also dream. It is suggested that the overall function of REM sleep/dreaming is more important than the content of the individual dream; its function is to place the dreamer protagonist/observer on the topographical world. This has importance for the developing infant who needs to develop a sense of self and separateness from the world which it requires to navigate and from which it is separated for long periods in sleep. Dreaming may also serve to maintain a sense of ‘I’ness or “self” in the adult, in whom a fragility of this faculty is revealed in neurological disorders.

  4. Work hours, sleep sufficiency, and prevalence of depression among full-time employees: a community-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Akinori

    2011-05-01

    Depression due to long work hours and sleep deprivation is a major occupational health concern. The extent to which work hours and sleep are associated with depression was investigated in employees of small- and medium-scale businesses in the Japanese city of Yashio, Saitama, and in the Ohta ward of Tokyo, a suburb of Tokyo, controlling for various potential confounders. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 2,643 full-time employees (1,928 men and 715 women), aged 18-79 years (mean = 45 years), in 296 small- and medium-scale businesses were surveyed from August 2002 to December 2002 using a self-administered questionnaire evaluating work hours, sleep status, and covariates including sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors, health behaviors, biological factors, medication usage, and occupational factors. Depression was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Prevalence of depression by work hours, sleep status, and covariates was analyzed by χ² test. Risk of depression by work hours, sleep status, and both combined was estimated by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Participants working > 10 hours per day, sleeping hours per day, and reporting insufficient sleep were, respectively, 37%, 43%, and 97% more likely to be depressed than those working 6 to 8 hours per day, sleeping 6 to hours per day, and reporting sufficient sleep (P working > 10 hours per day or > 8 to 10 hours per day with hours per day of sleep showed a 41%-169% higher prevalence of depression versus those working 6 to 8 hours per day with 6+ hours per day of sleep (P work-hour categories (6 to 8, > 8 to 10, and > 10 hours per day) showed a 62%-179% increase in the prevalence of depression versus those working 6 to 8 hours per day and reporting sufficient sleep (P work-hour category with 6+ hours of sleep or with subjective sufficient sleep. Depression associated with long work hours is primarily a result of sleep deprivation. Greater attention should be

  5. Sleep-Wake Patterns and Sleep Disturbance among Hong Kong Chinese Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Ka-Fai; Cheung, Miao-Miao

    2008-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine sleep-wake patterns and evaluate sleep disturbance in Hong Kong adolescents; to identify factors that are associated with sleep disturbance; and to examine the relationship of sleep-wake variables and academic performance. DESIGN AND SETTING: A school-based cross-sectional survey. PARTICIPANTS: Sample included 1629 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Self-report questionnaires, including sleep-wake habit questionnaire,...

  6. Emotion, emotion regulation and sleep: An intimate relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Vandekerckhove

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, research has witnessed an increasing interest in the bidirectional relationship between emotion and sleep. Sleep seems important for restoring daily functioning, whereas deprivation of sleep makes us more emotionally aroused and sensitive to stressful stimuli and events. Sleep appears to be essential to our ability to cope with emotional stress in everyday life. However, when daily stress is insufficiently regulated, it may result in mental health problems and sleep disturbances too. Not only does emotion impact sleep, but there is also evidence that sleep plays a key role in regulating emotion. Emotional events during waking hours affect sleep, and the quality and amount of sleep influences the way we react to these events impacting our general well-being. Although we know that daytime emotional stress affects sleep by influencing sleep physiology, dream patterns, dream content and the emotion within a dream, its exact role is still unclear. Other effects that have been found are the exaggeration of the startle response, decrease in dream recall and elevation of awakening thresholds from rapid eye movement (REM, REM-sleep, increased or decreased latency to REM-sleep, increase in percentage of REM-density, REM-sleep duration, as well as the occurrence of arousals in sleep as a marker of sleep disruption. Equally, the way an individual copes with emotional stress, or the way in which an individual regulates emotion may modulate the effects of emotional stress on sleep. The research presented here supports the idea that adaptive emotion regulation benefits our follow-up sleep. We thus conclude the current review with a call for future research in order to clarify further the precise relationship between sleep, emotion and emotion regulation, as well as to explain further how sleep dissolves our emotional stress.

  7. Sleep/Wake Patterns and Parental Perceptions of Sleep in Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Sarah N.; Meltzer, Lisa J.; Tapia, Ignacio E.; Traylor, Joel; Nixon, Gillian M.; Horne, Rosemary S.C.; Doyle, Lex W.; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Mindell, Jodi A.; Marcus, Carole L.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To compare sleep/wake patterns in children born preterm in Australia vs Canada and determine cultural differences in the relationship between parental perception of sleep and actual sleep behaviors. Methods: Australian and Canadian children born preterm were recruited from the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity trial (n = 188, 5–12 y) and underwent 14 days actigraphy monitoring. Parents completed the National Sleep Foundation 2004 Sleep in America questionnaire. Cross-cultural differences in sleep characteristics assessed by actigraphy and parent-reported questionnaire were examined. Correlational analyses determined the associations between parental perceptions of child sleep need and sleep behavior. Results: Actigraphy showed preterm children obtained, on average, 8 h sleep/night, one hour less than population recommendations for their age. There was no difference in total sleep time (TST) between Australian and Canadian cohorts; however, bed and wake times were earlier in Australian children. Bedtimes and TST varied by 60 minutes from night to night in both cohorts. Parent-reported child TST on the National Sleep Foundation questionnaire was 90 minutes longer than recorded by actigraphy. Both bedtime and TST on weekdays and weekends were related to parental perception of child sleep need in the Australian cohort. Only TST on weekdays was related to parental perception of child sleep need in the Canadian cohort. Conclusions: This study suggests that short sleep duration and irregular sleep schedules are common in children born preterm. Cultural differences in the association between parental perception of child sleep need and actual sleep behaviors provide important targets for future sleep health education. Citation: Biggs SN, Meltzer LJ, Tapia IE, Traylor J, Nixon GM, Horne RS, Doyle LW, Asztalos E, Mindell JA, Marcus CL. Sleep/wake patterns and parental perceptions of sleep in children born preterm. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(5):711–717

  8. Sleep Homeostasis and Synaptic Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202...circuit (a homeostat) that operates in concert with the circadian circuitry or does sleep drive accumulate everywhere in the brain? To answer these...neurons is capable of generating sleep drive. RNAi-mediated knockdown of insomniac in R2 neurons abolished sleep homeostasis without affecting baseline

  9. Determinants of perceived sleep quality in normal sleepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goelema, M S; Regis, M; Haakma, R; van den Heuvel, E R; Markopoulos, P; Overeem, S

    2017-09-20

    This study aimed to establish the determinants of perceived sleep quality over a longer period of time, taking into account the separate contributions of actigraphy-based sleep measures and self-reported sleep indices. Fifty participants (52 ± 6.6 years; 27 females) completed two consecutive weeks of home monitoring, during which they kept a sleep-wake diary while their sleep was monitored using a wrist-worn actigraph. The diary included questions on perceived sleep quality, sleep-wake information, and additional factors such as well-being and stress. The data were analyzed using multilevel models to compare a model that included only actigraphy-based sleep measures (model Acti) to a model that included only self-reported sleep measures to explain perceived sleep quality (model Self). In addition, a model based on the self-reported sleep measures and extended with nonsleep-related factors was analyzed to find the most significant determinants of perceived sleep quality (model Extended). Self-reported sleep measures (model Self) explained 61% of the total variance, while actigraphy-based sleep measures (model Acti) only accounted for 41% of the perceived sleep quality. The main predictors in the self-reported model were number of awakenings during the night, sleep onset latency, and wake time after sleep onset. In the extended model, the number of awakenings during the night and total sleep time of the previous night were the strongest determinants of perceived sleep quality, with 64% of the variance explained. In our cohort, perceived sleep quality was mainly determined by self-reported sleep measures and less by actigraphy-based sleep indices. These data further stress the importance of taking multiple nights into account when trying to understand perceived sleep quality.

  10. Evaluation of flurazepam and placebo on sleep disorders in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Reimão, Rubens; Lefévre, Antonio B.

    1982-01-01

    The clinically observed results in 40 patients, from 1 to 15 years old, presenting sleep disturbances, in a comparative and statistically approached study of flurazepam 15mg daily against placebo, are reported. Placebo was administered, followed by the drug, during 14 days each. The chief complaints were sleepwalking, sleep-talking, sleep terror, sleep-related bruxism, sleep-related headbanging, insomnia and excessive movements during sleep. A significant effect of flurazepam on sleepwalking,...

  11. Sleep and Cognitive Functioning in Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckhalt, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disorders and sleep of insufficient duration and quality have been associated with impaired cognitive functioning in typically developing children and in children with a wide array of disabilities and medical conditions. Among children with disabilities, those with intellectual disability, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and autism…

  12. Usefulness of temazepam and zaleplon to induce afternoon sleep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, M.; Koerhuis, C.L.; Valk, P.J.L.; Oord, M.H.A.H. van den

    2006-01-01

    Insufficient daytime sleep may result in reduction of effectiveness and safety during overnight military missions. The usefulness of temazepam and zaleplon to optimize afternoon sleep and their effects on performance and alertness during a subsequent night shift were studied. Method: In a randomized

  13. Sleep disorders - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insomnia; Narcolepsy; Hypersomina; Daytime sleepiness; Sleep rhythm; Sleep disruptive behaviors; Jet lag ... excessive daytime sleepiness) Problems sticking to a regular sleep schedule (sleep rhythm problem) Unusual behaviors during sleep ( ...

  14. Central sleep apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea - central; Obesity - central sleep apnea; Cheyne-Stokes - central sleep apnea; Heart failure - central sleep apnea ... Central sleep apnea results when the brain temporarily stops sending signals to the muscles that control breathing. The condition ...

  15. Sleep Apnea (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Obstructive Sleep Apnea KidsHealth / For Parents / Obstructive Sleep Apnea What's ... How Is Sleep Apnea Treated? Print What Is Sleep Apnea? Brief pauses in breathing during sleep are ...

  16. MRI of congenital pituitary insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida Magalhaes, Alvaro C. de; Uehara, Karla C.; Iezzi, Denise

    1995-01-01

    We compare 1,5 T magnetic resonance (MR) image findings in 193 patients with congenital pituitary congenital insufficiency. One hundred and thirty nine of the MR studies were obtained in patients who had isolated growth hormone deficiency. Other fifth - four patients had multiple pituitary hormone deficiency. On MR images, normal anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary glands can be clearly differentiated because the posterior lobe has a characteristic high intensity on TI-weighted images. In fifty-four patients, the high- intensity of the posterior lobe was not seen, but a similar high signal intensity was observed at the proximal stump in fifty-one patients. this high- intensity area is the newly formed ectopic posterior lobe, which also secrets anti-diuretic hormone just as the posterior lobe would. MR imaging can demonstrate the transection of the pituitary stalk and the formation of the ectopic lobe, revealing to be a useful diagnostic tool in the definition of the type of alteration in growth defects of endocrine origin. (author)

  17. BDNF in sleep, insomnia, and sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Karen; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Eckert, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The protein brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors involved in plasticity of neurons in several brain regions. There are numerous evidence that BDNF expression is decreased by experiencing psychological stress and that, accordingly, a lack of neurotrophic support causes major depression. Furthermore, disruption in sleep homeostatic processes results in higher stress vulnerability and is often associated with stress-related mental disorders. Recently, we reported, for the first time, a relationship between BDNF and insomnia and sleep deprivation (SD). Using a biphasic stress model as explanation approach, we discuss here the hypothesis that chronic stress might induce a deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system. In the long-term it leads to sleep disturbance and depression as well as decreased BDNF levels, whereas acute stress like SD can be used as therapeutic intervention in some insomniac or depressed patients as compensatory process to normalize BDNF levels. Indeed, partial SD (PSD) induced a fast increase in BDNF serum levels within hours after PSD which is similar to effects seen after ketamine infusion, another fast-acting antidepressant intervention, while traditional antidepressants are characterized by a major delay until treatment response as well as delayed BDNF level increase. Key messages Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of stress-related mood disorders. The interplay of stress and sleep impacts on BDNF level. Partial sleep deprivation (PSD) shows a fast action on BDNF level increase.

  18. Exposure-response relationship of wind turbine noise with self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems: A nationwide socioacoustic survey in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Kageyama

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of wind turbine noise (WTN with sleep and physical/mental health has not been fully investigated. To investigate the relationship of WTN with the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems, a socioacoustic survey of 1079 adult residents was conducted throughout Japan (2010-2012: 747 in 34 areas surrounding wind turbine plants and 332 in 16 control areas. During face-to-face interviews, the respondents were not informed of the purpose of the survey. Questions on symptoms such as sleeplessness and physical/mental complaints were asked without specifying reasons. Insomnia was defined as having one or any combination of the following that occurs three or more times a week and bothers a respondent: Difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, premature morning awakening, and feeling of light overnight sleep. Poor health was defined as having high scores for health complaints, as determined using the Total Health Index, exceeding the criteria proposed by the authors of the index. The noise descriptor for WTN was LAeq,n outdoor, estimated from the results of actual measurement at some locations in each site. Multiple logistic analysis was applied to the LAeq,n and insomnia or poor health. The odds ratio (OR of insomnia was significantly higher when the noise exposure level exceeded 40 dB, whereas the self-reported sensitivity to noise and visual annoyance with wind turbines were also independently associated with insomnia. OR of poor health was not significant for noise exposure, but significant for noise sensitivity and visual annoyance. The above two moderators appear to indicate the features of respondents who are sensitive to stimuli or changes in their homeostasis.

  19. Exposure-response relationship of wind turbine noise with self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems: A nationwide socioacoustic survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Takayuki; Yano, Takashi; Kuwano, Sonoko; Sueoka, Shinichi; Tachibana, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    The association of wind turbine noise (WTN) with sleep and physical/mental health has not been fully investigated. To investigate the relationship of WTN with the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of sleep and health problems, a socioacoustic survey of 1079 adult residents was conducted throughout Japan (2010-2012): 747 in 34 areas surrounding wind turbine plants and 332 in 16 control areas. During face-to-face interviews, the respondents were not informed of the purpose of the survey. Questions on symptoms such as sleeplessness and physical/mental complaints were asked without specifying reasons. Insomnia was defined as having one or any combination of the following that occurs three or more times a week and bothers a respondent: Difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, premature morning awakening, and feeling of light overnight sleep. Poor health was defined as having high scores for health complaints, as determined using the Total Health Index, exceeding the criteria proposed by the authors of the index. The noise descriptor for WTN was LAeq,n outdoor, estimated from the results of actual measurement at some locations in each site. Multiple logistic analysis was applied to the LAeq,n and insomnia or poor health. The odds ratio (OR) of insomnia was significantly higher when the noise exposure level exceeded 40 dB, whereas the self-reported sensitivity to noise and visual annoyance with wind turbines were also independently associated with insomnia. OR of poor health was not significant for noise exposure, but significant for noise sensitivity and visual annoyance. The above two moderators appear to indicate the features of respondents who are sensitive to stimuli or changes in their homeostasis.

  20. Sleep and metabolic control: waking to a problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenell, Michael I; Marshall, Nathaniel S; Rogers, Naomi L

    2007-01-01

    1. The aim of the present review is to outline: (i) the association between sleep and metabolism; (ii) how sleep duration influences the development of disease; and (iii) how sex differences, ageing and obesity may potentially influence the relationship between sleep, metabolic control and subsequent disease. 2. Sleep is associated with a number of endocrine changes, including a change in insulin action in healthy young individuals. Sleep duration shows a prospective U-shaped relationship with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes. 3. Chronic sleep restriction is becoming more common. Experimental sleep restriction impedes daytime glucose control and increases appetite. 4. The sex hormones oestrogen and testosterone influence sleep duration and quality and may account for sex differences in the prevalence of sleep-related disorders. 5. Ageing is associated with a decreased sleep duration, decreased muscle mass and impaired insulin action. 6. Obesity impairs insulin action and is associated with the incidence and severity of obstructive sleep apnoea. 7. Sleep plays an integral role in metabolic control. Consequently, insufficient sleep may represent a modifiable risk factor for the development of Type 2 diabetes. The challenge ahead is to identify how sex differences, ageing and obesity could potentially influence the relationship between sleep and metabolism.

  1. Acute sleep restriction reduces insulin sensitivity in adolescent boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingenberg, Lars; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Holmbäck, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Short sleep duration has been linked to impaired glucose metabolism in many experimental studies. Moreover, studies have reported indications of an increased metabolic stress following sleep restriction.......Short sleep duration has been linked to impaired glucose metabolism in many experimental studies. Moreover, studies have reported indications of an increased metabolic stress following sleep restriction....

  2. Successful Treatment with Clonazepam and Pramipexole of a Patient with Sleep-Related Eating Disorder Associated with Restless Legs Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kobayashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep-related eating disorder (SRED is characterized by recurrent episodes of involuntary eating during sleep period and is often associated with restless legs syndrome (RLS. Although pharmacotherapy is recommended for SRED patients, no drug have shown promising effects so far. The patient, a 48-year-old Japanese housewife, first visited our clinic and complained about nighttime eating. She had a history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, sleep apnea syndrome, and depression. Insomnia appeared 10 years before the first visit and she often received hypnosedatives; at the same time, she developed nocturnal eating episodes. She had amnesia for these episodes, and she felt urge to move her legs while sleeping. The patient was diagnosed with SRED and RLS. Reduction in the doses of triazolam decreased her nighttime eating frequency, and her complete amnesia changed to vague recall of eating during night. Clonazepam 1.0 mg at bedtime decreased nocturnal eating frequency from 1 to 2 times per month, though sleepwalking remained. Administration of pramipexole 0.125 mg relieved all symptoms including SRED, RLS, and sleepwalking. This is the first paper to report that the combination of clonazepam and pramipexole therapy-reduced SRED episodes and RLS symptoms.

  3. Sleep can reduce proactive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Magdalena; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has repeatedly been connected to processes of memory consolidation. While extensive research indeed documents beneficial effects of sleep on memory, little is yet known about the role of sleep for interference effects in episodic memory. Although two prior studies reported sleep to reduce retroactive interference, no sleep effect has previously been found for proactive interference. Here we applied a study format differing from that employed by the prior studies to induce a high degree of proactive interference, and asked participants to encode a single list or two interfering lists of paired associates via pure study cycles. Testing occurred after 12 hours of diurnal wakefulness or nocturnal sleep. Consistent with the prior work, we found sleep in comparison to wake did not affect memory for the single list, but reduced retroactive interference. In addition we found sleep reduced proactive interference, and reduced retroactive and proactive interference to the same extent. The finding is consistent with the view that arising benefits of sleep are caused by the reactivation of memory contents during sleep, which has been suggested to strengthen and stabilise memories. Such stabilisation may make memories less susceptible to competition from interfering memories at test and thus reduce interference effects.

  4. Effects of Long-Haul Transmeridian Travel on Subjective Jet-Lag and Self-Reported Sleep and Upper Respiratory Symptoms in Professional Rugby League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Peter M; Duffield, Rob; Lu, Donna; Hickmans, Jeremy A; Scott, Tannath J

    2016-10-01

    To examine the effects of 24-h travel west across 11 time zones on subjective jet-lag and wellness responses together with self-reported sleep and upper respiratory symptoms in 18 professional rugby league players. Measures were obtained 1 or 2 d before (pretravel) and 2, 6, and 8 d after travel (post-2, post-6, and post-8) from Australia to the United Kingdom (UK) for the 2015 World Club Series. Compared with pretravel, subjective jet-lag remained significantly elevated on post-8 (3.1 ± 2.3, P 0.90), although it was greatest on post-2 (4.1 ± 1.4). Self-reported sleep-onset times were significantly earlier on post-2 than at all other time points (P 0.90), and large effect sizes suggested that wake times were earlier on post-2 than on post-6 and post-8 (d > 0.90). Although significantly more upper respiratory symptoms were reported on post-6 than at pretravel (P .05, d sleep responses, along with upper respiratory symptoms, in professional rugby league players. Of note, the increase in self-reported upper respiratory symptoms is a reminder that the demands of long-haul travel may be an additional concern in jet-lag for traveling athletes. However, due to the lack of sport-specific performance measures, it is still unclear whether international travel interferes with training to the extent that subsequent competition performance is impaired.

  5. Managing Sleep Disturbances in Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep disturbances, particularly daytime sleepiness and insomnia, are common problems reported by patients suffering from liver cirrhosis. Poor sleep negatively impacts patients’ quality of life and cognitive functions and increases mortality. Although sleep disturbances can be an early sign of hepatic encephalopathy (HE, many patients without HE still complain of poor quality sleep. The pathophysiology of these disturbances is not fully understood but is believed to be linked to impaired hepatic melatonin metabolism. This paper provides an overview for the clinician of common comorbidities contributing to poor sleep in patients with liver disease, mainly restless leg syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea. It discusses nondrug and pharmacologic treatment options in these patients, such as the use of light therapy and histamine (H1 blockers.

  6. Habitual 'sleep credit' is associated with greater grey matter volume of the medial prefrontal cortex, higher emotional intelligence and better mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Mareen; Webb, Christian A; Deldonno, Sophie R; Kipman, Maia; Schwab, Zachary J; Weiner, Melissa R; Killgore, William D S

    2013-10-01

    In modern society, people often fail to obtain the amount of sleep that experts recommend for good health and performance. Insufficient sleep can lead to degraded cognitive performance and alterations in emotional functioning. However, most people also acknowledge that on a regular basis they obtain more sleep than they subjectively perceive they need at a minimum to stave off performance decrements, a construct we describe as subjective 'sleep credit'. Few people would contest the notion that getting more sleep is better, but data on both behavioural and neuroanatomical correlates of 'sleep credit' are surprisingly limited. We conducted a voxel-based morphometric study to assess cerebral grey matter correlates of habitually sleeping more than one's subjective requirements. We further tested whether these structural correlates are associated with perceived emotional intelligence and indices of psychopathology while controlling for age, gender, and total intracranial volume. In a sample of 55 healthy adults aged 18-45 years (28 males, 27 females), whole-brain multiple regression showed that habitual subjective 'sleep credit' was correlated positively with grey matter volume within regions of the left medial prefrontal cortex and right orbitofrontal gyrus. Volumes were extracted and regressed against self-report emotion and psychopathology indices. Only grey matter volume of the medial prefrontal cortex cluster correlated with greater emotional intelligence and lower scores on several indices of psychopathology. Findings converge with previous evidence of the role of the medial prefrontal cortex in the relationship between sleep and emotional functioning, and suggest that behaviour and brain structure vary with habitual 'sleep credit'. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  7. Chronic sleep curtailment, even without extended (>16-h) wakefulness, degrades human vigilance performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHill, Andrew W; Hull, Joseph T; Wang, Wei; Czeisler, Charles A; Klerman, Elizabeth B

    2018-05-21

    Millions of individuals routinely remain awake for more than 18 h daily, which causes performance decrements. It is unknown if these functional impairments are the result of that extended wakefulness or from the associated shortened sleep durations. We therefore examined changes in objective reaction time performance and subjective alertness in a 32-d inpatient protocol in which participants were scheduled to wakefulness durations below 16 h while on a 20-h "day," with randomization into standard sleep:wake ratio (1:2) or chronic sleep restriction (CSR) ratio (1:3.3) conditions. This protocol allowed determination of the contribution of sleep deficiency independent of extended wakefulness, since individual episodes of wakefulness in the CSR condition were only 15.33 h in duration (less than the usual 16 h of wakefulness in a 24-h day) and sleep episodes were 4.67 h in duration each cycle. We found that chronic short sleep duration, even without extended wakefulness, doubled neurobehavioral reaction time performance and increased lapses of attention fivefold, yet did not uniformly decrease self-reported alertness. Further, these impairments in neurobehavioral performance were worsened during the circadian night and were not recovered during the circadian day, indicating that the deleterious effect from the homeostatic buildup of CSR is expressed even during the circadian promotion of daytime arousal. These findings reveal a fundamental aspect of human biology: Chronic insufficient sleep duration equivalent to 5.6 h of sleep opportunity per 24 h impairs neurobehavioral performance and self-assessment of alertness, even without extended wakefulness.

  8. Sleep and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwoo Kang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sleep architecture and sleep patterns normally change with aging. In preclinical Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the accumulation of amyloid plaques begins 10 to 20 years before any cognitive symptoms progress. Soluble amyloid-β (Aβ is secreted during physiological synaptic activity. Since synaptic activity is correlated with sleep and awake state, a degree of Aβ fluctuates in a diurnal sleep pattern. In animal and human studies, a degree of sleep quality showed a significant correlation with brain levels of Aβ and a risk of AD. Conversely, Aβ aggregation would debilitate neuronal function in brain regions critical to sleep and wake promotion. This bidirectional relationship can be explained as positive feedback loop and associated factors that influence this relationship. In AD, the degree of sleep disturbances is much more severe compared with in the normal elderly. Further, Sundowning syndrome and a reduction of melatonin level cause a stressful neuropsychiatric symptoms and a disruption of physiological sleep rhythm, respectively. In AD patients, a correlation between sleep architectural modifications and learning performances has been reported. Moreover, executive function and emotional reactivity might be attenuated by sleep disturbances, too. However, sleep disturbance does not impact cognitive functions of all patients with AD. This could support an individual and potentially genetically determined susceptibility. Sleep disturbances have an important effect on patients and caregivers. It has a critical value to confirm and treat individuals with sleep disorders and to explore whether good quality of sleep in humans can decrease the progression of preclinical to symptomatic AD.

  9. Associations of self-reported sleep duration and snoring with colorectal cancer risk in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehong; Giovannucci, Edward L; Wu, Kana; Gao, Xiang; Hu, Frank; Ogino, Shuji; Schernhammer, Eva S; Fuchs, Charles S; Redline, Susan; Willett, Walter C; Ma, Jing

    2013-05-01

    We assessed the relationship between sleep duration, snoring and colorectal cancer risk. Prospective cohort studies. United States. A total of 30,121 men aged 41 to 79 years in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and 76,368 women aged 40 to 73 years in the Nurses' Health Study. None. We queried information on sleep duration and snoring in 1986/87. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate multivariable hazard ratios (HRs, 95% CIs). We documented 1,973 incident colorectal cancer cases (709 men and 1,264 women) over a 22-year follow-up period. Compared to sleep an average 7 h, ≥ 9 h of sleep was significantly associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer among men (HR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.82), and to a lesser degree, among women (HR = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.85, 1.44). The risk associated with longer sleep was restricted to individuals who regularly snored (men: HR = 1.80, 95% CI: 1.14, 2.84; women: HR = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.24, 4.36) and to overweight individuals (i.e., BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) (men: HR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.21; women: HR = 1.37, 95% CI: 0.97, 1.94). Short sleep duration (≤ 5 h) was not associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer in the entire sample or in subgroups stratified by snoring or BMI. Longer sleep duration was associated with an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer among individuals who were overweight or snored regularly. This observation raises the possibility that sleep apnea and its attendant intermittent hypoxemia may contribute to cancer risk.

  10. [Current situation of sleeping duration in Chinese Han students in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Zhang, Bing; Hu, Peijin; Ma, Jun

    2014-07-01

    To analyze the characteristics of sleep duration in Chinese primary and middle school students. The data was collected from 30 provinces (Autonomous regions, Municipalities) in 165 363 Han Primary school students above 4 grade, the junior and senior high school students who participated in 2010 National Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance by using stratified random cluster sampling method, and the questionnaire of sleep duration, insufficient sleep and commuting way from school was conducted at the same time.χ² test and χ² linear-by-linear test were used to analyze the difference between the different groups, and logistic regression was used to analyze the factors of insufficient sleep. Nationwide in 2010, 39.09% (64 646/165 363) of students reported they had more than 8 hours sleep duration per day, the prevalence was lower among urban (37.06% (30 767/83 027)) than rural (41.15% (33 879/82 336)) students (χ² = 290.53, P sleep duration per day in 9-12 years group, 13-15 years group and 16-18 years group was 70.24% (43 934/62 549), 31.31% (16 166/51 652) and 8.89% (546/51 162), respectively, and decreased with the age increasing (χ² linear-by-linear = 50 617.75, P sleep was 93.64% (154 838/165 363) in total students, the prevalence was higher among urban (94.94% (78 829/83 027)) than rural students (92.32% (76 009/82 336)) (χ² = 479.14, P sleep in 9-12 years group, 13-15 years group and 16-18 years group was 96.42% (60 310/62 549), 92.76% (47 912/51 562) and 91.11% (46 616/51 162), respectively. A multivariate logistic regression analysis (OR (95% CI)) revealed that the insufficient sleep was significantly associated with being urban (1.58 (1.51-1.65)), being girls (1.39 (1.34-1.45)), being 9-12 years group (2.77 (2.62-2.93)), living in the middle (1.19 (1.13-1.25)) or western (1.08 (1.03-1.13)) of China, and commuting from school by bicycle (1.21 (1.14-1.28)), bus/car (1.09 (1.03-1.15)), or in a boarding school (1.17 (1.10-1.24)). The sleep duration

  11. Nap sleep spindle correlates of intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujma, Péter P; Bódizs, Róbert; Gombos, Ferenc; Stintzing, Johannes; Konrad, Boris N; Genzel, Lisa; Steiger, Axel; Dresler, Martin

    2015-11-26

    Sleep spindles are thalamocortical oscillations in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, that play an important role in sleep-related neuroplasticity and offline information processing. Several studies with full-night sleep recordings have reported a positive association between sleep spindles and fluid intelligence scores, however more recently it has been shown that only few sleep spindle measures correlate with intelligence in females, and none in males. Sleep spindle regulation underlies a circadian rhythm, however the association between spindles and intelligence has not been investigated in daytime nap sleep so far. In a sample of 86 healthy male human subjects, we investigated the correlation between fluid intelligence and sleep spindle parameters in an afternoon nap of 100 minutes. Mean sleep spindle length, amplitude and density were computed for each subject and for each derivation for both slow and fast spindles. A positive association was found between intelligence and slow spindle duration, but not any other sleep spindle parameter. As a positive correlation between intelligence and slow sleep spindle duration in full-night polysomnography has only been reported in females but not males, our results suggest that the association between intelligence and sleep spindles is more complex than previously assumed.

  12. Secondhand Smoke Exposure, Restless Sleep, and Sleep Duration in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Schwartz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine whether secondhand smoke (SHS exposure is associated with restless sleep and/or nighttime sleep duration among adolescents. Methods. Data were analyzed from 1,592 adolescents who completed an internet-delivered survey as part of the British Columbia Adolescent Substance Use Survey cohort study. Ordinal logistic and linear regression models were used to examine associations between frequency of SHS exposure in the past month and frequency of restless sleep and nighttime sleep duration, respectively. Results. SHS exposure was significantly positively associated with restless sleep and significantly negatively associated with sleep duration. In fully adjusted models, compared with students who reported never being exposed to SHS in the past month, students who reported a low, medium, or high frequency of SHS exposure were 1.53, 1.76, and 2.51 times as likely, respectively, to report more frequent restless sleep (OR=1.53, 95% CI 1.08–2.16; OR=1.76, 95% CI 1.22–2.53; OR=2.51, 95% CI 1.59–3.98. With regard to sleep duration, as frequency of SHS exposure increased by one category, nighttime sleep duration during the week and weekend decreased by 4 minutes (B=-0.06, 95% CI=-0.01–-0.11 and 6 minutes (B=-0.09, 95% CI=-0.03–-0.14, respectively. Conclusions. This study suggests that frequency of SHS exposure has a significant dose-response relationship with restless sleep and sleep duration in adolescents.

  13. Reduced False Memory after Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

  14. Glottal insufficiency with aspiration risk in dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldez-Rodriguez, Laureano A; Johns, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Glottal closure is an important part of the mechanism that protects the airway during the normal swallow. Glottal insufficiency disrupts glottal closure and therefore puts patients at risk of aspiration. Treatment of glottal insufficiency can be classified as surgical or nonsurgical. The objective of treating glottal insufficiency is to avoid aspiration or penetration of secretions or food into the airway. Nonsurgical treatment consists of swallowing maneuvers and other measures. Surgical treatment of glottal insufficiency includes injection laryngoplasty, medialization thyroplasty with or without arytenoid adduction or with arytenopexy and cricothyroid subluxation, hypopharyngoplasty, cricopharynx muscle dilation, and cricopharynx myotomy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Associations between sleep duration, sleep quality and diabetic retinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Y Q Tan

    Full Text Available Abnormal durations of sleep have been associated with risk of diabetes. However, it is not clear if sleep duration is associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR.In a cross-sectional study, we included 1,231 (Malay, n = 395; Indian, n = 836 adults (mean age 64.4 ± 9.0 years, 50.4% female with diabetes from the second visit of two independent population-based cohort studies (2011-15 in Singapore. Self-reported habitual sleep duration was categorized as short (<6 h, normal (6≤ h <8, and long (≥8 h. Questionnaires were administered to detect risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, excessive daytime sleepiness, and insomnia, all of which may indicate poor quality of sleep. The associations between sleep-related characteristics with moderate DR and vision-threatening DR (VTDR were analysed using logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders.Prevalence of moderate DR and VTDR in the study population were 10.5% and 6.3% respectively. The mean duration of sleep was 6.4 ± 1.5 h. Compared to normal sleep duration, both short and long sleep durations were associated with moderate DR with multivariable odds ratio (95% confidence interval of 1.73 (1.03-2.89 and 2.17 (1.28-3.66 respectively. Long sleep duration (2.37 [1.16-4.89], high risk of OSA (2.24 [1.09-4.75], and excessive daytime sleepiness (3.27 [1.02-10.30] were separately associated with VTDR.Sleep duration had a U-shaped association with moderate DR; long sleep duration, excessive daytime sleepiness and high risk of OSA were positively associated with VTDR.

  16. [Sleep disorder and lifestyle-related disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Rei; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2015-06-01

    Sleep disorder is associated with the lifestyle-related diseases including obesity, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ by producing bioactive secretory proteins, also known as adipokines, that can directly act on nearby or remote organs. Recently, the associations between these adipokines and sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea have been reported. In this review, we focus on the relationship between sleep disorder and lifestyle-related diseases.

  17. Sleep health and its assessment and management in physical therapy practice: the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coren, Stanley

    2009-07-01

    Sleep and sleep deprivation have become major health issues in our modern society. Impaired sleep can negatively affect physical and psychological well-being, and conversely, certain common conditions can impair sleep. Furthermore, insufficient or disrupted sleep can contribute to functional impairments. As health care professionals, physical therapists are singularly concerned with function and well-being. To understand the role of sleep and sleep deprivation on health, this article describes sleep, our contemporary culture of sleeplessness, insomnia, sleep needs, the physical cost of inadequate sleep, the psychological cost of sleep deprivation, and the effects of sleep debt on safety. How to assess an individual's sleep debt is then described, and a sleep inventory questionnaire and scoring scale are presented. Evidence-based recommendations for optimizing sleep are outlined, and these can be readily implemented by the busy clinician. The sleep inventory questionnaire can be used to evaluate the outcome of these recommendations or other interventions as well as serve as an assessment tool. Based on the literature, the assessment and evaluation of sleep and basic sleep recommendations need to be considered as fundamental clinical competencies in contemporary physical therapy care.

  18. Sleep disruption among cancer patients following autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ashley M; Jim, Heather S L; Small, Brent J; Nishihori, Taiga; Gonzalez, Brian D; Cessna, Julie M; Hyland, Kelly A; Rumble, Meredith E; Jacobsen, Paul B

    2018-03-01

    Despite a high prevalence of sleep disruption among hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients, relatively little research has investigated its relationships with modifiable cognitive or behavioral factors or used actigraphy to characterize sleep disruption in this population. Autologous HCT recipients who were 6-18 months post transplant completed self-report measures of cancer-related distress, fear of cancer recurrence, dysfunctional sleep cognitions, and inhibitory sleep behaviors upon enrollment. Patients then wore an actigraph for 7 days and completed a self-report measure of sleep disruption on day 7 of the study. Among the 84 participants (age M = 60, 45% female), 41% reported clinically relevant sleep disruption. Examination of actigraph data confirmed that, on average, sleep was disrupted (wake after sleep onset M = 66 min) and sleep efficiency was less than recommended (sleep efficiency M = 78%). Cancer-related distress, fear of recurrence, dysfunctional sleep cognitions, and inhibitory sleep behaviors were related to self-reported sleep disruption (p valuesdisruption after transplant. Cancer-related distress, fear of recurrence, dysfunctional sleep cognitions, and maladaptive sleep behaviors are related to self-reported sleep disruption and should be considered targets for cognitive behavioral intervention in this population.

  19. Speech Outcomes after Tonsillectomy in Patients with Known Velopharyngeal Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Paulson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Controversy exists over whether tonsillectomy will affect speech in patients with known velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI, particularly in those with cleft palate. Methods. All patients seen at the OHSU Doernbecher Children's Hospital VPI clinic between 1997 and 2010 with VPI who underwent tonsillectomy were reviewed. Speech parameters were assessed before and after tonsillectomy. Wilcoxon rank-sum testing was used to evaluate for significance. Results. A total of 46 patients with VPI underwent tonsillectomy during this period. Twenty-three had pre- and postoperative speech evaluation sufficient for analysis. The majority (87% had a history of cleft palate. Indications for tonsillectomy included obstructive sleep apnea in 11 (48% and staged tonsillectomy prior to pharyngoplasty in 10 (43%. There was no significant difference between pre- and postoperative speech intelligibility or velopharyngeal competency in this population. Conclusion. In this study, tonsillectomy in patients with VPI did not significantly alter speech intelligibility or velopharyngeal competence.

  20. Sleep and Mental Health in Undergraduate Students with Generally Healthy Sleep Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojevich, Helen M; Lukowski, Angela F

    2016-01-01

    Whereas previous research has indicated that sleep problems tend to co-occur with increased mental health issues in university students, relatively little is known about relations between sleep quality and mental health in university students with generally healthy sleep habits. Understanding relations between sleep and mental health in individuals with generally healthy sleep habits is important because (a) student sleep habits tend to worsen over time and (b) even time-limited experience of sleep problems may have significant implications for the onset of mental health problems. In the present research, 69 university students with generally healthy sleep habits completed questionnaires about sleep quality and mental health. Although participants did not report clinically concerning mental health issues as a group, global sleep quality was associated with mental health. Regression analyses revealed that nighttime sleep duration and the frequency of nighttime sleep disruptions were differentially related to total problems and clinically-relevant symptoms of psychological distress. These results indicate that understanding relations between sleep and mental health in university students with generally healthy sleep habits is important not only due to the large number of undergraduates who experience sleep problems and mental health issues over time but also due to the potential to intervene and improve mental health outcomes before they become clinically concerning.

  1. Sleep/Wake Patterns and Parental Perceptions of Sleep in Children Born Preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Sarah N; Meltzer, Lisa J; Tapia, Ignacio E; Traylor, Joel; Nixon, Gillian M; Horne, Rosemary S C; Doyle, Lex W; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Mindell, Jodi A; Marcus, Carole L

    2016-05-15

    To compare sleep/wake patterns in children born preterm in Australia vs Canada and determine cultural differences in the relationship between parental perception of sleep and actual sleep behaviors. Australian and Canadian children born preterm were recruited from the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity trial (n = 188, 5-12 y) and underwent 14 days actigraphy monitoring. Parents completed the National Sleep Foundation 2004 Sleep in America questionnaire. Cross-cultural differences in sleep characteristics assessed by actigraphy and parent-reported questionnaire were examined. Correlational analyses determined the associations between parental perceptions of child sleep need and sleep behavior. Actigraphy showed preterm children obtained, on average, 8 h sleep/night, one hour less than population recommendations for their age. There was no difference in total sleep time (TST) between Australian and Canadian cohorts; however, bed and wake times were earlier in Australian children. Bedtimes and TST varied by 60 minutes from night to night in both cohorts. Parent-reported child TST on the National Sleep Foundation questionnaire was 90 minutes longer than recorded by actigraphy. Both bedtime and TST on weekdays and weekends were related to parental perception of child sleep need in the Australian cohort. Only TST on weekdays was related to parental perception of child sleep need in the Canadian cohort. This study suggests that short sleep duration and irregular sleep schedules are common in children born preterm. Cultural differences in the association between parental perception of child sleep need and actual sleep behaviors provide important targets for future sleep health education. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  2. Sleep Restriction Impairs Vocabulary Learning when Adolescents Cram for Exams: The Need for Sleep Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sha; Deshpande, Aadya; Yeo, Sing-Chen; Lo, June C.; Chee, Michael W.L.; Gooley, Joshua J.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: The ability to recall facts is improved when learning takes place at spaced intervals, or when sleep follows shortly after learning. However, many students cram for exams and trade sleep for other activities. The aim of this study was to examine the interaction of study spacing and time in bed (TIB) for sleep on vocabulary learning in adolescents. Methods: In the Need for Sleep Study, which used a parallel-group design, 56 adolescents aged 15–19 years were randomly assigned to a week of either 5 h or 9 h of TIB for sleep each night as part of a 14-day protocol conducted at a boarding school. During the sleep manipulation period, participants studied 40 Graduate Record Examination (GRE)-type English words using digital flashcards. Word pairs were presented over 4 consecutive days (spaced items), or all at once during single study sessions (massed items), with total study time kept constant across conditions. Recall performance was examined 0 h, 24 h, and 120 h after all items were studied. Results: For all retention intervals examined, recall of massed items was impaired by a greater amount in adolescents exposed to sleep restriction. In contrast, cued recall performance on spaced items was similar between sleep groups. Conclusions: Spaced learning conferred strong protection against the effects of sleep restriction on recall performance, whereas students who had insufficient sleep were more likely to forget items studied over short time intervals. These findings in adolescents demonstrate the importance of combining good study habits and good sleep habits to optimize learning outcomes. Citation: Huang S, Deshpande A, Yeo SC, Lo JC, Chee MW, Gooley JJ. Sleep restriction impairs vocabulary learning when adolescents cram for exams: the Need for Sleep Study. SLEEP 2016;39(9):1681–1690. PMID:27253768

  3. Lack of sleep, work and the long hours culture: Evidence from the UK Time Use Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Chatzitheochari, S; Arber, SL

    2009-01-01

    Sleep is functional for individual and societal well-being, with partial sleep deprivation associated with adverse health and safety consequences. Surprisingly, sleep is absent from work—life balance debates and has remained largely under-researched by sociologists. This article examines the relationship of insufficient sleep duration with occupational circumstances and family responsibilities, providing a contribution to the examination of the health consequences of working patterns in the U...

  4. Medicines for sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzodiazepines; Sedatives; Hypnotics; Sleeping pills; Insomnia - medicines; Sleep disorder - medicines ... are commonly used to treat allergies. While these sleep aids are not addictive, your body becomes used ...

  5. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in a pubescent boy of short stature was improved with an orthodontic mandibular advancement oral appliance: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shin; Otake, Hironao; Tsuiki, Satoru; Miyao, Etsuko; Noda, Akiko

    2015-01-15

    We report a 16-year-old pubescent pediatric patient with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and short stature whose apnea hypopnea index (AHI) was significantly reduced following the use of an orthodontic oral appliance that advances the mandible ventrally. The mandible was advanced 64% of the maximal mandibular protrusive position with use of the appliance over a 3-year period. The patient's AHI without the appliance in place decreased from 101.6/h at baseline to 11/h after treatment. Moreover, the patient's height increased 14 cm during treatment, resulting in height close to the average height for his age. Cephalometric analysis revealed an improvement in his retrognathic mandible and proclination of the upper front teeth. In conclusion, an orthodontic mandibular advancement oral appliance played an important role not only in improving the patient's OSAS but also in normalizing his physical growth during puberty. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  6. Thirty-day outcomes underestimate endocrine and exocrine insufficiency after pancreatic resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Pei-Wen; Dinh, Kate H; Sullivan, Mary; Wassef, Wahid Y; Zivny, Jaroslav; Whalen, Giles F; LaFemina, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    Long-term incidence of endocrine and exocrine insufficiency after pancreatectomy is poorly described. We analyze the long-term risks of pancreatic insufficiency after pancreatectomy. Subjects who underwent pancreatectomy from 2002 to 2012 were identified from a prospective database (n = 227). Subjects who underwent total pancreatectomy or pancreatitis surgery were excluded. New post-operative endocrine and exocrine insufficiency was defined as the need for new pharmacologic intervention within 1000 days from resection. 28 (16%) of 178 subjects without pre-existing endocrine insufficiency developed post-operative endocrine insufficiency: 7 (25%) did so within 30 days, 8 (29%) between 30 and 90 days, and 13 (46%) after 90 days. 94 (43%) of 214 subjects without pre-operative exocrine insufficiency developed exocrine insufficiency: 20 (21%) did so within 30 days, 29 (31%) between 30 and 90 days, and 45 (48%) after 90 days. Adjuvant radiation was associated with new endocrine insufficiency. On multivariate regression, pancreaticoduodenectomy and chemotherapy were associated with a greater risk of exocrine insufficiency. Reporting 30-day functional outcomes for pancreatic resection is insufficient, as nearly 45% of subjects who develop disease do so after 90 days. Reporting of at least 90-day outcomes may more reliably assess risk for post-operative endocrine and exocrine insufficiency. Copyright © 2016 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hypothalamic functions in patients with pituitary insufficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgers, A.J.F.

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to increase our understanding of hypothalamic (dys)function in patients with pituitary insufficiency. This goal is driven by the clinical experience of persisting symptoms in patients adequately treated for pituitary insufficiency. We focus primarily on patients

  8. Questionnaires that screen for multiple sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingman, Karen J; Jungquist, Carla R; Perlis, Michael L

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this review was to identify, describe, and evaluate the existing multiple sleep disorders screening questionnaires for their comprehensiveness, brevity, and psychometric quality. A systematic review was conducted using Medline/PubMed, cumulative index to nursing & allied health literature, health and psychosocial instruments and the "grey literature". Search terms were "sleep disorders, screening, questionnaires, and psychometrics". The scope of the search was limited to English language articles for adult age groups from 1989 through 2015. Of the n = 2812 articles identified, most were assessment or treatment guideline reviews, topical reviews, and/or empirical articles. Seven of the articles described multiple sleep disorders screening instruments. Of the identified instruments, two questionnaires (the Holland sleep Disorders questionnaire and sleep-50) were evaluated as comprehensive and one questionnaire (the global sleep assessment questionnaire [GSAQ]) was judged to be both comprehensive and efficient. The GSAQ was found to cover four of the six core intrinsic disorders, sleep insufficiency, and daytime sequela with 11 questions. Accordingly, the GSAQ is the most suitable for application as a general sleep disorders screener. Additional work is required to validate this instrument in the context of primary care. Finally, the future development of multiple sleep disorders screening questionnaires should not only cover all six intrinsic sleep disorders but also acquire some basic demographic information (age, sex, body mass index, presence/absence of bed partner, work status and shift) and some limited data regarding sleep sufficiency and the daytime consequences of sleep disturbance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Formation and suppression of acoustic memories during human sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrillon, Thomas; Pressnitzer, Daniel; Léger, Damien; Kouider, Sid

    2017-08-08

    Sleep and memory are deeply related, but the nature of the neuroplastic processes induced by sleep remains unclear. Here, we report that memory traces can be both formed or suppressed during sleep, depending on sleep phase. We played samples of acoustic noise to sleeping human listeners. Repeated exposure to a novel noise during Rapid Eye Movements (REM) or light non-REM (NREM) sleep leads to improvements in behavioral performance upon awakening. Strikingly, the same exposure during deep NREM sleep leads to impaired performance upon awakening. Electroencephalographic markers of learning extracted during sleep confirm a dissociation between sleep facilitating memory formation (light NREM and REM sleep) and sleep suppressing learning (deep NREM sleep). We can trace these neural changes back to transient sleep events, such as spindles for memory facilitation and slow waves for suppression. Thus, highly selective memory processes are active during human sleep, with intertwined episodes of facilitative and suppressive plasticity.Though memory and sleep are related, it is still unclear whether new memories can be formed during sleep. Here, authors show that people could learn new sounds during REM or light non-REM sleep, but that learning was suppressed when sounds were played during deep NREM sleep.

  10. The influence of intermittent fasting on the circadian pattern of melatonin while controlling for caloric intake, energy expenditure, light exposure, and sleep schedules: A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeneessier, Aljohara S; Bahammam, Ahmed S; Sharif, Munir M; Bahammam, Salman A; Nashwan, Samar Z; Pandi Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Cardinali, Daniel P; Alzoghaibi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesized that if we control for food composition, caloric intake, light exposure, sleep schedule, and exercise, intermittent fasting would not influence the circadian pattern of melatonin. Therefore, we designed this study to assess the effect of intermittent fasting on the circadian pattern of melatonin. Eight healthy volunteers with a mean age of 26.6 ± 4.9 years and body mass index of 23.7 ± 3.5 kg/m 2 reported to the Sleep Disorders Center (the laboratory) on four occasions: (1) adaptation, (2) 4 weeks before Ramadan while performing Islamic intermittent fasting for 1 week (fasting outside Ramadan [FOR]), (3) 1 week before Ramadan (nonfasting baseline [BL]), and (4) during the 2 nd week of Ramadan while fasting ( Ramadan ). The plasma levels of melatonin were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays at 22:00, 02:00, 04:00, 06:00, and 11:00 h. The light exposure, meal composition, energy expenditure, and sleep schedules remained the same while the participants stayed at the laboratory. The melatonin levels followed the same circadian pattern during the three monitoring periods (BL, FOR, and Ramadan ). The peak melatonin level was at 02:00 h and the trough level was at 11:00 h in all studied periods. Lower melatonin levels at 22:00 h were found during fasting compared to BL. Cosinor analysis revealed no significant changes in the acrophase of melatonin levels. In this preliminary report, under controlled conditions of light exposure, meal composition, energy expenditure, and sleep-wake schedules, intermittent fasting has no significant influence on the circadian pattern of melatonin.

  11. Sleep patterns and disorders among university students in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaad, Shafika; Costanian, Christy; Haddad, Georges; Tannous, Fida

    2014-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is a significant public health issue with adverse medical consequences. Sleep disturbances are common among university students and have an effect on this group's overall health and functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate sleep habits and disorders in a population of university students across Lebanon. This was a cross-sectional study carried out in 2012 among 735 students aged 18-25 yrs. old, enrolled at six universities across Lebanon. The Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess sleep quality and habits. Less than half of the total study population (47.3%) were good sleepers (PSQILebanon. This study suggests that sleep problems among Lebanese college students were common and such problems may interfere with daily performance. Findings from this study have important implications for programs intended to improve academic performance by targeting sleep habits of students.

  12. Optimal glucocorticoid replacement in adrenal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øksnes, Marianne; Ross, Richard; Løvås, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Adrenal insufficiency (glucocorticoid deficiency) comprises a group of rare diseases, including primary adrenal insufficiency, secondary adrenal insufficiency and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Lifesaving glucocorticoid therapy was introduced over 60 years ago, but since then a number of advances in treatment have taken place. Specifically, little is known about short- and long-term treatment effects, and morbidity and mortality. Over the past decade, systematic cohort and registry studies have described reduced health-related quality of life, an unfavourable metabolic profile and increased mortality in patients with adrenal insufficiency, which may relate to unphysiological glucocorticoid replacement. This has led to the development of new modes of replacement that aim to mimic normal glucocorticoid physiology. Here, evidence for the inadequacy of conventional glucocorticoid therapy and recent developments in treatment are reviewed, with an emphasis on primary adrenal insufficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sudden onset of cervical spondylotic myelopathy during sleep: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Irene A; Burns, Stephen P; Little, James W

    2002-03-01

    Cervical spondylotic myelopathy is a common cause of compressive spinal cord dysfunction. The typical course involves either a gradual or an episodic increase in symptoms and neurologic deficits, with impairment evolving over a period of months to years. Acute neurologic deterioration in conjunction with cervical spondylosis has been described almost exclusively in traumatic situations such as disk herniation. We report a case of an acute, nontraumatic onset of tetraplegia in association with cervical spondylosis. A 56-year-old man developed tetraplegia during a 1-hour nap, with loss of volitional control of his extremities, impaired sensation below the C3 dermatome, and increased muscle tone. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical spine revealed canal stenosis and increased T2 signal within the cord. This case report describes the rehabilitation course for this patient and reviews the clinical spectrum of onset and progression of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Copyright 2002 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  14. Sleep: A 'Wake-up' Call.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamangaonkar, A C

    2013-11-01

    This report aims to attract attention toward the importance of sleep in medical students and young resident doctors. With growing stress levels among students, sleep problems have become a common affair. Concepts like sleep disorders, chronotypes, indicators of sleep deprivation are worth knowing. As found in a questionnaire-based review, significant gaps in sleep education exist today among medical students. There are many health hazards of sleep deprivation like anxiety, depression, hypertension, obesity, diabetes, increased error rate at work, breast malignancy, decreased dexterity and adverse impact on academic performance that are dealt with in this article. These issues are not covered well in the conventional didactic lectures on 'sleep' in the medical curriculum. The medical profession demands health caregivers to stay up all night and keep working. Hence, the current medical education curriculum should lay special emphasis on sleep education.

  15. Sleep hygiene among veterinary medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kenneth D; Hunt, Suzanne A; Borst, Luke B; Gerard, Mathew

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to better understand veterinary medical students' sleep hygiene and identify the extent to which sleep hygiene behaviors may result in consequences (either positive or negative) for students. A total of 187 doctor of veterinary medicine (DVM) program students at a large College of Veterinary Medicine in the United States. The Epworth Sleep Scale and Daytime Sleepiness Scale were administered to 393 students enrolled in the DVM program. About 55.1% of students reported sleep per night, 28.9% reported having trouble sleeping, and 50.3% reported feeling sleepy all day. With respect to sleep quality, 5.3% described it as excellent, 52.4% as good, 34.2% as fair, and 8.0% as poor. A significant percentage of veterinary medical students exhibit poor sleep hygiene habits that may be detrimental to both their health and academic endeavors.

  16. Clinical significance of gamma camera renography in chronic renal insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudczak, R.; Frischauf, H.; Kletter, K.

    1980-01-01

    Gamma camera renography allows, together with renal imaging, an evaluation of individual renal function. For these examinations, I 123 orthoiodohippurate is preferred and most widely used. The results on patients with chronic renal insufficiency, including urologic and posttransplantation patients, are reported. Whereas the method is of clinical significance in evaluating posttransplantation complications and in assessing individual kidney function preoperatively in urology, as well as in monitoring therapeutic effects in the early period of renal disease, it is of limited diagnostic value in chronic renal insufficiency. In this latter regard, clinical and laboratory examinations are of primary importance. (author)

  17. Sleep bruxism possibly triggered by multiple sclerosis attacks and treated successfully with botulinum toxin: Report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevim, Serhan; Kaleağası, Hakan; Fidancı, Halit

    2015-09-01

    Sleep bruxism refers to a nocturnal parafunctional activity including the clenching, grinding or gnashing of teeth. While most of the nocturnal bruxism cases seen in the general population are apparently idiopathic, it has been reported to be associated with a range of neurological diseases such as Huntington's disease, cranio-cervical dystonia and post-anoxic brain damage, but not multiple sclerosis (MS). We describe three cases of MS patients who have had moderate to severe complaints of bruxism in the two weeks following their relevant MS attacks. None of the three patients had a diagnosis of bruxism prior to her attack. The diagnosis was confirmed in one out of three by a polysomnography. One patient did not have any complaints related to bruxism previous to her attack, whereas two had mild and infrequent complaints. The symptoms of the relevant attacks were left hemihypesthesia in all and hemiparesis in two. None of the patients had spasticity that could result in severe teeth clenching. All three patients presented with morning headaches and jaw pain or tightness and were treated successfully with botulinum toxin (Btx) injections applied to their masseter and temporalis muscles. The cause of bruxism is controversial but lesions of the cortico-basalganglia-thalamo-cotrical loops are thought to be most likely. However, acute or chronic lesions in those pathways were not demonstrated in the 3 patients. It is feasible that they had normal appearing white matter interruptions in their cortico-basalganglia-thalamocortical loops along with their relevant attack. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Medical Cannabis and the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea: An American Academy of Sleep Medicine Position Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramar, Kannan; Rosen, Ilene M; Kirsch, Douglas B; Chervin, Ronald D; Carden, Kelly A; Aurora, R Nisha; Kristo, David A; Malhotra, Raman K; Martin, Jennifer L; Olson, Eric J; Rosen, Carol L; Rowley, James A

    2018-03-30

    The diagnosis and effective treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults is an urgent health priority. Positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy remains the most effective treatment for OSA, although other treatment options continue to be explored. Limited evidence citing small pilot or proof of concept studies suggest that the synthetic medical cannabis extract dronabinol may improve respiratory stability and provide benefit to treat OSA. However, side effects such as somnolence related to treatment were reported in most patients, and the long-term effects on other sleep quality measures, tolerability, and safety are still unknown. Dronabinol is not approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of OSA, and medical cannabis and synthetic extracts other than dronabinol have not been studied in patients with OSA. The composition of cannabinoids within medical cannabis varies significantly and is not regulated. Synthetic medical cannabis may have differential effects, with variable efficacy and side effects in the treatment of OSA. Therefore, it is the position of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) that medical cannabis and/or its synthetic extracts should not be used for the treatment of OSA due to unreliable delivery methods and insufficient evidence of effectiveness, tolerability, and safety. OSA should be excluded from the list of chronic medical conditions for state medical cannabis programs, and patients with OSA should discuss their treatment options with a licensed medical provider at an accredited sleep facility. Further research is needed to understand the functionality of medical cannabis extracts before recommending them as a treatment for OSA. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. Reversible acute adrenal insufficiency caused by fluconazole in a critically ill patient

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, S G Santhana; Cobbs, R K

    2006-01-01

    A 38 year old man with history of obstructive sleep apnea and polycythaemia presented with hypercapnic respiratory failure that required intubation. He developed fever with infiltrates on chest radiography that required empiric antifungal therapy with fluconazole along with broad spectrum antibiotics. He developed acute adrenal insufficiency that recovered after fluconazole was stopped. It is believed that this complication of adrenal suppression attributable to fluconazole is underrecognised...

  20. Are there associations between sleep bruxism, chronic stress, and sleep quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlmann, Brigitte; Bömicke, Wolfgang; Habibi, Yasamin; Rammelsberg, Peter; Schmitter, Marc

    2018-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify associations between definite sleep bruxism, as defined by the American academy of sleep medicine, and chronic stress and sleep quality. Sleep bruxism was determined by use of questionnaires, assessment of clinical symptoms, and recording of electromyographic and electrocardiographic data (recorded by the Bruxoff ® device). The study included 67 participants. Of these, 38 were identified as bruxers and 29 as non-bruxers. The 38 bruxers were further classified as 17 moderate and 21 intense bruxers. Self-reported stress and self-reported sleep quality were determined by use of the validated questionnaires "Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress" (TICS) and the "Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index" (PSQI). No statistically significant association was found between sleep bruxism and self-reported stress or sleep quality. However, a significant association between specific items of chronic stress and poor sleep quality was identified. The results of this study indicate an association between subjective sleep quality and subjective chronic stress, irrespective of the presence or absence of sleep bruxism. Chronic stress and sleep quality do not seem to be associated with sleep bruxism. (clinical trial no. NCT03039985). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Choice of biomaterials—Do soft occlusal splints influence jaw-muscle activity during sleep? A preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Taro; Takeuchi, Tamiyo; Tomonaga, Akio; Yachida, Wataru; Ohata, Noboru; Svensson, Peter

    2012-12-01

    AimThe choice of biomaterials for occlusal splints may significantly influence biological outcome. In dentistry, hard acrylic occlusal splints (OS) have been shown to have a temporary and inhibitory effect on jaw-muscle activity, such as tooth clenching and grinding during sleep, i.e., sleep bruxism (SB). Traditionally, this inhibitory effect has been explained by changes in the intraoral condition rather than the specific effects of changes in occlusion. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the effect of another type of occlusal surface, such as a soft-material OS in addition to a hard-type OS in terms of changes in jaw-muscle activity during sleep. Materials and methodsSeven healthy subjects (mean ± SD, six men and one woman: 28.9 ± 2.7 year old), participated in this study. A soft-material OS (ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer) was fabricated for each subject and the subjects used the OS for five continuous nights. The EMG activity during sleep was compared to baseline (no OS). Furthermore, the EMG activity during the use of a hard-type OS (Michigan-type OS, acrylic resin), and hard-type OS combined with contingent electrical stimulation (CES) was compared to baseline values. Each session was separated by at least two weeks (washout). Jaw-muscle activity during sleep was recorded with single-channel ambulatory devices (GrindCare, MedoTech, Herlev, Denmark) in all sessions for five nights. ResultsJaw-muscle activity during sleep was 46.6 ± 29.8 EMG events/hour at baseline and significantly decreased during the hard-type OS (17.4 ± 10.5, P = 0.007) and the hard-type OS + CES (10.8 ± 7.1, P = 0.002), but not soft-material OS (36.3 ± 24.5, P = 0.055). Interestingly, the soft-material OS (coefficient of variance = 98.6 ± 35.3%) was associated with greater night-to-night variations than baseline (39.0 ± 11.8%) and the hard-type OS + CES (53.3 ± 13.7%, P < 0.013). ConclusionThe present pilot study in small sample showed that a soft

  2. Sleep quality and sleep associated problems in female pharmacy students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleep is an essential element for adolescent mental and physical growth and development, but today′s young adolescents are deprived of this. Earlier studies in Europe and America showed pitiable sleep quality of young college students, which affect their academic growth. However, as per our literature search there is a lack of such studies in Indian context especially, within pharmacy education. Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the interrelation between the demographic characteristics, life-style, and academic progress with sleep quality and sleep problems along with daytime and nighttime habits in young female pharmacy students of India. Materials and Methods: Questionnaire on sleep and daytime habits (QS and DH was prepared. Our sample survey consists of 226 female pharmacy students of Banasthali University. QS and DH of multiple choice type, covered demographic characteristic (3 questions sleep and daytime habits (25 questions, life-style and academic progress (3 questions, and one question of course curriculum. Parameters were co-related by point scale method using the SPSS 16.0 software. Results: Data derived and analyze from survey illustrated that quality of sleep was as: Excellent - 20.4%, good - 38.5%, satisfactory - 35.8%, poor - 4%, and very poor - 1.3% of participants. Living condition (ρ=0.168, P =0.011, academic progress (ρ=0.151, P=0.023, leisure activity (ρ=0.133, P<0.05, and daytime naps (ρ=0.160, P=0.016 were significantly correlated with sleep quality. In addition, daytime sleepiness caused a significant problem for students and created a number of sleep disorders. Nevertheless, Sleep quality was not associated with age, body mass index, and coffee in the late evening. Conclusion: Study reported that sleep associated problems were common complaints in female pharmacy students.

  3. Subjective sleep quality and sleep duration of patients in a psychiatric hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias J. Müller

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sleep complaints and sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in patients with psychiatric disorders. During hospitalization the patients’ condition may be even worse but little is known about the subjective sleep quality in psychiatric hospitals. Thus, we have investigated subjective sleep quality and mean sleep duration in patients with different psychiatric disorders at the end of hospitalization. For a period of one year, inpatients of a psychiatric hospital with diagnosis of substance use disorder (SUD, schizophrenia (SCZ, or anxiety/depressive disorders (AND were routinely asked to fill in an easily comprehensible sleep quality questionnaire at the end of their hospitalization. Age, gender, subjective sleep quality, and sleep duration were analyzed; sleep duration was classified according to age-specific recommendations. Data of n=309 patients (age 52.1±17.9y, 56.1% women were analyzed (n=63 SUD, n=50 SCZ, n=196 AND. Mean sleep duration was 7.0±2.0 h; 20.7% of patients had sleep durations below and 4.5% above age-specific recommendations. Non-restorative sleep during hospitalization was reported “almost always” in 38.2% (n=118, and “occasionally” in 30.1% (n=93. Subjective sleep quality was significantly associated with sleep duration (rs=−0.31, P<0.0005, but not with age, gender or diagnostic subgroup. The study showed that a great proportion of patients reported poor subjective sleep quality during hospitalization, regardless of age, gender and psychiatric diagnosis. As sleep quality was significantly associated with short sleep duration, a first step could be to take care to achieve recommended age-specific sleep durations in psychiatric hospitals.

  4. Healthy Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quality sleep, ask yourself Do you have trouble getting up in the morning? Do you have trouble focusing during the day? Do you doze off during the day? If you answered yes to these three questions, you should work on ...

  5. Subjective sleep complaints indicate objective sleep problems in psychosomatic patients: a prospective polysomnographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linden M

    2016-08-01

    evaluation of having slept short or normal and vice versa. The polysomnographical sleep efficiency was positively correlated with subjective feeling of current well-being in the morning and subjective TST and negatively with subjective restfulness, subjective sleep onset latency, subjective evaluation of sleep onset latency, and evaluation of time awake after sleep onset.Conclusion: The data suggest that, in general, patients selected from the extremes of reported very poor sleepers and good sleepers have different amounts of sleep when measured in the laboratory, and that in general, the amount and timing of sleep in the laboratory are quite well perceived and reported by these groups. The data came from psychosomatic patients and suggest that even in this patient group, respective sleep complaints are more than just the expression of general somatization or lamenting. Keywords: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, subjective sleep parameters, insomnia, awake after sleep onset, sleep disorders, sleep latency

  6. Pediatric sleep apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea - pediatric; Apnea - pediatric sleep apnea syndrome; Sleep-disordered breathing - pediatric ... Untreated pediatric sleep apnea may lead to: High blood pressure Heart or lung problems Slow growth and development

  7. Changing your sleep habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... falling asleep; Sleep hygiene References American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Insomnia. Updated March 4, 2015. SleepEducation.org. sleepeducation. ... T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 86. ...

  8. Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cheyne-Stokes respiration), obstructive sleep apnoea and mixed or complex sleep apnoea.1. Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is the most common of these three disorders and is defined as airway obstruction during sleep, accompanied by at least ...

  9. Snoring and Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Snoring and Sleep Apnea Snoring and Sleep Apnea Patient Health Information ... newsroom@entnet.org . Insight into sleeping disorders and sleep apnea Forty-five percent of normal adults snore ...

  10. [Habits and problems of sleep in adolescent students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaratou, E; Dikeos, D; Anagnostopoulos, D; Soldatos, C

    2008-07-01

    The evaluation of sleep habits and sleep related problems in high school adolescent students in the Athens area and the assessment of these problems' relation to demographic and other variables was investigated by the Athens Insomnia Scale - 5 item version (AIS-5), which was administered to 713 adolescent Senior High School students in the Greater Athens Area. Data such as age, sex, school records, and time spent per week in school-related and extracurricular activities were collected. The sample's mean sleep duration was 7,5 hours, mean bedtime 12:20 am and wake-up time 7:15 am. Total sleep time was not affected by gender, but was influenced by time spent in various activities. Sleep complaints were related to delayed sleep, onset latency and insufficient total duration of sleep. Girls complained more than boys, while correlations showed that students with lower academic per formance and those in second grade were more likely to have higher AIS-5 scores. The results show that sleep time of high school students is dependent on practical matters such as school schedule and other activities, while sleep complaints are related to female gender, bad school performance as well as to the second grade. The difference between actual sleep time and sleep complaints should be considered when studying the sleep of adolescents.

  11. The Impact of Sleep Deprivation on the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trošt Bobić, Tatjana; Šečić, Ana; Zavoreo, Iris; Matijević, Valentina; Filipović, Branimir; Kolak, Željka; Bašić Kes, Vanja; Ciliga, Dubravka; Sajković, Dubravka

    2016-09-01

    Each sleep phase is characterized by specific chemical, cellular and anatomic events of vital importance for normal neural functioning. Different forms of sleep deprivation may lead to a decline of cognitive functions in individuals. Studies in this field make a distinction between total sleep deprivation, chronic sleep restriction, and the situation of sleep disruption. Investigations covering the acute effects of sleep deprivation on the brain show that the discovered behavioral deficits in most cases regenerate after two nights of complete sleep. However, some studies done on mice emphasize the possible chronic effects of long-term sleep deprivation or chronic restriction on the occurrence of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. In order to better understand the acute and chronic effects of sleep loss, the mechanisms of neural adaptation in the situations of insufficient sleep need to be further investigated. Future integrative research on the impact of sleep deprivation on neural functioning measured through the macro level of cognitive functions and the micro molecular and cell level could contribute to more accurate conclusions about the basic cellular mechanisms responsible for the detected behavioral deficits occurring due to sleep deprivation.

  12. Sleep and menopause: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Joan L; Woods, Nancy F

    2015-08-01

    Our overall aim-through a narrative review-is to critically profile key extant evidence of menopause-related sleep, mostly from studies published in the last decade. We searched the database PubMed using selected Medical Subject Headings for sleep and menopause (n = 588 articles). Using similar headings, we also searched the Cochrane Library (n = 1), Embase (n = 449), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (n = 163), Web of Science (n = 506), and PsycINFO (n = 58). Articles deemed most related to the purpose were reviewed. Results were articulated with interpretive comments according to evidence of sleep quality (self-reported) and sleep patterns (polysomnography and actigraphy) impact as related to reproductive aging and in the context of vasomotor symptoms (VMS; self-reported), vasomotor activity (VMA) events (recorded skin conductance), depressed mood, and ovarian hormones. Predominantly, the menopausal transition conveys poor sleep beyond anticipated age effects. Perceptions of sleep are not necessarily translatable from detectable physical sleep changes and are probably affected by an emotional overlay on symptoms reporting. Sleep quality and pattern changes are mostly manifest in wakefulness indicators, but sleep pattern changes are not striking. Likely contributing are VMS of sufficient frequency/severity and bothersomeness, probably with a sweating component. VMA events influence physical sleep fragmentation but not necessarily extensive sleep loss or sleep architecture changes. Lack of robust connections between perceived and recorded sleep (and VMA) could be influenced by inadequate detection. There is a need for studies of women in well-defined menopausal transition stages who have no sleep problems, accounting for sleep-related disorders, mood, and other symptoms, with attention to VMS dimensions, distribution of VMS during night and day, and advanced measurement of symptoms and physiologic manifestations.

  13. Sleep in Othello

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2009-01-01

    Some of our best descriptions of sleep disorders come from literature. While Shakespeare is well known for his references to insomnia and sleep walking, his works also demonstrate a keen awareness of many other sleep disorders. This paper examines sleep themes in Shakespeare's play Othello. The play indicates Shakespeare's astute eye for sleep deprivation, sexual parasomnias, and effects of stress and drugs on sleep. Citation: Dimsdale JE. Sleep in Othello. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(3):280-281. PMID:19960651

  14. Sleep and Premenstrual Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehan, Shazia; Auguste, Evan; Hussain, Mahjabeen; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R.; Brzezinski, Amon; Gupta, Ravi; Attarian, Hrayr; Jean-Louis, Giradin; McFarlane, Samy I.

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is unknown; it may be due to the normal effect of hormones during the menstrual cycle as it occurs in the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.PMS affects women of childbearing age and remits with the onset of menstruation. The menstrual phase is known to influence stage 2 and REM sleep in women, irrespective of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Women with PMDD showed a decreased response to melatonin in their luteal phase as compared to the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. However, melatonin duration or timing of offset in the morning has not been reported to correlate with the mood. Rather, improvement in mood-related symptoms of PMDD has been found to be influenced by sleep deprivation, be it sleep restrictions in early or late night. Sleep disturbance and decreased melatonin secretions due to hormonal fluctuations during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle could explain the sleep complaints of PMDD. PMID:28239684

  15. Sleep Tips: 7 Steps to Better Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn every night. Consider simple tips for better sleep, from setting a sleep schedule to including physical activity in your daily ... factors that can interfere with a good night's sleep — from work stress and family responsibilities to unexpected ...

  16. Development of a University Campus Healthy Sleep Promotion Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Brian E; Troy, Adam S; Patel, Hersila H; Halstead, Valerie; Arana, Mayra

    2018-03-01

    This article provides a preliminary evaluation of a campus sleep health program for undergraduate university students. In this study, 5 focus groups with 38 undergraduates assessed perceptions about sleep in relationship to college experiences. Additionally, 35 undergraduate students participated in campus sleep improvement workshops, and completed a brief self-report survey before and after the workshop. Results showed five themes emerged from focus groups: (a) Sleep and its impact on academics, (b) Understanding of the importance of sleep, (c) Procrastination and its impact on sleep, (d) Stress, and (e) Sleep and extracurricular/social activities. Based on self-report surveys, there was no improvement in perceived sleep importance, but perceived sleep confidence of undergraduate student-participants increased significantly after the workshop. The sleep health program for undergraduates showed promising results, and should be evaluated using a larger, more rigorous design in future studies.

  17. Behavioural hyperventilation as a novel clinical condition associated with central sleep apnoea: A report of three cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pevernagie, D.; Mariman, A.; Vandenbussche, N.; Tobback, E.; Overeem, S.; Delesie, L.; Janssen, H.; Vogelaers, D.

    2012-01-01

    Central sleep apnoea (CSA) is a disorder characterised by repetitive episodes of decreased ventilation due to complete or partial reduction in the central neural outflow to the respiratory muscles. Hyperventilation plays a prime role in the pathogenesis of CSA. Chronic heart failure and dwelling at

  18. Sleep and Behavior in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Potential relationships between objectively measured sleep disturbances and neurobehavioral function in a community cohort of 5- to 7-year old children with parentally reported symptoms of ADHD were investigated at the University of Louisville, KY.

  19. Sleep in Othello

    OpenAIRE

    Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2009-01-01

    Some of our best descriptions of sleep disorders come from literature. While Shakespeare is well known for his references to insomnia and sleep walking, his works also demonstrate a keen awareness of many other sleep disorders. This paper examines sleep themes in Shakespeare's play Othello. The play indicates Shakespeare's astute eye for sleep deprivation, sexual parasomnias, and effects of stress and drugs on sleep.

  20. Relationships between parental sleep quality, fatigue, cognitions about infant sleep, and parental depression pre and post-intervention for infant behavioral sleep problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Wendy A; Moynihan, Melissa; Bhagat, Radhika; Wooldridge, Joanne

    2017-04-04

    Maternal and paternal depression has been associated with infants' behavioral sleep problems. Behavioral sleep interventions, which alter parental cognitions about infant sleep, have improved infant sleep problems. This study reports relationships between parental depression, fatigue, sleep quality, and cognitions about infant sleep pre and post-intervention for a behavioral sleep problem. This secondary analysis of data from Canadian parents (n = 455), with healthy infants aged 6-to-8-months exposed to a behavioral sleep intervention, examined baseline data and follow-up data from 18 or 24 weeks post intervention (group teaching or printed material) exposure. Parents reported on sleep quality, fatigue, depression, and cognitions about infant sleep. Data were analyzed using Pearson's r and stepwise regression analysis. Parents' fatigue, sleep quality, sleep cognitions, and depression scores were correlated at baseline and follow-up. At baseline, sleep quality (b = .52, 95% CI .19-.85), fatigue (b = .48, 95% CI .33-.63), doubt about managing infant sleep (b = .44, 95% CI .19-.69), and anger about infant sleep (b = .69, 95% CI .44-.94) were associated with mothers' depression. At baseline, fathers' depression related to sleep quality (b = .42, 95% CI .01-.83), fatigue (b = .47, 95% CI .32-.63), and doubt about managing infant sleep (b = .50, 95% CI .24-.76). At follow-up, mothers' depression was associated with sleep quality (b = .76, 95% CI .41-1.12), fatigue (b = .25, 95% CI .14-.37), doubt about managing infant sleep (b = .44, 95% CI .16-.73), sleep anger (b = .31, 95% CI .02-.59), and setting sleep limits (b = -.22, 95% CI -.41-[-.03]). At follow-up, fathers' depression related to sleep quality (b = .84, 95% CI .46-1.22), fatigue (b = .31, 95% CI .17-.45), sleep doubt (b = .34, 95% CI .05-.62), and setting sleep limits (b = .25, 95% CI .01-.49). Mothers' and fathers' cognitions about infant

  1. Sleep board review questions: the late riser

    OpenAIRE

    Afaq T; Burhiraja R

    2012-01-01

    No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 22-year-old male presents to Sleep Clinic for sleep onset insomnia and difficulty waking up in the morning. He plans to begin a new job in a few weeks, which would require him to wake up at 6 AM. He usually goes to sleep at 2 AM and wakes up at 10 AM. He remembers having this problem through high school and college. He admits to being unable to sleep even if he goes to bed at an earlier time. He reports sleeping through alarms in the...

  2. Polysomnographic Sleep Dysregulation in Cocaine Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin M. Valladares

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Insomnia and sleep disturbance are associated with declines in health functioning, alongwith increases in mortality risk. Given the prominence of reported sleep disturbance incocaine-dependent subjects and persistence into recovery, understanding the natureand severity of these disturbances in this population may help to identify relevantpathways that contribute to the increased mortality in cocaine dependence. Polysomnography provides a means of objectively characterizing sleep and, in turn, sleep disturbances. Few studies have used polysomnography to evaluate sleep incocaine-dependent persons, yet these studies have the potential to advance treatmentsthat will ultimately reduce morbidity in cocaine-dependent subjects.

  3. Sleep problems and obstructive sleep apnea in children with down syndrome, an overwiew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maris, Mieke; Verhulst, Stijn; Wojciechowski, Marek; Van de Heyning, Paul; Boudewyns, An

    2016-03-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) have a high prevalence of sleep problems, including behavioural sleep disturbances and obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep problems are associated with a wide range of adverse health effects. Since children with DS are already known to have many comorbidities, they are particularly susceptible for the negative impact of sleep problems. Aim of this study is (1) to evaluate the prevalence of sleep problems in children with DS, (2) compare the prevalence of sleep problems in children with DS with a community sample of typical developing school-aged children, and (3) to correlate the existence of sleep problems in children with DS and OSA. Children enrolled at the multidisciplinary Down team of the University Hospital Antwerp and seen at the ENT department were eligible for this study. The prevalence of sleep problems was evaluated by the use of the Child Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and a full overnight polysomnography was performed to screen for obstructive sleep apnea. Parents of fifty-four children with DS, aged 7.5 years (5.4-11.6), completed the CSHQ and an overall prevalence of sleep problems was found in 74.1%. In 57.1% of the children OSA was diagnosed with a median obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (oAHI) 7.25/h (5.7-9.8). Overall sleep problems were not age-or gender related, however boys suffer more from daytime sleepiness. Symptoms of sleep disordered breathing correlate with parasomnias, a longer sleep duration and more daytime sleepiness. No correlation was found between sleep problems and underlying OSA. Children with Down syndrome have a significantly higher prevalence of sleep problems, compared to normal developing healthy school-aged children. We didn't find any correlation between the parental report of sleep problems and underlying OSA, or OSA severity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pancreatic insufficiency secondary to abdominal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dookeran, K.A.; Thompson, M.M.; Allum, W.H.

    1993-01-01

    Delayed post-irradiation steatorrhoea secondary to acute pancreatic insufficiency is rare. The authors describe a case occurring in a patient 23 years following radical abdominal radiotherapy for testicular seminoma. (Author)

  5. Pancreatic insufficiency secondary to abdominal radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dookeran, K.A.; Thompson, M.M.; Allum, W.H. (Leicester Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom). Dept. of Surgery)

    1993-02-01

    Delayed post-irradiation steatorrhoea secondary to acute pancreatic insufficiency is rare. The authors describe a case occurring in a patient 23 years following radical abdominal radiotherapy for testicular seminoma. (Author).

  6. Sleep Characteristics, Sleep Problems, and Associations to Quality of Life among Psychotherapists

    OpenAIRE

    Schlarb, Angelika A.; Reis, Dorota; Schröder, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Sleep problems, especially insomnia, are a common complaint among adults. International studies have shown prevalence rates between 4.7 and 36.2% for sleep difficulties in general, whereas 13.1?28.1% report insomnia symptoms. Sleep problems are associated with lower social and academic performance and can have a severe impact on psychological and physical health. Psychotherapists are suppliers within the public health system. The goal of this study was to outline sleep characteristics, preval...

  7. Sleep hygiene awareness: its relation to sleep quality and diurnal preference

    OpenAIRE

    Voinescu, Bogdan Ioan; Szentagotai-Tatar, Aurora

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleep hygiene is a core component for psychological treatments of insomnia and essential for maintaining a satisfactory sleep. Our study aimed to measure the sleep hygiene awareness and the self-reported quality of sleep among three age groups (young adults, adults and middle-aged adults) and to determine their relation. We also measured their relation with diurnal preference. Methods Using an online questionnaire, we surveyed six hundred fifty two participants, recruited nationwid...

  8. Chronic workplace stress and insufficient physical activity: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvonen, Anne; Vahtera, Jussi; Oksanen, Tuula; Pentti, Jaana; Väänänen, Ari K P; Heponiemi, Tarja; Salo, Paula; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika

    2013-01-01

    To examine whether exposure to workplace stressors predicts changes in physical activity and the risk of insufficient physical activity. Prospective data from the Finnish Public Sector Study. Repeated exposure to low job control, high job demands, low effort, low rewards and compositions of these (job strain and effort-reward imbalance) were assessed at Time 1 (2000-2002) and Time 2 (2004). Insufficient physical activity (workplace stressors on change in physical activity was examined using fixed-effects (within-subject) logistic regression models (N=6665). In addition, logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the associations between repeated exposure to workplace stressors and insufficient physical activity (N=13 976). In these analyses, coworker assessed workplace stressor scores were used in addition to individual level scores. The proportion of participants with insufficient physical activity was 24% at baseline and 26% at follow-up. 19% of the participants who were sufficiently active at baseline became insufficiently active at follow-up. In the fixed-effect analysis, an increase in workplace stress was weakly related to an increase in physical inactivity within an individual. In between-subjects analysis, employees with repeated exposure to low job control and low rewards were more likely to be insufficiently active at follow-up than those with no reports of these stressors; fully adjusted ORs ranged from 1.11 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.24) to 1.21 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.39). Workplace stress is associated with a slightly increased risk of physical inactivity.

  9. Fragile X premutation in women: recognizing the health challenges beyond primary ovarian insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos, Luis R; Thakur, Mili

    2017-03-01

    Fragile X premutation carriers have 55-200 CGG repeats in the 5' untranslated region of the FMR1 gene. Women with this premutation face many physical and emotional challenges in their life. Approximately 20% of these women will develop fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI). In addition, they suffer from increased rates of menstrual dysfunction, diminished ovarian reserve, reduction in age of menopause, infertility, dizygotic twinning, and risk of having an offspring with a premutation or full mutation. Consequent chronic hypoestrogenism may result in impaired bone health and increased cardiovascular risk. Neuropsychiatric issues include risk of developing fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, neuropathy, musculoskeletal problems, increased prevalence of anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbances independent of the stress of raising an offspring with fragile X syndrome and higher risk of postpartum depression. Some studies have reported a higher prevalence of thyroid abnormalities and hypertension in these women. Reproductive health providers play an important role in the health supervision of women with fragile X premutation. Awareness of these risks and correlation of the various manifestations could help in early diagnosis and coordination of care and services for these women and their families. This paper reviews current evidence regarding the possible conditions that may present in women with premutation-sized repeats beyond FXPOI.

  10. Pharmacological interventions for daytime sleepiness and sleep disorders in Parkinson's disease: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Tiago Martins; Castro Caldas, Ana; Ferreira, Joaquim J

    2016-06-01

    Daytime sleepiness and sleep disorders are frequently reported in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, their impact on quality of life has been underestimated and few clinical trials have been performed. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of pharmacological interventions for daytime sleepiness and sleep disorders in PD. Systematic review of randomized controlled trials comparing any pharmacological intervention with no intervention or placebo for the treatment of daytime sleepiness and sleep problems in PD patients. Ten studies (n = 338 patients) were included. Four trials addressed interventions for excessive daytime sleepiness. Meta-analysis of the three trials evaluating modafinil showed a significant reduction in sleepiness, as assessed by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) (- 2.24 points, 95% CI - 3.90 to - 0.57, p sleep Behaviour Disorder (RBD). Single study results suggest that doxepin and YXQN granules might be efficacious, while pergolide may be deleterious for insomnia and that rivastigmine may be used to treat RBD in PD patients. However, there is insufficient evidence to support or refute the efficacy of any of these interventions. No relevant side effects were reported. Whilst providing recommendations, this systematic review depicts the lack of a body of evidence regarding the treatment of sleep disorders in PD patients; hence, further studies are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [How to characterize and treat sleep complaints in bipolar disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffroy, P A; Micoulaud Franchi, J-A; Lopez, R; Poirot, I; Brion, A; Royant-Parola, S; Etain, B

    2017-08-01

    Sleep complaints are very common in bipolar disorders (BD) both during acute phases (manic and depressive episodes) and remission (about 80 % of patients with remitted BD have poor sleep quality). Sleep complaints during remission are of particular importance since they are associated with more mood relapses and worse outcomes. In this context, this review discusses the characterization and treatment of sleep complaints in BD. We examined the international scientific literature in June 2016 and performed a literature search with PubMed electronic database using the following headings: "bipolar disorder" and ("sleep" or "insomnia" or "hypersomnia" or "circadian" or "apnoea" or "apnea" or "restless legs"). Patients with BD suffer from sleep and circadian rhythm abnormalities during major depressive episodes (insomnia or hypersomnia, nightmares, nocturnal and/or early awakenings, non-restorative sleep) and manic episodes (insomnia, decreased need for sleep without fatigue), but also some of these abnormalities may persist during remission. These remission phases are characterized by a reduced quality and quantity of sleep, with a longer sleep duration, increased sleep latency, a lengthening of the wake time after sleep onset (WASO), a decrease of sleep efficiency, and greater variability in sleep/wake rhythms. Patients also present frequent sleep comorbidities: chronic insomnia, sleepiness, sleep phase delay syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS), and restless legs syndrome (RLS). These disorders are insufficiently diagnosed and treated whereas they are associated with mood relapses, treatment resistance, affect cognitive global functioning, reduce the quality of life, and contribute to weight gain or metabolic syndrome. Sleep and circadian rhythm abnormalities have been also associated with suicidal behaviors. Therefore, a clinical exploration with characterization of these abnormalities and disorders is essential. This exploration should be

  12. Optimizing sleep to maximize performance: implications and recommendations for elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, N S; Gibbs, E L; Matheson, G O

    2017-03-01

    Despite a growing body of literature demonstrating a positive relationship between sleep and optimal performance, athletes often have low sleep quality and quantity. Insufficient sleep among athletes may be due to scheduling constraints and the low priority of sleep relative to other training demands, as well as a lack of awareness of the role of sleep in optimizing athletic performance. Domains of athletic performance (e.g., speed and endurance), neurocognitive function (e.g., attention and memory), and physical health (e.g., illness and injury risk, and weight maintenance) have all been shown to be negatively affected by insufficient sleep or experimentally modeled sleep restriction. However, healthy adults are notoriously poor at self-assessing the magnitude of the impact of sleep loss, underscoring the need for increased awareness of the importance of sleep among both elite athletes and practitioners managing their care. Strategies to optimize sleep quality and quantity in athletes include approaches for expanding total sleep duration, improving sleep environment, and identifying potential sleep disorders. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Sleep disturbances in phenylketonuria : An explorative study in men and mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinenberg, Vibeke M.; Gordijn, Marijke C. M.; MacDonald, Anita; van Spronsen, Francjan J.; Van der Zee, Eddy A.

    2017-01-01

    Sleep problems have not been directly reported in phenylketonuria (PKU). In PKU, the metabolic pathway of phenylalanine is disrupted, which, among others, causes deficits in the neurotransmitters and sleep modulators dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. Understanding sleep problems in PKU

  14. Children with Autism: Sleep Problems and Mothers' Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Charles D.; Sweeney, Dwight P.; Lopez-Wagner, Muriel C.; Hodge, Danelle; Nam, Cindy Y.; Botts, Betsy H.

    2008-01-01

    Parenting a child with autism has been associated with maternal stress. The present investigation examined children's sleep difficulties and severity of autism along with mothers' sleep problems in relation to stress levels reported by mothers ( N = 72). Mothers' reports of their children's sleep problems were related to mothers' reports of their…

  15. Overview of smartphone applications for sleep analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Adrian A; Gillespie, M Boyd

    2016-03-01

    To review and assess the current selection of sleep analysis smartphone applications (apps) available for download. The iOS and Google Play mobile app store were searched for sleep analysis apps targeted for consumer use. Alarm clock, sleep-aid, snoring and sleep-talking recorder, fitness tracker apps, and apps geared towards health professionals were excluded. App information and features were obtained from in-store descriptions, and the app developer website. A total of 51 unique sleep apps in both iOS and Google Play stores were included. The apps were rated 3.8/5 in both stores, and had an average price of $1.12 in the iOS store and $0.58 in the Google Play store. >65% of sleep apps report on sleep structure, including duration, time awake, and time in light/deep sleep, while reporting of REM was limited. The availability of extra features was variable, ranging from 4% to 73% of apps. There are a variety of sleep analysis apps with a range of functionality. The apps with the most reviews from the each store are featured. Many apps provide data on sleep structure; however the algorithms are not validated by scientific literature or studies. Since patients may inquire about their sleep habits from these apps, it is necessary for physicians to be aware of the most common apps and the features offered and their limitations in order to properly counsel patients.

  16. EEG Changes across Multiple Nights of Sleep Restriction and Recovery in Adolescents: The Need for Sleep Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Ju Lynn; Lo, June C; Gooley, Joshua J; Chee, Michael W L

    2016-06-01

    To investigate sleep EEG changes in adolescents across 7 nights of sleep restriction to 5 h time in bed [TIB]) and 3 recovery nights of 9 h TIB. A parallel-group design, quasi-laboratory study was conducted in a boarding school. Fifty-five healthy adolescents (25 males, age = 15-19 y) who reported habitual TIBs of approximately 6 h on week nights (group average) but extended their sleep on weekends were randomly assigned to Sleep Restriction (SR) or Control groups. Participants underwent a 2-week protocol comprising 3 baseline nights (TIB = 9 h), 7 nights of sleep opportunity manipulation (TIB = 5 h for the SR and 9 h for the Control group), and 3 nights of recovery sleep (TIB = 9 h). Polysomnography was obtained on two baseline, three manipulation, and two recovery nights. Across the sleep restriction nights, total SWS duration was preserved relative to the 9 h baseline sleep opportunity, while other sleep stages were reduced. Considering only the first 5 h of sleep opportunity, SR participants had reduced N1 duration and wake after sleep onset (WASO), and increased total sleep time (TST), rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and slow wave sleep (SWS) relative to baseline. Total REM sleep, N2, and TST duration remained above baseline levels by the third recovery sleep episode. In spite of preservation of SWS duration over multiple nights of sleep restriction, adolescents accustomed to curtailing nocturnal sleep on school day nights evidence residual effects on sleep macro-structure, even after three nights of recovery sleep. Older teenagers may not be as resilient to successive nights of sleep restriction as is commonly believed. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  17. Adrenal insufficiency in a child with MELAS syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afroze, Bushra; Amjad, Nida; Ibrahim, Shahnaz H; Humayun, Khadija Nuzhat; Yakob, Yusnita

    2014-11-01

    Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) are established subgroups of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. m.3243A>G a common point mutation is detected in tRNA in majority of patients with MELAS phenotype whereas m.8344A>G point mutation in tRNA is observed, in MERRF phenotype. Adrenal insufficiency has not been reported in mitochondrial disease, except in Kearns-Sayre Syndrome (KSS), which is a mitochondrial deletion syndrome. We report an unusual presentation in a five year old boy who presented with clinical phenotype of MELAS and was found to have m.8344A>G mutation in tRNA. Addison disease was identified due to hyperpigmentation of lips and gums present from early childhood. This is the first report describing adrenal insufficiency in a child with MELAS phenotype. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sleep Disturbance and Short Sleep as Risk Factors for Depression and Perceived Medical Errors in First-Year Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmbach, David A; Arnedt, J Todd; Song, Peter X; Guille, Constance; Sen, Srijan

    2017-03-01

    While short and poor quality sleep among training physicians has long been recognized as problematic, the longitudinal relationships among sleep, work hours, mood, and work performance are not well understood. Here, we prospectively characterize the risk of depression and medical errors based on preinternship sleep disturbance, internship-related sleep duration, and duty hours. Survey data from 1215 nondepressed interns were collected at preinternship baseline, then 3 and 6 months into internship. We examined how preinternship sleep quality and internship sleep and work hours affected risk of depression at 3 months, per the Patient Health Questionnaire 9. We then examined the impact of sleep loss and work hours on depression persistence from 3 to 6 months. Finally, we compared self-reported errors among interns based on nightly sleep duration (≤6 hr vs. >6 hr), weekly work hours (Poorly sleeping trainees obtained less sleep and were at elevated risk of depression in the first months of internship. Short sleep (≤6 hr nightly) during internship mediated the relationship between sleep disturbance and depression risk, and sleep loss led to a chronic course for depression. Depression rates were highest among interns with both sleep disturbance and short sleep. Elevated medical error rates were reported by physicians sleeping ≤6 hr per night, working ≥ 70 weekly hours, and who were acutely or chronically depressed. Sleep disturbance and internship-enforced short sleep increase risk of depression development and chronicity and medical errors. Interventions targeting sleep problems prior to and during residency hold promise for curbing depression rates and improving patient care. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Comparisons of Portable Sleep Monitors of Different Modalities: Potential as Naturalistic Sleep Recorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Matsuo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Humans spend more than a fourth of their life sleeping, and sleep quality has been significantly linked to health. However, the objective examination of ambulatory sleep quality remains a challenge, since sleep is a state of unconsciousness, which limits the reliability of self-reports. Therefore, a non-invasive, continuous, and objective method for the recording and analysis of naturalistic sleep is required.Objective: Portable sleep recording devices provide a suitable solution for the ambulatory analysis of sleep quality. In this study, the performance of two activity-based sleep monitors (Actiwatch and MTN-210 and a single-channel EEG-based sleep monitor (SleepScope were compared in order to examine their reliability for the assessment of sleep quality.Methods: Twenty healthy adults were recruited for this study. First, data from daily activity recorded by Actiwatch and MTN-210 were compared to determine whether MTN-210, a more affordable device, could yield data similar to Actiwatch, the de-facto standard. In addition, sleep detection ability was examined using data obtained by polysomnography as reference. One simple analysis included comparing the sleep/wake detection ability of Actiwatch, MTN-210, and SleepScope. Furthermore, the fidelity of sleep stage determination was examined using SleepScope in finer time resolution. Results: The results indicate that MTN-210 demonstrates an activity pattern comparable to that of Actiwatch, although their sensitivity preferences were not identical. Moreover, MTN-210 provides assessment of sleep duration comparable to that of the wrist-worn Actiwatch when MTN-210 was attached to the body. SleepScope featured superior overall sleep detection performance among the three methods tested. Furthermore, SleepScope was able to provide information regarding sleep architecture, although systemic bias was found. Conclusion: The present results suggest that single-channel EEG-based sleep monitors are

  20. Sleep Restriction Impairs Vocabulary Learning when Adolescents Cram for Exams: The Need for Sleep Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sha; Deshpande, Aadya; Yeo, Sing-Chen; Lo, June C; Chee, Michael W L; Gooley, Joshua J

    2016-09-01

    The ability to recall facts is improved when learning takes place at spaced intervals, or when sleep follows shortly after learning. However, many students cram for exams and trade sleep for other activities. The aim of this study was to examine the interaction of study spacing and time in bed (TIB) for sleep on vocabulary learning in adolescents. In the Need for Sleep Study, which used a parallel-group design, 56 adolescents aged 15-19 years were randomly assigned to a week of either 5 h or 9 h of TIB for sleep each night as part of a 14-day protocol conducted at a boarding school. During the sleep manipulation period, participants studied 40 Graduate Record Examination (GRE)-type English words using digital flashcards. Word pairs were presented over 4 consecutive days (spaced items), or all at once during single study sessions (massed items), with total study time kept constant across conditions. Recall performance was examined 0 h, 24 h, and 120 h after all items were studied. For all retention intervals examined, recall of massed items was impaired by a greater amount in adolescents exposed to sleep restriction. In contrast, cued recall performance on spaced items was similar between sleep groups. Spaced learning conferred strong protection against the effects of sleep restriction on recall performance, whereas students who had insufficient sleep were more likely to forget items studied over short time intervals. These findings in adolescents demonstrate the importance of combining good study habits and good sleep habits to optimize learning outcomes. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.