WorldWideScience

Sample records for reported higher rates

  1. Higher Ambitions Summit. Rapporteur Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The Sutton Trust and Pearson two-day summit on higher ambitions in apprenticeships and vocational education drew more than 120 leaders in education, training and employment, policy makers, academics, and researchers to London. Delegates heard from political leaders stressing the importance they attach to high-quality apprenticeships. Presentations…

  2. Higher Death Rate Among Youth With First Episode Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Releases News Release Thursday, April 6, 2017 Higher death rate among youth with first episode psychosis NIH- ... experiencing first episode psychosis have a much higher death rate than previously thought. Researchers analyzed data on ...

  3. Public Rates of Return on Higher Education Investments, by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtright, Stephen H.; Fry, Cary G.

    2007-01-01

    Public rates of return on higher education expenditures are calculated by state. Benefits accruing to states from their investments in higher education are measured by differential tax revenues collected from college-educated citizens versus high-school-educated citizens. For most states we find an adequate rate of return on such investments.…

  4. The Vanishing Higher-Education Reporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, Richard

    2008-01-01

    As the Internet continues to drain readers and advertising, newspapers are left with no choice but to cut back on coverage. Many papers have settled on higher education as an expendable beat. At the National Education Writers Association, which represents education reporters and editors around the country, the e-mail list for elementary- and…

  5. Reduction Rates for Higher Americium Oxidation States in Nitric Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, Travis Shane [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mincher, Bruce Jay [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schmitt, Nicholas C [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The stability of hexavalent americium was measured using multiple americium concentrations and nitric acid concentrations after contact with the strong oxidant sodium bismuthate. Contrary to our hypotheses Am(VI) was not reduced faster at higher americium concentrations, and the reduction was only zero-order at short time scales. Attempts to model the reduction kinetics using zero order kinetic models showed Am(VI) reduction in nitric acid is more complex than the autoreduction processes reported by others in perchloric acid. The classical zero-order reduction of Am(VI) was found here only for short times on the order of a few hours. We did show that the rate of Am(V) production was less than the rate of Am(VI) reduction, indicating that some Am(VI) undergoes two electron-reduction to Am(IV). We also monitored the Am(VI) reduction in contact with the organic diluent dodecane. A direct comparison of these results with those in the absence of the organic diluent showed the reduction rates for Am(VI) were not statistically different for both systems. Additional americium oxidations conducted in the presence of Ce(IV)/Ce(III) ions showed that Am(VI) is reduced without the typical growth of Am(V) observed in the systems sans Ce ion. This was an interesting result which suggests a potential new reduction/oxidation pathway for Am in the presence of Ce; however, these results were very preliminary, and will require additional experiments to understand the mechanism by which this occurs. Overall, these studies have shown that hexavalent americium is fundamentally stable enough in nitric acid to run a separations process. However, the complicated nature of the reduction pathways based on the system components is far from being rigorously understood.

  6. Hispanic employees in the workplace: higher rate of fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Shelly; Ostendorf, Judith

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the higher fatality and injury rates among the Hispanic population in the United States, whether legal immigrants, citizens, or illegal immigrants; reviews the current government and private industry regulations and safety programs; proposes additional legislation or programs; and describes the role of the occupational and environmental health nurse in reducing injuries and fatalities in this population.

  7. Innovative Rates Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-21

    Title II of the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA) as amended by the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) provided financial assistance to state utility regulatory commissions, nonregulated electric utilities, and the Tennessee Valley Authority through the Innovative Rates Program. The financial assistance was to be used to plan or carry out electric utility regulatory rate reform initiatives relating to innovative rate structures that encourage conservation of energy, electric utility efficiency and reduced costs, and equitable rates to consumers. The Federal and local objectives of the project are described. Activities planned and accomplishments are summarized for the following: project management, data collection, utility bill evaluation, billing enclosure/mailing evaluation, media program evaluation, display evaluation, rate study sessions evaluation, speakers bureau evaluation, and individual customer contacts. A timetable/milestone chart and financial information are included. (MHR)

  8. Is the Previously Reported Increase in Second- and Higher-order Birth Rates in Norway and Sweden from the mid-1970s Real or a Result of Inadequate Estimation Methods?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available According to models estimated separately for second-, third-, and fourth-birth rates in Norway, an increase took place from the mid-1970s to about 1990, given age and duration since last previous birth. A similar rise in the birth rates was seen in Sweden, except that the upturn at short durations was sharper. It is shown in this study, using Norwegian register data, that the increase partly reflects earlier changes in lower-order parity transitions. When models for each parity transition are estimated jointly, with a common unobserved factor included, there is no longer an upward trend in Norwegian second-birth rates, but a very weak decline, and the increase in the higher-order birth rates is strongly reduced compared to that found in the simpler approach.

  9. Higher rates of sex evolve in spatially heterogeneous environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becks, Lutz; Agrawal, Aneil F

    2010-11-04

    The evolution and maintenance of sexual reproduction has puzzled biologists for decades. Although this field is rich in hypotheses, experimental evidence is scarce. Some important experiments have demonstrated differences in evolutionary rates between sexual and asexual populations; other experiments have documented evolutionary changes in phenomena related to genetic mixing, such as recombination and selfing. However, direct experiments of the evolution of sex within populations are extremely rare (but see ref. 12). Here we use the rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus, which is capable of both sexual and asexual reproduction, to test recent theory predicting that there is more opportunity for sex to evolve in spatially heterogeneous environments. Replicated experimental populations of rotifers were maintained in homogeneous environments, composed of either high- or low-quality food habitats, or in heterogeneous environments that consisted of a mix of the two habitats. For populations maintained in either type of homogeneous environment, the rate of sex evolves rapidly towards zero. In contrast, higher rates of sex evolve in populations experiencing spatially heterogeneous environments. The data indicate that the higher level of sex observed under heterogeneity is not due to sex being less costly or selection against sex being less efficient; rather sex is sufficiently advantageous in heterogeneous environments to overwhelm its inherent costs. Counter to some alternative theories for the evolution of sex, there is no evidence that genetic drift plays any part in the evolution of sex in these populations.

  10. Catering Management in Higher Education. National Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

    This study identified the key management issues for senior managers and heads of catering services in higher education in developing and reviewing catering services. The study was conducted with the involvement of 76 universities and colleges with evidence drawn from questionnaires covering the Excellence Model's 9 criteria, an Expert Working…

  11. Higher abnormal fertilization, higher cleavage rate, and higher arrested embryos rate were found in conventional IVF than in intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Li; Yuan, Chen; Ping, Liu; Jie, Qiao

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether performing different fertilization technologies (intracytoplasmic sperm injection [ICSI] and in vitro fertilization [IVF]) may affect the result of fertilization in the normal fertilization cycles. The authors performed a retrospective analysis of 164 cycles using sibling oocytes in combined IVF/ICSI with achieved a normal fertilization ( ≥ 25%) both conventional IVF and ICSI in this infertility centre. It was found that there were no differences in 2PN rate (70.25% vs 70.60%), but higher cleavage rate in ICSI than IVF insemination (98.99% vs 96.81%), higher arrested embryos rate in IVF than ICSI in 2PN group (20.00% vs 13.95%), and higher abnormal fertilization IPN (3.87% vs 1.92%) and 3PN (3.63 vs 0.854%) in IVF than ICSI. There were some differences fertilization outcomes between ICSI and IVF, which may be related to different procedures between two techniques.

  12. Opting-out systems no guarantee for higher donation rates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppen, R.; Friele, R.D.; Marquet, R.L.; Gevers, J.K.M.

    2005-01-01

    There are considerable differences in the number of organ donations between countries. It is assumed that opting-out systems have a significantly positive impact on the national organ donation rate. The aim of our study was to establish whether different consent systems explain the difference in org

  13. Opting-out systems no guarantee for higher donation rates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppen, R.; Friele, R.D.; Marquet, R.L.; Gevers, J.K.M.

    2005-01-01

    There are considerable differences in the number of organ donations between countries. It is assumed that opting-out systems have a significantly positive impact on the national organ donation rate. The aim of our study was to establish whether different consent systems explain the difference in org

  14. Higher Export Tax Rates for Copper Related Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>According to a notice published by the Finance Ministry, the State Council’s Customs Tax Regulation Committee has decided to make some adjustments on the export tax rates for some copper related products. The notice says that in order to control the export products re-

  15. Towards a Higher Retention Rate among Distance Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, Elspeth A.; Weber, Karin

    1995-01-01

    Presents results from questionnaires sent to past and present graduate tourism students from the Gippsland School of Business at Monash University (Australia) to determine factors that influenced student decisions to withdraw from a distance education tourism course. Tables present the rate of progression of students since course establishment,…

  16. Prospective payments to hospitals: should emergency admissions have higher rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, G A; Serrato, C A; Mann, J M

    1989-01-01

    Systematic variation in patient resource use can be a significant problem for a system based on diagnosis-related groups (DRG's) if this variation is not evenly distributed across hospitals. If certain hospitals routinely treat patients who require more services than average under DRG's, the long-run financial viability of these hospitals will be threatened. In this study, the authors examine whether patients who are admitted on an emergency or urgent basis represent an identifiable group of patients whose costs are systematically higher than those of electively admitted patients, controlling for DRG. Alternative approaches for incorporating admission status into a DRG payment system are developed and tested.

  17. Variations in band reporting rate and implications for kill rate in Greater Snow Geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Souchay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We assessed spatial and temporal variation in reporting probability of banded Greater Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica shot by hunters in eastern North America and evaluated potential residual biases in kill rate estimation. Adult Greater Snow Geese were marked with reward (value: US$10, $20, $30, $50, and $100 and standard bands ($0, control in the Canadian Arctic from 2003 to 2005. We used a spatially explicit multinomial model based on 200 direct recoveries from 4256 banded geese to estimate reporting rate and harvest rate. We found that reporting rate for standard bands varied over time whereas harvest rate was higher in Canada than in the U.S. The reporting probability increased from 0.40 ± 0.11 in the first year of the study to 0.82 ± 0.14 and 0.84 ± 0.13 the second and third years, respectively. Overall, these reporting rates are higher than two previous estimates for this population, which leads to lower estimates of kill rate. However, the large annual differences in reporting rates found in this study lead to uncertainty in the estimation of kill rate. We suggest that the increase in reporting rate in the last two year of the study may be due to the dissemination of information among hunters regarding the presence of reward bands on birds, resulting in increased reporting rate for all bands. This raises issues about the need to adequately inform the public in such large-scale studies to avoid undesirable temporal trends over the course of the study.

  18. Expensive brains: ‘brainy’ rodents have higher metabolic rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl eSobrero

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Brains are the centers of the nervous system of animals, controlling the organ systems of the body and coordinating responses to changes in the ecological and social environment. The evolution traits that correlate with cognitive ability, such as relative brain size is thus of broad interest. Brain mass relative to body mass varies among mammals, and diverse factors have been proposed to explain this variation. A recent study provided evidence that energetics play an important role in brain evolution (Isler and van Schaik, 2006. Using composite phylogenies and data drawn from multiple sources, these authors showed that basal metabolic rate (BMR correlates with brain mass across mammals. However, no such relationship was found within rodents. Here we re-examined the relationship between BMR and brain mass within Rodentia using a novel species-level phylogeny. Our results are sensitive to parameter evaluation; in particular how species mass is estimated. We detect no pattern when applying an approach used by previous studies, where each species body mass is represented by two different numbers, one being the individual that happened to be used for BMR estimates of that species. However, this approach may compromise the analysis. When using a single value of body mass for each species, whether representing a single individual, or available species mean, our findings provide evidence that brain mass (independent of body mass and BMR are correlated. These findings are thus consistent with the hypothesis that large brains evolve when the payoff for increased brain mass is greater than the energetic cost they incur.

  19. Annual Report on Higher Education in New Mexico, 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico State Commission on Postsecondary Education, Santa Fe.

    The 1986 report of the New Mexico Commission on Higher Education first outlines responsibilities of the Commission and developments concerning the Board of Educational Finance and then considers the climate for higher education reform in New Mexico, including economic changes, career changes that require retraining and skill upgrading, and…

  20. Scottish Access Students in Higher Education. Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powney, Janet; Hall, Stuart

    This document is the final report on the experiences of mature students who had entered higher education through the Scottish Wider Access Programme (SWAP), a one-year course designed to provide an alternative route into higher education for adults and which utilizes a supportive environment plus an incremental, modular approach and small-group…

  1. Report of the Select Committee on Higher Education, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Coll. and Univ. System, Austin. Coordinating Board.

    A report of a study of issues in public higher education in Texas is presented, along with recommendations of the Select Committee on Higher Education to improve access, quality, and management. Attention is directed to: institutional role and mission statements, general funding policies, research and technology funding, faculty compensation,…

  2. Statistics Report on TEQSA Registered Higher Education Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Government Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This statistics report provides a comprehensive snapshot of national statistics on all parts of the sector for the year 2013, by bringing together data collected directly by TEQSA with data sourced from the main higher education statistics collections managed by the Australian Government Department of Education and Training. The report provides…

  3. Why Are Child Poverty Rates Higher in Britain than in Germany? A Longitudinal Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Stephen P.; Schluter, Christian

    2003-01-01

    We analyze why child poverty rates were much higher in Britain than in Western Germany during the 1990s, using a framework focusing on poverty transition rates. Child poverty exit rates were significantly lower, and poverty entry rates significantly higher, in Britain. We decompose these cross-national differences into differences in the…

  4. Quality Assurance in Transnational Higher Education. ENQA Workshop Report 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul; Bergan, Sjur; Cassar, Daniela; Hamilton, Marlene; Soinila, Michele; Sursock, Andree; Uvalic-Trumbic, Stamenka; Williams, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The present report is the product of an ENQA (European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education) Bologna Seminar "Quality Assurance in Transnational Education: from words to action" hosted by the Quality Assurance Agency (QAA, UK) in London in December, 2008. The seminar discussed the current trends in Transnational…

  5. Higher Education Finance. An Annotated Bibliography, Report 96-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, William

    This annotated bibliography on higher education finance lists 79 journal articles, books, conference papers, and reports originally published from 1973 through 1995 with most published in the 1990s. Citations include lengthy analytical summaries and critiques. The bibliography is presented in six sections which cover the following topics: (1)…

  6. Level of evidence and conflict of interest disclosure associated with higher citation rates in orthopedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okike, Kanu; Kocher, Mininder S; Torpey, Jennifer L; Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Mehlman, Charles T; Bhandari, Mohit

    2011-03-01

    To identify the scientific and nonscientific factors associated with rates of citation in the orthopedic literature. All original clinical articles published in three general orthopedics journals between July 2002 and December 2003 were reviewed. Information was collected on variables plausibly related to rates of citation, including scientific and nonscientific factors. The number of citations at 5 years was ascertained and linear regression was used to identify factors associated with rates of citation. In the multivariate analysis, factors associated with increased rates of citation at 5 years were high level of evidence (22.2 citations for level I or II vs. 10.8 citations for level III or IV; P=0.0001), large sample size (18.8 citations for sample size of 100 or more vs. 7.9 citations for sample size of 25 or fewer; Pinterest disclosure involving a nonprofit organization (17.4 citations for nonprofit disclosure vs. 10.6 citations for no disclosure; P=0.027), and self-reported conflict of interest disclosure involving a for-profit company (26.1 citations for for-profit disclosure vs. 10.6 citations for no disclosure; P=0.011). High level of evidence, large sample size, representation from multiple institutions, and conflict of interest disclosure are associated with higher rates of citation in orthopedics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sustainability Reporting in Higher Education: Interconnecting the Reporting Process and Organisational Change Management for Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Ceulemans; Rodrigo Lozano; María del Mar Alonso-Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been a considerable increase in the publication of sustainability reports in the corporate world in the last decade, sustainability reporting in higher education institutions is still in its early stages. This study’s aim was to explore the relationship between sustainability reporting and organizational change management for sustainability in higher education. A survey was sent to higher education institutions worldwide that have published sustainability reports in the las...

  8. 26 CFR 301.6621-3 - Higher interest rate payable on large corporate underpayments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the underpayment rate is the sum of the Federal short-term rate (determined under section 6621(b... corporate underpayment is the sum of the Federal short-term rate (determined under section 6621(b)) plus 5... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Higher interest rate payable on large corporate...

  9. Higher cumulative revision rate of knee arthroplasties in younger patients with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrysson, Ola L A; Robertsson, Otto; Nayfeh, Jamal F

    2004-04-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that younger patients treated for osteoarthritis and similar conditions using total knee arthroplasty and unicompartmental knee arthroplasty have a lower implant survival rate when compared with older patients. Previous studies have been done on a small number of patients and only included the younger patients. In many cases patients treated for rheumatoid arthritis have been included in the studies and exceptional survival rates have been reported. The current study compared the cumulative revision rate of the components in 33,251 patients older than 60 years and 2606 patients younger than 60 years treated with total knee arthroplasty or unicompartmental knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis or similar conditions. Cox regression was used to compare the risk for revision between the two age groups and between gender and the effect of year of operation. The results showed a higher cumulative revision rate for the group of younger patients in all statistical analyses and the risk ratio for revision was significantly lower for the group of older patients. The risk for revision decreased for both groups when considering the year of surgery. This is probably attributable to better implant components and surgical techniques.

  10. Sin City?: why is the divorce rate higher in urban areas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Gautier; M. Svarer; C.N. Teulings

    2009-01-01

    Divorce rates are higher in cities. Based on Danish register data, this paper shows that of the marriages formed in the city, those couples who remain in the city have a 23% higher divorce rate than those who move out. In this paper, we test whether this observation is due to sorting of more stable

  11. Interior should continue use of higher royalty rates for offshore oil and gas leases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-12-20

    Over the past few years, State governments, and in a few cases the Interior Department, have increased the royalty rate for offshore oil and gas production. GAO examined the basis for Interior's traditional use of a 16-2/3 percent royalty rate, the results of Interior's and States' leasing experiences in using higher royalties, and the implications of using higher royalty rates for Federal offshore leasing. GAO believes that increased royalties, on a selective basis, appear appropriate and supports continued use of higher royalty rates by the Interior Department in leasing offshore lands.

  12. Metabolically Derived Human Ventilation Rates: A Revised Approach Based Upon Oxygen Consumption Rates (Final Report, 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Metabolically Derived Human Ventilation Rates: A Revised Approach Based Upon Oxygen Consumption Rates. This report provides a revised approach for calculating an individual's ventilation rate directly from their oxygen c...

  13. Higher resting heart rate variability predicts skill in expressing some emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Natalie L; Grant, Rosemary C I; Sollers, John J; Booth, Roger J; Consedine, Nathan S

    2016-12-01

    Vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) is a measure of cardiac vagal tone, and is widely viewed as a physiological index of the capacity to regulate emotions. However, studies have not directly tested whether vmHRV is associated with the ability to facially express emotions. In extending prior work, the current report tested links between resting vmHRV and the objectively assessed ability to facially express emotions, hypothesizing that higher vmHRV would predict greater expressive skill. Eighty healthy women completed self-reported measures, before attending a laboratory session in which vmHRV and the ability to express six emotions in the face were assessed. A repeated measures analysis of variance revealed a marginal main effect for vmHRV on skill overall; individuals with higher resting vmHRV were only better able to deliberately facially express anger and interest. Findings suggest that differences in resting vmHRV are associated with the objectively assessed ability to facially express some, but not all, emotions, with potential implications for health and well-being. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  14. Perceived Rates of Return to Higher Education: Further Evidence from Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2008-01-01

    The paper provides new estimates of the perceived rates of return to higher education in Cyprus and compares them to previous estimates for the year 1994 in the same country. Both the elaborate and the short-cut methods are used in the estimation of rates of return. The estimated rates are entered as independent variables in logistic regression…

  15. 47 CFR 65.600 - Rate of return reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rate of return reports. 65.600 Section 65.600... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate of Return Reports § 65.600 Rate of return...) months after the end of each calendar year, an annual rate of return monitoring report which shall be...

  16. United States private schools have higher rates of exemptions to school immunization requirements than public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jana; Tserenpuntsag, Boldtsetseg; McNutt, Louise-Anne; Halsey, Neal

    2014-07-01

    To compare medical, religious, and personal belief immunization exemption rates between private and public schools in US. Exemption rates were calculated using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention School Immunization Assessment Surveys for the 2009-2010 school year excluding states with incomplete survey data. Standardized exemption rates weighted on enrollments in public and private schools were calculated. Differences in exemption rates between public and private schools were tested using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The overall state exemption rate was higher in US private than public schools, 4.25% (SD 4.27) vs 1.91% (1.67), P = .0001 and private schools had higher exemption rates for all types of exemptions; medical 0.58% (0.71) vs 0.34% (0.34) respectively (P = .0004), religious 2.09% (3.14) vs 0.83% (1.05) respectively (P = .0001), and personal belief 6.10% (4.12) vs 2.79% (1.57), respectively (P = .006). Overall exemption rates were significantly higher in states that allowed personal belief exemptions. Exemption rates were significantly higher in US private than in public schools. Children attending private schools may be at higher risk of vaccine-preventable diseases than public school children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The role of ratings in the educational process of higher education institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Klymenko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article investigated the role of the rating system in the educational process of higher education and the problems of its use. Certain basic principles for the implementation of credit-modular system in high school. A comparative analysis of approaches to the rating methodology of control of student performance at the Sumy State University and the Higher School of Economics.

  18. Do Expenditures Other than Instructional Expenditures Affect Graduation and Persistence Rates in American Higher Education. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Douglas A.; Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2010-01-01

    Rates of tuition increases in both private and public higher education that continually exceed inflation, coupled with the fact that the United States no longer leads the world in terms of the fraction of young adults who have college degrees, have focused attention on why costs keep increasing in higher education and what categories of higher…

  19. Beyond the Mincer Equation: The Internal Rate of Return to Higher Education in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Suaza, Andrés Felipe; Guataquí, Juan Carlos; Guerra, José Alberto; Maldonado, Darío

    2014-01-01

    In order to present an estimation of the internal rate of return (IRR) to higher education in Colombia, we take advantage of recent updates on the methodological approach towards earnings equations. In order to overcome the criticism that surrounds interpretations of the education coefficient of Mincer equations as being the rate of return to…

  20. Visualizing Higher Order Finite Elements: FY05 Yearly Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, David; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2005-11-01

    This report contains an algorithm for decomposing higher-order finite elementsinto regions appropriate for isosurfacing and proves the conditions under which thealgorithm will terminate. Finite elements are used to create piecewise polynomialapproximants to the solution of partial differential equations for which no analyticalsolution exists. These polynomials represent fields such as pressure, stress, and mo-mentim. In the past, these polynomials have been linear in each parametric coordinate.Each polynomial coefficient must be uniquely determined by a simulation, and thesecoefficients are called degrees of freedom. When there are not enough degrees of free-dom, simulations will typically fail to produce a valid approximation to the solution.Recent work has shown that increasing the number of degrees of freedom by increas-ing the order of the polynomial approximation (instead of increasing the number offinite elements, each of which has its own set of coefficients) can allow some typesof simulations to produce a valid approximation with many fewer degrees of freedomthan increasing the number of finite elements alone. However, once the simulation hasdetermined the values of all the coefficients in a higher-order approximant, tools donot exist for visual inspection of the solution.This report focuses on a technique for the visual inspection of higher-order finiteelement simulation results based on decomposing each finite element into simplicialregions where existing visualization algorithms such as isosurfacing will work. Therequirements of the isosurfacing algorithm are enumerated and related to the placeswhere the partial derivatives of the polynomial become zero. The original isosurfacingalgorithm is then applied to each of these regions in turn.3 AcknowledgementThe authors would like to thank David Day and Louis Romero for their insight into poly-nomial system solvers and the LDRD Senior Council for the opportunity to pursue thisresearch. The authors were

  1. 32 CFR 635.33 - Crime rate reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Crime rate reporting. 635.33 Section 635.33... CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Army Quarterly Trends and Analysis Report § 635.33 Crime rate reporting. (a) The USACRC is the Army's collection point and analytic center for all...

  2. FY-2016 Methyl Iodide Higher NOx Adsorption Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, Nicholas Ray [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watson, Tony Leroy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has continued in Fiscal Year 2016 under the Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cycle Technology (FCT) Program Offgas Sigma Team to further research and advance the technical maturity of solid sorbents for capturing iodine-129 in off-gas streams during used nuclear fuel reprocessing. Adsorption testing with higher levels of NO (approximately 3,300 ppm) and NO2 (up to about 10,000 ppm) indicate that high efficiency iodine capture by silver aerogel remains possible. Maximum iodine decontamination factors (DFs, or the ratio of iodine flowrate in the sorbent bed inlet gas compared to the iodine flowrate in the outlet gas) exceeded 3,000 until bed breakthrough rapidly decreased the DF levels to as low as about 2, when the adsorption capability was near depletion. After breakthrough, nearly all of the uncaptured iodine that remains in the bed outlet gas stream is no longer in the form of the original methyl iodide. The methyl iodide molecules are cleaved in the sorbent bed, even after iodine adsorption is no longer efficient, so that uncaptured iodine is in the form of iodine species soluble in caustic scrubber solutions, and detected and reported here as diatomic I2. The mass transfer zone depths were estimated at 8 inches, somewhat deeper than the 2-5 inch range estimated for both silver aerogels and silver zeolites in prior deep-bed tests, which had lower NOx levels. The maximum iodine adsorption capacity and silver utilization for these higher NOx tests, at about 5-15% of the original sorbent mass, and about 12-35% of the total silver, respectively, were lower than for trends from prior silver aerogel and silver zeolite tests with lower NOx levels. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to expand the database for organic iodide adsorption and increase the technical maturity if iodine adsorption processes.

  3. Prices, Productivity, and Investment: Assessing Financial Strategies in Higher Education. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, Edward P.

    This analysis critically examines the cost controversy in higher education with an eye to resolving the crisis which is currently serving to exacerbate public willingness to fund higher education. An introduction touches on the role and influence of political ideologies and offers a framework to be used throughout the analysis for critically…

  4. Diversity Leadership in Higher Education. ASHE Higher Education Report, Volume 32, Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Adalberto, Jr., Ed.; Martinez, Ruben O., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This monograph examines and discusses the context for diversity leadership roles and practices in higher education by using research and theoretical and applied literatures from a variety of fields, including the social sciences, business, and higher education. Framing the discussion on leadership in this monograph is the perspective that American…

  5. Higher postural heart rate increments on head-up tilt correlate with younger age but not orthostatic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Colleen T; Kimpinski, Kurt

    2013-08-15

    Reports have shown that younger individuals present with higher postural heart rate increments on head-up tilt (HUT). However, a correlation between the degree of heart rate increment and symptoms of orthostatic intolerance has not been determined. The objective of this study was to determine whether higher postural heart rate increments during HUT correlate with symptoms of orthostatic intolerance in healthy subjects. Postural heart rate increment on HUT did not differ between men and women (P = 0.48) but did show a significant decrease by age group (P orthostatic intolerance by sex (P = 0.03) but not age (P = 0.58). There was no significant correlation between either symptoms of orthostatic intolerance and age [r = -0.13 (-0.31, 0.06), r(2) = 0.017; P = 0.17] or heart rate increment on HUT and symptoms of orthostatic intolerance [r = 0.15 (-0.04, 0.33), r(2) = 0.022; P = 0.13]. The results demonstrate that higher postural heart rate increments in younger individuals do not result in an increase in orthostatic intolerance. This highlights the potential need for a reevaluation of the diagnostic criteria for postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome in younger individuals.

  6. Dynamics of Rate of Returns for Postgraduate Education in Taiwan: The Impact of Higher Education Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chih-Hai; Lin, Chun-Hung A.; Lin, Chien-Ru

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the dynamics of rate of returns for postgraduate education and the determinants of wage premiums for postgraduate labor, especially for the impact of higher education expansions, in terms of quantity and quality, since the late 1990s in Taiwan. Utilizing quasi-panel data over the 1990-2004 period and employing the double fixed…

  7. Will ageing lead to a higher real exchange rate for the Netherlands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, C.; Volkerink, M.

    2012-01-01

    Long term projections for the Netherlands indicate that demand for nontradables—e.g. health care services—will increase relative to supply due to population ageing. If this leads to higher future real exchanges rates this will erode the return of the savings currently made to prepare for ageing. Thi

  8. Will ageing lead to a higher real exchange rate for the Netherlands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, C.; Volkerink, M.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term projections for the Netherlands indicate that demand for nontradables - e.g. health care services - will increase relative to supply due to population ageing. If this leads to higher future real exchanges rates this will erode the return of the savings currently made to prepare for ageing.

  9. Retention in Higher Education: Faculty and Student Perceptions of Retention Programs and Factors Impacting Attrition Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Malinda; O'Leary, Erin; Webb, Shekeita

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine faculty and student perceptions of what factors are contributing to drop-out rates in a Northern Indiana higher educational facility and to study whether or not the drop-out prevention programs that are in place are effective. Survey links were sent out to all adjuncts and some full-time faculty at a local…

  10. Does the Economic Crisis Have an Influence on the Higher Education Dropout Rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão Fernandes, Graça; Chagas Lopes, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to identify the effects of the economic crisis on higher education (HE) dropout rates at Lisbon School of Economics and Management (ISEG)--Universidade de Lisboa, after having controlled for individual characteristics, family background, High School and HE trajectories. Our main hypothesis is that the economic crisis induces…

  11. Will ageing lead to a higher real exchange rate for the Netherlands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, C.; Volkerink, M.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term projections for the Netherlands indicate that demand for nontradables - e.g. health care services - will increase relative to supply due to population ageing. If this leads to higher future real exchanges rates this will erode the return of the savings currently made to prepare for ageing.

  12. Will ageing lead to a higher real exchange rate for the Netherlands?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, C.; Volkerink, M.

    2012-01-01

    Long term projections for the Netherlands indicate that demand for nontradables—e.g. health care services—will increase relative to supply due to population ageing. If this leads to higher future real exchanges rates this will erode the return of the savings currently made to prepare for ageing.

  13. Federal Prevailing Rate Advisory Committee (FPRAC) Annual Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Annual reports of the Federal Prevailing Rate Advisory Committee (FPRAC), which studies the prevailing (market) rate system for wages and other matters pertinent to...

  14. Ascomycota has a faster evolutionary rate and higher species diversity than Basidiomycota

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lumbsch; H.; THORSTEN

    2010-01-01

    Differences in rates of nucleotide or amino acid substitutions among major groups of organisms are repeatedly found and well documented. A growing body of evidence suggests a link between the rate of neutral molecular change within populations and the evolution of species diversity. More than 98% of terrestrial fungi belong to the phyla Ascomycota or Basidiomycota. The former is considerably richer in number of species than the latter. We obtained DNA sequences of 21 protein-coding genes from the lichenized fungus Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca and used them together with sequences from GenBank for subsequent analyses. Three datasets were used to test rate discrepancies between Ascomycota and Basidiomycota and that within Ascomycota: (i) 13 taxa including 105 protein-coding genes, (ii) nine taxa including 21 protein-coding genes, and (iii) nuclear LSU rDNA of 299 fungal species. Based on analyses of the 105 protein-coding genes and nuclear LSU rDNA datasets, we found that the evolutionary rate was higher in Ascomycota than in Basidiomycota. The differences in substitution rates between Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were significant. Within Ascomycota, the species-rich Sordariomycetes has the fastest evolutionary rate, while Leotiomycetes has the slowest. Our results indicate that the main contribution to the higher substitution rates in Ascomycota does not come from mutualism, ecological conditions, sterility, metabolic rate or shorter generation time, but is possibly caused by the founder effect. This is another example of the correlation between species number and evolutionary rates, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the founder effect is responsible for accelerated substitution rates in diverse clades.

  15. Reliability of single-item ratings of quality in higher education: a replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginns, Paul; Barrie, Simon

    2004-12-01

    Single-item ratings of the quality of instructors or subjects are widely used by higher education institutions, yet such ratings are commonly assumed to have inadequate psychometric properties. Recent research has demonstrated that reliability of such ratings can indeed be estimated, using either the correction for attenuation formula or factor analytic methods. This study replicates prior research on the reliability of single-item ratings of quality of instruction, using a different, more student-focussed approach to teaching and learning evaluation than used by previous researchers. Class average data from 1,097 classes, representing responses from 59,815 students, were analysed. At the "class" level of analysis, both methods of estimation suggested the single item of quality had high reliability: .96 using the correction for attenuation formula, and .94 using the factor analytic method. An alternative method of calculating reliability, which takes into account the hierarchical nature of the data, likewise suggested high estimated reliability (.92) of the single-item rating. These results indicate the suitability of the overall class rating for quality improvement in higher education, with a large sample.

  16. The Entrepreneurial Domains of American Higher Education. ASHE Higher Education Report, Volume 34, Number 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Matthew M.; Metcalf, Amy Scott

    2009-01-01

    This volume draws on a diverse set of literatures to represent the various ways in which entrepreneurship is understood in and applied to higher education. It provides a platform for debate for those considering applications of entrepreneurial principles to academic research and practices. Using academic entrepreneurship in the United States as…

  17. Medicaid status is associated with higher surgical site infection rates after spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoso, Mark W; Cizik, Amy M; Bransford, Richard J; Bellabarba, Carlo; Chapman, Jens; Lee, Michael J

    2014-09-15

    The Spine End Results Registry (2003-2004) is a registry of prospectively collected data of all patients undergoing spinal surgery at the University of Washington Medical Center and Harborview Medical Center. Insurance data were prospectively collected and used in multivariate analysis to determine risk of perioperative complications. Given the negative financial impact of surgical site infections (SSIs) and the higher overall complication rates of patients with a Medicaid payer status, we hypothesized that a Medicaid payer status would have a significantly higher SSI rate. The medical literature demonstrates lesser outcomes and increased complication rates in patients who have public insurance than those who have private insurance. No one has shown that patients with a Medicaid payer status compared with Medicare and privately insured patients have a significantly increased SSI rate for spine surgery. The prospectively collected Spine End Results Registry provided data for analysis. SSI was defined as treatment requiring operative debridement. Demographic, social, medical, and the surgical severity index risk factors were assessed against the exposure of payer status for the surgical procedure. The population included Medicare (N = 354), Medicaid (N = 334), the Veterans' Administration (N = 39), private insurers (N = 603), and self-pay (N = 42). Those patients whose insurer was Medicaid had a 2.06 odds (95% confidence interval: 1.19-3.58, P = 0.01) of having a SSI compared with the privately insured. The study highlights the increased cost of spine surgical procedures for patients with a Medicaid payer status with the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 provisions could cause a reduction in reimbursement to the hospital for taking care of patients with Medicaid insurance due to their higher complication rates and higher costs. This very issue could inadvertently lead to access

  18. Strategies and Consequences. Managing the Costs in Higher Education. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggaman, John S.

    This report focuses on the need for better management of higher education resources in view of the rising costs and changing revenues now confronting higher education institutions in the United States. Rising costs and changing revenues are reflected in stagnating faculty salaries, a decline in enrollment, rising administrative and insurance…

  19. Outliers: hospitals with consistently lower and higher than predicted joint arthroplasty readmission rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cram, Peter; Lu, Xin; Kates, Stephen L; Li, Yue; Miller, Benjamin J

    2011-07-01

    Little is known about readmission rates for total hip and total knee arthroplasty (THA and TKA). Our objective was to examine readmission rates and whether hospitals with high and low readmission rates at baseline remain outliers in subsequent years. We identified Medicare beneficiaries who underwent THA (N = 245 995) and TKA (N = 517 867) between 2003 and 2005. We created four different hospital cohorts: low and high volume for THA and TKA. We calculated 30-day risk-standardized readmission rates (RSRRs) for each hospital for each year. Hospitals were defined as having low (lowest 25% of all hospitals), high (highest 25% of hospitals), and intermediate readmission rates (all others) for each year. Hospitals were labeled outliers if they had consistently low or high readmission rates for all years. We examined the number and characteristics of outlier and nonoutlier hospitals. Unadjusted readmission rates in 2003 for THA ranged from 0% to 94.7% (inter-quartile range: 0%-7.0%) and for TKA from 0% to 94.4% (inter-quartile range: 0.7%-5.9%). Of 255 low-volume THA hospitals with low readmission rates in 2003 (RSRRs ≤3.5%), 34 were outliers for all 3 years-significantly more than predicted (P outliers for all 3 years (P Outlier and nonoutlier hospitals did not differ in meaningful ways (teaching status and staffing ratios). Results were similar for other hospital cohorts. Using a 3-year window allows for identification of hospitals with consistently higher and lower readmission rates than predicted.

  20. Depression and Anxiety Following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Are Associated With Higher Six-Month Unemployment Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Yassin, Altaib; Ouyang, Bichun; Temes, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Although survival has dramatically improved following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), the reasons for persistent high rates of unemployment in this population remain unknown. Retrospective review for medical records of patients with aSAH admitted to Rush University Medical Center was undertaken. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to test the association of either depression or anxiety with the 6-month employment status. Among the 29 patients who developed depression or anxiety, 86.2% were unemployed at 6 months following their aSAH. After controlling for confounding factors, anxiety and depression were significantly associated with higher 6-month unemployment rates (odds ratio [OR]=0.08, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.02-0.3, p=0.0002). Depression and anxiety are common following aSAH and are associated with increased unemployment rates 6 months post aSAH.

  1. NaFeEDTA Fortified Soy Sauce Showed Higher Iron Absorption Rate in Chinese Females

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JUN-SHENG HUO; XIAO-GUANG YANG; JIAN-HUA PIAO; JUN-QUAN GAO; HONG MIAO; Bo YU; CHENG-QIAN LU; JUN-SHI CHEN

    2007-01-01

    Objective NaFeEDTA was considered as a promising iron fortificant for controlling iron deficiency anemia. Soy sauce is a suitable food carrier for iron fortification and is a popular condiment in China. Iron absorption rates of NaFeEDTA and FeSO4were observed and compared in adult female subjects. Methods The stable isotope tracer method was used in Chinese females consuming a typical Chinese diet. Ten healthy young Chinese women were selected as subjects in the 15-day study. A plant-based diet was used based on the dietary pattern of adult women in the 1992 National Nutrition Survey. Six milligram of54Fe in 54FeSO4 soy sauce and 3 mg 58Fe in Na58FeEDTA soy sauce were given to the same subjects in two days. Food samples and fecal samples were collected and analyzed. Results Iron absorption rates of NaFeEDTA and FeSO4 were 10.51%±2.83and 4.73%±2.15 respectively. The 58Fe (NaFeEDTA) absorption was significantly higher than that of 54Fe (FeSO4) (P<0.01).The iron absorption rate from NaFeEDTA was 1.2 times higher than that from FeSO4 in Chinese adult women consuming a typical Chinese diet. Conclusion The higher absorption rate of NaFeEDTA suggested that NaFeEDTA would be a better iron fortificant used in soy sauce for the controlling of iron deficiency anemia in China.

  2. Strategic Reporting Tool: Balanced Scorecards in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyddon, Jan W.; McComb, Bruce E.

    2008-01-01

    In this toolbox article, the authors describe the recommended steps for creating a community college balanced scorecard that measures and reports on key performance indicators based on targets and signal values to end-users, college constituents and external stakeholders. Based on extensive experience in the field, the authors provide a…

  3. ATTAINMENT OF HIGHER ENROLLMENT RATES IN PAKISTAN: A MACROECONOMIC AND ECONOMETRIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furrukh Bashir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Education is always considered as the major determinant for the development of any economy. Enrollment at various levels also shows that how much education is common within the citizens of the country. Considering the importance of enrollment, the current study examines the influence of some macroeconomic variables on various levels i.e. primary, secondary, higher, college, professional and university enrollment in Pakistan. Time series data has been gathered on consumer price index, government revenue, employed labor force, government expenditure, and health expenditure for the period from 1972 to 2010. For long run estimates, Johansen Co integration test is used and short run estimates are taken through error correction model. The results of the study exhibit positive association of employed labor force, government expenditure and health expenditure with primary, secondary, higher, college, professional and university enrollment in Pakistan. On the other side, consumer price index and government revenue have been found to be inversely influencing enrollment at various levels. Short run results are also much favorable for the economy and reveals convergence towards long run equilibrium due to any disturbances in the short run period. At the end study gives some policy implications that government should decrease consumer price index and tax rate and to increase government expenditure in terms of education and health for higher enrollment rates in Pakistan.

  4. Speed versus endurance tradeoff in plants: Leaves with higher photosynthetic rates show stronger seasonal declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Jiang; Sack, Lawren; Cao, Kun-Fang; Wei, Xue-Mei; Li, Nan

    2017-01-01

    We tested for a tradeoff across species between plant maximum photosynthetic rate and the ability to maintain photosynthesis under adverse conditions in the unfavorable season. Such a trade-off would be consistent with the observed trade-off between maximum speed and endurance in athletes and some animals that has been explained by cost-benefit theory. This trend would have importance for the general understanding of leaf design, and would simplify models of annual leaf carbon relations. We tested for such a trade-off using a database analysis across vascular plants and using an experimental approach for 29 cycad species, representing an ancient plant lineage with diversified evergreen leaves. In both tests, a higher photosynthetic rate per mass or per area in the favorable season was associated with a stronger absolute or percent decline in the unfavorable season. We resolved a possible mechanism based on biomechanics and nitrogen allocation; cycads with high leaf toughness (leaf mass per area) and higher investment in leaf construction than in physiological function (C/N ratio) tended to have lower warm season photosynthesis but less depression in the cool season. We propose that this trade-off, consistent with cost-benefit theory, represents a significant physio-phenological constraint on the diversity and seasonal dynamics of photosynthetic rate. PMID:28186201

  5. With age a lower individual breathing reserve is associated with a higher maximal heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtscher, Martin; Gatterer, Hannes; Faulhaber, Martin; Burtscher, Johannes

    2017-09-14

    Maximal heart rate (HRmax) is linearly declining with increasing age. Regular exercise training is supposed to partly prevent this decline, whereas sex and habitual physical activity do not. High exercise capacity is associated with a high cardiac output (HR x stroke volume) and high ventilatory requirements. Due to the close cardiorespiratory coupling, we hypothesized that the individual ventilatory response to maximal exercise might be associated with the age-related HRmax. Retrospective analyses have been conducted on the results of 129 consecutively performed routine cardiopulmonary exercise tests. The study sample comprised healthy subjects of both sexes of a broad range of age (20-86 years). Maximal values of power output, minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and heart rate were assessed by the use of incremental cycle spiroergometry. Linear multivariate regression analysis revealed that in addition to age the individual breathing reserve at maximal exercise was independently predictive for HRmax. A lower breathing reserve due to a high ventilatory demand and/or a low ventilatory capacity, which is more pronounced at a higher age, was associated with higher HRmax. Age explained the observed variance in HRmax by 72% and was improved to 83% when the variable "breathing reserve" was entered. The presented findings indicate an independent association between the breathing reserve at maximal exercise and maximal heart rate, i.e. a low individual breathing reserve is associated with a higher age-related HRmax. A deeper understanding of this association has to be investigated in a more physiological scenario. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Why the EU-15 Maintains Higher CIT Rates than the New Member States?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpowicz Andrzej

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is not a homogenous area. This lack of homogeneity extends to taxes, which vary across jurisdictions. On average, Western Europe imposes significantly higher taxes on capital than New Member States, which joined the Community in 2004 and 2007. Often this fact is simply taken for granted. However, there are several arguments that can explain this variance. Although several of these arguments are well known and have been researched, they have not been assessed in combination, or used in a comparative analysis of corporate income tax (CIT rates between EU member states. Because of interest in harmonizing CIT throughout the EU, the roots of divergent CIT is of particular and timely value. Therefore, this article we attempts to demonstrate the differences in CIT rates in the EU-15 and New Member States. In so doing the general characteristics of these country grouping is identified, and then discussed in the context of the taxation theory.

  7. Optimization of WEDM parameters using Taguchi method for higher material removal rate on EN31 steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti Ranjan Patra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing demands of high surface finish and machining of complex shape geometries, conventional machining process are now being replaced by non-traditional machining processes. Wire EDM is one of the nontraditional machining processes which is based on Electrical Discharge Machining Process, which is also called electro-erosion machining process. When the gap voltage is sufficiently large (i.e. reaches the breakdown voltage of dielectric fluid, high power spark is produced, which increase the temperature about 10,000 degrees Celsius. By this way the metal is removed from the work piece. The selection of optimum machining parameters in WEDM is an important increasing productivity. As Material Removal Rate (MRR is most important response in WEDM; various investigations have been carried out by several researchers for improving the MRR . In this paper, the Taguchi method has been extensively adopted in manufacturing to improve processes with single performance characteristic to achieve higher Material Removal Rate.

  8. New system for higher recovery rate of water borne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, Jens; Klinting, Mette

    2012-01-01

    motivate the development of systems with higher recovery rates. Materials and methods: Five replicates of IMS purified Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts (N=2x103) were injected into a specially coated filter unit with a carefully chosen pore size. Following filtration, sonication was performed...... at predetermined time intervals to loosen all parasites and other particles from the filter and break up clusters. The concentrated parasite suspension was backwashed and counted after immuno-fluorescence staining. Results and discussion: Without sonication the recovery rates of both Cryptosporidium and Giardia...... chamber further facilitated the concentration of parasites by ensuring a backwash volume of less than 1ml. The presented design of the filter system can be used as a cheap and time effective method of isolating water borne parasites in the laboratory....

  9. Simple Post Quantum Scheme for Higher Key Rate Multiparty Quantum Key Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abudhahir Buhari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose a multi-party quantum key distribution protocol which enables all the receivers can converttheir respective private shared key into common secret key without use of entanglement. The maincomponent of our protocol is a simple post quantum scheme for achieving the higher secret key rate.Efficiency of the extracted key rate is almost 100%. We assume that sender established the pre-sharedprivate secret keys and a common secret number with the receivers. Our proposed scheme sends n stringsof number to n receivers in the public channel to convert their respective shared secret key into commonsecret key in the presence of Eve. We also analyze the complexity of attack by the adversary to guess thesecret key

  10. NUMERICAL PREDICTION OF HIGHER SELF-PRESSURIZATION RATES IN A TYPICAL STORAGE VESSEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARI KRISHNA RAJ

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Self-pressurization, as a result of vaporization can occur in many scientific and technical applications like cryogenic storage tanks, pressurized water reactors etc. Predictions of both the pressurization and vaporization rates are vital in defining design requirements conforming to the tank’s maximum working pressure andexpected liquid losses. Predicting precisely the highly transient interface phenomenon due to mass transfer coupled with phase change due to evaporation is the major challenge encountered in modeling selfpressurization. The recent improvements of the multiphase flow modeling in the ANSYS FLUENT code make it now possible to simulate these mechanisms in detail without the need of user defined functions. The volume-of-fluid (VOF method in conjunction with evaporation–condensation mass transfer model has been used here. In this paper we are extending the proven capability of VOF model for predicting higher selfpressurization rates due to phase change in storage vessels.

  11. Convex Duality in Portfolio Optimization under Constraints and with Higher Interest Rate for Borrowing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷耀斌; 吴让泉

    2001-01-01

    We study the stochastic control problem of maximizing expected utility from terminal wealth and/or consumption, when the portfolio is constrained to take values in a given closed, convex subset of Ra, and in the presence of a higher interest rate for borrowing. The setting is that of a continuous-time, Ito process model for the underlying asset prices. The solution of the unconstrained problem is given. In addition to the original constrained optimization problem, a so-called combined dual problem is introduced. Finally, the existence question of optimal processes for both the dual and the primal problem is settled.

  12. Public Policies, Prices, and Productivity in American Higher Education. Stretching the Higher Education Dollar. Special Report 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptman, Arthur M.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid increases in what colleges charge and what they spend per student have been and remain one of the most controversial aspects of American higher education. Tuition, fees, and other college charges have increased in both the public and private sectors at more than twice the rate of inflation for over a quarter century. Trends over time in what…

  13. Public Policies, Prices, and Productivity in American Higher Education. Stretching the Higher Education Dollar. Special Report 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptman, Arthur M.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid increases in what colleges charge and what they spend per student have been and remain one of the most controversial aspects of American higher education. Tuition, fees, and other college charges have increased in both the public and private sectors at more than twice the rate of inflation for over a quarter century. Trends over time in what…

  14. Higher dose rate Gamma Knife radiosurgery may provide earlier and longer-lasting pain relief for patients with trigeminal neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John Y K; Sandhu, Sukhmeet; Miller, Denise; Solberg, Timothy; Dorsey, Jay F; Alonso-Basanta, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) utilizes cobalt-60 as its radiation source, and thus dose rate varies as the fixed source decays over its half-life of approximately 5.26 years. This natural decay results in increasing treatment times when delivering the same cumulative dose. It is also possible, however, that the biological effective dose may change based on this dose rate even if the total dose is kept constant. Because patients are generally treated in a uniform manner, radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) represents a clinical model whereby biological efficacy can be tested. The authors hypothesized that higher dose rates would result in earlier and more complete pain relief but only if measured with a sensitive pain assessment tool. One hundred thirty-three patients were treated with the Gamma Knife Model 4C unit at a single center by a single neurosurgeon during a single cobalt life cycle from January 2006 to May 2012. All patients were treated with 80 Gy with a single 4-mm isocenter without blocking. Using an output factor of 0.87, dose rates ranged from 1.28 to 2.95 Gy/min. The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI)-Facial was administered before the procedure and at the first follow-up office visit 1 month from the procedure (mean 1.3 months). Phone calls were made to evaluate patients after their procedures as part of a retrospective study. Univariate and multivariate linear regression was performed on several independent variables, including sex, age in deciles, diagnosis, follow-up duration, prior surgery, and dose rate. In the short-term analysis (mean 1.3 months), patients' self-reported pain intensity at its worst was significantly correlated with dose rate on multivariate analysis (p = 0.028). Similarly, patients' self-reported interference with activities of daily living was closely correlated with dose rate on multivariate analysis (p = 0.067). A 1 Gy/min decrease in dose rate resulted in a 17% decrease in pain intensity at its worst and a 22% decrease

  15. Danish MMR vaccination coverage is considerably higher than reported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Nanna; Mygind, Anna; Bro, Flemming

    2017-02-01

    The Danish childhood vaccination programme offers protection against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR). Nevertheless, many children appear to be unvaccinated according to the national registers. The aim of this study was to estimate the MMR1 vaccination coverage based on a medical record review of children whose vaccination status is negative according to the register-based data. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 19 randomly selected general practices in the Central Denmark Region including 1,712 children aged 18-42 months. The practices received a registration form listing children with a negative MMR1 vaccination status in the register-based data. The general practices then validated the children's vaccination status by medical record review. In total, 94% of the children had been vaccinated according to the medical records in general practice compared with 86% according to the register-based data. Of the 246 children who were unvaccinated according to the register-based data, 135 (55%) had been vaccinated according to the medical records. This discrepancy was due mainly to administrative reimbursement errors. The MMR1 vaccination coverage in Denmark seems to be considerably higher than reflected in national registers. Using medical record review to re-assess the vaccination status revealed that most of the supposedly unvaccinated children had, in fact, been vaccinated. The Danish Research Foundation for General Practice and the General Practitioners' Foundation for Education and Development. not relevant.

  16. Construction of higher dimensional charged gravastars: a survey report

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, S; Guha, B K; Ray, Saibal

    2015-01-01

    We explore possibility to find out a new model of gravastars in the extended $D$-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell spacetime. The class of solutions as obtained by Mazur and Mottola of a neutral gravastar~\\cite{Mazur2001,Mazur2004} have been observed as an alternative to $D$-dimensional versions of the Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole. To tackle the spherical system in a convenient way we have configured that the gravastar consists of three distinct regions with different equations of state as follows: [I] Interior region $0 \\leq r < r_1$,~$\\rho = -p$, [II] Thin shell region $r_1 \\leq r < r_2$,~$\\rho = p$, and [III] Exterior region $r_2 < r$,~$\\rho = p =0$. The outer region of this gravastar model therefore corresponds to a higher dimensional Reissner-Nordstr{\\"o}m black hole. In connection to this junction conditions are provided and therefore we have formulated mass and the related Equation of State of the gravastar. It has been shown that the model satisfies all the requirements of the physical fea...

  17. A succinct rating scale for radiology report quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengwu Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Poorly written radiology reports are common among residents and are a significant challenge for radiology education. While training may improve report quality, a professionally developed reliable and valid scale to measure report quality does not exist. Objectives: To develop a measurement tool for report quality, the quality of report scale, with rigorous validation through empirical data. Methods: A research team of an experienced psychometrician and six senior radiologists conducted qualitative and quantitative studies. Five items were identified for the quality of report scale, each measuring a distinct aspect of report quality. Two dedicated training sessions were designed and implemented to help residents generate high-quality reports. In a blinded fashion, the quality of report scale was applied to 804 randomly selected reports issued before (n = 403 and after (n = 401 training. Full-scale psychometrical assessments were implemented onto the quality of report scale’s item- and scale-scores from the reports. The quality of report scale scores were correlated with report professionalism and attendings’ preference and were compared pre-/post-training. Results: The quality of report scale showed sound psychometrical properties, with high validity and reliability. Reports with higher quality of report scale score were more professional and preferable by attendings. Training improved the quality of report scale score, empirically validating the quality of report scale further. Conclusion: While succinct and practitioner friendly, the quality of report scale is a reliable and valid measure of radiology report quality and has the potential to be easily adapted to other fields such as pathology, where similar training would be beneficial.

  18. Does higher income inequality adversely influence infant mortality rates? Reconciling descriptive patterns and recent research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Arjumand; Jones, Marcella K; Erwin, Paul Campbell

    2015-04-01

    As the struggle continues to explain the relatively high rates of infant mortality (IMR) exhibited in the United States, a renewed emphasis is being placed on the role of possible 'contextual' determinants. Cross-sectional and short time-series studies have found that higher income inequality is associated with higher IMR at the state level. Yet, descriptively, the longer-term trends in income inequality and in IMR seem to call such results into question. To assess whether, over the period 1990-2007, state-level income inequality is associated with state-level IMR; to examine whether the overall effect of income inequality on IMR over this period varies by state; to test whether the association between income inequality and IMR varies across this time period. IMR data--number of deaths per 1000 live births in a given state and year--were obtained from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control Wonder database. Income inequality was measured using the Gini coefficient, which varies from zero (complete equality) to 100 (complete inequality). Covariates included state-level poverty rate, median income, and proportion of high school graduates. Fixed and random effects regressions were conducted to test hypotheses. Fixed effects models suggested that, overall, during the period 1990-2007, income inequality was inversely associated with IMR (β = -0.07, SE (0.01)). Random effects models suggested that when the relationship was allowed to vary at the state-level, it remained inverse (β = -0.05, SE (0.01)). However, an interaction between income inequality and time suggested that, as time increased, the effect of income inequality had an increasingly positive association with total IMR (β = 0.009, SE (0.002)). The influence of state income inequality on IMR is dependent on time, which may proxy for time-dependent aspects of societal context.

  19. Invasive acacias experience higher ant seed removal rates at the invasion edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Montesinos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed dispersal is a key process for the invasion of new areas by exotic species. Introduced plants often take advantage of native generalist dispersers. Australian acacias are primarily dispersed by ants in their native range and produce seeds bearing a protein and lipid rich reward for ant mutualists (elaiosome. Nevertheless, the role of myrmecochory in the expansion of Australian acacias in European invaded areas is still not clear. We selected one European population of Acacia dealbata and another of A. longifolia and offered elaiosome-bearing and elaiosome-removed seeds to local ant communities. For each species, seeds were offered both in high-density acacia stands and in low-density invasion edges. For both acacia species, seed removal was significantly higher at the low-density edges. For A. longifolia, manual elimination of elaiosomes reduced the chance of seed removal by 80% in the low-density edges, whereas it made no difference on the high-density stands. For A. dealbata, the absence of elaiosome reduced seed removal rate by 52%, independently of the acacia density. Our data suggests that invasive acacias have found effective ant seed dispersers in Europe and that the importance of such dispersers is higher at the invasion edges.

  20. Abiotic degradation rates for carbon tetrachloride and chloroform: Final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amonette, James E.; Jeffers, Peter M.; Qafoku, Odeta; Russell, Colleen K.; Humphrys, Daniel R.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Truex, Michael J.

    2012-12-01

    This report documents the objectives, technical approach, and progress made through FY 2012 on a project initiated in FY 2006 to help address uncertainties related to the rates of hydrolysis in groundwater for carbon tetrachloride (CT) and chloroform (CF). The project also sought to explore the possible effects of contact with minerals and sediment (i.e., heterogeneous hydrolysis) on these rates. We conducted 114 hydrolysis rate experiments in sealed vessels across a temperature range of 20-93 °C for periods as long as 6 years, and used the Arrhenius equation to estimate activation energies and calculate half-lives for typical Hanford groundwater conditions (temperature of 16 °C and pH of 7.75). We calculated a half-life of 630 years for hydrolysis for CT under these conditions and found that CT hydrolysis was unaffected by contact with sterilized, oxidized minerals or Hanford sediment within the sensitivity of our experiments. In contrast to CT, hydrolysis of CF was generally slower and very sensitive to pH due to the presence of both neutral and base-catalyzed hydrolysis pathways. We calculated a half-life of 3400 years for hydrolysis of CF in homogeneous solution at 16 °C and pH 7.75. Experiments in suspensions of Hanford sediment or smectite, the dominant clay mineral in Hanford sediment, equilibrated to an initial pH of 7.2, yielded calculated half-lives of 1700 years and 190 years, respectively, at 16 °C. Experiments with three other mineral phases at the same pH (muscovite mica, albite feldspar, and kaolinite) showed no change from the homogeneous solution results (i.e., a half-life of 3400 years). The strong influence of Hanford sediment on CF hydrolysis was attributed to the presence of smectite and its ability to adsorb protons, thereby buffering the solution pH at a higher level than would otherwise occur. The project also determined liquid-vapor partition coefficients for CT under the temperatures and pressures encountered in the sealed vessels that

  1. Effect of confining pressure on deformation and failure of rock at higher strain rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-bin; PAN Yi-shan

    2005-01-01

    Influence of confining pressure from 0 to 28 MPa, which acts on the two lateral edges of rock specimen in plane strain compression, on the shear failure processes and patterns as well as on the macroscopically mechanical responses were numerically modeled by use of FLAC. A material imperfection with lower strength in comparison with the intact rock, which is close to the lower-left corner of the specimen, was prescribed. In elastic stage, the adopted constitutive relation of rock was linear elastic; in strain-softening stage, a composite Mohr-Coulomb criterion with tension cut-off and a post-peak linear constitutive relation were adopted. The numerical results show that with an increase of confining pressure the peak strength of axial stress-axial strain curve and the corresponding axial strain linearly increase; the residual strength and the stress drop from the peak strength to the residual strength increase; the failure modes of rock transform form the multiple shear bands close to the loading end of the specimen (confining pressure=0~0.1MPa), to the conjugate shear bands (0.5~2.0 MPa), and then to the single shear band (4~28 MPa). Once the tip of the band reaches the loading end of the specimen, the direction of the band changes so that the reflection of the band occurs. At higher confining pressure, the new-formed shear band does not intersect the imperfection, bringing extreme difficulties in prediction of the failure of rock structure, such as rock burst. The present results enhance the understanding of the shear failure processes and patterns of rock specimen in higher confining pressure and higher loading strain rate.

  2. Effect of additives for higher removal rate in lithium niobate chemical mechanical planarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Sukhoon; Lee, Hyunseop; Cho, Hanchul; Lee, Sangjik [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoungjae; Kim, Sungryul [KITECH, Busan 618-230 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jaehong [Nitta-Haas Inc., Kannanidai, Kyotannbe, Kyoto 610-0333 (Japan); Jeong, Haedo, E-mail: hdjeong@pusan.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-01

    High roughness and a greater number of defects were created by lithium niobate (LN; LiNbO{sub 3}) processes such as traditional grinding and mechanical polishing (MP), should be decreased for manufacturing LN device. Therefore, an alternative process for gaining defect-free and smooth surface is needed. Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) is suitable method in the LN process because it uses a combination approach consisting of chemical and mechanical effects. First of all, we investigated the LN CMP process using commercial slurry by changing various process conditions such as down pressure and relative velocity. However, the LN CMP process time using commercial slurry was long to gain a smooth surface because of lower material removal rate (MRR). So, to improve the material removal rate (MRR), the effects of additives such as oxidizer (hydrogen peroxide; H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and complexing agent (citric acid; C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 7}) in a potassium hydroxide (KOH) based slurry, were investigated. The manufactured slurry consisting of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-citric acid in the KOH based slurry shows that the MRR of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} at 2 wt% and the citric acid at 0.06 M was higher than the MRR for other conditions.

  3. Teacher Ratings of Three School Psychology Report Recommendation Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallin, Barry; Beimcik, Jaga; Hopfner, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Educators are primary consumers of information provided in school psychology reports. There is disagreement in the literature as to whether teachers prefer briefer recommendations as compared to more detailed and specific recommendations. Specific recommendations can been seen as prescriptive and leading to higher requirements for accountability…

  4. Teacher Ratings of Three School Psychology Report Recommendation Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallin, Barry; Beimcik, Jaga; Hopfner, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Educators are primary consumers of information provided in school psychology reports. There is disagreement in the literature as to whether teachers prefer briefer recommendations as compared to more detailed and specific recommendations. Specific recommendations can been seen as prescriptive and leading to higher requirements for accountability…

  5. Ambulance use is associated with higher self-rated illness seriousness: user attitudes and perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toloo, Ghasem Sam; FitzGerald, Gerry J; Aitken, Peter J; Ting, Joseph Y S; McKenzie, Kirsten; Rego, Joanna; Enraght-Moony, Emma

    2013-06-01

    The objective was to study the role and effect of patients' perceptions on reasons for using ambulance services in Queensland, Australia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of patients (n = 911) presenting via ambulance or self-transport at eight public hospital emergency departments (EDs). The survey included perceived illness severity, attitudes toward ambulance, and reasons for using ambulance. A theoretical framework was developed to inform this study. Ambulance users had significantly higher self-rated perceived seriousness, urgency, and pain than self-transports. They were also more likely to agree that ambulance services are for everyone to use, regardless of the severity of their conditions. In compared to self-transports, likelihood of using an ambulance increased by 26% for every unit increase in perceived seriousness; and patients who had not used an ambulance in the 6 months prior to the survey were 66% less likely to arrive by ambulance. Patients who had presented via ambulance stated they considered the urgency (87%) or severity (84%) of their conditions as reasons for calling the ambulance. Other reasons included requiring special care (76%), getting higher priority at the ED (34%), not having a car (34%), and financial concerns (17%). Understanding patients' perceptions is essential in explaining their actions and developing safe and effective health promotion programs. Individuals use ambulances for various reasons and justifications according to their beliefs, attitudes, and sociodemographic conditions. Policies to reduce and manage demand for such services need to address both general opinions and specific attitudes toward emergency health services to be effective. © 2013 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  6. Simple Moving Average: A Method of Reporting Evolving Complication Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmsen, Samuel M; Chang, Yu-Hui H; Hattrup, Steven J

    2016-09-01

    Surgeons often cite published complication rates when discussing surgery with patients. However, these rates may not truly represent current results or an individual surgeon's experience with a given procedure. This study proposes a novel method to more accurately report current complication trends that may better represent the patient's potential experience: simple moving average. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) is an increasingly popular and rapidly evolving procedure with highly variable reported complication rates. The authors used an RSA model to test and evaluate the usefulness of simple moving average. This study reviewed 297 consecutive RSA procedures performed by a single surgeon and noted complications in 50 patients (16.8%). Simple moving average for total complications as well as minor, major, acute, and chronic complications was then calculated using various lag intervals. These findings showed trends toward fewer total, major, and chronic complications over time, and these trends were represented best with a lag of 75 patients. Average follow-up within this lag was 26.2 months. Rates for total complications decreased from 17.3% to 8% at the most recent simple moving average. The authors' traditional complication rate with RSA (16.8%) is consistent with reported rates. However, the use of simple moving average shows that this complication rate decreased over time, with current trends (8%) markedly lower, giving the senior author a more accurate picture of his evolving complication trends with RSA. Compared with traditional methods, simple moving average can be used to better reflect current trends in complication rates associated with a surgical procedure and may better represent the patient's potential experience. [Orthopedics.2016; 39(5):e869-e876.].

  7. Nuclear photonics at ultra-high counting rates and higher multipole excitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirolf, P. G.; Habs, D.; Filipescu, D.; Gernhaeuser, R.; Guenther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Marginean, N.; Pietralla, N. [Fakultaet f. Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Fakultaet f. Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Garching, Germany and Max-Planck-Institute f. Quantum Optics, Garching (Germany); IFIN-HH, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Physik Department E12,Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Max-Planck-Institute f. Quantum Optics, Garching (Germany); Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Physik Department E12,Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Institut f. Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-07-09

    Next-generation {gamma} beams from laser Compton-backscattering facilities like ELI-NP (Bucharest)] or MEGa-Ray (Livermore) will drastically exceed the photon flux presently available at existing facilities, reaching or even exceeding 10{sup 13}{gamma}/sec. The beam structure as presently foreseen for MEGa-Ray and ELI-NP builds upon a structure of macro-pulses ({approx}120 Hz) for the electron beam, accelerated with X-band technology at 11.5 GHz, resulting in a micro structure of 87 ps distance between the electron pulses acting as mirrors for a counterpropagating intense laser. In total each 8.3 ms a {gamma} pulse series with a duration of about 100 ns will impinge on the target, resulting in an instantaneous photon flux of about 10{sup 18}{gamma}/s, thus introducing major challenges in view of pile-up. Novel {gamma} optics will be applied to monochromatize the {gamma} beam to ultimately {Delta}E/E{approx}10{sup -6}. Thus level-selective spectroscopy of higher multipole excitations will become accessible with good contrast for the first time. Fast responding {gamma} detectors, e.g. based on advanced scintillator technology (e.g. LaBr{sub 3}(Ce)) allow for measurements with count rates as high as 10{sup 6}-10{sup 7}{gamma}/s without significant drop of performance. Data handling adapted to the beam conditions could be performed by fast digitizing electronics, able to sample data traces during the micro-pulse duration, while the subsequent macro-pulse gap of ca. 8 ms leaves ample time for data readout. A ball of LaBr{sub 3} detectors with digital readout appears to best suited for this novel type of nuclear photonics at ultra-high counting rates.

  8. High Reported Spontaneous Stuttering Recovery Rates: Fact or Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramig, Peter R.

    1993-01-01

    Contact after 6 to 8 years with families of 21 children who were diagnosed as stuttering but did not receive fluency intervention services found that almost all subjects still had a stuttering problem. Results dispute the high spontaneous recovery rates reported in the literature and support the value of early intervention. (Author/DB)

  9. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German higher education sector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German higher education (HE) sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of six case studies of energy management in German universities. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project (Sorrell et al., 2000). The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the sector may be improved. The results of the study for the higher education sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the higher education sector; - Case studies of energy management in the German higher education sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German higher education sector; - The role of energy service companies in the higher education sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  10. Concussion history and reporting rates in elite Irish rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraas, Michael R; Coughlan, Garrett F; Hart, Emily C; McCarthy, Conor

    2014-08-01

    To determine the self-reported, seasonal rates of concussion and the reporting practices among Irish rugby union players. Descriptive epidemiology study. The study was conducted at the training grounds of four professional Irish rugby union clubs. One hundred seventy-two players (24.97 ± 4.11 years of age, 13.49 ± 5.79 years playing experience) gave consent to participate. Number of concussions reported during the 2010-2011 season, reasons for not reporting, and positions of concussed players. Forty-five percent of players reported at least one concussion during the 2010-2011 season, but only 46.6% of these presented to medical staff. The reasons for not reporting their concussions included, not thinking the injury was serious enough, and not wanting to be removed from the game. The relative proportion of concussions was higher for backs than forwards; however, the severity of injury was greater for forwards. Scrum-halves (12.0%) and flankers (10.9%) accounted for the majority of concussions reported. The self-reported rate of concussion in elite rugby union players in Ireland is higher than reported in other countries or other sports. Many concussions remain unreported and, therefore, unmanaged. However, recent changes in concussion management guidelines by the International Rugby Board may impact future reporting practices of players. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Do Astronauts Havbe a Higher Rate of Orthopedic Shoulder Conditions Than a Cohort of Working Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, M. S.; Murray, J. D.; Young, M.; Wear, M. L.; Van Baalen, M.; Tarver, W. J.

    2016-01-01

    Occupational surveillance of astronaut shoulder injuries began with operational concerns at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) during Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) training. Orthopedic shoulder injury and surgery rates were calculated [1], but classifying the rates as normal, high or low was highly dependent on the comparison group. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify a population of working professionals and compare orthopedic shoulder consultation and surgery rates.

  12. Do Astronauts have a Higher Rate of Orthopedic Shoulder Conditions than a Cohort of Working Professionals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Murray, Jocelyn D.; Young, Millenia; Wear, Mary L.; Tarver, W. J.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Occupational surveillance of astronaut shoulder injuries began with operational concerns at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) during Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) training. NASA has implemented several occupational health initiatives during the past 20 years to decrease the number and severity of injuries, but the individual success rate is unknown. Orthopedic shoulder injury and surgery rates were calculated, but classifying the rates as normal, high or low was highly dependent on the comparison group. The purpose of this study was to identify a population of working professionals and compare orthopedic shoulder consultation and surgery rates.

  13. The Supply of Part-Time Higher Education in the UK. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Claire; Birkbeck, Anne Jamieson; Mason, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    This report explores the supply of part-time higher education in the UK, with particular consideration to the study of part-time undergraduate provision in England. It is the final publication in the series of reports on individual student markets that were commissioned by Universities UK following the publication of the reports on the Future size…

  14. Minilaparotomy to rectal cancer has higher overall survival rate and earlier short-term recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Huang, Ming-Jun; Yang, Chuan-Hua; Li, Ka; Li, Li

    2012-10-07

    To report our experience using mini-laparotomy for the resection of rectal cancer using the total mesorectal excision (TME) technique. Consecutive patients with rectal cancer who underwent anal-colorectal surgery at the authors' hospital between March 2001 and June 2009 were included. In total, 1415 patients were included in the study. The cases were divided into two surgical procedure groups (traditional open laparotomy or mini-laparotomy). The mini-laparotomy group was defined as having an incision length ≤ 12 cm. Every patient underwent the TME technique with a standard operation performed by the same clinical team. The multimodal preoperative evaluation system and postoperative fast track were used. To assess the short-term outcomes, data on the postoperative complications and recovery functions of these cases were collected and analysed. The study included a plan for patient follow-up, to obtain the long-term outcomes related to 5-year survival and local recurrence. The mini-laparotomy group had 410 patients, and 1015 cases underwent traditional laparotomy. There were no differences in baseline characteristics between the two surgical procedure groups. The overall 5-year survival rate was not different between the mini-laparotomy and traditional laparotomy groups (80.6% vs. 79.4%, P = 0.333), nor was the 5-year local recurrence (1.4% vs. 1.5%, P = 0.544). However, 1-year mortality was decreased in the mini-laparotomy group compared with the traditional laparotomy group (0% vs. 4.2%, P 8 d vs 3.9 ± 2.3 d, P = 0.000) and passing of gas (3.5 ± 1.1 d vs. 4.3 ± 1.8 d, P = 0.000), length of hospital stay (6.4 ± 1.5 d vs 9.7 ± 2.2 d, P = 0.000), anastomotic leakage (0.5% vs. 4.8%, P = 0.000), and intestinal obstruction (2.2% vs 7.3%, P = 0.000) were decreased in the mini-laparotomy group compared with the traditional laparotomy group. The results for other postoperative recovery function indicators, such as days to oral feeding and defecation, were similar, as

  15. Assessing heart rate variability from real-world Holter reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Phyllis K

    2002-09-01

    Real world clinical Holter reports are often difficult to interpret from a heart rate variability (HRV) perspective. In many cases HRV software is absent. Step-by-step HRV assessment from clinical Holter reports includes: making sure that there is enough usable data, assessing maximum and minimum heart rates, assessing circadian HRV from hourly average heart rates, and assessing HRV from the histogram of R-R intervals and from the plot of R-R intervals or heart rate vs. time. If HRV data are available, time domain HRV is easiest to understand and less sensitive to scanning errors. SDNN (the standard deviation of all N-N intervals in ms) and SDANN (the standard deviation of the 5-min average of N-N intervals in ms) are easily interpreted. SDNN < 70 ms post-MI is a cut point for increased mortality risk. Two times ln SDANN is a good surrogate for ln ultra low frequency power and can be compared with published cut points. SDNNIDX (the average of the standard deviations of N-N intervals for each 5-min in ms) < 30 ms is associated with increased risk in patients with congestive heart failure. RMSSD (the root mean square of successive N-N interval difference in ms) < 17.5 ms has also been associated with increased risk post-myocardial infarction. Frequency domain HRV values are often not comparable to published data. However, graphical power spectral plots can provide additional information about whether the HRV pattern is normal and can also identify some patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

  16. Higher Education in Kentucky. Final Report of the SCR 30 Study Committee. Program Evaluation. Research Report No. 222.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, Joseph; And Others

    A report on higher education in Kentucky is presented, with attention to governance, funding, tuition, financial aid, staffing and salary comparisons for administrators and faculty, enrollment, degree production, cooperation, and quality issues. The statutory organization of the Kentucky Council on Higher Education is specified, along with the…

  17. The importance of rating scales in measuring patient-reported outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadka Jyoti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A critical component that influences the measurement properties of a patient-reported outcome (PRO instrument is the rating scale. Yet, there is a lack of general consensus regarding optimal rating scale format, including aspects of question structure, the number and the labels of response categories. This study aims to explore the characteristics of rating scales that function well and those that do not, and thereby develop guidelines for formulating rating scales. Methods Seventeen existing PROs designed to measure vision-related quality of life dimensions were mailed for self-administration, in sets of 10, to patients who were on a waiting list for cataract extraction. These PROs included questions with ratings of difficulty, frequency, severity, and global ratings. Using Rasch analysis, performance of rating scales were assessed by examining hierarchical ordering (indicating categories are distinct from each other and follow a logical transition from lower to higher value, evenness (indicating relative utilization of categories, and range (indicating coverage of the attribute by the rating scale. Results The rating scales with complicated question format, a large number of response categories, or unlabelled categories, tended to be dysfunctional. Rating scales with five or fewer response categories tended to be functional. Most of the rating scales measuring difficulty performed well. The rating scales measuring frequency and severity demonstrated hierarchical ordering but the categories lacked even utilization. Conclusion Developers of PRO instruments should use a simple question format, fewer (four to five and labelled response categories.

  18. Are Interpersonal Violence Rates Higher Among Young Women in College Compared With Those Never Attending College?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Ann L; Follingstad, Diane R; Bush, Heather M; Fisher, Bonnie S

    2016-05-01

    Estimates of sexual violence and partner violence rates among young women are generated primarily from college samples. Few studies have data to compare rates among similar-aged women attending college with those who never attended college. This study aims to estimate rates of partner violence by type (sexual, physical, and psychological) and severity (mild, moderate, severe), sexual harassment, and knowing or suspecting that someone put a drug in a drink (drugged drink) among a national sample of 959 young women aged 18 to 24 in an intimate relationship in the past 12 months who were either currently in college (college;n= 272) or never attended college (non-college;n= 687). After adjusting for demographic differences between these two groups, no significant differences were found in rates of sexual partner violence (28.4% non-college, 23.5% college), physical partner violence (27.9% non-college, 26.3% college), psychological partner violence (Mscore: 6.10 non-college, 5.59 college), sexual harassment (15.5% non-college, 14.1% college), or drugged drink (8.5% non-college, 7.8% college). Finding high rates of interpersonal violence among young women who are and are not currently attending college indicates the need to target all young adults with violence prevention interventions in educational, workplace, and other community-based settings.

  19. Higher speciation and lower extinction rates influence mammal diversity gradients in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamma, Krishnapriya; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2015-02-04

    Little is known about the patterns and correlates of mammal diversity gradients in Asia. In this study, we examine patterns of species distributions and phylogenetic diversity in Asia and investigate if the observed diversity patterns are associated with differences in diversification rates between the tropical and non-tropical regions. We used species distribution maps and phylogenetic trees to generate species and phylogenetic diversity measures for 1° × 1° cells across mainland Asia. We constructed lineage-through-time plots and estimated diversification shift-times to examine the temporal patterns of diversifications across orders. Finally, we tested if the observed gradients in Asia could be associated with geographical differences in diversification rates across the tropical and non-tropical biomes. We estimated speciation, extinction and dispersal rates across these two regions for mammals, both globally and for Asian mammals. Our results demonstrate strong latitudinal and longitudinal gradients of species and phylogenetic diversity with Southeast Asia and the Himalayas showing highest diversity. Importantly, our results demonstrate that differences in diversification (speciation, extinction and dispersal) rates between the tropical and the non-tropical biomes influence the observed diversity gradients globally and in Asia. For the first time, we demonstrate that Asian tropics act as both cradles and museums of mammalian diversity. Temporal and spatial variation in diversification rates across different lineages of mammals is an important correlate of species diversity gradients observed in Asia.

  20. Periodic host absence can select for higher or lower parasite transmission rates

    OpenAIRE

    van den Berg, F.; Bacaer, N.; Metz, J. A. J.; Lannou, C.; van den Bosch, F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of discontinuous periodic host absence on the evolution of pathogen transmission rates by using R-0 maximisation techniques. The physiological consequence of an increased transmission rate can be either an increased virulence, i.e. there is a transmission-virulence trade-off or ii) a reduced between season survival, i.e. there is a transmission-survival trade-off. The results reveal that the type of trade-off determines the direction of selection, with relativel...

  1. A Methodology for Sustainability Evaluation and Reporting in Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Ana C.; Carravilla, Maria Antonia; Oliveira, Jose F.; Costa, Carlos A. V.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology that allows higher education institutions (HEIs) to promote, to evaluate and to report on sustainability. The ultimate goal of the afore-mentioned methodology is to help HEIs achieve sustainability. First, a model entitled Sustainability in Higher Education Institutions (SusHEI) that generally…

  2. Sources of Fluctuations and Growth of Investment in Higher Education. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Walter W.

    A study was undertaken to apply family investment techniques and public expenditure analysis to problems faced in higher education, treating expenditures for higher education as an investment in human resources. The report is addressed to economists, policy makers, and educators and students, and is both technical and nontechnical in its various…

  3. Examining Life Goals and School Attendance Rates of Afghan Students Receiving Higher Education in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bek, Hafiz

    2016-01-01

    This research is a descriptive study carried out to examine the relations between life goals and school attendance levels among Afghan students receiving higher education in Turkey. In total there were 198 Afghan students that participated in the study. Among which 159 were male and 39 female. All of these students were studying in 16 Turkish…

  4. Raising the Participation Rate of the Lower Socio-economic Groups in Higher Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄智文

    2008-01-01

    This essay aims to analyze the policy of widening participation in higher education in the UK.The policy was made in the interest of the students with a historically disadvantaged background called "lower socio-ecunomic groups".It analyzes the different possible constraints of those students and what the government can do to help them solve the problems.

  5. A Management Control Perspective of Sustainability Reporting in Higher Education: In Search of a Holistic View

    OpenAIRE

    Ceulemans, Kim; Van Caillie, Didier; Molderez, Ingrid; Van Liedekerke, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Higher education institutions have been actively attempting to integrate sustainability in their curricula, research, operations, and outreach activities over the last decades. Despite the efforts undertaken, it is currently still challenging for their internal and external stakeholders to assess an institution’s sustainability-related activities and the extent of their implementation within the different activities of higher education. Since sustainability reporting in higher ...

  6. Mechanisms promoting higher growth rate in arctic than in temperate shorebirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schekkerman, H; Tulp, Ingrid; Piersma, T.; Visser, G.H.

    2003-01-01

    We compared prefledging growth, energy expenditure, and time budgets in the arctic-breeding red knot (Calidris canutus) to those in temperate shorebirds, to investigate how arctic chicks achieve a high growth rate despite energetic difficulties associated with precocial development in a cold climate

  7. A new system for higher recovery rate of water borne Cryptosporidium and Giardia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, J.; Berg, T.

    2012-01-01

    The two most common water borne pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are a common cause of outbreaks of diarrhea. Detecting these parasites in water samples depends on effective parasite recovery from the water matrix. The recovery rates of the currently used filter methods are low a...

  8. Do Expenditures Other than Instructional Expenditures Affect Graduation and Persistence Rates in American Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Douglas A.; Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2010-01-01

    During the last two decades, median instructional spending per full-time equivalent (FTE) student at American 4-year colleges and universities has grown at a slower rate than median spending per FTE student in a number of other expenditure categories, including academic support, student services and research. Our paper uses institutional level…

  9. Rating and Classification of Incident Reporting in Radiology in a Large Academic Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Mohammad; Aran, Shima; Shaqdan, Khalid W; Abujudeh, Hani H

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a rate of safety incident report of adverse events in a large academic radiology department and to share the various types that may occur. This is a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant, institutional review board-approved study. Consent requirement was waived. All incident reports from April 2006-September 2012 were retrieved. Events were further classified as follows: diagnostic test orders, identity document or documentation or consent, safety or security or conduct, service coordination, surgery or procedure, line or tube, fall, medication or intravenous safety, employee general incident, environment or equipment, adverse drug reaction (ADR), skin or tissue, and diagnosis or treatment. Overall rates and subclassification rates were calculated. There were 10,224 incident reports and 4,324,208 radiology examinations (rate = 0.23%). The highest rates of the incident reports were due to diagnostic test orders (34.3%; 3509/10,224), followed by service coordination (12.2%; 1248/10,224) and ADR (10.3%; 1052/4,324,208). The rate of incident reporting was highest in inpatient (0.30%; 2949/970,622), followed by emergency radiology (0.22%; 1500/672,958) and outpatient (0.18%; 4957/2,680,628). Approximately 48.5% (4947/10,202) of incidents had no patient harm and did not affect the patient, followed by no patient harm, but did affect the patient (35.2%, 3589/10,202), temporary or minor patient harm (15.5%, 1584/10,202), permanent or major patient harm (0.6%, 62/10,202), and patient death (0.2%, 20/10,202). Within an academic radiology department, the rate of incident reports was only 0.23%, usually did not harm the patient, and occurred at higher rates in inpatients. The most common incident type was in the category of diagnostic test orders, followed by service coordination, and ADRs.

  10. Clinical pearls: factors affecting reported contraceptive efficacy rates in clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkman, Ronald T

    2002-01-01

    Current combination oral contraceptives (OCs) are among the most popular, safe, and effective methods of reversible contraception. There are, however, many factors that can affect contraceptive failure rates as reported in clinical trials, including subject characteristics, factors related to study methodology and data analysis, and publication biases. The variability of these factors among clinical trials makes meaningful comparisons of contraceptive efficacy data across studies difficult, if not misleading or erroneous. It is even more difficult to reconcile the differences between clinical trial efficacy rates and everyday use rates; for instance, the National Survey of Family Growth reported that the rate of OC failure is close to 8% in the United States, which is higher than rates reported in clinical trials. Thus, it is important for the clinician to consider the many factors that can influence reporting of contraceptive failure rates in clinical trials and be aware of the limitations in differentiating OCs on the basis of contraceptive efficacy derived from clinical trial data. Furthermore, clinical trial data may not accurately predict contraceptive efficacy in everyday use.

  11. LANGUAGE POLICY AND HIGHER EDUCATION IN SOUTHEAST ASIA, FINAL DRAFT OF CONSULTANT'S REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NOSS, RICHARD B.

    A FIELD INVESTIGATION FOR THIS REPORT WAS CONDUCTED FROM SEPTEMBER TO DECEMBER 1964 THROUGH THE FACILITIES OF THE JOINT UNESCO-IAU RESEARCH OFFICE ON HIGHER EDUCATION IN KUALA LUMPUR. IN FIVE OF THE EIGHT COUNTRIES COVERD BY THE REPORT (MALAYSIA, THAILAND, CAMBODIA, SOUTH VIETNAM, AND THE PHILIPPINES), IT WAS POSSIBLE TO MAKE "FAIRLY EXTENSIVE…

  12. Surgical site infection and transfusion rates are higher in underweight total knee arthroplasty patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Manrique, MD

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that UW TKA patients have a higher likelihood of developing SSI and requiring blood transfusions. The specific reasons are unclear, but we conjecture that it may be related to decreased wound healing capabilities and low preoperative hemoglobin. Investigation of local tissue coverage and hematologic status may be beneficial in this patient population to prevent SSI. Based on the results of this study, a prospective evaluation of these factors should be undertaken.

  13. Women With Early Menopause Have Higher Rates of Target Lesion Revascularization After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linlin; Wang, Zhijian; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhou, Zhiming; Zhao, Yingxin; Shi, Dongmei; Liu, Yuyang; Liang, Jing; Yang, Lixia; Chai, Meng; Zhou, Yujie

    2016-04-01

    Early menopause has been found to be associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to investigate the impact of early menopause on clinical outcomes for women undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We observed female patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing PCI and found that women with early menopause (≤46 years old) were more likely to have CAD risk factors and more severe coronary lesions. During the 18-month follow-up, early menopause was associated with similar risk of death and myocardial infarction but higher risk of target lesion revascularization (TLR; 7.8% vs 5.3%, P = .003) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs; 11.3% vs 9.0%, P = .007). After adjustment, early menopause was an independent risk factor for 18-month MACEs (hazard ratio [HR], 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-2.00) and TLR (HR 1.61; 95% CI 1.21-2.13). In conclusion, for women undergoing PCI, early menopause is associated with higher risk of MACE, which is mainly driven by risk of TLR. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Higher rate of compensation after surgical treatment versus conservative treatment for acute Achilles tendon rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveen, Thor-Magnus; Troelsen, Anders; Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner

    2015-01-01

    complications. The aim of this study was to investigate: 1) the socio-economic impact of complications after ATR through the utilisation of the Danish Patient Insurance Association (DPIA) database, 2) correlations between treatment and complications. METHODS: A total of 324 patients with ATR reported...

  15. Younger women with ovulation disorders and unexplained infertility predict a higher success rate in superovulation (SO) intrauterine insemination (IUI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viardot-Foucault, Veronique; Tai, Bee Choo; Prasath, Ethiraj Balaji; Lau, Matthew S K; Chan, Jerry K Y; Loh, Seong Feei

    2014-04-01

    Superovulation-intrauterine insemination (SO-IUI) is the most common assisted reproductive technique (ART) in the world, with good evidence of efficacy and cost-effectiveness. However, parameters affecting its success have not been consistently reported. So in this study, we aim at determining the parameters influencing the success rate of SO-IUI. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 797 SO-IUI cycles from 606 patients, performed between 2007 and 2009 in a single centre. These women received clomiphene citrate (CC), recombinant FSH (rFSH) or both. There were 127 clinical pregnancies with a pregnancy rate (PR) of 15.9% (127/797) per treatment cycle. Factors associated with higher PR included maternal age <38 (P = 0.02), subfertility diagnoses of ovulatory disorders, unexplained infertility, sexual dysfunction and unilateral tubal obstruction (P = 0.02), an endometrial thickness ≥8 mm (P = 0.03), total number motile spermatozoa (TNMS) of ≥1 million (P = 0.03), and spermatozoa normal forms (NF) ≥4% (P <0.01) on bivariate analysis. When CC is used, the endometrial thickness is more likely to be suboptimal (<8 mm). All the above parameters remained significant except the subfertility diagnoses on multivariate analysis. Patients' selection with women <38 years old and preferably with ovulation disorders and unexplained infertility is associated with the highest PR in SO-IUI. Cycle parameters such as the use of rFSH alone, with the avoidance of CC, TNMS ≥1 million and NF ≥4% is likely to result in the best outcomes and reduce the high order multiple pregnancy risk.

  16. Comparison of higher order spectra in heart rate signals during two techniques of meditation: Chi and Kundalini meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goshvarpour, Ateke; Goshvarpour, Atefeh

    2013-02-01

    The human heartbeat is one of the important examples of complex physiologic fluctuations. For the first time in this study higher order spectra of heart rate signals during meditation have explored. Specifically, the aim of this study was to analysis and compares the contribution of quadratic phase coupling of human heart rate variability during two forms of meditation: (1) Chinese Chi (or Qigong) meditation and (2) Kundalini Yoga meditation. For this purpose, Bispectrum was estimated by using biased, parametric and the direct (FFT) method. The results show that the mean Bispectrum magnitude of heart rate signals increased during Kundalini Yoga meditation, but it decreased significantly during Chi meditation. However, in both meditation techniques phase-coupled harmonics are shifted to the higher frequencies during meditation. In addition, it has shown that not only there are significant differences between rest and meditation states, but also heart rate patterns appear to be influenced by different types of meditation.

  17. Comparison of higher order spectra in heart rate signals during two techniques of meditation: Chi and Kundalini meditation

    OpenAIRE

    Goshvarpour, Ateke; Atefeh GOSHVARPOUR

    2012-01-01

    The human heartbeat is one of the important examples of complex physiologic fluctuations. For the first time in this study higher order spectra of heart rate signals during meditation have explored. Specifically, the aim of this study was to analysis and compares the contribution of quadratic phase coupling of human heart rate variability during two forms of meditation: (1) Chinese Chi (or Qigong) meditation and (2) Kundalini Yoga meditation. For this purpose, Bispectrum was estimated by usin...

  18. Addressing the Declining Productivity of Higher Education Using Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. Stretching the Higher Education Dollar. Special Report 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Douglas N.

    2013-01-01

    Higher education productivity, as measured by academic degrees granted by American colleges and universities, is declining. Since the early 1990s, real expenditures on higher education have grown by more than 25 percent, now amounting to 2.9 percent of US gross domestic product (GDP)--greater than the percentage of GDP spent on higher education in…

  19. Addressing the Declining Productivity of Higher Education Using Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. Stretching the Higher Education Dollar. Special Report 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Douglas N.

    2013-01-01

    Higher education productivity, as measured by academic degrees granted by American colleges and universities, is declining. Since the early 1990s, real expenditures on higher education have grown by more than 25 percent, now amounting to 2.9 percent of US gross domestic product (GDP)--greater than the percentage of GDP spent on higher education in…

  20. Do more hospital beds lead to higher hospitalization rates? a spatial examination of Roemer's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamater, Paul L; Messina, Joseph P; Grady, Sue C; WinklerPrins, Vince; Shortridge, Ashton M

    2013-01-01

    Roemer's Law, a widely cited principle in health care policy, states that hospital beds that are built tend to be used. This simple but powerful expression has been invoked to justify Certificate of Need regulation of hospital beds in an effort to contain health care costs. Despite its influence, a surprisingly small body of empirical evidence supports its content. Furthermore, known geographic factors influencing health services use and the spatial structure of the relationship between hospital bed availability and hospitalization rates have not been sufficiently explored in past examinations of Roemer's Law. We pose the question, "Accounting for space in health care access and use, is there an observable association between the availability of hospital beds and hospital utilization?" We employ an ecological research design based upon the Anderson behavioral model of health care utilization. This conceptual model is implemented in an explicitly spatial context. The effect of hospital bed availability on the utilization of hospital services is evaluated, accounting for spatial structure and controlling for other known determinants of hospital utilization. The stability of this relationship is explored by testing across numerous geographic scales of analysis. The case study comprises an entire state system of hospitals and population, evaluating over one million inpatient admissions. We find compelling evidence that a positive, statistically significant relationship exists between hospital bed availability and inpatient hospitalization rates. Additionally, the observed relationship is invariant with changes in the geographic scale of analysis. This study provides evidence for the effects of Roemer's Law, thus suggesting that variations in hospitalization rates have origins in the availability of hospital beds. This relationship is found to be robust across geographic scales of analysis. These findings suggest continued regulation of hospital bed supply to assist in

  1. Are larger effect sizes in experimental studies good predictors of higher citation rates?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg; Henriksen, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    Effect sizes are perhaps the most important quantitative information in statistical inferential studies. Recently, the hypothesis that rational citation behaviour in general ought to give credit to studies that successfully apply a treatment and detect greater effects, resulting in such studies...... areas and with a more credible model selection procedure. Using meta-analyses, we identify comparable individual experimental studies (n=259) from five different research specialties. Effect sizes are compared to the citation rates of the individual studies and impact factors for the journals where...

  2. Crystal Thermoelasticity at Extreme Loading Rates and Pressures: Analysis of Higher-Order Energy Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Solids II, Springer, New York, 1996. [2] R.A. Regueiro, D.J. Bammann, E.B. Marin, G.C. Johnson, Finite defor- mation elastoplasticity for rate and...Impact Eng. 73 (2014) 56–65. [17] K.N. Solanki, D.J. Bammann, A thermodynamic framework for a gradient theory of continuum damage , Acta Mech. 213 (2010) 27...Clayton, D.L. McDowell, A multiscale multiplicative decompo- sition for elastoplasticity of polycrystals, Int. J. Plast. 19 (2003) 1401–1444. [35] J.D

  3. Faster photodegradation rate and higher dioxin yield of triclosan induced by cationic surfactant CTAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xianliang; Zheng, Xiaodong; Xie, Qing; Yang, Xianhai; Xiao, Jie; Xue, Weifeng; Chen, Jingwen

    2014-06-30

    Triclosan has received extensive attention as it has been frequently detected in the aquatic environment. Photolysis was found to be a major pathway governing the fate of triclosan in the aquatic environment. However, the effects of surfactants that usually coexist with triclosan, on the photodegradation of triclosan, are largely unknown. In this study, the effects of selected surfactants on the photodegradation of triclosan were investigated experimentally. The results show that anionic sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate, sodium dodecyl sulfate and neutral polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate inhibit the photolysis of triclosan, whereas cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) significantly accelerates the photodegradation rate of triclosan. The interactions between the hydrophilic group of CTAB and anionic triclosan lead to the apparent decrease of pKa of triclosan from 8.4 to 6.1, which increase the fraction of anionic triclosan from 4% to 89% in neutral solution. A red shift in the UV-VIS absorption spectrum is exhibited, thus leading to the increased photodegradation rate of triclosan. The accelerations caused by CTAB were observed under xenon lamp and Hg lamp irradiances, as well as under natural sunlight. Effect of CTAB demonstrated pH dependence with significantly enhancement under pH 5∼9 and inhibition at pH=3. The presence of CTAB also increased the yield of 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin from the photolysis of triclosan about 7 times at pH=7.

  4. Accuracy of rate coding: When shorter time window and higher spontaneous activity help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levakova, Marie; Tamborrino, Massimiliano; Kostal, Lubomir; Lansky, Petr

    2017-02-01

    It is widely accepted that neuronal firing rates contain a significant amount of information about the stimulus intensity. Nevertheless, theoretical studies on the coding accuracy inferred from the exact spike counting distributions are rare. We present an analysis based on the number of observed spikes assuming the stochastic perfect integrate-and-fire model with a change point, representing the stimulus onset, for which we calculate the corresponding Fisher information to investigate the accuracy of rate coding. We analyze the effect of changing the duration of the time window and the influence of several parameters of the model, in particular the level of the presynaptic spontaneous activity and the level of random fluctuation of the membrane potential, which can be interpreted as noise of the system. The results show that the Fisher information is nonmonotonic with respect to the length of the observation period. This counterintuitive result is caused by the discrete nature of the count of spikes. We observe also that the signal can be enhanced by noise, since the Fisher information is nonmonotonic with respect to the level of spontaneous activity and, in some cases, also with respect to the level of fluctuation of the membrane potential.

  5. Higher rate of compensation after surgical treatment versus conservative treatment for acute Achilles tendon rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveen, Thor-Magnus; Troelsen, Anders; Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner

    2015-01-01

    complications. The aim of this study was to investigate: 1) the socio-economic impact of complications after ATR through the utilisation of the Danish Patient Insurance Association (DPIA) database, 2) correlations between treatment and complications. METHODS: A total of 324 patients with ATR reported...... in the period from 1992 to 2010 in the DPIA database were identified and patient records were reviewed manually. RESULTS: The compensation awarded for the 18-year period totalled 18,147,202 DKK with 41% of patient claims being recognised. Out of 180 surgically treated patients, 79 received a total compensation...

  6. Biological and sociological interpretations of age-adjustment in studies of higher order birth rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Keiding

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Several studies of the effect of education on second or third birth rates (e.g. Hoem et al. (2001 have used the concept of relative age at previous birth (B.Hoem (1996. B.Hoem's idea was to focus on the social meaning of age at previous birth. We broaden the discussion by considering other interpretations of the explanatory power of the age at previous birth, particularly via known trends in biological fecundity. A mathematical analysis of the approach reveals side effects that have not been taken sufficiently into account. Our recommendation is not to use the relative age approach without supplementing it with the more traditional approach which includes the actual age at previous birth.

  7. Lead Burden as a Factor for Higher Complication Rate in Patients With Implantable Cardiac Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kolibash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Lead revisions have increased over the last decade. Patients who do not undergo lead extraction face an increased lead burden. Consequences of increased lead burden have not been fully defined. We sought to characterize the complication rate and outcomes in patients with sterile redundant leads. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 242 consecutive patients [mean age 74 ± 12 years; 66.9% male] who underwent lead revision that resulted in an abandoned lead from January 2005 to June 2010. Patients were placed in a cohort based on number of leads after last recorded procedure (Group A: ≤2 [n=58]; Group B: 3-4 [n=168]; Group C: ≥5 [n=16]. Prespecified inhospital and long-term follow-up events were compared. Mortality rates were obtained from Social Security Death Index. Median follow-up was 2 years. Results: Baseline age, gender and race demographics were similar among the three groups. Increasing lead burden was associated with more adverse periprocedural events (A: 3.4%, B: 10.1%, C: 25.0%; P=0.031 and long-term device-related events (A: 1.7%, B: 13.0%, C: 18.8%; P=0.031. Device-related readmissions increased in frequency as lead burden increased (A: 3.5%, B: 18.5%, C: 37.5%; P=0.002. Combined periprocedural and late events also increased with more redundant leads (A: 5.2%, B: 23.2%, C: 44.0%; P=0.001. Total major events were infrequent (3.3%. There was no procedure-related mortality. Long-term all-cause mortality was not significantly different (A: 17.2%, B: 23.8%, C: 25.0%; P=0.567. Conclusions: Greater lead burden was associated with increased number of periprocedural and long-term minor events. It did not significantly impact major events or mortality.

  8. Higher dosage nicotine patches increase one-year smoking cessation rates : results from the European CEASE trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonnesen, P; Paoletti, P; Gustavsson, G; Russell, MA; Saracci, R; Gulsvik, A; Rijcken, B

    The Collaborative European Anti-Smoking Evaluation (CEASE) was a European multicentre, randomized, double-blind placebo controlled smoking cessation study, The objectives were to determine whether higher dosage and longer duration of nicotine patch therapy would increase the success rate. Thirty-six

  9. A higher rate of hyperandrogenic disorders in female-to-male transsexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosinski, H A; Peter, M; Bonatz, G; Arndt, R; Heidenreich, M; Sippell, W G; Wille, R

    1997-07-01

    In an effort to elucidate the aetiology of female-to-male transsexualism (FM-TS) 12 out of an annual sample of 16 untreated female-to-male transsexuals (FMT), aged 19 years 7 months (19;7) to 44 years 8 months (44;8) [median age (M) 27;5] were assessed by means of sexual-medical questionnaires, physical and endocrinological examination. The control group consisted of 15 healthy women (CF), aged 19 years 2 months (19;2) to 36 years 1 month (36;1) (M 22;7) without gender identity disorder, who were not under hormonal medication (including contraceptives). Baseline levels of testosterone (T; ng/dl), androstenedione (A4; ng/dl), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS; ng/ml), luteinizing hormone (LH; IU/l), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH; IU/l), and sex-hormone binding globuline (SHBG; microgram/dl) were measured. A standard single-dose ACTH stimulation test (250 micrograms ACTH IV; Synacthen) was performed with all subjects. Aldosterone (ALDO), corticosterone (B), deoxycorticosterone (DOC), progesterone (PROG), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP), 11-deoxycortisol (S), cortisol (F), cortisone (E), pregnenolone (PREG) and 17-hydroxypregnenolone (OHPREG) were assessed before and 60 min after ACTH stimulation. Transvaginal ultrasound was performed in nine out of 12 FMT (20;11 to 44;8, M 27;5; m 29.1 +/- 7.5) but not in CF. Results showed that 10 FMT (83.3%) and five CF (33.3%) were above normal values for at least one of the measured androgens. Baseline levels of T and A4 were significantly higher in FMT than in CF (T: 54.0 +/- 13.8 vs. 41.1 +/- 12.8; A4: 244.8 +/- 73.0 vs. 190.5 +/- 49.3; p CAH) in six FMT (50%) and two CF (13.3%). Eight out of nine FMT who were assessed by means of transvaginal ultrasound (i.e. 88.9%; 50.0% of 16) had polycystic ovaries (PCO). Oligomenorrhoea or menstrual dysregularities (81.7% of 16 FMT vs. 0% of CF), hirsutism (56.2% of 16 FMT vs. 13.3% of 15 CF) and adiposity (25.0% vs. 0%) were frequent in FMT, but not in CF. Hyperandrogenism with

  10. Time- and state-dependent analysis of autonomic control in narcolepsy: higher heart rate with normal heart rate variability independent of sleep fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meijden, Wisse P; Fronczek, Rolf; Reijntjes, Robert H A M; Corssmit, Eleonora P M; Biermasz, Nienke R; Lammers, Gert Jan; van Dijk, J Gert; Thijs, Roland D

    2015-04-01

    Narcolepsy with hypocretin deficiency is known to alter cardiovascular control during sleep, but its aetiology is disputed. As cardiovascular control differs between sleep states, and narcolepsy affects sleep architecture, controlling for both duration and transitions of sleep states is necessary. This study therefore aimed to assess heart rate and its variability in narcolepsy during sleep taking these factors into account. The study included 12 medication-naïve patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy and hypocretin deficiency (11 male, 16-53 years old), and 12 sex- and age-matched healthy controls (11 male, 19-55 years). All subjects underwent 1-night ambulatory polysomnography recording. Cardiovascular parameters were calculated for each 30-s epoch. Heart rate was significantly higher in patients with narcolepsy than in controls in all sleep states and during wakefulness prior to sleep. Groups did not differ in heart rate variability measures. The effects of sleep state duration on heart rate and its variability were similar between patients and controls. In conclusion, heart rate was consistently higher in patients with narcolepsy than controls, independent of sleep stage and sleep fragmentation. A direct effect of hypocretin deficiency therefore seems probable.

  11. Correlations suggest low magnesium may lead to higher rates of type 2 diabetes in Indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longstreet, D A; Heath, D L; Panaretto, K S; Vink, R

    2007-01-01

    Diabetes accounts for a significant part of the morbidity and mortality experienced by Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations. Research over the past two decades has provided evidence of a clinical correlation between diabetes and low magnesium intake. Hypomagnesaemia is the most common electrolyte abnormality in diabetic outpatients and may be linked to the development of both macrovascular and microvascular diabetic complications. A diabetes risk reduction of 33%-34% has been found among those with diets highest in magnesium. This study examines the case for magnesium as a potential contributor to diabetes in Australia, especially among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. Specifically explored are associations between diabetes and the magnesium content of drinking water and diet, as well as climatic and socioeconomic factors that may impact on magnesium status including temperature, rainfall, education, employment and income. Queensland age-standardized death rates due to diabetes were correlated with the magnesium content of drinking water, maximum average temperature, rainfall, unemployment rate, proportion of population with post-school qualification, weekly income, and the percentage population identified as Indigenous. Multiple-pass 24-hour recalls from a convenience sample of 100 Indigenous patients at a regional centre were also analyzed to estimate dietary magnesium intake. The Indigenous nutrient intake was then compared with the Australian National Nutrition Survey estimates. Diabetes related mortality was significantly correlated to the percentage of the population identified as Indigenous (r = 0.675), to water magnesium levels (r = -.414), and to average maximum daily temperature (r = 0.579). The average daily magnesium intake in an Indigenous cohort from a regional centre was 248 mg (men: 267 mg +/- 17; women: 245 mg +/- 6 mg), significantly less than intakes observed in the 1995 National Nutrition Survey (page

  12. On the optimal determination of differential rates in the presence of higher-dimensional operators

    CERN Document Server

    Fichet, Sylvain; Rebello Teles, Patricia

    2017-08-03

    When the Standard Model is interpreted as the renormalizable sector of a low-energy effective theory, the effects of new physics are encoded into a set of higher-dimensional operators. These operators potentially deform the shapes of Standard Model differential distributions of final states observable at colliders. We describe a simple and systematic method to obtain optimal estimations of these deformations when using numerical tools, like Monte Carlo simulations. A crucial aspect of this method is minimization of the estimation uncertainty: we demonstrate how the operator coefficients have to be set in the simulations in order to get optimal results. The uncertainty on the interference term turns out to be the most difficult to control and grows very quickly when the interference is suppressed. We exemplify our method by computing the deformations induced by the ${\\cal O}_{3W}$ operator in $W^+W^-$ production at the LHC, and by deriving a bound on ${\\cal O}_{3W}$ using 8 TeV CMS data.

  13. An integrated approach for a higher success rate in mergers and acquisitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Bertoncelj

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines the importance of balanced management of hard and soft key success factors, combining the economic logic of corporate performance and human capital through an integrated approach to mergers and acquisitions. The study, based on a questionnaire and interviews, suggests that the achievement level ofmergers and acquisitions’ objectives of acquiring companies in Slovenia should be comparable to findings of similar studies; namely, the objectives that drove the deal were met only half the time. The results indicate that five hard success factors – a professional target search and due diligence, a realistic assessment of synergies, theright mix of financial sources, a detailed post-acquisition integration plan already prepared in the pre-deal phase and its speedy implementation – and five soft success factors – a new “combined” organizational culture, a competent management team, innovative employees, efficient and consistent communication and a creative business environment – are becoming increasingly relevant. Even though they differ in their importance for individual companies in the sample, they are all considered essential to increasing the success rate of corporate combinations

  14. Space and time diversity in indoor wireless optical links achieving higher data rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqudah, Yazan A.

    2013-02-01

    Multispot diffusing configuration (MSDC) in optical wireless links provide uniform optical power needed for multiaccess and spatial dependence that can be used to allow space diversity techniques over the link. The spatial channels are furnished in MSDC through utilizing multibeam transmitter that produces spatially confined diffusing spots, and a multibranch receiver with small enough branch field-of-view (FOV) to restrict the number of diffusing spots within its FOV. Here, we study different encoding techniques that use space and time diversity to reduce the bit error rate. An improved technique, constellation rotation, is proposed for pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) to increase the Euclidian distance between signal points, and thus reduce bit error. Our study shows that when a cap is placed on the amount of power allocated per channel, the performance of the improved 4-PAM using three spatial channels and soft binary decision provide the optimal performance. When the power allocated per user is restricted, the best performance is obtained through soft binary decision and by using symbols identified by their level and spatial channel to carry 2 bits per signal level-channel.

  15. Informatics technology mimics ecology: dense, mutualistic collaboration networks are associated with higher publication rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorani, Marco D

    2012-01-01

    Information technology (IT) adoption enables biomedical research. Publications are an accepted measure of research output, and network models can describe the collaborative nature of publication. In particular, ecological networks can serve as analogies for publication and technology adoption. We constructed network models of adoption of bioinformatics programming languages and health IT (HIT) from the literature.We selected seven programming languages and four types of HIT. We performed PubMed searches to identify publications since 2001. We calculated summary statistics and analyzed spatiotemporal relationships. Then, we assessed ecological models of specialization, cooperativity, competition, evolution, biodiversity, and stability associated with publications.Adoption of HIT has been variable, while scripting languages have experienced rapid adoption. Hospital systems had the largest HIT research corpus, while Perl had the largest language corpus. Scripting languages represented the largest connected network components. The relationship between edges and nodes was linear, though Bioconductor had more edges than expected and Perl had fewer. Spatiotemporal relationships were weak. Most languages shared a bioinformatics specialization and appeared mutualistic or competitive. HIT specializations varied. Specialization was highest for Bioconductor and radiology systems. Specialization and cooperativity were positively correlated among languages but negatively correlated among HIT. Rates of language evolution were similar. Biodiversity among languages grew in the first half of the decade and stabilized, while diversity among HIT was variable but flat. Compared with publications in 2001, correlation with publications one year later was positive while correlation after ten years was weak and negative.Adoption of new technologies can be unpredictable. Spatiotemporal relationships facilitate adoption but are not sufficient. As with ecosystems, dense, mutualistic

  16. Informatics technology mimics ecology: dense, mutualistic collaboration networks are associated with higher publication rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco D Sorani

    Full Text Available Information technology (IT adoption enables biomedical research. Publications are an accepted measure of research output, and network models can describe the collaborative nature of publication. In particular, ecological networks can serve as analogies for publication and technology adoption. We constructed network models of adoption of bioinformatics programming languages and health IT (HIT from the literature.We selected seven programming languages and four types of HIT. We performed PubMed searches to identify publications since 2001. We calculated summary statistics and analyzed spatiotemporal relationships. Then, we assessed ecological models of specialization, cooperativity, competition, evolution, biodiversity, and stability associated with publications.Adoption of HIT has been variable, while scripting languages have experienced rapid adoption. Hospital systems had the largest HIT research corpus, while Perl had the largest language corpus. Scripting languages represented the largest connected network components. The relationship between edges and nodes was linear, though Bioconductor had more edges than expected and Perl had fewer. Spatiotemporal relationships were weak. Most languages shared a bioinformatics specialization and appeared mutualistic or competitive. HIT specializations varied. Specialization was highest for Bioconductor and radiology systems. Specialization and cooperativity were positively correlated among languages but negatively correlated among HIT. Rates of language evolution were similar. Biodiversity among languages grew in the first half of the decade and stabilized, while diversity among HIT was variable but flat. Compared with publications in 2001, correlation with publications one year later was positive while correlation after ten years was weak and negative.Adoption of new technologies can be unpredictable. Spatiotemporal relationships facilitate adoption but are not sufficient. As with ecosystems, dense

  17. Significantly Higher Prevalence Rate of Asthma and Bipolar Disorder Co-Morbidity: A Meta-Analysis and Review Under PRISMA Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Kung; Wang, Hung-Yu; Chen, Yen-Wen; Lin, Pao-Yen; Wu, Ching-Kuan; Tseng, Ping-Tao

    2016-03-01

    Asthma and bipolar disorder (BD) are 2 distinct diseases that share similar pathophysiology. This study aimed to determine their relationship thorough a meta-analysis of articles on their comorbidity rate. The aim of the study is to examine the overall prevalence rate of BD in asthmatic patients and of asthma in BD patients compared to healthy controls. Electronic research of PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov was performed. Articles discussing the prevalence rate of BD in patients with/without asthma and the prevalence rate of asthma in those with/without BD, as well as clinical trials in humans and case-controlled trials or cohort studies, were all included. Case reports or series and nonclinical trials were excluded. Through a random-effects model, a meta-analysis of the results of 4 studies comparing the prevalence rate of BD in patients with/without asthma, and in 6 studies comparing the prevalence rate of asthma in subjects with/without BD were performed. There were significantly higher prevalence rates of BD in asthmatic patients than in healthy controls (P prevalence rate of asthma in BD patients (slope = 0.015, P importance of the significantly high comorbid rate of BD and asthma, and the positive association with age. Special attention must be given to the comorbidity of asthma and BD, especially in older patients.

  18. Biodegradation testing of chemicals with high Henry’s constants – separating mass and effective concentration reveals higher rate constants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Heidi; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Comber, Mike

    During simulation-type biodegradation tests, volatile chemicals will continuously partition between water phase and headspace. This study addressed how (1) this partitioning affects biodegradation test results and (2) it can be accounted for by combining mass balance and dynamic biodegradation...... Microextraction (HS-SPME) was applied directly on the test systems to measure substrate depletion by biodegradation relative to abiotic controls. HS-SPME was also applied to determine air to water partitioning ratios. Water phase biodegradation rate constants, kwater, were up to 72 times higher than test system...... biodegradation rate constants, ksystem. True water phase degradation rate constants facilitate extrapolation to other air-water systems and are more suitable input parameters for aquatic exposure and fate models. As such, they should be considered more appropriate for risk assessments than test system rate...

  19. Brief Report: Parent-Adolescent Informant Discrepancies of Social Skill Importance and Social Skill Engagement for Higher-Functioning Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Camilla M.; Solomon, Marjorie

    2015-01-01

    Parent- and adolescent-report of social skill importance and social skill engagement on the Social Skills Rating System (Gresham and Elliott in The social skills rating system, American Guidance Service, Circle Pines, 1990) were assessed in higher-functioning adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Compared to parents, adolescents…

  20. Financing Higher Education in Francophone West Africa. An EDI Policy Seminar Report, Number 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Angela

    Meetings were held in Senegal in 1985, in Cote d'Ivoire in 1986, and in Zimbabwe in 1987, concerning the current state of higher education finance in Africa, the structure of unit costs, and the role of development assistance agencies and other sources of financial support. Reports are presented concerning the macroeconomic perspective, internal…

  1. Smoking Rates Still High in Some Racial Groups, CDC Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160256.html Smoking Rates Still High in Some Racial Groups, CDC ... lot of progress in getting Americans to stop smoking, some groups still have high smoking rates, a ...

  2. A succinct rating scale for radiology report quality

    OpenAIRE

    Chengwu Yang; Kasales, Claudia J; Tao Ouyang; Peterson, Christine M; Nabeel I Sarwani; Rafel Tappouni; Michael Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Context: Poorly written radiology reports are common among residents and are a significant challenge for radiology education. While training may improve report quality, a professionally developed reliable and valid scale to measure report quality does not exist. Objectives: To develop a measurement tool for report quality, the quality of report scale, with rigorous validation through empirical data. Methods: A research team of an experienced psychometrician and six senior radiologists conduct...

  3. Higher magnitude cash payments improve research follow-up rates without increasing drug use or perceived coercion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festinger, David S; Marlowe, Douglas B; Dugosh, Karen L; Croft, Jason R; Arabia, Patricia L

    2008-07-01

    In a prior study [Festinger, D.S., Marlowe, D.B., Croft, J.R., Dugosh, K.L., Mastro, N.K., Lee, P.A., DeMatteo, D.S., Patapis, N.S., 2005. Do research payments precipitate drug use or coerce participation? Drug Alcohol Depend. 78 (3) 275-281] we found that neither the mode (cash vs. gift card) nor magnitude ($10, $40, or $70) of research follow-up payments increased rates of new drug use or perceptions of coercion. However, higher payments and payments in cash were associated with better follow-up attendance, reduced tracking efforts, and improved participant satisfaction with the study. The present study extended those findings to higher payment magnitudes. Participants from an urban outpatient substance abuse treatment program were randomly assigned to receive $70, $100, $130, or $160 in either cash or a gift card for completing a follow-up assessment at 6 months post-admission (n congruent with 50 per cell). Apart from the payment incentives, all participants received a standardized, minimal platform of follow-up efforts. Findings revealed that neither the magnitude nor mode of payment had a significant effect on new drug use or perceived coercion. Consistent with our previous findings, higher payments and cash payments resulted in significantly higher follow-up rates and fewer tracking calls. In addition participants receiving cash vs. gift cards were more likely to use their payments for essential, non-luxury purchases. Follow-up rates for participants receiving cash payments of $100, $130, and $160 approached or exceeded the FDA required minimum of 70% for studies to be considered in evaluations of new medications. This suggests that the use of higher magnitude payments and cash payments may be effective strategies for obtaining more representative follow-up samples without increasing new drug use or perceptions of coercion.

  4. Strength in numbers: large and permanent colonies have higher queen oviposition rates in the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile, Mayr).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril, Sílvia; Gómez, Crisanto

    2014-03-01

    Polydomy associated with unicoloniality is a common trait of invasive species. In the invasive Argentine ant, colonies are seasonally polydomous. Most follow a seasonal fission-fussion pattern: they disperse in the spring and summer and aggregate in the fall and winter. However, a small proportion of colonies do not migrate; instead, they inhabit permanent nesting sites. These colonies are large and highly polydomous. The aim of this study was to (1) search for differences in the fecundity of queens between mother colonies (large and permanent) and satellite colonies (small and temporal), (2) determine if queens in mother and satellite colonies have different diets to clarify if colony size influences social organization and queen feeding, and (3) examine if colony location relative to the invasion front results in differences in the queen's diet. Our results indicate that queens from mother nests are more fertile than queens from satellite nests and that colony location does not affect queen oviposition rate. Ovarian dissections suggest that differences in ovarian morphology are not responsible for the higher queen oviposition rate in mother vs. satellite nests, since there were no differences in the number and length of ovarioles in queens from the two types of colonies. In contrast, the higher δ(15)N values of queens from mother nests imply that greater carnivorous source intake accounts for the higher oviposition rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Implementation of Improved Transverse Shear Calculations and Higher Order Laminate Theory Into Strain Rate Dependent Analyses of Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin-Fa; Kim, Soo; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Goldberg, Robert K.

    2004-01-01

    A numerical procedure has been developed to investigate the nonlinear and strain rate dependent deformation response of polymer matrix composite laminated plates under high strain rate impact loadings. A recently developed strength of materials based micromechanics model, incorporating a set of nonlinear, strain rate dependent constitutive equations for the polymer matrix, is extended to account for the transverse shear effects during impact. Four different assumptions of transverse shear deformation are investigated in order to improve the developed strain rate dependent micromechanics model. The validities of these assumptions are investigated using numerical and theoretical approaches. A method to determine through the thickness strain and transverse Poisson's ratio of the composite is developed. The revised micromechanics model is then implemented into a higher order laminated plate theory which is modified to include the effects of inelastic strains. Parametric studies are conducted to investigate the mechanical response of composite plates under high strain rate loadings. Results show the transverse shear stresses cannot be neglected in the impact problem. A significant level of strain rate dependency and material nonlinearity is found in the deformation response of representative composite specimens.

  6. Blueprint or Blue Remembered Hills? The Relevance of the Robbins Report to the Present Reforms of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Presents opposing interpretations of the Robbins Report, stating that British higher education is still guided by its principles. Examines the report's influence on the size and shape of the higher education system, the character of higher education regarding teaching and research, and higher education's place in modern society. (GEA)

  7. Blueprint or Blue Remembered Hills? The Relevance of the Robbins Report to the Present Reforms of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Presents opposing interpretations of the Robbins Report, stating that British higher education is still guided by its principles. Examines the report's influence on the size and shape of the higher education system, the character of higher education regarding teaching and research, and higher education's place in modern society. (GEA)

  8. Predicting changes in reported notifiable disease rates for New Zealand using a SIR modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Graham; Slaney, David; Tait, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    changes in reported disease incidence as a function of temperature and rainfall. These models account for age-dependency (children versus adults), which is especially important because children can report substantially higher rates of zoonoses. The model is linear because the zoonotic pathogen 'reservoir' is overwhelmingly among animals, and so the usual interaction in which human-pathogen interactions affect the degree of environmental contamination does not apply in the short term (on the order of one year). Accordingly, the interaction can be approximated by a constant contact rate over a given year, even though the contact rates may vary between decades because of climate change and variability. This linearity property enables the derivation of analytical solutions to the model's governing equations, thereby providing for a more elegant examination of the model's properties and for making projections under climate change. The models have been calibrated to reported rates of these diseases. Simple exponential functions have been used to vary the pathogen contact rates for the reference years 2015, 2040 and 2090 under three climate change scenarios of low, medium and high emissions of greenhouse gases (B1, A1B, and A2). These formulations have been guided by the results of statistical models calibrated to historical disease reporting rates. The models have been used to calculate the ratio of reported illness rates to present rates projected for future years across New Zealand at the ~5 km scale. Detailed results will be presented for the reference year 2040.

  9. Clinicians' ratings and self-reports of basic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, I Alex; Romeo, Domenico; Scarpellino, Angelo; Siracusano, Alberto

    2002-10-01

    A sample of 34 paranoid or undifferentiated schizophrenic outpatients were given the Rome Basic Disorders Scale, a self-rating questionnaire aimed to the assessment of basic symptoms, as defined by the Bonn Scale. These patients were then interviewed on the same 54 basic symptoms explored with the scale, by two independent clinicians blind to the outpatients' data. Self-ratings compared with clinicians' ratings by Student t for dependent samples yielded only one significant difference (p< .01) for the item measuring hypersensitivity to light. Present findings suggest that the Rome Basic Disorders Scale may be safely self-rated even by collaborative schizophrenic patients.

  10. Study on interest rate restrictions (IRR): Belgian national report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vannerom, J.; Terryn, E.

    2010-01-01

    DG Internal Market and Services of the European Commission have commissioned us to conduct a study on interest rate restrictions in consumer credit covering unsecured and secured credit (i.e. including mortgage credit). This project aims to identify the different types of interest rate restrictions

  11. A Preliminary Report on the Anthropology Department Student Ratings Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, G. M.; Amoss, Panela

    The Department of Anthropology and the Educational Assessment Center (EAC) cooperated in a project to assess the effect of certain variables on student ratings of instruction. For this purpose, the entire teaching faculty of the department was requested by the department's Teaching Effectiveness committee to administer the EAC Student Ratings Form…

  12. Higher non-return rate associated with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection at early stage in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcé, C; Beaudeau, F; Bareille, N; Seegers, H; Fourichon, C

    2009-03-15

    The effects of infection by Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis (Map) on dairy cows are poorly documented and quite controversial. This retrospective study aimed at quantifying the variation in non-return to service of Holstein dairy cows according to their Map-infection status. Three different statuses were defined based on both individual and herd tests results: ELISA positive cow, all tests negative cow in a negative herd and all tests negative cow in a positive herd. Whatever the age at Map testing, the status was attributed to a cow from its first lactation onwards. Non-return to service was determined at 200 days after first and second services. The study was performed from 1999 to 2007 on 185,950 AI from 48,914 cows in early stage of the infection in 1069 herds by logistic regression controlling for known factors influencing non-return rate. Non-return rate was higher for infected cows compared to negative cows from negative herds (RR of 1.10 or +3.9 points of % of non-return rate). The effect was significant for parities 1 and 2 (RR of 1.11 and 1.12, respectively) but not for higher ones. This effect was lower when comparing positive cows to negative cows in the same herds but relative risks were still above 1. The hypothesis that the effect of Map on non-return depends upon the stage of infection is formulated.

  13. 47 CFR 1.795 - Reports regarding interstate rates of return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reports regarding interstate rates of return. 1... Requests § 1.795 Reports regarding interstate rates of return. Carriers shall file reports regarding interstate rates of return on FCC Form 492 as required by part 65 of this chapter. Services and...

  14. Do higher erosion rates lead to topographic highs or lows? An example from the Puli Embayment, West-Central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, P.; Mueller, K.; Tucker, G.; Wilcox, T.; Yanites, B.

    2006-12-01

    The Puli embayment, a 50 km wide, 1500m deep depression within the Foothills belt, Hsueshan Range and Backbone Ranges of western Taiwan, coincides with a >50 mgal negative bouguer gravity anomaly. The gravity low is consistent with a deep basin filled with lower density sediment, likely inherited from the passive margin presently being caught up in the collision between the Eurasian margin and the Luzon Arc forming Taiwan. The topography, specifically the Puli embayment, suggests the existence of an along strike variation in one or more of the parameters which control wedge development; the strength of the basal decollement or wedge material, the dip of the basal decollement or erosion rates. Three dimensional mechanical models show that a region of lower density fill within the outboard wedge of an actively deforming two-sided wedge will experience relatively more uplift while the main divide region behind the basin will experience relatively less uplift, the opposite of what is observed in Puli. It has previously been suggested that increased erosion was associated with this region of relatively lower relief. Localised high erosion rates have been shown to significantly influence the mechanical behaviour of collisional mountain belts on timescales of 1-5Ma where the wavelength of the erosional signal is on the order of the thickness of the brittle crust. Crustal aneurysms, such as those recognised in the indentor corners of the Himalaya, link enhanced erosion rates with the topographic highs of Nanga Parbat and Namche Bawa. Development of such an aneurysm is dependant upon both rapid uplift of hot lower crustal rocks and continued high erosion rates. While erosion rates in the Puli may have been higher in the past, leading to the topographic hole, they appear to have slowed in the last 50 ka, possibly due to a reduction in the rainfall associated with the lower topography, unlike the indentor corners where orogen-scale rivers maintain enhanced erosion rates.

  15. Biodegradation testing of chemicals with high Henry's constants - Separating mass and effective concentration reveals higher rate constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Heidi; Andersen, Henrik R; Comber, Mike; Mayer, Philipp

    2017-05-01

    During simulation-type biodegradation tests, volatile chemicals will continuously partition between water phase and headspace. This study addressed how (1) this partitioning affects test results and (2) can be accounted for by combining equilibrium partition and dynamic biodegradation models. An aqueous mixture of 9 (semi)volatile chemicals was first generated using passive dosing and then diluted with environmental surface water producing concentrations in the ng/L to μg/L range. After incubation for 2 h to 4 weeks, automated Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction (HS-SPME) was applied directly on the test systems to measure substrate depletion by biodegradation relatively to abiotic controls. HS-SPME was also applied to determine air to water partitioning ratios. Biodegradation rate constants relating to the chemical in the water phase, kwater, were generally a factor 1 to 11 times higher than biodegradation rate constants relating to the total mass of chemical in the test system, ksystem, with one exceptional factor of 72 times for a long chain alkane. True water phase degradation rate constants were found (i) more appropriate for risk assessment than test system rate constants, (ii) to facilitate extrapolation to other air-water systems and (iii) to be better defined input parameters for aquatic exposure and fate models.

  16. Modified Mitchell osteotomy alone does not have higher rate of residual metatarsalgia than combined first and lesser metatarsal osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Jung; Cheng, Yuh-Min; Lin, Sung-Yen; Chen, Chung-Hwan; Huang, Hsuan-Ti; Huang, Peng-Ju

    2015-04-01

    Transfer metatarsalgia (TM) is a common forefoot disorder secondary to hallux valgus (HV). Some authors suggest that a combined lesser metatarsal osteotomy while undergoing HV surgery improves metatarsalgia, whereas others concluded that isolated HV corrective osteotomy can improve symptomatic metatarsalgia. The main purpose of this retrospective study was to compare clinical outcomes in patients with and without combined lesser metatarsal osteotomy while receiving HV correction surgery. We retrospectively reviewed the patients who underwent osteotomy for HV correction between January 2000 and December 2010. All patients underwent HV correction with modified Mitchell osteotomy. Clinical evaluations including the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score and residual metatarsalgia were assessed, and radiographic measurements were carried out. Sixty-five patients (83 feet) meeting the selection criteria were enrolled. Thirty feet receiving a combined lesser metatarsal osteotomy were classified as the combined surgery (CS) group, and the others were classified as the control (CN) group (53 feet). The overall rate of persistent symptomatic metatarsalgia was 19.28% after operative treatment. There were six feet with residual metatarsalgia in the CS group, and 10 feet in the CN group. There was no significant difference in the rate of persistent symptoms between the two groups (p = 0.9). According to this result, modified Mitchell osteotomy alone did not have a higher rate of residual metatarsalgia than CS. We also found that the average recovery rate of TM was about 80.7% and those patients whose preoperative HV angle was > 30° had the higher risk of residual metatarsalgia after surgery. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  17. Modified Mitchell osteotomy alone does not have higher rate of residual metatarsalgia than combined first and lesser metatarsal osteotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Jung Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Transfer metatarsalgia (TM is a common forefoot disorder secondary to hallux valgus (HV. Some authors suggest that a combined lesser metatarsal osteotomy while undergoing HV surgery improves metatarsalgia, whereas others concluded that isolated HV corrective osteotomy can improve symptomatic metatarsalgia. The main purpose of this retrospective study was to compare clinical outcomes in patients with and without combined lesser metatarsal osteotomy while receiving HV correction surgery. We retrospectively reviewed the patients who underwent osteotomy for HV correction between January 2000 and December 2010. All patients underwent HV correction with modified Mitchell osteotomy. Clinical evaluations including the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score and residual metatarsalgia were assessed, and radiographic measurements were carried out. Sixty-five patients (83 feet meeting the selection criteria were enrolled. Thirty feet receiving a combined lesser metatarsal osteotomy were classified as the combined surgery (CS group, and the others were classified as the control (CN group (53 feet. The overall rate of persistent symptomatic metatarsalgia was 19.28% after operative treatment. There were six feet with residual metatarsalgia in the CS group, and 10 feet in the CN group. There was no significant difference in the rate of persistent symptoms between the two groups (p = 0.9. According to this result, modified Mitchell osteotomy alone did not have a higher rate of residual metatarsalgia than CS. We also found that the average recovery rate of TM was about 80.7% and those patients whose preoperative HV angle was > 30° had the higher risk of residual metatarsalgia after surgery.

  18. Does Prison Crowding Predict Higher Rates of Substance Use Related Parole Violations? A Recurrent Events Multi-Level Survival Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruderman, Michael A; Wilson, Deirdra F; Reid, Savanna

    2015-01-01

    This administrative data-linkage cohort study examines the association between prison crowding and the rate of post-release parole violations in a random sample of prisoners released with parole conditions in California, for an observation period of two years (January 2003 through December 2004). Crowding overextends prison resources needed to adequately protect inmates and provide drug rehabilitation services. Violence and lack of access to treatment are known risk factors for drug use and substance use disorders. These and other psychosocial effects of crowding may lead to higher rates of recidivism in California parolees. Rates of parole violation for parolees exposed to high and medium levels of prison crowding were compared to parolees with low prison crowding exposure. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a Cox model for recurrent events. Our dataset included 13070 parolees in California, combining individual level parolee data with aggregate level crowding data for multilevel analysis. Comparing parolees exposed to high crowding with those exposed to low crowding, the effect sizes from greatest to least were absconding violations (HR 3.56 95% CI: 3.05-4.17), drug violations (HR 2.44 95% CI: 2.00-2.98), non-violent violations (HR 2.14 95% CI: 1.73-2.64), violent and serious violations (HR 1.88 95% CI: 1.45-2.43), and technical violations (HR 1.86 95% CI: 1.37-2.53). Prison crowding predicted higher rates of parole violations after release from prison. The effect was magnitude-dependent and particularly strong for drug charges. Further research into whether adverse prison experiences, such as crowding, are associated with recidivism and drug use in particular may be warranted.

  19. 47 CFR 1.787 - Reports of proposed changes in depreciation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reports of proposed changes in depreciation... Reports and Requests § 1.787 Reports of proposed changes in depreciation rates. Carriers shall file reports regarding proposed changes in depreciation rates as required by part 43 of this chapter....

  20. International Crime Rates. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalish, Carol B.

    This study compared crime rates of the United States with those of other countries for whom statistics were available: European countries, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Statistics were provided by the United Nations for homicide, rape, robbery, burglary, and theft; the International Police Organization (Interpol) for homicide, rape, robbery,…

  1. Higher Calorie Diets Increase Rate of Weight Gain and Shorten Hospital Stay in Hospitalized Adolescents With Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Andrea K.; Mauldin, Kasuen; Michihata, Nobuaki; Buckelew, Sara M.; Shafer, Mary-Ann; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Current recommendations for refeeding in anorexia nervosa (AN) are conservative, beginning around 1,200 calories to avoid refeeding syndrome. We previously showed poor weight gain and long hospital stay using this approach and hypothesized that a higher calorie approach would improve outcomes. Methods Adolescents hospitalized for malnutrition due to AN were included in this quasi-experimental study comparing lower and higher calories during refeeding. Participants enrolled between 2002 and 2012; higher calories were prescribed starting around 2008. Daily prospective measures included weight, heart rate, temperature, hydration markers and serum phosphorus. Participants received formula only to replace refused food. Percent Median Body Mass Index (% MBMI) was calculated using 50th percentile body mass index for age and sex. Unpaired t-tests compared two groups split at 1,200 calories. Results Fifty-six adolescents with mean (±SEM) age 16.2 (±.3) years and admit %MBMI 79.2% (±1.5%) were hospitalized for 14.9 (±.9) days. The only significant difference between groups (N = 28 each) at baseline was starting calories (1,764 [±60] vs. 1,093 [±28], p refeeding syndrome were seen using phosphate supplementation. These findings lend further support to the move toward more aggressive refeeding in AN. PMID:24054812

  2. Spina bifida with higher position of sacral hiatus: a case report with clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srijit, D; Shipra, P

    2007-01-01

    Spina bifida is a developmental defect in the vertebral column, in which the laminae fail to fuse and thereby the spinal cord is relatively unprotected. We report a case of spina bifida, in a dried specimen of sacrum, characterized by a prominent S1 spine and a higher sacral hiatus. Conventional textbooks of anatomy provide less information about the clinical implications of such anomalies and research studies are the only source of information. The present study, discusses in detail, the structural and radiological aspects of spina bifida, with a higher sacral hiatus. Precise knowledge of normal and abnormal anatomy of the sacrum may be clinically important for anesthetists, neurologists, radiologists and orthopedic surgeons, in their clinical practice (Fig. 3, Ref. 16). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk

  3. Final Report: " Growth Rates of Freshly Nucleated Particles"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMurry, Peter H; Smith, James N

    2013-03-12

    This report lists of archival journal articles that were written with support from this grant. Research objectives from the original proposal are given, along with papers that were written to meet each of those objectives. The papers are all available in the archival literature.

  4. WHIZARD rate at LCFORUM 2012. A status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuter, Juergen

    2012-04-15

    This is a status report of the WHIZARD Monte Carlo multi-purpose event generator given at the LCFORUM 2012 at DESY. I review here the development of the WHIZARD generator version 2 with a special emphasis on linear collider physics. In case you use the program, please do cite the official reference(s).

  5. Higher education and eesearch report of the hearing held on 8 December, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This is a report of the hearing that took place on Tuesday 8th December 2015 from 1730 to 2000hrs. This was the second session in the series of the ‘LSE Commission on the Future of Britain in Europe’.\\ud Respected practitioners and experts in higher education and research took up our invitation to participate in the hearing to discuss the risks of a Brexit and how universities might act at this important moment in British life. Participants included those with high level and/or frontline expe...

  6. Photovoltaic module energy rating procedure. Final subcontract report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitaker, C.M.; Newmiller, J.D. [Endecon Engineering (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This document describes testing and computation procedures used to generate a photovoltaic Module Energy Rating (MER). The MER consists of 10 estimates of the amount of energy a single module of a particular type (make and model) will produce in one day. Module energy values are calculated for each of five different sets of weather conditions (defined by location and date) and two load types. Because reproduction of these exact testing conditions in the field or laboratory is not feasible, limited testing and modeling procedures and assumptions are specified.

  7. Sandwiched zinc-finger nucleases demonstrating higher homologous recombination rates than conventional zinc-finger nucleases in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Tomoaki; Mori, Koichi; Tobimatsu, Takamasa; Sera, Takashi

    2014-02-01

    We previously reported that our sandwiched zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), in which a DNA cleavage domain is inserted between two artificial zinc-finger proteins, cleave their target DNA much more efficiently than conventional ZFNs in vitro. In the present study, we compared DNA cleaving efficiencies of a sandwiched ZFN with those of its corresponding conventional ZFN in mammalian cells. Using a plasmid-based single-strand annealing reporter assay in HEK293 cells, we confirmed that the sandwiched ZFN induced homologous recombination more efficiently than the conventional ZFN; reporter activation by the sandwiched ZFN was more than eight times that of the conventional one. Western blot analysis showed that the sandwiched ZFN was expressed less frequently than the conventional ZFN, indicating that the greater DNA-cleaving activity of the sandwiched ZFN was not due to higher expression of the sandwiched ZFN. Furthermore, an MTT assay demonstrated that the sandwiched ZFN did not have any significant cytotoxicity under the DNA-cleavage conditions. Thus, because our sandwiched ZFN cleaved more efficiently than its corresponding conventional ZFN in HEK293 cells as well as in vitro, sandwiched ZFNs are expected to serve as an effective molecular tool for genome editing in living cells.

  8. Final Report, Photocathodes for High Repetition Rate Light Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan [Stony Brook University

    2014-04-20

    This proposal brought together teams at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Stony Brook University (SBU) to study photocathodes for high repetition rate light sources such as Free Electron Lasers (FEL) and Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL). The work done under this grant comprises a comprehensive program on critical aspects of the production of the electron beams needed for future user facilities. Our program pioneered in situ and in operando diagnostics for alkali antimonide growth. The focus is on development of photocathodes for high repetition rate Free Electron Lasers (FELs) and Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs), including testing SRF photoguns, both normal-conducting and superconducting. Teams from BNL, LBNL and Stony Brook University (SBU) led this research, and coordinated their work over a range of topics. The work leveraged a robust infrastructure of existing facilities and the support was used for carrying out the research at these facilities. The program concentrated in three areas: a) Physics and chemistry of alkali-antimonide cathodes b) Development and testing of a diamond amplifier for photocathodes c) Tests of both cathodes in superconducting RF photoguns and copper RF photoguns

  9. Retraction Statement: Unrecognized High Brachial Artery Bifurcation is Associated with Higher Rate of Dialysis Access by Dr. Lee Kirksey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The above article from Seminars in Dialysis, published online on 4 September 2011 in Wiley Online Library (http://wileyonlinelibrary.com) has been retracted by agreement among the journal's Editor-in-Chief, Richard A. Sherman MD, the journal's North American editor of ASDIN content at the time, Arif Asif MD, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The decision to retract was agreed upon following notification by Dr. HeeJun Yang, the author of an article published in 2008, "Variations of the Superficial Brachial Artery in Korean Cadavers." Figure 1 (A & B) and Figure 2 (A-C) in the Kirksey article (1), which originally appeared in the 2008 article by Dr. Yang, were used without authorization or permission from Dr. Yang or the article's publisher. Reference Kirksey L: Unrecognized high brachial artery bifurcation is associated with higher rate of dialysis access. Semin Dial 24(6):698-702, 2011. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-139X.2011.00923.x.

  10. Nuclear medicine incident reporting in Australia: control charts and notification rates inform quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcos, G; Collins, L T; Georgiou, A; Westbrook, J I

    2015-06-01

    Australia has a statutory incident reporting system for radiopharmaceutical maladministrations, but additional research into registry data is required for the purpose of quality improvement in nuclear medicine. We (i) used control charts to identify factors contributing to special cause variation (indicating higher than expected rates) in maladministrations and (ii) evaluated the impact of heterogeneous notification criteria and extent of underreporting among jurisdictions and individual facilities, respectively. Anonymised summaries of Australian Radiation Incident Register reports permitted calculation of national monthly maladministration notification rates for 2007-2012 and preparation of control charts. Multivariate logistic regression assessed the association of population, insurance and regulatory characteristics with maladministration notifications in each Australian State and Territory. Maladministration notification rates from two facilities with familiarity of notification processes and commitment to radiation protection were compared with those elsewhere. Special cause variation occurred in only 3 months, but contributed to 21% of all incidents (42 of 197 patients), mainly because of 'clusters' of maladministrations (n = 24) arising from errors in bulk radiopharmaceutical dispensing. Maladministration notification rates varied significantly between jurisdictions (0 to 12.2 maladministrations per 100 000 procedures (P < 0.05)) and individual facilities (31.7 vs 5.8 per 100 000; χ(2) = 40; 1 degree of freedom, P < 0.001). Unexpected increases in maladministration notifications predominantly relate to incident 'clusters' affecting multiple patients. The bulk preparation of radiopharmaceuticals is a vulnerable process and merits additional safeguards. Maladministration notification rates in Australia are heterogeneous. Adopting uniform maladministration notification criteria among States and Territories and methods to overcome underreporting are

  11. Algorithms for Computerized Fetal Heart Rate Diagnosis with Direct Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Maeda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Since pattern classification of fetal heart rate (FHR was subjective and enlarged interobserver difference, objective FHR analysis was achieved with computerized FHR diagnosis. Methods: The computer algorithm was composed of an experts’ knowledge system, including FHR analysis and FHR score calculation, and also of an objective artificial neural network system with software. In addition, a FHR frequency spectrum was studied to detect ominous sinusoidal FHR and the loss of baseline variability related to fetal brain damage. The algorithms were installed in a central-computerized automatic FHR monitoring system, which gave the diagnosis rapidly and directly to the attending doctor. Results: Clinically perinatal mortality decreased significantly and no cerebral palsy developed after introduction of the centralized system. Conclusion: The automatic multichannel FHR monitoring system improved the monitoring, increased the objectivity of FHR diagnosis and promoted clinical results.

  12. Is the higher rate of parental child homicide in stepfamilies an effect of non-genetic relatedness?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hans TEMRIN; Johanna NORDLUND; Mikael RYING; Birgitta S. TULLBERG

    2011-01-01

    In an evolutionary perspective individuals are expected to vary the degree of parental love and care in relation to the fitness value that a child represents. Hence, stepparents are expected to show less solicitude than genetically related parents, and this lack of genetic relatedness has been used to explain the higher frequencies of child abuse and homicide found in stepfamilies.However, other factors than non-genetic relatedness may cause this over-representation in stepfamilies. Here we use a 45-year data set of parental child homicides in Sweden to test two hypotheses related to the higher incidence in stepfamilies: 1) adults in different types of family differ in their general disposition to use violence, and 2) parents are more likely to kill stepchildren than genetically related children. Of the 152 perpetrators in biparental families there was an overrepresentation of perpetrators in stepfamilies (n=27) compared with the general population. We found support for the first hypothesis in that both general and violent crime rates were higher in stepfamilies, both in the general population and among perpetrators of child homicide. However, we found no support for the second hypothesis because of the 27 perpetrators in stepfamilies the perpetrator killed a genetically related child in 13 cases, a stepchild in 13 cases and both types of children in one case. Moreover, out of the 12 families where the perpetrator lived with both stepchildren and genetic children, there was no bias towards killing stepchildren. Thus, we found no evidence for an effect of non-genetic relatedness per se [Current Zoology 57 (3): 253-59, 2011].

  13. Is the higher rate of parental child homicide in stepfamilies an effect of non-genetic relatedness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans TEMRIN, Johanna NORDLUND, Mikael RYING, Birgitta S. TULLBERG

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In an evolutionary perspective individuals are expected to vary the degree of parental love and care in relation to the fitness value that a child represents. Hence, stepparents are expected to show less solicitude than genetically related parents, and this lack of genetic relatedness has been used to explain the higher frequencies of child abuse and homicide found in stepfamilies. However, other factors than non-genetic relatedness may cause this over-representation in stepfamilies. Here we use a 45-year data set of parental child homicides in Sweden to test two hypotheses related to the higher incidence in stepfamilies: 1 adults in different types of family differ in their general disposition to use violence, and 2 parents are more likely to kill stepchildren than genetically related children. Of the 152 perpetrators in biparental families there was an overrepresentation of perpetrators in stepfamilies (n=27 compared with the general population. We found support for the first hypothesis in that both general and violent crime rates were higher in stepfamilies, both in the general population and among perpetrators of child homicide. However, we found no support for the second hypothesis because of the 27 perpetrators in stepfamilies the perpetrator killed a genetically related child in 13 cases, a stepchild in 13 cases and both types of children in one case. Moreover, out of the 12 families where the perpetrator lived with both stepchildren and genetic children, there was no bias towards killing stepchildren. Thus, we found no evidence for an effect of non-genetic relatedness per se [Current Zoology 57 (3: 253–259, 2011].

  14. 3D versus 2D Systematic Transrectal Ultrasound-Guided Prostate Biopsy: Higher Cancer Detection Rate in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Peltier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare prostate cancer detection rates of extended 2D versus 3D biopsies and to further assess the clinical impact of this method in day-to-day practice. Methods. We analyzed the data of a cohort of 220 consecutive patients with no prior history of prostate cancer who underwent an initial prostate biopsy in daily practice due to an abnormal PSA and/or DRE using, respectively, the classical 2D and the new 3D systems. All the biopsies were done by a single experienced operator using the same standardized protocol. Results. There was no significant difference in terms of age, total PSA, or prostate volume between the two groups. However, cancer detection rate was significantly higher using the 3D versus the 2D system, 50% versus 34% (P<0.05. There was no statistically significant difference while comparing the 2 groups in term of nonsignificant cancer detection. Conclusion. There is reasonable evidence demonstrating the superiority of the 3D-guided biopsies in detecting prostate cancers that would have been missed using the 2D extended protocol.

  15. Mortality, Recurrence, and Dependency Rates Are Higher after Acute Ischemic Stroke in Elderly Patients with Diabetes Compared to Younger Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xue; Lou, Yongzhong; Gu, Hongfei; Guo, Xiaofei; Wang, Tao; Zhu, Yanxia; Zhao, Wenjuan; Ning, Xianjia; Li, Bin; Wang, Jinghua; An, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    Stroke has a greater effect on the elderly than on younger patients. However, the long-term outcomes associated with stroke among elderly patients with diabetes are unknown. We aimed to assess the differences in long-term outcomes between young and elderly stroke patients with diabetes. A total of 3,615 acute ischemic stroke patients with diabetes were recruited for this study between 2006 and 2014. Outcomes at 12 and 36 months after stroke (including mortality, recurrence, and dependency) were compared between younger (age alcohol consumers. Mortality, dependency, and recurrence rates at 12 months after stroke were 19.0, 48.5, and 20.9% in the elderly group and 7.4, 30.9, and 15.4% in the younger group, respectively (all P dependency, and recurrence rates at 12 and 36 months after stroke were significantly higher in the elderly group than in the younger group after adjusting for stroke subtypes, stroke severity, and risk factors. Odds ratios (95% confidence interval) at 12 and 36 months after stroke were 2.18 (1.64-2.89) and 3.10 (2.35-4.08), respectively, for mortality, all P dependency, all P dependency after stroke.

  16. 13 CFR 120.1060 - Confidentiality of Reports, Risk Ratings and related Confidential Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... order prior to disclosure. For purposes of this regulation, “Information Provider” means any contractor... abides by them. Any disclosure of the Report, Risk Rating, or Confidential Information other than as... Confidentiality of Reports, Risk Ratings and related Confidential Information. (a) In general. Reports and other...

  17. Single motor unit firing rate after stroke is higher on the less-affected side during stable low-level voluntary contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope A Mcnulty

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Muscle weakness is the most common outcome after stroke and a leading cause of adult-acquired motor disability. Single motor unit properties provide insight into the mechanisms of post-stroke motor impairment. Motor units on the more-affected side are reported to have lower peak firing rates, reduced discharge variability and a more compressed dynamic range than healthy subjects. The activity of 169 motor units was discriminated from surface EMG in 28 stroke patients during sustained voluntary contractions 10% of maximal and compared to 110 units recorded from 16 healthy subjects. Motor units were recorded in three series: ankle dorsiflexion, wrist flexion and elbow flexion. Mean firing rates after stroke were significantly lower on the more-affected than the less-affected side (p< 0.001 with no between-side differences for controls. When data were combined, firing rates on the less-affected side were significantly higher than those either on the more-affected side or healthy subjects (p< 0.001. Motor unit mean firing rate was higher in the upper-limb than the lower-limb (p< 0.05. The coefficient of variation of motor unit discharge rate was lower for motor units after stroke compared to controls for wrist flexion (p< 0.05 but not ankle dorsiflexion. However, the dynamic range of motor units was compressed only for motor units on the more-affected side during wrist flexion. Our results show that the pathological change in motor unit firing rate occurs on the less-affected side after stroke and not the more-affected side as previously reported, and suggest that motor unit behavior recorded in a single muscle after stroke cannot be generalized to muscles acting on other joints even within the same limb. These data emphasize that the less-affected side does not provide a valid control for physiological studies on the more-affected side after stroke and that both sides should be compared to data from age- and sex-matched healthy subjects.

  18. Analysis of Current DNA Encoded Library Screening Data Indicates Higher False Negative Rates for Numerically Larger Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satz, Alexander L; Hochstrasser, Remo; Petersen, Ann C

    2017-04-10

    To optimize future DNA-encoded library design, we have attempted to quantify the library size at which the signal becomes undetectable. To accomplish this we (i) have calculated that percent yields of individual library members following a screen range from 0.002 to 1%, (ii) extrapolated that ∼1 million copies per library member are required at the outset of a screen, and (iii) from this extrapolation predict that false negative rates will begin to outweigh the benefit of increased diversity at library sizes >10(8). The above analysis is based upon a large internal data set comprising multiple screens, targets, and libraries; we also augmented our internal data with all currently available literature data. In theory, high false negative rates may be overcome by employing larger amounts of library; however, we argue that using more than currently reported amounts of library (≫10 nmoles) is impractical. The above conclusions may be generally applicable to other DNA encoded library platforms, particularly those platforms that do not allow for library amplification.

  19. The ratification status of ILO conventions related to occupational safety and health and its relationship with reported occupational fatality rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Donald J; Takahashi, Ken; Sakuragi, Sonoko; Yoshino, Masako; Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Imai, Teppei; Takala, Jukka

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the ratification status of occupational safety and health (OSH)-related ILO conventions and reported occupational fatality rates of ILO member countries, while controlling for possible confounding factors. ILO member states were divided into 4 levels of income status, based on the gross national income per capita. Seventeen conventions designated as OSH-related were examined. Reported country occupational fatality rates were compared according to the ratification status of these 17 conventions and multiple regression analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between the fatality rates, ratification status, income level and length of ILO membership. Fatality rates were inversely and significantly related to income levels. In general, non-ratifying countries had higher work-related fatality rates than ratifying countries. A statistical model for identifying predictors of fatal injury rates showed that a larger number of conventions ratified was significantly associated with lower fatality rates. The fact that non-ratifying countries generally have higher fatality rates than ratifying ones supports the notion that all countries should promote ratification of ILO conventions aimed at improving OSH conditions.

  20. The effect of stress inoculation training on self-reported stress, observer's rating of stress, heart rate and gymnastics performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, R D; Carroll, D

    1989-01-01

    Eighteen volunteer female subjects received preliminary instruction in a simple gymnastics bench sequence. They were then given a pre-intervention test on a bench at ground level. Self-reported distress, an independent observer's ratings of distress and heart rates were monitored immediately prior to performance of the sequence. Performances were also videotaped and formally scored by a qualified gymnastics judge. Subjects were then randomly assigned to a stress inoculation training group or a 'no stress management' training control group. Stress inoculation group subjects then received seven sessions of training in relaxation, imagery and making self-statements in order to develop a set of coping skills. Control group subjects also received seven training sessions during which they practised a series of coordination exercises, but no psychological stress management training was given to this group. All subjects were then re-tested on the bench sequence but this time at a height of 1.52 m. Self-reported stress, observer's ratings of distress and heart rate were recorded as before. Performance was again videotaped for scoring. The stress inoculation group reported significantly less stress prior to the test on the elevated beam than the control group. However, the groups did not differ in terms of heart rate. Further, the stress inoculation group performed reliably better than the control group on the elevated bench.

  1. Hydraulic conductance as well as nitrogen accumulation plays a role in the higher rate of leaf photosynthesis of the most productive variety of rice in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    An indica variety Takanari is known as one of the most productive rice varieties in Japan and consistently produces 20–30% heavier dry matter during ripening than Japanese commercial varieties in the field. The higher rate of photosynthesis of individual leaves during ripening has been recognized in Takanari. By using pot-grown plants under conditions of minimal mutual shading, it was confirmed that the higher rate of leaf photosynthesis is responsible for the higher dry matter production aft...

  2. Maximum likelihood methods for investigating reporting rates of rings on hunter-shot birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, M.J.; Morgan, B.J.T.; North, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    It is well known that hunters do not report 100% of the rings that they find on shot birds. Reward studies can be used to estimate what this reporting rate is, by comparison of recoveries of rings offering a monetary reward, to ordinary rings. A reward study of American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes) is used to illustrate the design, and to motivate the development of statistical models for estimation and for testing hypotheses of temporal and geographic variation in reporting rates. The method involves indexing the data (recoveries) and parameters (reporting, harvest, and solicitation rates) by geographic and temporal strata. Estimates are obtained under unconstrained (e.g., allowing temporal variability in reporting rates) and constrained (e.g., constant reporting rates) models, and hypotheses are tested by likelihood ratio. A FORTRAN program, available from the author, is used to perform the computations.

  3. Heart rate and blood pressure during initial LBNP do not discriminate higher and lower orthostatic tolerant men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonson, Shawn R; Norsk, Peter; Greenleaf, John E

    2003-01-01

    High (n = 7, 25 +/- 2 yr) and low (n = 8, 26 +/- 3 yr) lower body negative pressure (LBNP) tolerant men were exposed to -15 mmHg (for 12 min) followed by -50 mmHg (for 21 min) to test the hypothesis that heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) data from acute exposure to LBNP would not discriminate...... groups. Diastolic blood pressure changed by +7.6 % (NS) in the high group and by -3.3% (NS) in the low group; the initial exposure to -50 mmHg resulted in a significant difference between groups for the first 45 s. Central venous pressure decreased significantly at -15 mmHg (high group by -33%, low group...... between the higher and lower tolerance men. Central venous pressure (CVP), HR, and systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures measured before and at 15-s intervals during LBNP and calculated mean arterial pressure (MAP), pulse pressure (PP), and work of the heart (HW) were analyzed using ANOVA (p...

  4. The reporting rate of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide: a study of the trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurup, Mette L; Buiting, Hilde M; Pasman, H Roeline W; van der Maas, Paul J; van der Heide, Agnes; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2008-12-01

    To study trends in reporting rates of euthanasia from 1990 to 2005 in relation to whether recommended or nonrecommended drugs were used, and the most important differences between reported and unreported cases in 2005. Questionnaires were sent to a sample of 6860 physicians who had reported a death in 2005 (response 78%). Previously, 3 similar studies were done at 5-year intervals. The total number of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide cases was estimated using a "gold standard" definition: death was-according to the physician-the result of the use of drugs at the explicit request of the patient with the explicit goal of hastening death (denominator). The Euthanasia Review Committees provided the number of reported cases (numerator). The reporting rate of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide increased from 18% in 1990, 41% in 1995, and 54% in 2001 to 80% in 2005. The reporting rate in the subgroup of euthanasia with recommended drugs (barbiturates and muscle relaxants) was 73% in 1995, 71% in 2001, and 99% in 2005. The reporting rate of euthanasia with nonrecommended drugs (eg, opioids) was below 3% in 1995, 2001, and 2005. Unreported euthanasia differed also from reported euthanasia in the fact that physicians less often labeled their act as euthanasia. Euthanasia with nonrecommended drugs is almost never reported. The total reporting rate increased because of an increase in the use of recommended drugs for euthanasia between 1995 and 2001, and an increase in the reporting rate for euthanasia with recommended drugs between 2001 and 2005.

  5. War and Peace among the Words: Rhetoric, Style and Propaganda in Response to National Reports on Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Clifford

    Responses to national reports during October 1984 through May 1985 concerning the state of American higher education are analyzed. Quantitative content analysis and qualitative rehetorical criticism are used to examine responses to national reports. Three national reports are of concern: "Involvement in Learning,""A Nation at…

  6. Compendium on Financing of Higher Education: Final Report of the Financing the Students' Future Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Bethan; Charonis, George-Konstantinos; Haaristo, Hanna-Stella; Maurer, Moritz; Kaiser, Florian; Siegrist, Rahel; McVitty, Debbie; Gruber, Angelika; Heerens, Nik; Xhomaqi, Brikena; Nötzl, Tina; Semjonov, Meeli; Primožic, Rok

    2013-01-01

    Higher education plays a vital role in society and the quality, accessibility, and form of higher education is highly dependent on financing. Financing of higher education is conceived to be of central importance for the future creation and dissemination of knowledge and research. Therefore, the financing of higher education is a topic that has…

  7. Natural gas conversion to higher hydrocarbons using plasma interactions with surfaces. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackinger, W.M.; Kamath, V.A.; Morgan, B.L.; Airey, R.W.

    1993-12-01

    Experiments are reported in which a methane plasma is created, and the methyl ions and hydrogen ions are accelerated within a microchannel array so that they interact with neutral methane molecules on the inside surfaces of the microchannels. No catalysts are used, and the device operates at room temperature. Impact energies of the ions are in the range of 10 eV to greater than 100 eV, and the energy delivered in the interaction at the surfaces causes the production of larger hydrocarbon molecules, such as C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, along with C{sub 3}, C{sub 4}, C{sub 5}m C{sub 6}, C{sub 7}m and C{sub 8} molecules. There is a decreasing percentage of larger molecules produced, in comparison with the C{sub 2} and C{sub 3} types. Conversion effectiveness is greater at higher pressure, due to the increased ionic activity. The yield of the higher hydrocarbons depends upon the external voltage used, and voltage can be used as a control parameter to adjust the output mixture proportions. A conversion energy of 2.59 kilowatt hours/killogram of output has been demonstrated, and a reduction of this by a factor of 10 is possible using known techniques. In batch experiments, the selectivity for C{sub 2} has varied from 47% to 88%, and selectivity for C{sub 6} has ranged from 0% to 12.8%. Other hydrocarbon selectivities also span a wide and useful range. The estimated costs for hydrocarbons produced with this technology are in the range of $200 per tonne, in production quantities, depending upon natural gas costs. Pilot production experiments are recommended to make these estimates more precise, and to address strategies for scaling the technology up to production levels. Applications are discussed.

  8. Creation and implementation of department-wide structured reports: an analysis of the impact on error rate in radiology reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, C Matthew; Hall, Seth; Zhang, Bin; Towbin, Alexander J

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare textual error rates and subtypes in radiology reports before and after implementation of department-wide structured reports. Randomly selected radiology reports that were generated following the implementation of department-wide structured reports were evaluated for textual errors by two radiologists. For each report, the text was compared to the corresponding audio file. Errors in each report were tabulated and classified. Error rates were compared to results from a prior study performed prior to implementation of structured reports. Calculated error rates included the average number of errors per report, average number of nongrammatical errors per report, the percentage of reports with an error, and the percentage of reports with a nongrammatical error. Identical versions of voice-recognition software were used for both studies. A total of 644 radiology reports were randomly evaluated as part of this study. There was a statistically significant reduction in the percentage of reports with nongrammatical errors (33 to 26%; p = 0.024). The likelihood of at least one missense omission error (omission errors that changed the meaning of a phrase or sentence) occurring in a report was significantly reduced from 3.5 to 1.2% (p = 0.0175). A statistically significant reduction in the likelihood of at least one comission error (retained statements from a standardized report that contradict the dictated findings or impression) occurring in a report was also observed (3.9 to 0.8%; p = 0.0007). Carefully constructed structured reports can help to reduce certain error types in radiology reports.

  9. 77 FR 2089 - Proposed Information Collection Request of the ETA 204, Experience Rating Report; Comment Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... Information Collection Request of the ETA 204, Experience Rating Report; Comment Request on Extension Without... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background: The data submitted annually on the ETA-204 report enables the... different experience rating systems. Used in conjunction with other data, the ETA-204 assists in...

  10. 47 CFR 43.43 - Reports of proposed changes in depreciation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reports of proposed changes in depreciation... Reports of proposed changes in depreciation rates. (a) Each communication common carrier with annual..., before making any changes in the depreciation rates applicable to its operated plant, file with...

  11. A Review of Two Higher Education Accountability Issues: Student Assessment and Faculty Workload. Report to Utah State Legislature. Report Number 91-03.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah State Office of the Legislative Auditor General, Salt Lake City.

    This report, in examining higher education accountability, reviews how student assessment is used nationally and in Utah to improve higher education accountability, and reviews the methods used in Utah to monitor faculty workload. Student assessments do provide a direct method of evaluating higher education effectiveness, and Utah's institutions…

  12. 75 FR 4099 - Maintenance Wage Rate Wage Recommendation and Maintenance Wage Survey; Report of Additional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Maintenance Wage Rate Wage Recommendation and Maintenance Wage Survey; Report of... adopt prevailing wage rates for maintenance laborers and mechanics, and to approve or refer to the U.S... lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Maintenance Wage Rate Wage Recommendation...

  13. 75 FR 37457 - Maintenance Wage Rate Wage Recommendation and Maintenance Wage Survey; Report of Additional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Maintenance Wage Rate Wage Recommendation and Maintenance Wage Survey; Report of... adopt prevailing wage rates for maintenance laborers and mechanics, and to approve or refer to the U.S... Lists the Following Information Title of Proposal: Maintenance Wage Rate Wage Recommendation...

  14. Institutional wide implementation of key advice for socially inclusive teaching in higher education. A Practice Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Government policy and institutional initiatives have influenced increases in enrolment of non-traditional students to Australian universities. For these students, university culture is often incongruent with their own, making it difficult to understand the tacit requirements for participation and success. Academic teaching staff are important in creating socially inclusive learning experiences, particularly in first year subjects. This paper presents an institution-wide approach to enhancing socially inclusive teaching at one Australian university. Underpinned by a framework of ”bridging social-incongruity” the initiative was guided by six principles of socially inclusive teaching to support practice as proposed in the 2012 “Effective support of students from low socioeconomic backgrounds in higher education” report commissioned by the Australian Office of Learning and Teaching. Feedback from 150 academic teaching staff from various disciplines and campus locations, suggests this initiative was effective in increasing understanding of socially inclusive teaching practices with many participants indicating the teaching enhancements were applicable for their teaching context.

  15. PCR reveals significantly higher rates of Trypanosoma cruzi infection than microscopy in the Chagas vector, Triatoma infestans: High rates found in Chuquisaca, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucero David E

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Andean valleys of Bolivia are the only reported location of sylvatic Triatoma infestans, the main vector of Chagas disease in this country, and the high human prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in this region is hypothesized to result from the ability of vectors to persist in domestic, peri-domestic, and sylvatic environments. Determination of the rate of Trypanosoma infection in its triatomine vectors is an important element in programs directed at reducing human infections. Traditionally, T. cruzi has been detected in insect vectors by direct microscopic examination of extruded feces, or dissection and analysis of the entire bug. Although this technique has proven to be useful, several drawbacks related to its sensitivity especially in the case of small instars and applicability to large numbers of insects and dead specimens have motivated researchers to look for a molecular assay based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR as an alternative for parasitic detection of T. cruzi infection in vectors. In the work presented here, we have compared a PCR assay and direct microscopic observation for diagnosis of T. cruzi infection in T. infestans collected in the field from five localities and four habitats in Chuquisaca, Bolivia. The efficacy of the methods was compared across nymphal stages, localities and habitats. Methods We examined 152 nymph and adult T. infestans collected from rural areas in the department of Chuquisaca, Bolivia. For microscopic observation, a few drops of rectal content obtained by abdominal extrusion were diluted with saline solution and compressed between a slide and a cover slip. The presence of motile parasites in 50 microscopic fields was registered using 400× magnification. For the molecular analysis, dissection of the posterior part of the abdomen of each insect followed by DNA extraction and PCR amplification was performed using the TCZ1 (5' – CGA GCT CTT GCC CAC ACG GGT GCT – 3

  16. The Economics of Higher Education: A Report Prepared by the Department of the Treasury with the Department of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of the Treasury, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report discusses the current state of higher education, with a brief high-level overview of the market and a more detailed discussion and analysis of the financial aid system. It also discusses the important changes President Obama has made to make higher education more accessible and affordable. The key findings are: (1) The economic returns…

  17. The Hunt Report and Higher Education Policy in the Republic of Ireland: "An International Solution to an Irish Problem?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John; Loxley, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The "National Strategy for Higher Education to 2030" in the Republic of Ireland (universally known as the Hunt Report) represents the latest and most assertive attempt by the Irish state to re-construct higher education in accordance with economic utilitarian objectives. This paper sets out to analyse the historical context, key themes…

  18. What is the empirical evidence that hospitals with higher-risk adjusted mortality rates provide poorer quality care? A systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mohammed A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increasing interest and publication of risk-adjusted hospital mortality rates, the relationship with underlying quality of care remains unclear. We undertook a systematic review to ascertain the extent to which variations in risk-adjusted mortality rates were associated with differences in quality of care. Methods We identified studies in which risk-adjusted mortality and quality of care had been reported in more than one hospital. We adopted an iterative search strategy using three databases – Medline, HealthSTAR and CINAHL from 1966, 1975 and 1982 respectively. We identified potentially relevant studies on the basis of the title or abstract. We obtained these papers and included those which met our inclusion criteria. Results From an initial yield of 6,456 papers, 36 studies met the inclusion criteria. Several of these studies considered more than one process-versus-risk-adjusted mortality relationship. In total we found 51 such relationships in a widen range of clinical conditions using a variety of methods. A positive correlation between better quality of care and risk-adjusted mortality was found in under half the relationships (26/51 51% but the remainder showed no correlation (16/51 31% or a paradoxical correlation (9/51 18%. Conclusion The general notion that hospitals with higher risk-adjusted mortality have poorer quality of care is neither consistent nor reliable.

  19. New Directions for Higher Education: Q&A with Ed Dept's Studley on College Ratings, Feds

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSalvio, Philip

    2014-01-01

    In April 2013, "NEJHE" launched its "New Directions for Higher Education" series to examine emerging issues, trends and ideas that have an impact on higher education policies, programs, and practices. In this installment, Philip DiSalvio interviews U.S. Department of Education Deputy Under Secretary Jamienne S. Studley, who…

  20. Private and Social Rates of Return to Higher Education in Science and Technology in a Caribbean Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Compton; Dass, Anand

    2003-01-01

    Estimates private and social rates of return for university science and technology graduates in Trinidad and Tobago. Makes comparisons with other fields of study such as agriculture, natural sciences, engineering, and humanities. Concludes that rates of return are inconsistent with the allocative preferences of policymakers. (Authors/PKP)

  1. Accounting for Risk of Non-Completion in Private and Social Rates of Return to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutkoushian, Robert K.; Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Trivette, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional studies of the private and social rates of return to a Bachelor's degree focus on the earnings difference between Bachelor degree holders and high school graduates, and find that there are large rates of return for degree recipients. The estimates in these studies, however, do not take into account the risk of not completing a degree.…

  2. Higher dropout rate in non-native patients than in native patients in rehabilitation in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloots, Maurits; Scheppers, Emmanuel F.; van de Weg, Frans B.; Bartels, Edien A.; Geertzen, Jan H.; Dekker, Joost; Dekker, Jaap

    2009-01-01

    Dropout from a rehabilitation programme often occurs in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain of non-native origin. However, the exact dropout rate is not known. The objective of this study was to determine the difference in dropout rate between native and non-native patients with chronic

  3. Accounting for Risk of Non-Completion in Private and Social Rates of Return to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutkoushian, Robert K.; Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Trivette, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional studies of the private and social rates of return to a Bachelor's degree focus on the earnings difference between Bachelor degree holders and high school graduates, and find that there are large rates of return for degree recipients. The estimates in these studies, however, do not take into account the risk of not completing a degree.…

  4. Self-reported eating rate aligns with laboratory measured eating rate but not with free-living meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Amanda J; Melanson, Kathleen J; Greene, Geoffrey W

    2013-04-01

    Methodological differences may be responsible for variable results from eating rate (ER) studies. It is unknown whether self-reported, lab-measured, and free-living ER's align. This study was the first to explore relationships among self-reported, laboratory-measured and free-living ER's. We investigated this relationship in 60 randomly selected male and female college students who were stratified by self-reported eating rate (SRER) (Slow, Medium, and Fast) from 1110 on-line survey respondents. Test day; subjects ate a prescribed breakfast (∼400kcal) at home, recording meal duration (MD); 4h later they individually ate an ad libitum laboratory pasta lunch at their own (natural) pace; remainder of the day they recorded free-living intake and MD. As expected the three self-reported ER categories aligned with lab ER (Fast=83.9±5.5, Medium=63.1±5.2, Slow=53.0±5.4kcals/min). In all ER categories at all meals, men ate faster than women (Men=80.6±30.7kcals/min: Women=52.0±21.6kcals/min). A difference in lab measured ER by SRER F=(2, 58)=7.677, post hoc Tukey analysis found fast differed from medium and slow. The three free-living meal ER's did not align with self-report categories. Findings suggest various methods of measuring ER may yield differing results, at least in this population, but results support the use of SRER as a valid measure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Building on Success: Educational Diversity and Equity in Kentucky Higher Education. Choices before the Commonwealth. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancheta, Angelo; Ledesma, Maria; Trent, William; Kurlaender, Michal; Yun, John; Lee, Chungmei; Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve; Driscoll, Anne; Orfield, Gary

    2008-01-01

    This report is an effort to assess what has been accomplished in successfully diversifying and desegregating historically segregated and unequal higher educational institutions across Kentucky, and how this was done. The report discusses the changing legal setting for these initiatives, analyzes the educational achievements and challenges, and…

  6. Medication Error Reporting Rate and its Barriers and Facilitators among Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snor Bayazidi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medication errors are among the most prevalent medical errors leading to morbidity and mortality. Effective prevention of this type of errors depends on the presence of a well-organized reporting system. The purpose of this study was to explore medication error reporting rate and its barriers and facilitators among nurses in teaching hospitals of Urmia University of Medical Sciences (Iran.Methods: In a descriptive study in 2011, 733 nurses working in Urmia teaching hospitals were included. Data was collected using a questionnaire based on Haddon matrix. The questionnaire consisted of three items about medication error reporting rate, eight items on barriers of reporting, and seven items on facilitators of reporting. The collected data was analyzed by descriptive statistics in SPSS14.Results:The rate of reporting medication errors among nurses was far less than medication errors they had made. Nurses perceived that the most important barriers of reporting medication errors were blaming individuals instead of the system, consequences of reporting errors, and fear of reprimand and punishment. Some facilitating factors were also determined. Conclusion: Overall, the rate of medication errors was found to be much more than what had been reported by nurses. Therefore, it is suggested to train nurses and hospital administrators on facilitators and barriers of error reporting in order to enhance patient safety.

  7. Teaching Strategies Adopted by Teachers at Higher Education Level in Kerala: A Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesa, M.; Nisha, E. V.

    2017-01-01

    In the special context of entrepreneurship, employability skill development, Higher Education 2.0 and the Kovalam Declaration 2016, the present article presents a brief review of genres of teaching strategies at higher education level and attempts to bring to the attention of the readers an account of the teaching strategies adopted by teachers at…

  8. Higher Precision of Heart Rate Compared with VO2 to Predict Exercise Intensity in Endurance-Trained Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Victor M; den Tillaar, Roland Van; Marques, Mario C

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the precision of oxygen uptake with heart rate regression during track running in highly-trained runners. Twelve national and international level male long-distance road runners (age 30.7 ± 5.5 yrs, height 1.71 ± 0.04 m and mass 61.2 ± 5.8 kg) with a personal best on the half marathon of 62 min 37 s ± 1 min 22 s participated in the study. Each participant performed, in an all-weather synthetic track five, six min bouts at constant velocity with each bout at an increased running velocity. The starting velocity was 3.33 m·s(-1) with a 0.56 m·s(-1) increase on each subsequent bout. VO2 and heart rate were measured during the runs and blood lactate was assessed immediately after each run. Mean peak VO2 and mean peak heart rate were, respectively, 76.2 ± 9.7 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) and 181 ± 13 beats·min(-1). The linearity of the regressions between heart rate, running velocity and VO2 were all very high (r > 0.99) with small standard errors of regression (i.e. Sy.x heart rate, running velocity and VO2 found in this study show that, in highly trained runners, it is possible to have heart rate as an accurate indicator of energy demand and of the running speed. Therefore, in this subject cohort it may be unnecessary to use VO2 to track changes in the subjects' running economy during training periods. Key pointsHeart rate is used in the control of exercise intensity in endurance sports.However, few studies have quantified the precision of its relationship with oxygen uptake in highly trained runners.We evaluated twelve elite half-marathon runners during track running at various intensities and established three regressions: oxygen uptake / heart rate; heart rate / running velocity and oxygen uptake / running velocity.The three regressions presented, respectively, imprecision of 4,2%, 2,75% and 4,5% at the velocity associated with the 4 mmol·L(-1) threshold.The results of the present study show that, in highly trained runners

  9. Does a "Level I Evidence" rating imply high quality of reporting in orthopaedic randomised controlled trials?

    OpenAIRE

    Sierevelt Inger N; Krips Rover; Struijs Peter AA; Poolman Rudolf W; Lutz Kristina H; Bhandari Mohit

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The Levels of Evidence Rating System is widely believed to categorize studies by quality, with Level I studies representing the highest quality evidence. We aimed to determine the reporting quality of Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs) published in the most frequently cited general orthopaedic journals. Methods Two assessors identified orthopaedic journals that reported a level of evidence rating in their abstracts from January 2003 to December 2004 by searching the instr...

  10. Influence of regulatory measures on the rate of spontaneous adverse drug reaction reporting in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motola, Domenico; Vargiu, Antonio; Leone, Roberto; Conforti, Anita; Moretti, Ugo; Vaccheri, Alberto; Velo, Giampaolo; Montanaro, Nicola

    2008-01-01

    The reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is the mainstay of post-marketing surveillance systems. Under-reporting and selective reporting are considered the main limitations of a spontaneous reporting-based pharmacovigilance system. However, excessive reporting induced by external events may also impair signal detection by increasing the noise level. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of regulatory measures and other external factors on the rate of ADR reporting in Italy, focusing on four situations occurring in the last 10 years: ACE inhibitor-induced cough; HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors ('statins') and rhabdomyolysis; nimesulide and hepatic toxicity; and cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 selective inhibitors ('coxibs') and increase in cardiovascular risk. The study was based on data from spontaneous reporting in six Italian regions collected from January 1995 to December 2005. We analysed a 10-year period as a reasonable time interval around the four situations of interest, highlighting the influence of regulatory measures on the rate of ADR reporting (number of reports per million inhabitants). Chi-squared tests were used to assess the statistical significance of any changes in ADR reporting. Drug sales data were also studied to examine possible changes in drug use. Sales data were expressed as daily defined dose per 1000 inhabitants per day. ACE inhibitors: a 5-fold increase in the reporting rate of ACE inhibitor-induced cough was observed in 1998 and 1999 following a restriction on reimbursement for angiotensin receptor blockers introduced in 1998 and removed at the end of 1999. Statins: after the withdrawal of cerivastatin in 2001, the ADR reporting rate increased more than 4-fold, with musculoskeletal ADRs representing about 60% of all the ADRs reported in that year, and progressively decreased in the following years. Nimesulide: an increase in hepatic ADR reporting was observed after withdrawal of the drug from the Finnish and Spanish markets in

  11. Energy policy act transportation study: Interim report on natural gas flows and rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-17

    This report, Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Interim Report on Natural Gas Flows and Rates, is the second in a series mandated by Title XIII, Section 1340, ``Establishment of Data Base and Study of Transportation Rates,`` of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102--486). The first report Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Availability of Data and Studies, was submitted to Congress in October 1993; it summarized data and studies that could be used to address the impact of legislative and regulatory actions on natural gas transportation rates and flow patterns. The current report presents an interim analysis of natural gas transportation rates and distribution patterns for the period from 1988 through 1994. A third and final report addressing the transportation rates and flows through 1997 is due to Congress in October 2000. This analysis relies on currently available data; no new data collection effort was undertaken. The need for the collection of additional data on transportation rates will be further addressed after this report, in consultation with the Congress, industry representatives, and in other public forums.

  12. Report to the nation finds continuing declines in cancer death rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Death rates from all cancers combined for men, women, and children continued to decline in the United States between 2004 and 2008, according to the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2008. The overall rate of new cancer diagnoses,

  13. Predicting Ratings of Counselor Trainee Empathy with Self-Report Anxiety Measures and Skin Conductance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James T.; Giesen, J. Martin

    1982-01-01

    Investigated the degree of relationship between clients' and judges' ratings of counselor trainee (N=29) empathy and self-report anxiety and skin conductance measures. Results indicated the usefulness of anxiety measures to predict counselor empathy is predicated on the criterion for rating counselor empathy. (RC)

  14. Reflections on the Future of Global Higher Education - WAAS Conference Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Šlaus

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Education is the most important catalyst of social evolution. Today higher education is in the early stages of a revolutionary transition that will have immense impact on the future of global society. This article presents an overview of perspectives explored at the World Academy's Forum on Global Higher Education conducted at the University of California at Berkeley on October 2-3, 2013. It examines issues resulting from rapid changes in educational technology and organization that impact on accessibility, affordability, quality, relevance, employability and content of higher education. It envisions establishment of a World University Consortium as a network and umbrella group to facilitate educational partnerships and linkages with other interested stakeholders at the international level, to provide a centralized source of information about latest innovative ideas and developments in this field, and to explore creative solutions to enhance the reach, quality and relevance of higher education globally.

  15. Measurement of the energy dependence of the muon transfer rate from hydrogen to higher-Z gases

    CERN Document Server

    Bakalov, Dimitar; Stoilov, Mihail; Vacchi, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The recent Lamb shift experiment at PSI and the apparent incompatibility of the proton radii extracted using different methods revived the interest in the measurement of the hyperfine splitting in the ground state of muonic hydrogen as an alternative possibility for the experimental comparison of ordinary and muonic hydrogen spectroscopy data about the proton electromagnetic structure. The efficiency of the method developed for this measurement has been shown to critically depend on the energy dependence of the rate of muon transfer from hydrogen to heavier gases in the epithermal range. The available experimental data provide only qualitative information on the energy dependence, and the detailed theoretical predictions have not yet been tested. The present paper outlines an experimental method for the quantitative measurement of the muon transfer rate based on a series of repeated measurements of the muon transfer rate in a mixture of hydrogen and the gas of interest with appropriate concentration and densi...

  16. HIGHER PRECISION OF HEART RATE COMPARED WITH VO2 TO PREDICT EXERCISE INTENSITY IN ENDURANCE-TRAINED RUNNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Reis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the precision of oxygen uptake with heart rate regression during track running in highly-trained runners. Twelve national and international level male long-distance road runners (age 30.7 ± 5.5 yrs, height 1.71 ± 0.04 m and mass 61.2 ± 5.8 kg with a personal best on the half marathon of 62 min 37 s ± 1 min 22 s participated in the study. Each participant performed, in an all-weather synthetic track five, six min bouts at constant velocity with each bout at an increased running velocity. The starting velocity was 3.33 m·s-1 with a 0.56 m·s-1 increase on each subsequent bout. VO2 and heart rate were measured during the runs and blood lactate was assessed immediately after each run. Mean peak VO2 and mean peak heart rate were, respectively, 76.2 ± 9.7 mL·kg-1·min-1 and 181 ± 13 beats·min-1. The linearity of the regressions between heart rate, running velocity and VO2 were all very high (r > 0.99 with small standard errors of regression (i.e. Sy.x < 5% at the velocity associated with the 2 and 4 mmol·L-1 lactate thresholds. The strong relationships between heart rate, running velocity and VO2 found in this study show that, in highly trained runners, it is possible to have heart rate as an accurate indicator of energy demand and of the running speed. Therefore, in this subject cohort it may be unnecessary to use VO2 to track changes in the subjects' running economy during training periods.

  17. Linking questionnaire reports and observer ratings of young couples’ hostility and support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Frederick O.; Melby, Janet N.; Conger, Rand D.; Surjadi, Florenzia F.

    2012-01-01

    Past studies have correlated observer ratings with questionnaire self- and partner-reports of behaviors in close relationships. However, few studies have actually proposed and tested longitudinal models that link observer ratings to past behaviors and to questionnaire self- and partner-reports of behaviors during an observational task. Using data from a panel of 324 young couples, we demonstrate that (1) observer ratings of hostility and support are significantly related to couple reports of the same behavior in the relationship two years earlier, and (2) respondent and partner questionnaire reports of hostility and support during the observational task converge with observer ratings of the same behavior even after controlling for earlier self- and partner-reports. These findings demonstrate that observer reports based on brief discussion tasks reflect the tenor of the relationship over a relatively long period of time. They also demonstrate that couple reports of hostile interactions reflect observable behaviors beyond that attributed to earlier self- and partner-reports. Consistent with previous research, effect sizes are larger for hostility than support but there are few differences between men and women. PMID:22662768

  18. Student Loans: Default Rates Need To Be Computed More Appropriately. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembra, Richard L.

    This report examines how the Department of Education calculates the default rate for two federal student loan programs--the Federal Family Education Loan program (FFELP) and the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program (FDLP). The report focuses on three questions regarding these programs: (1) whether there has been an increase in the number of…

  19. Systematic review of reporting rates of adverse events following immunization: an international comparison of post-marketing surveillance programs with reference to China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Biao; Page, Andrew; Wang, Huaqing; Taylor, Richard; McIntyre, Peter

    2013-01-11

    China is the most populous country in the world, with an annual birth cohort of approximately 16 million, requiring an average of 500 million vaccine doses administered annually. In China, over 30 domestic and less than 10 overseas vaccine manufacturers supply over 60 licensed vaccine products, representing a growing vaccine market mainly due to recent additions to the national immunization schedule, but data on post-marketing surveillance for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) are sparse. To compare reporting rates for various categories of AEFI from China with other routine post-marketing surveillance programs internationally. Systematic review of published studies reporting rates of AEFI by vaccine, category of reaction and age from post-marketing surveillance systems in English and Chinese languages. Overall AEFI reporting rates (all vaccines, all ages) in Chinese studies were consistent with those from similar international studies elsewhere, but there was substantial heterogeneity in regional reporting rates in China (range 2.3-37.8/100,000 doses). The highest AEFI reporting rates were for diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis whole-cell (DTwP) and acellular (DTaP) vaccines (range 3.3-181.1/100,000 doses for DTwP; range 3.5-92.6/100,000 doses for DTaP), with higher median rates for DTwP than DTaP, and higher than expected rates for DTaP vaccine. Similar higher rates for DTwP and DTaP containing vaccines, and relatively lower rates for vaccines against hepatitis B virus, poliovirus, and Japanese encephalitis virus were found in China and elsewhere in the world. Overall AEFI reporting rates in China were consistent with similar post-marketing surveillance systems in other countries. Sources of regional heterogeneity in AEFI reporting rates, and their relationships to differing vaccine manufacturers versus differing surveillance practices, require further exploration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Information system of index-rating evaluation of higher school students and the result in its implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Константин Васильевич Рочев

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the information system of index-rating evaluation and financial incentives of university students, a list of indicators to measure the student’s activities, features of the calculation and analysis of data on the results of implementing the system in Ukhta State Technical University.

  1. Middle-aged to elderly women have a higher asymptomatic infection rate with Mycobacterium avium complex, regardless of body habitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Tomoyasu; Fujita-Suzuki, Yukiko; Mori, Masaaki; Carpenter, Stephen M; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Uwamino, Yoshifumi; Tamizu, Eiko; Yano, Ikuya; Kawabe, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Naoki

    2016-04-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary disease is prevalent in middle-aged to elderly women with a thin body habitus. By comparing the rate of serologically diagnosed asymptomatic MAC infection and body mass index among 1033 healthy subjects, we find that middle-aged to elderly women became infected with MAC, regardless of their body habitus.

  2. Do Expenditures Other Than Instructional Expenditures Affect Graduation and Persistence Rates in American Higher Education. NBER Working Paper No. 15216

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Douglas A.; Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2009-01-01

    During the last two decades, median instructional spending per full-time equivalent (FTE) student at American 4-year colleges and universities has grown at a slower rate than median spending per FTE student in a number of other expenditure categories including academic support, student services and research. Our paper uses institutional level…

  3. Hydraulic conductance as well as nitrogen accumulation plays a role in the higher rate of leaf photosynthesis of the most productive variety of rice in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylaran, Renante D.; Adachi, Shunsuke; Ookawa, Taiichiro; Usuda, Hideaki; Hirasawa, Tadashi

    2011-01-01

    An indica variety Takanari is known as one of the most productive rice varieties in Japan and consistently produces 20–30% heavier dry matter during ripening than Japanese commercial varieties in the field. The higher rate of photosynthesis of individual leaves during ripening has been recognized in Takanari. By using pot-grown plants under conditions of minimal mutual shading, it was confirmed that the higher rate of leaf photosynthesis is responsible for the higher dry matter production after heading in Takanari as compared with a japonica variety, Koshihikari. The rate of leaf photosynthesis and shoot dry weight became larger in Takanari after the panicle formation and heading stages, respectively, than in Koshihikari. Roots grew rapidly in the panicle formation stage until heading in Takanari compared with Koshihikari. The higher rate of leaf photosynthesis in Takanari resulted not only from the higher content of leaf nitrogen, which was caused by its elevated capacity for nitrogen accumulation, but also from higher stomatal conductance. When measured under light-saturated conditions, stomatal conductance was already decreased due to the reduction in leaf water potential in Koshihikari even under conditions of a relatively small difference in leaf–air vapour pressure difference. In contrast, the higher stomatal conductance was supported by the maintenance of higher leaf water potential through the higher hydraulic conductance in Takanari with the larger area of root surface. However, no increase in root hydraulic conductivity was expected in Takanari. The larger root surface area of Takanari might be a target trait in future rice breeding for increasing dry matter production. PMID:21527630

  4. Hydraulic conductance as well as nitrogen accumulation plays a role in the higher rate of leaf photosynthesis of the most productive variety of rice in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylaran, Renante D; Adachi, Shunsuke; Ookawa, Taiichiro; Usuda, Hideaki; Hirasawa, Tadashi

    2011-07-01

    An indica variety Takanari is known as one of the most productive rice varieties in Japan and consistently produces 20-30% heavier dry matter during ripening than Japanese commercial varieties in the field. The higher rate of photosynthesis of individual leaves during ripening has been recognized in Takanari. By using pot-grown plants under conditions of minimal mutual shading, it was confirmed that the higher rate of leaf photosynthesis is responsible for the higher dry matter production after heading in Takanari as compared with a japonica variety, Koshihikari. The rate of leaf photosynthesis and shoot dry weight became larger in Takanari after the panicle formation and heading stages, respectively, than in Koshihikari. Roots grew rapidly in the panicle formation stage until heading in Takanari compared with Koshihikari. The higher rate of leaf photosynthesis in Takanari resulted not only from the higher content of leaf nitrogen, which was caused by its elevated capacity for nitrogen accumulation, but also from higher stomatal conductance. When measured under light-saturated conditions, stomatal conductance was already decreased due to the reduction in leaf water potential in Koshihikari even under conditions of a relatively small difference in leaf-air vapour pressure difference. In contrast, the higher stomatal conductance was supported by the maintenance of higher leaf water potential through the higher hydraulic conductance in Takanari with the larger area of root surface. However, no increase in root hydraulic conductivity was expected in Takanari. The larger root surface area of Takanari might be a target trait in future rice breeding for increasing dry matter production.

  5. Faster eating rates are associated with higher energy intakes during an ad libitum meal, higher BMI and greater adiposity among 4·5-year-old children: results from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Anna; Goh, Ai Ting; Fries, Lisa R; Sadananthan, Suresh A; Velan, S Sendhil; Michael, Navin; Tint, Mya-Thway; Fortier, Marielle V; Chan, Mei Jun; Toh, Jia Ying; Chong, Yap-Seng; Tan, Kok Hian; Yap, Fabian; Shek, Lynette P; Meaney, Michael J; Broekman, Birit F P; Lee, Yung Seng; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Mary F F; Forde, Ciarán G

    2017-04-01

    Faster eating rates are associated with increased energy intake, but little is known about the relationship between children's eating rate, food intake and adiposity. We examined whether children who eat faster consume more energy and whether this is associated with higher weight status and adiposity. We hypothesised that eating rate mediates the relationship between child weight and ad libitum energy intake. Children (n 386) from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes cohort participated in a video-recorded ad libitum lunch at 4·5 years to measure acute energy intake. Videos were coded for three eating-behaviours (bites, chews and swallows) to derive a measure of eating rate (g/min). BMI and anthropometric indices of adiposity were measured. A subset of children underwent MRI scanning (n 153) to measure abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity. Children above/below the median eating rate were categorised as slower and faster eaters, and compared across body composition measures. There was a strong positive relationship between eating rate and energy intake (r 0·61, Pintake during a meal (b 13·59; 95 % CI 7·48, 21·83). Children who ate faster had higher energy intake, and this was associated with increased BMI z-score and adiposity.

  6. KRONOS: A Monte Carlo event generator for higher order QED corrections at HERA — Status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anlauf, Harald; Manakos, Panagiotis; Mannel, Thomas; Dahmen, Hans D.; Ohl, Thorsten

    1992-12-01

    We report on the status of the Monte Carlo event generator KRONOS for deep inelastic lepton hadron scattering at HERA. KRONOS focusses on the description of electronmagnetic corrections beyond the existing fixed order calculations.

  7. Higher Education for the 1980s. Challenges and Responses. Report of the Hiroshima International Seminar on Higher Education (2nd, Hiroshima, Japan, January 29-31, 1980).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Higher Education.

    The challenges of social change, values crises, societal needs for higher education, the internal dynamics of higher educational systems, and future reforms in higher education were discussed at the Second Hiroshima International Seminar on Higher Education. Topics discussed include: Higher Education in an Age of Internationalization (Michio…

  8. Self reported rates of criminal offending and victimization in young people at-risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, R; Harrigan, S; Glozier, N; Amminger, G P; Yung, A R

    2015-08-01

    A significant relationship exists between experiencing psychosis and both engaging in criminal offending and being a victim of crime. A substantial proportion of violence and offending occurs during the first episode of psychosis, but it is unclear whether such behaviour is also evident in the earlier pre-psychotic stage of illness. As part of a prospective study of young people who were seeking help for mental health problems, we enquired about participants' experiences of being charged and/or convicted of a criminal offence and being a victim of crime. This paper uses cross-sectional baseline data to compare the rates of these forensic outcomes in participants at-risk of psychosis (n=271) with those not at-risk (n=440). Univariate logistic regression showed that the at-risk for psychosis group was significantly more likely than the not at-risk participants to report having been charged by police (11.1% vs 5.9%; p=.015) and convicted by the courts (4.4% vs. 1.6%; p=0.028) with a non-violent offence, as well as to have been convicted of any criminal offence (6.3% vs. 3.0%; p=0.037). The at-risk were also more likely to report having been a victim of crime (23.7% vs 14.0%; p=.002), particularly violent victimization (16.5% vs 8.2%; p=.001). In multivariate logistic regression analyses, being at-risk for psychosis remained a significant predictor of three of the four outcome measures after controlling for other known covariates such as gender, age, substance misuse and unemployment. This is the first study to demonstrate that, relative to their non-psychotic help-seeking counterparts, young people at-risk for psychosis are at higher risk of forensic outcomes, particularly violent crime victimization.

  9. 2015 Global Information Technology Report: Consequences on Knowledge Management in Higher Education Institutions in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ololube, Nwachukwu Prince; Agbor, Comfort Nkogho; Major, Nanighe Baldwin; Agabi, Chinyere O.; Wali, Worlu I.

    2016-01-01

    This research is a continuation of a theoretical review that evaluated ICT Policy Outcomes for National Development in relation to Networked Readiness Index (NRI) and the impact it has on knowledge integration and management in higher education institutions in Nigeria. A new dawn in information technology (IT) has initiated new trends in…

  10. Special Report #6. Developing Trends in Content of Collective Bargaining Contracts in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andes, John

    The growth in the number of higher education collective bargaining contracts continues at a rapid pace, although it is taking longer for the initial contract to be negotiated. The data on 131 contracts covering 215 institutions is included in the statistical tables in this document. Collective bargaining has increased in the West and at least one…

  11. Report of the Governor's Commission on Higher Education and the Economy, January 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governor's Blue Ribbon Commission on Higher Education and the Economy of Connecticut, Inc., Hartford.

    The Governor's Commission on Higher Education and the Economy's assessment of the Connecticut system and ways that the educational needs of the economy and the state can be met during a period of declining enrollments and fiscal constraints is presented. Working committees of the commission studied governance and management; business, labor, and…

  12. Brief Report: Joint Attention and Information Processing in Children with Higher Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Peter; Kim, Kwanguk; McIntyre, Nancy; Lerro, Lindsay; Jarrold, William

    2016-01-01

    Theory suggests that information processing during joint attention may be atypical in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This hypothesis was tested in a study of school-aged children with higher functioning ASD and groups of children with symptoms of ADHD or typical development. The results indicated that the control groups displayed…

  13. Higher Education Cost Containment. Performance Audit, November 1995. Report of the State Auditor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Office of State Auditor, Denver.

    Between June and September 1995, this performance audit examined Colorado higher education cost containment in debt refinancing and improvements to student loan processes according to generally accepted government auditing standards. With respect to debt refinancing, the audit concluded that in general, governing boards and institutions were…

  14. Prepared in Mind and Resources? A Report on Public Higher Education in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alacbay, Armand; Poliakoff, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In 2011, South Carolina Governor Nikki Haley signed into law the South Carolina Higher Education Efficiency and Administrative Policies Act, maintaining the transparency and accountability that lead to increased academic quality and affordability at colleges and universities. It is in this context that ACTA (American Council of Trustees and…

  15. Made in Maine: A State Report Card on Public Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, Eric; Poliakoff, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Maine is blessed with universities that have records of significant achievement. The seven campuses of the University of Maine System (UMS) together educated over 23,000 students (full-time equivalent) during the past year. But for good reason, in recent years public confidence in higher education throughout the nation has fallen. Half of the…

  16. Reporting the Use of Multiple Imputation for Missing Data in Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manly, Catherine A.; Wells, Ryan S.

    2015-01-01

    Higher education researchers using survey data often face decisions about handling missing data. Multiple imputation (MI) is considered by many statisticians to be the most appropriate technique for addressing missing data in many circumstances. In particular, it has been shown to be preferable to listwise deletion, which has historically been a…

  17. Toward a Definition of Verbal Reasoning in Higher Education. Research Report. ETS RR-09-33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Nancy W.; Welsh, Cynthia; Kostin, Irene; VanEssen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This paper briefly summarizes the literatures of reading and reasoning in the last quarter century, focusing mainly on the disciplines of cognitive science, cognitive developmental psychology, linguistics, and educational psychology. These literatures were synthesized to create a framework for defining verbal reasoning in higher education. Eight…

  18. Interdisciplinarity: The Mutable Paradigm. AAHE/ERIC/Higher Education Research Report No 9, 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayville, William V.

    The many forms of interdisciplinarity in higher education institutions and the various ways it has been used to advance curricular changes are examined. Definitions of interdisciplinarity and its variants (multi-, pluri-, and transdisciplinarity) provide a conceptual framework for the examination. In this study, interdisciplinarity is understood…

  19. Academic Judgment and Grievance Arbitration in Higher Education. Special Report No. 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Harold

    The first known analysis of a substantial number of arbitration awards in higher education is presented in an effort to determine whether arbitrators have confined their awards within the contract limitations. All of the arbitration awards generated by the four-year colleges of the State University of New York as well as the awards of the…

  20. European Union Students Studying in English Higher Education Institutions. DIUS Research Report 08-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Marian; Rutt, Simon

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the pathways, intentions and relevant perceptions of (non-UK) European Union (EU) students entering English higher education. It sought to identify why students wished to obtain an English HE qualification, their attitudes towards the uptake and repayment of tuition fee loans and their future career plans. Drawing on…

  1. Cataloguing E-Books in UK Higher Education Libraries: Report of a Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the results of a 2006 survey of UK Higher Education OPACs in order to provide a snapshot of cataloguing practices for e-books. Design/methodology/approach: The OPACs of 30 UK HE libraries were examined in July/August 2006 to determine which e-books were catalogued, and the level of cataloguing…

  2. 2014-2015 State of CRM Use in Higher Education Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO) periodically undertakes research projects to keep themselves and the higher education community in general, informed about relevant current and emerging practices. The aim of this survey was to measure the extent of ownership of Constituent (or Customer)…

  3. Quality: Transforming Postsecondary Education. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 3, 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle; Sherr, Lawrence A.

    Many colleges and universities, in responding to public demand for higher education and the external challenges it creates, are employing Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques to improve quality, increase productivity, and decrease costs. The quality improvement process itself (the tools for problem identification and developing solutions),…

  4. Higher attack rate of fish-borne trematodes (Heterophyidae) in common carp fingerlings (Cyprinus carpio) at lower fish weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerlage, A.S.; Graat, E.A.M.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Jong, de M.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZTs) can cause pathology in humans. Fish weight was reported as important risk factor for transmission from snail to fish. However, in fingerlings, the relation between fish weight and infection is unknown. Aim was quantifying the effect of fish weight on infection

  5. Voltage gating by molecular subunits of Na+ and K+ ion channels: higher-dimensional cubic kinetics, rate constants, and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohlmeister, Jürgen F

    2015-06-01

    The structural similarity between the primary molecules of voltage-gated Na and K channels (alpha subunits) and activation gating in the Hodgkin-Huxley model is brought into full agreement by increasing the model's sodium kinetics to fourth order (m(3) → m(4)). Both structures then virtually imply activation gating by four independent subprocesses acting in parallel. The kinetics coalesce in four-dimensional (4D) cubic diagrams (16 states, 32 reversible transitions) that show the structure to be highly failure resistant against significant partial loss of gating function. Rate constants, as fitted in phase plot data of retinal ganglion cell excitation, reflect the molecular nature of the gating transitions. Additional dimensions (6D cubic diagrams) accommodate kinetically coupled sodium inactivation and gating processes associated with beta subunits. The gating transitions of coupled sodium inactivation appear to be thermodynamically irreversible; response to dielectric surface charges (capacitive displacement) provides a potential energy source for those transitions and yields highly energy-efficient excitation. A comparison of temperature responses of the squid giant axon (apparently Arrhenius) and mammalian channel gating yields kinetic Q10 = 2.2 for alpha unit gating, whose transitions are rate-limiting at mammalian temperatures; beta unit kinetic Q10 = 14 reproduces the observed non-Arrhenius deviation of mammalian gating at low temperatures; the Q10 of sodium inactivation gating matches the rate-limiting component of activation gating at all temperatures. The model kinetics reproduce the physiologically large frequency range for repetitive firing in ganglion cells and the physiologically observed strong temperature dependence of recovery from inactivation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Do More Hospital Beds Lead to Higher Hospitalization Rates? A Spatial Examination of Roemer’s Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamater, Paul L.; Messina, Joseph P.; Grady, Sue C.; WinklerPrins, Vince; Shortridge, Ashton M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Roemer’s Law, a widely cited principle in health care policy, states that hospital beds that are built tend to be used. This simple but powerful expression has been invoked to justify Certificate of Need regulation of hospital beds in an effort to contain health care costs. Despite its influence, a surprisingly small body of empirical evidence supports its content. Furthermore, known geographic factors influencing health services use and the spatial structure of the relationship between hospital bed availability and hospitalization rates have not been sufficiently explored in past examinations of Roemer’s Law. We pose the question, “Accounting for space in health care access and use, is there an observable association between the availability of hospital beds and hospital utilization?” Methods We employ an ecological research design based upon the Anderson behavioral model of health care utilization. This conceptual model is implemented in an explicitly spatial context. The effect of hospital bed availability on the utilization of hospital services is evaluated, accounting for spatial structure and controlling for other known determinants of hospital utilization. The stability of this relationship is explored by testing across numerous geographic scales of analysis. The case study comprises an entire state system of hospitals and population, evaluating over one million inpatient admissions. Results We find compelling evidence that a positive, statistically significant relationship exists between hospital bed availability and inpatient hospitalization rates. Additionally, the observed relationship is invariant with changes in the geographic scale of analysis. Conclusions This study provides evidence for the effects of Roemer’s Law, thus suggesting that variations in hospitalization rates have origins in the availability of hospital beds. This relationship is found to be robust across geographic scales of analysis. These findings suggest

  7. Higher Precision of Heart Rate Compared with VO2 to Predict Exercise Intensity in Endurance-Trained Runners

    OpenAIRE

    Victor M. Reis; Roland van den Tillaar; Marques, Mario C.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the precision of oxygen uptake with heart rate regression during track running in highly-trained runners. Twelve national and international level male long-distance road runners (age 30.7 ± 5.5 yrs, height 1.71 ± 0.04 m and mass 61.2 ± 5.8 kg) with a personal best on the half marathon of 62 min 37 s ± 1 min 22 s participated in the study. Each participant performed, in an all-weather synthetic track five, six min bouts at constant velocity with each ...

  8. Higher baseline serum uric acid is associated with poorer cognition but not rates of cognitive decline in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannorsdall, Tracy D; Kueider, Alexandra M; Carlson, Michelle C; Schretlen, David J

    2014-12-01

    Serum uric acid is a powerful antioxidant that may have neuroprotective properties. While some studies have found that greater serum uric acid is associated with better cognition in older adults, it is also associated with numerous vascular risk factors that increase risk for dementia. Women may also be particularly vulnerable to the vascular effects of elevated uric acid. We previously found that mildly elevated serum uric acid is a biomarker of cognitive dysfunction in older adults, and that this likely is mediated by cerebral ischemic burden. Here we examine both cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between serum uric acid and declines in cognition and functioning in 423 cognitively healthy community-dwelling older women in the Women's Health and Aging Study (WHAS II). We hypothesized that higher serum uric acid would be associated with poorer concurrent functioning and greater declines over 9 years. In linear regression analyses, higher baseline serum uric acid was associated with poorer working memory, with a trend toward slower manual speed and dexterity before and after adjusting for baseline serum uric acid, demographic and health/cardiovascular variables. However, there were no associations for global cognitive functioning, learning/memory, sequencing, verbal fluency, or visuoconstruction. Mixed effects models also revealed no association with subsequent cognitive declines. Future research should examine changes in serum uric acid at earlier periods in the lifespan and their relationships with later cognitive declines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Higher Prevalence Rate of Campylobacter in Retail Beef Livers Compared to Other Beef and Pork Meat Cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormohamed, Aneesa; Fakhr, Mohamed K.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in retail beef, beef livers, and pork meats purchased from the Tulsa (OK, USA) area and to further characterize the isolates obtained through antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 97 chilled retail beef (50 beef livers and 47 other cuts), and 100 pork samples were collected. The prevalence of Campylobacter in beef livers was 39/50 (78%), while no Campylobacter was isolated from the other beef cuts. The prevalence in pork samples was 2/100 (2%). A total of 108 Campylobacter isolates (102 beef livers isolates and six pork isolates) were subjected to antimicrobial resistance profiling against sixteen different antimicrobials that belong to eight different antibiotic classes. Of the six pork Campylobacter coli isolates, four showed resistance to all antimicrobials tested. Among the beef liver isolates, the highest antibiotic resistances were to tetracyclines and β-lactams, while the lowest resistances were to macrolides, aminoglycosides, lincosamides, and phenicols. Resistances to the fluoroquinolone, macrolide, aminoglycoside, tetracycline, β-lactam, lincosamide, and phenicol antibiotic classes were significantly higher in Campylobacter coli than Campylobacter jejuni isolates. Multidrug Resistance (MDR) among the 102 Campylobacter (33 Campylobacter jejuni and 69 Campylobacter coli) beef liver isolates was significantly higher in Campylobacter coli (62%) than Campylobacter jejuni (39%). The high prevalence of Campylobacter in retail beef livers and their antimicrobial resistance raise concern about the safety of these retail products. PMID:23698698

  10. CEBAF at higher energies: Working group report on hadron spectroscopy and production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)]| [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States); Napolitano, J. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    1994-04-01

    This report summarizes topics in hadron spectroscopy and production which could be addressed at CEBAF with an energy upgrade to E{sub {gamma}} = 8 GeV and beyond. The topics discussed include conventional meson and baryon spectrocopy, spectroscopy of exotica (especially molecules and hybrids), CP and CPT tests using {phi} mesons, and new detector and accelerator options.

  11. Giving to Excellence: Generating Philanthropic Support for UK Higher Education. Ross-CASE Report 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Yashraj

    2016-01-01

    This report presents findings from the 2016 Ross-CASE Survey of Philanthropic Giving to Universities in UK. The project was conducted by CASE Europe and funded by HEFCE and the Ross-Group. This year's survey comes at a time of great change for the UK charity sector. The historical trend data of previous surveys will be invaluable in helping…

  12. Mycelial growth rate and macro- and micromorphological characteristics of medicinal species of genus Ganoderma (higher Basidiomycetes) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keypour, Somayeh; Riahi, Hossein; Safaie, Naser; Borhani, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Mycelial growth rate is a distinguishing quality that demonstrates continuous variation in different isolates collected from various hosts and locations. The objectives of this research were (1) to reinvestigate the previous identification of Iranian species, and (2) to recognize the best native isolate(s) for cultivation of different Ganoderma species. Of 78 samples collected from different hosts and sites, only 43 mycelia could be purified and examined for further study. Growth rate (GR; Δd/Δt) and growth coefficient (GC; dgh/t) were analyzed by growing isolate culture on 2% malt-extract agar medium (pH 5.5) incubated at 25°C. Macro- and micromorphological studies on mycelia and fruiting bodies such as basidiospore and cutis microcharacters as well as fruiting body quality were used for precise identification. Results revealed that samples belonged to 4 species: G. lucidum, G. applanatum, G. resinaceum, and G. australe. Among all samples, the isolate morphologically identified as G. applanatum showed the best GR (12 mm/day) and good GC (128 mm/day), followed by the 2 other isolates identified as G. resinaceum (GRs and GCs of 11 and 55 mm/day and 10.9 and 43.6 mm/day, respectively).

  13. Flipped Classroom Implementation: A Case Report of Two Higher Education Institutions in the United States and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Jacqueline E.; White, Paul J.; Khanova, Julia; Yuriev, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This case report explored the implementation of flipped classrooms at two higher education institutions. Experiences and publications from the institutions were used to identify and describe common themes, including successes and challenges encountered along with potential solutions to common misalignments, particularly as related to…

  14. Higher Education in Further Education Colleges: Indirectly Funded Partnerships: Codes of Practice for Franchise and Consortia Arrangements. Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

    This report provides codes of practice for two types of indirectly funded partnerships entered into by higher education institutions and further education sector colleges: franchises and consortia. The codes of practice set out guidance on the principles that should be reflected in the franchise and consortia agreements that underpin indirectly…

  15. Higher Reported Levels of Depression, Stress, and Anxiety Are Associated with Increased Endorsement of ADHD Symptoms by Postsecondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Allyson G.; Alexander, Sandra J.; Armstrong, Irene T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which postsecondary students endorse symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and whether experienced level of stress, depression, or anxiety are associated with higher reporting of ADHD symptoms. Students attending a combined health and counseling service completed the Conners Adult ADHD Rating…

  16. Potential impact on HIV incidence of higher HIV testing rates and earlier antiretroviral therapy initiation in MSM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, Andrew N; Cambiano, Valentina; Miners, Alec

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased rates of testing, with early antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, represent a key potential HIV-prevention approach. Currently, in MSM in the United Kingdom, it is estimated that 36% are diagnosed by 1 year from infection, and the ART initiation threshold is at CD4 cell...... on HIV in MSM in the United Kingdom. Outcomes were projected according to future alternative HIV testing and ART initiation scenarios to 2030, considering also potential changes in levels of condomless sex. RESULTS: For ART use to result in an incidence of close to 1/1000 person-years requires...... the proportion of all HIV-positive MSM with viral suppression to increase from below 60% currently to 90%, assuming no rise in levels of condomless sex. Substantial increases in HIV testing, such that over 90% of men are diagnosed within a year of infection, would increase the proportion of HIV-positive men...

  17. Torrefaction of invasive alien plants: Influence of heating rate and other conversion parameters on mass yield and higher heating value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundike, Jhonnah; Collard, François-Xavier; Görgens, Johann F

    2016-06-01

    With the aim of controlling their proliferation, two invasive alien plants, Lantana camara (LC) and Mimosa pigra (MP), both widespread in Africa, were considered for torrefaction for renewable energy applications. Using thermogravimetric analysis, the influence of heating rate (HR: 2.18-19.82°Cmin(-1)) together with variable temperature and hold time on char yield and HHV (in a bomb calorimeter) were determined. Statistically significant effects of HR on HHV with optima at 10.5°Cmin(-1) for LC and 20°Cmin(-1) for MP were obtained. Increases of HHV up to 0.8MJkg(-1) or energy yield greater than 10%, together with a 3-fold reduction in torrefaction conversion time could be achieved by optimisation of HR. Analysis of the torrefaction volatiles by TG-MS showed that not only hemicelluloses, but also lignin conversion, could influence the optimum HR value.

  18. Orthogonal Range Reporting: Query Lower Bounds, Optimal Structures in 3-d, and Higher Dimensional Improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshani, Peyman; Arge, Lars Allan; Larsen, Kasper Dalgaard

    2010-01-01

    Orthogonal range reporting is the problem of storing a set of n points in d-dimensional space, such that the k points in an axis-orthogonal query box can be reported efficiently. While the 2-d version of the problem was completely characterized in the pointer machine model more than two decades ago...... data structure for the d-dimensional orthogonal range reporting problem in the pointer machine model of computation that uses S(n) space must spend Ω((log n/ log(S(n)/n))⌊d/2⌋--1) time to answer queries. Thus, if S(n)/n is poly-logarithmic, then the query time is at least Ω((log n/ log log n)⌊d/2......) to Ω((log n/ log log n)2 + k) somewhere between three and six dimensions. Finally, we show that our techniques also lead to improved structures for point location in rectilinear subdivisions, that is, the problem of storing a set of n disjoint d-dimensional axis-orthogonal rectangles...

  19. The Effects of Different Loan Schemes for Higher Education Tuition: An Analysis of Rates of Return and Tuition Revenue in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Bruce; Lounkaew, Kiatanantha

    2009-01-01

    In recent times there has been considerable change and instability with respect to Thailand student loans policy. The contribution of what follows is to compare and contrast the consequences of disparate possible approaches to the payment of tuition in two main respects: the effect on internal rates of return for higher education investments; and…

  20. Civilian cerebral gunshot wounds in rural South African patients are associated with significantly higher mortality rates than in urban patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, V Y; Bruce, J L; Sartorius, B; Laing, G L; Odendaal, J; Brysiewicz, P; Clarke, D L

    2017-06-13

    This study focuses on a specific and often dramatic injury, namely gunshot wounds (GSW) of the head in order to determine whether there is a discrepancy in outcome between patients who sustain their injury in a rural setting and those who sustain it in an urban setting. This study involves a retrospective review of our prospectively maintained regional electronic trauma registry. All patients who sustained a cerebral GSW from January 2010 to December 2014 were reviewed. During the 5-year study period, a total of 102 patients sustained an isolated cerebral GSW. Ninety-two per cent (94/102) were male and the mean age was 29 years. Ninety-four per cent (94/102) of injuries were related to interpersonal violence. Of the 102 patients in the study, 54% (55/102) were urban and were transported directly to our trauma centre. The remaining 46% (47/102) were rural and were transported to a rural district hospital prior to being referred to our trauma centre. The time of injury was available in 60% (61/102) of patients. The mean time from injury to arrival for all patients was 11 h (SD 7). The mean time from injury to arrival was significantly shorter for urban versus rural, 6 h (SD 5) and 15 h (SD 5), respectively (p urban patients (p = 0.022). The need for neurosurgery, need for ICU admission or length of hospital stay was not significantly different between rural and urban patients. Rural patients have a fourfold higher mortality compared with urban patients (36 vs 9%, p = 0.001). Amongst survivors, there was no significant difference in median length of hospital stay or mean discharge GCS. Cerebral GSWs are highly lethal injuries associated with significant mortality. Rural patients have a significantly longer transfer time, lower GCS on arrival and higher mortality than urban patients. Efforts should be directed at improving the pre-hospital EMS system in order to reduce delay to definitive care so that patient outcome can be optimised.

  1. Loose regulation of medical marijuana programs associated with higher rates of adult marijuana use but not cannabis use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Arthur Robin; Santaella-Tenorio, Julian; Mauro, Christine M; Levin, Frances R; Martins, Silvia S

    2017-06-10

    Most US states have passed medical marijuana laws (MMLs), with great variation in program regulation impacting enrollment rates. We aimed to compare changes in rates of marijuana use, heavy use and cannabis use disorder across age groups while accounting for whether states enacted medicalized (highly regulated) or non-medical mml programs. Difference-in-differences estimates with time-varying state-level MML coded by program type (medicalized versus non-medical). Multi-level linear regression models adjusted for state-level random effects and covariates as well as historical trends in use. Nation-wide cross-sectional survey data from the US National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) restricted use data portal aggregated at the state level. Participants comprised 2004-13 NSDUH respondents (n ~ 67 500/year); age groups 12-17, 18-25 and 26+ years. States had implemented eight medicalized and 15 non-medical MML programs. Primary outcome measures included (1) active (past-month) marijuana use; (2) heavy use (> 300 days/year); and (3) cannabis use disorder diagnosis, based on DSM-IV criteria. Covariates included program type, age group and state-level characteristics throughout the study period. Adults 26+ years of age living in states with non-medical MML programs increased past-month marijuana use 1.46% (from 4.13 to 6.59%, P = 0.01), skewing towards greater heavy marijuana by 2.36% (from 14.94 to 17.30, P = 0.09) after MMLs were enacted. However, no associated increase in the prevalence of cannabis use disorder was found during the study period. Our findings do not show increases in prevalence of marijuana use among adults in states with medicalized MML programs. Additionally, there were no increases in adolescent or young adult marijuana outcomes following MML passage, irrespective of program type. Non-medical marijuana laws enacted in US states are associated with increased marijuana use, but only among adults aged 26+ years. Researchers and

  2. Does a "Level I Evidence" rating imply high quality of reporting in orthopaedic randomised controlled trials?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sierevelt Inger N

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Levels of Evidence Rating System is widely believed to categorize studies by quality, with Level I studies representing the highest quality evidence. We aimed to determine the reporting quality of Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs published in the most frequently cited general orthopaedic journals. Methods Two assessors identified orthopaedic journals that reported a level of evidence rating in their abstracts from January 2003 to December 2004 by searching the instructions for authors of the highest impact general orthopaedic journals. Based upon a priori eligibility criteria, two assessors hand searched all issues of the eligible journal from 2003–2004 for RCTs. The assessors extracted the demographic information and the evidence rating from each included RCT and scored the quality of reporting using the reporting quality assessment tool, which was developed by the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group. Scores were conducted in duplicate, and we reached a consensus for any disagreements. We examined the correlation between the level of evidence rating and the Cochrane reporting quality score. Results We found that only the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery – American Volume (JBJS-A used a level of evidence rating from 2003 to 2004. We identified 938 publications in the JBJS-A from January 2003 to December 2004. Of these publications, 32 (3.4% were RCTs that fit the inclusion criteria. The 32 RCTs included a total of 3543 patients, with sample sizes ranging from 17 to 514 patients. Despite being labelled as the highest level of evidence (Level 1 and Level II evidence, these studies had low Cochrane reporting quality scores among individual methodological safeguards. The Cochrane reporting quality scores did not differ significantly between Level I and Level II studies. Correlations varied from 0.0 to 0.2 across the 12 items of the Cochrane reporting quality assessment tool (p > 0.05. Among items closely

  3. Regulation of chloroplast number and DNA synthesis in higher plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullet, J.E.

    1995-11-10

    The long term objective of this research is to understand the process of chloroplast development and its coordination with leaf development in higher plants. This is important because the photosynthetic capacity of plants is directly related to leaf and chloroplast development. This research focuses on obtaining a detailed description of leaf development and the early steps in chloroplast development including activation of plastid DNA synthesis, changes in plastid DNA copy number, activation of chloroplast transcription and increases in plastid number per cell. The grant will also begin analysis of specific biochemical mechanisms by isolation of the plastid DNA polymerase, and identification of genetic mutants which are altered in their accumulation of plastid DNA and plastid number per cell.

  4. Regulation of chloroplast number and DNA synthesis in higher plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullet, J.E.

    1995-11-10

    The long term objective of this research is to understand the process of chloroplast development and its coordination with leaf development in higher plants. This is important because the photosynthetic capacity of plants is directly related to leaf and chloroplast development. This research focuses on obtaining a detailing description of leaf development and the early steps in chloroplast development including activation of plastid DNA synthesis, changes in plastid DNA copy number, activation of chloroplast transcription and increases in plastid number per cell. The grant will also begin analysis of specific biochemical mechanisms by isolation of the plastid DNA polymerase, and identification of genetic mutants which are altered in their accumulation of plastid DNA and plastid number per cell.

  5. Higher Education of Specialists of Social Rehabilitation – Reports from Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Kusztal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is a another opinion in the matter of the education of the students of social rehabilitation. In 2012, on the pages of “Resocjalizacja Polska”, came out an article about contemporary status of the social rehabilitation educator and the process of his education in the era of the reform of higher education. The current text is the continuation of this article and also a presentation of an explorative sense and thoughts of the participants of the project, realized since 2011 within the statutory research of the Department of Social Prevention and Rehabilitation in Institiute of Pedagog y in Jagiellonian University and Department of Social Prevention and Rehabilitation in Institiute of Education in Jesuit University in Cracow.

  6. Context-dependent mutation rates may cause spurious signatures of a fixation bias favoring higher GC-content in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Ryan D; Williamson, Scott H; Zhu, Lan; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2007-10-01

    Understanding the proximate and ultimate causes underlying the evolution of nucleotide composition in mammalian genomes is of fundamental interest to the study of molecular evolution. Comparative genomics studies have revealed that many more substitutions occur from G and C nucleotides to A and T nucleotides than the reverse, suggesting that mammalian genomes are not at equilibrium for base composition. Analysis of human polymorphism data suggests that mutations that increase GC-content tend to be at much higher frequencies than those that decrease or preserve GC-content when the ancestral allele is inferred via parsimony using the chimpanzee genome. These observations have been interpreted as evidence for a fixation bias in favor of G and C alleles due to either positive natural selection or biased gene conversion. Here, we test the robustness of this interpretation to violations of the parsimony assumption using a data set of 21,488 noncoding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) discovered by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) SNPs project via direct resequencing of n = 95 individuals. Applying standard nonparametric and parametric population genetic approaches, we replicate the signatures of a fixation bias in favor of G and C alleles when the ancestral base is assumed to be the base found in the chimpanzee outgroup. However, upon taking into account the probability of misidentifying the ancestral state of each SNP using a context-dependent mutation model, the corrected distribution of SNP frequencies for GC-content increasing SNPs are nearly indistinguishable from the patterns observed for other types of mutations, suggesting that the signature of fixation bias is a spurious artifact of the parsimony assumption.

  7. Nonideal diffusion effects and short-range ordering lead to higher aggregation rates in concentrated hard-sphere dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, Aniruddha V; Franses, Elias I; Corti, David S

    2014-04-08

    Brownian aggregation in concentrated hard-sphere dispersions is studied using models and Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations. Two new theoretical models are presented and compared to several existing approaches and BD simulation results, which serve as benchmarks. The first new model is an improvement over an existing local density approximation (LDA)-based model. The other is based on the more rigorous Fundamental measure theory (FMT) applied to the "liquid-state" dynamic density-functional theory (DDFT). Both models provide significant improvements over the classical Smoluchowski model. The predictions of the new FM-DDFT-based model for aggregation kinetics are in excellent agreement with BD simulation results for dispersions with initial particle volume fractions, ϕ, up to 0.35 (close to the hard-sphere freezing transition at ϕ = 0.494). In contrast to previous approaches, the nonideal particle diffusion effects and the initial and time-dependent short-range ordering in concentrated dispersions due to entropic packing effects are explicitly considered here, in addition to the unsteady-state effects. The greater accuracy of the FM-DDFT-based model compared to that of the LDA-based models indicates that nonlocal contributions to particle diffusion (only accounted for in the former) play important roles in aggregation. At high concentrations, the FM-DDFT-based model predicts aggregation half-times and gelation times that are up to 2 orders of magnitude shorter than those of the Smoluchowski model. Moreover, the FM-DDFT-based model predicts asymmetric cluster-cluster aggregation rate constants, at least for short times. Overall, a rigorous mechanistic understanding of the enhancement of aggregation kinetics in concentrated dispersions is provided.

  8. Predictive value of self-reported and observer-rated defense style in depression treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van, H.L.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Peen, J.; Abraham, R.E.; Schoevers, R.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the predictive value of observer-rated and self-reported defensive functioning on the outcome of psychotherapy for the treatment of depression. Defense styles were measured according to the Developmental Profile (DP) and the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) in 81 moderately seve

  9. Technical Adequacy of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erford, Bradley T.; Miller, Emily M.; Isbister, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    This study provides preliminary analysis of the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-2nd Edition--Self-Report, which was designed to screen individuals aged 10 years and older for anxiety and behavior symptoms. Score reliability and internal and external facets of validity were good for a screening-level test.

  10. [Metaanalysis to estimate the expected drop out-rates reported in clinical trials on cataract surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knippschild, S; Hirsch, J; Krummenauer, F

    2014-02-01

    A realistic sample size calculation is crucial to achieve significant results in clinical trials. As an expected drop out-rate has to be included in the sample size calculation, current practice consists in the presumption of drop out-rates published in previous similar investigations. This approach may, however, result in severely over- or under-estimated sample sizes. Therefore this meta-analysis sought to aggregate the drop out-rates from published clinical trial reports on cataract surgery to derive a quantitative suggestion for the planning of future clinical trials. The data collection was a complete review of all prospective and retrospective studies in five journals of the years 2002-2012; trial-wise recall rates of subjects at follow-up 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after recruitment were documented. The primary endpoint of the meta-analysis was the reported drop out-rates after 6 months. 95 % confidence intervals were calculated for each trial, respectively; a median drop out-rate was estimated including its 95 % confidence interval. The drop-out-rate estimates were furthermore stratified by design characteristics of the reported studies. For randomised clinical trials on cataract surgery, the median drop out-rate increased during the follow-up period of 24 months from 4 % at three months to 17 % at 24 months after recruitment; for the six-month drop out-rate a median drop-out rate of 3 % (95 % CI 0 %; 14 %) was estimated. Drop out-rates in sample size calculations for clinical trials on cataract surgery were found to be over-estimated in general, ending up in the calculation of overly large patient numbers and thereby in both ethical and economic consequences. For randomised clinical trials on cataract surgery the median drop out-rate can be expected to be 5 % during a six-month follow-up and may rise up to 15 % during a 12-month trial period. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. APPRAISAL OF STUDENT RATING AS A MEASURE TO MANAGE THE QUALITY OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA: AN INSTITUTIONAL STUDY USING SIX SIGMA MODEL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Vijay

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Students' rating of teaching is one of the most widely accepted methods of measuring the quality in Higher Education worldwide. The overall experience gained by the students during their academic journey in their respective college is a key factor to determine the Institutional Quality. This study was conducted among the Physical Therapy students with an objective to capture the overall experience related to various aspects of their Academic environment including teaching and learning process adopted in their college. To facilitate that, a unique questionnaire called, "Academic Environment Evaluation Questionnaire (AEEQwas developed covering all the important teaching elements of the Higher Education Institutions. The students' opinion was captured and analyzed through six sigma analytical tool using Poisson distribution model. From the non-conformance level captured through the responses from the students about the various categories of teaching and learning elements, the corresponding Sigma rating for each teaching element was measured. Accordingly, a six point Quality rating system was developed customizing to each sigma values. This study brings a new, innovative student driven Quality rating system for the Higher Education Institutions in India.

  12. APPRAISAL OF STUDENT RATING AS A MEASURE TO MANAGE THE QUALITY OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA: AN INSTITUTIONAL STUDY USING SIX SIGMA MODEL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Vijay

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Students' rating of teaching is one of the most widely accepted methods of measuring the quality in Higher Education worldwide. The overall experience gained by the students during their academic journey in their respective college is a key factor to determine the Institutional Quality. This study was conducted among the Physical Therapy students with an objective to capture the overall experience related to various aspects of their Academic environment including teaching and learning process adopted in their college. To facilitate that, a unique questionnaire called,"Academic Environment Evaluation Questionnaire (AEEQ was developed covering all the important teaching elements of the Higher Education Institutions. The students' opinion was captured and analyzed through six sigma analytical tool using Poisson distribution model. From the non-conformance level captured through the responses from the students about the various categories of teaching and learning elements, the corresponding Sigma rating for each teaching element was measured. Accordingly, a six point Quality rating system was developed customizing to each sigma values. This study brings a new, innovative student driven Quality rating system for the Higher Education Institutions in India.

  13. Partners' Empathy Increases Pain Ratings: Effects of Perceived Empathy and Attachment Style on Pain Report and Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurter, Sarah; Paloyelis, Yannis; de C. Williams, Amanda C.; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

    2014-01-01

    Pain can be influenced by its social context. We aimed to examine under controlled experimental conditions how empathy from a partner and personal attachment style affect pain report, tolerance, and facial expressions of pain. Fifty-four participants, divided into secure, anxious, and avoidant attachment style groups, underwent a cold pressor task with their partners present. We manipulated how much empathy the participants perceived that their partners had for them. We observed a significant main effect of perceived empathy on pain report, with greater pain reported in the high perceived empathy condition. No such effects were found for pain tolerance or facial display. We also found a significant interaction of empathy with attachment style group, with the avoidant group reporting and displaying less pain than the secure and the anxious groups in the high perceived empathy condition. No such findings were observed in the low empathy condition. These results suggest that empathy from one's partner may influence pain report beyond behavioral reactions. In addition, the amount of pain report and expression that people show in high empathy conditions depends on their attachment style. Perspective Believing that one's partner feels high empathy for one's pain may lead individuals to rate the intensity of pain as higher. Individual differences in attachment style moderate this empathy effect. PMID:24953886

  14. Are family, neighbourhood and school social capital associated with higher self-rated health among Croatian high school students? A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Dario; Suzuki, Etsuji; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-06-08

    We investigated the associations between self-rated health and social capital among Croatian high school students. A cross-sectional survey among high school students was carried out in the 2013-2014 school year. High schools in Croatia. Subjects were 3427 high school students (1688 males and 1739 females), aged 17-18 years. Self-rated health was assessed by the single item: "How do you perceive your health?". Possible responses were arranged along a five-item Likert-type scale: 1 very poor, 2 poor, 3 fair, 4 good, 5 excellent. The outcome was binarised as 'good health' (excellent, good or fair) versus 'poor health' (poor or very poor). We calculated ORs and 95% CIs for good self-rated health associated with family, neighbourhood and school social capital, while adjusting for gender, self-perceived socioeconomic status, psychological distress, physical activity and body mass index. We used generalised estimating equations using an exchangeable correlation matrix with robust SEs. Good self-rated health was significantly associated with higher family social capital (OR 2.43; 95% CI 1.55 to 3.80), higher neighbourhood trust (OR 2.02; 95% CI 1.48 to 2.76) and higher norms of reciprocity at school (OR 1.79; 95% CI 1.13 to 2.84). When all of the social capital variables were entered simultaneously, good self-rated health remained significantly associated with higher family social capital (OR 1.98; 95% CI 1.19 to 3.30), neighbourhood trust (OR 1.77; 95% CI 1.25 to 2.51) and reciprocity at school (OR 1.71; 95% CI 1.08 to 2.73). Higher levels of social capital were independently associated with higher self-rated health among youth. Intervention and policies that leverage community social capital might serve as an avenue for health promotion in youth. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Parental report of vaccine receipt in children with autism spectrum disorder: Do rates differ by pattern of ASD onset?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goin-Kochel, Robin P; Mire, Sarah S; Dempsey, Allison G; Fein, Rachel H; Guffey, Danielle; Minard, Charles G; Cunningham, Rachel M; Sahni, Leila C; Boom, Julie A

    2016-03-01

    A contentious theory espoused by some parents is that regressive-onset of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is triggered by vaccines. If this were true, then vaccine receipt should be higher in children with regressive-onset ASD compared with other patterns of onset. Parental report of rate of receipt for six vaccines (DPT/DTaP, HepB, Hib, polio, MMR, varicella) was examined in children with ASD (N=2755) who were categorized by pattern of ASD onset (early onset, plateau, delay-plus-regression, regression). All pairwise comparisons were significantly equivalent within a 10% margin for all vaccines except varicella, for which the delay-plus-regression group had lower rates of receipt (81%) than the early-onset (87%) and regression (87%) groups. Findings do not support a connection between regressive-onset ASD and vaccines in this cohort.

  16. Improvement of the structure of reports of Ukrainian higher educational institutions in terms of deregulation and state authority decentralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Ambarchian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of the structure and content of financial and budgetary reports of domestic higher educational institutions, enhance of financial statements completeness in order to enable citizens to control a university activity. During the research both general scientific and specific scientific economic methods were implemented. The general methods include induction, deduction, analogy and comparison. Among specific methods of economic research grouping, table method, graphical method, method of informational and logical analysis were used. The paper characterizes legal documents which regulate the process of university financial statements preparation and presentation in different countries. Financial reports of Ukrainian, American and British universities are compared. The author determines the major directions of improvement of the structure and content of domestic university reports with the purpose of their completeness enhancing. As a result of the research performed the proper recommendations of improvement of domestic universities reporting are suggested. The author conforms the reporting information with the Managerial report which discloses the information about the reporting period achievements and the efficiency of budget resources expenditure.

  17. OPTIMAL INVESTMENT CONSUMPTION MODEL WITH A HIGHER INTEREST RATE FOR BORROWING%高贷款利率的最优消费投资模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费为银; 吴让泉

    2000-01-01

    This paper considers a consumption and investment decision problem with a higher in terest rate for borrowing as well as the dividend rate. Wealth is divided into a riskless asset and risky asset with logrithmic Brownian motion price fluctuations. The stochastic control problem of maximizating expected utility from terminal wealth and consumption is studied. Equivalent conditions for optimality are obtained. By using duality methods ,the existence of optimal portfolio consumption is proved ,and the explicit solutions leading to feedback formulae are derived for deteministic coefficients.

  18. The relations between personality traits and psychopathy as measured by ratings and self-report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kujačić Daliborka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the relations between psychopathy - as assessed by ratings (PCL-R and by self-report (SRP3 - on one side, and The Five-Factor personality Model - expanded to include the traits Amorality and Disintegration - on the other. Both methods examined four traits of psychopathy: interpersonal, affective, lifestyle and antisocial characteristics. Data were collected on a sample of 112 male convicts. The results show the absence of congruence between the two methods - self-report and rating - in case of interpersonal and affective psychopathic dispositions. This incongruence is also reflected in their relations with personality traits. The self-report measures and the ratings of Lifestyle and Antisocial tendencies are related to amorality, aggressiveness, schizotypy, Neuroticism and impulsivity. However, the ratings of affective and interpersonal style are related to the integrated, organized, and emotionally stable aspects of personality. The results are interpreted in the light of differences between the methods of assessment and in the light of the essential characteristics of the psychopathic phenomena.

  19. Reporting success rates in the treatment of vestibular schwannomas: are we accounting for the natural history?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy; Lau, Tsz; Vasan, Rohit; Danner, Christopher; Youssef, A Samy; van Loveren, Harry; Agazzi, Siviero

    2014-06-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is generally accepted as one of the best treatment options for vestibular schwannomas. We question whether growth control is an accurate measure of success in vestibular schwannoma treatment. We aim to clarify the success rate of stereotactic radiosurgery and adjust the reported results to the benign natural history of untreated tumors. All articles were taken from a PubMed search of the English literature from the years 2000-2011. Inclusion criteria were articles containing the number of patients treated, radiation technique, average tumor size, follow-up time, and percentage of tumors growing during follow-up. Data were extracted from 19 articles. Success rates were adjusted using published data that 17% to 30% of vestibular schwannomas grow. The average reported success rate for stereotactic radiosurgery across all articles was 95.5%. When considering 17% or 30% natural growth without intervention, the adjusted success rates became 78.2% and 86.9% respectively. These rates were obtained by applying the natural history growth percentages to any tumors not reported to be growing before radiosurgical intervention. Success in the treatment of vestibular schwannomas with stereotactic radiosurgery is often defined as lack of further growth. Recent data on the natural growth history of vestibular schwannomas raise the question of whether this is the best definition of success. We have identified a lack of continuity regarding the reporting of success and emphasize the importance of the clarification of the success of radiosurgery to make informed decisions regarding the best treatment options for vestibular schwannoma.

  20. Voluntarily Reported Immunization Registry Data: Reliability and Feasibility to Predict Immunization Rates, San Diego, California, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madewell, Zachary J; Wester, Robert B; Wang, Wendy W; Smith, Tyler C; Peddecord, K Michael; Morris, Jessica; DeGuzman, Heidi; Sawyer, Mark H; McDonald, Eric C

    Accurate data on immunization coverage levels are essential to public health program planning. Reliability of coverage estimates derived from immunization information systems (IISs) in states where immunization reporting by medical providers is not mandated by the state may be compromised by low rates of participation. To overcome this problem, data on coverage rates are often acquired through random-digit-dial telephone surveys, which require substantial time and resources. This project tested both the reliability of voluntarily reported IIS data and the feasibility of using these data to estimate regional immunization rates. We matched telephone survey records for 553 patients aged 19-35 months obtained in 2013 to 430 records in the San Diego County IIS. We assessed concordance between survey data and IIS data using κ to measure the degree of nonrandom agreement. We used multivariable logistic regression models to investigate differences among demographic variables between the 2 data sets. These models were used to construct weights that enabled us to predict immunization rates in areas where reporting is not mandated. We found moderate agreement between the telephone survey and the IIS for the diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis (κ = 0.49), pneumococcal conjugate (κ = 0.49), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (κ = 0.46) vaccines; fair agreement for the varicella (κ = 0.39), polio (κ = 0.39), and measles, mumps, and rubella (κ = 0.35) vaccines; and slight agreement for the hepatitis B vaccine (κ = 0.17). Consistency in factors predicting immunization coverage levels in a telephone survey and IIS data confirmed the feasibility of using voluntarily reported IIS data to assess immunization rates in children aged 19-35 months.

  1. Development of the self-report version of the Zanarini Rating Scale for Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanarini, Mary C; Weingeroff, Jolie L; Frankenburg, Frances R; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the self-report version of the Zanarini Rating Scale for Borderline Personality Disorder (ZAN-BPD). The measure covers a 1-week time frame, and each of the nine criteria for BPD is rated on a five-point anchored rating scale of 0-4. Seventy-five subjects meeting DSM-IV criteria for BPD were recruited from the community. The convergent validity of the interview and self-report versions of the ZAN-BPD was found to be high (with a median value of 0.70). In terms of reliability, the internal consistency of the nine criteria scores of the ZAN-BPD was found to be good (Cronbach's alpha = 0.84). In addition, 13 of 14 intraclass correlations for same-day test-retest reliability were in the excellent range (> 0.75). Finally, the sensitivity of both versions of the ZAN-BPD to change was assessed 7-10 days after they were first administered and found to be adequate (e.g. r = 0.66 for total score of ZAN-BPD). Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the self-report ZAN-BPD is a promising self-report scale for the assessment of change in the severity of borderline psychopathology over time.

  2. APPRAISAL OF STUDENT RATING AS A MEASURE TO MANAGE THE QUALITY OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA: AN INSTITUTIONAL STUDY USING SIX SIGMA MODEL APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Arun Vijay

    2013-01-01

    Students' rating of teaching is one of the most widely accepted methods of measuring the quality in Higher Education worldwide. The overall experience gained by the students during their academic journey in their respective college is a key factor to determine the Institutional Quality. This study was conducted among the Physical Therapy students with an objective to capture the overall experience related to various aspects of their Academic environment including teaching and learning process...

  3. A modified natural cycle results in higher live birth rate in vitrified-thawed embryo transfer for women with regular menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yichun; Fan, Hongfang; Styer, Aaron K; Xiao, Zhiying; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jianrui; Sun, Lijun; Wang, Xingling; Zhang, Zhan

    2016-10-01

    There is no consensus regimen for the optimal endometrial preparation for cryopreservation and vitrified-thawed embryo transfer cycles. This is largely caused by the lack of sufficient investigation and analyses on the respective pregnancy and perinatal outcomes by different regimens. This study aimed to compare both pregnancy and perinatal outcomes between the modified natural and artificial cycles in vitrified-thawed day three embryo transfer for women with regular menstruation. A total of 1,482 vitrified-thawed day three embryo transfer cycles were reviewed including 427 modified natural cycles (NC), 132 ovulation induction cycles (OC), 794 artificial cycles (AC), and 129 GnRH agonist artificial cycles (GAC). The primary outcome that was evaluated was live birth rate. The NC regimen demonstrated a higher rate of ongoing pregnancy (43.8% vs. 30.2%, P = 0.002) and a lower rate of late abortion (2.8% vs. 14.0%, P = 0.003) than the GAC regimen as well as a higher implantation rate (31.9% vs. 27.1%, P = 0.008) and live birth rate (43.1% vs. 34.1%, P = 0.002) than the AC regimen. A significantly higher peak endometrial thickness before transfer was observed in patients using the NC and GAC regimens (10.0 ± 1.7, 9.9 ± 2.4) compared to the AC regimens (9.2 ± 1.5, P = 0.000). Multivariate logistic regression showed that the NC protocol was associated with a higher live birth rate. There were no significant differences in rates of pregnancy complications, neonatal mortality, birth defects, mean birth weight, and other perinatal outcomes among the regimens. Modified natural cycle endometrial preparation regimen for vitrified-thawed day three embryo transfer is associated with superior live birth pregnancy outcomes compared to artificial cycles. Future studies are warranted to investigate the underlying biologic mechanisms of these findings. Abbreviations ART: assisted reproductive technology; BMI: body mass index; FET: frozen-thawed embryo transfer; HCG: human chorionic

  4. Near isohydric grapevine cultivar displays higher photosynthetic efficiency and photorespiration rates under drought stress as compared with near anisohydric grapevine cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Uri; Degu, Asfaw; Fait, Aaron; Rachmilevitch, Shimon

    2013-04-01

    Drought stress is known to limit photosynthesis rates and to inflict photo-oxidative damage in grapevines. Grapevines, which are considered drought-tolerant plants, are characterized by diverse hydraulic and photosynthetic behaviors, depending on the cultivar. This research compared the photosynthesis and the photorespiration of Cabernet Sauvignon (Cs) (isohydric) and Shiraz (anisohydric) in an attempt to acquire a wider perspective on the iso/anisohydric phenomenon and its implications. Shiraz and Cs were subjected to terminal drought in the greenhouse. Soil water content (θ), leaf water potential (Ψl ) and stomata conductance (gs ) were measured to determine the cultivars' hydraulic behavior. Gas exchange and fluorometry measurements were taken at 21 and 2% O2 to acquire photosynthesis and photorespiration characteristics. Cs was found to behave in a near isohydric manner whereas Shiraz behaved in a near anisohydric manner. Compared to Shiraz, the reduced stomata conductance values of Cs were accompanied by higher water use efficiency and photorespiration rates, as well as photosystem II photochemical potential (Fv /Fm ). As compared with Shiraz, Cs compensated for lower stomata conductance by higher photosynthesis and photorespiration. These two processes contributed to higher electron flow rates that might have a role in photoinhibition avoidance, which was observed in the stability of Fv /Fm under drought stress.

  5. Pilot States Program report: Home energy ratings systems and energy-efficient mortgages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B.

    2000-04-04

    This report covers the accomplishments of the home energy ratings systems/energy-efficient mortgages (HERS/EEMs) pilot states from 1993 through 1998, including such indicators as funding, ratings and EEMs achieved, active raters, and training and marketing activities. A brief description of each HERS program's evolution is included, as well as their directors' views of the programs' future prospects. Finally, an analysis is provided of successful HERS program characteristics and factors that appear to contribute to HERS program success.

  6. Self-report and observer ratings of personality functioning: a study of the OPD system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinger, Ulrike; Schauenburg, Henning; Hörz, Susanne; Rentrop, Michael; Komo-Lang, Miriam; Klinkerfuß, Mathias; Köhling, Johanna; Grande, Tilman; Ehrenthal, Johannes C

    2014-01-01

    Recent considerations around DSM-5 criteria of personality disorders (PDs) demand new concepts of assessing levels of personality functioning. Of special interest are multiperspective approaches accounting for clinicians' as well as patients' points of view. The study investigates observer-rated and self-assessed levels of personality functioning measured by the level of structural integration as defined by the Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnosis System (OPD). Both perspectives were positively related. The combination of both measures was most efficient in discriminating among 3 diagnostic groups of varying degrees of personality dysfunction. Future studies should take into account expert ratings as well as self-report data.

  7. Testing the impact of local alcohol licencing policies on reported crime rates in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vocht, F; Heron, J; Campbell, R; Egan, M; Mooney, J D; Angus, C; Brennan, A; Hickman, M

    2017-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol use contributes to public nuisance, antisocial behaviour, and domestic, interpersonal and sexual violence. We test whether licencing policies aimed at restricting its spatial and/or temporal availability, including cumulative impact zones, are associated with reductions in alcohol-related crime. Methods Reported crimes at English lower tier local authority (LTLA) level were used to calculate the rates of reported crimes including alcohol-attributable rates of sexual offences and violence against a person, and public order offences. Financial fraud was included as a control crime not directly associated with alcohol abuse. Each area was classified as to its cumulative licensing policy intensity for 2009–2015 and categorised as ‘passive’, low, medium or high. Crime rates adjusted for area deprivation, outlet density, alcohol-related hospital admissions and population size at baseline were analysed using hierarchical (log-rate) growth modelling. Results 284 of 326 LTLAs could be linked and had complete data. From 2009 to 2013 alcohol-related violent and sexual crimes and public order offences rates declined faster in areas with more ‘intense’ policies (about 1.2, 0.10 and 1.7 per 1000 people compared with 0.6, 0.01 and 1.0 per 1000 people in ‘passive’ areas, respectively). Post-2013, the recorded rates increased again. No trends were observed for financial fraud. Conclusions Local areas in England with more intense alcohol licensing policies had a stronger decline in rates of violent crimes, sexual crimes and public order offences in the period up to 2013 of the order of 4–6% greater compared with areas where these policies were not in place, but not thereafter. PMID:27514936

  8. Reduction in Surgical Wound Infection Rates Associated with Reporting Data to Surgeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GD Taylor

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that wound infection (surgical site infection [ ssi ] rates fall when surgeons are provided with data on their performance. Since 1987, the authors have been performing concurrent surveillance of surgical patients and confidentially reporting surgeon-specific ssi rates to individual surgeons and their clinical directors, and providing surgeons with the mean rates of their peers. The program has been gradually refined and expanded. Data are now collected on wound infection risk and report risk adjusted rates compared with the mean for hospitals in the United States National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (nnis data bank. Since inception through to December 1993, ssi rates have fallen 68% in clean contaminated general surgery cases (relative risk [rr] 0.36, 95% ci 0.2 to 0.6, P=0.0001, 64% in clean plastic surgery cases (rr 0.35, 95% ci 0.06 to 1.8, 72% in caesarean section cases (rr 0.23, 95% ci 0.03 to 1.96 and 42% in clean cardiovascular surgery cases (rr 0.59, 95% ci 0.34 to 1.0. In clean orthopedic surgery the ssi rate remained stable from 1987 through 1992. In 1993 a marked increase was experienced. Reasons for this are being explored. Overall there was a 32% decrease in ssi rate between the index year and 1993 or, in percentage terms, 2.8% to 1.9% (rr 0.65, 95% ci 0.51 to 0.86, P=0.002. ssi surveillance should become standard in Canadian hospitals interested in improving the quality of surgical care and reducing the clinical impact and cost associated with nosocomial infection.

  9. Higher wear-rate of third-generation metal-backed Reflection cups with eto-sterilised UHMWPE at a mean 13 years follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengst, David M; Thomsen, Per B; Homilius, Morten; Hansen, Torben B; Stilling, Maiken

    2014-12-01

    Polyethylene (PE) wear and osteolysis is a recognised problem with non-cross linked PE liners and first generation modular cup designs. Wear particles induce osteolysis leading to aseptic loosening. We retrospectively compared the linear PE wear and implant survival and revision rates of the Reflection Cup and the Duraloc 300. After a mean clinical follow-up of 13 years (range 11-15 years), the 2D linear PE wear-rate of the Reflection liner (n = 68) was 0.23 mm/year, with a mean total wear of 3.14 mm (1.04-7.36), SD 1.45. The wear-rate of the Duraloc 300 cups (n = 32) was 0.14 mm/year, with a mean total wear of 1.84 mm (0.55-4.63), SD 1.07. The difference in PE wear-rate as well as mean total wear was highly significant (p = 0.0001). There was a positive correlation between wear-rate and both Oxford Hip Score and Harris Hip Score (p = 0.02). Large acetabular cup size (>54 mm), HA coating on the stem and age <50 years did not influence PE wear. The higher wear-rate in the Reflection liners could be related to the EtO sterilisation. Intermediate and long-term follow-up is advisable.

  10. Being born under adverse economic conditions leads to a higher cardiovascular mortality rate later in life: evidence based on individuals born at different stages of the business cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Gerard J; Doblhammer-Reiter, Gabriele; Christensen, Kaare

    2011-01-01

    since the 1870s and including the cause of death. To capture exogenous variation of conditions early in life, we use the state of the business cycle around birth. We find significant negative effects of economic conditions around birth on the individual CV mortality rate at higher ages......We connect the recent medical and economic literatures on the long-run effects of early-life conditions by analyzing the effects of economic conditions on the individual cardiovascular (CV) mortality rate later in life, using individual data records from the Danish Twin Registry covering births....... There is no effect on the cancer-specific mortality rate. From variation within and between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs born under different conditions, we conclude that the fate of an individual is more strongly determined by genetic and household-environmental factors if early-life conditions are poor...

  11. Higher Prevalence and Awareness, but Lower Control Rate of Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes than General Population: The Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Seung-Hyun; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kim, Dae Jung; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Kim, Nan Hee; Kim, Chul Sik; Song, Kee-Ho; Won, Jong Chul; Lim, Soo; Choi, Sung Hee; Han, Kyungdo

    2014-01-01

    Background We investigated the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rate of hypertension in Korean adults with diabetes using nationally representative data. Methods Using data of 5,105 adults from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011 (4,389 nondiabetes mellitus [non-DM]), 242 newly diagnosed with DM (new-DM), and 474 previously diagnosed with DM (known-DM), we analyzed the prevalence of hypertension (mean systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg, or use of antihypertensive medication) and control rate of hypertension (blood pressure [BP] <130/80 mm Hg). Results The prevalence of hypertension in diabetic adults was 54.6% (44.4% in new-DM and 62.6% in known-DM, P<0.0001 and P<0.0001, respectively) compared with non-DM adults (26.2%). Compared to non-DM, awareness (85.7%, P<0.001) and treatment (97.0%, P=0.020) rates were higher in known-DM, whereas no differences were found between new-DM and non-DM. Control rate among all hypertensive subjects was lower in new-DM (14.9%), compared to non-DM (35.1%, P<0.001) and known-DM (33.3%, P=0.004). Control rate among treated subjects was also lower in new-DM (25.2%), compared to non-DM (68.4%, P<0.0001) and known-DM (39.9%, P<0.0001). Conclusion Higher prevalence and low control rate of hypertension in adults with diabetes suggest that stringent efforts are needed to control BP in patients with diabetes, particularly in newly diagnosed diabetic patients. PMID:24627828

  12. Slow but not low: genomic comparisons reveal slower evolutionary rate and higher dN/dS in conifers compared to angiosperms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Comparative genomics can inform us about the processes of mutation and selection across diverse taxa. Among seed plants, gymnosperms have been lacking in genomic comparisons. Recent EST and full-length cDNA collections for two conifers, Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), together with full genome sequences for two angiosperms, Arabidopsis thaliana and poplar (Populus trichocarpa), offer an opportunity to infer the evolutionary processes underlying thousands of orthologous protein-coding genes in gymnosperms compared with an angiosperm orthologue set. Results Based upon pairwise comparisons of 3,723 spruce and pine orthologues, we found an average synonymous genetic distance (dS) of 0.191, and an average dN/dS ratio of 0.314. Using a fossil-established divergence time of 140 million years between spruce and pine, we extrapolated a nucleotide substitution rate of 0.68 × 10-9 synonymous substitutions per site per year. When compared to angiosperms, this indicates a dramatically slower rate of nucleotide substitution rates in conifers: on average 15-fold. Coincidentally, we found a three-fold higher dN/dS for the spruce-pine lineage compared to the poplar-Arabidopsis lineage. This joint occurrence of a slower evolutionary rate in conifers with higher dN/dS, and possibly positive selection, showcases the uniqueness of conifer genome evolution. Conclusions Our results are in line with documented reduced nucleotide diversity, conservative genome evolution and low rates of diversification in conifers on the one hand and numerous examples of local adaptation in conifers on the other hand. We propose that reduced levels of nucleotide mutation in large and long-lived conifer trees, coupled with large effective population size, were the main factors leading to slow substitution rates but retention of beneficial mutations. PMID:22264329

  13. Slow but not low: genomic comparisons reveal slower evolutionary rate and higher dN/dS in conifers compared to angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buschiazzo Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Comparative genomics can inform us about the processes of mutation and selection across diverse taxa. Among seed plants, gymnosperms have been lacking in genomic comparisons. Recent EST and full-length cDNA collections for two conifers, Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda, together with full genome sequences for two angiosperms, Arabidopsis thaliana and poplar (Populus trichocarpa, offer an opportunity to infer the evolutionary processes underlying thousands of orthologous protein-coding genes in gymnosperms compared with an angiosperm orthologue set. Results Based upon pairwise comparisons of 3,723 spruce and pine orthologues, we found an average synonymous genetic distance (dS of 0.191, and an average dN/dS ratio of 0.314. Using a fossil-established divergence time of 140 million years between spruce and pine, we extrapolated a nucleotide substitution rate of 0.68 × 10-9 synonymous substitutions per site per year. When compared to angiosperms, this indicates a dramatically slower rate of nucleotide substitution rates in conifers: on average 15-fold. Coincidentally, we found a three-fold higher dN/dS for the spruce-pine lineage compared to the poplar-Arabidopsis lineage. This joint occurrence of a slower evolutionary rate in conifers with higher dN/dS, and possibly positive selection, showcases the uniqueness of conifer genome evolution. Conclusions Our results are in line with documented reduced nucleotide diversity, conservative genome evolution and low rates of diversification in conifers on the one hand and numerous examples of local adaptation in conifers on the other hand. We propose that reduced levels of nucleotide mutation in large and long-lived conifer trees, coupled with large effective population size, were the main factors leading to slow substitution rates but retention of beneficial mutations.

  14. Higher Prevalence and Awareness, but Lower Control Rate of Hypertension in Patients with Diabetes than General Population: The Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hyun Ko

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe investigated the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control rate of hypertension in Korean adults with diabetes using nationally representative data.MethodsUsing data of 5,105 adults from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2011 (4,389 nondiabetes mellitus [non-DM], 242 newly diagnosed with DM (new-DM, and 474 previously diagnosed with DM (known-DM, we analyzed the prevalence of hypertension (mean systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg, or use of antihypertensive medication and control rate of hypertension (blood pressure [BP] <130/80 mm Hg.ResultsThe prevalence of hypertension in diabetic adults was 54.6% (44.4% in new-DM and 62.6% in known-DM, P<0.0001 and P<0.0001, respectively compared with non-DM adults (26.2%. Compared to non-DM, awareness (85.7%, P<0.001 and treatment (97.0%, P=0.020 rates were higher in known-DM, whereas no differences were found between new-DM and non-DM. Control rate among all hypertensive subjects was lower in new-DM (14.9%, compared to non-DM (35.1%, P<0.001 and known-DM (33.3%, P=0.004. Control rate among treated subjects was also lower in new-DM (25.2%, compared to non-DM (68.4%, P<0.0001 and known-DM (39.9%, P<0.0001.ConclusionHigher prevalence and low control rate of hypertension in adults with diabetes suggest that stringent efforts are needed to control BP in patients with diabetes, particularly in newly diagnosed diabetic patients.

  15. Slow but not low: genomic comparisons reveal slower evolutionary rate and higher dN/dS in conifers compared to angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschiazzo, Emmanuel; Ritland, Carol; Bohlmann, Jörg; Ritland, Kermit

    2012-01-20

    Comparative genomics can inform us about the processes of mutation and selection across diverse taxa. Among seed plants, gymnosperms have been lacking in genomic comparisons. Recent EST and full-length cDNA collections for two conifers, Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), together with full genome sequences for two angiosperms, Arabidopsis thaliana and poplar (Populus trichocarpa), offer an opportunity to infer the evolutionary processes underlying thousands of orthologous protein-coding genes in gymnosperms compared with an angiosperm orthologue set. Based upon pairwise comparisons of 3,723 spruce and pine orthologues, we found an average synonymous genetic distance (dS) of 0.191, and an average dN/dS ratio of 0.314. Using a fossil-established divergence time of 140 million years between spruce and pine, we extrapolated a nucleotide substitution rate of 0.68 × 10(-9) synonymous substitutions per site per year. When compared to angiosperms, this indicates a dramatically slower rate of nucleotide substitution rates in conifers: on average 15-fold. Coincidentally, we found a three-fold higher dN/dS for the spruce-pine lineage compared to the poplar-Arabidopsis lineage. This joint occurrence of a slower evolutionary rate in conifers with higher dN/dS, and possibly positive selection, showcases the uniqueness of conifer genome evolution. Our results are in line with documented reduced nucleotide diversity, conservative genome evolution and low rates of diversification in conifers on the one hand and numerous examples of local adaptation in conifers on the other hand. We propose that reduced levels of nucleotide mutation in large and long-lived conifer trees, coupled with large effective population size, were the main factors leading to slow substitution rates but retention of beneficial mutations.

  16. Energy Policy Act transportation rate study: Interim report on coal transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to examine changes in domestic coal distribution and railroad coal transportation rates since enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90). From 1988 through 1993, the demand for low-sulfur coal increased, as a the 1995 deadline for compliance with Phase 1 of CAAA90 approached. The shift toward low-sulfur coal came sooner than had been generally expected because many electric utilities switched early from high-sulfur coal to ``compliance`` (very low-sulfur) coal. They did so to accumulate emissions allowances that could be used to meet the stricter Phase 2 requirements. Thus, the demand for compliance coal increased the most. The report describes coal distribution and sulfur content, railroad coal transportation and transportation rates, and electric utility contract coal transportation trends from 1979 to 1993 including national trends, regional comparisons, distribution patterns and regional profiles. 14 figs., 76 tabs.

  17. The VAGUS insight into psychosis scale--self-report and clinician-rated versions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerretsen, Philip; Remington, Gary; Borlido, Carol; Quilty, Lena; Hassan, Sabrina; Polsinelli, Gina; Teo, Celine; Mar, Wanna; Simon, Regina; Menon, Mahesh; Pothier, David D; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Caravaggio, Fernando; Mamo, David C; Rajji, Tarek K; Mulsant, Benoit H; Deluca, Vincenzo; Ganguli, Rohan; Pollock, Bruce G; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2014-12-30

    The aim of this study was to develop self-report and clinician-rated versions of an insight scale that would be easy to administer, sensitive to small changes, and inclusive of the core dimensions of clinical insight into psychosis. Ten-item self-report (VAGUS-SR) and five-item clinician-rated (VAGUS-CR) scales were designed to measure the dimensions of insight into psychosis and evaluated in 215 and 140 participants, respectively (www.vagusonline.com). Tests of reliability and validity were performed. Both the VAGUS-SR and VAGUS-CR showed good internal consistency and reliability. They demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity. Both versions were strongly correlated with one another and with the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight and Birchwood Insight Scale. Exploratory factor analyses identified three possible latent components of insight. The VAGUS-CR and VAGUS-SR are valid, reliable and easy to administer. They are build on previous insight scales with separate clinician-rated and self-report versions. The VAGUS-SR exhibited a multidimensional factor structure. Using a 10-point Likert scale for each item, the VAGUS has the capacity to detect small, temporally sensitive changes in insight, which is essential for intervention studies with neurostimulation or rapidly acting medications.

  18. The VAGUS insight into psychosis scale – Self-report & clinician-rated versions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerretsen, Philip; Remington, Gary; Borlido, Carol; Quilty, Lena; Hassan, Sabrina; Polsinelli, Gina; Teo, Celine; Mar, Wanna; Simon, Regina; Menon, Mahesh; Pothier, David D.; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Caravaggio, Fernando; Mamo, David C.; Rajji, Tarek K.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Deluca, Vincenzo; Ganguli, Rohan; Pollock, Bruce G.; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop self-report and clinician-rated versions of an insight scale that would be easy to administer, sensitive to small changes, and inclusive of the core dimensions of clinical insight into psychosis. Ten-item self-report (VAGUS-SR) and five-item clinician-rated (VAGUS-CR) scales were designed to measure the dimensions of insight into psychosis and evaluated in 215 and 140 participants, respectively (www.vagusonline.com). Tests of reliability and validity were performed. Both the VAGUS-SR and VAGUS-CR showed good internal consistency and reliability. They demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity. Both versions were strongly correlated with one another and with the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight and Birchwood Insight Scale. Exploratory factor analyses identified three possible latent components of insight. The VAGUS-CR and VAGUS-SR are valid, reliable and easy to administer. They are build on previous insight scales with separate clinician-rated and self-report versions. The VAGUS-SR exhibited a multidimensional factor structure. Using a 10-point Likert scale for each item, the VAGUS has the capacity to detect small, temporally sensitive changes in insight, which is essential for intervention studies with neurostimulation or rapidly acting medications. PMID:25246410

  19. Higher neonatal growth rate and body condition score at 7 months are predictive factors of obesity in adult female Beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Lucie; Thorin, Chantal; Flanagan, John; Biourge, Vincent; Serisier, Samuel; Nguyen, Patrick

    2017-04-13

    The risks during early growth on becoming overweight in adulthood are widely studied in humans. However, early-life predictive factors for canine adult overweight and obesity have not yet been studied. To identify factors that may help explain the development of overweight and obesity at adulthood in dogs, a longitudinal study of 2 years was conducted in 24 female Beagle dogs of the same age, sexual status, and raised under identical environmental conditions. By means of a hierarchical classification on principal components with the following quantitative values: fat-free mass (FFM), percentage fat mass and pelvic circumference at 2 years of age, three groups of dogs were established and were nominally named: ideal weight (IW, n = 9), slightly overweight (OW1, n = 6) and overweight (OW2, n = 9). With the aim of identifying predictive factors of development of obesity at adulthood parental characteristics, growth pattern, energy balance and plasma factors were analysed by logistic regression analysis. At 24 months, the group compositions were in line with the body condition scores (BCS 1-9) values of the IW (5 or 6/9), the OW1 (6/9) and the OW2 (7 or 8/9) groups. Logistic regression analysis permitted the identification of neonatal growth rate during the first 2 weeks of life (GR2W) and BCS at 7 months as predictors for the development of obesity at adulthood. Seventy percent of dogs with either GR2W >125% or with BCS > 6/9 at 7 months belonged to the OW2 group. Results from energy intake and expenditure, corrected for FFM, showed that there was a greater positive energy imbalance between 7 and 10 months for the OW2, compared to the IW group. This study expands the understanding of previously reported risk factors for being overweight or obese in dogs, establishing that (i) 15 out of 24 of the studied dogs became overweight and (ii) GR2W and BCS at 7 months of age could be used as predictive factors as overweight adult dogs in the OW2 group

  20. Reporting of exercise attendance rates for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Marie T; Lewis, Lucy K; McKeough, Zoe; Holland, Anne E; Lee, Annemarie; McNamara, Renae; Phillips, Anna; Wiles, Louise; Knapman, Leona; Wootton, Sally; Milross, Maree; Effing, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    While recommendations for the duration, frequency, mode and intensity of exercise programmes for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are specified in consensus statements, criteria for exercise session attendance are less clear. The review questions were: (i) how commonly are a priori criteria and attendance rates reported for people with COPD participating in exercise programmes and (ii) what is the strength of association between attendance and improvements in functional exercise capacity. Database searches identified primary studies of people with COPD participating in exercise or pulmonary rehabilitation programmes of at least 2 weeks duration. Primary outcomes were a priori criteria for attendance, reports of attendance at supervised exercise sessions and mean improvements in functional exercise assessments. Data extraction processes were confirmed prospectively (>80% agreement). Variants of exercise attendance data were described. Linear associations between attendance and improvements in exercise outcomes were explored (Pearson r, P exercise data before and after the intervention, there was little to no relationship between improvements in functional exercise capacity and training volume (prescribed r = -0.03, P = 0.88; attended r = -0.24, P = 0.18). Reporting of exercise programme attendance rates is low and of variable quality for people with COPD. Consistent and explicit reporting of exercise attendance in people with COPD will enable calculation of dose-response relationships and determine the value of a priori exercise attendance criteria.

  1. Brief report: social and communication abilities and disabilities in higher functioning individuals with autism and Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulnier, Celine A; Klin, Ami

    2007-04-01

    Individuals with higher functioning autism (HFA) fail to translate their cognitive potential into real-life adaptation, and the severity of their symptoms is considerable despite their intellectual ability. This paper reports on a subsample from a larger study (A. Klin et al., in press) analyzed here by autism spectrum subtypes. It focuses on the nature of ability and disability in HFA and Asperger syndrome (AS) in relation to age and IQ. Participants included 32 individuals with autism and 35 with AS. Individuals with AS had significantly higher Verbal IQ scores and less symptomatology than individuals with autism, but their Vineland scores were equally impaired, highlighting the adaptive deficits in ASD regardless of classification. No relationship was found between adaptive functioning and symptom severity.

  2. Public reporting of hospital infection rates: ranking the states on credibility and user friendliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Ava; Birnbaum, David W; Black, Bernard; Hyman, David A

    2013-01-01

    Health-care associated infections ("HAIs") kill about 100,000 people annually; most are preventable, but many hospitals have not aggressively addressed the problem. In response, twenty-five states and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services require public reporting of hospital infection rates for at least some types of infections, and other states and private entities are implementing such reporting. The websites and related reports vary widely in ease of access, ease of use, usefulness of information, timeliness of updates, and credibility. We report on work in progress, in which we assess the quality and suitability of different state websites and reports for different target audiences (ordinary consumers; physicians, and infection control professionals) and the extent to which they meet best practices for online communication, including Stanford's "Fogg" Guidelines for Web Credibility and user-friendliness metrics developed by other researchers. We find wide variation in quality, and substantial correlation between measures of website credibility and user-friendliness. We identify ways to improve usability, usefulness, and tailoring for information to different target audiences. Our analysis suggests that the "one website (and report format) fits all users" model may not work well in delivering complex, technical information to users with widely varying needs and sophistication.

  3. Recovery Act: Energy Efficiency of Data Networks through Rate Adaptation (EEDNRA) - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Andrews; Spyridon Antonakopoulos; Steve Fortune; Andrea Francini; Lisa Zhang

    2011-07-12

    This Concept Definition Study focused on developing a scientific understanding of methods to reduce energy consumption in data networks using rate adaptation. Rate adaptation is a collection of techniques that reduce energy consumption when traffic is light, and only require full energy when traffic is at full provisioned capacity. Rate adaptation is a very promising technique for saving energy: modern data networks are typically operated at average rates well below capacity, but network equipment has not yet been designed to incorporate rate adaptation. The Study concerns packet-switching equipment, routers and switches; such equipment forms the backbone of the modern Internet. The focus of the study is on algorithms and protocols that can be implemented in software or firmware to exploit hardware power-control mechanisms. Hardware power-control mechanisms are widely used in the computer industry, and are beginning to be available for networking equipment as well. Network equipment has different performance requirements than computer equipment because of the very fast rate of packet arrival; hence novel power-control algorithms are required for networking. This study resulted in five published papers, one internal report, and two patent applications, documented below. The specific technical accomplishments are the following: • A model for the power consumption of switching equipment used in service-provider telecommunication networks as a function of operating state, and measured power-consumption values for typical current equipment. • An algorithm for use in a router that adapts packet processing rate and hence power consumption to traffic load while maintaining performance guarantees on delay and throughput. • An algorithm that performs network-wide traffic routing with the objective of minimizing energy consumption, assuming that routers have less-than-ideal rate adaptivity. • An estimate of the potential energy savings in service-provider networks

  4. The Effect of Higher Sludge Recycling Rate on Anaerobic Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent in a Semi-Commercial Closed Digester for Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alawi Sulaiman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A 500 m3 semi-commercial closed anaerobic digester was constructed for Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME treatment and methane gas capture for renewable energy. During the start-up operation period, the Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA accumulation could not be controlled and caused instability on the system. Approach: A settling tank was installed and sludge was recycled as to provide a balanced microorganisms population for the treatment of POME and methane gas production. The effect of sludge recycling rate was studied by applying Organic Loading Rates (OLR (between 1.0 and 10.0 kgCOD m-3 day-1 at different sludge recycling rates (6, 12 and 18 m3 day-1. Results: At sludge recycling rate of 18 m3 day-1, the maximum OLR was 10.0 kgCOD m-3 day-1 with biogas and methane productivity of 1.5 and 0.9 m3 m-3 day-1, respectively. By increasing the sludge recycling rate the VFA concentration was controlled below its inhibitory limit (1000 mg L-1 and the COD removal efficiency recorded was above 95% which indicated good treatment performance for the digester. Two methanogens species (Methanosarcina sp. and Methanosaeta concilii had been identified from sludge samples obtained from the digester and recycled stream. Conclusion: By increasing the sludge recycling rate upon higher application of OLR, the treatment process was kept stable with high COD removal efficiency. The biogas and methane productivity were initially improved but reduced once OLR and recycling rate were increased to 10.0 kg COD m3 day-1 and 18 m3 day-1 respectively.

  5. Gene duplication and an accelerated evolutionary rate in 11S globulin genes are associated with higher protein synthesis in dicots as compared to monocots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seed storage proteins are a major source of dietary protein, and the content of such proteins determines both the quantity and quality of crop yield. Significantly, examination of the protein content in the seeds of crop plants shows a distinct difference between monocots and dicots. Thus, it is expected that there are different evolutionary patterns in the genes underlying protein synthesis in the seeds of these two groups of plants. Results Gene duplication, evolutionary rate and positive selection of a major gene family of seed storage proteins (the 11S globulin genes, were compared in dicots and monocots. The results, obtained from five species in each group, show more gene duplications, a higher evolutionary rate and positive selections of this gene family in dicots, which are rich in 11S globulins, but not in the monocots. Conclusion Our findings provide evidence to support the suggestion that gene duplication and an accelerated evolutionary rate may be associated with higher protein synthesis in dicots as compared to monocots.

  6. Higher acceptance rates for abstracts written in English at a national research student meeting in a non-English speaking country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khani, Afshin; Zarghami, Amin; Izadpanah, Fatemeh; Mahdizadeh, Hamid; Golestanifar, Leila

    2015-01-01

    The rate of English-written submissions is increasing in local meetings of non-English speaking countries. However, it seems that the quality of research and methodology of the studies has not progressed. This study aimed to evaluate the association of English writing and the acceptance for presentation following the peer-review process in the 13th Annual Research Congress of Iran's Medical Sciences Students (ARCIMSS). All 1817 complete abstracts submitted to the meeting were included in this cross-sectional study. Each was evaluated for the language of the text (English or Persian), final decision after peer review (accepted vs. rejected), presentation type (oral, poster discussion and poster) and the scores of reviewing process. There were 395 (21.7%) abstracts written in English and 1422 (78.3%) in Persian. The acceptance rate for English abstracts was 33.7% and for Persian 24.6% (OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.22-1.98). The rate of abstracts' acceptance for presentation in oral panels was significantly higher for English abstracts than for those in Persian (25.6% versus 15.7%, OR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.14-2.99). By contrast, Persian abstracts were more likely to be accepted as poster panels than were English abstracts (74.9% versus 63.9%, OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.10-2.58). English-written abstracts have higher chance of acceptation in a non-English speaker country like Iran.

  7. Evaluation of higher distribution and/or utilization voltages. Fourth interim report (August 1980): assessment of optimum distribution configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    This interim report provides documentation on the fourth task, Assessment of Optimum Distribution Configuration, of DOE Contract No. ET-78-C-01-2866, Evaluation of Higher Distribution and/or Utilization Voltages. The work performed under this task includes the development of a computer model for assessment of life cycle costs for the distribution and utilization systems, the development of an optimization algorithm to enable distribution system configuration optimization and a net energy analysis to determine potential net energy savings. Input data for this task derive from Task 3. The major output of this task is a documented computer code.

  8. Increased error rates in preliminary reports issued by radiology residents working more than 10 consecutive hours overnight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruutiainen, Alexander T; Durand, Daniel J; Scanlon, Mary H; Itri, Jason N

    2013-03-01

    -sectional imaging modality (OR 5.38, 95% CI 3.22-8.98), and inpatient location (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.02-3.20) were independent risk factors for major discrepancy. In a single academic medical center, major discrepancies in resident preliminary reports increased significantly during the final 2 hours of consecutive 12-hour overnight call shifts. This finding could be related to either fatigue or circadian desynchronization. Discrimination of these two potential etiologies requires additional investigation as major discrepancies in resident reports have the potential to negatively impact patient care/outcome. Cross-sectional imaging modalities including computed tomography and ultrasound (versus conventional radiography), as well as inpatient location (versus Emergency Department location), were also associated with significantly higher major discrepancy rates. Copyright © 2013 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Modified A{sup ++}-standard refrigerator with 30% reduction of energy consumption. Higher efficiency by compressor modification - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegrist, M.; Stahl, S.; Ganz, J.

    2010-06-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at how a modified refrigerator can be given a higher efficiency by modifying the compressor. The modified refrigerator was fitted with a variable-speed compressor. This compressor could be run at much lower speeds so that it was in operation for up to 90% of the time. It was shown that less electricity was consumed the more the compressor ran. The report discusses the aims of the work and presents details on the standard refrigerator used for the tests. The compressor normally used and the variable-speed compressor used in the test are described. Systems for temperature control and data acquisition during the tests are described. The results obtained are examined and the influence of various factors is discussed.

  10. Total Quality Management in Higher Education: Clearing the Hurdles. A Survey on Strategies for Implementing Quality Management Practices in Higher Education. A GOAL/QPC Application Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Daniel

    Based on a survey of Quality Management (QM) practitioners at 21 colleges, this study presents the 10 most difficult implementation hurdles to QM in higher education and a set of hurdle-clearing strategies. The hurdles are: (1) lack of time to implement QM; (2) perception that QM is something for janitorial and housing staffs but not applicable to…

  11. Bilingual Higher Education Summer Institute. Bilingual Higher Education: Foundations, Policy, and Practice. Report of Proceedings (Seton Hall University, August 24-29, 1979).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotayo, Rosa Maria, Ed.

    Papers are presented from the New Jersey Department of Higher Education Summer Institute. Focus is on sociolinguistic, anthropological, social psychological, pedagogical, and socio-political-economic considerations. Each analyzes particular factors that influence the form and quality of bilingual policy and instruction programs, and offers…

  12. Total Quality Management in Higher Education: Clearing the Hurdles. A Survey on Strategies for Implementing Quality Management Practices in Higher Education. A GOAL/QPC Application Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Daniel

    Based on a survey of Quality Management (QM) practitioners at 21 colleges, this study presents the 10 most difficult implementation hurdles to QM in higher education and a set of hurdle-clearing strategies. The hurdles are: (1) lack of time to implement QM; (2) perception that QM is something for janitorial and housing staffs but not applicable to…

  13. The Path to Excellence: Quality Assurance in Higher Education. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Research Reports, No. 1. FYI Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Lawrence R.; And Others

    There is an increasing interest by government in accountability for higher education. Efforts such as performance budgeting, performance auditing, and state review of academic programs are becoming more common. Opponents of government involvement assert that regional accreditation reviews are sufficient to maintain quality standards. However,…

  14. The Uses of Institutional Culture: Strengthening Identification and Building Brand Equity in Higher Education. ASHE Higher Education Report, Volume 31, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, J. Douglas, Ed.; Dubrow, Greg, Ed.; Hartley, Matthew, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Institutional culture matters in higher education, and universities and colleges commonly express the need to strengthen their culture. A strong culture is perceived, correctly so, to engender a needed sense of connectedness between and among the varied constituents associated with a campus. Linking organizational culture and social cohesion is…

  15. Do First Generation Immigrant Adolescents Face Higher Rates of Bullying, Violence and Suicidal Behaviours Than Do Third Generation and Native Born?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottie, Kevin; Dahal, Govinda; Georgiades, Katholiki; Premji, Kamila; Hassan, Ghayda

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a systematic review to examine first generation immigrant adolescents' likelihood of experiencing bullying, violence, and suicidal behaviours compared to their later-generation and native born counterparts, and to identify factors that may underlie these risks. Eighteen studies met full inclusion criteria. First generation immigrant adolescents experience higher rate of bullying and peer aggression compared to third generation and native counterparts. Refugee status and advanced parental age were associated with increased parent to child aggression among South East Asians. Family cohesion was associated with lower rates of violence. Suicidal ideation was lower across most immigrant adolescents' ethnicities, with the exception of Turkish and South Asian Surinamese female adolescents in the Netherlands. Bullying and peer aggression of immigrant children and adolescents and potential mitigating factors such as family cohesion warrant research and program attention by policymakers, teachers and parents.

  16. Extraspinal incidental findings on routine MRI of lumbar spine: Prevalence and reporting Rates in 1278 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuncel, Sedat Alpaslan; Cagli, Bekir; Tekatas, Aslan; Kirici, Yadigar Mehmet; Unlu, Ercument; Genchellac, Haken [Trakya University Faculty of Medicine, Balkan Campus, Edirne (Turkmenistan)

    2015-08-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and reporting rate of incidental findings (IF) in adult outpatients undergoing lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Re-evaluation of a total of 1278 lumbar MRI images (collected from patients with a mean age of 50.5 years, range 16-91 years) captured between August 2010-August 2011 was done by a neuroradiologist and a musculoskeletal radiologist. IFs were classified according to organ or system (liver, gallbladder, kidney, bladder, uterus, ovary, lymph node, intestine and aorta). The rate of reporting of a range of IF was examined. The outcome of each patient's treatment was evaluated based on review of hospital records and by telephone interviews. A total of 253 IFs were found in 241 patients (18.8% of 1278). Among these, clinically significant IFs (n = 34) included: 2 renal masses (0.15%), 2 aortic aneurysms (0.15%), 2 cases of hydronephrosis (0.15%), 11 adrenal masses (0.86%), 7 lymphadenopathies (0.55%), 6 cases of endometrial or cervical thickening (0.47%), 1 liver hemangioma (0.08%), 1 pelvic fluid (0.08%) and 2 ovarian dermoid cysts (0.15%). Overall, 28% (71/253) of IFs were included in the clinical reports, while clinically significant findings were reported in 41% (14/34) of cases. Extraspinal IFs are commonly detected during a routine lumbar MRI, and many of these findings are not clinically significant. However, IFs including clinically important findings are occasionally omitted from formal radiological reports.

  17. Higher tacrolimus trough levels on days 2-5 post-renal transplant are associated with reduced rates of acute rejection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Seaghdha, C M

    2011-04-06

    We analyzed the association between whole-blood trough tacrolimus (TAC) levels in the first days post-kidney transplant and acute cellular rejection (ACR) rates. Four hundred and sixty-four consecutive, deceased-donor kidney transplant recipients were included. All were treated with a combination of TAC, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone. Patients were analyzed in four groups based on quartiles of the mean TAC on days 2 and 5 post-transplant: Group 1: median TAC 11 ng\\/mL (n = 122, range 2-13.5 ng\\/mL), Group 2: median 17 ng\\/mL (n = 123, range 14-20 ng\\/mL), Group 3: median 24 ng\\/mL (n = 108, range 20.5-27 ng\\/mL) and Group 4: median 33.5 ng\\/mL (n = 116, range 27.5-77.5 ng\\/mL). A graded reduction in the rates of ACR was observed for each incremental days 2-5 TAC. The one-yr ACR rate was 24.03% (95% CI 17.26-32.88), 22.20% (95% CI 15.78-30.70), 13.41% (95% CI 8.15-21.63) and 8.69% (95% CI 4.77-15.55) for Groups 1-4, respectively (p = 0.003). This study suggests that higher early TACs are associated with reduced rates of ACR at one yr.

  18. Faster self-reported speed of eating is related to higher body mass index in a nationwide survey of middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Sook Ling; Madden, Clara; Gray, Andrew; Waters, Debra; Horwath, Caroline

    2011-08-01

    This study is the first nationwide population survey to explore the association between speed of eating and degree of obesity. The objective was to cross-sectionally examine the relationship between self-reported speed of eating and body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m(2)) in a nationally representative sample of New Zealand women. In May 2009, a sample of 2,500 New Zealand women aged 40 to 50 years was randomly selected from the nationwide electoral rolls. A 66% participation rate was achieved. Potential participants were mailed a self-administered questionnaire containing questions on self-reported speed of eating, demographics, health conditions, menopause status, physical activity, height, and weight. Univariate models were used to examine the associations between demographic, health and behavioral variables, and BMI, while a multivariate model was developed to investigate the relationship between self-reported speed of eating and BMI. After adjusting for age, smoking status, menopause status, thyroid condition, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and physical activity, BMI statistically significantly increased by 2.8% (95% confidence interval: 1.5% to 4.1%; P<0.001) for each category increase in self-reported speed of eating. Although the direction of causality requires confirmation in longitudinal and randomized intervention studies, the results suggest that faster eating is associated with higher BMI in middle-aged women.

  19. Final Report: "Collaborative Project. Understanding the Chemical Processes That Affect Growth Rates of Freshly Nucleated Particles"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, James N. [NCAR, Boulder, CO (United States); McMurry, Peter H. [NCAR, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-11-12

    This final technical report describes our research activities that have, as the ultimate goal, the development of a model that explains growth rates of freshly nucleated particles. The research activities, which combine field observations with laboratory experiments, explore the relationship between concentrations of gas-phase species that contribute to growth and the rates at which those species are taken up. We also describe measurements of the chemical composition of freshly nucleated particles in a variety of locales, as well as properties (especially hygroscopicity) that influence their effects on climate. Our measurements include a self-organized, DOE-ARM funded project at the Southern Great Plains site, the New Particle Formation Study (NPFS), which took place during spring 2013. NPFS data are available to the research community on the ARM data archive, providing a unique suite observations of trace gas and aerosols that are associated with the formation and growth of atmospheric aerosol particles.

  20. Analysis of four studies in a comparative framework reveals: health linkage consent rates on British cohort studies higher than on UK household panel surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knies, Gundi; Burton, Jonathan

    2014-11-27

    A number of cohort studies and longitudinal household panel studies in Great Britain have asked for consent to link survey data to administrative health data. We explore commonalities and differences in the process of collecting consent, achieved consent rates and biases in consent with respect to socio-demographic, socio-economic and health characteristics. We hypothesise that British cohort studies which are rooted within the health sciences achieve higher consent rates than the UK household longitudinal studies which are rooted within the social sciences. By contrast, the lack of a specific health focus in household panel studies means there may be less selectivity in consent, in particular, with respect to health characteristics. Survey designs and protocols for collecting informed consent to health record linkage on two British cohort studies and two UK household panel studies are systematically compared. Multivariate statistical analysis is then performed on information from one cohort and two household panel studies that share a great deal of the data linkage protocol but vary according to study branding, survey design and study population. We find that consent is higher in the British cohort studies than in the UK household panel studies, and is higher the more health-focused the study is. There are no systematic patterns of consent bias across the studies and where effects exist within a study or study type they tend to be small. Minority ethnic groups will be underrepresented in record linkage studies on the basis of all three studies. Systematic analysis of three studies in a comparative framework suggests that the factors associated with consent are idiosyncratic to the study. Analysis of linked health data is needed to establish whether selectivity in consent means the resulting research databases suffer from any biases that ought to be considered.

  1. Ways to be different: foraging adaptations that facilitate higher intake rates in a northerly-wintering shorebird compared to a low-latitude conspecific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Dekinga, Anne; Gill, Robert E.; van Gils, Jan A.; Piersma, Theunis

    2015-01-01

    At what phenotypic level do closely related subspecies that live in different environments differ with respect to food detection, ingestion, and processing? This question motivated an experimental study on rock sandpipers (Calidris ptilocnemis). The species' nonbreeding range spans 20 degrees of latitude, the extremes of which are inhabited by two subspecies: Calidris p. ptilocnemis that winters primarily in upper Cook Inlet, Alaska (61°N), and C. p. tschuktschorum that overlaps slightly with C. p. ptilocnemis but whose range extends much farther south (~40°N). In view of the strongly contrasting energetic demands of their distinct nonbreeding distributions, we conducted experiments to assess the behavioural, physiological, and sensory aspects of foraging, and we used the bivalve Macoma balthica for all trials. Ptilocnemis consumed a wider range of prey sizes, had higher maximum rates of energy intake, processed shell waste at higher maximum rates, and handled prey more quickly. Notably, however, the two subspecies did not differ in their abilities to find buried prey. The subspecies were similar in size and had equally sized gizzards, but the more northern ptilocnemis individuals were 10-14% heavier than their same-sex tschuktschorum counterparts. The higher body mass in ptilocnemis likely resulted from hypertrophy of digestive organs (e.g. intestine, liver) related to digestion and nutrient assimilation. Given the previously established equality of the two subspecies' metabolic capacities, we propose that the high-latitude nonbreeding range of ptilocnemis rock sandpipers is primarily facilitated by digestive (i.e. physiological) aspects of their foraging ecology rather than behavioural or sensory aspects.

  2. Depth perception: the need to report ocean biogeochemical rates as functions of temperature, not depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Peter G; Peltzer, Edward T

    2017-09-13

    For over 50 years, ocean scientists have oddly represented ocean oxygen consumption rates as a function of depth but not temperature in most biogeochemical models. This unique tradition or tactic inhibits useful discussion of climate change impacts, where specific and fundamental temperature-dependent terms are required. Tracer-based determinations of oxygen consumption rates in the deep sea are nearly universally reported as a function of depth in spite of their well-known microbial basis. In recent work, we have shown that a carefully determined profile of oxygen consumption rates in the Sargasso Sea can be well represented by a classical Arrhenius function with an activation energy of 86.5 kJ mol(-1), leading to a Q10 of 3.63. This indicates that for 2°C warming, we will have a 29% increase in ocean oxygen consumption rates, and for 3°C warming, a 47% increase, potentially leading to large-scale ocean hypoxia should a sufficient amount of organic matter be available to microbes. Here, we show that the same principles apply to a worldwide collation of tracer-based oxygen consumption rate data and that some 95% of ocean oxygen consumption is driven by temperature, not depth, and thus will have a strong climate dependence. The Arrhenius/Eyring equations are no simple panacea and they require a non-equilibrium steady state to exist. Where transient events are in progress, this stricture is not obeyed and we show one such possible example.This article is part of the themed issue 'Ocean ventilation and deoxygenation in a warming world'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Detection of liver metastases: usefulness of dynamic spiral CT during the portal phase with a higher IV injection rate of contrast material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Youn Sin; Cho, June Sik; Youn, Wan Gyu; Ahn, Young Jun; Choi, Chang Lak; Lee, Young Hwan [Chungnam National Univ. College of Medicine, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of dynamic spiral computed tomography(CT) during the portal phase with a higher IV injection rate of contrast material in detecting hepatic metastases. We reviewed two-phase dynamic spiral CT in 44 patients with hepatic metastases of pathologically proven primary malignancy. One hundred and fifty ml. of non-ionic contrast material was administered with a power injector at a rate of 5ml/sec., and two-phase images at 55-80 sec.(portal phase) and 2-5min. (equilibrium phase) were obtained after the start of bolus injection. Two phase images were compared for detectability of hepatic metastases according to size, number and enhancement pattern. In cases of metastases less than 1 cm, 113 lesions(100%) that showed clearly defined hypodense lesions were detected in the portal phase of dynamic CT. However, the equilibrium phase images showed hypodense lesions in 58 cases(51%) and isodense lesions in 55 cases(49%). In cases of metastases 1-2cm in size, the portal phase images detected 70 hypodense lesions(92%) and six hyperdense lesions(8%). In the equilibrium phase, however, the lesions were hypodense in 54 cases(71%), hyperdense in four(5%), and isodense in 18(24%). In cases of metastases larger than 2cm, portal phase images showed 29 hypodense lesions(97%) and one hyperdense lesion(3%). In the equilibrium phase, however, the lesions were hypodense in 25 cases(83%), hyperdense in two(7%), and mixed in three(10%). As compared with the portal phase, most metastatic lesions were detected as poorly defined hypodense or isodense lesions in the equilibrium phase and decrease in size due to peripheral enahncement. Dynamic spiral CT during the portal phase with a higher IV injection rate(5ml/sec) of contrast material is a useful method for detecting hepatic metastases, especially small lesions less than 1cm.

  4. Predictive value of self-reported and observer-rated defense style in depression treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Henricus, L; Dekker, Jack; Peen, Jaap; Abraham, Robert E; Schoevers, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the predictive value of observer-rated and self-reported defensive functioning on the outcome of psychotherapy for the treatment of depression. Defense styles were measured according to the Developmental Profile (DP) and the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) in 81 moderately severely depressed patients. All patients were treated with Short-term Psychodynamic Supportive Psychotherapy (SPSP). At baseline, women appeared to have a more mature level of overall defensive functioning. A lower level of defensive function was found in patients with recurrent depressions. We also found a rather modest relationship between self-reported and observer-rated defense. Remitted patients had a more mature overall defensive functioning on the DP and the DSQ. In particular, patients with a symbiotic defense style (giving up, apathetic withdrawal) were at risk for poor outcome. This exploratory study provides further evidence of the relevance of defense styles for depression. It suggests a differential predictive value of separate defense levels, which may help to tailor psychotherapeutic strategies.

  5. Automatic Reporting of Creatinine-Based Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate in Children: Is this Feasible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lunn

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Creatinine, although widely used as a biomarker to measure renal function, has long been known as an insensitive marker of renal impairment. Patients with reduced renal function can have a creatinine level within the normal range, with a rapid rise when renal function is significantly reduced. As of 1976, the correlation between height, the reciprocal of creatinine, and measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR in children has been described. It has been used to derive a simple formula for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR that could be used at the bedside as a more sensitive method of identifying children with renal impairment. Formulae based on this association, with modifications over time as creatinine assay methods have changed, are still widely used clinically at the bedside and in research studies to assess the degree of renal impairment in children. Adult practice has moved in many countries to computer-generated results that report eGFR alongside creatinine results using more complex, but potentially more accurate estimates of GFR, which are independent of height. This permits early identification of patients with chronic kidney disease. This review assesses the feasibility of automated reporting of eGFR and the advantages and disadvantages of this in children.

  6. Higher prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia in triple iron ultra-triathletes than reported for ironman triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-06-30

    "In a recent study of male and female ultra-marathoners in a 161-km ultra-marathon, the prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) was higher than reported for marathoners. Regarding triathletes, the prevalence of EAH has been investigated in Ironman triathletes, but not in Triple Iron ultra-triathletes. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of EAH in male ultra-triathletes competing in a Triple Iron ultra-triathlon over 11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling, and 126.6 km running. Changes in body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, total body water, haematocrit, plasma volume, plasma sodium concentration ([Na ⁺ ]) and urine specific gravity were determined in 31 male athletes with (means ± standard deviation) 42.1 ± 8.1 years of age, 77.0 ± 7.0 kg body mass, 1.78 ± 0.06 m body height and a BMI of 24.3 ± 1.7 kg/m² in the 'Triple Iron Triathlon Germany'. Of the 31 finishers, eight athletes (26%) developed asymptomatic EAH. Body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, and haematocrit decreased, plasma volume increased ( P Iron ultra-triathletes compared to existing reports on Ironman triathletes. Body fluid homeostasis remained stable in these ultra-triathletes although body mass decreased."

  7. Higher Drop in Speed during a Repeated Sprint Test in Soccer Players Reporting Former Hamstring Strain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røksund, Ola D; Kristoffersen, Morten; Bogen, Bård E; Wisnes, Alexander; Engeseth, Merete S; Nilsen, Ann-Kristin; Iversen, Vegard V; Mæland, Silje; Gundersen, Hilde

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Hamstring strain injury is common in soccer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical capacity of players who have and have not suffered from hamstring strain injury in a sample of semi-professional and professional Norwegian soccer players in order to evaluate characteristics and to identify possible indications of insufficient rehabilitation. Method: Seventy-five semi-professional and professional soccer players (19 ± 3 years) playing at the second and third level in the Norwegian league participated in the study. All players answered a questionnaire, including one question about hamstring strain injury (yes/no) during the previous 2 years. They also performed a 40 m maximal sprint test, a repeated sprint test (8 × 20 m), a countermovement jump, a maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) test, strength tests and flexibility tests. Independent sample t-tests were used to evaluate differences in the physical capacity of the players who had suffered from hamstring strain injury and those who had not. Mixed between-within subject's analyses of variance was used to compare changes in speed during the repeated sprint test between groups. Results: Players who reported hamstring strain injury during the previous two years (16%) had a significantly higher drop in speed (0.07 vs. 0.02 s, p = 0.007) during the repeated sprint test, compared to players reporting no previous hamstring strain injury. In addition, there was a significant interaction (groups × time) (F = 3.22, p = 0.002), showing that speed in the two groups changed differently during the repeated sprint test. There were no significant differences in relations to age, weight, height, body fat, linear speed, countermovement jump height, leg strength, VO2max, or hamstring flexibility between the groups. Conclusion: Soccer players who reported hamstring strain injury during the previous 2 years showed significant higher drop in speed during the repeated sprint test compared to players with no hamstring

  8. Higher Drop in Speed during a Repeated Sprint Test in Soccer Players Reporting Former Hamstring Strain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røksund, Ola D.; Kristoffersen, Morten; Bogen, Bård E.; Wisnes, Alexander; Engeseth, Merete S.; Nilsen, Ann-Kristin; Iversen, Vegard V.; Mæland, Silje; Gundersen, Hilde

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Hamstring strain injury is common in soccer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical capacity of players who have and have not suffered from hamstring strain injury in a sample of semi-professional and professional Norwegian soccer players in order to evaluate characteristics and to identify possible indications of insufficient rehabilitation. Method: Seventy-five semi-professional and professional soccer players (19 ± 3 years) playing at the second and third level in the Norwegian league participated in the study. All players answered a questionnaire, including one question about hamstring strain injury (yes/no) during the previous 2 years. They also performed a 40 m maximal sprint test, a repeated sprint test (8 × 20 m), a countermovement jump, a maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) test, strength tests and flexibility tests. Independent sample t-tests were used to evaluate differences in the physical capacity of the players who had suffered from hamstring strain injury and those who had not. Mixed between-within subject's analyses of variance was used to compare changes in speed during the repeated sprint test between groups. Results: Players who reported hamstring strain injury during the previous two years (16%) had a significantly higher drop in speed (0.07 vs. 0.02 s, p = 0.007) during the repeated sprint test, compared to players reporting no previous hamstring strain injury. In addition, there was a significant interaction (groups × time) (F = 3.22, p = 0.002), showing that speed in the two groups changed differently during the repeated sprint test. There were no significant differences in relations to age, weight, height, body fat, linear speed, countermovement jump height, leg strength, VO2max, or hamstring flexibility between the groups. Conclusion: Soccer players who reported hamstring strain injury during the previous 2 years showed significant higher drop in speed during the repeated sprint test compared to players with no hamstring

  9. Self-reported leadership styles of deans of baccalaureate and higher degree nursing programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, Marion E

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been a lack of attention in the discipline paid to developing strong academic leaders. It is widely acknowledged that the role of the dean has shifted dramatically over the past two decades, with an increasing emphasis on interaction with and accountability to external constituencies at the university, community, and national levels. The overall purpose of this study was to investigate the self-reported leadership styles, behaviors, and experiences of deans of schools of nursing in the United States. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) was sent to 655 deans who were members of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing; 344 returned completed surveys for a return rate of 52.5%. Scores on the transformational scale (n = 321; 20 items) ranged from 2.75 to 4.0, with a mean of 3.79; transactional scores ranged from 1.3 to 4.0, with a mean of 3.3 and mode of 3.5. The passive leadership component was lowest, with a range of 0 to 3.75, mean of 1.1, and mode of 1.0. The highest scores for each dean were then examined and compared across the three components. Seventy-seven percent of the deans' highest scores fell on the transformational, 21% on the transactional, and 2% on the passive-avoidant scale. There were no significant differences in the most commonly reported leadership behaviors by gender, ethnicity, or terminal degree. Deans of nursing, compared with over 3,000 other leaders who have completed the MLQ, ranked in the 80th percentile for self-reported transformative behaviors and outcomes effectiveness. The findings from this sample, who were predominantly female, are congruent with previous research on women leaders. Recommendations for future research leadership development programs are presented.

  10. Optional time-of-use prices for electricity: Analysis of PG&E`s experimental TOU rates. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Train, K.; Mehrez, G.

    1992-07-01

    We examine customers` time-of-use (TOU) demand for electricity and their choice between standard and TOU rate schedules. We specify an econometric model in which the customer`s demand curves determine the customer`s choice of rate schedule. We estimate the model on data from Pacific Gas & Electric Company`s experiment with optional TOU prices in the residential sector. With the model, we compare the TOU consumption and price elasticities of customers who chose TOU rates with those who chose standard rates. We also estimate the impact of the TOU rates on the utility`s revenues and costs. The analysis suggests that the TOU rates offered under PG&E`s experiment decreased PG&E`s profits and hence contributed to higher general rate levels. The model can be used, however, to design optional TOU rates that increase profits and lower general rate levels.

  11. Acute Response of Well-Trained Sprinters to a 100-m Race: Higher Sprinting Velocity Achieved With Increased Step Rate Compared With Speed Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Mitsuo; Kawahara, Taisuke; Isaka, Tadao

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to clarify the contribution of differences in step length and step rate to sprinting velocity in an athletic race compared with speed training. Nineteen well-trained male and female sprinters volunteered to participate in this study. Sprinting motions were recorded for each sprinter during both 100-m races and speed training (60-, 80-, and 100-m dash from a block start) for 14 days before the race. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance was used to compare the step characteristics and sprinting velocity between race and speed training, adjusted for covariates including race-training differences in the coefficients of restitution of the all-weather track, wind speed, air temperature, and sex. The average sprinting velocity to the 50-m mark was significantly greater in the race than in speed training (8.26 ± 0.22 m·s vs. 8.00 ± 0.70 m·s, p sprinters achieve higher sprinting velocity and can run with higher exercise intensity and more rapid motion during a race than during speed training, even if speed training was performed at perceived high intensity.

  12. Suicide Rates in Greece: Comparing Mortality Data with Police Reporting Statistics and Investigating Recent Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Tragaki

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes recent suicide trends in Greece. It relies on two separate databases, vital statistics and police records, the latter never having been explored before. Those datasets present a different picture about the suicide rates and trends, confirming the crucial importance of data reliability and consistency in time trend analysis. Frequencies and ratios were calculated and compared using paired sample t-tests. Overtime trend changes were detected applying segment regression analysis on both data collections. Our findings suggest that there are important differences between vital and police statistics on suicides. At national level, over the period 1990–2013, vital statistics reported an average of 7 percent more suicides, annually. Differences were more pronounced among women and younger ages. Both datasets confirm a change in total suicide trends during recent recession, but police data analysis supports that increases are less impressive than vital statistics claim.

  13. Self-Reported HIV and HCV Screening Rates and Serostatus Among Substance Abuse Treatment Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Diana; Feaster, Daniel J; Gooden, Lauren; Douaihy, Antoine; Mandler, Raul; Erickson, Sarah J; Kyle, Tiffany; Haynes, Louise; Schwartz, Robert; Das, Moupali; Metsch, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Substance users are at increased risk for HIV and HCV infection. Still, many substance use treatment programs (SUTP) fail to offer HIV/HCV testing. The present secondary analysis of screening data from a multi-site randomized trial of rapid HIV testing examines self-reported HIV/HCV testing patterns and serostatus of 2473 SUTP patients in 12 community-based sites that had not previously offered on-site testing. Results indicate that most respondents screened for the randomized trial tested more than a year prior to intake for HIV (52 %) and HCV (38 %). Prevalence rates were 3.6 and 30 % for HIV and HCV, respectively. The majority of participants that were HIV (52.2 %) and HCV-positive (40.5 %) reported having been diagnosed within the last 1-5 years. Multivariable logistic regression showed that members of high-risk groups were more likely to have tested. Bundled HIV/HCV testing and linkage to care issues are recommended for expanding testing in community-based SUTP settings.

  14. Implementation of the forced answering option within online surveys: Do higher item response rates come at the expense of participation and answer quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Décieux Jean Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Online surveys have become a popular method for data gathering for many reasons, including low costs and the ability to collect data rapidly. However, online data collection is often conducted without adequate attention to implementation details. One example is the frequent use of the forced answering option, which forces the respondent to answer each question in order to proceed through the questionnaire. The avoidance of missing data is often the idea behind the use of the forced answering option. However, we suggest that the costs of a reactance effect in terms of quality reduction and unit nonresponse may be high because respondents typically have plausible reasons for not answering questions. The objective of the study reported in this paper was to test the influence of forced answering on dropout rates and data quality. The results show that requiring participants answer every question increases dropout rates and decreases quality of answers. Our findings suggest that the desire for a complete data set has to be balanced against the consequences of reduced data quality.

  15. Higher Education Reform for Quality Higher Education Management in the 21st Century: Economic, Technological, Social, and Political Forces Affecting Higher Education. Proceedings of the 1999 Six-Nation Summit (Hiroshima, Japan, September 20-21, 1999). RIHE International Seminar Reports, No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Higher Education.

    This publication presents proceedings from a 1999 conference on higher education reform and quality that involved six countries: China, Germany, Japan, Singapore, Switzerland, and the United States. The first section, "Report of the Six-Nation Higher Education Project," presents "Summary of the Progress of the Higher Education…

  16. Headache and migraine in children with sickle cell disease are associated with lower hemoglobin and higher pain event rates but not silent cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Michael M; Noetzel, Michael J; Rodeghier, Mark J; Quinn, Charles T; Hirtz, Deborah G; Ichord, Rebecca N; Kwiatkowski, Janet L; Roach, E Steven; Kirkham, Fenella J; Casella, James F; DeBaun, Michael R

    2014-05-01

    To identify risk factors for headache and migraine in children with sickle cell disease and test the hypothesis that either or both are independently associated with silent cerebral infarcts. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the health history, laboratory values, and brain magnetic resonance imaging findings of participants with sickle cell disease (hemoglobinSS or hemoglobinSβ°-thalassemia) with no history of overt stroke or seizures. Participants characterized headache severity and quality. Migraine was defined by International Headache Society criteria modified for increased sensitivity in children. Neuroradiology and neurology committees adjudicated the presence of silent cerebral infarction by review of magnetic resonance imaging and standardized examination by pediatric neurologists. The cohort included 872 children (51.1% males), ranging in age from 5 to 15 years (mean age, 9.1 years). Of these children, 317 (36.4%) reported recurrent headaches, and 132 (15.1%) reported migraines. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, both were associated with lower steady-state hemoglobin (P = .01 for headaches; P headaches; P headaches or migraines. Only 1.9% (6 of 317) of children with recurrent headaches received medication for headache prophylaxis. Recurrent headaches and migraines are common and undertreated in children with sickle cell disease. Low hemoglobin levels and high pain rates are associated with recurrent headaches and migraines; whereas, silent cerebral infarction is not. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Young adolescents who combine alcohol and energy drinks have a higher risk of reporting negative behavioural outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Joppova, Eva; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2017-04-01

    To explore whether young adolescents consuming alcohol and energy drinks combined were more likely to report negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drink only one type of these beverages or are abstinent. We analysed data on a representative sample of Slovak adolescents 8502 adolescents (mean age 13.21, 49.4 % boys) from the 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children cross-sectional study. We assessed the associations of alcohol and energy drinks consumption with negative outcomes and their potential synergy, as measured by the synergy index (SI). Adolescents consuming both alcohol and energy drinks were at higher risk of negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drank only alcohol or energy drinks or were non-consumers. Consumers of alcohol and energy drinks were highly prone to be involved in fighting-the joint association of alcohol and energy drinks consumption was greater than sum of its associations separately in relation to fighting (SI 1.49; 95 % confidence interval 1.03-2.16). Preventive strategies should aim at increasing awareness of negative behavioural outcomes-especially aggressive behaviour associated with alcohol and energy drinks consumption among young adolescents.

  18. TP53 mutations are associated with higher rates of pathologic complete response to anthracycline/cyclophosphamide-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in operable primary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuxia; Xu, Ye; Chen, Jiuan; Ouyang, Tao; Li, Jinfeng; Wang, Tianfeng; Fan, Zhaoqing; Fan, Tie; Lin, Benyao; Xie, Yuntao

    2016-01-15

    The role of TP53 mutations in predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer remains controversial. The aims of this study were to investigate whether TP53 mutations were associated with response and survival in breast cancer patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Therefore, we identified TP53 mutations in the core-needle biopsy tumor samples obtained before the neoadjuvant chemotherapy from 351 operable primary breast cancer patients who either received anthracycline/cyclophosphamide-based (n = 252) or paclitaxel (n = 99) neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We found that 41.0% (144 of 351) of patients harbored TP53 mutations, and 14.8% of patients achieved a pCR (pathologic complete response) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Among patients treated with anthracycline/cyclophosphamide (n = 252), patients with TP53 mutations had a significantly higher pCR rate than those with wild-type (28.6 vs.7.1%; p TP53 mutation was an independent favorable predictor of pCR [odds ratio (OR) = 3.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.50-7.77; p = 0.003] in this group; moreover, patients with TP53 mutation had a better distant recurrence-free survival (DRFS) than those with wild-type [unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 0.43; 95% CI 0.20-0.94; p = 0.030] in this group. Among patients treated with paclitaxel (n = 99), no significant difference in pCR rates was observed between patients with or without TP53 mutations (15.2 vs. 11.3%; p = 0.57). Our results suggested that patients with TP53 mutations are more likely to respond to anthracycline/ cyclophosphamide-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy and have a favorable survival.

  19. Higher dietary cholesterol and ω-3 fatty acid intakes are associated with a lower success rate of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikezaki, Hiroaki; Furusyo, Norihiro; Jacques, Paul F; Shimizu, Motohiro; Murata, Masayuki; Schaefer, Ernst J; Urita, Yoshihisa; Hayashi, Jun

    2017-08-01

    Background:Helicobacter pylori infection is a known risk factor for duodenal ulcers, gastritis, and gastric cancer. The eradication of H. pylori is successful in treating these disorders; however, the success rate of eradication therapy is declining. There may be an interaction with nutrient intake to account for this decline.Objective: We investigated the influence of food and nutrient intake on H. pylori eradication therapy.Design: In this study, 4014 subjects underwent endoscopy, were tested for serum antibodies to H. pylori (2046 positive; 51.0%), and had their food intake assessed with the use of a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Of the positive subjects, endoscopies showed that 389 (19.0%) had gastritis and/or duodenal ulcers and were also positive for a (13)C-urea breath test (UBT). These 389 subjects received 1-wk H. pylori eradication therapy with lansoprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin and a second UBT 8 wk after treatment. Complete demographic characteristics, serum lipid, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and creatinine concentrations as well as complete FFQs were available for 352 subjects. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine factors that were associated with successful H. pylori eradication therapy.Results: The success rate of eradication therapy was 60.4% (235 of 389). Factors associated with the failure of eradication therapy included increased age (P = 0.02), higher CRP concentrations (P pylori eradication therapy in H. pylori-positive subjects with gastritis and/or duodenal ulcers. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Medicare Program; FY 2018 Hospice Wage Index and Payment Rate Update and Hospice Quality Reporting Requirements. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-04

    This final rule will update the hospice wage index, payment rates, and cap amount for fiscal year (FY) 2018. Additionally, this rule includes new quality measures and provides an update on the hospice quality reporting program.

  1. MELT RATE ENHANCEMENT FOR HIGH ALUMINUM HLW (HIGH LEVEL WASTE) GLASS FORMULATION FINAL REPORT 08R1360-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT W; PEGG IL; JOSEPH I; BARDAKCI T; GAN H; GONG W; CHAUDHURI M

    2010-01-04

    This report describes the development and testing of new glass formulations for high aluminum waste streams that achieve high waste loadings while maintaining high processing rates. The testing was based on the compositions of Hanford High Level Waste (HLW) with limiting concentrations of aluminum specified by the Office of River Protection (ORP). The testing identified glass formulations that optimize waste loading and waste processing rate while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work included preparation and characterization of crucible melts and small scale melt rate screening tests. The results were used to select compositions for subsequent testing in a DuraMelter 100 (DM100) system. These tests were used to determine processing rates for the selected formulations as well as to examine the effects of increased glass processing temperature, and the form of aluminum in the waste simulant. Finally, one of the formulations was selected for large-scale confirmatory testing on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200), which is a one third scale prototype of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) HLW melter and off-gas treatment system. This work builds on previous work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for Department of Energy (DOE) to increase waste loading and processing rates for high-iron HLW waste streams as well as previous tests conducted for ORP on the same high-aluminum waste composition used in the present work and other Hanford HLW compositions. The scope of this study was outlined in a Test Plan that was prepared in response to an ORP-supplied statement of work. It is currently estimated that the number of HLW canisters to be produced in the WTP is about 13,500 (equivalent to 40,500 MT glass). This estimate is based upon the inventory of the tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the sludge treatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form

  2. Estimating the incidence reporting rates of new influenza pandemics at an early stage using travel data from the source country

    OpenAIRE

    CHONG, K. C.; Fong, H. F.; ZEE, C. Y.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY During the surveillance of influenza pandemics, underreported data are a public health challenge that complicates the understanding of pandemic threats and can undermine mitigation efforts. We propose a method to estimate incidence reporting rates at early stages of new influenza pandemics using 2009 pandemic H1N1 as an example. Routine surveillance data and statistics of travellers arriving from Mexico were used. Our method incorporates changes in reporting rates such as linearly inc...

  3. Higher prevalence of elevated LDL-C than non-HDL-C and low statin treatment rate in elderly community-dwelling Chinese with high cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, YaShu; Li, Xiaolin; Chen, Xiaoli; Sun, Huimin; Tomlinson, Brian; Chan, Paul; Zheng, Liang; Pi, Jinjiang; Peng, Sheng; Wu, Hong; Ding, Xugang; Qian, Dingguang; Shen, Yixin; Yu, Zuoren; Fan, Lieying; Chen, Ming; Fan, Huimin; Liu, Zhongmin; Zhang, Yuzhen

    2016-09-30

    Lipid levels are increasing in all age groups in the Chinese population, but the use of statin treatment in the elderly is not well documented. We examined serum lipids, statin usage and achievement of lipid goals in 3950 subjects aged ≥65 years. Established CVD was present in 7.77% of participants and increased CVD risk was common. Elevated LDL-C according to CVD risk level was present in 46.70% of all subjects and was more frequent (p HDL-C at 32.58%. With increasing age, LDL-C was unchanged but triglycerides and non-HDL-C decreased and HDL-C increased. Individuals at moderate risk for CVD had higher TC, LDL-C, and non-HDL-C than low-risk subjects, but the values were lower in high- and very-high-risk individuals, probably because of the use of statin which was 28.57% in high-risk subjects with established CVD and 37.60% in very-high-risk individuals, but only 2.62% in those with estimated high-risk and 3.75% in those with high-risk from diabetes. More subjects in each risk group reached the non-HDL-C goal than the LDL-C goal because of the relatively low triglycerides and VLDL-C levels. These findings demonstrate a high prevalence of elevated LDL-C but low rate of statin treatment in elderly community-dwelling Chinese.

  4. 77 FR 72905 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate; Contractor MIS Reporting; and Obtaining DAMIS Sign-In...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate... for random drug testing, reminder for operators to report contractor MIS data, and new method for... minimum random drug testing rate for covered employees will remain at 25 percent during calendar year 2013...

  5. Completing College: A National View of Student Attainment Rates--Fall 2008 Cohort (Signature Report No. 8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Doug; Dundar, Afet; Yuan, Xin; Harrell, Autumn T.; Wakhungu, Phoebe Khasiala

    2014-01-01

    This third annual report on national college completion rates offers the first look at the six-year outcomes for students who began postsecondary education in fall 2008, the cohort that entered college during the Great Recession. It looks at the various pathways students took toward degree completion, as well as the completion rates through May…

  6. Bethesda System reporting rates for conventional Papanicolaou tests and liquid-based cytology in a large Chinese, College of American Pathologists-certified independent medical laboratory: analysis of 1394389 Papanicolaou test reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Baowen; Austin, R Marshall; Liang, Xiaoman; Li, Zaibo; Chen, Congde; Yan, Shanshan; Zhao, Chengquan

    2015-03-01

    Reports that use the Bethesda System categories for Chinese Papanicolaou test results are rare. To document and analyze rates reported in the Bethesda System for conventional Papanicolaou tests and liquid-based cytology between 2007 and 2012 in China's largest College of American Pathologists-accredited laboratory. Results from 1,394,389 Papanicolaou tests, rendered between 2007 and 2012 by the Guangzhou Kingmed Diagnostics Cytology Laboratory, were documented by the Bethesda System report categories and Papanicolaou test methodology, which included both conventional Papanicolaou tests and 4 different liquid-based cytology preparations. Results were documented for 326,297 conventional Papanicolaou tests and 1,068,092 liquid-based cytology specimens, which included 928,884 ThinPrep (Hologic, Bedford, Massachusetts), 63,465 SurePath (BD Diagnostics, Franklin Lakes, New Jersey), 50,422 Liqui-Prep (LGM International, Melbourne, Florida), and 25,321 Lituo liquid-cytology (Lituo Biotechnology Co, Hunan, China) specimens. Abnormality rates reported were significantly higher with liquid-based cytology than they were with conventional Papanicolaou tests in all the Bethesda System categories (P < .001). Reporting rates were within the 2006 benchmark ranges from the College of American Pathologists, except for atypical glandular cells (low) and unsatisfactory rates for conventional Papanicolaou tests (low). Participation in the international College of American Pathologists Laboratory Accreditation Program provides laboratory quality standards not otherwise available in many international settings.

  7. Reduction in Clostridium difficile infection rates after mandatory hospital public reporting: findings from a longitudinal cohort study in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneman, Nick; Stukel, Therese A; Ma, Xiaomu; Vermeulen, Marian; Guttmann, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    The role of public reporting in improving hospital quality of care is controversial. Reporting of hospital-acquired infection rates has been introduced in multiple health care systems, but its relationship to infection rates has been understudied. Our objective was to determine whether mandatory public reporting by hospitals is associated with a reduction in hospital rates of Clostridium difficile infection. We conducted a longitudinal, population-based cohort study in Ontario (Canada's largest province) between April 1, 2002, and March 31, 2010. We included all patients (>1 y old) admitted to 180 acute care hospitals. Using Poisson regression, we developed a model to predict hospital- and age-specific monthly rates of C. difficile disease per 10,000 patient-days prior to introduction of public reporting on September 1, 2008. We then compared observed monthly rates of C. difficile infection in the post-intervention period with rates predicted by the pre-intervention predictive model. In the pre-intervention period there were 33,634 cases of C. difficile infection during 39,221,113 hospital days, with rates increasing from 7.01 per 10,000 patient-days in 2002 to 10.79 in 2007. In the first calendar year after the introduction of public reporting, there was a decline in observed rates of C. difficile colitis in Ontario to 8.92 cases per 10,000 patient-days, which was significantly lower than the predicted rate of 12.16 (95% CI 11.35-13.04) cases per 10,000 patient-days (ppublic reporting was associated with a 26.7% (95% CI 21.4%-31.6%) reduction in C. difficile cases, or a projected 1,970 cases averted per year (95% CI 1,476-2,500). The effect was specific to C. difficile, with rates of community-acquired gastrointestinal infections and urinary tract infections unchanged. A limitation of our study is that this observational study design cannot rule out the influence of unmeasured temporal confounders. Public reporting of hospital C. difficile rates was associated

  8. Assessment of social traits in married couples: Self-reports versus spouse ratings around the interpersonal circumplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy W; Williams, Paula G

    2016-06-01

    Personality traits predict the quality of intimate relationships, and as a result can be useful additions to assessments of couple functioning. For traits involving social behavior, the affiliation (i.e., warmth, friendliness vs. hostility, quarrelsomeness) and control (i.e., dominance vs. deference, submissiveness) dimensions of the interpersonal circumplex (IPC) are an alternative to the 5-factor model traits of agreeableness and extraversion, given that they may provide a more specific and relevant description of social behavior in the context of couple functioning. The couple context creates an opportunity to supplement commonly used self-reports with informant ratings. Although substantial correlations between self-reports and partner ratings of personality are well-documented, differences between these assessment modalities in levels of affiliation and control have not been examined previously. The present study of 301 middle-aged and older couples addressed this issue by comparing self-reports and spouse ratings, using parallel forms of a measure of the interpersonal circumplex derived from the NEO (Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness) PI-R (Personality Inventory-Revised). Participants reported lower trait dominance relative to spouses' ratings, and less trait hostility. For dominance, this discrepancy was evident at all levels of marital quality, but for hostility it was particularly apparent among couples reporting low marital quality. The tendency to self-report less dominance relative to ratings by spouses was stronger among women than men. These discrepancies may be important in couple assessment and intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. On the Validity of the Psychosocial Maturity Scales: Relationship to Teacher Ratings. Report No. 171.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josselson, Ruthellen; And Others

    This study attempts to provide evidence for the criterion validity of the Psychosocial Maturity (PSM) scales. Students' scores on the nine PSM scales were related to teachers' ratings of student PSM-related behavior. All scales except Trust significantly differentiated students rated high on PSM-related traits from students not rated high. Only…

  10. Evaluation of Risk Minimisation Measures for Blood Components - Based on Reporting Rates of Transfusion-Transmitted Reactions (1997-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Markus B; Heiden, Margarethe; Volkers, Peter; Lohmann, Annette; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2015-07-01

    To assess the impact of safety measures, we compared reporting rates of transfusion-related reactions before and after the implementation of six measures in 1999, 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2009. Reporting rates of transfusion-transmitted bacterial infection (TTBI), viral infection (TTVI) and immune-mediated transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) were calculated on the basis of confirmed annual reports and distributed blood components. The introduction of HCV NAT testing caused a significant reduction of HCV reporting rate from 1:0.6 to 1:83.16 million administered blood components (p blood components, p = 0.422). On the basis of haemovigilance data, a significant benefit could be demonstrated for four of six implemented safety measures.

  11. Estimating the incidence reporting rates of new influenza pandemics at an early stage using travel data from the source country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, K C; Fong, H F; Zee, C Y

    2014-05-01

    During the surveillance of influenza pandemics, underreported data are a public health challenge that complicates the understanding of pandemic threats and can undermine mitigation efforts. We propose a method to estimate incidence reporting rates at early stages of new influenza pandemics using 2009 pandemic H1N1 as an example. Routine surveillance data and statistics of travellers arriving from Mexico were used. Our method incorporates changes in reporting rates such as linearly increasing trends due to the enhanced surveillance. From our results, the reporting rate was estimated at 0·46% during early stages of the pandemic in Mexico. We estimated cumulative incidence in the Mexican population to be 0·7% compared to 0·003% reported by officials in Mexico at the end of April. This method could be useful in estimation of actual cases during new influenza pandemics for policy makers to better determine appropriate control measures.

  12. Lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher albuminuria are associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. A collaborative meta-analysis of high-risk population cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Marije; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Coresh, Josef; Astor, Brad C; Woodward, Mark; Levey, Andrew; de Jong, Paul; Gansevoort, Ron T; van der Velde, Marije; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Coresh, Josef; Astor, Brad C; Woodward, Mark; Levey, Andrew S; de Jong, Paul E; Gansevoort, Ron T; Levey, Andrew; El-Nahas, Meguid; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Kasiske, Bertram L; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Chalmers, John; Macmahon, Stephen; Tonelli, Marcello; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Sacks, Frank; Curhan, Gary; Collins, Allan J; Li, Suying; Chen, Shu-Cheng; Hawaii Cohort, K P; Lee, Brian J; Ishani, Areef; Neaton, James; Svendsen, Ken; Mann, Johannes F E; Yusuf, Salim; Teo, Koon K; Gao, Peggy; Nelson, Robert G; Knowler, William C; Bilo, Henk J; Joosten, Hanneke; Kleefstra, Nanno; Groenier, K H; Auguste, Priscilla; Veldhuis, Kasper; Wang, Yaping; Camarata, Laura; Thomas, Beverly; Manley, Tom

    2011-06-01

    Screening for chronic kidney disease is recommended in people at high risk, but data on the independent and combined associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality are limited. To clarify this, we performed a collaborative meta-analysis of 10 cohorts with 266,975 patients selected because of increased risk for chronic kidney disease, defined as a history of hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease. Risk for all-cause mortality was not associated with eGFR between 60-105 ml/min per 1.73 m², but increased at lower levels. Hazard ratios at eGFRs of 60, 45, and 15 ml/min per 1.73 m² were 1.03, 1.38 and 3.11, respectively, compared to an eGFR of 95, after adjustment for albuminuria and cardiovascular risk factors. Log albuminuria was linearly associated with log risk for all-cause mortality without thresholds. Adjusted hazard ratios at albumin-to-creatinine ratios of 10, 30 and 300 mg/g were 1.08, 1.38, and 2.16, respectively compared to a ratio of five. Albuminuria and eGFR were multiplicatively associated with all-cause mortality, without evidence for interaction. Similar associations were observed for cardiovascular mortality. Findings in cohorts with dipstick data were generally comparable to those in cohorts measuring albumin-to-creatinine ratios. Thus, lower eGFR and higher albuminuria are risk factors for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in high-risk populations, independent of each other and of cardiovascular risk factors.

  13. Higher prevalence of elevated LDL-C than non-HDL-C and low statin treatment rate in elderly community-dwelling Chinese with high cardiovascular risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, YaShu; Li, Xiaolin; Chen, Xiaoli; Sun, Huimin; Tomlinson, Brian; Chan, Paul; Zheng, Liang; Pi, Jinjiang; Peng, Sheng; Wu, Hong; Ding, Xugang; Qian, Dingguang; Shen, Yixin; Yu, Zuoren; Fan, Lieying; Chen, Ming; Fan, Huimin; Liu, Zhongmin; Zhang, Yuzhen

    2016-01-01

    Lipid levels are increasing in all age groups in the Chinese population, but the use of statin treatment in the elderly is not well documented. We examined serum lipids, statin usage and achievement of lipid goals in 3950 subjects aged ≥65 years. Established CVD was present in 7.77% of participants and increased CVD risk was common. Elevated LDL-C according to CVD risk level was present in 46.70% of all subjects and was more frequent (p < 0.01) than elevated non-HDL-C at 32.58%. With increasing age, LDL-C was unchanged but triglycerides and non-HDL-C decreased and HDL-C increased. Individuals at moderate risk for CVD had higher TC, LDL-C, and non-HDL-C than low-risk subjects, but the values were lower in high- and very-high-risk individuals, probably because of the use of statin which was 28.57% in high-risk subjects with established CVD and 37.60% in very-high-risk individuals, but only 2.62% in those with estimated high-risk and 3.75% in those with high-risk from diabetes. More subjects in each risk group reached the non-HDL-C goal than the LDL-C goal because of the relatively low triglycerides and VLDL-C levels. These findings demonstrate a high prevalence of elevated LDL-C but low rate of statin treatment in elderly community-dwelling Chinese. PMID:27686151

  14. How few and far between? Examining the effects of probe rate on self-reported mind wandering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seli, Paul; Carriere, Jonathan S A; Levene, Merrick; Smilek, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether the temporal rate at which thought probes are presented affects the likelihood that people will report periods of mind wandering. To evaluate this possibility, we had participants complete a sustained-attention task (the Metronome Response Task; MRT) during which we intermittently presented thought probes. Critically, we varied the average time between probes (i.e., probe rate) across participants, allowing us to examine the relation between probe rate and mind-wandering rate. We observed a positive relation between these variables, indicating that people are more likely to report mind wandering as the time between probes increases. We discuss the methodological implications of this finding in the context of the mind-wandering literature, and suggest that researchers include a range of probe rates in future work to provide more insight into this methodological issue.

  15. How few and far between? Examining the effects of probe rate on self-reported mind wandering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eSeli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether the temporal rate at which thought probes are presented affects the likelihood that people will report periods of mind wandering. To evaluate this possibility, we had participants complete a sustained-attention task (the Metronome Response Task; MRT during which we intermittently presented thought probes. Critically, we varied the average time between probes (i.e., probe rate across participants, allowing us to examine the relation between probe rate and mind-wandering rate. We observed a positive relation between these variables, indicating that people are more likely to report mind wandering as the time between probes increases. We discuss the methodological implications of this finding in the context of the mind-wandering literature, and suggest that researchers include a range of probe rates in future work to provide more insight into this methodological issue.

  16. Experiences of Intimate Partner Violence and Subsequent Police Reporting Among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Adults in Colorado: Comparing Rates of Cisgender and Transgender Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenderfer-Magruder, Lisa; Whitfield, Darren L; Walls, N Eugene; Kattari, Shanna K; Ramos, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Research indicates that lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals are at high risk of victimization by others and that transgender individuals may be at even higher risk than their cisgender LGBQ peers. In examining partner violence in particular, extant literature suggests that LGBTQ individuals are at equal or higher risk of partner violence victimization compared with their heterosexual peers. As opposed to sexual orientation, there is little research on gender identity and partner violence within the LGBTQ literature. In the current study, the authors investigated intimate partner violence (IPV) in a large sample of LGBTQ adults (N = 1,139) to determine lifetime prevalence and police reporting in both cisgender and transgender individuals. Results show that more than one fifth of all participants ever experienced partner violence, with transgender participants demonstrating significantly higher rates than their cisgender peers. Implications focus on the use of inclusive language as well as future research and practice with LGBTQ IPV victims.

  17. 78 FR 71036 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate; Contractor Management Information System Reporting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ...; Contractor Management Information System Reporting; and Obtaining Drug and Alcohol Management Information... Operators to Report Contractor Management Information System (MIS) Data; and New Method for Operators to... ``user name'' and ``password'' for the Drug and Alcohol Management Information System (DAMIS)...

  18. The University of North Carolina Report on Expanding Access to Higher Education through State-Funded Distance Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of North Carolina General Administration, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Legislation in 1998 provided enrollment funding for UNC distance education. This report documents the growth of UNC distance education programs and their role in meeting the high priority education and economic development needs of the State. As highlighted in the Executive Summary and documented throughout this report, state enrollment funding…

  19. A study of malignancy rates in different diagnostic categories of the Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology: An institutional experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Arul

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Our study validated the efficacy of TBSRTC. In conclusion, the malignancy rate of AUS/FLUS in this study was higher than the risk mentioned in TBSRTC and other published studies. Hence, AUS/FLUS category patients in our setup warrant further workup including ultrasound and/or thyroid scan in addition to immediate repeat FNAC.

  20. A Summary of Fault Recurrence and Strain Rates in the Vicinity of the Hanford Site--Topical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Winsor, Kelsey; Unwin, Stephen D.

    2012-08-01

    This document is one in a series of topical reports compiled by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to summarize technical information on selected topics important to the performance of a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of the Hanford Site. The purpose of this report is to summarize available data and analyses relevant to fault recurrence and strain rates within the Yakima Fold Belt. Strain rates have met with contention in the expert community and may have a significant potential for impact on the seismic hazard estimate at the Hanford Site. This report identifies the alternative conceptual models relevant to this technical issue and the arguments and data that support those models. It provides a brief description of the technical issue and principal uncertainties; a general overview on the nature of the technical issue, along with alternative conceptual models, supporting arguments and information, and uncertainties; and finally, suggests some prospective approaches to reducing uncertainties about earthquake recurrence rates for the Yakima Fold Belt.

  1. Classroom Test Report: Compressed Speech Tapes--An Effective Teaching Tool for Increasing Rate and Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Jerry

    Compressed speech tapes--recordings of a voice reading a selection at the normal rate of approximately 150 words per minute that are speeded up to as much as 400 words a minute--can be used successfully with students to provide practice in improving reading rate and comprehension. In a field test conducted with 23 high school juniors and seniors…

  2. Rates of solubilization and biodegradation of PAH compounds in porous media. [Quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luthy, R.G.

    1991-11-01

    Microbial degradation of hydrophobic organic compounds in soils and aquifer media is dependent on rates of desorption of these compounds from solids and rates of solubilization from residual nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). The couples processes involving microbial degradation and hydrophobic compound availability are not well understood. The proposed research effort explores certain physicochemical phenomena that may have a significant affect on the rate of microbial degradation of hydrophobic organic compounds in porous media. The investigation will examine rates of biomineralization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds that are leached from a residual saturation of coal tar. Batch and continuously-stirred reactor studies will be used to measure solute equilibrium concentrations and rates of solubilization of PAH compounds from coal tar imbided into microporous silica media. These rates will be compared with rates of mineralization of {sup 14}C-labeled compounds in similar systems inoculated with a culture of PAH degrading microorganisms. Column experiments will also be conducted to assess the rates of solubilization and mass transfer coefficients from coal tar entrapped in a sandy aquifer material by capillary forces.

  3. Age and Assessments of Professional Expertise: The Relationship between Higher Level Employees'Age and Self-assessments or Supervisor Ratings of Professional Expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der Beatrice

    2001-01-01

    In this article the relationship between higher level employees' age and assessments of professional expertise is described. Hypotheses have been tested with original survey data from 417 higher level employees and 224 direct supervisors. Concerning the analyses of the effects of age, our hypotheses

  4. Television for Higher Technical Education of Workers. Final Report On a Pilot Project in Poland. Reports and Papers on Mass Communication Number 67.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Dept. of Mass Communication.

    The "Television Polytechnic" program of 1966 - 1970 was a joint effort of the Polish Ministry of Higher Education and Polish Television to provide televised education for working students. The subjects taught were those normally included in the first two years of the higher technical schools--math, physics, geometry, chemistry, mechanics…

  5. Higher rate of hepatitis events in patients with human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B, and hepatitis D genotype II infection: a cohort study in a medical center in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chun-Yuan; Tsai, Hung-Chin; Lee, Susan Shin-Jung; Wu, Kuan-Sheng; Sy, Cheng-Len; Chen, Jui-Kuang; Chen, Yao-Shen

    2015-02-01

    The epidemiology and impact of hepatitis δ virus (HDV) on hepatic outcomes and virological and immunological responses to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients coinfected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in northern Taiwan have been reported. However, the epidemiology and impact of HDV infection in HIV-HBV coinfection patients in southern Taiwan remains uncertain. In this cohort study, a total of 64 HIV patients coinfected with HBV were identified between January 1, 2009 and May 30, 2012. The seroprevalence of anti-HDV antibodies, HDV genotyping, clinical manifestations and hepatic outcomes were compared between the patients with and without HDV coinfection, and laboratory examinations and hepatic outcomes were recorded. Among the 64 HIV patients coinfected with HBV, seven were seropositive for HDV (10.9%). There were no statistically significant differences in risk factors for acquiring HIV infection. During a median observation period of 27.8 months, the adjusted hazard ratio of HDV and HBV genotype (type B vs. non-type B) on hepatitis flare-ups were 62.132 (p = 0.04) and 0.028 (p = 0.01), respectively. All seven patients had genotype II and were HDV viremic. The phylogenetic tree analysis and clinical history evaluation did not identify any clusters of HDV infection. HDV infection resulted in higher rate of hepatitis flare-ups, but it did not have a statistical significance on HIV progression and immunological response to HAART. Whether higher rate of HDV viremia has worse impact on the hepatic outcomes requires further investigation. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Energy-efficient mortgages and home energy rating systems: A report on the nation`s progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B.C.; Eckert, J.

    1993-09-01

    This report summarizes progress throughout the nation in establishing voluntary programs linking home energy rating systems (HERS) and energy-efficient mortgages (EEMs). These programs use methods for rating the energy efficiency of new and existing homes and predicting energy cost savings so lenders can factor in energy cost savings when underwriting mortgages. The programs also encourage lenders to finance cost-effective energy-efficiency improvements to existing homes with low-interest mortgages or other instruments. The money saved on utility bills over the long term can more than offset the cost of such energy-efficiency improvements. The National Collaborative on HERS and EEMs recommended that this report be prepared.

  7. Efficiency and Effectiveness in Higher Education: A Report by the Universities UK Efficiency and Modernisation Task Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universities UK, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Effectiveness, efficiency and value for money are central concerns for the higher education sector. In England, decisions made by the current Government will effect a radical change in the funding for teaching. Institutions will be managing a reduction in public funding for teaching and the transition to the new system of graduate contributions,…

  8. Considering Teaching Excellence in Higher Education: 2007-2013. A Literature Review since the CHERI Report 2007. HEA Research Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Vicky; Fisk, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This research review explores both the research and the grey literature on university teaching excellence with a specific remit to update an earlier review, "Excellence in Teaching and Learning: a review of literature for the Higher Education Academy". Little, B., et al (2007) The two main aims are: (1) to suggest further areas of…

  9. Production of Doctorates in the Biosciences, 1975-1980: An Experimental Forecast. Higher Education Panel Reports, No. 34.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atelsek, Frank J.; Gomberg, Irene L.

    A survey was undertaken in 1976 to obtain short-term estimates of doctorate production directly from the heads of the science departments involved. These biosciences departments were surveyed in the 235 member institutions of the Higher Education Panel that grant doctorates: anatomy, biochemistry, biology, biometry/biostatistics/biomathematics,…

  10. Adult, Continuing, and In-Service Education and the Library in Higher Education: A Bibliographic Check List. Report No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Nicholas G.

    As an aid for educational change, a bibliography has been prepared in the areas of: trends and developments in higher education; science, technology, civilization, and social change; the future and future research; the library-college concept; the articulation program; educational coordination; interinstitutional cooperation; transfer students;…

  11. Associations between Peer Nominations, Teacher Ratings, Self-Reports, and Observations of Malicious and Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David B.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates the validity of two aggression scales for predicting observations of malicious or disruptive behavior at school. Subgroups of a sample of 1,560 children (age 8.6 plus or minus 1.5 years) were assessed using (a) peer nominations of aggression, (b) teacher reports on the Teacher Report Form (TRF) of the Child Behavior Checklist…

  12. Increased risk of long-term sickness absence, lower rate of return to work, and higher risk of unemployment and disability pensioning for thyroid patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexo, M A; Watt, T; Pedersen, J

    2014-01-01

    population with regard to sickness absence, disability pension, return from sickness absence, and unemployment. In the first year after diagnosis, higher risks of sickness absence was seen for GO (HR 6.94) and other hyperthyroid patients (HR 2.08), who also had lower probability of returning from sickness...... absence (HR 0.62) and higher risk of disability pension (HR 4.15). Patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism showed a lower probability of returning from sickness absence (HR 0.62). In subsequent years, GO patients had significantly higher risk of sickness absence (HR 2.08), lower probability of return from...... sickness absence (HR 0.51), and unemployment (HR 0.52) and a higher risk of disability pension (HR 4.40). Hyperthyroid patients also had difficulties returning from sickness absence (HR 0.71). CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid patients' risk of work disability is most pronounced in the first year after diagnosis...

  13. Lowering Student Loan Default Rates: What One Consortium of Historically Black Institutions Did to Succeed. Education Sector Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Erin; Smiles, Robin V.

    2010-01-01

    Colleges across the nation are struggling to confront a growing problem in higher education: student debt. As more students borrow more money than ever before, and recent graduates enter the worst job market in a generation, students are increasingly unable to pay back their loans. This report discusses the growing problem of students defaulting…

  14. Lower-Order Pain-Related Constructs are More Predictive of Cold Pressor Pain Ratings than Higher-Order Personality Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jennifer E.; Watson, David; Frey Law, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    Pain is a debilitating condition affecting millions each year, yet what predisposes certain individuals to be more sensitive to pain remains relatively unknown. Several psychological factors have been associated with pain perception, but the structural relations between multiple higher- and lower-order constructs and pain are not well understood. Thus, we aimed to examine the associations between pain perception using the cold pressor task (CPT), higher-order personality traits (neuroticism, ...

  15. Higher rates of metabolic syndrome among women taking zidovudine as compared to tenofovir in rural Africa: preliminary data from the CART-1 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklaus Daniel Labhardt

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to its side effects stavudine (D4T has been replaced by zidovudine (AZT and tenofovir (TDF in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. In 2014 about 38% of adult first-line regimens contain AZT and 62% TDF [1]. Whereas the unfavourable metabolic outcomes of D4T in comparison to TDF have been described extensively, studies from LMICs comparing metabolic profiles between patients on AZT and TDF are scarce. Given the high number of patients in LMICs still taking AZT, data on their metabolic profile are needed. We present rates of metabolic syndrome (MS in adult patients taking either AZT- or TDF-containing first-line, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (NNRTI-based regimens. Materials and Methods: Data derived from a cross-sectional multi-disease screening conducted in ten facilities in two rural districts of Lesotho, Southern Africa [2]. Patients were eligible if aged ≥25 years and on NNRTI-containing first-line ART ≥6 months. The MS definition for Africa of the International Diabetes Federation was applied [3]. Assessed potential predictors for MS were age, time on ART, virologic suppression, body-mass index (BMI, alcohol consumption, wealth quintile, NNRTI (nevirapine (NVP or Efavirenz (EFV, history of previous D4T exposure and ART-backbone (AZT or TDF. Statistical analyses – stratified for sex – comprised univariate logistic regression for each predictor variable with subsequent construction of a multivariate model including all predictors with an association to MS at a significance level<0.1 in univariate analysis. Results: Out of 1026 patients, 660 (64.3% were female. MS prevalence was 9.8% (95% CI 6.9–13.4 in men and 22.9% (19.7–26.3 in women. In women, aged ≥35 years, AZT-backbone, NVP-base, BMI ≥25kg/m2 and taking ART for ≥4.5 years were associated with MS in univariate analysis. In the multivariate model only AZT (adjusted odds-ratio: 2.2, 95% CI 1.4–3.6; p=0.001 and BMI ≥25kg/m2 (9.8; 2.8

  16. Higher rates of metabolic syndrome among women taking zidovudine as compared to tenofovir in rural Africa: preliminary data from the CART-1 study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labhardt, Niklaus Daniel; Cheleboi, Molisana; Faturyiele, Olatunbosun; Motlatsi, Mokete M; Pfeiffer, Karolin; Ismael Lejone, Thabo; Cerutti, Bernard; Muser, Jürgen; Shankar Gupta, Ravi; Lynen, Lutgarde; Hatz, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Due to its side effects stavudine (D4T) has been replaced by zidovudine (AZT) and tenofovir (TDF) in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In 2014 about 38% of adult first-line regimens contain AZT and 62% TDF [1]. Whereas the unfavourable metabolic outcomes of D4T in comparison to TDF have been described extensively, studies from LMICs comparing metabolic profiles between patients on AZT and TDF are scarce. Given the high number of patients in LMICs still taking AZT, data on their metabolic profile are needed. We present rates of metabolic syndrome (MS) in adult patients taking either AZT- or TDF-containing first-line, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase (NNRTI)-based regimens. Materials and Methods Data derived from a cross-sectional multi-disease screening conducted in ten facilities in two rural districts of Lesotho, Southern Africa [2]. Patients were eligible if aged ≥25 years and on NNRTI-containing first-line ART ≥6 months. The MS definition for Africa of the International Diabetes Federation was applied [3]. Assessed potential predictors for MS were age, time on ART, virologic suppression, body-mass index (BMI), alcohol consumption, wealth quintile, NNRTI (nevirapine (NVP) or Efavirenz (EFV)), history of previous D4T exposure and ART-backbone (AZT or TDF). Statistical analyses – stratified for sex – comprised univariate logistic regression for each predictor variable with subsequent construction of a multivariate model including all predictors with an association to MS at a significance level<0.1 in univariate analysis. Results Out of 1026 patients, 660 (64.3%) were female. MS prevalence was 9.8% (95% CI 6.9–13.4) in men and 22.9% (19.7–26.3) in women. In women, aged ≥35 years, AZT-backbone, NVP-base, BMI ≥25kg/m2 and taking ART for ≥4.5 years were associated with MS in univariate analysis. In the multivariate model only AZT (adjusted odds-ratio: 2.2, 95% CI 1.4–3.6; p=0.001) and BMI ≥25kg/m2 (9.8; 2.8–34.1, p

  17. Brief report: Sex differences in suicide rates and suicide methods among adolescents in South Korea, Japan, Finland, and the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin

    2015-04-01

    Sex differences in suicide rates and suicide methods was compared among adolescents in South Korea, Japan, Finland, and the United States. This study analyzed suicide rates and suicide methods of adolescents aged 15-19 years in four countries, using the World Health Organization mortality database. Among both male and female adolescents, the most common method of suicide was jumping from heights in South Korea and hanging in Japan. In Finland, jumping in front of moving objects and firearms were frequently used by males, but not by females. In the United States, males were more likely to use firearms, and females were more likely to use poison. The male to female ratio of suicide rates was higher in the United States (3.8) and Finland (3.6) than in Korea (1.3) and Japan (1.9). Sex differences in suicide methods may contribute to differences in the suicide rates among males and female adolescents in different countries.

  18. The Relationship between Reports of Psychological Capital and Reports of Job Satisfaction among Administrative Personnel at a Private Institution of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, James A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this single-site case study was to investigate the relationship between administrative personnel's reports of psychological capital (Luthans, Youssef, & Avolio, 2007) and their reports of job satisfaction (Hackman & Oldham, 1980). Specifically, two surveys, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (Luthans, Youssef, &…

  19. Dynamics of shigellosis epidemics: estimating individual-level transmission and reporting rates from national epidemiologic data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joh, Richard I; Hoekstra, Robert M; Barzilay, Ezra J; Bowen, Anna; Mintz, Eric D; Weiss, Howard; Weitz, Joshua S

    2013-10-15

    Shigellosis, a diarrheal disease, is endemic worldwide and is responsible for approximately 15,000 laboratory-confirmed cases in the United States every year. However, patients with shigellosis often do not seek medical care. To estimate the burden of shigellosis, we extended time-series susceptible-infected-recovered models to infer epidemiologic parameters from underreported case data. We applied the time-series susceptible-infected-recovered-based inference schemes to analyze the largest surveillance data set of Shigella sonnei in the United States from 1967 to 2007 with county-level resolution. The dynamics of shigellosis transmission show strong annual and multiyear cycles, as well as seasonality. By using the schemes, we inferred individual-level parameters of shigellosis infection, including seasonal transmissibilities and basic reproductive number (R0). In addition, this study provides quantitative estimates of the reporting rate, suggesting that the shigellosis burden in the United States may be more than 10 times the number of laboratory-confirmed cases. Although the estimated reporting rate is generally under 20%, and R0 is generally under 1.5, there is a strong negative correlation between estimates of the reporting rate and R0. Such negative correlations are likely to pose identifiability problems in underreported diseases. We discuss complementary approaches that might further disentangle the true reporting rate and R0.

  20. Medicare Program; FY 2017 Hospice Wage Index and Payment Rate Update and Hospice Quality Reporting Requirements. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-05

    This final rule will update the hospice wage index, payment rates, and cap amount for fiscal year (FY) 2017. In addition, this rule changes the hospice quality reporting program, including adopting new quality measures. Finally, this final rule includes information regarding the Medicare Care Choices Model (MCCM).

  1. Agreement Rates between Parent and Self-Report on Past ADHD Symptoms in an Adult Clinical Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Gabriela; Mattos, Paulo; Coutinho, Gabriel; Segenreich, Daniel; Saboya, Eloisa; Ayrao, Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate agreement rates between parent and self-report on childhood symptoms of ADHD. Method: Sixty-eight self-referred treatment-naive adults (33 men, 35 women) were interviewed with a modified version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Epidemiological Version (K-SADS-E) and asked about past ADHD…

  2. Agreement Rates between Parent and Self-Report on Past ADHD Symptoms in an Adult Clinical Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Gabriela; Mattos, Paulo; Coutinho, Gabriel; Segenreich, Daniel; Saboya, Eloisa; Ayrao, Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate agreement rates between parent and self-report on childhood symptoms of ADHD. Method: Sixty-eight self-referred treatment-naive adults (33 men, 35 women) were interviewed with a modified version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Epidemiological Version (K-SADS-E) and asked about past ADHD…

  3. Cure rate study of isothermally aged Sylgard 182, (an addendum). Progress report, October--December 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clink, G.L.

    1975-01-01

    Isothermal aging of freshly prepared Sylgard 182 at 21/sup 0/C has been completed. Chemical analysis through NMR procedures, and hardness determinations through Shore durometer measurements are reported.

  4. Self and informant report ratings of psychopathology in genetic generalized epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughman, Amy; Bowden, Stephen C; D'Souza, Wendyl J

    2017-02-01

    The psychological sequelae of genetic generalized epilepsies (GGE) is of growing research interest, with up to a third of all adults with GGE experiencing significant psychiatric comorbidity according to a recent systematic review. A number of unexplored questions remain. Firstly, there is insufficient evidence to determine relative prevalence of psychopathology between GGE syndromes. Secondly, the degree to which self-report and informant-report questionnaires accord in adults with epilepsy is unknown. Finally, while epilepsy severity is one likely predictor of worse psychopathology in GGE, evidence regarding other possible contributing factors such as epilepsy duration and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) has been equivocal. The potential impact of subclinical epileptiform discharges remains unexplored. Self-report psychopathology symptoms across six DSM-Oriented Subscales were prospectively measured in 60 adults with GGE, with informant-report provided for a subset of 47. We assessed the burden of symptoms from both self- and informant-report, and the relationship between clinical epilepsy variables and self-reported symptoms. Results showed elevated symptoms in almost half of the sample overall. Depression and anxiety were the most commonly reported types of symptoms. There was a trend towards greater symptoms endorsement by self-report, and relatively modest interrater agreement. Symptoms of ADHD were significantly positively associated with number of AEDs currently prescribed. Other psychopathology symptoms were not significantly predicted by epilepsy duration, seizure-free duration or total duration of epileptiform discharges over a 24-hour period. The high prevalence of psychological needs suggests that routine screening of psychopathology and provision of psychoeducation may be essential to improving patient care and outcomes. Further investigation is required to better understand predictive and causal factors for psychopathology in GGE. Copyright © 2016

  5. Malaysia and the Knowledge Economy: Building a World-Class Higher Education System. Human Development Sector Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regel, Omporn; Salmi, Jamil; Watkins, Alfred; Tan, Hong; Dawkins, John; Saroyan, Alenoush; Vestergaard, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    This report was prepared at the request of the Government of Malaysia (GOM) as a contribution to the long term development objectives for the university sector under the Ninth Malaysia Plan. The GOM is considering new policy directions to make the country a more competitive player in the world economy. Such a strategy will require bold innovations…

  6. Young adolescents who combine alcohol and energy drinks have a higher risk of reporting negative behavioural outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Joppova, Eva; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore whether young adolescents consuming alcohol and energy drinks combined were more likely to report negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drink only one type of these beverages or are abstinent. METHODS: We analysed data on a representative sample of Slovak adolesce

  7. Young adolescents who combine alcohol and energy drinks have a higher risk of reporting negative behavioural outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Joppova, Eva; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    To explore whether young adolescents consuming alcohol and energy drinks combined were more likely to report negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drink only one type of these beverages or are abstinent. We analysed data on a representative sample of Slovak adolescents 8502 adolescents

  8. Piecing Together the Student Success Puzzle: Research, Propositions, and Recommendations. ASHE Higher Education Report, Volume 32, Number 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuh, George D., Ed.; Kinzie, Jillian, Ed.; Buckley, Jennifer A., Ed.; Bridges, Brian K., Ed.; Hayek, John C., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This report is an abridged version of work performed for the National Postsecondary Education Cooperative to synthesize the relevant literature and emerging findings related to student success, broadly defined (Kuh and others, 2006). The author's purpose is to provide an informed perspective on policies, programs, and practices that can make a…

  9. Exploring the Validity and Robustness of a Competency Self-Report Instrument for Vocational and Higher Competence-Based Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaled, A.E.; Gulikers, J.T.M.; Tobi, H.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Oonk, C.; Mulder, M.

    2014-01-01

    Research on the effectiveness of competence-based education (CB-education) across educational contexts and levels requires a new evaluation measurement. This study explores the face validity, construct validity, and robustness of a competency self-report instrument that is aligned with contemporary

  10. Reporting instructions significantly impact false positive rates when reading chest radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, John W.; Brennan, Patrick C.; Mello-Thoms, Claudia; Lewis, Sarah J. [The University of Sydney, Medical Image Optimisation and Perception Group, Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Lidcombe, NSW (Australia)

    2016-10-15

    To determine the impact of specific reporting tasks on the performance of radiologists when reading chest radiographs. Ten experienced radiologists read a set of 40 postero-anterior (PA) chest radiographs: 21 nodule free and 19 with a proven solitary nodule. There were two reporting conditions: an unframed task (UFT) to report any abnormality and a framed task (FT) reporting only lung nodule/s. Jackknife free-response operating characteristic (JAFROC) figure of merit (FOM), specificity, location sensitivity and number of true positive (TP), false positive (FP), true negative (TN) and false negative (FN) decisions were used for analysis. JAFROC FOM for tasks showed a significant reduction in performance for framed tasks (P = 0.006) and an associated decrease in specificity (P = 0.011) but no alteration to the location sensitivity score. There was a significant increase in number of FP decisions made during framed versus unframed tasks for nodule-containing (P = 0.005) and nodule-free (P = 0.011) chest radiographs. No significant differences in TP were recorded. Radiologists report more FP decisions when given specific reporting instructions to search for nodules on chest radiographs. The relevance of clinical history supplied to radiologists is called into question and may induce a negative effect. (orig.)

  11. Interlaboratory reaction rate program. 12th progress report, November 1976-October 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippincott, E.P.; McElroy, W.N.; Preston, C.C. (comps.)

    1980-09-01

    The Interlaboratory Reaction Rate UILRR) program is establishing the capability to accurately measure neutron-induced reactions and reaction rates for reactor fuels and materials development programs. The goal for the principal fission reactions, /sup 235/U, /sup 238/U and /sup 239/Pu, is an accuracy to within +- 5% at the 95% confidence level. Accurate measurement of other fission and nonfission reactions is also required, but to a lesser accuracy, between +- 5% and 10% at the 95% confidence level. A secondary program objective is improvement in knowledge of the nuclear parameters involved in the standarization of fuels and materials dosimetry measurements of neutron flux, spectra, fluence and burnup.

  12. Gross Motor Function Classification System used in adults with cerebral palsy: agreement of self-reported versus professional rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnsen, Reidun; Aamodt, Geir; Rosenbaum, Peter

    2006-09-01

    The present study investigated the reliability of self-reported rating of Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels compared with professional rating, and changes in gross motor function over time, in adults with cerebral palsy. Twenty-nine females and 33 males aged between 18 years 5 months and 62 years 11 months (mean age 34y 7mo [SD 10y 6mo]) participated in the study. Participants rated their current gross motor function using the GMFCS and reported their judgement of their gross motor function at age 10 to 12 years. The project leader, a physical therapist, also classified participants' current GMFCS levels and conducted a chart review on all accessible medical records of participants' gross motor function when they were 10 to 12 years old, rating the GMFCS level accordingly. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between self-reported and professional ratings showed excellent agreement (ICC=0.93-0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89-0.97). More than half the participants experienced a stable gross motor function from the age of 10 to 12 years to the present. Those at GMFCS Levels II and III at the age of 10 to 12 years (according to the professional rating) had significant change for the worse in gross motor function over time, with odds ratios of 9.30 (95% CI 1.2-73.0, p=0.03) and 7.00 (95% CI 1.1-43.0, p=0.04) respectively. Interview data on circumstances regarding changes in gross motor function since childhood are also reported. Changes in GMFCS level were mostly associated with physical or social environmental factors.

  13. Introducing radiology report checklists among residents: adherence rates when suggesting versus requiring their use and early experience in improving accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Daniel K; Lin, Eaton; Silberzweig, James E; Kagetsu, Nolan J

    2014-03-01

    To retrospectively compare resident adherence to checklist-style structured reporting for maxillofacial computed tomography (CT) from the emergency department (when required vs. suggested between two programs). To compare radiology resident reporting accuracy before and after introduction of the structured report and assess its ability to decrease the rate of undetected pathology. We introduced a reporting checklist for maxillofacial CT into our dictation software without specific training, requiring it at one program and suggesting it at another. We quantified usage among residents and compared reporting accuracy, before and after counting and categorizing faculty addenda. There was no significant change in resident accuracy in the first few months, with residents acting as their own controls (directly comparing performance with and without the checklist). Adherence to the checklist at program A (where it originated and was required) was 85% of reports compared to 9% of reports at program B (where it was suggested). When using program B as a secondary control, there was no significant difference in resident accuracy with or without using the checklist (comparing different residents using the checklist to those not using the checklist). Our results suggest that there is no automatic value of checklists for improving radiology resident reporting accuracy. They also suggest the importance of focused training, checklist flexibility, and a period of adjustment to a new reporting style. Mandatory checklists were readily adopted by residents but not when simply suggested. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. CDC Releases Report on 30-Year Low in Youth Homicide Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is one too many. Comprehensive approaches that include evidence-based prevention strategies are essential to eliminate homicide as ... to 24 years, and 28.8 for non-Hispanic black youth. The annual rate ... school-based programs that build students’ communications skills to solve ...

  15. Death rate due to horseshoe crab poisoning:summarization on Thai reports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beuy Joob; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2015-01-01

    Horseshoe crab can be poisonous and intoxication due to intake of horseshoe crab is possible. Horseshoe crab intoxication can be seen in many countries with seacoasts including Thailand. Here, the authors summarized the death rate due to horseshoe crab poisoning in Thailand.

  16. Teacher Rating of Oral Language and Literacy (TROLL): A Research-Based Tool. CIERA Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, David K.; McCabe, Allyssa; Sprague, Kim

    The Teacher Rating of Oral Language and Literacy (TROLL) is an instrument that measures skills identified as critical in the New Standards for Speaking and Listening. In 5 to 10 minutes and without prior training, teachers can assess an individual child's current standing with respect to skills that research has identified as critical for literary…

  17. Association between Reported Elder Abuse and Rates of Admission to the Skilled Nursing Facilities: Findings from a Longitudinal Population-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Elder abuse is common and is a frank violation of an older adult’s fundamental rights to be safe and free of violence. Our prior study indicates elder abuse is independently associated with mortality. This study aims to quantify the relationship between overall elder abuse and specific subtypes of elder abuse and rate of admission to skilled nursing facilities (SNF). Methods A prospective population-based study is conducted in Chicago of community-dwelling older adults who participated in the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP). Of the 6,674 participants in the CHAP study, 106 participants were reported to social services agency for elder abuse. The primary predictor was elder abuse reported to social services agency. The outcome of interest was the annual rate of admission to SNF obtained from the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Poisson regression models were used to assess these longitudinal relationships. Results The average annual rate of SNF for those without elder abuse was 0.14(0.58) and for those with elder abuse was 0.66(1.63). After adjusting for sociodemographic, socioeconomic variables, medical commorbidities, cognitive and physical function, and psychosocial wellbeing, older adults who have been abused had higher rates of SNF admission (RR, 4.60 (2.85–7.42)). Psychological abuse (RR, 2.31(1.17–4.56)), physical abuse (RR, 2.36(1.19–4.66)), financial exploitation (RR, 2.81(1.53–5.17)) and caregiver neglect (RR, 4.73(3.03–7.40)) were associated with increased rates of admission to SNF, after considering the same confounders. Elder abuse is associated with higher rate of SNF stay of great than 30 days (RR, 6.27(3.68–10.69). Conclusion Elder abuse was associated with increased rates of admission to SNF in this community population. Specific subtypes of elder abuse had differential association with increased rate of admission to SNF. PMID:23816799

  18. Fluoroquinolone-associated anaphylaxis in spontaneous adverse drug reaction reports in Germany: differences in reporting rates between individual fluoroquinolones and occurrence after first-ever use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Bernhardt; Riegel, Stefan; Seebeck, Jörg; Beier, Rainer; Schichler, Dagmar; Barger, Antina; Merk, Hans F; Erdmann, Stephan

    2006-01-01

    The frequency of fluoroquinolone-associated anaphylaxis has been estimated to be 1.8-23 per 10 million days of treatment based on spontaneous reports. It is unknown whether there are differences between the reporting rates of anaphylaxis with individual fluoroquinolones. According to pathophysiology, anaphylaxis may be immune mediated (anaphylactic) or not (anaphylactoid). The latter may occur after first-ever intake since no sensitisation phase is necessary. To analyse spontaneous reports of fluoroquinolone-associated anaphylaxis contained in the spontaneous adverse drug reaction database of the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices in Germany with regard to differences in reporting rates between various fluoroquinolones, the previous intake and the time to onset of the reaction. All fluoroquinolone-associated cases of anaphylaxis, anaphylactic shock, and anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reaction spontaneously reported to the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 2004 were identified and assessed with regard to the correctness of the diagnosis of anaphylaxis, the causal relationship with the drug, the previous intake of fluoroquinolones and the time to onset of the reaction. In 166 of 204 cases identified, the diagnosis of anaphylaxis and a causal relationship with the drug were considered at least possible. Moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin accounted for 90 (54%), 25 (15%), 21 (13%) and 16 (10%) of the 166 cases, respectively. The corresponding reporting rates per 1 million defined daily doses based on crude estimates of exposure were 3.3, 0.6, 0.2 and 0.2 for moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin, respectively. The occurrence of anaphylaxis after the first dose or within the first three days was reported in 71 of 166 (43%) cases, but no information on prior exposure with this or any other fluoroquinolone was provided with these reports. In 21 of 166 (13%) cases, the

  19. Preliminary Report on Use of Self-Ratings to Provide J-Coefficient Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primoff, Ernest S.

    This report shows how Beta weights for the J-Coefficient may be easily developed without a formal validity study, and indicates how indications of ability other than tests can be used to measure the same abilities that are measured by tests. See also TM 001 163-64,166 for further information on job elements (J-Scale) procedures. (Author/DLG)

  20. How Students Rate the Quality Service Climate on Campus. National Research Report, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2012

    2012-01-01

    How satisfied are students with the service they receive--and how important is it to them? This report documents significant strides that colleges and universities have made in recent years to improve service quality and their overall campus climate, yet also finds that campuses still have room for improvement. A few highlights: (1) While progress…

  1. How Students Rate the Quality Service Climate on Campus. National Research Report, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel-Levitz, Inc, 2011

    2011-01-01

    How satisfied are students with the service they receive--and how important is it to them? This report documents significant strides that colleges and universities have made in recent years to improve service quality and their overall campus climate, yet also finds that campuses still have room for improvement. A few highlights: (1) While progress…

  2. Methodology for assessing the impacts of alternative rate designs on industrial energy use. Draft report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-11

    A task was undertaken to develop a method for analyzing industrial user responses to alternative rate designs. The method described considers the fuel switching and conservation responses of industrial users and the impact to a hypothetical utility regarding revenue stability, annual gas demand, and seasonal fluctuations. Twenty-seven hypothetical industrial plant types have been specified. For each combustor in the plant, the fuel consumption by season, initial fuel type, fuel switching costs, conservation costs, and amount of fuel conservable is provided. The decision making takes place at the plant level and is aggregated to determine the impact to the utility. Section 2 discusses the factors affecting an industrial user's response to alternative rate designs. Section 3 describes the methodology, includes an overview of the model and an example industrial user's response to a set of fuel prices. The data describing the 27 hypothetical firms is in an appendix.

  3. The visual analogue thermometer and the graphic numeric rating scale: a comparison of self-report instruments for pain measurement in adults with burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, A E E; Bremer, M; Hofland, H W C; Schuurmans, M J; Middelkoop, E; van Loey, N E E

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the adequacy of pain management in burn care, pain measurement is essential. The visual analogue thermometer (VAT) and graphic numeric rating scale (GNRS) are frequently used self-report instruments for burn pain. To legitimise their interchangeable use in research and practice, we aimed to compare self-reports obtained by the VAT and GNRS, the ability of the scales to differentiate background from procedural pain, and to compare potential cutpoints. Adults with acute burns (N=319) participated in the study (67% male, mean age 40.3 years (SD 16), mean TBSA 9.9% (SD 10.4). Correlation coefficients between VAT and GNRS were 0.64 and 0.55 for, respectively, morning and afternoon background pain and 0.51 for procedural pain (pscales could differentiate background from procedural pain: procedural pain was higher (pscales. The results suggest that the instruments cannot be used interchangeably without taking their differences into account.

  4. Plastic surgeons’ self-reported operative infection rates at a Canadian academic hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Wendy KY; Kaur, Manraj Nirmal; Thoma, Achilleas

    2014-01-01

    The significant morbidity associated with surgical site infections, in addition to increased hospital stays and health care resource utilization, has garnered much attention, especially in the era of cost-conscious health care systems and third-party payers. Although previous studies have investigated hospital-acquired infection rates across all surgical subspecialities, none have focused specifically on plastic surgery procedures. This retrospective study examined surgical site infection dat...

  5. Heart rate variability analysis in postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Calabrò

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a case of 36 year old male patient with idiopathic postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS diagnosed during head-up tilt testing. Power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV during the tilt test revealed that the ratio of low and high frequency powers (LF/HF increased with the onset of orthostatic intolerance. This analysis confirmed in our patient a strong activation in sympathetic tone.

  6. The Preliminary Report on Rumen Protozoa Grazing Rate on Bacteria with a Fluorescence-Labeled Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Meng-zhi; WANG Hong-rong; LI Guo-xiang; CAO Heng-chun; LU Zhan-jun

    2008-01-01

    Studies on the bacterial predation rate by rumen protozoa were carried out under laboratory conditions using a technique of fluorescence-labeled bacteria (FLB). Four Xuhuai goats were used in this experiment to obtain rumen protozoa and bacteria. Two groups were designed as follows: One group was the whole bacteria which were labeled using fluorescence through removing free bacteria from rumen fluid (WFLB); the other group was the bacteria which were labeled using fluorescence without removing free bacteria from rumen fluid (FLB). The result indicated that the bacterial predation rates of rumen Protozoa was 398.4 cells/(cell h) for the group WFLB, 230.4 cells/(cell h) for the group FLB, when the corresponding values expressed as bacteria-N, they were 2.15Pg N/(cell h) for the group WFLB, and 1.24Pg N/(cell h) for the group FLB, respectively. Extrapolating the assimilation quantity of nitrogen by ciliates on bacteria of Xuhuai goat, there were 103.2mg N/(d capita) for the group WFLB, and 59.5mg N/(d capita) for the group FLB, respectively. It was estimated that protein losses due to microbial recycling were 0.645g pro/(d capita) for the group WFLB and 0.372g pro/(d capita) for the group FLB, respectively. In addition, the fluorescence-labeled technique would be a potential assay for the determination of bacterial predation rate by rumen protozoa.

  7. Influences of gaseous environment on low growth-rate fatigue crack propagation in steels. Annual report No. 1, January 1980. Report No. FPL/R/80/1030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, R.O.; Suresh, S.; Toplosky, J.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of gaseous environment is examined on fatigue crack propagation behavior in steels. Specifically, a fully martensitic 300-M ultrahigh strength steel and a fully bainitic 2-1/4Cr-1Mo lower strength steel are investigated in environments of ambient temperature moist air and low pressure dehumidified hydrogen and argon gases over a wide range of growth rates from 10/sup -8/ to 10/sup -2/ mm/cycle, with particular emphasis given to behavior near the crack propagation threshold ..delta..K/sub 0/. It is found that two distinct growth rate regimes exist where hydrogen can markedly accelerate crack propagation rates compared to air, (1) at near-threshold levels below (5 x 10/sup -6/ mm/cycle) and (2) at higher growth rates, typically around 10/sup -5/ mm/cycle above a critical maximum stress intensity K/sub max//sup T/. Hydrogen-assisted crack propagation at higher growth rates is attributed to a hydrogen embrittlement mechanism, with K/sub max//sup T/ nominally equal to K/sub Iscc/ (the sustained load stress corrosion threshold) in high strength steels, and far below K/sub Iscc/ in the strain-rate sensitive lower strength steels. Hydrogen-assisted crack propagation at near-threshold levels is attributed to a new mechanism involving fretting-oxide-induced crack closure generated in moist (or oxygenated) environments. The absence of hydrogen embrittlement mechanisms at near-threshold levels is supported by tests showing that ..delta..K/sub 0/ values in dry gaseous argon are similar to ..delta..K/sub 0/ values in hydrogen. The potential ramifications of these results are examined in detail.

  8. Sensitivity for Diagnosing Group A Streptococcal Pharyngitis from Manufacturers is 10% Higher than Reported in Peer-Reviewed Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachhani, Raj; Patel, Toral; Centor, Robert M; Estrada, Carlos A

    2017-01-01

    Meta-analyses based on peer-reviewed publications report a sensitivity of approximately 85% for rapid antigen streptococcus tests to diagnose group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis. Because these meta-analyses excluded package inserts, we examined the test characteristics of rapid antigen streptococcal tests and molecular methods that manufacturers report in their package inserts. We included tests available in the US market (Food and Drug Administration, period searched 1993-2015) and used package insert data to calculate pooled sensitivity and specificity. To examine quality, we used the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2. We excluded 26 tests having different trade names but identical methods and data. The study design was prospective in 41.7% (10 of 24). The pooled sensitivity of the most commonly used method, lateral flow/immunochromatographic, was 95% (95% confidence interval [CI] 94-96) and the pooled specificity was 98% (96-98); 7108 patients. The pooled sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction or molecular methods was 98% (95% CI 96-98) and the pooled specificity was 96% (95% CI 95-97); 5685 patients. Package inserts include sponsored studies that overestimate the sensitivity of rapid tests to diagnose GAS pharyngitis by approximately 10%. Physicians should understand that package inserts overestimate diagnostic test utility; a negative test cannot be used to exclude GAS pharyngitis.

  9. Reporting Bias Leading to Discordant Venous Thromboembolism Rates in the United States Versus Non-US Countries Following Radical Cystectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantony, Joseph J; Gopalakrishna, Ajay; Noord, Megan Van; Inman, Brant A

    2016-06-01

    Postcystectomy bladder cancer (BCa) patients are at high risk for developing venous thromboembolism (VTE). The literature varies widely in the reporting of VTE in this population. To determine the VTE rate in subjects undergoing radical cystectomy (RC) and highlight specific factors affecting this rate. This meta-analysis was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) database, registration number: CRD42015016776. We queried MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Scopus, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Web of Science. Search terms captured BCa, RC, and VTE. Per the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, abstracts were reviewed for inclusion/exclusion criteria by two reviewers, and disagreements were resolved by a third reviewer. A search of the gray literature and references of pertinent articles was also performed. The date of our last search was December 15, 2014. For unreported data, authors were contacted. Data were abstracted in duplicate and pooled using a random effects (RE) model. Subgroup analyses and meta-regression were performed to determine risk factors for VTE. We identified 2927 publications, of which 223 met inclusion criteria for this review. A total of 1 115 634 surgeries were performed on patient population (80% men) with a total of 51 908 VTEs. The VTE rate estimated by the RE model was 3.7%. Due to significant heterogeneity, subgroup and meta-regression analyses were undertaken. These revealed a higher rate of VTE in US studies at 4.49% compared with "westernized" non-US studies at 3.43% and "nonwesternized" non-US based studies at 2.50%. Other important modifiers included minimally invasive surgery at 5.54% versus open surgery at 3.55%, and age. The case-fatality rate of pulmonary emboli was 44%. VTE is common in patients undergoing RC. Reporting of VTE is heterogeneous and the rate varies according to study

  10. Underserved Students Who Earn Credit through Prior Learning Assessment (PLA) Have Higher Degree Completion Rates and Shorter Time-to-Degree. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Collins, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, the Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (CAEL) released a report on a multi-institutional study on prior learning assessment (PLA) and adult student outcomes. The study examined data from 62,475 adult students at 48 colleges and universities, following the students' academic progress over the course of seven years. The data from…

  11. Framing violence: the effect of survey context and question framing on reported rates of partner violence

    OpenAIRE

    Regan, Katherine V.

    2008-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigated two explanations for the variability in levels of partner violence found by large community surveys. In Study 1, I examined the effect of how questions about partner violence are introduced (question framing: conflict, violence-in-relationships, or attacks) on reports of partner violence. Although there was not a reliable effect of question framing, the pattern of findings was consistent across 3 of 4 analyses. Counter to predictions, an attacks question f...

  12. Transport and transfer rates in the waters of the continental shelf. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biscaye, P.E.

    1980-09-01

    The goal of govern project is to understand and quantify the processes that the transport and dispersal of energy-related pollutants introduced to the waters of the continental shelf and slope. The report is divided into sections dealing with processes associated with suspended solids; processes associated with sediments sinks for radionuclides and other pollutants; and spreading of water characteristics and species in solution. (ACR)

  13. Supplementary feeding with fortified spreads results in higher recovery rates than with a corn/soy blend in moderately wasted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matilsky, Danielle K; Maleta, Kenneth; Castleman, Tony; Manary, Mark J

    2009-04-01

    Moderate childhood wasting is defined as having a weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ) or = -3. These children are typically given fortified corn/soy blended flour (CSB), but this intervention has shown limited effectiveness. Fortified spreads (FS) can be used as supplementary foods instead; they are energy-dense, lipid-based pastes with added powdered micronutrients. In this randomized clinical effectiveness trial, the recovery rates were compared among children with moderate wasting who received either milk/peanut FS, soy/peanut FS, or CSB. Children received isoenergetic quantities of food, 314 kJ x kg(-1) x d(-1), for up to 8 wk with biweekly follow-up. The primary outcome was recovery, defined as having a WHZ > -2. Time-event analysis was used to compare the recovery rate. A total of 1362 children were enrolled in the study. Children receiving soy/peanut FS had a similar recovery rate to those receiving milk/peanut FS and children in either FS group were more likely to recover than those receiving CSB (80% in both FS groups vs. 72% in the CSB group; P foods to CSB for moderately wasted Malawian children.

  14. An EIAV field isolate reveals much higher levels of subtype variability than currently reported for the equine lentivirus family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Baoshan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV, a lentivirus that infects horses, has been utilized as an animal model for the study of HIV. Furthermore, the disease associated with the equine lentivirus poses a significant challenge to veterinary medicine around the world. As with all lentiviruses, EIAV has been shown to have a high propensity for genomic sequence and antigenic variation, especially in its envelope (Env proteins. Recent studies have demonstrated Env variation to be a major determinant of vaccine efficacy, emphasizing the importance of defining natural variation among field isolates of EIAV. To date, however, published EIAV sequences have been reported only for cell-adapted strains of virus, predominantly derived from a single primary virus isolate, EIAVWyoming (EIAVWY. Results We present here the first characterization of the Env protein of a natural primary isolate from Pennsylvania (EIAVPA since the widely utilized and referenced EIAVWY strain. The data demonstrated that the level of EIAVPA Env amino acid sequence variation, approximately 40% as compared to EIAVWY, is much greater than current perceptions or published reports of natural EIAV variation between field isolates. This variation did not appear to give rise to changes in the predicted secondary structure of the proteins. While the EIAVPA Env was serologically cross reactive with the Env proteins of the cell-adapted reference strain, EIAVPV (derivative of EIAVWY, the two variant Envs were shown to lack any cross neutralization by immune serum from horses infected with the respective virus strains. Conclusion Taking into account the significance of serum neutralization to universal vaccine efficacy, these findings are crucial considerations towards successful EIAV vaccine development and the potential inclusion of field isolate Envs in vaccine candidates.

  15. WTP Waste Feed Qualification: Hydrogen Generation Rate Measurement Apparatus Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Smith, T. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, J. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-06-01

    The generation rate of hydrogen gas in the Hanford tank waste will be measured during the qualification of the staged tank waste for processing in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. Based on a review of past practices in measurement of the hydrogen generation, an apparatus to perform this measurement has been designed and tested for use during waste feed qualification. The hydrogen generation rate measurement apparatus (HGRMA) described in this document utilized a 100 milliliter sample in a continuously-purged, continuously-stirred vessel, with measurement of hydrogen concentration in the vent gas. The vessel and lid had a combined 220 milliliters of headspace. The vent gas system included a small condenser to prevent excessive evaporative losses from the sample during the test, as well as a demister and filter to prevent particle migration from the sample to the gas chromatography system. The gas chromatograph was an on line automated instrument with a large-volume sample-injection system to allow measurement of very low hydrogen concentrations. This instrument automatically sampled the vent gas from the hydrogen generation rate measurement apparatus every five minutes and performed data regression in real time. The fabrication of the hydrogen generation rate measurement apparatus was in accordance with twenty three (23) design requirements documented in the conceptual design package, as well as seven (7) required developmental activities documented in the task plan associated with this work scope. The HGRMA was initially tested for proof of concept with physical simulants, and a remote demonstration of the system was performed in the Savannah River National Laboratory Shielded Cells Mockup Facility. Final verification testing was performed using non-radioactive simulants of the Hanford tank waste. Three different simulants were tested to bound the expected rheological properties expected during waste feed qualification testing. These

  16. WTP Waste Feed Qualification: Hydrogen Generation Rate Measurement Apparatus Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Smith, T. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, J. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-06-01

    The generation rate of hydrogen gas in the Hanford tank waste will be measured during the qualification of the staged tank waste for processing in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. Based on a review of past practices in measurement of the hydrogen generation, an apparatus to perform this measurement has been designed and tested for use during waste feed qualification. The hydrogen generation rate measurement apparatus described in this document and shown in Figure 0-1 utilized a 100 milliliter sample in a continuously-purged, continuously-stirred vessel, with measurement of hydrogen concentration in the vent gas. The vessel and lid had a combined 220 milliliters of headspace. The vent gas system included a small condenser to prevent excessive evaporative losses from the sample during the test, as well as a demister and filter to prevent particle migration from the sample to the gas chromatography system. The gas chromatograph was an on line automated instrument with a large-volume sample-injection system to allow measurement of very low hydrogen concentrations. This instrument automatically sampled the vent gas from the hydrogen generation rate measurement apparatus every five minutes and performed data regression in real time. The fabrication of the hydrogen generation rate measurement apparatus was in accordance with twenty three (23) design requirements documented in the conceptual design package, as well as seven (7) required developmental activities documented in the task plan associated with this work scope. The HGRMA was initially tested for proof of concept with physical simulants and a remote demonstration of the system was performed in the Savannah River National Laboratory Shielded Cells Mockup Facility. Final verification testing was performed using non-radioactive simulants of the Hanford tank waste. Three different simulants were tested to bound the expected rheological properties expected during waste feed qualification

  17. Correlation between adherence rates measured by MEMS and self-reported questionnaires: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lizheng; Liu, Jinan; Fonseca, Vivian; Walker, Philip; Kalsekar, Anupama; Pawaskar, Manjiri

    2010-09-13

    It is vital to understand the associations between the medication event monitoring systems (MEMS) and self-reported questionnaires (SRQs) because both are often used to measure medication adherence and can produce different results. In addition, the economic implication of using alternative measures is important as the cost of electronic monitoring devices is not covered by insurance, while self-reports are the most practical and cost-effective method in the clinical settings. This meta-analysis examined the correlations of two measurements of medication adherence: MEMS and SRQs. The literature search (1980-2009) used PubMed, OVID MEDLINE, PsycINFO (EBSCO), CINAHL (EBSCO), OVID HealthStar, EMBASE (Elsevier), and Cochrane Databases. Studies were included if the correlation coefficients [Pearson (rp) or Spearman (rs)] between adherences measured by both MEMS and SRQs were available or could be calculated from other statistics in the articles. Data were independently abstracted in duplicate with standardized protocol and abstraction form including 1) first author's name; 2) year of publication; 3) disease status of participants; 4) sample size; 5) mean age (year); 6) duration of trials (month); 7) SRQ names if available; 8) adherence (%) measured by MEMS; 9) adherence (%) measured by SRQ; 10) correlation coefficient and relative information, including p-value, 95% confidence interval (CI). A meta-analysis was conducted to pool the correlation coefficients using random-effect model. Eleven studies (N = 1,684 patients) met the inclusion criteria. The mean of adherence measured by MEMS was 74.9% (range 53.4%-92.9%), versus 84.0% by SRQ (range 68.35%-95%). The correlation between adherence measured by MEMS and SRQs ranged from 0.24 to 0.87. The pooled correlation coefficient for 11 studies was 0.45 (p = 0.001, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.34-0.56). The subgroup meta-analysis on the seven studies reporting rp and four studies reporting rs reported the pooled

  18. Novel Approaches to the Production of Higher Alcohols From Synthesis Gas. Quarterly report, January 1 - March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, George W

    1997-02-13

    Effort during this quarter was devoted to three areas: 1) analyzing the data from earlier runs with "zinc chromite"catalyst and three different slurry liquids: decahydronaphthalene (Decalin®, DHN), tetrahydronaphthalene (tetralin, THN) and tetrahydroquinoline (THQ); 2) analyzing newly-obtained data from earlier thermal stability tests on DHN and THN, and 3) carrying out a thermal stability test on THQ. Both the activity and selectivity of "zinc chromite" catalyst depended on the slurry liquid that was used. The catalyst activity for methanol synthesis was in the order: THQ > DHN > THN. Despite the basic nature of THQ, it exhibited the highest dimethyl ether (DME) production rates of the three liquids. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analyses of samples of THN and DHN were taken at the end of standard thermal stability tests at 375°C. With both liquids, the only measurable compositional change was a minor amount of isomerization. Analysis of a sample of THN after a thermal stability test at 425°C showed a small reduction in molecular weight, and a significant amount of opening of the naphthenic ring. Preliminary data from the tehrmal stability test of THQ showed that this molecule is more stable than DHN, but less stable than THN.

  19. The study of human mutation rates. Progress report, 1989--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neel, J.V.

    1992-12-01

    We will describe recent developments regarding the question of induced mutations in the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. As part of that work we, describe some developments with respect to the Amerindian blood samples collected under DoE sponsorship between 1964 and 1982. Then developments regarding the application of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) to the study of genetic variation and mutation affecting protein characteristics. In particular, we will report on the identification and isolation of genes of especial interest as reflected in the behavior of the proteins which they encode.

  20. Brief Report: Higher Stage of Disease is associated with Bilateral Mastectomy among Patients with Breast Cancer: A Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Rachel A.; Kouri, Elena M.; West, Dee W.; Rosenberg, Shoshana; Partridge, Ann H.; Lii, Joyce; Keating, Nancy L.

    2017-01-01

    Background The reasons for increasing rates of bilateral mastectomy for unilateral breast cancer are incompletely understood and associations of disease stage with bilateral surgery have been inconsistent. We examined associations of clinical and sociodemographic factors, including stage, with surgery type and reconstruction receipt among women with breast cancer. Patients/Methods We surveyed a diverse population-based sample of women from northern California cancer registries with stage 0–III breast cancer diagnosed during 2010–2011 (participation rate=68.5%). Using multinomial logistic regression, we examined factors associated with bilateral and unilateral mastectomy (vs. breast conservation [BCS]), adjusting for tumor and sociodemographic characteristics. In a second model, we examined factors associated with reconstruction for mastectomy-treated patients. Results Among 487 participants, 58% had BCS, 32% had unilateral mastectomy, and 10% underwent bilateral mastectomy. In adjusted analyses, women with stage III (vs. stage 0) cancers had higher odds of bilateral mastectomy (odds ratio [O.R]=8.28; 95% Confidence Interval=2.32–29.50); women with stage II and III (vs. stage 0) disease had higher odds of unilateral mastectomy. Higher (vs. lower) income was also associated with bilateral mastectomy, while age ≥60 (vs. mastectomy-treated patients (n=206), bilateral mastectomy, unmarried status, higher education and income were all associated with reconstruction (Psmastectomy despite a lack of clear medical benefit, raising concern for over-treatment. Our findings highlight the need for interventions to assure women are making informed surgical decisions. PMID:26410475

  1. Interphase Molecular Cytogenetic Detection Rates of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia-Specific Aberrations Are Higher in Cultivated Cells Than in Blood or Bone Marrow Smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhourani, Eyad; Aroutiounian, Rouben; Harutyunyan, Tigran; Glaser, Anita; Schlie, Cordula; Pohle, Beate; Liehr, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Banding cytogenetics is still the gold standard in many fields of leukemia diagnostics. However, in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), GTG-banding results are hampered by a low mitotic rate of the corresponding malignant lymphatic cells. Thus, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH) for the detection of specific cytogenetic aberrations is done nowadays as a supplement to or even instead of banding cytogenetics in many diagnostic laboratories. These iFISH studies can be performed on native blood or bone marrow smears or in nuclei after cultivation and stimulation by a suitable mitogen. As there are only few comparative studies with partially conflicting results for the detection rates of aberrations in cultivated and native cells, this question was studied in 38 CLL cases with known aberrations in 11q22.2, 11q22.3, 12, 13q14.3, 14q32.33, 17p13.1, or 18q21.32. The obtained results implicate that iFISH directly applied on smears is in general less efficient for the detection of CLL-specific genetic abnormalities than for cultivated cells. This also shows that applied cell culture conditions are well suited for malignant CLL cells. Thus, to detect malignant aberrant cells in CLL, cell cultivation and cytogenetic workup should be performed and the obtained material should be subjected to banding cytogenetics and iFISH. © 2016 The Histochemical Society.

  2. Dissolution rates and surface chemistry of feldspar glass and crystal. Final technical report, June 15, 1995 - August 14, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brantley, S.; Pantano, C.

    2002-06-11

    Final report summarizing the completed work of the project entitled 'Dissolution of Feldspar in the Field and Laboratory.' One of the highly debated questions today in low-temperature geochemical kinetics centers upon the rate and mechanism of dissolution of feldspar, the most common mineral in the crust. In this project, the mechanisms of feldspar dissolution were investigated by emphasizing experiments with feldspar glass and crystal while comparing surface and solution chemistry. Specifically, laboratory work focused on the structure of altered surface layers on feldspars, the rate of dissolution of feldspar crystal and glass, and the presence of porosity and surface coatings on feldspars. In a complementary field project, the use of Sr concentrations and isotopic ratios were used to calculate feldspar dissolution rates.

  3. Final Report Project Activity Task ORD-FY04-002 Nevada System of Higher Education Quality Assurance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smiecinski, Amy; Keeler, Raymond; Bertoia, Julie; Mueller, Terry; Roosa, Morris; Roosa, Barbara

    2008-03-07

    The principal purpose of DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC28-04RW12232 is to develop and continue providing the public and the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) with an independently derived, unbiased body of scientific and engineering data concerning the study of Yucca Mountain as a potential high-level radioactive waste repository. Under this agreement, the Nevada System of Higher Education (NSHE), formerly the University and Community College System of Nevada (UCCSN), performs scientific or engineering research, and maintains and fosters collaborative working relationships between government and academic researchers. In performing these activities, the NSHE has already developed and implemented a Quality Assurance (QA) program, which was accepted by the DOE Office of Quality Assurance, under the previous Cooperative Agreement Number DE-FC28-98NV12081. The following describes the objectives of Project Activity 002 “Quality Assurance Program” under cooperative agreement DE-FC28-04RW12232. The objective of this QA program was to assure that data produced under the cooperative agreement met the OCRWM QA Requirements and Description (QARD) requirements for quality-affecting (Q) data. The QA Program was written to address specific QARD requirements historically identified and incorporated in Q activities to the degree appropriate for the nature, scope, and complexity of the activity. Additional QARD requirements were integrated into the program when required to complete a specific activity. NSHE QA staff developed a detailed matrix to address each QARD element, identifying the applicable requirements and specifying where each requirement is addressed in the QA program procedures, or identify requirements as “not applicable” to the QA program. Controlled documents were prepared in the form of QA procedures (QAPs) and implementing procedures (IPs). NSHE identified new QAPs and IPs when needed. NSHE PIs

  4. Higher Childhood Peer Reports of Social Preference Mediates the Impact of the Good Behavior Game on Suicide Attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Alison R; Roth, Kimberly B; Kellam, Sheppard G; Wang, Wei; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Hart, Shelley R; Wagner, Barry M; Wilcox, Holly C

    2016-02-01

    The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a universal classroom-based preventive intervention directed at reducing early aggressive, disruptive behavior and improving children's social adaptation into the classroom. The GBG is one of the few universal preventive interventions delivered in early elementary school that has been shown to reduce the risk for future suicide attempts. This paper addresses one potential mechanism by which the GBG lowers the risk of later suicide attempt. In this study, we tested whether the GBG, by facilitating social adaptation into the classroom early on, including the level of social preference by classmates, thereby lowers future risk of suicide attempts. The measure of social adaptation is based on first and second grade peer reports of social preference ("which children do you like best?"; "which children don't you like?"). As part of the hypothesized meditational model, we examined the longitudinal association between childhood peer social preference and the risk of future suicide attempt, which has not previously been examined. Data were from an epidemiologically based randomized prevention trial, which tested the GBG among two consecutive cohorts of first grade children in 19 public schools and 41 classrooms. Results indicated that peer social preference partially mediated the relationship between the GBG and the associated reduction of risk for later suicide attempts by adulthood, specifically among children characterized by their first grade teacher as highly aggressive, disruptive. These results suggest that positive childhood peer relations may partially explain the GBG-associated reduction of risk for suicide attempts and may be an important and malleable protective factor for future suicide attempt.

  5. Relationship between staff-reported culture change and occupancy rate and organizational commitment among nursing homes in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minhong; Choi, Jae-Sung; Lim, Jinseop; Kim, Young Sun

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to examine culture change in nursing homes in South Korea and to identify the outcomes of culture change implementation. Data were taken from survey responses from 223 top- or mid-level staff among nursing homes in South Korea that were selected through a proportionate random-stratified sampling method from four regions nationwide. Culture change in nursing homes was operationalized by five person-directed care (PDC) constructs and three organizational environment constructs, and outcome quality was indicated by changes to occupancy rate and organizational commitment. After controlling for facility characteristics, the effect of staff-reported culture change on occupancy rate and organizational commitment was analyzed through the multiple-regression method. Consistent with previous research, this study revealed positive effects of culture change for nursing homes in South Korea. The study found that staff-reported culture change correlated with occupancy rate and organizational commitment. Given that culture change variables were significantly related to occupancy rate and organizational commitment, the findings of the study provide a persuasive argument that policies and/or programs to support culture change in nursing homes should be enhanced. Management-level workers in these facilities should have the skills and knowledge to foster more PDC and a more person-directed environment.

  6. On-demand Reporting of Risk-adjusted and Smoothed Rates for Quality Profiling in ACS NSQIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Mark E; Liu, Yaoming; Huffman, Kristopher M; Ko, Clifford Y; Hall, Bruce L

    2016-12-01

    Surgical quality improvement depends on hospitals having accurate and timely information about comparative performance. Profiling accuracy is improved by risk adjustment and shrinkage adjustment to stabilize estimates. These adjustments are included in ACS NSQIP reports, where hospital odds ratios (OR) are estimated using hierarchical models built on contemporaneous data. However, the timeliness of feedback remains an issue. We describe an alternative, nonhierarchical approach, which yields risk- and shrinkage-adjusted rates. In contrast to our "Traditional" NSQIP method, this approach uses preexisting equations, built on historical data, which permits hospitals to have near immediate access to profiling results. We compared our traditional method to this new "on-demand" approach with respect to outlier determinations, kappa statistics, and correlations between logged OR and standardized rates, for 12 models (4 surgical groups by 3 outcomes). When both methods used the same contemporaneous data, there were similar numbers of hospital outliers and correlations between logged OR and standardized rates were high. However, larger differences were observed when the effect of contemporaneous versus historical data was added to differences in statistical methodology. The on-demand, nonhierarchical approach provides results similar to the traditional hierarchical method and offers immediacy, an "over-time" perspective, application to a broader range of models and data subsets, and reporting of more easily understood rates. Although the nonhierarchical method results are now available "on-demand" in a web-based application, the hierarchical approach has advantages, which support its continued periodic publication as the gold standard for hospital profiling in the program.

  7. The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope confers higher rates of replicative fitness to perinatally transmitted viruses than to nontransmitted viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiaohong; West, John T; Zhang, Hong; Shea, Danielle M; M'soka, Tendai J; Wood, Charles

    2008-12-01

    Selection of a minor viral genotype during perinatal transmission of human Immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been observed, but there is a lack of information on the correlation of the restrictive transmission with biological properties of the virus, such as replicative fitness. Recombinant viruses expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein or the Discosoma sp. red fluorescent (DsRed2) protein carrying the V1 to V5 regions of env from seven mother-infant pairs (MIPs) infected by subtype C HIV-1 were constructed, and competition assays were carried out to compare the fitness between the transmitted and nontransmitted viruses. Flow cytometry was used to quantify the frequency of infected cells, and the replicative fitness was determined based on a calculation that takes into account replication of competing viruses in a single infection versus dual infections. Transmitted viruses from five MIPs with the mothers chronically infected showed a restrictive env genotype, and all the recombinant viruses carrying the infants' Env had higher replicative fitness than those carrying the Env from the mothers. This growth fitness is lineage specific and can be observed only within the same MIP. In contrast, in two MIPs where the mothers had undergone recent acute infection, the viral Env sequences were similar between the mothers and infants and showed no further restriction in quasispecies during perinatal transmission. The recombinant viruses carrying the Env from the infants' viruses also showed replication fitness similar to those carrying the mothers' Env proteins. Our results suggest that newly transmitted viruses from chronically infected mothers have been selected to have higher replicative fitness to favor transmission, and this advantage is conferred by the V1 to V5 region of Env of the transmitted viruses. This finding has important implications for vaccine design or development of strategies to prevent HIV-1 transmission.

  8. Influence of hydrologic loading rate on phosphorus retention and ecosystem productivity in created wetlands. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsch, W.J.; Cronk, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    Four 2- to 3-ha constructed freshwater riparian wetlands in Lake County, Illinois, were subjected to two hydrologic regimes of pumped river water to simulate nonpoint source pollution. The experimental wetlands at the Des Plaines River Wetland Demonstration Project were designed to develop and test wetland design principles, construction methods, and management programs needed to create and maintain wetlands for the purposes of water quality management, flood control, and fish and wildlife habitat. High-flow wetlands (HFW) with short retention times received 34 to 38 cm of river water per week, and low-flow wetlands (LFW) with high retention times received 10 to 15 cm per week. This report summarizes research results for phosphorus dynamics and retention, macrophyte development, periphyton productivity, and overall water column metabolism through 1992. All of these functions were hypothesized to be related to hydrologic conditions.

  9. Can turnout measurements be used to predict physiotherapist-reported injury rates in dancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jo Baker; Wyon, Matthew; Nevill, Alan

    2013-12-01

    Research has suggested that dancers may be more at risk of injury when they excessively utilise non-hip components of turnout to compensate for deficits in hip external rotation when trying to achieve maximal total turnout. However, recently different measures of turnout have been cited in the literature as well as suggestions for derived variables to account for shortfalls in particular components of turnout. This study aimed to assess whether measurements of turnout can predict the number of injuries (0 or 1 injury, or 2+ injuries) over a 10-month period. At the beginning of the academic year, 47 female, full-time, contemporary dance students (mean age 19.9 ± 2.51 yrs; height 1.65 ± 0.05 cm; weight 56.23 ± 6.51 kg) were screened as part of a biannual screening process. Measurements, summed of both legs, were obtained for passive hip external rotation (pER), total passive turnout (TPT), and total active turnout (TAT). From these, three further variables were derived: compensated turnout, muscular turnout, and active ER lag. At the end of 10 months, the dancers' physiotherapist-reported and self-reported injuries were obtained. Binary regression analyses for the six turnout variables identified compensated and muscular values as having significant positive effects. For every 1% increase in compensated and muscular values, there was a corresponding 9% or 8.4% increase in the odds that the dancer would sustain 2 or more injuries compared to 0 or 1 injury. Screening compensated and muscular values may be useful to address shortfalls to prevent injuries in the future.

  10. Optimizing cellulase mixtures for maximum rate and extent of hydrolysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, L.P.; Wilson, D.B. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Pure Thomomonospora fusca and Trichoderma reesei cellulases and their mixtures were studied to determine the optimal set of cellulases for biomass hydrolysis. The objective was to reduce the cost of cellulase in order to help lower the overall processing cost of the enzymatic conversion of biomass cellulose to sugars, which can then be fermented into fuels and other energy-intensive chemicals. No cellulase mixture was obtained that was much better than the best commercially available preparations. However, the study has greatly increased knowledge of T. fusca cellulases, synergism, and cellulose binding, and provide evidence that future work will produce cellulases with higher activity in degrading crystalline cellulose. T. fusca cellulases may have good industrial potential because: (1) they are compatible with industrial processes that operate at elevated temperatures; (2) they retain 90% of their activity under neutral or basic conditions, which provides a great deal of flexibility in reactor design and operation; and (3) tools are now available to change specific amino acid residues in their catalytic domains and to assess how these changes influence catalysis. 74 refs.

  11. Fast-Rate Capable Electrode Material with Higher Energy Density than LiFePO4: 4.2V LiVPO4F Synthesized by Scalable Single-Step Solid-State Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkyung; Lee, Seongsu; Kang, Byoungwoo

    2016-03-01

    Use of compounds that contain fluorine (F) as electrode materials in lithium ion batteries has been considered, but synthesizing single-phase samples of these compounds is a difficult task. Here, it is demonstrated that a simple scalable single-step solid-state process with additional fluorine source can obtain highly pure LiVPO4F. The resulting material with submicron particles achieves very high rate capability ≈100 mAh g(-1) at 60 C-rate (1-min discharge) and even at 200 C-rate (18 s discharge). It retains superior capacity, ≈120 mAh g(-1) at 10 C charge/10 C discharge rate (6-min) for 500 cycles with >95% retention efficiency. Furthermore, LiVPO4F shows low polarization even at high rates leading to higher operating potential >3.45 V (≈3.6 V at 60 C-rate), so it achieves high energy density. It is demonstrated for the first time that highly pure LiVPO4F can achieve high power capability comparable to LiFePO4 and much higher energy density (≈521 Wh g(-1) at 20 C-rate) than LiFePO4 even without nanostructured particles. LiVPO4F can be a real substitute of LiFePO4.

  12. Transport and transfer rates in the waters of the Continental Shelf. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biscaye, P.E.

    1978-07-01

    The present contract year has been one of transition from an emphasis on field work and sample gathering to the predominance of sample and data analysis and the formulation of testable hypotheses concerning specific processes in the New York Bight. We have begun to understand the seasonal transition in the role of phytoplankton vs. grazing zooplankton in forming the particles on which some reactive pollutants are removed. Using natural radioactive tracers we have estimated the removal rates of reactive metals from the surface waters and these range over an order of magnitude from most rapid nearshore to least rapid over the upper continental slope. Once removed nearshore, however, these tracers, and the pollutants for which they proxy, do not remain permanently in the sediments but appear to be remobilized (probably by oxidation) during the winter and are reintroduced into the water column. Work on transport and mixing processes of pollutants which are or behave like those in solution has continued along several fronts. Hydrographic data on the structure of the water column continues to give a description of the system that is crucial to understanding geochemical and biological processes which affect pollutants. Hydrographic characterization of water masses from the data sets of cruises has resulted in hypotheses concerning the renewal of shelf water by direct exchange between shelf and upper slope water.

  13. Fe-burden quality at high coal injection rates. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muelheims, K.; Rosenplaenter, R.; Hess, E.; Lectard, E.; Sert, D.; Pastore, M.; Lindert, M.Te.; Matthews, T. [TKS, Duisburg (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The aim of the project, funded by the ECSC, was to investigate the chemical and physical properties of different production and laboratory sinter and to improve the sinter quality to characterise the quality requirements for high coal injection rates in the blast furnace. Studies on synthetically prepared material have shown that softening is triggered by the initial formation of metal within the core region of partly reduced iron bearing material. The temperatures at which the deformation of pellets or sinter started do not correspond with the temperatures detected by the differential thermal analysis on single phases. From sinter pot and sinter plant test results it could be confirmed that sinter disintegration can be influenced by its chemical composition. The basicity has a dominant influence on the sinter quality. The sinter degradation decreases as the FeO content increases and the porosity decreases. Results from the melting down tests showed that the reduction of sinter at different temperatures progresses faster as the porosity increases. Further on, the beginning of the melting down temperature increases as the reduction degree increases. Pilot blast furnace trials increased confidence in the validity of the melting down test in evaluating key material parameters and assisted in establishing realistic gas/temperature reducing cycles. The ASAM tests highlighted the importance of gangue composition in determining the sinter's melting/dripping qualities.

  14. Reliability of a patient-reported outcome measure in schizophrenia: Results from back-to-back self-ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Fervaha, Gagan; Remington, Gary

    2016-10-30

    This study aimed to assess patient's capacity to perform a patient-reported outcome (PRO) measure (i.e., a self-rating scale) and examine its relationship with clinical characteristics including cognition. Fifty patients with schizophrenia were asked to rate the Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptics scale - Short form (SWNS) twice; the second rating was started immediately after they completed the first to minimize the gap between ratings. At the same time, the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS) and Brief Neurocognitive Assessment (BNA) were administered. The correlations between the two ratings for the SWNS total and each item scores were high (rs=0.94 and rs=0.60-0.84, respectively); however, for 16 (80%) of 20 items, 5 or more patients (i.e., ≥10%) demonstrated a>1 point score difference. There was no significant correlation between the SWNS total score difference and any clinical characteristics including age, education duration, illness duration, antipsychotic dose, psychopathology, and cognition. In contrast, the number of items with a>1 point score difference was significantly correlated with disorganized symptoms and overall severity (rs=0.29 for both), as well as working memory and global cognition (rs=-0.41 and rs=-0.40, respectively). These findings suggest that PROs should be interpreted with caution in patients with schizophrenia with prominent disorganization and cognitive impairment.

  15. Improving the Success Rate of Delivering Annual Occupational Dosimetry Reports to Persons Issued Temporary External Dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallett, Michael Wesley [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-09

    Workers who are not routinely monitored for occupational radiation exposure at LANL may be issued temporary dosimeters in the field. Per 10CFR835 and DOE O 231.1A, the Laboratory's radiation protection program is responsible for reporting these results to the worker at the end of the year. To do so, the identity of the worker and their mailing address must be recorded by the delegated person at the time the dosimeter is issued. Historically, this data has not been consistently captured. A new online application was developed to record the issue of temporary dosimeters. The process flow of the application was structured such that: 1) the worker must be uniquely identified in the Lab's HR database, and 2) the mailing address of record is verified live time via a commercial web service, for the transaction to be completed. A COPQ savings (Type B1) of $96K/year is demonstrated for the new application.

  16. High Repetition Rate, LINAC-based Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence FY 2009 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew Kinlaw; Scott Watson; James Johnson; Alan Hunt; Heather Seipel; Edward Reedy

    2009-10-01

    Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF), which is possible for nuclei with atomic numbers greater than helium (Z=2), occurs when a nuclear level is excited by resonant absorption of a photon and subsequently decays by reemission of a photon. The excited nuclear states can become readily populated, provided the incident photon’s energy is within the Doppler-broadened width of the energy level being excited. Utilizing continuous energy photon spectra, as is characteristic of a bremsstrahlung photon beam, as the inspection source, ensures that at least some fraction of the impinging beam will contribute to the population of the excited energy levels in the material of interest. Upon de-excitation, either to the ground state or to a lower-energy excited state, the emitted fluorescence photon’s energy will correspond to the energy difference between the excited state and the state to which it decays. As each isotope inherently contains unique nuclear energy levels, the NRF states for each isotope are also unique. By exploiting this phenomenon, NRF photon detection provides a well-defined signature for identifying the presence of individual nuclear species. This report summarizes the second year (Fiscal Year [FY] 2009) of a collaborative research effort between Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho State University’s Idaho Accelerator Center, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This effort focused on continuing to assess and optimize NRF-based detection techniques utilizing a slightly modified, commercially available, pulsed medical electron accelerator.

  17. Preliminary report of pulsed dose rate brachytherapy in head-and-neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziemlewski, A.; Zienkiewicz, J. [Medical Univ. of Gdansk (Poland). Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery; Serkies, K.; Badzio, A. [Medical Univ. of Gdansk (Poland). Dept. of Oncology and Radiotherapy

    2007-09-15

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility and acute/delayed toxicity of pulsed-dose-rate brachytherapy (PDR BT) in head-and-neck tumors. Patients and Methods: 45 head and neck cancer patients underwent interstitial or contact PDR BT at a dose of 10.2-70 Gy (median, 70 Gy) and 0.6 or 1.0 Gy/pulse/h. 42 patients were administered BT as part of their curative treatment; 32 of them had sole BT. Three reirradiated patients with recurrent tumor had palliative BT. Results: PDR BT was well tolerated. Intense bleeding was the only complication associated with catheter removal from the tongue and bucca. 44 patients who completed BT experienced acute mucositis. Grade 3 toxicity of skin and oral mucosa occurred in three (6.8%) and six patients (13.6%), respectively. At a median follow-up of 22 months (range, 2-67 months), late serious toxicity (grade 4, for soft tissue and bone) was seen in seven patients (15.9%). Among the parameters analyzed, only dental care performed before BT had a significant impact on mucosal side effects. Acute severe mucositis was observed in 23% of patients without dental care compared to 0% of those with dental care (p = 0.044). Late severe mucositis occurred in 17.7% and 26.9% of the respective patients (p = 0.035), overall in 23%. The larger the volume encompassed by the reference isodose, the more late (p = 0.004) mucosal reactions were observed. Conclusion: PDR BT continued over a few days is a feasible and safe approach in head-and-neck tumors; however, it is accompanied by some toxicity. Dental care should precede isotope application. (orig.)

  18. Primary hepatocytes from mice lacking cysteine dioxygenase show increased cysteine concentrations and higher rates of metabolism of cysteine to hydrogen sulfide and thiosulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkowska, Halina; Roman, Heather B; Hirschberger, Lawrence L; Sasakura, Kiyoshi; Nagano, Tetsuo; Hanaoka, Kenjiro; Krijt, Jakub; Stipanuk, Martha H

    2014-05-01

    The oxidation of cysteine in mammalian cells occurs by two routes: a highly regulated direct oxidation pathway in which the first step is catalyzed by cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) and by desulfhydration-oxidation pathways in which the sulfur is released in a reduced oxidation state. To assess the effect of a lack of CDO on production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and thiosulfate (an intermediate in the oxidation of H2S to sulfate) and to explore the roles of both cystathionine γ-lyase (CTH) and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) in cysteine desulfhydration by liver, we investigated the metabolism of cysteine in hepatocytes isolated from Cdo1-null and wild-type mice. Hepatocytes from Cdo1-null mice produced more H2S and thiosulfate than did hepatocytes from wild-type mice. The greater flux of cysteine through the cysteine desulfhydration reactions catalyzed by CTH and CBS in hepatocytes from Cdo1-null mice appeared to be the consequence of their higher cysteine levels, which were due to the lack of CDO and hence lack of catabolism of cysteine by the cysteinesulfinate-dependent pathways. Both CBS and CTH appeared to contribute substantially to cysteine desulfhydration, with estimates of 56 % by CBS and 44 % by CTH in hepatocytes from wild-type mice, and 63 % by CBS and 37 % by CTH in hepatocytes from Cdo1-null mice.

  19. Ablation of arginylation in the mouse N-end rule pathway: loss of fat, higher metabolic rate, damaged spermatogenesis, and neurological perturbations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S Brower

    Full Text Available In the N-end rule pathway of protein degradation, the destabilizing activity of N-terminal Asp, Glu or (oxidized Cys residues requires their conjugation to Arg, which is recognized directly by pathway's ubiquitin ligases. N-terminal arginylation is mediated by the Ate1 arginyltransferase, whose physiological substrates include the Rgs4, Rgs5 and Rgs16 regulators of G proteins. Here, we employed the Cre-lox technique to uncover new physiological functions of N-terminal arginylation in adult mice. We show that postnatal deletion of mouse Ate1 (its unconditional deletion is embryonic lethal causes a rapid decrease of body weight and results in early death of approximately 15% of Ate1-deficient mice. Despite being hyperphagic, the surviving Ate1-deficient mice contain little visceral fat. They also exhibit an increased metabolic rate, ectopic induction of the Ucp1 uncoupling protein in white fat, and are resistant to diet-induced obesity. In addition, Ate1-deficient mice have enlarged brains, an enhanced startle response, are strikingly hyperkinetic, and are prone to seizures and kyphosis. Ate1-deficient males are also infertile, owing to defects in Ate1(-/- spermatocytes. The remarkably broad range of specific biological processes that are shown here to be perturbed by the loss of N-terminal arginylation will make possible the dissection of regulatory circuits that involve Ate1 and either its known substrates, such as Rgs4, Rgs5 and Rgs16, or those currently unknown.

  20. Loss of the p53/p63 Target PERP is an Early Event in Oral Carcinogenesis and Correlates with Higher Rate of Local Relapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Christina S.; Cao, Hongbin; Kwok, Shirley; Nguyen, Catherine M.; Jordan, Richard C.; Beaudry, Veronica G.; Attardi, Laura D.; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND PERP is a p53/p63 regulated gene encoding a desmosomal protein that plays a critical role in cell-cell adhesion and tumor suppression. STUDY DESIGN We evaluated PERP expression in different grades of oral dysplasia (34 cases) and at different stages of invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and correlated the latter with clinical outcome. A tissue microarray (TMA) consisting of non-dysplastic mucosa, carcinoma in situ, SCC and nodal metastases from 33 patients with HPV-negative SCC was stained for PERP and E-cadherin. RESULTS Complete loss of PERP expression was associated with worse local control in patients with SCC. The 5-year local control rate was 91% for patients with partial PERP loss versus 31% for those with complete loss (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS This is the first study to show that loss of PERP expression correlates with the transition to SCC and with increased local relapse in patients with oral cavity SCC. PMID:23217540

  1. Violent crime rates as a proxy for the social determinants of sexually transmissible infection rates: the consistent state-level correlation between violent crime and reported sexually transmissible infections in the United States, 1981-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Harrell W; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Leichliter, Jami S; Aral, Sevgi O

    2013-11-01

    Numerous social determinants of health are associated with violent crime rates and sexually transmissible infection (STI) rates. This report aims to illustrate the potential usefulness of violent crime rates as a proxy for the social determinants of STI rates. For each year from 1981 to 2010, we assessed the strength of the association between the violent crime rate and the gonorrhoea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) rate (number of total reported cases per 100?000) at the state level. Specifically, for each year, we calculated Pearson correlation coefficients (and P-values) between two variables (the violent crime rate and the natural log of the gonorrhoea rate) for all 50 states and Washington, DC. For comparison, we also examined the correlation between gonorrhoea rates, and rates of poverty and unemployment. We repeated the analysis using overall syphilis rates instead of overall gonorrhoea rates. The correlation between gonorrhoea and violent crime was significant at the Ppoverty, and in 17 of the 30 years for that between gonorrhoea and unemployment. Because violent crime is associated with many social determinants of STIs and because it is consistently associated with STI rates, violent crime rates can be a useful proxy for the social determinants of health in statistical analyses of STI rates.

  2. Dating the origin of hepatitis B virus reveals higher substitution rate and adaptation on the branch leading to F/H genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Angelis, Konstantinos; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Kostaki, Evangelia; Ho, Simon Y W; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2015-12-01

    The evolution of hepatitis B virus (HBV), particularly its origins and evolutionary timescale, has been the subject of debate. Three major scenarios have been proposed, variously placing the origin of HBV in humans and great apes from some million years to only a few thousand years ago (ka). To compare these scenarios, we analyzed 105 full-length HBV genome sequences from all major genotypes sampled globally. We found a high correlation between the demographic histories of HBV and humans, as well as coincidence in the times of origin of specific subgenotypes with human migrations giving rise to their host indigenous populations. Together with phylogenetic evidence, this suggests that HBV has co-expanded with modern humans. Based on the co-expansion, we conducted a Bayesian dating analysis to estimate a precise evolutionary timescale for HBV. Five calibrations were used at the origins of F/H genotypes, D4, C3 and B6 from respective indigenous populations in the Pacific and Arctic and A5 from Haiti. The estimated time for the origin of HBV was 34.1ka (95% highest posterior density interval 27.6-41.3ka), coinciding with the dispersal of modern non-African humans. Our study, the first to use full-length HBV sequences, places a precise timescale on the HBV epidemic and also shows that the "branching paradox" of the more divergent genotypes F/H from Amerindians is due to an accelerated substitution rate, probably driven by positive selection. This may explain previously observed differences in the natural history of HBV between genotypes F1 and A2, B1, and D. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Report on the Study of the Tax and Rate Treatment of Renewable Energy Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, S.W.

    1993-01-01

    This study was conducted in response to Section 1205 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), requiring the U.S. Department of Energy in conjunction with state regulatory commissions to determine if conventional tax measures and ratemaking procedures provide economic barriers to or incentives for the adoption of renewable electric generating plants compared to conventional ones. For this study, we defined barriers and incentives in terms of financial criteria used by investor-owned utilities (IOUs) and nonutility electricity generators (NUGs) when making decisions on technologies for new generating plants. For IOUs, the major criterion used was the levelized cost of producing power over the useful life of the technology. For NUGs, the major criterion used was the internal rate of return. Clearly, there are many factors outside the scope of this study that relate to the decisionmaking process of IOUs and NUGs. This study to determine barriers and incentives does not attempt to determine which technologies would most likely be adopted by IOUs and NUGs. Technologies are only cost (in)effective relative to a given power system and its set of internal and external conditions. Other technology-related factors such as availability, dispatchability, diversity, and reliability of generating alternatives are also considered in the decisionmaking process used by IOUs and NUGs. The results of this study show only the relative impact of certain tax measures and ratemaking procedures on financial criteria that IOUs and NUGs use as inputs to make technology-adoption decisions. Where these tax measures and ratemaking procedures provide incentives for an alternative, they increase the likelihood that the alternative will be selected by IOUs or NUGs when making generating-resource decisions. In quantifying the parameters of the seven renewable and four conventional generating options studied, we used today's ''conventional wisdom'' on the values of

  4. Sleep deprivation is associated with lower diet quality indices and higher rate of general and central obesity among young female students in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighatdoost, Fahimeh; Karimi, Golgis; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Azadbakht, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Short sleep duration and low diet quality are associated with weight gain. However, little is known about the relationship between sleep duration and the quality of diets. Therefore, we aimed to compare the diet quality indices and anthropometric measures between short and longer sleepers. This cross-sectional study consisted of 410 female youths who were chosen among students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences based on stratified random sampling method. Dietary intake assessment was done using a semiquantitative validated food frequency questionnaire. Sleep duration was estimated using self-reported nocturnal sleep duration by each person. Anthropometric measures were done using standard protocols. Diet quality indices (including dietary energy density, dietary diversity scores, healthy eating index, nutrient adequacy ratio, and mean adequacy ratio) were calculated using the standard definition. Subjects who slept less than 6 h/d were more likely to be overweight and obese (P = 0.0001) and also abdominally obese (P = 0.03). They also consumed more dietary energy (2406 ± 825 versus 2092 ± 700 kcal/d; P = 0.01, respectively) and carbohydrates (58.1 ± 16.2% versus 51.6 ± 10.3%; P = 0.03) but a lower amount of fiber (12 ± 7 versus 18 ± 7 g/d; P = 0.04), fruits (2.4 ± 0.6 versus 3.1 ± 0.7 servings/d; P = 0.04), whole grains (0.9 ± 0.1 versus 1.3 ± 0.1 servings/d; P = 0.04), and beans (0.3 ± 0.1 versus 0.8 ± 0.1 servings/d; P = 0.04). All diet quality indices were significantly lower among short sleepers (P sleep duration and obesity in young female youths. It might be derived from lower diet quality among short sleepers more than longer sleepers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Monty Roberts’ Public Demonstrations: Preliminary Report on the Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability of Horses Undergoing Training during Live Audience Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loni Loftus

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective training of horses relies on the trainer’s awareness of learning theory and equine ethology, and should be undertaken with skill and time. Some trainers, such as Monty Roberts, share their methods through the medium of public demonstrations. This paper describes the opportunistic analysis of beat-to-beat (RR intervals and heart rate variability (HRV of ten horses being used in Monty Roberts’ public demonstrations within the United Kingdom. RR and HRV was measured in the stable before training and during training. The HRV variables standard deviation of the RR interval (SDRR, root mean square of successive RR differences (RMSSD, geometric means standard deviation 1 (SD1 and 2 (SD2, along with the low and high frequency ratio (LF/HF ratio were calculated. The minimum, average and maximum RR intervals were significantly lower in training (indicative of an increase in heart rate as measured in beats-per-minute than in the stable ( p = 0.0006; p = 0.01; p = 0.03. SDRR, RMSSD, SD1, SD2 and the LF/HF ratio were all significantly lower in training than in the stable ( p = 0.001; p = 0.049; p = 0.049; p = 0.001; p = 0.01. When comparing the HR and HRV of horses during Join-up ® to overall training, there were no significant differences in any variable with the exception of maximum RR which was significantly lower ( p = 0.007 during Join-up ® , indicative of short increases in physical exertion (canter associated with this training exercise. In conclusion, training of horses during public demonstrations is a low-moderate physiological, rather than psychological stressor for horses. The physiological stress responses observed within this study were comparable or less to those previously reported in the literature for horses being trained outside of public audience events. Furthermore, there is no evidence that the use of Join-up ® alters HR and HRV in a way to suggest that this training method negatively affects the psychological welfare

  6. Monty Roberts' Public Demonstrations: Preliminary Report on the Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability of Horses Undergoing Training during Live Audience Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Loni; Marks, Kelly; Jones-McVey, Rosie; Gonzales, Jose L; Fowler, Veronica L

    2016-09-09

    Effective training of horses relies on the trainer's awareness of learning theory and equine ethology, and should be undertaken with skill and time. Some trainers, such as Monty Roberts, share their methods through the medium of public demonstrations. This paper describes the opportunistic analysis of beat-to-beat (RR) intervals and heart rate variability (HRV) of ten horses being used in Monty Roberts' public demonstrations within the United Kingdom. RR and HRV was measured in the stable before training and during training. The HRV variables standard deviation of the RR interval (SDRR), root mean square of successive RR differences (RMSSD), geometric means standard deviation 1 (SD1) and 2 (SD2), along with the low and high frequency ratio (LF/HF ratio) were calculated. The minimum, average and maximum RR intervals were significantly lower in training (indicative of an increase in heart rate as measured in beats-per-minute) than in the stable ( p = 0.0006; p = 0.01; p = 0.03). SDRR, RMSSD, SD1, SD2 and the LF/HF ratio were all significantly lower in training than in the stable ( p = 0.001; p = 0.049; p = 0.049; p = 0.001; p = 0.01). When comparing the HR and HRV of horses during Join-up (®) to overall training, there were no significant differences in any variable with the exception of maximum RR which was significantly lower ( p = 0.007) during Join-up (®) , indicative of short increases in physical exertion (canter) associated with this training exercise. In conclusion, training of horses during public demonstrations is a low-moderate physiological, rather than psychological stressor for horses. The physiological stress responses observed within this study were comparable or less to those previously reported in the literature for horses being trained outside of public audience events. Furthermore, there is no evidence that the use of Join-up (®) alters HR and HRV in a way to suggest that this training method negatively affects the psychological welfare of

  7. Quarterly progress report, January 1--March 30, 1979 - Study of plutonium oxide leak rates from shipping containers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwendiman, L.C.; Madia, W.J.; Mishima, J.; Sutter, S.L.; Owzarski, P.C.; Bander, T.J.; Schmidt, E.W.; Yesso, J.D.

    1979-05-01

    The study was initiated in October 1976, as outlined in the 189 research proposal submitted previously. Several tasks are to be undertaken in this study which, when combined, have the end objective of defining the leak rates of plutonium oxide powder from characterized leaks. Progress during the reporting period is briefly described on the following tasks: review of the literature and theoretical work relating to transmission of particles through channels; investigation of the relationship of gas flow rates, leak geometries, pressure and temperatures; measurement of the transmission of a well-characterized simulant (UO/sub 2/ powder) through leaks characterized in Task B; measurement of the fuel grade PuO/sub 2/ leaks through a standard leak incorporated into a suitable container; and investigation of PuO/sub 2/ leaks through simulated defected containers. (TFD)

  8. The analysis of speed-reporting rates from a cellular network based on a fingerprint-positioning algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hua Chen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The collection of real-time traffic information is an important part of intelligent transportation systems. In particular, cellular floating vehicle data (CFVD technology has become increasingly widespread, and more and more popular for measuring and forecasting real-time traffic information, based on anonymous sampling of the positions of mobile phones. This study proposes an analytical model to analyse the speed-reporting rates based on communication behaviour, traffic conditions, and the two consecutive fingerprint-positioning locations from the call arrival and call completion signals of the same call for a feasibility evaluation of CFVD.

  9. Links between self-reported media violence exposure and teacher ratings of aggression and prosocial behavior among German adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid

    2011-04-01

    The relations between adolescents' habitual usage of media violence and their tendency to engage in aggressive and prosocial behavior in a school setting were examined in a cross-sectional study with 1688 7th and 8th graders in Germany who completed measures of violent media exposure and normative acceptance of aggression. For each participant, ratings of prosocial and aggressive behavior were obtained from their class teacher. Media violence exposure was a unique predictor of teacher-rated aggression even when relevant covariates were considered, and it predicted prosocial behavior over and above gender. Path analyses confirmed a direct positive link from media violence usage to teacher-rated aggression for girls and boys, but no direct negative link to prosocial behavior was found. Indirect pathways were identified to higher aggressive and lower prosocial behavior via the acceptance of aggression as normative. Although there were significant gender differences in media violence exposure, aggression, and prosocial behavior, similar path models were identified for boys and girls. Copyright © 2010 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Concordance between self-reported weight and height for nutritional assessment in adults aged between 25 and 50 years without higher education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matínez-Torres, Javier; Lee Osorno, Belinda Inés; Mendoza, Leylis; Mariotta, Sharom; López Epiayu, Yandra; Martínez, Yelitza; Jiménez, Nelly

    2014-11-01

    Overweight and obesity are metabolic disorders that have become a public health problem due to the current high prevalence; therefore, it is important to create simple monitoring systems to assess their trends. To determine the correlation between weight, height and body mass index reported by patients and the values measured directly in adults between 25 and 50 years old without higher education. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with participation of 207 adults between 25 and 50 years old. Each participant was asked weight and height; and body mass index was calculated with these data. Moreover, a qualified person determined the real value of these variables. The coefficient of intra-class correlation between self-reported and measurements was obtained. The body mass index measured for men was 25.8±3.7 kg/m2 and for women 26.0±4.1 kg/m2. Intraclass correlation coefficients were for weight 0.962 (IC95%: 0.950-0.971), height 0.909 (IC95%: 0.882-0.930), and body mass index 0.929 (IC95% 0.907-0.945); the real prevalence of people with a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m2 was 52.1%, whereas the value obtained by self-reported data was 44%. Self-reported weight and height data are useful for obesity assessment in adults aged between 25 and 50 years without higher education at the population level. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  11. The activation of the Sox2 RR2 pluripotency transcriptional reporter in human breast cancer cell lines is dynamic and labels cells with higher tumorigenic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel eIglesias

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The striking similarity displayed at the mechanistic level between tumorigenesis and the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells and the fact that genes and pathways relevant for embryonic development are reactivated during tumor progression highlights the link between pluripotency and cancer. Based on these observations we tested whether it is possible to use a pluripotency-associated transcriptional reporter, whose activation is driven by the SRR2 enhancer from the Sox2 gene promoter (named S4+ reporter, to isolate cancer stem cells from breast cancer cell lines. The S4+ pluripotency transcriptional reporter allows the isolation of cells with enhanced tumorigenic potential and its activation was switched on and off in the cell lines studied, reflecting a plastic cellular process. Microarray analysis comparing the populations in which the reporter construct is active vs. inactive showed that positive cells expressed higher mRNA levels of cytokines (IL-8, IL-6, TNF and genes (such as ATF3, SNAI2, KLF6 previously related with the cancer stem cell phenotype in breast cancer.

  12. LMFBR (LIQUID METAL FAST BREEDER REACTOR) READTION RATE AND DOSIMETRY 3RD QUARTERLY PROGRESS REPORT DECEMBER 1971 JANUARY FEBRUARY 1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCELROY WN

    1972-03-01

    This report was compiled at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company, a subsidiary of Westinghouse Electric Corporation, for the United States Atomic Energy Commission, Division of Reactor Development and Technology, under Contract No. AT (45-1) 2170. It describes technical progress made in the Interlaboratory LMFBR Reaction Rate Program during the reporting period. The Interlaboratory LMFBR Reaction Rate (ILRR) program has been established by USAEC/RDT to develop a capability to accurately measure neutron-induced reaction rates for LMFBR fuels and materials development programs. The initial goal for the principal fission reactions, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu, is an accuracy to within {+-}5 at the 95% confidence level. Accurate measurement of other fission and non-fission reactions will be required, but to a lesser accuracy, between {+-}5 to 10% at the 95% confidence level. A secondary program objective is improvement in knowledge of the nuclear parameters involved in fuels and materials dosimetry measurements of neutron flux, spectra, fluence, and burnup. These accuracy goals for the ILRR program are severe; measurements of fast-neutron-induced reaction rates have not been rapidly moving toward this level of precision. Using a number of techniques in well established neutron environments of current interest for fast reactor development and critically evaluating the results will help establish existing levels of accuracy and indicate the scale of effort required for improvement. To accomplish the objectives of this program, reliable and documented experimental values of reaction rates and ratios will be determined for various well established and permanent neutron fields. The Coupled Fast Reactivity Measurement Facility (CFRMF) at Aerojet Nuclear Company (ANC) is the first neutron field being studied because of the similarity of its spectrum to that of a fast reactor and the range and reproducibility of

  13. Treatment of moderate acute malnutrition with ready-to-use supplementary food results in higher overall recovery rates compared with a corn-soya blend in children in southern Ethiopia: an operations research trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakochuk, Crystal; van den Briel, Tina; Stephens, Derek; Zlotkin, Stanley

    2012-10-01

    Moderate and severe acute malnutrition affects 13% of children food (RUSF) and the more conventional ration of corn-soya blend (CSB) in Ethiopia. A total of 1125 children aged 6-60 mo with moderate acute malnutrition received 16 wk of CSB or RUSF. Children were randomly assigned to receive one or the other food. The daily rations were purposely based on the conventional treatment rations distributed at the time of the study in Ethiopia: 300 g CSB and 32 g vegetable oil in the control group (1413 kcal) and 92 g RUSF in the intervention group (500 kcal). The higher ration size of CSB was provided because of expected food sharing. The HR for children in the CSB group was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.99), which indicated that they had 15% lower recovery (P = 0.039). Recovery rates of children at the end of the 16-wk treatment period trended higher in the RUSF group (73%) than in the CSB group (67%) (P = 0.056). In comparison with CSB, the treatment of moderate acute malnutrition with RUSF resulted in higher recovery rates in children, despite the large ration size and higher energy content of the conventional CSB ration.

  14. Feeding Activity, Rate of Consumption, Daily Ration and Prey Selection of Major Predators in John Day Reservoir, 1986 : Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poe, Thomas P.; United States. Bonneville Power Administration; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; National Fishery Research Center (U.S.)

    1987-02-01

    This report summarizes activities in 1986 to determine the significance of predation on juvenile salmonids in John Day Reservoir. Salmonids were the single most important food item (by weight) for northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) at McNary tailrace during all sampling periods and at John Day forebay during July. Salmonids accounted for 23.7% of the diet of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) in July 1986, which was higher than in previous years (although the sample size examined was low). Salmonids contributed little to smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) diet but comprised about 25% of the diet of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Composition of prey taxa in beach seine catches in July 1986 was similar to previous years with chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha), largescale sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus), and sand roller (Percopsis transmontana) dominating the catch.

  15. Implementation of a Quality Improvement Process Aimed to Deliver Higher-Value Physical Therapy for Patients With Low Back Pain: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlen, Emily; McCathie, Becky

    2015-12-01

    The current state of health care demands higher-value care. Due to many barriers, clinicians routinely do not implement evidence-based care even though it is known to improve quality and reduce cost of care. The purpose of this case report is to describe a theory-based, multitactic implementation of a quality improvement process aimed to deliver higher-value physical therapy for patients with low back pain. Patients were treated from January 2010 through December 2014 in 1 of 32 outpatient physical therapy clinics within an academic health care system. Data were examined from 47,755 patients (mean age=50.3 years) entering outpatient physical therapy for management of nonspecific low back pain, with or without radicular pain. Development and implementation tactics were constructed from adult learning and change management theory to enhance adherence to best practice care among 130 physical therapists. A quality improvement team implemented 4 tactics: establish care delivery expectations, facilitate peer-led clinical and operational teams, foster a learning environment focused on meeting a population's needs, and continuously collect and analyze outcomes data. Physical therapy utilization and change in functional disability were measured to assess relative cost and quality of care. Secondarily, charge data assessed change in physical therapists' application of evidence-based care. Implementation of a quality improvement process was measured by year-over-year improved clinical outcomes, decreased utilization, and increased adherence to evidence-based physical therapy, which was associated with higher-value care. When adult learning and change management theory are combined in quality improvement efforts, common barriers to implementing evidence-based care can be overcome, creating an environment supportive of delivering higher-value physical therapy for patients with low back pain. © 2015 American Physical Therapy Association.

  16. Parent-reported sleep problems, symptom ratings, and serum ferritin levels in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Khadra, Maha K; Amin, Omnia R; Shaker, Olfat G; Rabah, Thanaa M

    2013-12-30

    Sleep problems are common among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Serum ferritin levels have been associated with the severity of symptoms and sleep disturbances among children with ADHD. This study was conducted to investigate parent-reported sleep problems in a sample of Egyptian children with ADHD and to examine the relationship between their sleep, symptom-ratings, and low serum ferritin levels. Parents of 41 ADHD children, aged 6 to 12 years, filled out the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised: Long Version (CPRS-R:L) in Arabic. Serum ferritin levels were determined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The parents of the 62 controls filled out the CSHQ. The ADHD group showed significantly higher scores in CSHQ subscales and total score. Children with serum ferritin levels serum ferritin levels. There were no significant differences in hyperactivity, cognitive problems/inattention, oppositional, or ADHD index subscale scores between children with serum ferritin levels serum ferritin levels ≥ 30 ng/mL. Sleep problems are common, and this study suggests an association between low serum ferritin levels and sleep disturbances.

  17. Accuracy of self-report, biological tests, collateral reports and clinician ratings in identifying substance use disorders among adults with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, Sarah L; Van Dorn, Richard A; Sellers, Brian G; Young, M Scott; Swartz, Marvin S

    2013-09-01

    Identifying substance use disorders among adults with schizophrenia presents unique challenges but is critical to research and practice. This study examined: (a) the accuracy of assessments completed using various approaches in identifying substance use disorders, (b) their ability to discriminate between disorders of abuse and dependence, and (c) the benefits of using multiple indicators to identify substance use disorders. Data are from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness study. The sample comprised 1,460 community-based adults with schizophrenia, 15.8% (n = 230) of whom were positive for a current (past month) drug or alcohol use disorder using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders (SCID). Clinician ratings, self-report, collateral reports, and results of hair and urine tests were compared to SCID diagnoses. Congruence with SCID diagnoses was good across approaches and evidence for superiority of one approach over another was limited. No approach discriminated between abuse and dependence. There was limited benefit of using multiple indicators. Findings suggest that the decision regarding the "best" approach for identifying substance use disorders among adults with schizophrenia may be made through consideration of practical issues and assessment purpose, rather than selection of the approach that yields the most accurate diagnostic assessment.

  18. Feeding Activity, Rate of Consumption, Daily Ration and Prey Selection of Major Predators in John Day Reservoir, 1985: Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, Douglas E.; United States. Bonneville Power Administration; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; National Fishery Research Center (U.S.)

    1986-10-01

    This report summarizes activities in 1985 to determine the extent of predation on juvenile salmonids in John Day Reservoir. To estimate consumption of juvenile salmonids we used the composition of the natural diet of predators and in the laboratory determined rate of gastric evacuation by predators. Salmonids were the single most important food item for northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) at McNary tailrace during all sampling periods and at John Day forebay during July. Salmonids accounted for 11.6% of the diet of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) in 1985 which was about twice that found in previous years. Salmonids contributed little to smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) diet but comprised about 25% of the diet of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Composition of prey taxa in beach seine catches in 1985 was similar to 1983 and 1984 with chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha), northern squawfish, largescale sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus), and sand roller (Percopsis transmontana) dominating the catch at main channel stations and crappies (Pomoxis spp.) and largescale sucker dominating at backwater stations. Preliminary results of beach seine efficiency studies suggest that seine efficiency varied significantly among prey species and between substrate types in 1985. Results of digestion rate experiments indicate that gastric evacuation in northern squawfish can be predicted using water temperature, prey weight, predator weight and time. 19 refs., 19 figs., 13 tabs.

  19. Medicare Program; FY 2016 Hospice Wage Index and Payment Rate Update and Hospice Quality Reporting Requirements. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-06

    This final rule will update the hospice payment rates and the wage index for fiscal year (FY) 2016 (October 1, 2015 through September 30, 2016), including implementing the last year of the phase-out of the wage index budget neutrality adjustment factor (BNAF). Effective on January 1, 2016, this rule also finalizes our proposals to differentiate payments for routine home care (RHC) based on the beneficiary's length of stay and implement a service intensity add-on (SIA) payment for services provided in the last 7 days of a beneficiary's life, if certain criteria are met. In addition, this rule will implement changes to the aggregate cap calculation mandated by the Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation Act of 2014 (IMPACT Act), align the cap accounting year for both the inpatient cap and the hospice aggregate cap with the federal fiscal year starting in FY 2017, make changes to the hospice quality reporting program, clarify a requirement for diagnosis reporting on the hospice claim, and discuss recent hospice payment reform research and analyses.

  20. Developing IntegRATE: a fast and frugal patient-reported measure of integration in health care delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glyn Elwyn

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Efforts have been made to measure integration in health care delivery, but few existing instruments have adopted a patient perspective, and none is sufficiently generic and brief for administration at scale. We sought to develop a brief and generic patient-reported measure of integration in health care delivery.Methods: Drawing on both existing conceptualisations of integrated care and research on patients’ perspectives, we chose to focus on four distinct domains of integration: information sharing,consistent advice, mutual respect and role clarity. We formulated candidate items and conducted cognitive interviews with end users to further develop and refine the items. We then pilot-tested the measure.Results: Four rounds of cognitive interviews were conducted (n = 14 and resulted in a four-item measure that was both relevant and understandable to end users. The pilot administration of the measure (n = 15 further confirmed the relevance and interpretability of items and demonstrated that the measure could be completed in less than one minute.Conclusions: This new measure, IntegRATE, represents a patient-reported measure of integration in health care delivery that is conducive to use in both routine performance monitoring and research. The psychometric properties of the measure will be assessed in the next stage of development. 

  1. 我国高等教育人力资本投资私人收益率研究%Study On the Private Rates of Return to Human Capital Investment of Higher Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东; 朱必祥

    2012-01-01

    基于人力资本理论对1998—2006年入学的大学生的高等教育人力资本投资私人收益率进行实证研究,研究发现不论仅系数(收入差异归因于教育的比例)取何值,1998年以来的高等教育人力资本投资私人收益率均呈下降趋势,研究表明这是导致高中毕业生“弃考”的经济原因。%This paper is to study the private rates of returning to human capital investment of higher education from 1998 to 2006 based on human capital theory and educational economics theory, The study finds that no matter what of (the rate of earning difference causing by education) would be, the private rates of return to human capital invest- ment of higher education has been decreasing since 1998. This is the economic mason why some senior middle school graduates are abandoning the entrance examination of college.

  2. Incidental lung nodules on CT examinations of the abdomen: Prevalence and reporting rates in the PACS era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi, Maria Francesca [Radiologia III - Azienda Ospedaliera Pol. S.Orsola-Malpighi, via Massarenti 9 - 40138 Bologna (Italy); Bartalena, Tommaso, E-mail: t.bartalena@email.i [Radiologia III - Azienda Ospedaliera Pol. S.Orsola-Malpighi, via Massarenti 9 - 40138 Bologna (Italy); Giannelli, Giovanni; Rinaldi, Giovanni [Radiologia III - Azienda Ospedaliera Pol. S.Orsola-Malpighi, via Massarenti 9 - 40138 Bologna (Italy); Sverzellati, Nicola [Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche, sezione di Radiologia - Universita di Parma, via Gramsci 14 - 43100 Parma (Italy); Canini, Romeo [Dipartimento Clinico di Scienze Radiologiche ed Istocitopatologiche, divisione di Diagnostica per Immagini - Universita di Bologna, via Massarenti 9 - 40138 Bologna (Italy); Gavelli, Giampaolo [Servizio di Diagnostica per Immagini, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (I.R.S.T.), via Piero Maroncelli, 40 - 47014 Meldola (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    Objectives: To retrospectively evaluate prevalence, reporting rates and clinical implications of incidental pulmonary nodules detected in multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) abdominal studies. Materials and methods: Abdominal MDCT studies of 243 consecutive patients, 94 of whom had a history of cancer, were evaluated. Lung bases included in the scan were reviewed on a PACS workstation with different window settings and post-processing techniques. Nodules were classified according to their density (calcified, solid noncalcified, non-solid, part-solid) and size (<4 mm; 4-6 mm; 6-8 mm; >8 mm). The study findings were compared with the corresponding radiologic reports. Previous of following CT studies, when available from the PACS, were also reviewed to evaluate changes in number and size of the detected nodules. Results: An average of 8.2 cm of lung parenchyma was imaged in each patient. 213 noncalcified nodules (NCNs) were identified in 95 patients (39.1%) but only 8 patients (8.4%) had it mentioned in the final report. Comparison CT studies were available for 44 out of the 95 positive patients showing disappearance of the nodules in 2 cases, no interval change in 26 and progression in size and/or number in 16 patients, in whom a final diagnosis of metastasis or primary lung cancers was achieved. Conclusion: Radiologists tend to overlook lung portions on abdominal CT studies. Underreporting may affect patient care and have medico-legal implications since images are permanently stored in digital format on PACS and CD-ROMs. Management of the discovered nodules should be tailored to the clinical situation of the patient, and particular care should be reserved to patients with oncologic history.

  3. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation presenting with steroid-responsive higher brain dysfunction: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeda Yasushi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 56-year-old man noticed discomfort in his left lower limb, followed by convulsion and numbness in the same area. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed white matter lesions in the right parietal lobe accompanied by leptomeningeal or leptomeningeal and cortical post-contrast enhancement along the parietal sulci. The patient also exhibited higher brain dysfunction corresponding with the lesions on MRI. Histological pathology disclosed β-amyloid in the blood vessels and perivascular inflammation, which highlights the diagnosis of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA-related inflammation. Pulse steroid therapy was so effective that clinical and radiological findings immediately improved. CAA-related inflammation is a rare disease, defined by the deposition of amyloid proteins within the leptomeningeal and cortical arteries associated with vasculitis or perivasculitis. Here we report a patient with CAA-related inflammation who showed higher brain dysfunction that improved with steroid therapy. In cases with atypical radiological lesions like our case, cerebral biopsy with histological confirmation remains necessary for an accurate diagnosis.

  4. Improving the Utilization Rate of Paper Document in the Library of Higher Vocational Colleges%高职院校图书馆纸质文献利用率提高的基本途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宏伟

    2015-01-01

    以唐山工职院图书馆为例,分析了在当今网络的冲击下,读者阅读倾向的变化,提出提高高职院校图书馆纸质文献利用率的具体对策.%Taking the library of Tangshan Polytechnic College as an example, this paper analyzes the change of reading tendency under the impact of the current network, and puts forward the countermeasures to improve the utilization rate of paper document in the library of higher vocational colleges.

  5. Report: EPA Has Not Met Statutory Requirements for Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facility Inspections, but Inspection Rates Are High

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #16-P-0104, March 11, 2016. Although the EPA’s overall inspection completion rate is high, the agency did not fully meet the legal requirement for inspecting 100 percent of operating TSDFs for fiscal year 2014.

  6. Predictive Value of Baseline Electronic Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale (eC–SSRS) Assessments for Identifying Risk of Prospective Reports of Suicidal Behavior During Research Participation

    OpenAIRE

    Greist, John H.; Mundt, James C.; Gwaltney, Chad J.; Jefferson, James W.; Posner, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Examine the ability of baseline electronic Columbia–Suicide Severity Rating Scale lifetime suicidal ideation and behavior categories to predict prospective reports of suicidal behavior in psychiatric and non-psychiatric research participants.

  7. Resting Heart Rate Variability Predicts Self-Reported Difficulties in Emotion Regulation: A Focus on Emotional Clarity and Impulse Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeWayne P Williams

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Model of Neurovisceral Integration suggests that vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV represents a psychophysiological index of inhibitory control and thus, is associated with emotion regulation capacity. Over the past decade, growing empirical evidence supports this notion, showing that those with higher resting vmHRV can regulate and control negative emotions more adequately. However, to our knowledge, no study has previously examined how resting vmHRV may relate to everyday perceived difficulties in emotion regulation. The present study attempts to examine such relationship in 183 undergraduate students (98 female, 60 minority, mean Age = 19.34. Resting vmHRV was collected during a 5-minute resting baseline period, and everyday difficulties in emotion regulation were assessed using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS. Controlling for potential confounds (including both trait anxiety and rumination, results revealed a negative relationship between resting vmHRV and DERS such that lower resting vmHRV was associated with greater difficulties in emotional control, especially a lack of emotional clarity and impulse control, as indicated by the respective subscales of the DERS. These findings provide further evidence for the Neurovisceral Integration Model, suggesting that emotional control and autonomic regulation share neural networks within the brain. Moreover, the present study extends prior research by highlighting two distinct facets of emotion regulation (impulse control and emotional clarity that should be of particular interest when investigating the link between emotion regulation, resting vmHRV, and related health outcomes including morbidity and mortality.

  8. Higher Education Sustainability Staffing Survey, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows that despite national unemployment rates that hovered near 10 percent in 2010, those with positions in the higher education sustainability workforce report a sense of job security and feel satisfied with the work they are doing. With 433 completed surveys, the results offer a comprehensive look at the demographics, roles, salaries…

  9. Convergent Validity with the BERS-2 Teacher Rating Scale and the Achenbach Teacher's Report Form: A Replication and Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Gregory J.; Beaudoin, Kathleen; Mooney, Paul; Uhing, Brad M.; Pierce, Corey D.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, we sought to extend instrument validation research for a strength-based emotional and behavior rating scale, the "Teacher Rating Scale of the Behavior and Emotional Rating Scale-Second Edition" (BERS-2; Epstein, M. H. (2004). "Behavioral and emotional rating scale" (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: PRO-ED) through…

  10. Convergent Validity with the BERS-2 Teacher Rating Scale and the Achenbach Teacher's Report Form: A Replication and Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Gregory J.; Beaudoin, Kathleen; Mooney, Paul; Uhing, Brad M.; Pierce, Corey D.

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, we sought to extend instrument validation research for a strength-based emotional and behavior rating scale, the "Teacher Rating Scale of the Behavior and Emotional Rating Scale-Second Edition" (BERS-2; Epstein, M. H. (2004). "Behavioral and emotional rating scale" (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: PRO-ED) through…

  11. Student Self-Regulated Learning in an Urban High School: Predictive Validity and Relations between Teacher Ratings and Student Self-Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Timothy J.; Callan, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the predictive validity of a teacher rating scale called the Self-Regulation Strategy Inventory-Teacher Rating Scale (SRSI-TRS) and its level of convergence with several student self-report measures of self-regulated learning (SRL). Eighty-seven high school students enrolled in one of four sections of a mathematics course in an…

  12. Are Student Ratings of Communication Instructors Due to "Easy" Grading Practices? An Analysis of Teacher Credibility and Student-Reported Performance Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Michael J.; Zahn, Christopher J.

    1990-01-01

    Investigates the empirical relationships between student ratings of teachers and student-reported performance. Finds that students discriminate between sociability and qualification-related aspects of teacher performance and that student ratings were not the product of "easy" grading practices. (SR)

  13. Reported Diabetes Mellitus Prevalence Rates in the Colombia Healthcare System from 2009 to 2012: Analysis by Regions Using Data of the Official Information Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barengo, Noël C; Tamayo, Diana Carolina

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the reported diabetes mellitus (DM) prevalence rates of the 20-79-year-old population in Colombia from 2009 to 2012 reported by the healthcare system. Information on number of patients treated for DM was obtained by the Integral Information System of Social Protection (SISPRO), the registry of the Ministry of Health and Social Protection, and the High Cost Account (CAC), an organization to trace high expenditure diseases. From both sources age-standardized reported DM prevalence rates per 100.000 inhabitants from 2009 to 2012 were calculated. Whereas the reported DM prevalence rates of SISPRO revealed an increase from 964/100.000 inhabitants (2009) to 1398/100.000 inhabitants in 2012 (mean annual increase 141/100.000; p value: 0.001), the respective rates in the CAC register were 1082/100.000 (2009) and 1593/100.000 in 2012 (mean annual increase 165/100.000; p value: 0.026). The number of provinces reporting not less than 19% of the highest national reported DM prevalence rates (1593/100.000) increased from two in 2009 to ten in 2012. Apparently, the registries and the information retrieving system have been improved during 2009 and 2012, resulting in a greater capacity to identify and report DM cases by the healthcare system.

  14. Reported Diabetes Mellitus Prevalence Rates in the Colombia Healthcare System from 2009 to 2012: Analysis by Regions Using Data of the Official Information Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barengo, Noël C.; Tamayo, Diana Carolina

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the reported diabetes mellitus (DM) prevalence rates of the 20–79-year-old population in Colombia from 2009 to 2012 reported by the healthcare system. Information on number of patients treated for DM was obtained by the Integral Information System of Social Protection (SISPRO), the registry of the Ministry of Health and Social Protection, and the High Cost Account (CAC), an organization to trace high expenditure diseases. From both sources age-standardized reported DM prevalence rates per 100.000 inhabitants from 2009 to 2012 were calculated. Whereas the reported DM prevalence rates of SISPRO revealed an increase from 964/100.000 inhabitants (2009) to 1398/100.000 inhabitants in 2012 (mean annual increase 141/100.000; p value: 0.001), the respective rates in the CAC register were 1082/100.000 (2009) and 1593/100.000 in 2012 (mean annual increase 165/100.000; p value: 0.026). The number of provinces reporting not less than 19% of the highest national reported DM prevalence rates (1593/100.000) increased from two in 2009 to ten in 2012. Apparently, the registries and the information retrieving system have been improved during 2009 and 2012, resulting in a greater capacity to identify and report DM cases by the healthcare system. PMID:26494999

  15. Do young Carollia perspicillata (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae present higher infestation rates of Streblidae (Diptera? Jovens de Carollia perspicillata (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae apresentam maiores taxas de infestação de Streblidae (Diptera?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEL. Esbérard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ecological aspects related to parasitism are one of the less studied issues in parasitology research, and the scarce evidence available supports that younger specimens present higher infestation rates. The purpose of this work is to establish if higher infestation rates are observed in nursing females and their young captured inside their roost. Bats were captured inside a shelter located in RPPN Estação Veracel, Santa Cruz de Cabrália, Bahia state, Brazil. A total of 56 individuals of Carollia perspicillata were observed, 17 captured inside the roost during the day and 39 in trails at night. Captures of C. perspicillata during the day in a shelter yielded similar infestation rates to bats netted in trails and higher prevalence. The hypothesis that young were more infected was confirmed, based on the higher infestation of nursing females with neonates and on the significant inverse relation between body weight and number of parasites in young and subadults.Aspectos ecológicos relacionados ao parasitismo são uma das questões menos estudadas em parasitologia e poucas evidências sobre indivíduos jovens apresentando maiores taxas de infestações estão disponíveis.O objetivo deste trabalho é estabelecer se a taxa de infestação mais elevada é observada em fêmeas lactantes e jovens capturados dentro de seu refúgio. Os morcegos foram capturados dentro de um abrigo localizado na RPPN EstaçãoVeracel, Santa Cruz deCabrália-Bahia, Brasil. Um total de 56 indivíduos de Carollia perspicillata foi observado, sendo que 17 indivíduos foram capturados dentro do refúgio, durante o dia, e 39 foram capturados em trilhas, à noite. Indivíduos de C. perspicillata capturados durante o dia no abrigo apresentaram índices de infestação semelhantes aos morcegos capturados em trilhas e maior prevalência. A hipótese de que jovens eram maisinfectados foi confirmada, com base na maior infestação de fêmeas com recém-nascidos e na rela

  16. Higher oxidization rate of photo-assisted annealing compared with thermal annealing after YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ} films growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guoxing; Li, Shanwen [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Li, Wei [National Engineering Research Center for Optoelectronics Devices, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, Xinsheng; Guo, Feng [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Zhang, Baolin, E-mail: zbl@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Chou, PenChu [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • The photo-assisted annealing has higher oxidization rate for the YBCO films was found. • The production efficiency of REBCO films were enhanced. • The experimental study for deoxidization has been executed. • Thermodynamics effect of photo-activation during annealing process has been analyzed. - Abstract: In order to study the possible advantage of photo-assisted MOCVD compared with thermal MOCVD during the annealing process after film growth, a piece of c-axis oriented YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−δ} film on Φ1″ LaAlO{sub 3} (1 0 0) substrate was prepared by photo-assisted MOCVD. It has well in-plane alignment and high critical current density (J{sub c} > 2.5 MA/cm{sup 2}, @ 0 T, 77 K, thickness ≈ 430 nm). Small pieces cut from it were annealed by photo-assisted or thermal annealing process to realize deoxidization or oxidization respectively. By monitoring the c-axis lattice constant, it was found that oxidization rate of photo-assisted annealing is obviously higher than that of thermal annealing. Inversely, the deoxidization rate of photo-assisted annealing is lower than that of thermal annealing. And a phenomenon that the long-time stable c-axis lattice constant is related to the temperature, unrelated to annealing process has been observed. It conforms to the thermodynamic equilibrium which is relative to annealing temperature and oxygen partial pressure, irrespective to whether photo activation or thermal activation.

  17. Physiological levels of nitrate support anoxic growth by denitrification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at growth rates reported in cystic fibrosis lungs and sputum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitten, Laura Line; Alhede, Morten; Kolpen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    reported that O2 is mainly consumed by the activated PMNs, while O2 consumption by aerobic respiration is diminutive and nitrous oxide (N2O) is produced in infected CF sputum. This suggests that the reported growth rates of P. aeruginosa in lungs and sputum may result from anaerobic respiration using...

  18. Status Report - Cane Fiberboard Properties and Degradation Rates for Storage of the 9975 Shipping Package in KAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L.

    2013-01-31

    Thermal, mechanical and physical properties have been measured on cane fiberboard samples following accelerated aging for up to approximately 7 years. The aging environments have included elevated temperature < 250 ?F (the maximum allowed service temperature for fiberboard in 9975 packages) and elevated humidity. The results from this testing have been analyzed, and aging models fit to the data. Correlations relating several properties (thermal conductivity, energy absorption, weight loss and height decrease) to their rate of change in potential storage environments have been developed. Combined with an estimate of the actual conditions the fiberboard experiences in KAMS, these models allow development of service life predictions. Some of the predicted degradation rates presented in this report are relatively extreme. However, these relate to environments that do not exist within KAMS, or would be postulated only as upset conditions that would not likely persist for an extended period. For a typical package with ~10 watts internal heat load or less, and ambient temperatures below 90 ?F, the fiberboard experiences storage conditions less severe than any of the aging environments. Little or no degradation of the fiberboard is expected for typical storage conditions. It should be noted that the ultimate service life will be determined by the cumulative effect of degradation from all the conditions these packages might encounter. The assumptions and inputs behind the models in this report should be well understood before attempting to identify an actual service life in KAMS. Additional data continue to be collected to permit future refinements to the models and assumptions. For developing service life predictions, the ambient conditions within KAMS can be reasonably identified, and the temperature profiles within the various packages (with a range of heat loads and at varying locations within an array of packages) can be calculated. However, the humidity within the

  19. Application Value of Heart Rate Monitoring in Sports Training and Competition of Higher Vocational College%心率监测在高职体育训练和比赛中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄炜

    2014-01-01

    In physical training and competition, the physical characteristics of each student is different, which makes it hard to make the training plan and the students' psychological limits consistent. As a result, the desired training effect is difficult to be achieved. The change of students' heart rate can be tested by the heart rate monitor and according to the test data, training plan and movement scheme are made. This paper demonstrates the importance of heart rate monitoring in higher vocational sports training and competition.%在体育训练及比赛中,由于每个学生的身体特性不同,使得制定的训练计划强度很难与学生的心理承受极限相符,结果很难达到预期的训练效果。心率监测可以对学生的心率变化进行检测,根据检测的数据制定训练计划和运动方案。本文论证了心率监测在高职体育训练及比赛中的重要性。

  20. Ultra-high-resolution C-arm flat-detector CT angiography evaluation reveals 3-fold higher association rate for sporadic intracranial cavernous malformations and developmental venous anomalies: a retrospective study in consecutive 58 patients with 60 cavernous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocak, Burak [Aksaray State Hospital, Department of Radiology, Aksaray (Turkey); Kizilkilic, Osman; Kocer, Naci; Islak, Civan [Istanbul University, Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey); Oz, Buge; Bakkaloglu, Dogu Vuralli [Istanbul University, Department of Pathology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey); Isler, Cihan [Istanbul University, Department of Neurosurgery, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2017-06-15

    The imaging and surgical literature has confusing association rates for the association between sporadic intracranial cavernous malformations (CMs) and developmental venous anomalies (DVAs). In this study, our purpose was to determine the association rate using ultra-high-resolution C-arm flat-detector CT angiography (FDCTA) and compare it with literature. Fifty-eight patients with 60 sporadic intracranial CMs that underwent an FDCTA study were included in our retrospective study. Re-evaluation of radiological data was performed based on the criteria defined by authors. Isotropic volumetric reconstructions with ultra-high resolution (voxel size of 102 μm{sup 3} for initial; 67 μm{sup 3} and 32 μm{sup 3} for further evaluation) were used for assessment. Sixteen patients underwent surgery for excision of their CMs. Fifty-one of all patients (87.9 %) were associated with a DVA. Undefined local venous structures (UD-LVSs) were observed in the remaining 7 patients (12.1 %). The strength of interobserver agreement was excellent [kappa(k) coefficient = 0.923]. Ultra-high-resolution FDCTA evaluation of CMs and DVAs reveals 3-fold higher association rate compared to the literature. FDCTA for patients with sporadic CMs could help identify the associated DVAs that remained undetected or unclear with other imaging modalities, which can be useful in decision-making processes, planning surgery, and during operation. (orig.)

  1. A summary of the performance of exposure rate and dose rate instruments contained in instrument evaluation reports NRPB-IE1 to NRPB-IE13

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, P H

    1979-01-01

    The various radiations encountered in radiological protection cover a wide range of energies and radiation measurements have to be carried out under an equally broad spectrum of environmental conditions. This report is one of a series intended to give information on the performance characteristics of radiological protection instruments, to assist in the selection of appropriate instruments for a given purpose, to interpret the results obtained with such instruments, and, in particular, to know the likely sources and magnitude of errors that might be associated with measurements in the field. The radiation, electrical and environmental characteristics of radiation protection instruments are considered together with those aspects of the construction which make an instrument convenient for routine use. To provide consistent criteria for instrument performance, the range of tests performed on any particular class of instrument, the test methods and the criteria of acceptable performance are based broadly on the a...

  2. Rhesus monkey heart rate during exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorge, J.; Thach, J. S., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Various schedules of reinforcement and their relation to heart rates of rhesus monkeys during exercise are described. All the reinforcement schedules produced 100 per cent or higher increments in the heart rates of the monkeys during exercise. Resting heart rates were generally much lower than those previously reported, which was attributed to the lack of physical restraint of the monkeys during recording.

  3. Floristics of Higher Plants in China——Report from Catalogue of Life: Higher Plants in China Database%中国高等植物编目信息系统进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Song WANG; Yu-Cheng ZHANG; Na-Xin XUE; Hai-Ning QIN

    2011-01-01

    Biodiversity research increasingly relies on distribution networks for dealing with large-scale primary data.Up-to-date information on biodiversity is critical for the proper management and conservation of any area. The first step towards conservation should be to compile an authoritative species inventory or checklist. Catalogue of Life:Higher Plants in China (CNPC) is an ongoing biodiversity informatics project with the aim to integrate existing higher plants inventory data, and provide access via an internet based web service to public user and the scientific com-munity. The CNPC, for the first time, provides integrated and authoritative taxonomic information on higher plant species found in China, and this database will be permanent, free and continously updated. Presently, a total of 34377 species have been included in the database. Among of them, 16 620 species are only found in China. Taxa are classified into 432 families and 3 941 genera. The CNPC will be an important source for scientists working on Chinese flora, and will play an important role in helping to achieve the targets set under the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation in the future.

  4. Women and Minority Faculty in the Academic Workplace: Recruitment, Retention, and Academic Culture. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report, Volume 27, Number 6. Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Adalberto, Jr.

    In an attempt to address the need for substantive comparisons in the minority university faculty population, this monograph examines the relative differences in minority groups in the faculty population when the data permit comparisons. The report also examines research on the status of women faculty members. The discussion assembles a large…

  5. Heart Rate Variability and Cardiac Vagal Tone in Psychophysiological Research – Recommendations for Experiment Planning, Data Analysis, and Data Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborde, Sylvain; Mosley, Emma; Thayer, Julian F.

    2017-01-01

    Psychophysiological research integrating heart rate variability (HRV) has increased during the last two decades, particularly given the fact that HRV is able to index cardiac vagal tone. Cardiac vagal tone, which represents the contribution of the parasympathetic nervous system to cardiac regulation, is acknowledged to be linked with many phenomena relevant for psychophysiological research, including self-regulation at the cognitive, emotional, social, and health levels. The ease of HRV collection and measurement coupled with the fact it is relatively affordable, non-invasive and pain free makes it widely accessible to many researchers. This ease of access should not obscure the difficulty of interpretation of HRV findings that can be easily misconstrued, however, this can be controlled to some extent through correct methodological processes. Standards of measurement were developed two decades ago by a Task Force within HRV research, and recent reviews updated several aspects of the Task Force paper. However, many methodological aspects related to HRV in psychophysiological research have to be considered if one aims to be able to draw sound conclusions, which makes it difficult to interpret findings and to compare results across laboratories. Those methodological issues have mainly been discussed in separate outlets, making difficult to get a grasp on them, and thus this paper aims to address this issue. It will help to provide psychophysiological researchers with recommendations and practical advice concerning experimental designs, data analysis, and data reporting. This will ensure that researchers starting a project with HRV and cardiac vagal tone are well informed regarding methodological considerations in order for their findings to contribute to knowledge advancement in their field.

  6. Raising aspirations: increasing the participation of students with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (Social Communication Difficulties) in Higher Education: report of the HEFCE strand two disability ASPIHE project

    OpenAIRE

    Blamires, M.; Gee, S; HEFCE strand two disability

    2002-01-01

    The Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) funded a Social Communication and Understanding Project in Higher Education (ASPIHE) for a period of two years during 2000-2002. This was a strand two disability project, which aimed to promote and disseminate existing expertise and good practice across the higher education community. The focus was on support for students in higher education who have difficulties in social understanding and communication. This largely consists of studen...

  7. Acquaintance ratings of the Big Five personality traits: incremental validity beyond and interactive effects with self-reports in the prediction of workplace deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluemper, Donald H; McLarty, Benjamin D; Bing, Mark N

    2015-01-01

    It is widely established that the Big Five personality traits of conscientiousness, agreeableness, and emotional stability are antecedents to workplace deviance (Berry, Ones, & Sackett, 2007). However, these meta-analytic findings are based on self-reported personality traits. A recent meta-analysis by Oh, Wang, and Mount (2011) identified the value of acquaintance-reported personality in the prediction of job performance. The current investigation extends prior work by comparing the validities of self- and acquaintance-reported personality in the prediction of workplace deviance across 2 studies. We also hypothesized and tested an interactive, value-added integration of self- with acquaintance-reported personality using socioanalytic personality theory (R. T. Hogan, 1991). Both studies assessed self- and acquaintance-rated Big Five traits, along with supervisor-rated workplace deviance. However, the studies varied the measures of workplace deviance, and the 2nd study also included a self-rated workplace deviance criterion for additional comparison. Across both studies, the traits of conscientiousness and agreeableness were strong predictors of workplace deviance, and acquaintance-reported personality provided incremental validity beyond self-reports. Additionally, acquaintance-reported conscientiousness and agreeableness moderated the prediction of workplace deviance by interacting with the corresponding self-reported traits. Implications for personality theory and measurement are discussed along with applications for practice.

  8. Sex Education in Connecticut High Schools: Teachers' Reports of Content and Importance Ratings According to the SIECUS Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obloj, Wallace; Lynn, Donna

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine Connecticut teachers' reports of the sex education content taught to high school students as well as teachers' reports of the degree of importance for Connecticut high school students to understand according to the SIECUS Guidelines. The data revealed that participants (N=125) reported teaching 72% of the…

  9. Can mindful parenting be observed? Relations between observational ratings of mother-youth interactions and mothers' self-report of mindful parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Larissa G; Coatsworth, J Douglas; Gayles, Jochebed G; Geier, Mary H; Greenberg, Mark T

    2015-04-01

    Research on mindful parenting, an extension of mindfulness to the interpersonal domain of parent-child relationships, has been limited by its reliance on self-report assessment. The current study is the first to examine whether observational indices of parent-youth interactions differentiate between high and low levels of self-reported mindful parenting. The Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scales (IFIRS) were used to code interactions between mothers and their 7th grade youth. Mothers drawn from the top and bottom quartiles (n = 375) of a larger distribution of self-reported interpersonal mindfulness in parenting (N = 804) represented clearly defined high- and low-mindful parenting groups. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to analyze how well 6 composite IFIRS observational rating variables (e.g., parental warmth, consistent discipline) discriminated between high and low self-reports of mindful parenting. DFA results were cross-validated, with statistically significant canonical correlations found for both subsamples (p < .05). Subsequent independent samples t tests revealed that group means were significantly different on all 6 IFIRS composite ratings. Confirmation of the relations between self-report mindful parenting and the observational ratings was also provided through hierarchical regression analyses conducted with a continuous predictor of mindful parenting using the full sample. Thus, the present study provides preliminary evidence for a link between self-reported mindful parenting and observed interactions between parents and youth.

  10. 17 CFR 240.17g-3 - Annual financial reports to be furnished by nationally recognized statistical rating organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Include a balance sheet, an income statement and statement of cash flows, and a statement of changes in... financial condition, results of operations, cash flows, revenues, analyst compensation, and credit rating... financial statements of the nationally recognized statistical rating organization or audited consolidated...

  11. [Successful outcome of a pregnancy with an extremely low fetal heart rate (34 bpm) due to isolated complete heart block--case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamela-Olkowska, Anita; Dangel, Joanna; Miszczak-Knecht, Maria

    2009-09-01

    Isolated complete congenital heart block (CHB) in the majority of cases is associated with the presence of autoantibodies to SSA (Ro) and SSB (La) antigens in the maternal serum. The prognosis is less favorable in fetuses with a ventricular rate bpm. We have reported a case of a fetus with an isolated non-autoimmune CHB with an extremely low ventricular rate (34bpm) in which the outcome was favorable. In the neonate the non-compaction of the myocardium was diagnosed.

  12. Evasão e avaliação institucional no ensino superior: uma discussão bibliográfica Dropout rates and institutional evaluation in higher education: a bibliographical discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Aparecida Dos Santos Baggi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A evasão escolar no ensino superior é um fenômeno complexo e, portanto, não pode ser analisado fora de um contexto histórico mais amplo, pois é reflexo da realidade de níveis anteriores de ensino, influenciando de diversas maneiras para o abandono de um curso superior. A avaliação institucional permeia todos esses processos e pode auxiliar na identificação dos sinais da evasão, reduzindo-a ou mesmo evitando-a. Este artigo analisa a produção teórica que aborda a evasão e a sua relação com a avaliação a partir da Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertações (BDTD entre 2008-2009. A metodologia baseia-se na pesquisa bibliográfica, denominada estado da arte ou estado do conhecimento, que contribui para a discussão e o mapeamento da produção acadêmica tanto em termos de análise qualitativa, quanto quantitativa. Vimos que a relação entre evasão e avaliação ainda é pouco estudada, sendo mais restrita ainda que a reflexão sobre a evasão no ensino superior.The dropout rate of undergraduate students is a complex phenomenon that cannot be analyzed without taking into consideration a wider historical context for it is a consequence of previous educational levels, which influence in several different ways higher education dropout rates. School evaluation permeates all these processes and can help to identify dropout signs, reducing or even preventing it. This article analyzes the theoretical production contained in Digital Library of Thesis and Dissertations which analyzes the dropout issue and its relationship with evaluation between 2008-2009. The methodology is based on bibliographical survey denominated state of the art or state of knowledge, which contributes to the discussion and mapping out of the academic production both in terms of qualitative and quantitative analyses. We found that the relationship between dropout rates and evaluation has received little scholarly attention, being even more scarce than the studies

  13. Assessment of reporting quality of conference abstracts in sports injury prevention according to CONSORT and STROBE criteria and their subsequent publication rate as full papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Uzung; Knobloch, Karsten

    2012-04-11

    The preliminary results of a study are usually presented as an abstract in conference meetings. The reporting quality of those abstracts and the relationship between their study designs and full paper publication rate is unknown. We hypothesized that randomized controlled trials are more likely to be published as full papers than observational studies. 154 oral abstracts presented at the World Congress of Sports Injury Prevention 2005 Oslo and the corresponding full paper publication were identified and analysed. The main outcome measures were frequency of publication, time to publication, impact factor, CONSORT (for Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) score, STROBE (for Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) score, and minor and major inconsistencies between the abstract and the full paper publication. Overall, 76 of the 154 (49%) presented abstracts were published as full papers in a peer-reviewed journal with an impact factor of 1.946 ± 0.812. No significant difference existed between the impact factor for randomized controlled trials (2.122 ± 1.015) and observational studies (1.913 ± 0.765, p = 0.469). The full papers for the randomized controlled trials were published after an average (SD) of 17 months (± 13 months); for observational studies, the average (SD) was 12 months (± 14 months) (p = 0.323). A trend was observed in this study that a higher percentage of randomized controlled trial abstracts were published as full papers (71% vs. 47%, p = 0.078) than observational trials. The reporting quality of abstracts, published as full papers, significantly increased compared to conference abstracts both in randomized control studies ( 5.7 ± 0.7 to 7.2 ± 1.3; p = 0.018, CI -2.7 to -0.32) and in observational studies (STROBE: 8.2 ± 1.3 to 8.6 ± 1.4; p = 0.007, CI -0.63 to -0.10). All of the published abstracts had at least one minor inconsistency (title, authors, research center, outcome presentation, conclusion

  14. Assessment of reporting quality of conference abstracts in sports injury prevention according to CONSORT and STROBE criteria and their subsequent publication rate as full papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Uzung

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The preliminary results of a study are usually presented as an abstract in conference meetings. The reporting quality of those abstracts and the relationship between their study designs and full paper publication rate is unknown. We hypothesized that randomized controlled trials are more likely to be published as full papers than observational studies. Methods 154 oral abstracts presented at the World Congress of Sports Injury Prevention 2005 Oslo and the corresponding full paper publication were identified and analysed. The main outcome measures were frequency of publication, time to publication, impact factor, CONSORT (for Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials score, STROBE (for Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology score, and minor and major inconsistencies between the abstract and the full paper publication. Results Overall, 76 of the 154 (49% presented abstracts were published as full papers in a peer-reviewed journal with an impact factor of 1.946 ± 0.812. No significant difference existed between the impact factor for randomized controlled trials (2.122 ± 1.015 and observational studies (1.913 ± 0.765, p = 0.469. The full papers for the randomized controlled trials were published after an average (SD of 17 months (± 13 months; for observational studies, the average (SD was 12 months (± 14 months (p = 0.323. A trend was observed in this study that a higher percentage of randomized controlled trial abstracts were published as full papers (71% vs. 47%, p = 0.078 than observational trials. The reporting quality of abstracts, published as full papers, significantly increased compared to conference abstracts both in randomized control studies (CONSORT: 5.7 ± 0.7 to 7.2 ± 1.3; p = 0.018, CI -2.7 to -0.32 and in observational studies (STROBE: 8.2 ± 1.3 to 8.6 ± 1.4; p = 0.007, CI -0.63 to -0.10. All of the published abstracts had at least one minor inconsistency (title, authors

  15. Do We Need Multiple Informants When Assessing Autistic Traits? The Degree of Report Bias on Offspring, Self, and Spouse Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möricke, Esmé; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the degree of report bias in assessing autistic traits. Both parents of 124 preschoolers completed the Social Communication Questionnaire and the Autism-spectrum Quotient. Acceptable agreement existed between mother and father reports of children's mean scores of autistic traits, but interrater reliability for rank-order…

  16. Do We Need Multiple Informants When Assessing Autistic Traits? The Degree of Report Bias on Offspring, Self, and Spouse Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möricke, Esmé; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the degree of report bias in assessing autistic traits. Both parents of 124 preschoolers completed the Social Communication Questionnaire and the Autism-spectrum Quotient. Acceptable agreement existed between mother and father reports of children's mean scores of autistic traits, but interrater reliability for rank-order…

  17. Hypoxia increases exercise heart rate despite combined inhibition of [beta]-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors.(Report)(Author abstract)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aachmann-Andersen, N.J; Rasmussen, P; Secher, N.H; Zaar, M; Lundby, C; Sorensen, H; Nordsborg, N.B; Bonne, T.C; Siebenmann, C

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia increases the heart rate response to exercise, but the mechanism(s) remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that the tachycardic effect of hypoxia persists during separate, but not combined, inhibition...

  18. Are self-reports of smoking rate biased? Evidence from the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klesges, R C; Debon, M; Ray, J W

    1995-10-01

    This study determined evidence for digit preference in self-reports of smoking in the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II). Subjects were 4275 adult smokers. Self-reports of smoking showed a marked degree of digit preference, with the vast majority of smokers reporting in multiples of 10 cigarettes per day. When number per day was compared to an objective measure of smoking exposure (carboxyhemoglobin; n = 2070) the distribution was found to be significantly assymetrical. Analysis of the distribution of COHb and various levels of number per day indicates that the differences in distribution are not due to variability in COHb. Heavier smokers, Caucasians, and those with less education were more likely to report a digit preference than lighter smokers. African-Americans, and those with more education. Results suggest that self-reports of number of cigarettes per day may be biased towards round numbers (particularly 20 cigarettes per day). Implications for assessment of smoking behavior are discussed.

  19. Preferential streaming of the ductus venosus toward the right atrium is associated with a worse outcome despite a higher rate of invasive procedures in human fetuses with left diaphragmatic hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stressig, R; Fimmers, R; Schaible, T; Degenhardt, J; Axt-Fliedner, R; Gembruch, U; Kohl, T

    2013-12-01

    Preferential streaming of the ductus venosus (DV) toward the right atrium has been observed in fetuses with left diaphragmatic hernia (LDH). The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare survival rates to discharge between a group with preferential streaming of the DV toward the right heart and a group in which this abnormal flow pattern was not present. We retrospectively searched our patient records for fetuses with LDH in whom liver position, DV streaming and postnatal outcome information was available. 55 cases were found and divided into two groups: Group I fetuses exhibited abnormal DV streaming toward the right side of the heart; group II fetuses did not. Various prognostic and outcome parameters were compared. 62 % of group I fetuses and 88 % of group II fetuses survived to discharge (p = 0.032). Fetoscopic tracheal balloon occlusion (FETO) was performed in 66 % of group I fetuses and 23 % of group II fetuses (p = 0.003). Postnatal ECMO therapy was performed in 55 % of group I fetuses and 23 % of group II infants (p = 0.025). Moderate to severe chronic lung disease in survivors was observed in 56 % of the survivors of group I and 9 % of the survivors of group II (p = 0.002). Preferential streaming of the DV toward the right heart in human fetuses with left-sided diaphragmatic hernia was associated with a poorer postnatal outcome despite a higher rate of invasive pre- and postnatal procedures compared to fetuses without this flow abnormality. Specifically, abnormal DV streaming was found to be an independent predictor for FETO. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Comparison among the efficacy of interventions for the return rate to receive the pap test report: randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Camila Teixeira Moreira; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra; Nicolau, Ana Izabel Oliveira; Lima, Thaís Marques; Barbosa, Denise de Fátima Fernandes

    2017-03-02

    to test the effects of a behavioral, an educative and a comparative intervention on women's adherence to the return appointment to receive the pap test report. randomized controlled clinical trial at a Primary Health Care Service, involving three groups: EG (educative session and test demonstration), BG (recall ribbon) and standard intervention (card containing the return appointment - graphical reminder), called comparative group here (CG). To select the sample, the following was established: having started sexual activity and undergoing the pap smear during the study, resulting in 775 women. among the 775 women, 585 (75.5%) returned to receive the test result within 65 days. The educative group presented the highest return rate (EG=82%/CG=77%/BG=66%), statistically significant only when compared to the behavioral group (p=0.000). The educative group obtained the smallest interval (phacer la citología vaginal durante el estudio, resultando en 775 mujeres. entre las 775 mujeres, 585 (75,5%) regresaron para recibir el resultado del examen con hasta 65 días. El grupo educativo presentó el mayor porcentaje de retorno (GE=82%/GCA=77%/GCP=66%), con significancia estadística sólo cuando comparado al comportamental (p=0,000). El grupo educativo alcanzó menor intervalo (pEnsayo Clínico: RBR-93ykhs. testar os efeitos de uma intervenção comportamental (GCP), educativa (GE) e outra de comparação (GCA) na adesão das mulheres à consulta de retorno para receber o laudo do exame colpocitológico. estudo experimental randomizado controlado em uma Unidade de Atenção Primária à Saúde com três grupos: GE (sessão educativa e demonstração do exame), GCP (fita lembrança) e intervenção-padrão (cartão contendo a data da consulta de retorno - lembrete gráfico), aqui denominado de grupo de comparação (GCA). Para a seleção da amostra, estabeleceu-se: ter iniciado atividade sexual e realizar o exame colpocitológico durante o estudo, resultando em 775 mulheres