WorldWideScience

Sample records for reported higher perceived

  1. Perceived Managerial and Leadership Effectiveness within Higher Education in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Robert G.; Patel, Taran

    2017-01-01

    Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in many countries are currently experiencing significant changes in how they are organized and managed. Consequently, exploring the kind of manager/leader behaviours that are perceived as effective and least effective/ineffective by peers, subordinates, collaborators, and team members in HEIs becomes important.…

  2. Perceived Managerial and Leadership Effectiveness within Higher Education in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Robert G.; Patel, Taran

    2017-01-01

    Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in many countries are currently experiencing significant changes in how they are organized and managed. Consequently, exploring the kind of manager/leader behaviours that are perceived as effective and least effective/ineffective by peers, subordinates, collaborators, and team members in HEIs becomes important.…

  3. The Perceived Value of Higher Education: The Voice of Chinese Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Linda S. L.; To, W. M.; Lung, Jane W. Y.; Lai, T. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an exploratory study on the perceived value of higher education by Chinese students in Macao SAR, Guangzhou, Shanghai, and Taipei. Using responses from 316 students, we find that the Sheth-Newman-Gross Theory of Consumption Values explains how students perceive the services offered by higher education institutions. Students…

  4. Perceived Impact of Peer Observation of Teaching in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Roisin

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores participant perceptions of the impact of a Peer Observation of Teaching scheme offered as part of an accredited Postgraduate Certificate in Teaching for academic staff and faculty members in higher education. The Postgraduate Certificate Program has been designed to support the continuing professional development of academic…

  5. Analysis of Perceived Stress, Coping Resources and Life Satisfaction among Students at a Newly Established Institution of Higher Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudhovozi, P.

    2011-01-01

    A survey was conducted to analyse perceived stress, coping resources and life satisfaction among university students at an institution of higher learning. Seventy-three students randomly selected from third year Social Sciences class participated in the study. A self-report questionnaire was administered to the participants. The results showed…

  6. Higher Ambitions Summit. Rapporteur Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The Sutton Trust and Pearson two-day summit on higher ambitions in apprenticeships and vocational education drew more than 120 leaders in education, training and employment, policy makers, academics, and researchers to London. Delegates heard from political leaders stressing the importance they attach to high-quality apprenticeships. Presentations…

  7. Public Accountability: The Perceived Usefulness of School Annual Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart Tooley; Jill Hooks

    2010-01-01

    Annual reports are an important component of New Zealand schools’ public accountability. Through theannual report the governance body informs stakeholders about school aims, objectives, achievements, use ofresources, and financial performance. This paper identifies the perceived usefulness of the school annualreport to recipients and the extent to which it serves as an instrument of accountability and/or decisionusefulness.The study finds that the annual report is used for a variety of purpos...

  8. Patient-reported Communication Quality and Perceived Discrimination in Maternity Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasio, Laura; Kozhimannil, Katy B

    2015-10-01

    High-quality communication and a positive patient-provider relationship are aspects of patient-centered care, a crucial component of quality. We assessed racial/ethnic disparities in patient-reported communication problems and perceived discrimination in maternity care among women nationally and measured racial/ethnic variation in the correlates of these outcomes. Data for this analysis came from the Listening to Mothers III survey, a national sample of women who gave birth to a singleton baby in a US hospital in 2011-2012. Outcomes were reluctance to ask questions and barriers to open discussion in prenatal care, and perceived discrimination during the birth hospitalization, assessed using multinomial and logistic regression. We also estimated models stratified by race/ethnicity. Over 40% of women reported communication problems in prenatal care, and 24% perceived discrimination during their hospitalization for birth. Having hypertension or diabetes was associated with higher levels of reluctance to ask questions and higher odds of reporting each type of perceived discrimination. Black and Hispanic (vs. white) women had higher odds of perceived discrimination due to race/ethnicity. Higher education was associated with more reported communication problems among black women only. Although having diabetes was associated with perceptions of discrimination among all women, associations were stronger for black women. Race/ethnicity was associated with perceived racial discrimination, but diabetes and hypertension were consistent predictors of communication problems and perceptions of discrimination. Efforts to improve communication and reduce perceived discrimination are an important area of focus for improving patient-centered care in maternity services.

  9. Multicultural student group work in higher education: a study on challenges as perceived by students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popov, V.; Brinkman, B.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Mulder, M.; Kuznetsov, A.M.; Noroozi, O.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to examine challenges that are inherent in multicultural student group work (MCSG) in higher education and the differences between students from different cultural backgrounds in how they perceive the importance of challenges in MCSG. For this purpose, a 19-item survey was completed

  10. Instructional Development in Higher Education: Impact on Teachers' Teaching Behaviour as Perceived by Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stes, Ann; Coertjens, Liesje; Petegem, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Although instructional development has become an important topic in higher education, little is known about the impact on teaching practice. In this study we investigate the impact of instructional development on teachers' teaching behaviour as perceived by students. Quantitative student data were assembled for 15 experimental and 12 control…

  11. Perceived Rates of Return to Higher Education: Further Evidence from Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Maria Eliophotou

    2008-01-01

    The paper provides new estimates of the perceived rates of return to higher education in Cyprus and compares them to previous estimates for the year 1994 in the same country. Both the elaborate and the short-cut methods are used in the estimation of rates of return. The estimated rates are entered as independent variables in logistic regression…

  12. The Relationship between Perceived Quality of Mentoring and Anticipated Turnover among Executives in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Lynne K.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify if there was a relationship between the perceived quality of mentoring and the intention to quit among executive leaders in the field of higher education. The quality in mentoring (QIM) questionnaire was used to measure the quality of four separate aspects of a mentoring program: management and support…

  13. Perceived Effectiveness of Professional Development Programs of Teachers at Higher Education Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sufiana Khatoon; Nasim, Uzma; Tabassum, Farkhanda

    2015-01-01

    The major purpose of the study was to assess the perceived effectiveness of professional development programs of teachers at higher educational level. The objectives of the study were: "to assess university level teachers'" opinion about effectiveness of professional development training with reference to quality teaching, to measure…

  14. Perceived job demands relate to self-reported health complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.M.; Schreuder, K.J.; Koopmans, P.C.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Background Illness and illness behaviour are important problems in the Dutch workforce. Illness has been associated with job demands, with high demands relating to poorer health. It has not been reported whether subjective health complaints relate to job demands. Aims To investigate whether perceive

  15. Adolescent Reports of Aggression as Predictors of Perceived Parenting Behaviors and Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kantahyanee W; Haynie, Denise L; Howard, Donna E; Cheng, Tina L; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the associations between adolescent self-report of aggression and adolescents' perceptions of parenting practices in a sample of African American early adolescents living in low-income, urban communities. Sixth graders (N = 209) completed questionnaires about their aggressive behaviors and perceptions of caregivers' parenting practices at two time points during the school year. Path model findings reveal that adolescent-reported aggression at Time 1 predicted higher levels of perceived parent psychological control and perceived parent expectations for aggressive solutions to conflicts at Time 2. Findings suggest that early adolescent aggression elicits negative parenting behaviors at a subsequent time point.

  16. Spirituality in Leadership: How Male African American Leaders in Higher Education Perceive the Influence of Spirituality in Their Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Dale S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand how male African American leaders in higher education perceive the influence of spirituality on their leadership decision making. This phenomenological study provided the opportunity for seven male African American leaders in higher education to explain in their own words how they perceive the…

  17. The Impact of Learning Driven Constructs on the Perceived Higher Order Cognitive Skills Improvement: Multimedia vs. Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagarukayo, Emily; Weide, Theo; Mbarika, Victor; Kim, Min

    2012-01-01

    The study aims at determining the impact of learning driven constructs on Perceived Higher Order Cognitive Skills (HOCS) improvement when using multimedia and text materials. Perceived HOCS improvement is the attainment of HOCS based on the students' perceptions. The research experiment undertaken using a case study was conducted on 223 students…

  18. Public Accountability: The Perceived Usefulness of School Annual Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Tooley

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Annual reports are an important component of New Zealand schools’ public accountability. Through theannual report the governance body informs stakeholders about school aims, objectives, achievements, use ofresources, and financial performance. This paper identifies the perceived usefulness of the school annualreport to recipients and the extent to which it serves as an instrument of accountability and/or decisionusefulness.The study finds that the annual report is used for a variety of purposes, including: to determine ifthe school has conducted its activities effectively and achieved stated objectives and goals; to examine studentachievements; to assess financial accountability and performance; and to make decisions about the school as asuitable environment for their child/children. Nevertheless, the study also finds that other forms ofcommunication are more important sources of information about the school than the annual report which isseen to fall short of users’ required qualities of understandability, reliability and readability. It would appearimperative that policy makers review the functional role of the school annual report which is a costlydocument to prepare. Further, school managers need to engage in alternative means to communicatesufficient and meaningful information in the discharge of public accountability.

  19. Predictors of perceived importance and acceptance of digital delivery modes in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mertens

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Teaching and assessment in higher education institutions are increasingly supported by digital tools and services. Students, however, perceive and value the importance of such e-learning offerings in very diverse ways. The goal of this article is to examine which predictors significantly influence students’ perceptions of the value of digital learning formats. Based on Küpper's acceptance model, we generate hypotheses that are subsequently tested using data from a German student survey. The results show that individual-related characteristics, especially motivation and orientation patterns of students, have a high impact on the perceived importance of digital learning formats. Our analyses indicate that besides individual performance and motivation, the practical orientation of a student is also a key predictor for a high rating of the importance of digital learning formats. An analysis of characteristics regarding the field of study shows that students who major in economic sciences, especially those who frequently work with digital learning formats in their classes, find them significantly more important than students who major in social science. Regarding innovation-based characteristics, students who express a need for flexible course offerings rate the use of digital learning formats as particularly important. The discussion provides an evaluation of the results of the student study based on the hypotheses and presents further implications.

  20. The Vanishing Higher-Education Reporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, Richard

    2008-01-01

    As the Internet continues to drain readers and advertising, newspapers are left with no choice but to cut back on coverage. Many papers have settled on higher education as an expendable beat. At the National Education Writers Association, which represents education reporters and editors around the country, the e-mail list for elementary- and…

  1. Exploring Perceived Risk and Risk Reduction Strategies in the Pursuit of Higher Education Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jason M. S.; Tong, David Yoon Kin; Ariffin, Ahmad Azmi M.

    2017-01-01

    While past studies have merely focused on perceived risks that influence how students select the destination of international education best suited to their needs, research on perceived risk regarding post-purchase behavior remains limited. This study attempts to extend and redefine the perceived risk paradigm by uncovering the underlying elements…

  2. Self-reported depression and perceived financial burden among long-term rectal cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chongpison, Yuda; Hornbrook, Mark C; Harris, Robin B; Herrinton, Lisa J; Gerald, Joe K; Grant, Marcia; Bulkley, Joanna E; Wendel, Christopher S; Krouse, Robert S

    2016-11-01

    Types of surgery for rectal cancer (RC), including permanent ostomy (PO) or temporary ostomy followed by anastomosis (TO) or initial anastomosis (AN), can affect psychological and financial well-being during active treatment. However, these relationships have not been well studied among long-term survivors (≥5 years post-diagnosis). A mailed survey with 576 long-term RC survivors who were members of Kaiser Permanente was conducted in 2010-2011. Prevalence of current depression was ascertained using a score of ≤45.6 on the Short Form-12 version 2 mental component summary. Perceived financial burden was assessed using a Likert scale ranging from 0 (none) to 10 (severe). Regression analyses were used to measure associations after adjustment for covariates. The overall prevalence of depression was 24% among RC survivors with the highest prevalence among those with a history of PO (31%). The adjusted odds of depression among TO and AN survivors were lower than that among PO survivors, 0.42 (CI95% 0.20-0.89) and 0.59 (CI95% 0.37-0.93), respectively. Twenty-two percent perceived moderate-to-high current financial burden (≥4 points). PO survivors also reported higher mean financial burden than AN survivors (2.6 vs. 1.6, respectively; p = 0.002), but perceived burden comparably to TO survivors (2.3). Self-reported depression was associated with higher perceived financial burden (p < 0.001); surgical procedure history did not modify this relationship. Depression was reported frequently among these long-term RC survivors, particularly among PO survivors. Depression was associated with greater perception of financial burden. Screening for depression and assessing financial well-being might improve care among long-term RC survivors.Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Perceived Principals' Leadership Styles and Faculty Job Satisfaction in Higher Theological Institutions of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Is There a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamrat Zeleke, Frew

    2013-01-01

    The job satisfaction of higher education faculty can be affected by the kind of leadership style practiced by leaders of an institution. This study examined perceived principals' leadership styles related to faculty job satisfaction in Higher Theological Institutions of Addis Ababa (HTIAA), Ethiopia. Leadership style in this study was defined as…

  4. Building Collegiate E-Loyalty: The Role of Perceived Value in the Quality-Loyalty Linkage in Online Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, Brandon; Kilburn, Ashley; Davis, Dexter

    2016-01-01

    E-service quality of online higher education reflects the student's perception of quality of online exchanges across four dimensions: fulfillment, efficiency, system availability and privacy. This study links e-service quality to intentions to remain loyal as mediated by perceived value in an online higher education environment. AMOS is used to…

  5. A neurobehavioral intervention incorporated into a state early intervention program is associated with higher perceived quality of care among parents of high-risk newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Beth M; Nugent, J Kevin

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare two models of early intervention (EI) service delivery-a neurobehavioral intervention and usual care-on parents' perceived quality of EI service delivery. Families of newborns referred to EI were randomly assigned to a neurobehavioral intervention or usual care group and followed until the infant was 12 weeks corrected gestational age. The intervention group (n = 25) received a weekly neurobehavioral intervention. The usual care group (n = 13) received standard weekly home visits. Mothers completed the Home Visiting Index (HVI) measuring the quality of EI service delivery. Mixed linear regression was used to examine group differences in quality scores. The intervention group reported higher quality of care related to facilitating optimal parent-infant social interaction (mean difference = 2.17, 95% CI: 0.41, 3.92).A neurobehavioral model of service delivery can be successfully integrated into EI programming and appears to be associated with higher parent-reported perceived quality.

  6. Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) Variables That Influence Perceived Return on Investment (ROI) in Higher Education: Chief Marketing Officers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Adrienne L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship of the level of Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) implementation, level of open systems and change in state appropriations on perceived return on investment (ROI) in U.S. public higher education institutions (HEIs). Designed to provide HEI leaders with data to more accurately determine the best IMC…

  7. Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) Variables That Influence Perceived Return on Investment (ROI) in Higher Education: Chief Marketing Officers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Adrienne L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship of the level of Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC) implementation, level of open systems and change in state appropriations on perceived return on investment (ROI) in U.S. public higher education institutions (HEIs). Designed to provide HEI leaders with data to more accurately determine the best IMC…

  8. Student's Perceived Level and Teachers' Teaching Strategies of Higher Order Thinking Skills: A Study on Higher Educational Institutions in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Divya; Dungsungnoen, Aj Pattaradanai

    2016-01-01

    Higher order thinking skills (HOTS) has portrayed immense industry demand and the major goal of educational institution in imparting education is to inculcate higher order thinking skills. This compiles and mandate the institutions and instructor to develop the higher order thinking skills among students in order to prepare them for effective…

  9. HR Practices and Employee Performance Relationship in Higher Education: Mediating Role of Job Embeddedness, Perceived Organizational Support and Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehreen Fatima

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to find out the impact of Human Resource practices on employee performance. Job embeddedness, Perceived organizational support and Trust were taken as mediators and they were investigated for their mediation effect on the relationship between human resource practices and employee performance. Organizational citizenship behavior and task performance were taken as two dimensions of Employee Performance. Data was collected through questionnaires from faculty members of different campuses of Public sector University in Pakistan. Results support that job embeddedness, perceived organization support and trust have partial or full mediation role for HR-Performance relationship of teaching faculty of Higher Education sector.

  10. The relationship between perceived competence and earned credits in competence-based higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphorst, J. C.; Hofman, W. H. A.; Jansen, E. P. W. A.; Terlouw, C.

    2013-01-01

    We explored how two types of study outcomes, perceived competence and earned credits, are interrelated, and influenced by self-regulation, motivation (intrinsic value and expectancy of procrastination) and deep approach to learning. The relationships between these variables were analysed in a sample

  11. Affirmative Action in Romania's Higher Education: Roma Students' Perceived Meanings and Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantea, Maria-Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative paper explores Roma students' perceptions on the policy of assigning "special places" for Roma in Romania's universities. Findings suggest that Roma see themselves as occupying a precarious social space, concerned not as much to hide perceived merit violation but to handle (alleged) inadequacies given by their…

  12. The relationship between perceived competence and earned credits in competence-based higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphorst, J. C.; Hofman, W. H. A.; Jansen, E. P. W. A.; Terlouw, C.

    2013-01-01

    We explored how two types of study outcomes, perceived competence and earned credits, are interrelated, and influenced by self-regulation, motivation (intrinsic value and expectancy of procrastination) and deep approach to learning. The relationships between these variables were analysed in a sample

  13. Affirmative Action in Romania's Higher Education: Roma Students' Perceived Meanings and Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantea, Maria-Carmen

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative paper explores Roma students' perceptions on the policy of assigning "special places" for Roma in Romania's universities. Findings suggest that Roma see themselves as occupying a precarious social space, concerned not as much to hide perceived merit violation but to handle (alleged) inadequacies given by their…

  14. Perceived Neighborhood Social Disorder and Attitudes toward Reporting Domestic Violence against Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Enrique; Herrero, Juan

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to explore the relationship between perceived neighborhood social disorder and attitudes toward reporting domestic violence against women. Data from a national representative sample (N = 14,994) of Spaniards 18 years old and older were used. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that perceived neighborhood social…

  15. Teacher Attitudes, Perceived Influences, and Self-Reported Classroom Behaviors Related to School Nutrition Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Beverly Lawler

    2010-01-01

    This study determined attitudes of kindergarten through fifth grade teachers about school nutrition environments, their perceived influence on school nutrition environments, and self-reported classroom behaviors. Specific objectives were to: (a) identify perceived factors that influence the school nutrition environment, according to teachers…

  16. Partners' Empathy Increases Pain Ratings: Effects of Perceived Empathy and Attachment Style on Pain Report and Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurter, Sarah; Paloyelis, Yannis; de C. Williams, Amanda C.; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

    2014-01-01

    Pain can be influenced by its social context. We aimed to examine under controlled experimental conditions how empathy from a partner and personal attachment style affect pain report, tolerance, and facial expressions of pain. Fifty-four participants, divided into secure, anxious, and avoidant attachment style groups, underwent a cold pressor task with their partners present. We manipulated how much empathy the participants perceived that their partners had for them. We observed a significant main effect of perceived empathy on pain report, with greater pain reported in the high perceived empathy condition. No such effects were found for pain tolerance or facial display. We also found a significant interaction of empathy with attachment style group, with the avoidant group reporting and displaying less pain than the secure and the anxious groups in the high perceived empathy condition. No such findings were observed in the low empathy condition. These results suggest that empathy from one's partner may influence pain report beyond behavioral reactions. In addition, the amount of pain report and expression that people show in high empathy conditions depends on their attachment style. Perspective Believing that one's partner feels high empathy for one's pain may lead individuals to rate the intensity of pain as higher. Individual differences in attachment style moderate this empathy effect. PMID:24953886

  17. [Stress Management Interventions at the Workplace Improve Perceived Stress Reactivity of Men at Higher Risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündel, H; Limm, H; Heinmüller, B; Marten-Mittag, B; Nater, U M; Angerer, P

    2015-09-01

    A randomised controlled trial was conducted in a metal working plant. The primary endpoint was perceived stress reactivity (Stress Reactivity Scale, SRS). 174 participants were randomly assigned to a stress-management intervention (SMI) (IG) or a waiting control group (CG). N=174 participants (171 male) were recruited at t0, 154 (89%) were still taking part after one year (t1), 131 (76%) after 2 years. The SRS score decreased in both groups. The conducted SMI proved to be effective over both a 1- and a 2-year period.

  18. Catering Management in Higher Education. National Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

    This study identified the key management issues for senior managers and heads of catering services in higher education in developing and reviewing catering services. The study was conducted with the involvement of 76 universities and colleges with evidence drawn from questionnaires covering the Excellence Model's 9 criteria, an Expert Working…

  19. Audit report from Greenland on nurses’ tasks and perceived competency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexøe, Jørgen; Skifte, Ella; Niclasen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    , diagnostic procedures, treatments and need for a physician’s assistance, as well as the nurses’ self-perceived competency, were also analysed. Methods: A total of 42 nurses registered all patient encounters for 10 days in late autumn 2006 in 14 out of 16 healthcare districts in Greenland. Results: Nurses......Introduction: Despite all efforts, recruitment of healthcare personnel has become increasingly difficult in Greenland as in other remote areas. The aim of this observational study was to describe the extent of health care delivered by nurses in Greenland’s healthcare system. Reasons for encounter...... treated 1117 encounters (60%) singlehandedly. The nurses felt competent in what they were doing in 1415 encounters (76%). In 525 encounters (31%), a physician’s advice was sought. Either the physician was asked to come or the physician’s advice was obtained by telephone. In four cases the nurses did...

  20. Brief report: Borderline personality symptoms and perceived caregiver criticism in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Diana J; Malkin, Mallory L; Freeman, Megan J; Young, John; Gratz, Kim L

    2015-06-01

    Despite findings of an association between adolescent psychopathology and perceived parental criticism, the relation between adolescent borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms and perceived parental criticism has not been examined. Given the centrality of interpersonal sensitivity to BPD (relative to other forms of psychopathology), we hypothesized that adolescent BPD symptoms would be uniquely related to perceived caregiver criticism, above and beyond other forms of psychopathology and general emotion dysregulation. Adolescents (N = 109) in a residential psychiatric treatment facility completed self-report measures of BPD symptoms, perceived caregiver criticism, emotion dysregulation, and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Results revealed a unique relation of adolescent BPD symptoms to perceived caregiver criticism, above and beyond age, gender, and other forms of psychopathology. Findings suggest that adolescent BPD symptoms may have unique relevance for adolescents' perceptions of caregivers' attitudes and behaviors, increasing the likelihood of negative perceptions.

  1. Boarding school influence on self-reported concern for perceived body and face morphology in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chieh Ting; Garg, Prerna; Giddon, Donald B

    2016-08-01

    To determine the influence of boarding school on self-perceived body and facial morphology, the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and exploratory questions about the orofacial area (OFA) were administered to female boarding (B) and nonboarding (NB) students at two Catholic schools in Taiwan. The mean total BSQ scores of Bs were significantly higher than NBs, with both being significantly higher than the published normative score but lower than probable bulimics with no significant B vs. NB difference in mean total OFA scores. Because the Bs were significantly taller and reported more orthodontic treatment than NBs, the possible confounding by the higher economic status of the Bs was minimized by finding similar significantly higher BSQ scores for the small number of Bs (5%) than the remaining NBs (95%) in the documented lower socio-economic school. In summary, the experience of boarding in religion-dominated schools significantly increases body image concerns of adolescent females. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Perceived strategic implication of solid waste recycling across Malaysian higher education institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baharum Mohamad Rizal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of higher education institution campuses is the main concern in the institution sector worldwide. In achieving sustainability, strategic management such as planning, implementation and strategic implication of recycling initiatives became an essential criterion. This paper aimed to investigate the strategic implication achieved between higher education institution groupings. Questionnaire survey was conducted and completed by 129 institutions in Malaysia. The significance of strategic implication variables was identified through ranking analysis. An ANOVA analysis was conducted to identify the variation in effectiveness level of the overall strategic impacts across higher education institution groups. The findings revealed that the significant differences in effectiveness level of overall strategic impact occurred between the perception of private university and college. The implication of the results was discussed with regard to strategic impacts of solid waste recycling which is useful in the strategic planning of institutions’ recycling initiatives.

  3. Effects of Country and Delivery Mode on Perceived Risk in International Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal Basha, Norazlyn; Sweeney, Jillian C.; Soutar, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Higher education is an increasingly competitive global market. Consequently, it is crucial that universities fully understand students' motivations in university selection. While past research mainly focused on university-level attributes, this study extends the factors used to evaluate different international universities to include both the…

  4. What Role Does Humor in the Higher Education Classroom Play in Student-Perceived Instructor Effectiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halula, Stephen Paul

    2013-01-01

    Everyone has had college instructors who they thought were excellent and those who were not. In pondering what attributes might have made the difference between these groups, the idea of "humor" came to mind, setting the researcher on course to study the research question "What role does humor in the higher education classroom play…

  5. Presence and Perceived Learning in Different Higher Education Blended Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabandelou, Rouhollah; Jalil, Habibah Ab; Ali, Wan Zah Wan; Daud, Shaffe Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Blended learning as "third generation" of distance learning has the potential to offer multimethod instruction through the blend, to leverage the strengths of current online and traditional instructions. Therefore, higher education institutions having recognized the fact that blended learning is beneficial, adopted this alternative…

  6. Mechanisms of Upward Mobility as Perceived by Students in an Institution of Higher Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagrebina, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    Research on the ways that Russian college students in St. Petersburg view upward mobility shows that they typically want to achieve a higher social level than that of their parents, but that the ways in which success may be achieved differs according to family status and location of residence. (Contains 9 tables.)

  7. "Brits Abroad": The Perceived Support Needs of U.K. Learners Studying in Higher Education Overseas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartram, Brendan

    2013-01-01

    In the context of international growth in higher education exchanges and recent expansion in U.K. mobility rates after a period of some decline, this article examines the perspectives of U.K. students who have decided to spend part of their degree at universities abroad. Based on an analysis of data generated by a cross-institutional survey of…

  8. "Brits Abroad": The Perceived Support Needs of U.K. Learners Studying in Higher Education Overseas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartram, Brendan

    2013-01-01

    In the context of international growth in higher education exchanges and recent expansion in U.K. mobility rates after a period of some decline, this article examines the perspectives of U.K. students who have decided to spend part of their degree at universities abroad. Based on an analysis of data generated by a cross-institutional survey of…

  9. Presence and Perceived Learning in Different Higher Education Blended Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabandelou, Rouhollah; Jalil, Habibah Ab; Ali, Wan Zah Wan; Daud, Shaffe Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Blended learning as "third generation" of distance learning has the potential to offer multimethod instruction through the blend, to leverage the strengths of current online and traditional instructions. Therefore, higher education institutions having recognized the fact that blended learning is beneficial, adopted this alternative…

  10. Effects of Country and Delivery Mode on Perceived Risk in International Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal Basha, Norazlyn; Sweeney, Jillian C.; Soutar, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Higher education is an increasingly competitive global market. Consequently, it is crucial that universities fully understand students' motivations in university selection. While past research mainly focused on university-level attributes, this study extends the factors used to evaluate different international universities to include both the…

  11. Online Peer Evaluation for Assessing Perceived Academic Engagement in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncu, Semiral

    2015-01-01

    Many institutions monitor academic engagement to investigate student achievement and institutional performance. Relying only on self-reports is prone to misjudgment. Peer evaluation through teamwork has the potential to substitute for measuring engagement, which has not been emphasized in the literature. This study examines whether peer evaluation…

  12. Management competencies in higher education: Perceived job importance in relation to level of training required

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid L. Potgieter

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The increasing changes and demands placed on higher education institutions in the 21st century and resultant impact on the roles and responsibilities of heads of department (HODs have led to an increasing emphasis on the development of core HOD management competencies.Research purpose: The aim of this article is to determine the relationship between a specific set of HOD managerial competencies identified as being important for the job and the level of training required in terms of these competencies.Motivation for the study: Research has provided evidence that HODs are often ill-prepared for their managerial role, which requires the development of specific management competencies to enable them to fulfil their roles effectively.Research design, approach and method: A non-experimental quantitative survey design approach was followed and correlational data analyses were performed. A cross-sectional sample of 41 HODs of 22 departments from various faculties of a higher education institution in Gauteng participated in this study. The Management Competency Inventory (MCI of Visser (2009 was applied as a measure.Main findings: The Pearson product-moment analysis indicated that there is a significant relationship between the competencies indicated as being important for the job and the level of training required.Practical/Managerial implications: Training needs of HODs should be formally assessed and the depth of training required in terms of the identified management competencies should be considered in the design of training programmes.Contributions/Value-add: The information obtained in this study may potentially serve as a foundation for the development of an HOD training programme in the South African higher education environment.

  13. How reinforcement sensitivity and perceived risk influence young drivers' reported engagement in risky driving behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbeck, Emma L; Glendon, A Ian

    2013-05-01

    Gray's reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST), implementing Carver and White's behavior inhibition system (BIS) and behavior approach system (BAS) scales, was used to predict reported engagement in 10 risky driving behaviors: speeding (2 levels), driving under the influence of alcohol, racing other vehicles, cell phone use (hand-held and hands free), tailgating, unsafe overtaking, driving while fatigued, and not wearing a seatbelt. Participants were 165 young male and female (n=101) drivers aged 17-25 years who held a valid Australian driver's license. Effects of the explanatory variables and specific risk perceptions upon engagement in the reported risky driving behaviors were examined using SEM analyses. Also of interest was whether perceived risk mediated the relationship between the personality variables and reported engagement in risky driving behaviors. RST variables, negative reactivity, reward responsiveness and fun seeking, accounted for unique variance in young drivers' perceived risk. Reward responsiveness and perceived risk accounted for unique variance in young drivers' reported engagement in risky driving behaviors. Negative reactivity was completely mediated by perceived risk in its negative relationship with reported engagement. To better understand driving related risk decision making, future research could usefully incorporate drivers' motivation systems. This has the potential to lead to more tailored approaches to identifying risk-prone drivers and provide information for the development and implementation of media campaigns and educational programs.

  14. The role of perceived control over anxiety in prospective symptom reports across the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Jennifer N; Rohan, Kelly J; Nillni, Yael I; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    The present investigation tested the role of psychological vulnerabilities to anxiety in reported menstrual symptom severity. Specifically, the current study tested the incremental validity of perceived control over anxiety-related events in predicting menstrual symptom severity, controlling for the effect of anxiety sensitivity, a documented contributor to menstrual distress. It was expected that women with lower perceived control over anxiety-related events would report greater menstrual symptom severity, particularly in the premenstrual phase. A sample of 49 normally menstruating women, aged 18-47 years, each prospectively tracked their menstrual symptoms for one cycle and completed the Anxiety Control Questionnaire (Rapee, Craske, Brown, & Barlow Behav Ther 27:279-293. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7894(96)80018-9 , 1996) in their follicular and premenstrual phases. A mixed model analysis revealed perceived control over anxiety-related events was a more prominent predictor of menstrual symptom severity than anxiety sensitivity, regardless of the current cycle phase. This finding provides preliminary evidence that perceived control over anxiety-related events is associated with the perceived intensity of menstrual symptoms. This finding highlights the role of psychological vulnerabilities in menstrual distress. Future research should examine whether psychological interventions that target cognitive vulnerabilities to anxiety may help reduce severe menstrual distress.

  15. Perceived Social Competence and Loneliness among Young Children with ASD: Child, Parent and Teacher Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeedyk, Sasha M.; Cohen, Shana R.; Eisenhower, Abbey; Blacher, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Perceived loneliness and social competence were assessed for 127 children with ASD without comorbid ID, 4-7 years old, through child self-report. Using an abbreviated version of the "Loneliness and Social Dissatisfaction Questionnaire" (LSDQ; Cassidy and Asher in "Child Dev" 63:250-365, 1992), the majority of children reported…

  16. Perceived Motivational Climates and Self-Reported Emotional and Behavioural Problems among Norwegian Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stornes, Tor; Bru, Edvin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between perceived motivational climates and self-reported emotional and behavioural problems (EBP: symptoms of depression, lack of on-task-orientation and disruptive behaviour), among 1171 Norwegian 8th grade secondary school students from 65 school classes. Statistical analyses showed significant…

  17. Neither colorblind nor oppositional: perceived minority status and trajectories of academic adjustment among Latinos in elite higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Mooney, Margarita

    2009-05-01

    As more Latinos experience upward social mobility, it is increasingly necessary to challenge oppositional cultural assumptions to explain how perceived minority status barriers may influence their academic achievement. The present study builds on previous work that identified 3 distinct minority status orientations among Latino college students entering elite colleges-which the authors call assimilation, accommodation, and resistance. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Freshmen, the authors examined how these orientations influence Latino students' academic and social adjustment from their freshman to junior years of college. Latino students who most strongly questioned the openness of the opportunity structure to ethnic minorities-resisters-reported similar grades and time spent studying as their counterparts who perceived less ethnic and racial inequities. In addition, resisters did not disengage from their social environment but rather became increasingly involved in campus activities outside the classroom during their college career. Implications for understanding ethnic minority individuals' interpretations of social stratification in well-resourced, high-achieving contexts are discussed.

  18. Higher magnitude cash payments improve research follow-up rates without increasing drug use or perceived coercion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festinger, David S; Marlowe, Douglas B; Dugosh, Karen L; Croft, Jason R; Arabia, Patricia L

    2008-07-01

    In a prior study [Festinger, D.S., Marlowe, D.B., Croft, J.R., Dugosh, K.L., Mastro, N.K., Lee, P.A., DeMatteo, D.S., Patapis, N.S., 2005. Do research payments precipitate drug use or coerce participation? Drug Alcohol Depend. 78 (3) 275-281] we found that neither the mode (cash vs. gift card) nor magnitude ($10, $40, or $70) of research follow-up payments increased rates of new drug use or perceptions of coercion. However, higher payments and payments in cash were associated with better follow-up attendance, reduced tracking efforts, and improved participant satisfaction with the study. The present study extended those findings to higher payment magnitudes. Participants from an urban outpatient substance abuse treatment program were randomly assigned to receive $70, $100, $130, or $160 in either cash or a gift card for completing a follow-up assessment at 6 months post-admission (n congruent with 50 per cell). Apart from the payment incentives, all participants received a standardized, minimal platform of follow-up efforts. Findings revealed that neither the magnitude nor mode of payment had a significant effect on new drug use or perceived coercion. Consistent with our previous findings, higher payments and cash payments resulted in significantly higher follow-up rates and fewer tracking calls. In addition participants receiving cash vs. gift cards were more likely to use their payments for essential, non-luxury purchases. Follow-up rates for participants receiving cash payments of $100, $130, and $160 approached or exceeded the FDA required minimum of 70% for studies to be considered in evaluations of new medications. This suggests that the use of higher magnitude payments and cash payments may be effective strategies for obtaining more representative follow-up samples without increasing new drug use or perceptions of coercion.

  19. Attitudes and perceived barriers of tertiary level health professionals towards incident reporting in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Raees Malik

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: A limited framework of incident reporting exists in most of the health care system in Pakistan. This poses a risk to the patient population and therefore there is a need to find the causes behind the lack of such a system in healthcare settings in Pakistan. Aims: To determine the attitudes and perceived barriers towards incident reporting among tertiary care health professionals in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: The study was done in Shifa International Hospitals and consisted of a questionnaire given to 217 randomly selected doctors and nurses. Mean ± SD of continuous variables and frequency (percentage % of categorical variables are presented. Chi square statistical analysis was used to test the significance of association among doctors and nurses with various outcome variables (motivators to report, perceived barriers, preferred person to report and patient’s outcome that influence reporting behaviors. P value of <0.05 was considered significant. Student doctors and student nurses were not included in the study. Results: Unlike consultant, registrars, medical officers and nurses (more than 95% are willing to report, only 20% of house officers will report the incident happened through them. Sixty nine percent of doctors and 67% of nurses perceive ‘administration sanction’ as a common barrier to incident reporting. Sixty percent of doctors and 80% of nurses would prefer reporting to the head of the department. Conclusions: By giving immunity from administrative sanction, providing prompt feedback and assurance that the incident reporting will be used to make changes in the system, there is considerable willingness of doctors and nurses to take time out of their busy schedules to submit reports.

  20. First- and higher-order models of attitudes, normative influence, and perceived behavioural control in the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagger, Martin S; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D

    2005-12-01

    The present study examined the validity of an augmented version of Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behaviour (TPB), adopting second-order latent factors to explain relationships between the differentiated components of the theory constructs. This model was tested on data from two independent samples, for exercise and dieting behaviours, respectively. The affective and instrumental attitude, injunctive and descriptive norms, and perceived controllability and self-efficacy constructs all exhibited discriminant validity in the first instance. First- and second-order confirmatory factor analyses exhibited satisfactory fit with the observed data from both samples. There were no substantial differences in the fit indices across the first- and second-order models, and the second-order models exhibited the most optimal parsimony-corrected fit indices. The higher-order models could therefore not be rejected on the grounds of inferior fit or parsimony. First- and second-order structural equation models accounted for significant variance in intentions and behaviour. These results corroborate Ajzen's (2002a) and Bagozzi, Lee, and van Loo's (2001) premise that recent augmentations of the TPB that differentiate the model components can be subsumed by global, higher-order factors while still making the distinction at the subordinate level.

  1. The associations between noise sensitivity, reported physical and mental health, perceived environmental quality, and noise annoyance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Schreckenberg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and ninety residents around Frankfurt Airport (46% female; 17-80 years were interviewed concerning noise annoyance due to transportation noise (aircraft, road traffic, perceived mental and physical health, perceived environmental quality, and noise sensitivity. The aim of the analyses was to test whether noise sensitivity reflects partly general environmental sensitivity and is associated with an elevated susceptibility for the perception of mental and physical health. In this study, the reported physical and mental health variables were not associated with noise exposure but with noise annoyance, and were interpreted to reflect nonspecific codeterminants of annoyance rather than noise effects. Noise sensitivity was found to influence total noise annoyance and aircraft noise annoyance but to a lesser degree annoyance due to road traffic noise. Noise sensitivity was associated with reported physical health, but not with reported mental health. Noise-sensitive persons reported poorer environmental quality in their residential area than less sensitive persons in particular with regard to air traffic (including the facets noise, pollution, and contaminations and quietness. Other aspects of the perceived quality of the environment were scarcely associated with noise sensitivity. This indicates that noise sensitivity is more specific and a reliable predictor of responses to noise from the dominant source (in this case air traffic rather than a predictor of the individual perception of the environmental quality in general.

  2. The associations between noise sensitivity, reported physical and mental health, perceived environmental quality, and noise annoyance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreckenberg, Dirk; Griefahn, Barbara; Meis, Markus

    2010-01-01

    One hundred and ninety residents around Frankfurt Airport (46% female; 17-80 years) were interviewed concerning noise annoyance due to transportation noise (aircraft, road traffic), perceived mental and physical health, perceived environmental quality, and noise sensitivity. The aim of the analyses was to test whether noise sensitivity reflects partly general environmental sensitivity and is associated with an elevated susceptibility for the perception of mental and physical health. In this study, the reported physical and mental health variables were not associated with noise exposure but with noise annoyance, and were interpreted to reflect nonspecific codeterminants of annoyance rather than noise effects. Noise sensitivity was found to influence total noise annoyance and aircraft noise annoyance but to a lesser degree annoyance due to road traffic noise. Noise sensitivity was associated with reported physical health, but not with reported mental health. Noise-sensitive persons reported poorer environmental quality in their residential area than less sensitive persons in particular with regard to air traffic (including the facets noise, pollution, and contaminations) and quietness. Other aspects of the perceived quality of the environment were scarcely associated with noise sensitivity. This indicates that noise sensitivity is more specific and a reliable predictor of responses to noise from the dominant source (in this case air traffic) rather than a predictor of the individual perception of the environmental quality in general.

  3. Perceived Principals' Leadership Styles and Faculty Job Satisfaction in Higher Theological Institutions of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Is There a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamrat Zeleke, Frew

    2013-01-01

    The job satisfaction of higher education faculty can be affected by the kind of leadership style practiced by leaders of an institution. This study examined perceived principals' leadership styles related to faculty job satisfaction in Higher Theological Institutions of Addis Ababa (HTIAA), Ethiopia. Leadership style in this study was defined…

  4. Annual Report on Higher Education in New Mexico, 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico State Commission on Postsecondary Education, Santa Fe.

    The 1986 report of the New Mexico Commission on Higher Education first outlines responsibilities of the Commission and developments concerning the Board of Educational Finance and then considers the climate for higher education reform in New Mexico, including economic changes, career changes that require retraining and skill upgrading, and…

  5. Scottish Access Students in Higher Education. Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powney, Janet; Hall, Stuart

    This document is the final report on the experiences of mature students who had entered higher education through the Scottish Wider Access Programme (SWAP), a one-year course designed to provide an alternative route into higher education for adults and which utilizes a supportive environment plus an incremental, modular approach and small-group…

  6. Report of the Select Committee on Higher Education, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Coll. and Univ. System, Austin. Coordinating Board.

    A report of a study of issues in public higher education in Texas is presented, along with recommendations of the Select Committee on Higher Education to improve access, quality, and management. Attention is directed to: institutional role and mission statements, general funding policies, research and technology funding, faculty compensation,…

  7. Reported Use and Perceived Understanding of Sodium Information on US Nutrition Labels

    OpenAIRE

    Levings, Jessica Lee; Maalouf, Joyce; Tong, Xin; Cogswell, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Comparing nutrition labels and choosing lower sodium foods are tactics to help reduce excessive sodium intake, a major risk factor for hypertension. Our objective was to assess US adult consumers’ reported use and perceived understanding of sodium information on nutrition labels by sociodemographic and health status. Methods We analyzed responses to questions from 3,729 adults aged 18 years or older participating in 2 national cross-sectional mail panel surveys in 2010. Results W...

  8. Statistics Report on TEQSA Registered Higher Education Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Government Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This statistics report provides a comprehensive snapshot of national statistics on all parts of the sector for the year 2013, by bringing together data collected directly by TEQSA with data sourced from the main higher education statistics collections managed by the Australian Government Department of Education and Training. The report provides…

  9. HR Practices and Employee Performance Relationship in Higher Education: Mediating Role of Job Embeddedness, Perceived Organizational Support and Trust

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mehreen Fatima; Muhammad Shafique; Faisal Qadeer; Rashid Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    .... Job embeddedness, Perceived organizational support and Trust were taken as mediators and they were investigated for their mediation effect on the relationship between human resource practices and employee performance...

  10. Maternal effects on male weaponry: female dung beetles produce major sons with longer horns when they perceive higher population density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buzatto Bruno A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal effects are environmental influences on the phenotype of one individual that are due to the expression of genes in its mother, and are expected to evolve whenever females are better capable of assessing the environmental conditions that their offspring will experience than the offspring themselves. In the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus, conditional male dimorphism is associated with alternative reproductive tactics: majors fight and guard females whereas minors sneak copulations. Furthermore, variation in dung beetle population density has different fitness consequences for each male morph, and theory predicts that higher population density might select for a higher frequency of minors and/or greater expenditure on weaponry in majors. Because adult dung beetles provide offspring with all the nutritional resources for their development, maternal effects strongly influence male phenotype. Results Here we tested whether female O. taurus are capable of perceiving population density, and responding by changing the phenotype of their offspring. We found that mothers who were reared with other conspecifics in their pre-mating period produced major offspring that had longer horns across a wider range of body sizes than the major offspring of females that were reared in isolation in their pre-mating period. Moreover, our results indicate that this maternal effect on male weaponry does not operate through the amount of dung provided by females to their offspring, but is rather transmitted through egg or brood mass composition. Finally, although theory predicts that females experiencing higher density might produce more minor males, we found no support for this, rather the best fitting models were equivocal as to whether fewer or the same proportions of minors were produced. Conclusions Our study describes a new type of maternal effect in dung beetles, which probably allows females to respond to population density adaptively

  11. Self-reported information sources and perceived knowledge in individuals with lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, J; Fu, M R; Armer, J M; Cormier, J N; Radina, E; Thiadens, S R J; Dietrich, M S; Weiss, J; Tuppo, C M; Ridner, S H

    2013-12-01

    Currently, a limited number of studies have been conducted that examine sources of information and knowledge level in individuals with lymphedema. This study aimed (1) to examine self-reported information sources and perceived lymphedema knowledge among individuals with lymphedema; and (2) to examine differences in self-reported information sources and perceived lymphedema knowledge among individuals with primary or secondary lymphedema; and with upper or lower extremity lymphedema. The National Lymphedema Network (NLN) conducted a survey to collect self-report data from March 2006 to January 2010. Overall, participants preferred a variety of sources of information. Participants reported low levels of knowledge about the types of lymphedema, treatment approaches and methods, and self-administrated therapies. In comparison to participants with secondary or upper extremity lymphedema, participants with primary or lower extremity lymphedema reported lower knowledge level regarding causes of lymphedema, risks for and complications of lymphedema, treatment approaches and methods for lymphedema, and self-administered therapies. Opportunities exist to expand lymphedema information sources. Healthcare professionals should focus on delivering high quality information about treatment and self-care management to individuals with lymphedema.

  12. Quality Assurance in Transnational Higher Education. ENQA Workshop Report 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul; Bergan, Sjur; Cassar, Daniela; Hamilton, Marlene; Soinila, Michele; Sursock, Andree; Uvalic-Trumbic, Stamenka; Williams, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The present report is the product of an ENQA (European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education) Bologna Seminar "Quality Assurance in Transnational Education: from words to action" hosted by the Quality Assurance Agency (QAA, UK) in London in December, 2008. The seminar discussed the current trends in Transnational…

  13. Higher Education Finance. An Annotated Bibliography, Report 96-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, William

    This annotated bibliography on higher education finance lists 79 journal articles, books, conference papers, and reports originally published from 1973 through 1995 with most published in the 1990s. Citations include lengthy analytical summaries and critiques. The bibliography is presented in six sections which cover the following topics: (1)…

  14. Perceived job stress but not individual cardiovascular reactivity to stress is related to higher blood pressure at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauvel, J P; Quelin, P; Ducher, M; Rakotomalala, H; Laville, M

    2001-07-01

    Psychological stress has been reported to be related to higher blood pressure (BP) and unfavorable cardiovascular profile. However, because of the complexity of personal stress management, a multilevel stress measurement strategy is needed. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to analyze the respective influences of the subjective perception of professional strain (high demand and low latitude) and cardiovascular reactivity to a stress test (Stroop stress test) on BP. Worksite BP was measured in 303 healthy normotensive subjects, 18 to 55 years of age, who worked in the same chemical company. In a subset of 70 randomly selected subjects, 24-hour ambulatory BP was performed to assess BP during working hours. The 20% of subjects who reported the highest job strain (high-strain group) or the highest BP stress reactivity (high-responder group) were compared with the remaining subjects (80%) (non-high-strain or low-responder groups). Subjects who submitted to the highest job strain had significantly higher ambulatory diastolic BP (4.5 mm Hg, P=0.015) during only working hours, whereas BP was similar during the remaining hours. Worksite BP and stress cardiovascular reactivity were similar between job strain groups. BP stress reactivity did not influence worksite and ambulatory BP. Spontaneous BP variability assessed by standard deviation and spectral analysis was equivalent between complementary groups. Prevalence of microalbuminuria was significantly higher in the high-responder group (8.2% versus 2.5% in low responders) and only slightly higher in the high-strain group (6.2% versus 3.2% in non-high strain). Potential confounding factors, such as age, gender, alcohol consumption, salt intake, body mass index, and occupation, which were equivalent between groups, did not interfere with our results. Our study quantifies high-professional strain effects on BP levels that appear to be higher only during the working period and to be independent from spontaneous BP

  15. Sustainability Reporting in Higher Education: Interconnecting the Reporting Process and Organisational Change Management for Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Ceulemans; Rodrigo Lozano; María del Mar Alonso-Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been a considerable increase in the publication of sustainability reports in the corporate world in the last decade, sustainability reporting in higher education institutions is still in its early stages. This study’s aim was to explore the relationship between sustainability reporting and organizational change management for sustainability in higher education. A survey was sent to higher education institutions worldwide that have published sustainability reports in the las...

  16. Perceived fitness protects against stress-based mental health impairments among police officers who report good sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Markus; Kellmann, Micheal; Elliot, Catherine; Hartmann, Tim; Brand, Serge; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    This study examined a cognitive stress-moderation model that posits that the harmful effects of chronic stress are decreased in police officers who perceive high levels of physical fitness. It also determined whether the stress-buffering effect of perceived fitness is influenced by officers' self-reported sleep. A total of 460 police officers (n=116 females, n=344 males, mean age: M=40.7; SD=9.7) rated their physical fitness and completed a battery of self-report stress, mental health, and sleep questionnaires. Three-way analyses of covariance were performed to examine whether officers' self-reported mental health status depends on the interaction between stress, perceived fitness and sleep. Highly stressed officers perceived lower mental health and fitness and were overrepresented in the group of poor sleepers. Officers with high fitness self-reports revealed increased mental health and reported good sleep. In contrast, poor sleepers scored lower on the mental health index. High stress was more closely related to low mental health among poor sleepers. Most importantly, perceived fitness revealed a stress-buffering effect, but only among officers who reported good sleep. High perceived fitness and good sleep operate as stress resilience resources among police officers. The findings suggest that multimodal programs including stress management, sleep hygiene and fitness training are essential components of workplace health promotion in the police force.

  17. Neither Colorblind nor Oppositional: Perceived Minority Status and Trajectories of Academic Adjustment among Latinos in Elite Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Mooney, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    As more Latinos experience upward social mobility, it is increasingly necessary to challenge oppositional cultural assumptions to explain how perceived minority status barriers may influence their academic achievement. The present study builds on previous work that identified 3 distinct minority status orientations among Latino college students…

  18. Higher perceived stress but lower cortisol levels found among young Greek adults living in a stressful social environment in comparison with Swedish young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faresjö, Åshild; Theodorsson, Elvar; Chatziarzenis, Marios; Sapouna, Vasiliki; Claesson, Hans-Peter; Koppner, Jenny; Faresjö, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide financial crisis during recent years has raised concerns of negative public health effects. This is notably evident in southern Europe. In Greece, where the financial austerity has been especially pronounced, the prevalence of mental health problems including depression and suicide has increased, and outbreaks of infectious diseases have risen. The main objective in this study was to investigate whether different indicators of health and stress levels measured by a new biomarker based on cortisol in human hair were different amongst comparable Greek and Swedish young adults, considering that Sweden has been much less affected by the recent economic crises. In this cross-sectional comparative study, young adults from the city of Athens in Greece (n = 124) and from the city of Linkoping in Sweden (n = 112) participated. The data collection comprised answering a questionnaire with different health indicators and hair samples being analyzed for the stress hormone cortisol, a biomarker with the ability to retrospectively measure long-term cortisol exposure. The Greek young adults reported significantly higher perceived stress (pstress exposure could lead to a lowering of the cortisol levels. This study points out a possible hypothesis that the cortisol levels of the Greek young adults might have been suppressed and their HPA-axis down-regulated after living in a stressful environment with economic and social pressure.

  19. Comparing the Acceptance of Key Performance Indicators Management Systems on Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use in a Higher Education Institution in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yean ONG

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the findings of a study that elucidated users’ acceptance of two management systems for key performance indicators (KPIs in terms of their usefulness and ease of use scores at a higher education institution in Malaysia. The two management systems were Key Performance Indicators Monitoring System (KPI-MS and Excel Spreadsheet System (ESS. ESS is a system developed using Microsoft Excel and has been in used since the year 2008 in the institution to calculate KPIs marks. The ESS system, however, has several shortcomings, and the KPI-MS system was developed with the intention to replace ESS. KPI-MS is an online KPI performance monitoring system which allows users to access the system wherever and whenever they want using a web browser. In addition, KPI-MS is designed as an intelligent system that is able to process raw data automatically to produce results that can be easily visualized in a graphical manner. A survey questionnaire was used to collect data on the acceptance of both systems. A total of 78 participants who were involved in KPI data processing from all 42 schools and centres in the higher education institution in Malaysia participated in this study. The instrument of this study was adapted and modified from Davis’ Technology Acceptance Model (TAM. This instrument was content-validated by three experts in the related field and the reliability index computed with Cronbach alpha was 0.955. A descriptive analysis was conducted to compare the mean scores of both KPI-MS and ESS rated by the users. The results showed that the users rated KPI-MS as a very useful system in monitoring KPI performance of their schools or centres compared to ESS. Also, users rated the KPI-MS to be significantly easier (p≤0.01 and more enjoyable to use. In conclusion, it is recommended that KPI-MS should replace the ESS system in managing KPIs data.

  20. Modeling continuous self-report measures of perceived emotion using generalized additive mixed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Gary J; Sneddon, Ian

    2014-03-01

    Emotion research has long been dominated by the "standard method" of displaying posed or acted static images of facial expressions of emotion. While this method has been useful, it is unable to investigate the dynamic nature of emotion expression. Although continuous self-report traces have enabled the measurement of dynamic expressions of emotion, a consensus has not been reached on the correct statistical techniques that permit inferences to be made with such measures. We propose generalized additive models and generalized additive mixed models as techniques that can account for the dynamic nature of such continuous measures. These models allow us to hold constant shared components of responses that are due to perceived emotion across time, while enabling inference concerning linear differences between groups. The generalized additive mixed model approach is preferred, as it can account for autocorrelation in time series data and allows emotion decoding participants to be modeled as random effects. To increase confidence in linear differences, we assess the methods that address interactions between categorical variables and dynamic changes over time. In addition, we provide comments on the use of generalized additive models to assess the effect size of shared perceived emotion and discuss sample sizes. Finally, we address additional uses, the inference of feature detection, continuous variable interactions, and measurement of ambiguity.

  1. Survey of nursing perceptions of medication administration practices, perceived sources of errors and reporting behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armutlu, Markirit; Foley, Mary-Lou; Surette, Judy; Belzile, Eric; McCusker, Jane

    2008-01-01

    In January 2003, St. Mary's Hospital Center in Montreal, Quebec, established an interdisciplinary Committee on the Systematic Approach to Medication Error Control to review the whole process of medication administration within the hospital and to develop a systematic approach to medication error control. A cross-sectional survey on medication administration practices, perceived sources of errors and medication error reporting of nurses, adapted from a nursing practice survey and medication variance report (Sim and Joyner 2002), was conducted over a two-week period in February 2004. The results were analyzed by years of experience (greater or less than five years) and patient care unit of practice. The perceived source of error most often cited was transcription (processing), and the second most frequently cited source was the legibility of handwritten medication orders (prescribing). The results demonstrate no significant difference in medication safety practices or in perceptions of errors by years of experience. Nurses appear to adapt to the safety culture of the unit rather quickly, certainly within their first five years on the unit. Good medication error reporting behaviour was noted, with no differences between all comparative groups within both years of experience and unit of practice. Quality improvement initiatives to improve the safety of medication administration practices have included the development of a nursing medication administration handbook, the revision of policies and procedures related to medication administration safety, the standardization of solutions and limited variety of high-risk medication dosages and the reduction of handwritten reorders. The need for ongoing education and information sessions on policies and procedures specific to safe medication practices for all nurses, regardless of years of experience, was identified.

  2. Modeling exposure to air pollution from the WTC disaster based on reports of perceived air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Sally Ann; Becker, Mark; Sheets, Stephen; Stein, Janet; Tang, Deliang; Weiss, Lisa; Perera, Frederica P

    2008-04-01

    We examined the utility of a newly developed perceived air pollution (PAP) scale and of a modeled air pollution (MAP) scale derived from it for predicting previously observed birth outcomes of pregnant women enrolled following September 11, 2001. Women reported their home and work locations in the four weeks after September 11, 2001 and the PAP at each site on a four-point scale designed for this purpose. Locations were geocoded and their distance from the World Trade Center (WTC) site determined. PAP values were used to develop a model of air pollution for a 20-mile radius from the WTC site. MAP values were assigned to each geocoded location. We examined the relationship of PAP and MAP values to maternal characteristics and to distance of home and work sites from the WTC site. Both PAP and MAP values were highly correlated with distance from the WTC. Maternal characteristics that were associated with PAP values reported for home or work sites (race, demoralization, material hardship, first trimester on September 11) were not associated with modeled MAP values. Relationships of several birth outcomes to proximity to the WTC, which we previously reported using this data set, were also seen when MAP values were used as the measure of exposure, instead of proximity. MAP developed from reports of PAP may be useful to identify high-risk areas and predict health outcomes when there are multiple sources of pollution and a "distance from source" analysis is impossible.

  3. Visualizing Higher Order Finite Elements: FY05 Yearly Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, David; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2005-11-01

    This report contains an algorithm for decomposing higher-order finite elementsinto regions appropriate for isosurfacing and proves the conditions under which thealgorithm will terminate. Finite elements are used to create piecewise polynomialapproximants to the solution of partial differential equations for which no analyticalsolution exists. These polynomials represent fields such as pressure, stress, and mo-mentim. In the past, these polynomials have been linear in each parametric coordinate.Each polynomial coefficient must be uniquely determined by a simulation, and thesecoefficients are called degrees of freedom. When there are not enough degrees of free-dom, simulations will typically fail to produce a valid approximation to the solution.Recent work has shown that increasing the number of degrees of freedom by increas-ing the order of the polynomial approximation (instead of increasing the number offinite elements, each of which has its own set of coefficients) can allow some typesof simulations to produce a valid approximation with many fewer degrees of freedomthan increasing the number of finite elements alone. However, once the simulation hasdetermined the values of all the coefficients in a higher-order approximant, tools donot exist for visual inspection of the solution.This report focuses on a technique for the visual inspection of higher-order finiteelement simulation results based on decomposing each finite element into simplicialregions where existing visualization algorithms such as isosurfacing will work. Therequirements of the isosurfacing algorithm are enumerated and related to the placeswhere the partial derivatives of the polynomial become zero. The original isosurfacingalgorithm is then applied to each of these regions in turn.3 AcknowledgementThe authors would like to thank David Day and Louis Romero for their insight into poly-nomial system solvers and the LDRD Senior Council for the opportunity to pursue thisresearch. The authors were

  4. Adolescent Reports of Aggression as Predictors of Perceived Parenting Behaviors and Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Kantahyanee W.; Haynie, Denise L.; Howard, Donna E.; Cheng, Tina L.; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations between adolescent self-report of aggression and adolescents’ perceptions of parenting practices in a sample of African American early adolescents living in low-income, urban communities. Sixth graders (N = 209) completed questionnaires about their aggressive behaviors and perceptions of caregivers’ parenting practices at two time points during the school year. Path model findings reveal that adolescent-reported aggression at Time 1 predicted higher levels...

  5. FY-2016 Methyl Iodide Higher NOx Adsorption Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, Nicholas Ray [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watson, Tony Leroy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has continued in Fiscal Year 2016 under the Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cycle Technology (FCT) Program Offgas Sigma Team to further research and advance the technical maturity of solid sorbents for capturing iodine-129 in off-gas streams during used nuclear fuel reprocessing. Adsorption testing with higher levels of NO (approximately 3,300 ppm) and NO2 (up to about 10,000 ppm) indicate that high efficiency iodine capture by silver aerogel remains possible. Maximum iodine decontamination factors (DFs, or the ratio of iodine flowrate in the sorbent bed inlet gas compared to the iodine flowrate in the outlet gas) exceeded 3,000 until bed breakthrough rapidly decreased the DF levels to as low as about 2, when the adsorption capability was near depletion. After breakthrough, nearly all of the uncaptured iodine that remains in the bed outlet gas stream is no longer in the form of the original methyl iodide. The methyl iodide molecules are cleaved in the sorbent bed, even after iodine adsorption is no longer efficient, so that uncaptured iodine is in the form of iodine species soluble in caustic scrubber solutions, and detected and reported here as diatomic I2. The mass transfer zone depths were estimated at 8 inches, somewhat deeper than the 2-5 inch range estimated for both silver aerogels and silver zeolites in prior deep-bed tests, which had lower NOx levels. The maximum iodine adsorption capacity and silver utilization for these higher NOx tests, at about 5-15% of the original sorbent mass, and about 12-35% of the total silver, respectively, were lower than for trends from prior silver aerogel and silver zeolite tests with lower NOx levels. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to expand the database for organic iodide adsorption and increase the technical maturity if iodine adsorption processes.

  6. A Review on the Use and Perceived Effects of Mobile Blogs on Learning in Higher Educational Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norman, Helmi; Din, Rosseni; Nordin, Norazah

    2014-01-01

    Mobile technology is affecting the way we learn and teach in higher education. An interesting mobile tool for supporting learning and instruction is by using mobile blogs or “moblogs”. This review focuses on existing studies implementing moblogs for learning purposes in higher educational settings...... in terms of personal and technical factors. These categories are discussed as factors that could promote the use of moblogs for learning in higher education. Directions for future research are also discussed according to these categories as a basis for future work on moblogs for learning....

  7. Patterns, risk factors and characteristics of reported and perceived foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Mwiine, Frank N.;

    2010-01-01

    Patterns of outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Uganda were elucidated from spatial and temporal retrospective data retrieved from monthly reports from District Veterinary Officers (DVOs) to the central administration for the years spanning 2001–2008. An assessment of perceived FMD...

  8. An Analysis of the Association between Perceived Discrimination and Self-Reported Health among University Students in Southwest Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Renee L.

    2013-01-01

    The experience of discrimination is a complex phenomenon. At present, there are few studies that have captured the experience of discrimination on a predominately white university campus. This study was designed to investigate the association between perceived discrimination and self-reported health outcomes among university students in Southwest…

  9. A comparative analysis of media reporting of perceived risks and benefits of genetically modified crops and foods in Kenyan and international newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRosier, Christopher; Sulemana, Iddisah; James, Harvey S; Valdivia, Corinne; Folk, William; Smith, Randall D

    2015-07-01

    We empirically examine the reporting on biotechnology in Kenyan and international newspapers between 2010 and early 2014. We identify news articles that reported on biotechnology and analyze their use of words to determine whether there is a balance in the reporting of perceived risks and benefits. We also consider how the sources used in news articles and how the publication of the Séralini study of rats fed genetically modified maize affect the balance of reporting of perceived risks and benefits. We find that in Kenyan news reporting, more articles mention perceived benefits than risks, but when risks are mentioned, new articles contain more references to risks than to benefits. We also find that sources affect the reporting of perceived risks and benefits and that the Séralini study increased the likelihood that perceived risks are reported in Kenyan news reporting, but not in international newspapers.

  10. Prices, Productivity, and Investment: Assessing Financial Strategies in Higher Education. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, Edward P.

    This analysis critically examines the cost controversy in higher education with an eye to resolving the crisis which is currently serving to exacerbate public willingness to fund higher education. An introduction touches on the role and influence of political ideologies and offers a framework to be used throughout the analysis for critically…

  11. Diversity Leadership in Higher Education. ASHE Higher Education Report, Volume 32, Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Adalberto, Jr., Ed.; Martinez, Ruben O., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This monograph examines and discusses the context for diversity leadership roles and practices in higher education by using research and theoretical and applied literatures from a variety of fields, including the social sciences, business, and higher education. Framing the discussion on leadership in this monograph is the perspective that American…

  12. Empowerment of Non-Academic Personnel in Higher Education: Exploring Associations with Perceived Organizational Support for Innovation and Organizational Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Wing Keung Jason

    2010-01-01

    Employee empowerment has long been associated with organizational outcomes such as innovation, greater effectiveness, and better performance. Non-academic professional employees in higher education are responsible for the important day-to-day operations of a university; therefore, organizational strategies such as employee empowerment that…

  13. Empowerment of Non-Academic Personnel in Higher Education: Exploring Associations with Perceived Organizational Support for Innovation and Organizational Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Wing Keung Jason

    2010-01-01

    Employee empowerment has long been associated with organizational outcomes such as innovation, greater effectiveness, and better performance. Non-academic professional employees in higher education are responsible for the important day-to-day operations of a university; therefore, organizational strategies such as employee empowerment that…

  14. Preventing compulsory admission to psychiatric inpatient care: Perceived coercion, empowerment and self-reported mental health functioning after 12 months of preventive monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eLay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate effects of a preventive monitoring program targeted to reduce compulsory re-hospitalization and perceived coercion in patients with severe mental disorder. We analyze patient outcomes in terms of perceived coercion, empowerment and self-reported mental health functioning at 12 months. Methods: The program consists of individualized psycho-education, crisis cards and, after discharge from the psychiatric hospital, a 24-month preventive monitoring. In total, 238 psychiatric inpatients who had had compulsory admission(s during the past 24 months were included in the trial. T1-assessment 12 months after baseline was achieved for 182 patients. Results: Study participants reported lower levels of perceived coercion, negative pressures and process exclusion, a higher level of optimism, and a lesser degree of distress due to symptoms, interpersonal relations and social role functioning (significant time effects. However, improvements were not confined to the intervention group, but seen also in the TAU group (no significant group or interaction effects. Altered perceptions were linked to older age, shorter illness duration, female sex, non-psychotic disorder, and compulsory hospitalization not due to risk of harm to others. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that changes in the subjective perspective were fuelled primarily by participation in this study, rather than by having received the specific intervention. The study contributes to a better understanding of the interaction between 'objective' measures (compulsory readmissions and patients’ perceptions and highlights the need for treatment approaches promoting empowerment in individuals with a history of involuntary psychiatric hospitalizations.

  15. Preventing Compulsory Admission to Psychiatric Inpatient Care: Perceived Coercion, Empowerment, and Self-Reported Mental Health Functioning after 12 Months of Preventive Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Barbara; Drack, Thekla; Bleiker, Marco; Lengler, Silke; Blank, Christina; Rössler, Wulf

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of a preventive monitoring program targeted to reduce compulsory rehospitalization and perceived coercion in patients with severe mental disorder. We analyze patient outcomes in terms of perceived coercion, empowerment, and self-reported mental health functioning at 12 months. The program consists of individualized psychoeducation, crisis cards and, after discharge from the psychiatric hospital, a 24-month preventive monitoring. In total, 238 psychiatric inpatients who had had compulsory admission(s) during the past 24 months were included in the trial. T1-assessment 12 months after baseline was achieved for 182 patients. Study participants reported lower levels of perceived coercion, negative pressures, and process exclusion, a higher level of optimism, and a lesser degree of distress due to symptoms, interpersonal relations, and social role functioning (significant time effects). However, improvements were not confined to the intervention group, but seen also in the treatment-as-usual group (no significant group or interaction effects). Altered perceptions were linked to older age, shorter illness duration, female sex, non-psychotic disorder, and compulsory hospitalization not due to risk of harm to others. Our findings suggest that changes in the subjective perspective were fueled primarily by participation in this study rather than by having received the specific intervention. The study contributes to a better understanding of the interaction between "objective" measures (compulsory readmissions) and patients' perceptions and highlights the need for treatment approaches promoting empowerment in individuals with a history of involuntary psychiatric hospitalizations.

  16. Relationships between street characteristics and perceived attractiveness for walking reported by elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, H.C.; Miedema, H.M.E.; Vries, S.I. de; Graham, J.M.A.; Dongen, J.E.F. van

    2008-01-01

    Walking is important for the health of elderly people. Previous studies have found a relationship between neighbourhood characteristics, physical activity and related health aspects. The multivariate linear regression model presented here describes the relationships between the perceived

  17. Development of an Instrument to Measure Perceived Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor Learning in Traditional and Virtual Classroom Higher Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovai, Alfred P.; Wighting, Mervyn J.; Baker, Jason D.; Grooms, Linda D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a self-report instrument that can be used to measure learning in the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains. The study underwent three phases, each with its own data collection and analysis. Phase I featured the development, testing, and factor analysis of an 80-item instrument that…

  18. Higher perceived stress but lower cortisol levels found among young Greek adults living in a stressful social environment in comparison with Swedish young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åshild Faresjö

    Full Text Available The worldwide financial crisis during recent years has raised concerns of negative public health effects. This is notably evident in southern Europe. In Greece, where the financial austerity has been especially pronounced, the prevalence of mental health problems including depression and suicide has increased, and outbreaks of infectious diseases have risen. The main objective in this study was to investigate whether different indicators of health and stress levels measured by a new biomarker based on cortisol in human hair were different amongst comparable Greek and Swedish young adults, considering that Sweden has been much less affected by the recent economic crises. In this cross-sectional comparative study, young adults from the city of Athens in Greece (n = 124 and from the city of Linkoping in Sweden (n = 112 participated. The data collection comprised answering a questionnaire with different health indicators and hair samples being analyzed for the stress hormone cortisol, a biomarker with the ability to retrospectively measure long-term cortisol exposure. The Greek young adults reported significantly higher perceived stress (p<0.0001, had experienced more serious life events (p = 0.002, had lower hope for the future (p<0.0001, and had significantly more widespread symptoms of depression (p<0.0001 and anxiety (p<0.0001 than the Swedes. But, the Greeks were found to have significantly lower cortisol levels (p<0.0001 than the Swedes, and this difference was still significant in a multivariate regression (p<0.0001, after adjustments for potential intervening variables. A variety of factors related to differences in the physical or socio-cultural environment between the two sites, might possibly explain this finding. However, a potential biological mechanism is that long-term stress exposure could lead to a lowering of the cortisol levels. This study points out a possible hypothesis that the cortisol levels of the Greek young adults might

  19. The Entrepreneurial Domains of American Higher Education. ASHE Higher Education Report, Volume 34, Number 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Matthew M.; Metcalf, Amy Scott

    2009-01-01

    This volume draws on a diverse set of literatures to represent the various ways in which entrepreneurship is understood in and applied to higher education. It provides a platform for debate for those considering applications of entrepreneurial principles to academic research and practices. Using academic entrepreneurship in the United States as…

  20. Strategies and Consequences. Managing the Costs in Higher Education. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggaman, John S.

    This report focuses on the need for better management of higher education resources in view of the rising costs and changing revenues now confronting higher education institutions in the United States. Rising costs and changing revenues are reflected in stagnating faculty salaries, a decline in enrollment, rising administrative and insurance…

  1. Evaluating Higher Education Institutions through Agency and Resources-Capabilities Theories. A Model for Measuring the Perceived Quality of Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Vargas-Hernández

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to explain through the agency theory and theory of resources and capacities as is the process of assessment in higher education institutions. The actors that are involved in the decision-making and the use that is giving the resources derived from repeatedly to practices that opportunistic diminishing the value that is given to the evaluation, in addition to the decrease in team work. A model is presented to measure the perception of service quality by students of the Technological Institute of Celaya, as part of the system of quality control, based on the theoretical support of several authors who have developed this topic (SERVQUAL and SERPERF an instrument adapted to the student area of the institution called SERQUALITC is generated. The paper presents the areas or departments to assess and the convenient size, the number of items used by size and Likert scale, the validation study instrument is mentioned. Finally, it is presented the model that poses a global vision of quality measurement process including corrective action services that enable continuous improvement.

  2. Evaluating Higher Education Institutions through Agency and Resources-Capabilities Theories. A Model for Measuring the Perceived Quality of Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guadalupe Vargas-hernández

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to explain through the agency theory and theory of resources and capacities as is the process of assessment in higher education institutions. The actors that are involved in the decision-making and the use that is giving the resources derived from repeatedly to practices that opportunistic diminishing the value that is given to the evaluation, in addition to the decrease in team work. A model is presented to measure the perception of service quality by students of the Technological Institute of Celaya, as part of the system of quality control, based on the theoretical support of several authors who have developed this topic (SERVQUAL and SERPERF an instrument adapted to the student area of the institution called SERQUALITC is generated. The paper presents the areas or departments to assess and the convenient size, the number of items used by size and Likert scale, the validation study instrument is mentioned. Finally, it is presented the model that poses a global vision of quality measurement process including corrective action services that enable continuous improvement.

  3. Partners' Empathy Increases Pain Ratings: Effects of Perceived Empathy and Attachment Style on Pain Report and Display

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Pain can be influenced by its social context. We aimed to examine under controlled experimental conditions how empathy from a partner and personal attachment style affect pain report, tolerance, and facial expressions of pain. Fifty-four participants, divided into secure, anxious, and avoidant attachment style groups, underwent a cold pressor task with their partners present. We manipulated how much empathy the participants perceived that their partners had for them. We observed a significant...

  4. Locus of Control, Self-Reported Depression, and Perceived Causes of Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Lawrence G.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Examines the relation of depression to locus of control and to the perceived causes of depression in a nonpsychiatric population. Findings suggest that adolescent females tend to hold themselves more responsible than males for unsatisfactory personal situations, and this extends to the attribution of causes for unhappy moods. (Author/PC)

  5. Strategic Reporting Tool: Balanced Scorecards in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyddon, Jan W.; McComb, Bruce E.

    2008-01-01

    In this toolbox article, the authors describe the recommended steps for creating a community college balanced scorecard that measures and reports on key performance indicators based on targets and signal values to end-users, college constituents and external stakeholders. Based on extensive experience in the field, the authors provide a…

  6. Health literacy, self-perceived health and self-reported chronic morbidity among older people in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toci, Ervin; Burazeri, Genc; Jerliu, Naim; Sørensen, Kristine; Ramadani, Naser; Hysa, Bajram; Brand, Helmut

    2015-09-01

    The aim was to describe health literacy among the older population of Kosovo, an Albanian speaking post-war country in the Western Balkans, in the context of self-perceived health status and self-reported chronic morbidity. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Kosovo in 2011 including 1753 individuals aged ≥ 65 years (886 men, 867 women; mean age 73.4 ± 6.3 years; response rate: 77%). Participants were asked to assess, on a scale from 1 to 5, their level of difficulty with regard to access, understanding, appraisal and application of health information. Sub-scale scores and an overall health literacy score were calculated for each participant. Information on self-perceived health status, presence and number of chronic diseases and socioeconomic characteristics was also collected. Mean values of the overall health literacy score and all sub-scale scores (access, understanding, appraisal and application) were lower among older people who reported a poorer health status or at least one chronic condition compared with individuals who perceived their health status as good or had no chronic conditions (p Kosovo and other transitional settings to replicate these findings and properly address the causal relationship between health literacy and health status. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Links between Perceived Leadership Styles and Self-reported Coping Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Boštjančič; Maja Pezdir; Janez Stare

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this study was the relatively unexplored link between perceived leadership styles and employees' current levels of workplace stress and coping strategies. The participants were 442 employees in five IT organisations in Slovenia. The theoretical background for leadership styles was taken from the full-range leadership model. Data were collected using three questionnaires: Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, and a single questionnaire item on the cur...

  8. Lifetime report of perceived stress at work and cancer among men: A case-control study in Montreal, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc-Lapierre, Audrey; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Weiss, Deborah; El-Zein, Mariam; Siemiatycki, Jack; Parent, Marie-Élise

    2017-03-01

    The association between perceived workplace psychological stress, over the entire work career, and cancer among men has never been assessed. This was explored in the context of a population-based case-control study conducted in Montreal, Canada. 3103 incident cancer cases (11 types) diagnosed in 1979-1985 and 512 population controls were interviewed. Subjects described in detail each job held during their lifetime, including the occurrence of stress, and its reason. Logistic regression estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between perceived workplace stress and its duration, and each cancer site, adjusting for lifestyle and occupational factors. Employment in at least one stressful job was associated with increased odds of cancers of the lung (OR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.01-1.75), colon (OR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.15-1.98), bladder (OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.03-1.81), rectal (OR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.10-2.10), and stomach (OR=1.53, 95% CI: 1.08-2.15). A duration-response trend was found for cancers of the lung, colon, rectum, stomach, and for NHL. Subjects reported changes in stress level over their career. Perceived stress was ascribed to several sources, including high demand and time pressure, financial issues, job insecurity, and hazardous conditions. Prolonged exposure to perceived stress at work was associated with greater odds of cancer at 5 out of 11 sites. While over reporting of stress by cases cannot be fully ruled out, these associations, if substantiated, would bear important public health significance. Prospective studies building on detailed stress assessment protocols considering all sources and changes over the career are necessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Danish MMR vaccination coverage is considerably higher than reported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Nanna; Mygind, Anna; Bro, Flemming

    2017-02-01

    The Danish childhood vaccination programme offers protection against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR). Nevertheless, many children appear to be unvaccinated according to the national registers. The aim of this study was to estimate the MMR1 vaccination coverage based on a medical record review of children whose vaccination status is negative according to the register-based data. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 19 randomly selected general practices in the Central Denmark Region including 1,712 children aged 18-42 months. The practices received a registration form listing children with a negative MMR1 vaccination status in the register-based data. The general practices then validated the children's vaccination status by medical record review. In total, 94% of the children had been vaccinated according to the medical records in general practice compared with 86% according to the register-based data. Of the 246 children who were unvaccinated according to the register-based data, 135 (55%) had been vaccinated according to the medical records. This discrepancy was due mainly to administrative reimbursement errors. The MMR1 vaccination coverage in Denmark seems to be considerably higher than reflected in national registers. Using medical record review to re-assess the vaccination status revealed that most of the supposedly unvaccinated children had, in fact, been vaccinated. The Danish Research Foundation for General Practice and the General Practitioners' Foundation for Education and Development. not relevant.

  10. Construction of higher dimensional charged gravastars: a survey report

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, S; Guha, B K; Ray, Saibal

    2015-01-01

    We explore possibility to find out a new model of gravastars in the extended $D$-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell spacetime. The class of solutions as obtained by Mazur and Mottola of a neutral gravastar~\\cite{Mazur2001,Mazur2004} have been observed as an alternative to $D$-dimensional versions of the Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole. To tackle the spherical system in a convenient way we have configured that the gravastar consists of three distinct regions with different equations of state as follows: [I] Interior region $0 \\leq r < r_1$,~$\\rho = -p$, [II] Thin shell region $r_1 \\leq r < r_2$,~$\\rho = p$, and [III] Exterior region $r_2 < r$,~$\\rho = p =0$. The outer region of this gravastar model therefore corresponds to a higher dimensional Reissner-Nordstr{\\"o}m black hole. In connection to this junction conditions are provided and therefore we have formulated mass and the related Equation of State of the gravastar. It has been shown that the model satisfies all the requirements of the physical fea...

  11. Attitudes toward noise, perceived hearing symptoms, and reported use of hearing protection among college students: Influence of youth culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanay, Jo Anne G; Kearney, Gregory D

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the attitude toward noise, perceived hearing symptoms, noisy activities that were participated in, and factors associated with hearing protection use among college students. A 44-item online survey was completed by 2,151 college students (aged 17 years and above) to assess the attitudes toward noise, perceived hearing symptoms related to noise exposure, and use of hearing protection around noisy activities. Among the participants, 39.6% experienced at least one hearing symptom, with ear pain as the most frequently reported (22.5%). About 80% of the participants were involved in at least one noise activity, out of which 41% reported the use of hearing protection. A large majority of those with ear pain, hearing loss, permanent tinnitus, and noise sensitivity was involved in attending a sporting event, which was the most reported noisy activity. The highest reported hearing protection use was in the use of firearms, and the lowest in discos/ dances. The reported use of hearing protection is associated with having at least one hearing symptom but the relationship is stronger with tinnitus, hearing loss, and ear pain (χ² = 30.5-43.5, Pstudent health services, involving student groups in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) awareness and prevention, and establishing noise level limitations for all on-campus events.

  12. The Uses of Institutional Culture: Strengthening Identification and Building Brand Equity in Higher Education. ASHE Higher Education Report, Volume 31, Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, J. Douglas, Ed.; Dubrow, Greg, Ed.; Hartley, Matthew, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Institutional culture matters in higher education, and universities and colleges commonly express the need to strengthen their culture. A strong culture is perceived, correctly so, to engender a needed sense of connectedness between and among the varied constituents associated with a campus. Linking organizational culture and social cohesion is…

  13. The Relationships Among Perceived Patients' Safety Culture, Intention to Report Errors, and Leader Coaching Behavior of Nurses in Korea: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, YuKyung; Yu, Soyoung

    2017-09-01

    This study was undertaken to explore the correlations among nurses' perceptions of patient safety culture, their intention to report errors, and leader coaching behaviors. The participants (N = 289) were nurses from 5 Korean hospitals with approximately 300 to 500 beds each. Sociodemographic variables, patient safety culture, intention to report errors, and coaching behavior were measured using self-report instruments. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient, the t test, and the Mann-Whitney U test. Nurses' perceptions of patient safety culture and their intention to report errors showed significant differences between groups of nurses who rated their leaders as high-performing or low-performing coaches. Perceived coaching behavior showed a significant, positive correlation with patient safety culture and intention to report errors, i.e., as nurses' perceptions of coaching behaviors increased, so did their ratings of patient safety culture and error reporting. There is a need in health care settings for coaching by nurse managers to provide quality nursing care and thus improve patient safety. Programs that are systematically developed and implemented to enhance the coaching behaviors of nurse managers are crucial to the improvement of patient safety and nursing care. Moreover, a systematic analysis of the causes of malpractice, as opposed to a focus on the punitive consequences of errors, could increase error reporting and therefore promote a culture in which a higher level of patient safety can thrive.

  14. Perceived usefulness of a usability issues reporting form to help understand "usability-induced use-errors": a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcilly, Romaric; Boog, Cesar; Leroy, Nicolas; Pelayo, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    The Medical Device regulation requires manufacturers to anticipate and prevent risks of use errors of their medical device. However, manufacturers experience difficulties to understand the concept of "usability-induced use-errors". Based on a "usability framework" aiming at describing the relationship between usability design principles, usability flaws, usage problems, and outcomes, a usability evaluation reporting form had been designed to support understanding the use-error concept. This paper reports the preliminary evaluation of the perceived usefulness of this form. Results show that manufacturers found helpful the presentation of the results of a usability evaluation through this form for it supports the understanding of the usability origins and the consequences of use-errors. Even if the use of this reporting form should be made easier as usability experts experience difficulties to fill it, it seems a promising way to clearly present "usability-induced use-errors" to manufacturers.

  15. Determinants of Perceived Learning and Satisfaction in Online Business Courses: An Extension to Evaluate Differences between Qualitative and Quantitative Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Jacqueline K.; Aviles, Maria; Hanna, Mark D.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the determinants of perceived learning and satisfaction in online courses and the moderating effect of course type. For perceived learning outcomes, those students who perceive a higher level of interaction and those students who are satisfied will report higher levels of learning outcomes. There were significant differences…

  16. The Role of Humor and Its Influence on the Self-Perceived and Others-Perceived Conflict Management Styles of Line Officers in Institutions of Higher Learning Serving Deaf, Hard-of-Hearing, and Hearing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Susan Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Although research literature has shown management circles the benefits of incorporating humor into the workplace and effective ways to resolve conflicts, none exists on the role of humor and its interplay with conflict management. This study addresses the question, "What relationships exist between the "Self-Perceived" and…

  17. The Role of Humor and Its Influence on the Self-Perceived and Others-Perceived Conflict Management Styles of Line Officers in Institutions of Higher Learning Serving Deaf, Hard-of-Hearing, and Hearing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Susan Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Although research literature has shown management circles the benefits of incorporating humor into the workplace and effective ways to resolve conflicts, none exists on the role of humor and its interplay with conflict management. This study addresses the question, "What relationships exist between the "Self-Perceived" and…

  18. Links between Perceived Leadership Styles and Self-reported Coping Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Boštjančič

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study was the relatively unexplored link between perceived leadership styles and employees' current levels of workplace stress and coping strategies. The participants were 442 employees in five IT organisations in Slovenia. The theoretical background for leadership styles was taken from the full-range leadership model. Data were collected using three questionnaires: Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, and a single questionnaire item on the current level of workplace stress. Correlations and linear regression were used to test whether leadership style influences the employees' stress-coping strategies.Lower levels of stress at work were found for employees whose leader showed more transformational or transactional leadership behaviours. The results showed low to moderate correlations between the three basic leadership styles and coping strategies such as positive reappraisal, seeking social assistance, and negative escape/avoidance. These coping strategies were more frequently used by employees whose leaders often used transformational and transactional leadership styles. Employees whose leaders frequently used passive-avoidant leadership style more often approach to stress situations with escape, avoidance, and rarely with positive reappraisal. But the regression models explained only 2% to 7% of the variance for certain coping strategie.

  19. Perceived physical competence towards physical activity, and autonomous motivation and enjoyment in physical education as longitudinal predictors of adolescents' self - reported physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Jaakkola, Timo; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to investigate if adolescents’ perceived physical competence towards physical activity (PA), and autonomous motivation and enjoyment in physical education (PE) during early adolescence can predict amount and intensity of self-reported physical activity six years later. Design This study utilized a 6-year longitudinal data set collected within Finnish school settings. Students responded to questionnaires measuring their perceived physical compete...

  20. Don't judge a book by its cover, revisited: perceived and reported traits and values of attractive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal-Caspi, Lihi; Roccas, Sonia; Sagiv, Lilach

    2012-10-01

    Research has documented a robust stereotype regarding personality attributes related to physical attractiveness (the "what is beautiful is good" stereotype). But do physically attractive women indeed possess particularly attractive inner attributes? Studying traits and values, we investigated two complementary questions: how perceived attractiveness relates to perceived personality, and how it relates to actual personality. First, 118 women reported their traits and values and were videotaped reading the weather forecast. Then, 118 judges rated the traits, values, and attractiveness of the women. As hypothesized, attractiveness correlated with attribution of desirable traits, but not with attribution of values. By contrast, attractiveness correlated with actual values, but not actual traits: Attractiveness correlated with tradition and conformity values (which were contrasted with self-direction values) and with self-enhancement values (which were contrasted with universalism values). Thus, despite the widely accepted "what is beautiful is good" stereotype, our findings suggest that the beautiful strive for conformity rather than independence and for self-promotion rather than tolerance.

  1. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German higher education sector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German higher education (HE) sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of six case studies of energy management in German universities. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project (Sorrell et al., 2000). The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the sector may be improved. The results of the study for the higher education sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the higher education sector; - Case studies of energy management in the German higher education sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German higher education sector; - The role of energy service companies in the higher education sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  2. Adult Attachment and Parental Bonding: Correlations between Perceived Relationship Qualities and Self-Reported Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambruster, Ellen W.; Witherington, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Adult attachment and parental bonding have been linked to anxiety disorders, but rarely have these associations been demonstrated in the same study. To fill this gap in the research literature, we utilized several different self-report measures to examine the relationships among adult attachment style, memories of early bonding experiences, and…

  3. The Supply of Part-Time Higher Education in the UK. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Claire; Birkbeck, Anne Jamieson; Mason, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    This report explores the supply of part-time higher education in the UK, with particular consideration to the study of part-time undergraduate provision in England. It is the final publication in the series of reports on individual student markets that were commissioned by Universities UK following the publication of the reports on the Future size…

  4. How Does Nursing Staff Perceive the Use of Electronic Handover Reports? A Questionnaire-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torbjørg Meum

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the implementation of electronic nursing records in a psychogeriatric ward, we examined nursing staff's attitudes and perceptions to the implementation of an electronic handover routine. A web-based anonymous and secure questionnaire was distributed by e-mail to all nursing staff at a psychogeriatric ward at a university hospital. Most respondents were satisfied with the electronic handover, and they believed they managed to keep informed by the new routine. The simultaneous introduction of a morning meeting, to ensure a forum for oral professional discussion, was a success. A minority of staff did not fully trust the information conveyed in the electronic handover, and a significant proportion expressed a need for guidance in using the system. Staff that had a high level of trust in written reports believed these saved time, had little trouble finding time and a place to read the reports, and were more positive to the new handover routine.

  5. Higher Education in Kentucky. Final Report of the SCR 30 Study Committee. Program Evaluation. Research Report No. 222.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, Joseph; And Others

    A report on higher education in Kentucky is presented, with attention to governance, funding, tuition, financial aid, staffing and salary comparisons for administrators and faculty, enrollment, degree production, cooperation, and quality issues. The statutory organization of the Kentucky Council on Higher Education is specified, along with the…

  6. Self-reported physical activity in perceived neighborhood in Czech adults – national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Mitáš

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: International studies associate physical activity (PA to other factors such as the environment, culture, and policy. External influences on lifestyle and PA, such as the effect of the physical and built environment, are discussed. Neighborhood environments seem to be one of the important aspects in prevention of unhealthy lifestyle and physical inactivity research. OBJECTIVE: The main objective is to analyze the relationship between PA and neighborhood environment of the adult population of the Czech Republic. The study tries to define the basic correlates of PA in relation to environmental and other socio-demographic factors. METHODS: Nationwide data collection of adult PA was done regionally in the Czech Republic between the years 2005–2009 using the IPAQ (long and ANEWS questionnaires. RESULTS: The results show that males realize significantly more vigorous PA than females while females realize more moderate PA and walking than males. PA of residents of smaller communities is higher than those living in large cities. The level of weekly PA does not significantly affect the neighborhood walkability [H(3, 8708 = 19.60; p CONCLUSIONS: The results clearly indicate the need to connect multiple sectors that affect the lifestyle of the general population. Possible solution is an interdisciplinary approach to the evaluation of the fundamental environmental factors influencing the level of PA (walkability; SES; participation in organized and voluntary PA; neighborhood safety; type of transportation; size of the community.

  7. The Moderating Infl uence of Trust on the Relationship between Institutional Image/Reputation, Perceived Value on Student Loyalty in Higher Education Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Azmi Bin Hashim; Aliyu Olayemi Abdullateef; Bashir Danlami Sarkindaji

    2015-01-01

    This survey investigates the moderating infl uence of trust on the relationships between institutional image/reputation, perceived value on student loyalty. The methodology utilises primary data obtained from questionnaire administered to a sample of 304 postgraduate international students in Universiti Utara Malaysia using simple random probability sampling. Multiple regression technique was employed to analyse data via SPSS statistical package. Results established that institutional image a...

  8. A Methodology for Sustainability Evaluation and Reporting in Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Ana C.; Carravilla, Maria Antonia; Oliveira, Jose F.; Costa, Carlos A. V.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology that allows higher education institutions (HEIs) to promote, to evaluate and to report on sustainability. The ultimate goal of the afore-mentioned methodology is to help HEIs achieve sustainability. First, a model entitled Sustainability in Higher Education Institutions (SusHEI) that generally…

  9. Sources of Fluctuations and Growth of Investment in Higher Education. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Walter W.

    A study was undertaken to apply family investment techniques and public expenditure analysis to problems faced in higher education, treating expenditures for higher education as an investment in human resources. The report is addressed to economists, policy makers, and educators and students, and is both technical and nontechnical in its various…

  10. A Management Control Perspective of Sustainability Reporting in Higher Education: In Search of a Holistic View

    OpenAIRE

    Ceulemans, Kim; Van Caillie, Didier; Molderez, Ingrid; Van Liedekerke, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Higher education institutions have been actively attempting to integrate sustainability in their curricula, research, operations, and outreach activities over the last decades. Despite the efforts undertaken, it is currently still challenging for their internal and external stakeholders to assess an institution’s sustainability-related activities and the extent of their implementation within the different activities of higher education. Since sustainability reporting in higher ...

  11. Motivation and Perceived Control in Early Adolescent Friendships: Relations with Self-, Friend-, and Peer-Reported Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojanen, Tiina; Stratman, Aaron; Card, Noel A.; Little, Todd D.

    2013-01-01

    Motivation is assumed to influence behaviors via perceived agency over goal pursuits, but empirical research integrating motivation and action-control processes in social development is close to nonexistent. We applied this perspective to the study of early adolescent friendships by examining motivation for and perceived control (ability and…

  12. A Pilot Study of Perceived Mouth Dryness, Perceived Swallowing Effort, and Saliva Substitute Effects in Healthy Adults Across the Age Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogus-Pulia, Nicole M; Gangnon, Ronald; Kind, Amy; Connor, Nadine P; Asthana, Sanjay

    2017-09-06

    Xerostomia, or perceived mouth dryness, increases with advancing age, but its influence on swallowing effort is unknown. This study: (1) quantified relationships among age, perceived sense of swallowing effort, and ratings of perceived mouth dryness, and (2) examined changes in swallowing effort following application of a gel-based saliva substitute in healthy participants. This was a cross-sectional observational study and data were collected from attendees of a community healthy aging fair. Forty-two healthy participants (mean age = 65 years; 20 female) were enrolled. Each participant rated perceived effort with swallowing and perceived mouth dryness on a 10-cm horizontal, undifferentiated line. After participants applied a gel-based saliva substitute (Biotene(®) Oral Balance) to their tongue and oral mucosa, they rated perceived effort with swallowing again. Age was associated with greater perceived mouth dryness (r = 0.37, p < 0.03) but not with perceived swallowing effort (r = 0.16, p = 0.32). Perceived mouth dryness was associated with greater perceived swallowing effort (r = 0.62, p < 0.001). Perceived swallowing effort declined following application of the salivary substitute (mean difference = 9.39 mm, p < 0.002). Age was found to be a significant predictor of perceived mouth dryness (p < .02); and perceived mouth dryness was found to significantly predict perceived swallow effort (p < .001). Perceived mouth dryness increased with advancing age, but perceived swallowing effort did not. Regardless of age, participants with higher levels of perceived mouth dryness also reported more perceived effort with swallowing suggesting a role for adequate oral lubrication in this perception. Even in healthy participants, use of a gel-based saliva substitute lowered perceived swallowing effort.

  13. Dimensions of Racial Identity and Perceived Discrimination in Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanikova, Irena; Oates, Gabriela R

    2016-10-20

    Perceived discrimination is an important risk factor for minority health. Drawing from the scholarship on multidimensionality of race, this study examines the relationships between perceived discrimination in health care and two dimensions of racial identity: self-identified race/ethnicity and perceived attributed race/ethnicity (respondents' perceptions of how they are racially classified by others). We used Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data collected in 2004-2013 and we specifically examined the data on perceived racial discrimination in health care during the past 12 months, perceived attributed race/ethnicity, and self-identified race/ethnicity. In models adjusting for sociodemographic and other factors, both dimensions of racial/ethnic identity contributed independently to perceived discrimination in health care. After controlling for self-identified race/ethnicity, respondents who reported being classified as Black, Asian, Hispanic, and Native American had higher likelihood of perceived discrimination than respondents who reported being classified as White. Similarly, after taking perceived attributed race/ethnicity into account, self-identified Blacks, Native Americans, and multiracial respondents were more likely to report perceived discrimination than counterparts who self-identified as White. The model using only perceived attributed race/ethnicity to predict perceived discrimination showed a superior fit with the data than the model using only self-identified race/ethnicity. Perceived attributed race/ethnicity captures an aspect of racial/ethnic identity that is correlated, but not interchangeable, with self-identified race/ethnicity and contributes uniquely to perceived discrimination in health care. Applying the concept of multidimensionality of race/ethnicity to health disparities research may reveal understudied mechanisms linking race/ethnicity to health risks.

  14. LANGUAGE POLICY AND HIGHER EDUCATION IN SOUTHEAST ASIA, FINAL DRAFT OF CONSULTANT'S REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NOSS, RICHARD B.

    A FIELD INVESTIGATION FOR THIS REPORT WAS CONDUCTED FROM SEPTEMBER TO DECEMBER 1964 THROUGH THE FACILITIES OF THE JOINT UNESCO-IAU RESEARCH OFFICE ON HIGHER EDUCATION IN KUALA LUMPUR. IN FIVE OF THE EIGHT COUNTRIES COVERD BY THE REPORT (MALAYSIA, THAILAND, CAMBODIA, SOUTH VIETNAM, AND THE PHILIPPINES), IT WAS POSSIBLE TO MAKE "FAIRLY EXTENSIVE…

  15. Asian International Students' College Experiences at Universities in the United States: Relationship between Perceived Quality of Personal Contact and Self-Reported Gains in Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, Krishna K.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined associations between Asian international students' perceived quality of contact with faculty, administrative personnel and other students, and self-reported gains in areas identified in "College Students Experience Questionnaire." The sample included 705 Asian students from 25 research universities across the United…

  16. Addressing the Declining Productivity of Higher Education Using Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. Stretching the Higher Education Dollar. Special Report 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Douglas N.

    2013-01-01

    Higher education productivity, as measured by academic degrees granted by American colleges and universities, is declining. Since the early 1990s, real expenditures on higher education have grown by more than 25 percent, now amounting to 2.9 percent of US gross domestic product (GDP)--greater than the percentage of GDP spent on higher education in…

  17. Addressing the Declining Productivity of Higher Education Using Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. Stretching the Higher Education Dollar. Special Report 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Douglas N.

    2013-01-01

    Higher education productivity, as measured by academic degrees granted by American colleges and universities, is declining. Since the early 1990s, real expenditures on higher education have grown by more than 25 percent, now amounting to 2.9 percent of US gross domestic product (GDP)--greater than the percentage of GDP spent on higher education in…

  18. Continued Attachment to Parents: Its Relationship To Affect Regulation and Perceived Stress among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Christopher J.; Moller, Naomi P.; Fouladi, Rachel T.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the factor pattern of parental attachment measures as well as the relationship of the resultant oblique factors to emotional functioning and perceived stress. Results reveal that individuals who reported higher levels of parental attachment reported lower levels of perceived stress and greater confidence in their ability to attend to and…

  19. Perceived burden of care and reported coping strategies and needs for family caregivers of people with mental disorders in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazondlile D. Marimbe

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental health service resources are inadequate in low-income countries, and families are frequently expected to provide care for their relative with a mental disorder. However, research on the consequences of care giving has been limited in low-income countries, including Zimbabwe.Objective: The study explored the perceived impact of mental illness, reported coping strategies and reported needs of family members of persons diagnosed with bipolar affective disorder or schizophrenia attending a psychiatric hospital in Harare, Zimbabwe.Methods: A purposive sample of 31 family members participated in in-depth interviews and focus group discussions using standardized study guides. Participants were also screened for Common Mental Disorders (CMD using the 14-item Shona Symptom questionnaire (SSQ. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 16 was used for quantitative data analysis.Results: Caregivers experienced physical, psychological, emotional, social and financial burden associated with care giving. They used both emotion-focused and problem-focused coping strategies depending on the ill family members’ behaviours. Seeking spiritual assistance emerged as their most common way of coping. Twenty one (68% of the caregivers were at risk of CMD and were referred to a psychiatrist for further management. Caregivers required support from health care professionals to help them cope better.Conclusion: Caregivers carry a substantial and frequently unrecognized burden of caring for a family member with mental disorder. Better support is needed from health professionals and social services to help them cope better. Further research is required to quantitatively measure caregiver burden and evaluate potential interventions in Zimbabwe.

  20. Perceived age is associated with bone status in women aged 25-93 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Barbara Rubek; Linneberg, Allan; Christensen, Kaare;

    2015-01-01

    Higher perceived age (PA) is reported to be associated with age-related diseases. Because osteoporosis is considered an age-related disease, we hypothesized that age perceived from photographs is associated with bone mineral density (BMD)/trabecular bone score (TBS) when controlled for chronologi......Higher perceived age (PA) is reported to be associated with age-related diseases. Because osteoporosis is considered an age-related disease, we hypothesized that age perceived from photographs is associated with bone mineral density (BMD)/trabecular bone score (TBS) when controlled...

  1. Financing Higher Education in Francophone West Africa. An EDI Policy Seminar Report, Number 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Angela

    Meetings were held in Senegal in 1985, in Cote d'Ivoire in 1986, and in Zimbabwe in 1987, concerning the current state of higher education finance in Africa, the structure of unit costs, and the role of development assistance agencies and other sources of financial support. Reports are presented concerning the macroeconomic perspective, internal…

  2. Effect of ventilation on perceived quality of air polluted by building materials. A summary of reported data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wargocki, P.; Vondruskova, J. (International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, DTU, Kgs. Lyngby (DK)); Knudsen, Henrik N. (Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg Univ., Hoersholm (DK))

    2007-02-15

    This paper summarizes existing data on how varying ventilation rates affect the perceived quality of air polluted by building materials. This is done by reviewing literature dealing with exposure-response relationships, i.e. the log-linear relationships between the concentration of pollutants (exposure) and the perceived air quality (response). The reviewed data originate from studies with single building materials performed in small-scale ventilated chambers and from studies carried out in a full-scale setting resembling normal offices. Perceived air quality expressed in terms of acceptability as assessed by untrained panels was included. The results show that the exposure-response relationships vary for different building materials as regards the impact of changing ventilation rate on perceived air quality and the level of perceived air quality at a constant ventilation rate. This applies both for the data collected in small-scale and in full-scale experiments. The differences may be caused by the experimental conditions, psychological factors, physiological factors, and chemical/physical factors. A well controlled study taking these factors into account with several different building materials, is thus recommended to further study whether the observed results have practical significance. These experiments should be carried out under realistic fullscale conditions. (au)

  3. Self-Efficacy, Perceived Social Support, and Psychological Adjustment in International Undergraduate Students in a Public Higher Education Institution in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Yusliza Mohd.

    2012-01-01

    The globalization of the economy and society has had its impact on Malaysian higher education institutions, particularly universities. The Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education aims at intensifying globalization through increasing the number of international students. However, many international students struggle with adjusting to a new culture.…

  4. Constructively aligned teaching and learning in higher education in engineering: what do students perceive as contributing to the learning of interdisciplinary thinking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spelt, E.J.H.; Luning, P.A.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Mulder, M.

    2014-01-01

    Increased attention to the need for constructively aligned teaching and learning in interdisciplinary higher education in engineering is observed. By contrast, little research has been conducted on the implementation of the outcome-based pedagogical approach to interdisciplinary higher education in

  5. Stressors and coping mechanisms associated with perceived stress in Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Sasha M; Gavin, Jennifer K; Diaz, Vanessa A

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between causes of perceived stress and the coping mechanisms used by Latino adults with perceived stress. This cross-sectional survey was conducted on a convenience sample of 200 Latino adults (aged ≥18 years). They were recruited from clinics, migrant camps, community events, and churches located in Charleston, S.C. This survey included questions regarding causes of perceived stress, perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale 10), coping mechanisms (Brief COPE), and depression (Perceived Health Questionnaire 9). High perceived stress (PSS ≥15) was the primary outcome measure. Coping mechanisms and stressors were secondary outcomes. Most (92%) of the sample was born outside the United States, and 66% reported high perceived stress. Stressors associated with high perceived stress included discrimination (P=.0010), lack of insurance (P=.0193), health problems (P=.0058), and lack of money (P=.0015). The most frequently utilized coping mechanisms were self-distraction (54.77%), active coping (69.85%), positive reframing (56.78%), planning (63.82%), acceptance (57.87%), and religion (57.79%). Latinos with higher perceived stress were more likely to report discrimination (OR: 3.401; 95%CI 1.285-9.004) and health problems (OR: 2.782; 95%CI 1.088-7.111) as stressors, and to use denial as a coping mechanism (OR: 2.904; 95%CI 1.280-6.589). An increased prevalence of perceived stress among the Latinos evaluated in this study was associated with using denial as a coping mechanism, and encountering discrimination and health problems as sources of perceived stress. Most individuals responded to stressors by utilizing a variety of both adaptive and maladaptive coping mechanisms.

  6. Individual attitudes and perceived social norms: Reports on HIV/AIDS-related stigma among service providers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Wu, Zunyou; Lin, Chunqing; Wen, Yi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined HIV/AIDS-related stigma among Chinese service providers by comparing their personal attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS with their perception of social norms related to people living with HIV/AIDS. We randomly selected three provincial hospitals, four city/prefecture hospitals, 10 county hospitals, 18 township health clinics, and 54 village clinics from Yunnan, China. Doctors and nurses were randomly sampled proportionally to the doctor-nurse ratio of each hospital or clinic. Lab technicians were over-sampled in order to include an adequate representation in the analysis. A total of 1,101 service providers participated in a voluntary, anonymous survey where demographic characteristics, individual attitude and perceived social norms toward people living with HIV/AIDS, discrimination intent at work, general prejudicial attitude and knowledge on HIV/AIDS were measured. A majority of the sample demonstrated a similarity between their personal views and what they thought most people in society believe. Multiple logistic regressions revealed that participants who were younger or reported personal contact with people living with HIV/AIDS were significantly more likely to report personal attitudes toward the population that were more liberal than their perceived social norms. Holding a more liberal personal attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS than perceived social norms was significantly and negatively related to the level of discrimination intent at work, perceived discrimination at interpersonal level and the level of general prejudicial attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Results underscored the importance of understanding social norms and personal attitudes in studying HIV-related stigma and called for the incorporation of existing human capital into future HIV stigma reduction programs. Cette étude a examiné le VIH/SIDA lié à stigmatisation parmi les agences chinoises fournissant des soins en comparant leurs attitudes

  7. Public Policies, Prices, and Productivity in American Higher Education. Stretching the Higher Education Dollar. Special Report 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptman, Arthur M.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid increases in what colleges charge and what they spend per student have been and remain one of the most controversial aspects of American higher education. Tuition, fees, and other college charges have increased in both the public and private sectors at more than twice the rate of inflation for over a quarter century. Trends over time in what…

  8. Public Policies, Prices, and Productivity in American Higher Education. Stretching the Higher Education Dollar. Special Report 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptman, Arthur M.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid increases in what colleges charge and what they spend per student have been and remain one of the most controversial aspects of American higher education. Tuition, fees, and other college charges have increased in both the public and private sectors at more than twice the rate of inflation for over a quarter century. Trends over time in what…

  9. Relationship between perceived body weight and body mass index based on self- reported height and weight among university students: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stock Christiane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite low rates of obesity, many university students perceive themselves as overweight, especially women. This is of concern, because inappropriate weight perceptions can lead to unhealthy behaviours including eating disorders. Methods We used the database from the Cross National Student Health Survey (CNSHS, consisting of 5,900 records of university students from Bulgaria, Denmark, Germany, Lithuania, Poland, Spain and Turkey to analyse differences in perceived weight status based on the question: "Do you consider yourself much too thin, a little too thin, just right, a little too fat or much too fat?". The association between perceived weight and body mass index (BMI calculated from self-reported weight and height was assessed with generalized non-parametric regression in R library gam. Results Although the majority of students reported a normal BMI (72-84% of males, 65-83% of females, only 32% to 68% of students considered their weight "just right". Around 20% of females with BMI of 20 kg/m2 considered themselves "a little too fat" or "too fat", and the percentages increased to 60% for a BMI of 22.5 kg/m2. Male students rarely felt "a little too fat" or "too fat" below BMI of 22.5 kg/m2, but most felt too thin with a BMI of 20 kg/m2. Conclusions Weight ideals are rather uniform across the European countries, with female students being more likely to perceive themselves as "too fat" at a normal BMI, while male students being more likely to perceive themselves as "too thin". Programs to prevent unhealthy behaviours to achieve ill-advised weight ideals may benefit students.

  10. Associations between perceived chronic care quality, perceived patient centeredness, and illness representations among persons with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Joseph; Iyer, Neeraj N; Collins, William B

    2014-01-01

    Patient beliefs about their illness can motivate behaviors consistent with good disease management. Perceived high-quality chronic care would be expected to increase likelihood of having such beliefs. Associations between perceived quality of chronic care and illness representations, and associations between patient centeredness and illness representations were assessed among persons with diabetes. A mail survey of diabetic patients visiting a multispecialty physician network serving urban and suburban populations in a large midwestern city was conducted. The Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care-5A questionnaire was used to assess perceived chronic care quality and patient centeredness. The Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire was used to assess illness representations. Of 500 mailed surveys, 89 completed surveys were returned. The sample consisted mostly of retirees (61%), Whites (81%), and women (60%). Higher perceived chronic care quality was associated with better disease understanding of diabetes (0.24, p = .05). Patients reporting higher patient centeredness (or lower patient-centeredness scores) indicated better disease understanding (-0.26, p = .04) and those reporting higher patient centeredness (or lower patient-centeredness scores) perceived less impact of illness (0.29, p = .02). Chronic care quality as defined in the Chronic Care Model and consistency of chronic care with patient expectations (patient centeredness) was associated with illness representations favorable for good self-care management.

  11. Blueprint or Blue Remembered Hills? The Relevance of the Robbins Report to the Present Reforms of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Presents opposing interpretations of the Robbins Report, stating that British higher education is still guided by its principles. Examines the report's influence on the size and shape of the higher education system, the character of higher education regarding teaching and research, and higher education's place in modern society. (GEA)

  12. Blueprint or Blue Remembered Hills? The Relevance of the Robbins Report to the Present Reforms of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Presents opposing interpretations of the Robbins Report, stating that British higher education is still guided by its principles. Examines the report's influence on the size and shape of the higher education system, the character of higher education regarding teaching and research, and higher education's place in modern society. (GEA)

  13. Carers of Mentally Ill People in Queensland: Their Perceived Relationships with Professional Mental Health Service Providers: Report on a Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Orme; King, Robert; Leggatt, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Explores the relationships of caregivers of mentally ill people with professional mental health providers since the introduction of community-based services. Respondents perceived mental health workers to be professional, friendly, respectful and positive in outlook. However they indicated dissatisfaction with accessibility, communication about…

  14. Perceived discrimination, psychological distress and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova, Irina L G; Falcón, Luis M; Lincoln, Alisa K; Price, Lori Lyn

    2010-09-01

    Racism and discrimination can have significant implications for health, through complex biopsychosocial interactions. Latino groups, and particularly Puerto Ricans, are an understudied population in the United States in terms of the prevalence of discrimination and its relevance to health. Participants in our study were 45- to 75-year-old (N = 1122) Puerto Ricans. The measures were perceived discrimination, depressive symptomatology (CES-D), perceived stress (PSS), self-rated health, medical conditions, blood pressure, smoking and drinking behaviours, demographics. Our findings show that 36.9 per cent of participants had at some time experienced discrimination, with men, those with more years of education, currently employed and with higher incomes being more likely to report it. Experiences of discrimination were associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms and perceived stress. When controlling for covariates, perceived discrimination was predictive of the number of medical conditions, of ever having smoked and having been a drinker, and having higher values of diastolic pressure. Depressive symptoms are a mediator of the effect of perceived discrimination on medical conditions, confirmed by the Sobel test: z = 3.57, p discrimination is associated with a greater number of medical diagnoses.

  15. Perceived Factors Influencing High School Student Participation in an Integrated Statewide Dual Credit Program: An Examination of Program Success and Student Higher Education Selection Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchstone, Allison J. L.

    2010-01-01

    Dual credit programs have become increasingly popular with 71% U.S. public high schools offering dual credit courses in 2002-2003. As this popularity has grown, so have concerns regarding academic rigor, course quality, parity with college courses, and effects on higher education. Determining actual dual credit course equivalent in higher…

  16. Perceived Factors Influencing High School Student Participation in an Integrated Statewide Dual Credit Program: An Examination of Program Success and Student Higher Education Selection Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchstone, Allison J. L.

    2010-01-01

    Dual credit programs have become increasingly popular with 71% U.S. public high schools offering dual credit courses in 2002-2003. As this popularity has grown, so have concerns regarding academic rigor, course quality, parity with college courses, and effects on higher education. Determining actual dual credit course equivalent in higher…

  17. The relationship between perceived promotion of autonomy/dependence and pain-related disability in older adults with chronic pain: the mediating role of self-reported physical functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Marta; Bernardes, Sónia F; Goubert, Liesbet

    2016-08-01

    Chronic pain is prevalent among older adults and is usually associated with high levels of functional disability. Social support for the promotion of functional autonomy and dependence has been associated with pain-related disability and self-reported physical functioning. Nevertheless, these relationships need further inquiry. Our aims were to investigate: (1) the relationship between perceived promotion of autonomy/dependence and pain-related disability and (2) the extent to which self-reported physical functioning mediated these relationships. 118 older adults (Mage = 81.0) with musculoskeletal chronic pain completed the Portuguese versions of the revised formal social support for Autonomy and Dependence in Pain Inventory, the pain severity and interference scales of the Brief Pain Inventory, and the physical functioning scale of the Medical Outcomes Study-Short-Form 36 v2. Higher levels of perceived promotion of autonomy were associated with lower pain-related disability; this relationship was partially mediated by self-reported physical functioning (B = -.767, p autonomy and dependence for managing older adults' experience of chronic pain.

  18. Pain rather than self-reported sedentary time explains variation in perceived health and activity limitation in persons with rheumatoid arthritis: a cross sectional study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmelmaier, Ingrid; Åsenlöf, Pernilla; Bergman, Patrick; Nordgren, Birgitta; Opava, Christina H

    2017-01-25

    To investigate (1) the amount of self-reported time spent sedentary among a large cohort of persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and (2) the contribution of sedentary time to explain perceived health and activity limitation in RA beyond that of previously known correlates. This cross-sectional study used data from a postal questionnaire and the Swedish Rheumatology Quality registers (SRQ). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess sedentary time (sitting) and moderate, vigorous and walking activity (MVPA). Sociodemographics, pain, fatigue, fear-avoidance beliefs, anxiety/depression, disease duration, MVPA and sedentary time were included in multiple regression models with perceived health (Visual Analogue Scale 0-100) and activity limitation (Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire) as dependent variables.

  19. Constructively aligned teaching and learning in higher education in engineering: what do students perceive as contributing to the learning of interdisciplinary thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelt, E. J. H.; Luning, P. A.; van Boekel, M. A. J. S.; Mulder, M.

    2015-09-01

    Increased attention to the need for constructively aligned teaching and learning in interdisciplinary higher education in engineering is observed. By contrast, little research has been conducted on the implementation of the outcome-based pedagogical approach to interdisciplinary higher education in engineering. Therefore, the present design-based research was undertaken to develop, implement, and evaluate a constructively aligned learning environment in the interdisciplinary field of food quality management. The practical aims were to reduce the perception held by the students of choppiness and to prevent them floundering in the disciplines; the theoretical aim was to accumulate theory on learning environment aspects that would help students to learn interdisciplinary thinking. The design-focused evaluation among 26 students showed that the practical aims were met, and concerning the theoretical aim, eight learning environment aspects were identified such as learning within an interdisciplinary framework. Further research should validate these aspects to continue with tackling teacher challenges on teaching interdisciplinary thinking. The research was conducted at Wageningen University, Department of Social Sciences and Department of Agrotechnology and Food Sciences - The Netherlands.

  20. Social determinants of self-perceived discrimination in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-González, D; Vives-Cases, C; Borrell, C; Agudelo-Suárez, A A; Álvarez-Dardet, C

    2013-03-01

    To analyse the association between self-perceived discrimination and social determinants (social class, gender, country of origin) in Spain, and further to describe contextual factors which contribute to self-perceived discrimination. Cross-sectional design using data from the Spanish National Health Survey (2006). The dependent variable was self-perceived discrimination, and independent and stratifying variables were sociodemographic characteristics (e.g. sex, social class, country of origin, educational level). Logistic regression was used. The prevalence of self-perceived discrimination was 4.2% for men and 6.3% for women. The likelihood of self-perceived discrimination was higher in people who originated from low-income countries: men, odds ratio (OR) 5.59 [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.55-6.87]; women, OR 4.06 (95% CI 3.42-4.83). Women were more likely to report self-perceived discrimination by their partner at home than men [OR 8.35 (95% CI 4.70-14.84)]. The likelihood of self-perceived discrimination when seeking work was higher among people who originated from low-income countries than their Spanish counterparts: men, OR 13.65 (95% CI 9.62-19.35); women, OR 10.64 (95% CI 8.31-13.62). In comparison with Spaniards, male white-collar workers who originated from low-income countries [OR 11.93 (95% CI 8.26-17.23)] and female blue-collar workers who originated from low-income countries (OR 1.6 (95% CI 1.08-2.39)] reported higher levels of self-perceived discrimination. Self-perceived discrimination is distributed unevenly in Spain and interacts with social inequalities. This particularly affects women and immigrants. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Perceived psychological stress among undergraduate medical students: Role of academic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Ranadip; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Mitra, Kaushik; Naskar, Somnath; Karmakar, Prasanta Ray; Lahiri, Saibendu Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Recently, there is a growing concern about stress during undergraduate medical training. The objectives of our study were to assess perceived stress among undergraduate medical students and to find out academic factors as determinants. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among undergraduate medical students of R. G. Kar Medical College, India, during July 2011-June 2012. Perceived stress was assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale-14. A 10-item questionnaire was used to assess academic sources of stress and their severity. The overall mean perceived stress score was 29.58 (standard deviation [SD] = 6.60), and 46.3% of the participants were in the group of more stressed (perceived stress score ≥28). The academic stressor factors predicted 78% of variability of perceived stress. A higher level of perceived stress was reported by the students. The students should be taught different stress management techniques to improve their ability to cope with a demanding professional course.

  2. Spina bifida with higher position of sacral hiatus: a case report with clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srijit, D; Shipra, P

    2007-01-01

    Spina bifida is a developmental defect in the vertebral column, in which the laminae fail to fuse and thereby the spinal cord is relatively unprotected. We report a case of spina bifida, in a dried specimen of sacrum, characterized by a prominent S1 spine and a higher sacral hiatus. Conventional textbooks of anatomy provide less information about the clinical implications of such anomalies and research studies are the only source of information. The present study, discusses in detail, the structural and radiological aspects of spina bifida, with a higher sacral hiatus. Precise knowledge of normal and abnormal anatomy of the sacrum may be clinically important for anesthetists, neurologists, radiologists and orthopedic surgeons, in their clinical practice (Fig. 3, Ref. 16). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk

  3. Perceived injustice predicts stress and pain in adults with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwa, Miriam O; Molokie, Robert E; Wilkie, Diana J; Suarez, Marie L; Yao, Yingwei

    2015-06-01

    Research evidence shows that perceived injustice is a context-based unfair treatment that has negative influence on health outcomes. We examined the contribution of patients' perceived injustice regarding interactions with health care providers to stress and pain in adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). This study was a cross-sectional correlational pilot study. Included in the study were adults with SCD who received their care from a university-affiliated comprehensive sickle cell clinic. Participants were 52 adults whose mean age was 34 ± 11 years (minimum [min] 20 years, maximum [max] 70 years). Most of the patients were African American (n = 48, 92%) and female (n = 41, 79%). Forty-eight patients (92%) reported having a high school diploma or higher. Participants completed the perceived injustice questionnaire, perceived stress questionnaire, and the PAINReportIt, which includes questions to measure pain and demographics. We analyzed the data using the linear regression analyses. Perceived injustice from doctors was a significant predictor of perceived stress (p Perceived injustice from nurses also was a significant predictor of perceived stress (p perceived injustice attributed to both doctors and nurses consistently predicted patients' perceived stress, but only the procedural and distributive domains of perceived injustice consistently predicted patients' pain. Findings suggest that perceived injustice was negatively associated with stress and pain in adults with SCD and warrant further investigation in a larger sample. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Higher education and eesearch report of the hearing held on 8 December, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This is a report of the hearing that took place on Tuesday 8th December 2015 from 1730 to 2000hrs. This was the second session in the series of the ‘LSE Commission on the Future of Britain in Europe’.\\ud Respected practitioners and experts in higher education and research took up our invitation to participate in the hearing to discuss the risks of a Brexit and how universities might act at this important moment in British life. Participants included those with high level and/or frontline expe...

  5. Perceived coercion in voluntary hospital admission.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donoghue, Brian

    2014-01-30

    The legal status of service users admitted to psychiatric wards is not synonymous with the level of coercion that they can perceive during the admission. This study aimed to identify and describe the proportion of individuals who were admitted voluntarily but experienced levels of perceived coercion comparable to those admitted involuntarily. Individuals admitted voluntarily and involuntarily to three psychiatric hospitals were interviewed using the MacArthur Admission Experience Interview and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV diagnoses. One hundered sixty-one individuals were interviewed and 22% of the voluntarily admitted service users had levels of perceived coercion similar to that of the majority of involuntarily admitted service users. Voluntarily admitted service users who experienced high levels of perceived coercion were more likely to have more severe psychotic symptoms, have experienced more negative pressures and less procedural justices on admission. Individuals brought to hospital under mental health legislation but who subsequently agreed to be admitted voluntarily and those treated on a secure ward also reported higher levels of perceived coercion. It needs to be ensured that if any service user, whether voluntary or involuntary, experiences treatment pressures or coercion that there is sufficient oversight of the practice, to ensure that individual\\'s rights are respected.

  6. Ratings of Perceived Exertion and Self-reported Mood State in Response to High Intensity Interval Training. A Crossover Study on the Effect of Chronotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo A. Vitale

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of chronotype on mood state and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE before and in response to acute high intensity interval exercise (HIIE performed at different times of the day. Based on the morningness–eveningness questionnaire, 12 morning-types (M-types; N = 12; age 21 ± 2 years; height 179 ± 5 cm; body mass 74 ± 12 kg and 11 evening-types (E-types; N = 11; age 21 ± 2 years; height 181 ± 11 cm; body mass 76 ± 11 kg were enrolled in a randomized crossover study. All subjects underwent measurements of Profile of Mood States (POMS, before (PRE, after 12 (POST12 and 24 h (POST24 the completion of both morning (08.00 am and evening (08.00 p.m. training. Additionally, Global Mood Disturbance and Energy Index (EI were calculated. RPE was obtained PRE and 30 min POST HIIE. Two-way ANOVA with Tukey’s multiple comparisons test of POMS parameters during morning training showed significant differences in fatigue, vigor and EI at PRE and POST24 between M-types and E-types. In addition, significant chronotype differences were found only in POST12 after the evening HIIE for fatigue, vigor and EI. For what concerns Borg perceived exertion, comparing morning versus evening values in PRE condition, a higher RPE was observed in relation to evening training for M-types (P = 0.0107 while E-types showed higher RPE values in the morning (P = 0.008. Finally, intragroup differences showed that E-types had a higher RPE respect to M-types before (P = 0.002 and after 30 min (P = 0.042 the morning session of HIIE. No significant changes during the evening training session were found. In conclusion, chronotype seems to significantly influence fatigue values, perceived exertions and vigor in relation to HIIE performed at different times of the day. Specifically, E-types will meet more of a burden when undertaking a physical task early in the day. Practical results suggest that performing a HIIE at those times

  7. Perceived parenting style, self-esteem and psychological distress in adolescents with heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Miri; Mansoor, Daniela; Gagin, Roni; Lorber, Avraham

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the relationships between perceived parenting style, depressed mood, anxiety and self-esteem in adolescents with heart disease compared with healthy adolescents. Forty-five adolescents, aged 12-18 with congenital or acquired heart disease and 50 healthy age-matched adolescents answered perceived parental behaviour, self-esteem, depressed mood and anxiety questionnaires. The study group reported higher perceived acceptance and lower perceived parental control than healthy adolescents, but similar levels of depressed mood, anxiety and self-esteem. Fischer's r-to-z transformation and regression analyses showed different associations between perceived parenting style and depressed mood, anxiety and self esteem. In the study group, higher perceived parental acceptance was associated with lower depressed mood and higher self-esteem, whereas these associations were not significant in the control group. In the control, but not the study group, higher perceived parental control was associated with lower depressed mood and lower anxiety. Parenting style proved to exert a differential effect on adolescents with and without heart disease. For the former, perceived parental acceptance had a more substantial effect on psychological well-being than perceived parental control. Professionals caring for these adolescents should be aware of the special importance of parenting style on the well-being of adolescents with heart disease, and address this issue in the clinical setting with the patients and their parents.

  8. Perceived Exercise Benefits and Barriers of Non-Exercising Female University Students in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K. Parker

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Many individuals do not engage in sufficient physical activity due to low perceived benefits and high perceived barriers to exercise. Given the increasing incidence of obesity and obesity related health disorders, this topic requires further exploration. We used the Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale to assess perceived benefit and barrier intensities to exercise in 200 non-exercising female university students (mean age 19.3 years, SD = 1.06 in the UK. Although our participants were selected because they self reported themselves to be non-exercising, however they reported significantly higher perceived benefits from exercise than perceived barriers to exercise [t(199 = 6.18, p < 0.001], and their perceived benefit/barrier ratio was 1.33. The greatest perceived benefit from exercise was physical performance followed by the benefits of psychological outlook, preventive health, life enhancement, and then social interaction. Physical performance was rated significantly higher than all other benefits. Psychological outlook and preventive health were not rated significantly different, although both were significantly higher than life enhancement and social interaction. Life enhancement was also rated significantly higher than social interaction. The greatest perceived barrier to exercise was physical exertion, which was rated significantly higher than time expenditure, exercise milieu, and family discouragement barriers. Implications from this investigation for the design of physical activity programmes include the importance, for females, of a perception of high benefit/barrier ratio that could be conducive to participation in exercise. Applied interventions need to assist female students to ‘disengage’ from or overcome any perceived ‘unpleasantness’ of physical exertion during physical activity (decrease their perceived barriers, and to further highlight the multiple health and other benefits of regular exercising (increase their perceived

  9. Physician-perceived contradictions in end-of-life communication: toward a self-report measurement scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amati, Rebecca; Hannawa, Annegret F

    2015-01-01

    Communication is undoubtedly a critical element of competent end-of-life care. However, physicians commonly lack communication skills in this particular care context. Theoretically grounded, evidence-based guidelines are needed to enhance physicians' communication with patients and their families in this important time of their lives. To address this need, this study tests and validates a Contradictions in End-of-Life Communication (CEOLC) scale, which disentangles the relational contradictions physicians commonly experience when communicating with end-of-life patients. Exploratory factors analysis confirmed the presence of eight physician-perceived dialectical tensions, reflecting three latent factors of (1) integration, (2) expression, and (3) dominance. Furthermore, a number of significant intercultural differences were found in cross-cultural comparisons of the scale in U.S., Swiss, and Italian physician samples. Thus, this investigation introduces a heuristic assessment tool that aids a better understanding of the dialectical contradictions physicians experience in their interactions with end-of-life patients. The CEOLC scale can be used to gather empirical evidence that may eventually support the development of evidence-based guidelines and skills training toward improved end-of-life care.

  10. War and Peace among the Words: Rhetoric, Style and Propaganda in Response to National Reports on Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Clifford

    Responses to national reports during October 1984 through May 1985 concerning the state of American higher education are analyzed. Quantitative content analysis and qualitative rehetorical criticism are used to examine responses to national reports. Three national reports are of concern: "Involvement in Learning,""A Nation at…

  11. Compendium on Financing of Higher Education: Final Report of the Financing the Students' Future Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Bethan; Charonis, George-Konstantinos; Haaristo, Hanna-Stella; Maurer, Moritz; Kaiser, Florian; Siegrist, Rahel; McVitty, Debbie; Gruber, Angelika; Heerens, Nik; Xhomaqi, Brikena; Nötzl, Tina; Semjonov, Meeli; Primožic, Rok

    2013-01-01

    Higher education plays a vital role in society and the quality, accessibility, and form of higher education is highly dependent on financing. Financing of higher education is conceived to be of central importance for the future creation and dissemination of knowledge and research. Therefore, the financing of higher education is a topic that has…

  12. Elder abuse and oral health care providers: an intervention to increase knowledge and self-perceived likelihood to report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Julie A; Garrett, Mario D

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain whether a symposium on elder abuse raises the level of knowledge and the self-reported likelihood to report elder abuse among licensed oral health care providers. 130 dentists, hygienists, and assistants voluntarily attended a 4-hour training symposium and completed both pre- and postsurveys testing their level of knowledge. Results by statistical analyses, using repeated measurements, Wilcoxon signed-rank test for nonparametric data, showed increases in awareness of reporting process, knowledge/awareness of elder abuse, knowledge of mandated reporter requirements, and comfort levels with recognizing signs and symptoms of elder abuse and neglect. In conclusion, a symposium can increase the self-reported likelihood of reporting elder abuse.

  13. Natural gas conversion to higher hydrocarbons using plasma interactions with surfaces. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackinger, W.M.; Kamath, V.A.; Morgan, B.L.; Airey, R.W.

    1993-12-01

    Experiments are reported in which a methane plasma is created, and the methyl ions and hydrogen ions are accelerated within a microchannel array so that they interact with neutral methane molecules on the inside surfaces of the microchannels. No catalysts are used, and the device operates at room temperature. Impact energies of the ions are in the range of 10 eV to greater than 100 eV, and the energy delivered in the interaction at the surfaces causes the production of larger hydrocarbon molecules, such as C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, along with C{sub 3}, C{sub 4}, C{sub 5}m C{sub 6}, C{sub 7}m and C{sub 8} molecules. There is a decreasing percentage of larger molecules produced, in comparison with the C{sub 2} and C{sub 3} types. Conversion effectiveness is greater at higher pressure, due to the increased ionic activity. The yield of the higher hydrocarbons depends upon the external voltage used, and voltage can be used as a control parameter to adjust the output mixture proportions. A conversion energy of 2.59 kilowatt hours/killogram of output has been demonstrated, and a reduction of this by a factor of 10 is possible using known techniques. In batch experiments, the selectivity for C{sub 2} has varied from 47% to 88%, and selectivity for C{sub 6} has ranged from 0% to 12.8%. Other hydrocarbon selectivities also span a wide and useful range. The estimated costs for hydrocarbons produced with this technology are in the range of $200 per tonne, in production quantities, depending upon natural gas costs. Pilot production experiments are recommended to make these estimates more precise, and to address strategies for scaling the technology up to production levels. Applications are discussed.

  14. A Review of Two Higher Education Accountability Issues: Student Assessment and Faculty Workload. Report to Utah State Legislature. Report Number 91-03.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah State Office of the Legislative Auditor General, Salt Lake City.

    This report, in examining higher education accountability, reviews how student assessment is used nationally and in Utah to improve higher education accountability, and reviews the methods used in Utah to monitor faculty workload. Student assessments do provide a direct method of evaluating higher education effectiveness, and Utah's institutions…

  15. Perceived complexity of care, perceived autonomy, and career satisfaction among primary care physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katerndahl, David; Parchman, Michael; Wood, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships of both perceived autonomy and perceived complexity of care with career satisfaction. This secondary analysis used 3 consecutive surveys of family physicians, internists, and pediatricians from the Community Tracking Survey. Two-way analysis of variance assessed interaction effects of perceived complexity of care and perceived autonomy on satisfaction. Logistic regression analysis identified physician characteristics, practice characteristics, practice improvement strategies, perceived complexity, and perceived autonomy that accounted for variance in career satisfaction among physicians. Although 24% to 27% of physicians felt perceived complexity of care expected was greater than it should be, 83% to 86% felt free to make clinical decisions. Approximately 80% of physicians were satisfied with their careers. Differences in probability of career satisfaction were highly significant (P satisfaction. Higher perceived autonomy and lower perceived patient complexity as higher than desirable were associated with high career satisfaction among primary care physicians.

  16. Institutional wide implementation of key advice for socially inclusive teaching in higher education. A Practice Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Government policy and institutional initiatives have influenced increases in enrolment of non-traditional students to Australian universities. For these students, university culture is often incongruent with their own, making it difficult to understand the tacit requirements for participation and success. Academic teaching staff are important in creating socially inclusive learning experiences, particularly in first year subjects. This paper presents an institution-wide approach to enhancing socially inclusive teaching at one Australian university. Underpinned by a framework of ”bridging social-incongruity” the initiative was guided by six principles of socially inclusive teaching to support practice as proposed in the 2012 “Effective support of students from low socioeconomic backgrounds in higher education” report commissioned by the Australian Office of Learning and Teaching. Feedback from 150 academic teaching staff from various disciplines and campus locations, suggests this initiative was effective in increasing understanding of socially inclusive teaching practices with many participants indicating the teaching enhancements were applicable for their teaching context.

  17. Perceived stress and bruxism in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Pierpaolo; Carpinelli, Luna; Savarese, Giulia

    2016-12-21

    Many studies have shown the correlation between bruxism and stress that affects the quality of life of university students. The present study highlights this correlation-for the first time-in a group of university students in Italy. We have investigated the prevalence of awake and asleep bruxism and its correlation with perceived stress in a group of 278 Italian undergraduate students (117 M). A self report questionnaire was constructed using a socio-demographic test, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the item n. 8 of the Fonseca Questionnaire for presence of bruxism. The perceived stress score using PSS-10 scale was 32.2 (SD 4.6, 95% CL 31.6-32.7) for all the subjects, with significant gender difference: M = 31.2 and F = 32.9 (P = 0.0019). The prevalence for awake bruxism was 37.9% (F = 40.8%; M = 34.2%,), while for sleep bruxism was 31.8% (F = 33.3%; M = 29.1%), both without significant gender difference. A positive correlation, with significant concordance and dependence, between stress score and awake bruxism was present for male students only. University students showed higher bruxism and stress levels compared to the general population, with higher stress for females, but, even if female students show higher stress, a correlation between stress and bruxism exists only for male gender. Further studies should be performed.

  18. Perceived exercise benefits and barriers of non-exercising female university students in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Geoff P; El Ansari, Walid; Parker, John K

    2010-03-01

    Many individuals do not engage in sufficient physical activity due to low perceived benefits and high perceived barriers to exercise. Given the increasing incidence of obesity and obesity related health disorders, this topic requires further exploration. We used the Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale to assess perceived benefit and barrier intensities to exercise in 200 non-exercising female university students (mean age 19.3 years, SD = 1.06) in the UK. Although our participants were selected because they self reported themselves to be non-exercising, however they reported significantly higher perceived benefits from exercise than perceived barriers to exercise [t(199) = 6.18, p benefit/barrier ratio was 1.33. The greatest perceived benefit from exercise was physical performance followed by the benefits of psychological outlook, preventive health, life enhancement, and then social interaction. Physical performance was rated significantly higher than all other benefits. Psychological outlook and preventive health were not rated significantly different, although both were significantly higher than life enhancement and social interaction. Life enhancement was also rated significantly higher than social interaction. The greatest perceived barrier to exercise was physical exertion, which was rated significantly higher than time expenditure, exercise milieu, and family discouragement barriers. Implications from this investigation for the design of physical activity programmes include the importance, for females, of a perception of high benefit/barrier ratio that could be conducive to participation in exercise. Applied interventions need to assist female students to 'disengage' from or overcome any perceived 'unpleasantness' of physical exertion during physical activity (decrease their perceived barriers), and to further highlight the multiple health and other benefits of regular exercising (increase their perceived benefits).

  19. Relationship Between Perceived In-Cabin Air Quality and Truck Drivers’ Self-Reported Health and Alertness

    OpenAIRE

    Richard TAY; Tan, Zhongchao; Cheng, Xiaoying

    2008-01-01

    This study surveyed 253 truck drivers and found that many drivers scored poorly on the Stanford and Epworth sleepiness scales indicating that they may not be as alert as they should be while driving. Moreover, those who rated the air in their truck cabins as fresh reported less irritation to their eyes, noses, throats, and skin, scored better in both sleepiness scales, and reported fewer sleep-related medical symptoms. Finally, the results of the ordinal logistic model indicate that drivers’ ...

  20. Perceived Discrimination and Nocturnal Blood Pressure Dipping Among Hispanics: The Influence of Social Support and Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carlos Jose; Gwathmey, TanYa M; Jin, Zhezhen; Schwartz, Joseph; Beech, Bettina M; Sacco, Ralph L; Di Tullio, Marco R; Homma, Shunichi

    2016-09-01

    Little is known about the relationship of perceived racism to ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in Hispanics. We explored possible associations between ABP nocturnal dipping and perceived racism in a Hispanic cohort. Participants included 180 community-dwelling Hispanics from the Northern Manhattan Study. Measures included perceived racism, socioeconomic status, social support, and ABP monitoring. Nocturnal ABP nondipping was defined as a less than 10% decline in the average asleep systolic blood pressure relative to the awake systolic blood pressure. Overall, 77.8% of participants reported some form of perceived racism (Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire scores >1.0). Greater social support was associated with less perceived discrimination (Spearman r = -0.54, p < .001). Those with higher perceived discrimination scores reported more depressive symptoms (r = 0.25, p < .001). Those with higher Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire scores were less likely to show nocturnal ABP nondipping in multivariate models (odds ratio = 0.40, confidence interval = 0.17-0.98, p = .045). Among those with low perceived racism, black Hispanic participants were more likely to have nocturnal ABP nondipping (82.6%) compared with white Hispanics (53.9%; p = .02). Among those with high perceived racism, no associations between race and the prevalence of ABP nondipping was found (black Hispanic = 61.5% versus white Hispanic = 51.4%, p = .39; p interaction = .89). Perceived racism is relatively common among US Hispanics and is associated with ABP. Nondipping of ABP, a potential cardiovascular risk factor, was more common in black Hispanic participants with low perceived racism. This finding may reflect different coping mechanisms between black versus white Hispanics and related blood pressure levels during daytime exposures to discrimination.

  1. Estimating the biases associated with self-perceived, self-reported, and measured BMI on mental health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir M Ali

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to explore the relationship between individuals' perceptions of their weight-status, self-reported height and weight, and measured weight status. METHODS: A national survey of 9,248 adolescents (47% male between the ages of 11 and 27 is analyzed to determine whether inaccuracies in reporting are caused by misperception or conscious intent, and whether there tends to be a systematic bias in how individuals self-report. Self-esteem was used as an example of an important outcome variable in order to illustrate the magnitudes of the biases that may arise when using different measures of body size. RESULTS: Our results indicate that measured obesity status is associated with the reduction in Rosenberg Self-Esteem (RSE of 0.30 points (p-value 0.005 among adolescents and 0.20 points (p-value 0.002 among young adults; in addition, using self-reported height and weight as opposed to measured height and weight does not result in a statistically detectable difference in the estimates. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals' self-reports of height and weight are not as unreliable as we might have expected. Although estimates from measured height and weight are preferred, in the absence of such measures, self-reported measures would likely be a reliable alternative. The differences in self-perception of weight status, however, imply that it is not comparable to measured weight categories.

  2. Valuing skill differences : Perceived skill complementary and dyadic helping behavior in teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, A.; van der Vegt, G.S.; Van de Vliert, E.; Sanders, K.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports effects of perceived skill dissimilarity and perceived skill complementarity on dyadic helping behavior using a cross-lagged panel study. Specifically, the authors hypothesize that perceived skill dissimilarity is negatively related, whereas perceived skill complementarity is po

  3. Valuing Skill Differences: Perceived Skill Complementarity and Dyadic Helping Behavior in Teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, Aad; Vegt, van der Gerben S.; Vliert, van de Evert; Sanders, Karin

    2009-01-01

    This article reports effects of perceived skill dissimilarity and perceived skill complementarity on dyadic helping behavior using a cross-lagged panel study. Specifically, the authors hypothesize that perceived skill dissimilarity is negatively related, whereas perceived skill complementarity is po

  4. Valuing skill differences : Perceived skill complementary and dyadic helping behavior in teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, A.; van der Vegt, G.S.; Van de Vliert, E.; Sanders, K.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports effects of perceived skill dissimilarity and perceived skill complementarity on dyadic helping behavior using a cross-lagged panel study. Specifically, the authors hypothesize that perceived skill dissimilarity is negatively related, whereas perceived skill complementarity is po

  5. The Economics of Higher Education: A Report Prepared by the Department of the Treasury with the Department of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of the Treasury, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report discusses the current state of higher education, with a brief high-level overview of the market and a more detailed discussion and analysis of the financial aid system. It also discusses the important changes President Obama has made to make higher education more accessible and affordable. The key findings are: (1) The economic returns…

  6. The Hunt Report and Higher Education Policy in the Republic of Ireland: "An International Solution to an Irish Problem?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John; Loxley, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The "National Strategy for Higher Education to 2030" in the Republic of Ireland (universally known as the Hunt Report) represents the latest and most assertive attempt by the Irish state to re-construct higher education in accordance with economic utilitarian objectives. This paper sets out to analyse the historical context, key themes…

  7. Relationships of self-reported dietary factors and perceived acne severity in a cohort of New York young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Jennifer; Rietkerk, William; Woolf, Kathleen

    2014-03-01

    Recent observational and experimental evidence suggests that diet may contribute to acne prevalence. To examine the differences in select dietary factors (glycemic index [GI], total sugar, added sugar, fruit/fruit juice, fruit/vegetables, vegetables, saturated fat, trans fat, and number of milk and fish servings per day) between groups of self-reported acne severity. Secondary objectives were to investigate the differences in food-aggravated acne beliefs and acne-specific quality-of-life between groups of self-reported acne severity. This study utilized a cross-sectional design. A total of 248 (115 male, 133 female) participants, age 18 to 25 years, completed questionnaires designed to measure self-reported acne severity, select dietary factors, food-aggravated acne beliefs, acne-specific quality-of-life, and anthropometric and demographic characteristics. The Block fat/sugar/fruit/vegetable food frequency questionnaire assessed usual dietary intake. Data were collected in New York City between January and May 2012. One-way between groups analysis of variance examined differences in dietary factors, anthropometric characteristics, and acne-specific quality-of-life between groups of self-reported acne. χ² tests compared food-aggravated acne beliefs and demographic characteristics between groups of self-reported acne. Compared with participants with no or mild acne, participants with moderate to severe acne reported greater dietary GI (Pdiet to aggravate or influence acne. This study suggests that diet, particularly dietary GI, saturated fat, trans fat, milk, and fish may influence or aggravate acne development. Future research is necessary to elucidate the proposed mechanisms linking diet and acne and determine the impact of medical nutrition therapy on acne development. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Anger and hostility in adolescents: relationships with self-reported attachment style and perceived parental rearing styles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muris, P.; Meesters, C.; Morren, M.; Moorman, L.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine relationships between self-reported attachment style and parental rearing behaviors, on the one hand, and anger/hostility, on the other hand, in a sample of nonclinical adolescents (N=441). METHOD: Participants completed (a) a single-item measure of attachment style; (b) a ques

  9. Building on Success: Educational Diversity and Equity in Kentucky Higher Education. Choices before the Commonwealth. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancheta, Angelo; Ledesma, Maria; Trent, William; Kurlaender, Michal; Yun, John; Lee, Chungmei; Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve; Driscoll, Anne; Orfield, Gary

    2008-01-01

    This report is an effort to assess what has been accomplished in successfully diversifying and desegregating historically segregated and unequal higher educational institutions across Kentucky, and how this was done. The report discusses the changing legal setting for these initiatives, analyzes the educational achievements and challenges, and…

  10. Teaching Strategies Adopted by Teachers at Higher Education Level in Kerala: A Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesa, M.; Nisha, E. V.

    2017-01-01

    In the special context of entrepreneurship, employability skill development, Higher Education 2.0 and the Kovalam Declaration 2016, the present article presents a brief review of genres of teaching strategies at higher education level and attempts to bring to the attention of the readers an account of the teaching strategies adopted by teachers at…

  11. Perceived orofacial pain and its associations with reported bruxism and insomnia symptoms in media personnel with or without irregular shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, Kristiina; Ahlberg, Jari; Könönen, Mauno; Alakuijala, Anniina; Partinen, Markku; Savolainen, Aslak

    2005-08-01

    A standardized questionnaire was mailed to all employees of the Finnish Broadcasting Company with irregular shift work (n = 750) and to an equal number of randomly selected controls in the same company with regular 8-hour daytime work. The aims were to investigate the prevalence and severity of perceived orofacial pain (Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders Axis II) and to analyze whether current orofacial pain was associated with reported bruxism and insomnia symptoms (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV and the International Classification of Sleep Disorders Revised). The response rate in the irregular shift-work group was 82.3% (56.6% men) and in the regular daytime-work group 34.3% (46.7% men). Current orofacial pain was found overall in 19.6%, of which 88.3% had experienced the pain over 6 months. All claimed that their pain fluctuated. No subjects with chronic orofacial pain reported disabling pain, and grades III and IV were not found. Insomnia symptoms and frequent bruxism were significantly more prevalent in chronic pain grade II than in lower grades. According to logistic regression, current orofacial pain was significantly positively associated with frequent bruxism (p orofacial pain and reported bruxism. The association held with both chronic orofacial pain intensity and current pain. Based on the multivariate analyses, it can be concluded that disrupted sleep and bruxism may be concomitantly involved in the development of orofacial pain.

  12. Parents' perceived vulnerability and perceived control in preventing Meningococcal C infection: a large-scale interview study about vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Danielle RM; Henneman, Lidewij; Hirasing, Remy A; van der Wal, Gerrit

    2008-01-01

    Background Parents' reported ambivalence toward large-scale vaccination programs for childhood diseases may be related to their perception of the risks of side-effects or safety of vaccination and the risk of contracting the disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate parents' perceptions of their child's risk contracting a Meningococcal C infection and parents' perceived control in preventing infection in relation to their evaluation of the safety, effectiveness and usefulness of vaccination. Methods In a large-scale interview study, a random sample of parents was interviewed after their children had received vaccination against Meningococcal C in a catch-up campaign. Questions were asked about the perceived relative vulnerability of their child contracting an infection, perceived control in preventing an infection, and parents' evaluation of the safety, usefulness and effectiveness of vaccination. Results 61% of 2910 (N = 1763) parents who were approached participated. A higher perceived relative vulnerability of their own child contracting the disease was related to a more positive evaluation of the vaccination campaign, while a lower perceived vulnerability did not result in a more negative evaluation. A higher perceived control in being able to prevent an infection was, however, related to a more critical attitude toward the safety, usefulness and effectiveness of vaccination. Conclusion Perceived relative vulnerability contracting an infection and parents' perceived control in preventing an infection seem to influence parents' evaluation of the vaccination programme. Future studies should determine if, and under which circumstances, these perceptions also affect parents' vaccination behaviour and would be relevant to be taken into account when educating parents about vaccination. PMID:18241345

  13. Parents' perceived vulnerability and perceived control in preventing Meningococcal C infection: a large-scale interview study about vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Wal Gerrit

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents' reported ambivalence toward large-scale vaccination programs for childhood diseases may be related to their perception of the risks of side-effects or safety of vaccination and the risk of contracting the disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate parents' perceptions of their child's risk contracting a Meningococcal C infection and parents' perceived control in preventing infection in relation to their evaluation of the safety, effectiveness and usefulness of vaccination. Methods In a large-scale interview study, a random sample of parents was interviewed after their children had received vaccination against Meningococcal C in a catch-up campaign. Questions were asked about the perceived relative vulnerability of their child contracting an infection, perceived control in preventing an infection, and parents' evaluation of the safety, usefulness and effectiveness of vaccination. Results 61% of 2910 (N = 1763 parents who were approached participated. A higher perceived relative vulnerability of their own child contracting the disease was related to a more positive evaluation of the vaccination campaign, while a lower perceived vulnerability did not result in a more negative evaluation. A higher perceived control in being able to prevent an infection was, however, related to a more critical attitude toward the safety, usefulness and effectiveness of vaccination. Conclusion Perceived relative vulnerability contracting an infection and parents' perceived control in preventing an infection seem to influence parents' evaluation of the vaccination programme. Future studies should determine if, and under which circumstances, these perceptions also affect parents' vaccination behaviour and would be relevant to be taken into account when educating parents about vaccination.

  14. Reflections on the Future of Global Higher Education - WAAS Conference Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Šlaus

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Education is the most important catalyst of social evolution. Today higher education is in the early stages of a revolutionary transition that will have immense impact on the future of global society. This article presents an overview of perspectives explored at the World Academy's Forum on Global Higher Education conducted at the University of California at Berkeley on October 2-3, 2013. It examines issues resulting from rapid changes in educational technology and organization that impact on accessibility, affordability, quality, relevance, employability and content of higher education. It envisions establishment of a World University Consortium as a network and umbrella group to facilitate educational partnerships and linkages with other interested stakeholders at the international level, to provide a centralized source of information about latest innovative ideas and developments in this field, and to explore creative solutions to enhance the reach, quality and relevance of higher education globally.

  15. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another.

  16. Combination HIV Prevention Strategy Implementation in El Salvador: Perceived Barriers and Adaptations Reported by Outreach Peer Educators and Supervisors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Buck

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available El Salvador was one of three countries to receive funding from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria to conduct a combination HIV prevention intervention among transwomen (TW, men who have sex with men (MSM, and commercial sex workers (CSW. Program evaluation revealed that prevention activities reached only 50% of the target population. The purpose of this study is to examine the barriers that Salvadoran educators faced in implementing the peer education as designed and adaptations made as a result. Between March and June 2015, 18 in-depth interviews with educators were conducted. Violence was reported as the biggest barrier to intervention implementation. Other barriers differed by subpopulation. The level of violence and discrimination calls into question the feasibility and appropriateness of peer-led interventions in the Salvadoran context and demonstrates the importance of implementation research when translating HIV prevention interventions developed in high-income countries to low- and middle-income countries.

  17. Combination HIV Prevention Strategy Implementation in El Salvador: Perceived Barriers and Adaptations Reported by Outreach Peer Educators and Supervisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Meredith; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Bodnar, Gloria

    2017-01-01

    El Salvador was one of three countries to receive funding from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria to conduct a combination HIV prevention intervention among transwomen (TW), men who have sex with men (MSM), and commercial sex workers (CSW). Program evaluation revealed that prevention activities reached only 50% of the target population. The purpose of this study is to examine the barriers that Salvadoran educators faced in implementing the peer education as designed and adaptations made as a result. Between March and June 2015, 18 in-depth interviews with educators were conducted. Violence was reported as the biggest barrier to intervention implementation. Other barriers differed by subpopulation. The level of violence and discrimination calls into question the feasibility and appropriateness of peer-led interventions in the Salvadoran context and demonstrates the importance of implementation research when translating HIV prevention interventions developed in high-income countries to low- and middle-income countries. PMID:28462359

  18. Foreign language anxiety and self-perceived English pronunciation competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Szyszka

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In foreign language learning a negative correlation has been reported be-tween language anxiety and both oral performance (Liu, 2006; Stephenson Wilson, 2006; Woodrow 2006 and self-perceived levels of speaking ability (Kitano, 2001; MacIntyre, Noels, & Clement, 1997; Piechurska-Kuciel, 2008. However, little is known about the relationship between language anxiety and the way students perceive their own competence regarding one of the integral components of oral performance – pronunciation. The present study is an attempt to investigate the link between foreign language anxiety and the self-perceived levels of pronunciation of 48 teacher training college students, who study English as a foreign language. A negative correlation, r = -.54 (p < .05, was found between the level of their language anxiety and self-perceived English pronunciation competence, indicating that more apprehensive teacher trainees perceived their pronunciation as poor, whereas those with lower levels of anxiety declared higher pronunciation competence. Moreover, statistically significant negative correlations were noted between the levels of anxiety and self-perceived competences of several suprasegmental aspects of pronunciation, such as word pronunciation, stress, weak forms, rhythm, linking, and assimilation. The teacher trainees who rated their competence of these suprasegmentals more highly experienced lower levels of foreign language anxiety. The perception of segmentals, however, appeared to be unconnected with the participants’ anxiety.

  19. Automatically activated shame reactions and perceived legitimacy of discrimination: A longitudinal study among people with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Todd, Andrew R; Bodenhausen, Galen V; Olschewski, Manfred; Corrigan, Patrick W

    2010-03-01

    Perceived legitimacy of discrimination shapes reactions to mental illness stigma among stigmatized individuals. We assessed deliberately endorsed versus automatic shame-related reactions to mental illness as predictors of change in perceived legitimacy of discrimination over six months among 75 people with mental illness. Automatically activated shame-related associations with mental illness were measured using the Brief Implicit Association Test, deliberately endorsed beliefs via self-report. Controlling for depression and perceived stigma, stronger baseline automatic shame-related associations, but not deliberately endorsed beliefs, predicted higher perceived legitimacy of discrimination after six months. Automatically activated shame reactions may increase vulnerability to mental illness stigma.

  20. A Study of Students’ Experience and Perceived Helpfulness of Using Digital Video Resource on Service Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Ping Yueh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore students’ experience of and perceived helpfulness of online speech video resources on students learning facilitation. This study used NTU Open Service Learning Website developed by National Taiwan University (NTU as a case, and conducted a survey to NTU students to collect students’ responses and using behaviors of NTU Open Service Learning Website. Results showed that most students are satisfied with the usability of NTU Open Service Learning, and confirmed the effects they perceived helpfulness of NTU Open Service Learning. Results also showed that the freshmen reported higher levels of satisfaction of the website usability and perceived helpfulness of their learning and development. Moreover, students with more experience of website usage reported higher perceived helpfulness of their learning and development. This study further proposed suggestions to application and research of using digital video resources for learning facilitation to service learning. [Article content in Chinese

  1. KRONOS: A Monte Carlo event generator for higher order QED corrections at HERA — Status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anlauf, Harald; Manakos, Panagiotis; Mannel, Thomas; Dahmen, Hans D.; Ohl, Thorsten

    1992-12-01

    We report on the status of the Monte Carlo event generator KRONOS for deep inelastic lepton hadron scattering at HERA. KRONOS focusses on the description of electronmagnetic corrections beyond the existing fixed order calculations.

  2. Higher Education for the 1980s. Challenges and Responses. Report of the Hiroshima International Seminar on Higher Education (2nd, Hiroshima, Japan, January 29-31, 1980).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Higher Education.

    The challenges of social change, values crises, societal needs for higher education, the internal dynamics of higher educational systems, and future reforms in higher education were discussed at the Second Hiroshima International Seminar on Higher Education. Topics discussed include: Higher Education in an Age of Internationalization (Michio…

  3. Students' perceived supervisory needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, S; Wittkopp, J

    1982-07-01

    One hundred and ninety-one students from six Michigan University speech-language pathology training programs completed a 43-item questionnaire concerning their perceived supervisory needs in five areas: lesson plan and report writing, supervisor observation, conferencing, professional responsibility, and general supervisory practices. Selection criteria for students were academic status, university attended, and earned clinical clock hours. Student's perceptions of positive and negative supervisory practices differed significantly as a function of earned clinical clock hours and site of training. However, there were no differences in perception between undergraduate and graduate students.

  4. 2015 Global Information Technology Report: Consequences on Knowledge Management in Higher Education Institutions in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ololube, Nwachukwu Prince; Agbor, Comfort Nkogho; Major, Nanighe Baldwin; Agabi, Chinyere O.; Wali, Worlu I.

    2016-01-01

    This research is a continuation of a theoretical review that evaluated ICT Policy Outcomes for National Development in relation to Networked Readiness Index (NRI) and the impact it has on knowledge integration and management in higher education institutions in Nigeria. A new dawn in information technology (IT) has initiated new trends in…

  5. Special Report #6. Developing Trends in Content of Collective Bargaining Contracts in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andes, John

    The growth in the number of higher education collective bargaining contracts continues at a rapid pace, although it is taking longer for the initial contract to be negotiated. The data on 131 contracts covering 215 institutions is included in the statistical tables in this document. Collective bargaining has increased in the West and at least one…

  6. Report of the Governor's Commission on Higher Education and the Economy, January 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governor's Blue Ribbon Commission on Higher Education and the Economy of Connecticut, Inc., Hartford.

    The Governor's Commission on Higher Education and the Economy's assessment of the Connecticut system and ways that the educational needs of the economy and the state can be met during a period of declining enrollments and fiscal constraints is presented. Working committees of the commission studied governance and management; business, labor, and…

  7. Brief Report: Joint Attention and Information Processing in Children with Higher Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Peter; Kim, Kwanguk; McIntyre, Nancy; Lerro, Lindsay; Jarrold, William

    2016-01-01

    Theory suggests that information processing during joint attention may be atypical in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This hypothesis was tested in a study of school-aged children with higher functioning ASD and groups of children with symptoms of ADHD or typical development. The results indicated that the control groups displayed…

  8. Higher Education Cost Containment. Performance Audit, November 1995. Report of the State Auditor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Office of State Auditor, Denver.

    Between June and September 1995, this performance audit examined Colorado higher education cost containment in debt refinancing and improvements to student loan processes according to generally accepted government auditing standards. With respect to debt refinancing, the audit concluded that in general, governing boards and institutions were…

  9. Prepared in Mind and Resources? A Report on Public Higher Education in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alacbay, Armand; Poliakoff, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In 2011, South Carolina Governor Nikki Haley signed into law the South Carolina Higher Education Efficiency and Administrative Policies Act, maintaining the transparency and accountability that lead to increased academic quality and affordability at colleges and universities. It is in this context that ACTA (American Council of Trustees and…

  10. Made in Maine: A State Report Card on Public Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, Eric; Poliakoff, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Maine is blessed with universities that have records of significant achievement. The seven campuses of the University of Maine System (UMS) together educated over 23,000 students (full-time equivalent) during the past year. But for good reason, in recent years public confidence in higher education throughout the nation has fallen. Half of the…

  11. Reporting the Use of Multiple Imputation for Missing Data in Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manly, Catherine A.; Wells, Ryan S.

    2015-01-01

    Higher education researchers using survey data often face decisions about handling missing data. Multiple imputation (MI) is considered by many statisticians to be the most appropriate technique for addressing missing data in many circumstances. In particular, it has been shown to be preferable to listwise deletion, which has historically been a…

  12. Toward a Definition of Verbal Reasoning in Higher Education. Research Report. ETS RR-09-33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Nancy W.; Welsh, Cynthia; Kostin, Irene; VanEssen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This paper briefly summarizes the literatures of reading and reasoning in the last quarter century, focusing mainly on the disciplines of cognitive science, cognitive developmental psychology, linguistics, and educational psychology. These literatures were synthesized to create a framework for defining verbal reasoning in higher education. Eight…

  13. Interdisciplinarity: The Mutable Paradigm. AAHE/ERIC/Higher Education Research Report No 9, 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayville, William V.

    The many forms of interdisciplinarity in higher education institutions and the various ways it has been used to advance curricular changes are examined. Definitions of interdisciplinarity and its variants (multi-, pluri-, and transdisciplinarity) provide a conceptual framework for the examination. In this study, interdisciplinarity is understood…

  14. Academic Judgment and Grievance Arbitration in Higher Education. Special Report No. 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Harold

    The first known analysis of a substantial number of arbitration awards in higher education is presented in an effort to determine whether arbitrators have confined their awards within the contract limitations. All of the arbitration awards generated by the four-year colleges of the State University of New York as well as the awards of the…

  15. European Union Students Studying in English Higher Education Institutions. DIUS Research Report 08-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Marian; Rutt, Simon

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the pathways, intentions and relevant perceptions of (non-UK) European Union (EU) students entering English higher education. It sought to identify why students wished to obtain an English HE qualification, their attitudes towards the uptake and repayment of tuition fee loans and their future career plans. Drawing on…

  16. Cataloguing E-Books in UK Higher Education Libraries: Report of a Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the results of a 2006 survey of UK Higher Education OPACs in order to provide a snapshot of cataloguing practices for e-books. Design/methodology/approach: The OPACs of 30 UK HE libraries were examined in July/August 2006 to determine which e-books were catalogued, and the level of cataloguing…

  17. 2014-2015 State of CRM Use in Higher Education Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO) periodically undertakes research projects to keep themselves and the higher education community in general, informed about relevant current and emerging practices. The aim of this survey was to measure the extent of ownership of Constituent (or Customer)…

  18. Quality: Transforming Postsecondary Education. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 3, 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle; Sherr, Lawrence A.

    Many colleges and universities, in responding to public demand for higher education and the external challenges it creates, are employing Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques to improve quality, increase productivity, and decrease costs. The quality improvement process itself (the tools for problem identification and developing solutions),…

  19. CEBAF at higher energies: Working group report on hadron spectroscopy and production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)]| [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States); Napolitano, J. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    1994-04-01

    This report summarizes topics in hadron spectroscopy and production which could be addressed at CEBAF with an energy upgrade to E{sub {gamma}} = 8 GeV and beyond. The topics discussed include conventional meson and baryon spectrocopy, spectroscopy of exotica (especially molecules and hybrids), CP and CPT tests using {phi} mesons, and new detector and accelerator options.

  20. Giving to Excellence: Generating Philanthropic Support for UK Higher Education. Ross-CASE Report 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Yashraj

    2016-01-01

    This report presents findings from the 2016 Ross-CASE Survey of Philanthropic Giving to Universities in UK. The project was conducted by CASE Europe and funded by HEFCE and the Ross-Group. This year's survey comes at a time of great change for the UK charity sector. The historical trend data of previous surveys will be invaluable in helping…

  1. Tetrahedron deformation and alignment of perceived vorticity and strain in a turbulent flow

    CERN Document Server

    Pumir, Alain; Xu, Haitao

    2012-01-01

    We describe the structure and dynamics of turbulence by the scale dependent perceived velocity gradient tensor as supported by following four tracers, i.e. fluid particles, that initially form a regular tetrahedron. We report results from experiments in a von K\\'arm\\'an swirling water flow and from numerical simulations of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation. We analyze the dynamics of the perceived rate of strain tensor and perceived vorticity for initially regular tetrahedron of size $r_0$ from the dissipative to the integral scale. The experimental data at higher Reynolds number suggest the existence of a self-similar regime in the inertial range, where the perceived vorticity aligns with the largest eigenvalue of the perceived rate of strain tensor over durations of order $t_0$, where $t_0$ is the turbulence time scale of the flow for scale $r_0$. For smaller Reynolds numbers we found the dynamics to be scale dependent.

  2. Flipped Classroom Implementation: A Case Report of Two Higher Education Institutions in the United States and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Jacqueline E.; White, Paul J.; Khanova, Julia; Yuriev, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This case report explored the implementation of flipped classrooms at two higher education institutions. Experiences and publications from the institutions were used to identify and describe common themes, including successes and challenges encountered along with potential solutions to common misalignments, particularly as related to…

  3. Higher Education in Further Education Colleges: Indirectly Funded Partnerships: Codes of Practice for Franchise and Consortia Arrangements. Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

    This report provides codes of practice for two types of indirectly funded partnerships entered into by higher education institutions and further education sector colleges: franchises and consortia. The codes of practice set out guidance on the principles that should be reflected in the franchise and consortia agreements that underpin indirectly…

  4. Higher Reported Levels of Depression, Stress, and Anxiety Are Associated with Increased Endorsement of ADHD Symptoms by Postsecondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Allyson G.; Alexander, Sandra J.; Armstrong, Irene T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which postsecondary students endorse symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and whether experienced level of stress, depression, or anxiety are associated with higher reporting of ADHD symptoms. Students attending a combined health and counseling service completed the Conners Adult ADHD Rating…

  5. Orthogonal Range Reporting: Query Lower Bounds, Optimal Structures in 3-d, and Higher Dimensional Improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshani, Peyman; Arge, Lars Allan; Larsen, Kasper Dalgaard

    2010-01-01

    Orthogonal range reporting is the problem of storing a set of n points in d-dimensional space, such that the k points in an axis-orthogonal query box can be reported efficiently. While the 2-d version of the problem was completely characterized in the pointer machine model more than two decades ago...... data structure for the d-dimensional orthogonal range reporting problem in the pointer machine model of computation that uses S(n) space must spend Ω((log n/ log(S(n)/n))⌊d/2⌋--1) time to answer queries. Thus, if S(n)/n is poly-logarithmic, then the query time is at least Ω((log n/ log log n)⌊d/2......) to Ω((log n/ log log n)2 + k) somewhere between three and six dimensions. Finally, we show that our techniques also lead to improved structures for point location in rectilinear subdivisions, that is, the problem of storing a set of n disjoint d-dimensional axis-orthogonal rectangles...

  6. Perceived career development support in workplace career programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Azman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to quantify the relationship between the workplace career programme, perceived career development support, and job satisfaction. The survey method was employed to gather self-reported questionnaires from employees who work at a defence-based higher learning institution in Malaysia. The outcomes of SmartPLS path model analysis showed two important findings: first, the relationship between career planning and career management was positively and significantly correlated with job satisfaction. Second, the relationship between perceived career development support was positively and significantly correlated with job satisfaction. This finding confirms that perceived career development support does act as an important mediating variable in the relationship between workplace career programme and job satisfaction in the organizational sample. This study includes a discussion, implications, and a conclusion.

  7. Relations of sex, age, perceived fitness, and aerobic activity with social physique anxiety in adults sixty years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanning, Beth A; Bowden, Rodney G; Owens, Robin; Massey-Stokes, Marilyn

    2004-12-01

    Self-reported physical activity, and perceived fitness were examined to assess their effects on social physique anxiety in a sample of older individuals (N= 249; M age=70.4 yr., SD=8.2). Participants reported their fitness as "average" to "above average." There were no significant effects of perceived fitness or age on social physique anxiety scores. The women had significantly higher social physique anxiety scores than the men.

  8. Urban-Rural Differences in Motivation to Control Prejudice toward People with HIV/AIDS: The Impact of Perceived Identifiability in the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Solomon, Sondra E.; Varni, Susan E.; Miller, Carol T.; Forehand, Rex L.; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2008-01-01

    Context: HIV/AIDS is occurring with increasing frequency in rural areas of the United States, and people living with HIV/AIDS in rural communities report higher levels of perceived stigma than their more urban counterparts. The extent to which stigmatized individuals perceive stigma could be influenced, in part, by prevailing community attitudes.…

  9. Regulation of chloroplast number and DNA synthesis in higher plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullet, J.E.

    1995-11-10

    The long term objective of this research is to understand the process of chloroplast development and its coordination with leaf development in higher plants. This is important because the photosynthetic capacity of plants is directly related to leaf and chloroplast development. This research focuses on obtaining a detailed description of leaf development and the early steps in chloroplast development including activation of plastid DNA synthesis, changes in plastid DNA copy number, activation of chloroplast transcription and increases in plastid number per cell. The grant will also begin analysis of specific biochemical mechanisms by isolation of the plastid DNA polymerase, and identification of genetic mutants which are altered in their accumulation of plastid DNA and plastid number per cell.

  10. Regulation of chloroplast number and DNA synthesis in higher plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullet, J.E.

    1995-11-10

    The long term objective of this research is to understand the process of chloroplast development and its coordination with leaf development in higher plants. This is important because the photosynthetic capacity of plants is directly related to leaf and chloroplast development. This research focuses on obtaining a detailing description of leaf development and the early steps in chloroplast development including activation of plastid DNA synthesis, changes in plastid DNA copy number, activation of chloroplast transcription and increases in plastid number per cell. The grant will also begin analysis of specific biochemical mechanisms by isolation of the plastid DNA polymerase, and identification of genetic mutants which are altered in their accumulation of plastid DNA and plastid number per cell.

  11. Higher Education of Specialists of Social Rehabilitation – Reports from Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Kusztal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is a another opinion in the matter of the education of the students of social rehabilitation. In 2012, on the pages of “Resocjalizacja Polska”, came out an article about contemporary status of the social rehabilitation educator and the process of his education in the era of the reform of higher education. The current text is the continuation of this article and also a presentation of an explorative sense and thoughts of the participants of the project, realized since 2011 within the statutory research of the Department of Social Prevention and Rehabilitation in Institiute of Pedagog y in Jagiellonian University and Department of Social Prevention and Rehabilitation in Institiute of Education in Jesuit University in Cracow.

  12. Actual and perceived exposure to electromagnetic fields and non-specific physical symptoms: an epidemiological study based on self-reported data and electronic medical records.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baliatsas, C.; Bolte, J.; Yzermans, J.; Kelfkens, G.; Hooiveld, M.; Lebret, E.; Kamp, I. van

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is continuing scientific debate and increasing public concern regarding the possible effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on general population's health. To date, no epidemiological study has investigated the possible association between actual and perceived EMF exposure and non

  13. Actual and perceived exposure to electromagnetic fields and non-specific physical symptoms: an epidemiological study based on self-reported data and electronic medical records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baliatsas, Christos; Bolte, John; Yzermans, Joris; Kelfkens, Gert; Hooiveld, Mariette; Lebret, Erik; van Kamp, Irene

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is continuing scientific debate and increasing public concern regarding the possible effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on general population's health. To date, no epidemiological study has investigated the possible association between actual and perceived EMF exposure and non

  14. Improvement of the structure of reports of Ukrainian higher educational institutions in terms of deregulation and state authority decentralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Ambarchian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of the structure and content of financial and budgetary reports of domestic higher educational institutions, enhance of financial statements completeness in order to enable citizens to control a university activity. During the research both general scientific and specific scientific economic methods were implemented. The general methods include induction, deduction, analogy and comparison. Among specific methods of economic research grouping, table method, graphical method, method of informational and logical analysis were used. The paper characterizes legal documents which regulate the process of university financial statements preparation and presentation in different countries. Financial reports of Ukrainian, American and British universities are compared. The author determines the major directions of improvement of the structure and content of domestic university reports with the purpose of their completeness enhancing. As a result of the research performed the proper recommendations of improvement of domestic universities reporting are suggested. The author conforms the reporting information with the Managerial report which discloses the information about the reporting period achievements and the efficiency of budget resources expenditure.

  15. Suicidal Ideation and Sexual Orientation in College Students: The Roles of Perceived Burdensomeness, Thwarted Belongingness, and Perceived Rejection due to Sexual Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ryan M.; Pettit, Jeremy W.

    2012-01-01

    A theoretical model in which perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness were hypothesized to account for the association between sexual orientation and suicidal ideation among college students was tested. Among 198 college students (mean age 21.28 years), gay, lesbian, and bisexual students (n = 50) reported significantly higher levels of…

  16. Suicidal Ideation and Sexual Orientation in College Students: The Roles of Perceived Burdensomeness, Thwarted Belongingness, and Perceived Rejection due to Sexual Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ryan M.; Pettit, Jeremy W.

    2012-01-01

    A theoretical model in which perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness were hypothesized to account for the association between sexual orientation and suicidal ideation among college students was tested. Among 198 college students (mean age 21.28 years), gay, lesbian, and bisexual students (n = 50) reported significantly higher levels of…

  17. The impact of perceived racism: psychological symptoms among African American boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyborg, Vanessa M; Curry, John F

    2003-06-01

    Examined the relations among perceived racism and externalizing symptoms, internalizing symptoms, hopelessness, and self-concept in African American boys (N = 84). The experience of racism is a complex phenomenon that has been found to have negative psychological outcomes in adult studies of African Americans. There has been a gap in the empirical literature regarding the possible associations between perceived racism and children's psychological well-being. This study is an attempt to address that gap. Results demonstrated that experiences of racism were related to self- and parent-reported externalizing symptoms. Personal experiences of racism were related to self-reported internalizing symptoms, lower self-concept, and higher levels of hopelessness. Potential mediators (e.g., trait anger, hostile attribution bias) were analyzed. Additional analyses indicated that trait anger mediated a number of the observed relations between perceived racism and behavioral symptoms. The results of the study suggest that perceived racism is associated with multiple negative correlates for African American boys.

  18. Perceived parenting styles differ between genders but not between elite athletes and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Gerber, Markus; Beck, Johannes; Kalak, Nadeem; Hatzinger, Martin; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2011-01-01

    For adolescent elite athletes, parental financial and emotional support is crucial. However, parents of elite athletes may be critical and demanding. Moreover, there is evidence that girls report more favorable perceived parenting styles compared with boys. The aim of the present study was to investigate perceived parenting styles among female and male adolescent elite athletes and controls. We sampled 258 adolescent elite athletes (139 females, 119 males) and 176 controls (139 females, 37 males). Participants completed a questionnaire to assess perceived parenting styles (support, commendation, reproach, restriction, inconsistency). Results showed that parenting styles did not differ between athletes and controls, except for restriction, for which athletes reported lower levels. Female adolescents had higher scores for positive and lower scores for negative perceived parenting styles.

  19. Perceived parenting styles differ between genders but not between elite athletes and controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Gerber, Markus; Beck, Johannes; Kalak, Nadeem; Hatzinger, Martin; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2011-01-01

    For adolescent elite athletes, parental financial and emotional support is crucial. However, parents of elite athletes may be critical and demanding. Moreover, there is evidence that girls report more favorable perceived parenting styles compared with boys. The aim of the present study was to investigate perceived parenting styles among female and male adolescent elite athletes and controls. We sampled 258 adolescent elite athletes (139 females, 119 males) and 176 controls (139 females, 37 males). Participants completed a questionnaire to assess perceived parenting styles (support, commendation, reproach, restriction, inconsistency). Results showed that parenting styles did not differ between athletes and controls, except for restriction, for which athletes reported lower levels. Female adolescents had higher scores for positive and lower scores for negative perceived parenting styles. PMID:24600271

  20. Perceived barriers to treatment predict adherence to aromatase inhibitors among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brier, Moriah J; Chambless, Dianne L; Gross, Robert; Chen, Jinbo; Mao, Jun J

    2017-01-01

    Although poor adherence to hormonal therapies such as aromatase inhibitors (AIs) is widely documented, to the authors' knowledge less is known regarding whether health beliefs predict treatment nonadherence. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the relationship between health beliefs (perceived susceptibility to breast cancer, perceived benefits of AI treatment, and perceived barriers to AI treatment) and adherence to AIs. Postmenopausal women with early-stage, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer who were currently receiving treatment with an AI completed the 3-factor Health Beliefs and Medication Adherence in Breast Cancer scale and questionnaires concerning their demographics and symptoms. Adherence data (treatment gaps and premature discontinuation) were abstracted from participants' medical charts. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the relationship between health beliefs and adherence. Among 437 participants, 93 (21.3%) were nonadherent. Those who perceived greater barriers to their AI treatment were more likely to demonstrate AI nonadherence behaviors by the end of their treatment period compared with those who reported fewer barriers to AI therapy (adjusted odds ratio, 1.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.86 [P = .04]). In contrast, perceived susceptibility to cancer recurrence and perceived benefits of AIs did not appear to predict AI adherence. Minority individuals were found to have lower perceived susceptibility to breast cancer recurrence and higher perceived barriers to AI treatment (Padherence in survivors of breast cancer. Cancer 2017;169-176. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  1. Perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms among immigrant-origin adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Claudius, Milena

    2013-07-01

    Although discrimination has been found to contribute to psychological distress among immigrant populations, there are few studies that have examined the relationship between racial and ethnic discrimination in the school setting among foreign-born immigrant and U.S.-born immigrant-origin adolescents. This study examined the relationship between perceived discrimination by adults and peers in the school setting and depressive symptoms in a sample (N = 95) of racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents (13 to 19 years of age) attending an urban high school. We examined the relation between perceived discrimination and depressive symptomology across gender and nativity status (foreign born vs. U.S. born), and the potential moderating role of ethnic identity and social support. Consistent with previous research, girls reported higher levels of depressive symptomology than boys, although the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms was significant for both boys and girls. Perceived discrimination by adults and by peers at school was positively related to depressive symptoms for U.S.-born adolescents. For U.S.-born adolescents, ethnic identity mitigated the negative effects of perceived adult discrimination on depressive symptoms. However, ethnic identity did not moderate the relationship between perceived peer discrimination and depressive symptoms. Social support did not moderate the relationship between adult and peer discrimination and depressive symptoms for either foreign-born or U.S.-born adolescents. The findings support previous research concerning the immigrant paradox and highlight the importance of context in the relationship between perceived discrimination and mental health. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed.

  2. Yoga for reducing perceived stress and back pain at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartfiel, N; Burton, C; Rycroft-Malone, J; Clarke, G; Havenhand, J; Khalsa, S B; Edwards, R T

    2012-12-01

    Stress and back pain are two key factors leading to sickness absence at work. Recent research indicates that yoga can be effective for reducing perceived stress, alleviating back pain, and improving psychological well-being. To determine the effectiveness of a yoga-based intervention for reducing perceived stress and back pain at work. Participants were recruited from a British local government authority and randomized into a yoga group who received one 50 min Dru Yoga session each week for 8 weeks and a 20 min DVD for home practice and a control group who received no intervention. Baseline and end-programme measurements of self-reported stress, back pain and psychological well-being were assessed with the Perceived Stress Scale, Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale. There were 37 participants in each group. Analysis of variance and multiple linear regression showed that in comparison to the control group, the yoga group reported significant reductions in perceived stress and back pain, and a substantial improvement in psychological well-being. When compared with the control group at the end of the programme, the yoga group scores were significantly lower for perceived stress, back pain, sadness and hostility, and substantially higher for feeling self-assured, attentive and serene. The results indicate that a workplace yoga intervention can reduce perceived stress and back pain and improve psychological well-being. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to determine the broader efficacy of yoga for improving workplace productivity and reducing sickness absence.

  3. Reports of Perceived Adverse Events of Stimulant Medication on Cognition, Motivation, and Mood: Qualitative Investigation and the Generation of Items for the Medication and Cognition Rating Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovshoff, H.; Banaschewski, T.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Carucci, S.; Coghill, D.; Danckaerts, M.; Dittmann, R.W.; Falissard, B.; Grimshaw, D.G.; Hollis, C.; Inglis, S.; Konrad, K.; Liddle, E.; McCarthy, S.; Nagy, P.; Thompson, M.; Wong, I.C.; Zuddas, A.; Sonuga-Barke, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There is no questionnaire to specifically monitor perceived adverse events of methylphenidate (MPH) on cognition, motivation, and mood. The current study therefore had two goals. First, to harvest accounts of such putative events from transcripts of interviews in samples enriched for such

  4. Brief report: social and communication abilities and disabilities in higher functioning individuals with autism and Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulnier, Celine A; Klin, Ami

    2007-04-01

    Individuals with higher functioning autism (HFA) fail to translate their cognitive potential into real-life adaptation, and the severity of their symptoms is considerable despite their intellectual ability. This paper reports on a subsample from a larger study (A. Klin et al., in press) analyzed here by autism spectrum subtypes. It focuses on the nature of ability and disability in HFA and Asperger syndrome (AS) in relation to age and IQ. Participants included 32 individuals with autism and 35 with AS. Individuals with AS had significantly higher Verbal IQ scores and less symptomatology than individuals with autism, but their Vineland scores were equally impaired, highlighting the adaptive deficits in ASD regardless of classification. No relationship was found between adaptive functioning and symptom severity.

  5. Perceived pain and temporomandibular disorders in neuromuscular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Michael J; Riedlinger, Kathrin; Schoser, Benedikt; Bernateck, Michael

    2009-10-01

    Little is known about pain associated with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in neuromuscular diseases. Inpatients (N = 134) with neuromuscular disorder diagnoses were given questionnaires to estimate pain localization and intensity. Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders and the Temporomandibular Index (TMI) were utilized to assess TMD. Pain was reported by 116 patients (86%). Legs (52%) and arms (33%) were the most common locations for pain localization, but the highest Pearson correlations (TMI vs. perceived pain) appeared for pain located in the trunk and arms (0.861, P < 0.01). No correlation between TMI and diagnosis group existed except for "acquired myopathy" and "miscellaneous neuromuscular diseases." These results suggest that the degree of TMD does not correlate with pain according to disease, although common mechanisms might be responsible for pain development in specific body regions connected with TMD. Most important, higher levels of TMD are associated with higher levels of perceived pain.

  6. Perceived stress and gastrointestinal symptoms in nursing students in Korea: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Eun

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although nursing students experience a high level of stress during their training, there has been limited research on stress and its impact on the student's physical responses, such as gastrointestinal symptoms. The aims of this study are to assess the prevalence of GI symptoms in nursing students in Korea and to examine the association between the perceived stress and GI symptoms. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study design was used. A total of 715 students of a three-year associate degree nursing program in a Korean college participated. The Perceived Stress Scale and a GI Symptoms Questionnaire were administered through a self-reported system. Chi-square tests, Fisher's exact test, and logistic regression analysis were performed using SPSS 17.0. Results Sixty-five percent of the nursing students experienced more than one GI symptom, with 31.1% of students reporting more than three GI symptoms. Most of the nursing students complained of upper dysmotility and bowel symptoms. In addition, students who reported higher perceived stress were significantly more likely to complain of GI symptoms. Compared to nursing students with the lowest perceived stress level, the adjusted odds ratio (OR for GI symptoms in students with the highest perceived stress level was 3.52 times higher (95% CI = 2.05-6.06. Conclusions GI symptoms that are highly prevalent among nursing students are significantly associated with the perceived stress level. High perceived stress should be considered a risk factor for GI symptoms. To reduce perceived stress, stress management programs including cognitive reappraisal training are needed in nursing curriculum.

  7. Evaluation of higher distribution and/or utilization voltages. Fourth interim report (August 1980): assessment of optimum distribution configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    This interim report provides documentation on the fourth task, Assessment of Optimum Distribution Configuration, of DOE Contract No. ET-78-C-01-2866, Evaluation of Higher Distribution and/or Utilization Voltages. The work performed under this task includes the development of a computer model for assessment of life cycle costs for the distribution and utilization systems, the development of an optimization algorithm to enable distribution system configuration optimization and a net energy analysis to determine potential net energy savings. Input data for this task derive from Task 3. The major output of this task is a documented computer code.

  8. Modified A{sup ++}-standard refrigerator with 30% reduction of energy consumption. Higher efficiency by compressor modification - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegrist, M.; Stahl, S.; Ganz, J.

    2010-06-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at how a modified refrigerator can be given a higher efficiency by modifying the compressor. The modified refrigerator was fitted with a variable-speed compressor. This compressor could be run at much lower speeds so that it was in operation for up to 90% of the time. It was shown that less electricity was consumed the more the compressor ran. The report discusses the aims of the work and presents details on the standard refrigerator used for the tests. The compressor normally used and the variable-speed compressor used in the test are described. Systems for temperature control and data acquisition during the tests are described. The results obtained are examined and the influence of various factors is discussed.

  9. Total Quality Management in Higher Education: Clearing the Hurdles. A Survey on Strategies for Implementing Quality Management Practices in Higher Education. A GOAL/QPC Application Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Daniel

    Based on a survey of Quality Management (QM) practitioners at 21 colleges, this study presents the 10 most difficult implementation hurdles to QM in higher education and a set of hurdle-clearing strategies. The hurdles are: (1) lack of time to implement QM; (2) perception that QM is something for janitorial and housing staffs but not applicable to…

  10. Bilingual Higher Education Summer Institute. Bilingual Higher Education: Foundations, Policy, and Practice. Report of Proceedings (Seton Hall University, August 24-29, 1979).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotayo, Rosa Maria, Ed.

    Papers are presented from the New Jersey Department of Higher Education Summer Institute. Focus is on sociolinguistic, anthropological, social psychological, pedagogical, and socio-political-economic considerations. Each analyzes particular factors that influence the form and quality of bilingual policy and instruction programs, and offers…

  11. Total Quality Management in Higher Education: Clearing the Hurdles. A Survey on Strategies for Implementing Quality Management Practices in Higher Education. A GOAL/QPC Application Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Daniel

    Based on a survey of Quality Management (QM) practitioners at 21 colleges, this study presents the 10 most difficult implementation hurdles to QM in higher education and a set of hurdle-clearing strategies. The hurdles are: (1) lack of time to implement QM; (2) perception that QM is something for janitorial and housing staffs but not applicable to…

  12. The Path to Excellence: Quality Assurance in Higher Education. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Research Reports, No. 1. FYI Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Lawrence R.; And Others

    There is an increasing interest by government in accountability for higher education. Efforts such as performance budgeting, performance auditing, and state review of academic programs are becoming more common. Opponents of government involvement assert that regional accreditation reviews are sufficient to maintain quality standards. However,…

  13. The affecting of perceived product quality and perceived risk on perceived product value

    OpenAIRE

    Pisnik Korda, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Perceived value is an extremely important concept in marketing and many authors have dealt with it in the recent years. There are numerous factors affecting perceived product value and we focused on three: perceived product price, perceived product quality and perceived risk. In this paper we present two of them: perceived product quality and perceived risk. Perceived product value is the difference between value in use and price. Value in use is a mix of benefits, which a customer is likely ...

  14. Perceived Sources of Stress among Junior & Mid-Senior Egyptian Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedky, Nabila A

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the sources of stress among dental students enrolled at Pharos University in Alexandria (PUA) - Egypt, and to explore the role of gender, level of undergraduate study and residence with parents on perceived stressors. A thirty-item self-reported modified version of the Dental Environment Stress (DES) questionnaire was administered to 537 junior and mid-senior undergraduate dental students during the academic fall semester 2010, with a response rate of 79.89%. Workload, performance pressure, and self-efficacy beliefs constituted the most stress-provoking factors. Female students experienced greater stress than males for all stressor items except for "Self-Efficacy Beliefs" and "Faculty & Administration" with no statistically significant difference by gender. Mid-senior dental students registered higher levels of perceived stress for "Workload", "Self-Efficacy Beliefs", and "Personal Factors" stressors in comparison to their junior peers. Those students who lived away of their parents were at higher risk of perceived stress than those students who lived with their parents. "Uncertainty about future dental career" was the first best predictor variable by gender. Whereas, "Difficulty of classwork" was the first predictor variable by both level of undergraduate study and residence with parents. Female dental students had higher mean overall problem scores compared to their male counterparts, mid-senior students showed some higher perceived problems compared to junior students, and students who lived away from their parents revealed higher levels of perceived stress.

  15. [Perceived norms among Honduran university students about peers and tobacco, alcohol, marijuana and cocaine use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Syntia Dinora Santos; Cunningham, John; Strike, Carol; Brands, Bruna; Wright, Maria da Gloria Miotto

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the difference between perceived norms and peers' drug use among sophomore and junior university students (from the field of education) aged 18 to 24 years. The Social Norms Theory was used as the theoretical framework. In total, 286 students participated in the study, 67% of which reported having consumed alcohol at least once in a lifetime and 28% stated being daily users. Students perceived that 62% of their peers used tobacco and 63% used alcohol. The perceived norm for drug use was slightly higher in women than in men. In conclusion, there is an overestimation between the perceived norm and use of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and cocaine.

  16. Gendered aspects of perceived and internalized HIV-related stigma in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Lin, Chunqing; Ji, Guoping

    2016-09-14

    Although studies have demonstrated that females experience more HIV-related stigma than males do, questions remain regarding the different dimensions of the stigma (i.e., perceived versus internalized) in China. The present study investigated gender differences in perceived and internalized HIV-related stigma, taking into account the potential influence of education. The study was conducted between October 2011 and March 2013. A total of 522 people living with HIV (PLH) were recruited from Anhui Province, China. The PLH participated in a survey using the Computer Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) method. The gender differences in perceived and internalized HIV-related stigma were calculated with and without stratifying by education level. Female participants had significantly less education than the male participants. No significant difference was observed between females and males with respect to perceived stigma. However, females reported significantly higher internalized stigma than males did (p PLH in China and other regions with similar gender dynamics.

  17. Jail Inmates’ Perceived and Anticipated Stigma: Implications for Post-release Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kelly; Stuewig, Jeffrey; Tangney, June

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that offenders perceive stigma, but the accuracy of these perceptions has not been assessed, nor their impact on successful reintegration. In a longitudinal study, jail inmates (N = 168) reported perceptions of stigma toward criminals and anticipated stigma just prior to release. A diverse college sample completed a parallel survey assessing stigmatizing attitudes toward criminals. Inmates’ perceived stigma was significantly higher than students’ stigmatizing attitudes. Perceived stigma positively predicted post-release employment for African-American inmates, but not for Caucasians. Anticipated stigma negatively predicted arrests for Caucasian inmates, but not for African Americans. Perceived and anticipated stigma may have different implications for reintegration, and these implications may vary across race. PMID:25045324

  18. Perceived stress in first year medical students - associations with personal resources and emotional distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Ines; Bullinger, Monika; Kocalevent, Rüya-Daniela

    2017-01-06

    Medical students have been found to report high levels of perceived stress, yet there is a lack of theoretical frameworks examining possible reasons. This cross-sectional study examines correlates of perceived stress in medical students on the basis of a conceptual stress model originally developed for and applied to the general population. The aim was to identify via structural equation modeling the associations between perceived stress and emotional distress (anxiety and depression), taking into account the activation of personal resources (optimism, self-efficacy and resilient coping). Within this cross-sectional study, 321 first year medical students (age 22 ± 4 years, 39.3% men) completed the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-20), the Self-Efficacy Optimism Scale (SWOP) and the Brief Resilient Coping Scale (BRCS) as well as the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-4). The statistical analyses used t-tests, ANOVA, Spearman Rho correlation and multiple regression analysis as well as structural equation modeling. Medical students reported higher levels of perceived stress and higher levels of anxiety and depression than reference samples. No statistically significant differences in stress levels were found within the sample according to gender, migration background or employment status. Students reported more self-efficacy, optimism, and resilient coping and higher emotional distress compared to validation samples and results in other studies. Structural equation analysis revealed a satisfactory fit between empirical data and the proposed stress model indicating that personal resources modulated perceived stress, which in turn had an impact on emotional distress. Medical students' perceived stress and emotional distress levels are generally high, with personal resources acting as a buffer, thus supporting the population-based general stress model. Results suggest providing individual interventions for those students, who need support in dealing with the

  19. Black women's health: the effect of perceived racism and intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltermaurer, Eve; Watson, Carole-Ann; McNutt, Louise-Anne

    2006-12-01

    This study provides preliminary evidence of the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and intimate partner violence (IPV) and how these exposures interact to affect the mental and physical health of Black women. The exposures of lifetime perceived racial discrimination and IPV were found to be highly associated. Furthermore, women who reported both exposures showed a notably higher prevalence of anxiety and nonspecific physical health symptoms compared with women who reported either or neither exposure. To appropriately respond to the health needs of Black women, it is essential that women's many stressors be considered simultaneously.

  20. Perceived psychological stress among undergraduate medical students: Role of academic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranadip Chowdhury

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there is a growing concern about stress during undergraduate medical training. The objectives of our study were to assess perceived stress among undergraduate medical students and to find out academic factors as determinants. A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among undergraduate medical students of R. G. Kar Medical College, India, during July 2011–June 2012. Perceived stress was assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale-14. A 10-item questionnaire was used to assess academic sources of stress and their severity. The overall mean perceived stress score was 29.58 (standard deviation [SD] = 6.60, and 46.3% of the participants were in the group of more stressed (perceived stress score ≥28. The academic stressor factors predicted 78% of variability of perceived stress. A higher level of perceived stress was reported by the students. The students should be taught different stress management techniques to improve their ability to cope with a demanding professional course.

  1. The role of social support in students' perceived abilities and attitudes toward math and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Lindsay; Barth, Joan M; Guadagno, Rosanna E; Smith, Gabrielle P A; McCallum, Debra M

    2013-07-01

    Social cognitive models examining academic and career outcomes emphasize constructs such as attitude, interest, and self-efficacy as key factors affecting students' pursuit of STEM (science, technology, engineering and math) courses and careers. The current research examines another under-researched component of social cognitive models: social support, and the relationship between this component and attitude and self-efficacy in math and science. A large cross-sectional design was used gathering data from 1,552 participants in four adolescent school settings from 5th grade to early college (41 % female, 80 % white). Students completed measures of perceived social support from parents, teachers and friends as well as their perceived ability and attitudes toward math and science. Fifth grade and college students reported higher levels of support from teachers and friends when compared to students at other grade levels. In addition, students who perceived greater social support for math and science from parents, teachers, and friends reported better attitudes and had higher perceptions of their abilities in math and science. Lastly, structural equation modeling revealed that social support had both a direct effect on math and science perceived abilities and an indirect effect mediated through math and science attitudes. Findings suggest that students who perceive greater social support for math and science from parents, teachers, and friends have more positive attitudes toward math and science and a higher sense of their own competence in these subjects.

  2. Factors associated with differences in perceived health among German long-term unemployed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limm Heribert

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unemployment is associated with reduced physical and psychological well-being. Perceived health is an important factor influencing health outcomes as well as successful returns to work. This study aims to determine the extent to which perceived health correlates with mental health, various health risk characteristics and socio-demographic characteristics in a setting-selected sample of long-term unemployed persons. Methods Using SF-12, 365 long-term unemployed persons were assessed for self-perceived health and various socio-demographic and health characteristics. Perceived health data of the sample was compared to the German SF-12 reference population. Bivariate analyses and multiple linear regression models were applied to identify those variables significantly associated with perceived health. Results The study population reported poorer perceived health compared with the general population. Analyses showed that perceived mental health was significantly worse in women, among persons with heightened depression and anxiety scores, and in participants reporting reduced levels of physical activity. Perceived physical health was significantly lower among older persons, participants with a higher BMI, and participants with heightened depression and anxiety scores. Both mental and physical health were worse among the unemployed assigned to an employment center as compared to those engaged in the secondary labor market. In total, 36% of the variance in the SF-12 mental score and 20% of the variance in the SF-12 physical score were explained by the factors included in the final multiple linear regression models. Conclusions Perceived health among a select group of long-term unemployed is reduced to a clinically relevant extent compared to the general population. The preliminary findings underline an association between mental health and perceived health. Negative self-perceptions of health were also associated with the labor market

  3. Citizen participation, perceived control, and psychological empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, M A; Rappaport, J

    1988-10-01

    The research integrates the citizen participation literature with research on perceived control in an effort to further our understanding of psychological empowerment. Eleven indices of empowerment representing personality, cognitive, and motivational measures were identified to represent the construct. Three studies examined the relationship between empowerment and participation. The first study examined differences among groups identified by a laboratory manipulation as willing to participate in personally relevant or community relevant situations. Study II examined differences for groups defined by actual involvement in community activities and organizations. Study III replicated Study II with a different population. In each study, individuals reporting a greater amount of participation scored higher on indices of empowerment. Psychological empowerment could be described as the connection between a sense of personal competence, a desire for, and a willingness to take action in the public domain. Discriminant function analyses resulted in one significant dimension, identified as pyschological empowerment, that was positively correlated with leadership and negatively correlated with alienation.

  4. Mental well-being mediates the relationship between perceived stress and perceived health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Hui Chian; Archer, Josephine A; Chang, Weining; Chen, S H Annabel

    2015-02-01

    The association between stress and health has been well researched in the past; however, comparatively few mediators have been tested to understand the underlying mechanism. With increasing awareness on mental well-being, this study evaluated the relationship between perceived stress and perceived health and examined mental well-being as a mediator. Two-hundred undergraduates aged 21 to 26 years completed the English Perceived Stress Scale, Health Status Questionnaire and Asian Mental Well-Being Scale that assess perceived stress, perceived health and mental well-being, respectively. Factor analysis and structural equation modelling on the Perceived Stress Scale replicated the reported two-factor structure after excluding an insignificant item. Linear multiple regression analyses indicated that perceived stress was negatively associated with perceived health. Results showed that mental well-being partially mediated the relationship between perceived stress and perceived health, although it is acknowledged that this association could be bidirectional. Findings from the present study suggest that future research could focus on reducing stress and improving mental well-being to alleviate the effect of stress on health. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. The price-perceived quality relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völckner, Franziska; Hofmann, Julian

    2009-01-01

    The authors conducted a meta-analysis of study results on the price-perceived quality relationship published from 1989 to 2006. The findings show that the price effect on perceived quality has decreased. Furthermore, the price–quality relationship is stronger in studies that use a within......-subjects design, investigate higher priced products, and use samples from European countries but weaker for services, durable goods, and respondents who are familiar with the product. A striking null result indicates that the number of cues does not affect the price-perceived quality relationship significantly....

  6. The price-perceived quality relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Völckner, Franziska; Hofmann, Julian

    2009-01-01

    The authors conducted a meta-analysis of study results on the price-perceived quality relationship published from 1989 to 2006. The findings show that the price effect on perceived quality has decreased. Furthermore, the price–quality relationship is stronger in studies that use a within......-subjects design, investigate higher priced products, and use samples from European countries but weaker for services, durable goods, and respondents who are familiar with the product. A striking null result indicates that the number of cues does not affect the price-perceived quality relationship significantly....

  7. Psychosocial effects of perceived emotional synchrony in collective gatherings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páez, Dario; Rimé, Bernard; Basabe, Nekane; Wlodarczyk, Anna; Zumeta, Larraitz

    2015-05-01

    In a classic theory, Durkheim (1912) predicted that because of the social sharing of emotion they generate, collective gatherings bring participants to a stage of collective effervescence in which they experience a sense of union with others and a feeling of empowerment accompanied by positive affect. This would lead them to leave the collective situation with a renewed sense of confidence in life and in social institutions. A century after Durkheim's predictions of these effects, though, they remained untested as a whole. This article reports 4 studies, 2 correlational, 1 semilongitudinal, and 1 experimental, assessing the positive effects of participation in either positively valenced (folkloric marches) or negatively valenced (protest demonstrations) collective gatherings. Results confirmed that collective gatherings consistently strengthened collective identity, identity fusion, and social integration, as well as enhancing personal and collective self-esteem and efficacy, positive affect, and positive social beliefs among participants. In line with a central tenet of the theory, emotional communion, or perceived emotional synchrony with others mediated these effects. Higher perceived emotional synchrony was associated with stronger emotional reactions, stronger social support, and higher endorsement of social beliefs and values. Participation in symbolic collective gatherings also particularly reinforced identity fusion when perceived emotional synchrony was high. The respective contributions of perceived emotional synchrony and flow, or optimal experience, were also assessed. Whereas perceived emotional synchrony emerged as strongly related to the various social outcomes, flow was observed to be related first to collective efficacy and self-esteem, and thus, to encompass mainly empowerment effects. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Empirical Research on Methods of Identification for the Driving Factors of Customer Perceived Value of Higher Vocational Education%高职教育顾客感知价值驱动因素识别实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈民利

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates a model of perceived customer value in polytechnic education.An exploratory study is conducted through the questionnaire survey and the in-depth interview.Based on the exploratory factor analysis,four factors,including the emotional value,the services value,the environmental value and the development value are discovered,and some conclusions and suggestions are put forward.%基于顾客感知价值驱动因素的实证研究方法,通过深度访谈和问卷调查,进行探索性因子分析,获得高职教育感知价值驱动因素的四个因子:情感价值、服务价值、环境价值及发展价值;在对四个因子进行分析的基础上提出了相关的结论和建议。

  9. Higher prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia in triple iron ultra-triathletes than reported for ironman triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-06-30

    "In a recent study of male and female ultra-marathoners in a 161-km ultra-marathon, the prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) was higher than reported for marathoners. Regarding triathletes, the prevalence of EAH has been investigated in Ironman triathletes, but not in Triple Iron ultra-triathletes. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of EAH in male ultra-triathletes competing in a Triple Iron ultra-triathlon over 11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling, and 126.6 km running. Changes in body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, total body water, haematocrit, plasma volume, plasma sodium concentration ([Na ⁺ ]) and urine specific gravity were determined in 31 male athletes with (means ± standard deviation) 42.1 ± 8.1 years of age, 77.0 ± 7.0 kg body mass, 1.78 ± 0.06 m body height and a BMI of 24.3 ± 1.7 kg/m² in the 'Triple Iron Triathlon Germany'. Of the 31 finishers, eight athletes (26%) developed asymptomatic EAH. Body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, and haematocrit decreased, plasma volume increased ( P Iron ultra-triathletes compared to existing reports on Ironman triathletes. Body fluid homeostasis remained stable in these ultra-triathletes although body mass decreased."

  10. Higher Drop in Speed during a Repeated Sprint Test in Soccer Players Reporting Former Hamstring Strain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røksund, Ola D; Kristoffersen, Morten; Bogen, Bård E; Wisnes, Alexander; Engeseth, Merete S; Nilsen, Ann-Kristin; Iversen, Vegard V; Mæland, Silje; Gundersen, Hilde

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Hamstring strain injury is common in soccer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical capacity of players who have and have not suffered from hamstring strain injury in a sample of semi-professional and professional Norwegian soccer players in order to evaluate characteristics and to identify possible indications of insufficient rehabilitation. Method: Seventy-five semi-professional and professional soccer players (19 ± 3 years) playing at the second and third level in the Norwegian league participated in the study. All players answered a questionnaire, including one question about hamstring strain injury (yes/no) during the previous 2 years. They also performed a 40 m maximal sprint test, a repeated sprint test (8 × 20 m), a countermovement jump, a maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) test, strength tests and flexibility tests. Independent sample t-tests were used to evaluate differences in the physical capacity of the players who had suffered from hamstring strain injury and those who had not. Mixed between-within subject's analyses of variance was used to compare changes in speed during the repeated sprint test between groups. Results: Players who reported hamstring strain injury during the previous two years (16%) had a significantly higher drop in speed (0.07 vs. 0.02 s, p = 0.007) during the repeated sprint test, compared to players reporting no previous hamstring strain injury. In addition, there was a significant interaction (groups × time) (F = 3.22, p = 0.002), showing that speed in the two groups changed differently during the repeated sprint test. There were no significant differences in relations to age, weight, height, body fat, linear speed, countermovement jump height, leg strength, VO2max, or hamstring flexibility between the groups. Conclusion: Soccer players who reported hamstring strain injury during the previous 2 years showed significant higher drop in speed during the repeated sprint test compared to players with no hamstring

  11. Higher Drop in Speed during a Repeated Sprint Test in Soccer Players Reporting Former Hamstring Strain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røksund, Ola D.; Kristoffersen, Morten; Bogen, Bård E.; Wisnes, Alexander; Engeseth, Merete S.; Nilsen, Ann-Kristin; Iversen, Vegard V.; Mæland, Silje; Gundersen, Hilde

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Hamstring strain injury is common in soccer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical capacity of players who have and have not suffered from hamstring strain injury in a sample of semi-professional and professional Norwegian soccer players in order to evaluate characteristics and to identify possible indications of insufficient rehabilitation. Method: Seventy-five semi-professional and professional soccer players (19 ± 3 years) playing at the second and third level in the Norwegian league participated in the study. All players answered a questionnaire, including one question about hamstring strain injury (yes/no) during the previous 2 years. They also performed a 40 m maximal sprint test, a repeated sprint test (8 × 20 m), a countermovement jump, a maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) test, strength tests and flexibility tests. Independent sample t-tests were used to evaluate differences in the physical capacity of the players who had suffered from hamstring strain injury and those who had not. Mixed between-within subject's analyses of variance was used to compare changes in speed during the repeated sprint test between groups. Results: Players who reported hamstring strain injury during the previous two years (16%) had a significantly higher drop in speed (0.07 vs. 0.02 s, p = 0.007) during the repeated sprint test, compared to players reporting no previous hamstring strain injury. In addition, there was a significant interaction (groups × time) (F = 3.22, p = 0.002), showing that speed in the two groups changed differently during the repeated sprint test. There were no significant differences in relations to age, weight, height, body fat, linear speed, countermovement jump height, leg strength, VO2max, or hamstring flexibility between the groups. Conclusion: Soccer players who reported hamstring strain injury during the previous 2 years showed significant higher drop in speed during the repeated sprint test compared to players with no hamstring

  12. Italian university students' self-perceived health and satisfaction of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara de Waure

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Health is defined as a state of complete physical, social and mental wellbeing, therefore, it should not be considered as simply the absence of disease. In this light, the assessment of self-perceived health and life satisfaction plays an important role as it allows addressing the subjective perception of physical health, as well as mental health and social functioning. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study analyzed data from 8516 university students enrolled in the "Sportello Salute Giovani" project ("Youth Health Information Desk". In particular, it addressed self-perceived health and life satisfaction, reported somatic and psychological symptoms and ability to cope with daily problems of university students from 18 to 30 years old. RESULTS: Overall, 77.1% of students declared to have a good or very good health and the mean score of life satisfaction was 7.46. In respect to somatic and psychological symptoms, 25.8% of students reported to suffer almost daily of at least one among headache, stomach pain, back pain, tiredness, nervousness, dizziness and troubles falling asleep. Results varied on the basis of sex, with women showing lower self-perceived health compared to men and reporting more symptoms. Furthermore, self-perceived health was shown better in younger students and in those belonging to higher socio-economic level. DISCUSSION: The survey showed that concern exists with respect to university students' self-perceived health, which is different from that arising from other evidence. Female students had a significant lower self-perceived health and reported somatic and psychological symptoms more commonly than men. On the other hand, results about life satisfaction seem to be aligned with the literature. CONCLUSION: One of the most important implications of the study is the need to address self-perceived health and reported symptoms in university students in order to monitor them and initiate interventions aimed at improving

  13. The relationship between perceived stress and gastrointestinal symptoms in nursing and midwifery students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Huseyin Cam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Students are subjected to different kinds of stressors, such as the pressure of academics with an obligation, an uncertain future and difficulties of integrating into the system. Although nursing and midwifery students experience a high level of stress during their training, there has been limited research on stress and its impact on the student's physical responses, such as gastrointestinal symptoms. The aims of this study are to assess the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in nursing and midwifery students and to examine the association between the perceived stress and gastrointestinal symptoms. Methods: This performed using cross-sectional descriptive study design study enrolled a total of 449 students participates in the study in a university degree program was carried out on 366 nursing and midwifery students accepted. A personal information questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale and a Gastrointestinal Symptoms Questionnaire were administered through a self-reported system. Results: Seventy point two percent of the nursing and midwifery students experienced at least one gastrointestinal symptom, with 35.8% of students reporting at least three gastrointestinal symptoms. Most of the nursing and midwifery students complained of upper dysmotility and bowel symptoms. In addition, students who reported higher perceived stress were significantly more likely to complain of gastrointestinal symptoms. Compared to students with the lowest perceived stress level, the adjusted odds ratio for gastrointestinal symptoms in students with the highest perceived stress level was 6.45 times higher. Conclusions: Gastrointestinal symptoms that are highly prevalent among nursing and midwifery students are significantly associated with the perceived stress level. High perceived stress should be considered a risk factor for gastrointestinal symptoms. Based on the study findings, there is a critical need of instructing the nursing and midwifery students

  14. Perceived stress and its predictors in people with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hye-Jin; Seo, Jong-Geun; Park, Sung-Pa

    2016-09-01

    Perceived stress in people with epilepsy (PWE) is one of the major precipitants for seizures. We investigated the degree of perceived stress in PWE and its predictors. We also aimed to reveal the interrelationships among the predictors. This was a case-control study. Consecutive patients visiting a tertiary care epilepsy clinic completed self-reported questionnaires including the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Revised Stigma Scale (RSS), Korean version of the Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy (K-NDDI-E), Generalized Anxiety Disorder - 7 (GAD-7), and short forms of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System - Sleep Disturbance (PROMIS-SD) and Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System - Sleep-Related Impairment (PROMIS-SRI) scales. The mean score of the PSS was significantly lower in patients with well-controlled epilepsy (WCE) and higher in those with uncontrolled epilepsy compared with controls. Although several factors including demographic, socioeconomic, psychosomatic, and epilepsy-related factors were associated with the PSS score, the strongest predictor for the PSS score was the K-NDDI-E score, followed by the PROMIS-SRI score, the GAD-7 score, and seizure control. Psychosomatic factors exerted both a direct effect on the PSS score and an indirect effect on the PSS score through seizure control. Rapid detection and appropriate management of psychiatric and sleep-related problems in PWE may lessen stress and aid in preventing further seizures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The validity of socioeconomic status measures among adolescents based on self-reported information about parents occupations, FAS and perceived SES; implication for health related quality of life studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Svedberg

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown inconsistencies in results and difficulties in conceptualization of assessment of socioeconomic status (SES among adolescents. The aim of this study was thus to test the validity of self-reported information on SES in two age-groups (11–13 and 14–16 years old in an adolescent population and to evaluate its relationship to self-reported health related quality of life (HRQOL. Different measures of SES commonly used in research in relation to HRQOL were tested in this study; parent’s occupations status, family material affluence status (FAS and perceived SES. Method A cross-sectional study, with a sample of 948 respondents (n = 467, 11–13 years old and n = 481, 14–16 years old completed questionnaires about SES and HRQOL. The adolescents’ completion rates were used, with chi2-test, to investigate differences between gender and age-group. Correlation was used for convergent validity and ANOVA for concurrent validity. Results We found a low completion rate for both fathers’ (41.7 % and mothers' (37.5 % occupation status, and a difference in completion rate between gender and age-groups. FAS had the highest completion rate (100 % compared to parent's occupations status and perceived SES. The convergent validity between the SES-indicators was weak (Spearman correlation coefficient below 0.3, suggesting that the indicators measured different dimensions of SES. Both FAS and perceived SES showed a gradient in mean HRQOL between low and high SES in relation to HRQOL, this was significant only for perceived SES (p < 0.01, both age-groups. Conclusion This study indicates the need for considering different approaches to measures of SES among adolescences and when evaluating SES in relation to HRQOL. Further research is needed to investigate sustainable ways to measure SES, delineating the relevance of tangible measures of education, occupation and income in relation to the perceived

  16. Perceiving others' personalities: examining the dimensionality, assumed similarity to the self, and stability of perceiver effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sanjay; Guglielmo, Steve; Beer, Jennifer S

    2010-03-01

    In interpersonal perception, "perceiver effects" are tendencies of perceivers to see other people in a particular way. Two studies of naturalistic interactions examined perceiver effects for personality traits: seeing a typical other as sympathetic or quarrelsome, responsible or careless, and so forth. Several basic questions were addressed. First, are perceiver effects organized as a global evaluative halo, or do perceptions of different traits vary in distinct ways? Second, does assumed similarity (as evidenced by self-perceiver correlations) reflect broad evaluative consistency or trait-specific content? Third, are perceiver effects a manifestation of stable beliefs about the generalized other, or do they form in specific contexts as group-specific stereotypes? Findings indicated that perceiver effects were better described by a differentiated, multidimensional structure with both trait-specific content and a higher order global evaluation factor. Assumed similarity was at least partially attributable to trait-specific content, not just to broad evaluative similarity between self and others. Perceiver effects were correlated with gender and attachment style, but in newly formed groups, they became more stable over time, suggesting that they grew dynamically as group stereotypes. Implications for the interpretation of perceiver effects and for research on personality assessment and psychopathology are discussed.

  17. The influence of self-efficacy, pre-stroke depression and perceived social support on self-reported depressive symptoms during stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, A; Jöbges, M; Werheid, K

    2013-01-01

    Post-stroke depression (PSD) is the most common mental disorder following stroke; however, little is known about its pathogenesis. We investigated the predictive value and mutual relationship of psychological factors such as self-efficacy and social support and known risk factors such as pre-stroke depression, activities of daily living (ADL), cognitive functioning, and age for the emergence of depressive symptoms in the acute phase after stroke. Ninety-six ischaemic stroke inpatients residing at a rehabilitation centre completed an interview about 6.5 weeks post-stroke. The interview included demographic data, psychiatric anamnesis, the Barthel Index, Mini-Mental State Examination, Social Support Questionnaire, Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale, Stroke Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, and the Geriatric Depression Scale. A multiple regression analysis was performed to ascertain the predictive value of the factors on depressive symptoms. High self-efficacy, no history of pre-stroke depression, and high levels of perceived social support were the strongest protective factors for depressive symptoms. The influence of cognitive functioning on depressive symptoms was fully mediated by general self-efficacy, and general self-efficacy was a stronger predictor than stroke-specific self-efficacy. Neither ADL nor age significantly predicted depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that consideration of self-efficacy and perceived social support in the inpatient rehabilitation setting may help prevent PSD.

  18. 财务报告舞弊行政处罚与可感知审计质量%Administrative Penalty on Financial Reporting Fraud and Perceived Auditing Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏伟

    2012-01-01

    Using normally trading A Share Companies from 2001 to 2008 in Chinese capital market which do not belong to finance industry nor issue foreign shares as samples,this paper investigates whether administrative penalty on financial reporting fraud tells the information of perceived auditing quality.The empirical results show that generally investors do not believe administrative penalty on financial reporting fraud tells the information of perceived auditing quality.However,when investors see the bad news such as modified opinion or scandals like auditors' administrative penalty,they would believe administrative penalty on financial reporting fraud truly reveals the information of perceived auditing quality.%以2001年至2008年间非金融类、非外资类正常交易A股公司为研究样本,考察财务报告舞弊行政处罚是否传递了可感知审计质量信息,实证研究结果表明:投资者总体上并不认可财务报告舞弊行政处罚传递了可感知审计质量信息,仅当投资者观察到反映坏消息的审计意见(如审计师出具非标审计意见、审计意见未改善等)和反映审计师声誉信息(如审计师受到行政处罚)的情况下,投资者才认为财务报告舞弊行政处罚传递了可感知审计质量信息。

  19. Higher Education Reform for Quality Higher Education Management in the 21st Century: Economic, Technological, Social, and Political Forces Affecting Higher Education. Proceedings of the 1999 Six-Nation Summit (Hiroshima, Japan, September 20-21, 1999). RIHE International Seminar Reports, No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Higher Education.

    This publication presents proceedings from a 1999 conference on higher education reform and quality that involved six countries: China, Germany, Japan, Singapore, Switzerland, and the United States. The first section, "Report of the Six-Nation Higher Education Project," presents "Summary of the Progress of the Higher Education…

  20. Young adolescents who combine alcohol and energy drinks have a higher risk of reporting negative behavioural outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Joppova, Eva; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2017-04-01

    To explore whether young adolescents consuming alcohol and energy drinks combined were more likely to report negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drink only one type of these beverages or are abstinent. We analysed data on a representative sample of Slovak adolescents 8502 adolescents (mean age 13.21, 49.4 % boys) from the 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children cross-sectional study. We assessed the associations of alcohol and energy drinks consumption with negative outcomes and their potential synergy, as measured by the synergy index (SI). Adolescents consuming both alcohol and energy drinks were at higher risk of negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drank only alcohol or energy drinks or were non-consumers. Consumers of alcohol and energy drinks were highly prone to be involved in fighting-the joint association of alcohol and energy drinks consumption was greater than sum of its associations separately in relation to fighting (SI 1.49; 95 % confidence interval 1.03-2.16). Preventive strategies should aim at increasing awareness of negative behavioural outcomes-especially aggressive behaviour associated with alcohol and energy drinks consumption among young adolescents.

  1. Parenting and adolescents' accuracy in perceiving parental values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafo, Ariel; Schwartz, Shalom H

    2003-01-01

    What determines adolescents' accuracy in perceiving parental values? The current study examined potential predictors including parental value communication, family value agreement, and parenting styles. In the study, 547 Israeli adolescents (aged 16 to 18) of diverse socioeconomic backgrounds participated with their parents. Adolescents reported the values they perceive their parents want them to hold. Parents reported their socialization values. Accuracy in perceiving parents' overall value system correlated positively with parents' actual and perceived value agreement and perceived parental warmth and responsiveness, but negatively with perceived value conflict, indifferent parenting, and autocratic parenting in all gender compositions of parent-child dyads. Other associations varied by dyad type. Findings were similar for predicting accuracy in perceiving two specific values: tradition and hedonism. The article discusses implications for the processes that underlie accurate perception, gender differences, and other potential influences on accuracy in value perception.

  2. Perceived Behavioral Changes in Early Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Souza Lima

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired behavioral changes have essentially been described in advanced multiple sclerosis (MS. The present study was designed to determine whether behavioral modifications specifically related to the MS pathological process could be identified in the initial phase of the disease, as compared to control patients with chronic, relapsing and progressive inflammatory disorders not involving the central nervous system (CNS. Eighty-eight early MS patients (Expanded Disability Status Scale score ≤ 2.5 and 48 controls were tested. Perceived changes by informants in behavioral control, goal-directed behavior, decision making, emotional expression, insight and interpersonal relationships were assessed using the Iowa Scale of Personality Change (ISPC. Executive behavioral disturbances were screened using the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX. The mean change between the premorbid and postmorbid ISPC ratings was similar in the MS [12.2 (SD 15.6] and in the control [11.5 (SD 15.1] group. The perceived behavioral changes (PBCs most frequently reported in both groups were lack of stamina, lability/moodiness, anxiety, vulnerability to stress and irritability. Pathological scores in the DEX were also similar in both groups. Correlations between PBCs and DEX scores were different in MS and control groups. MS patients with cognitive impairment had a marginally higher number of PBCs than control patients (p = 0.056 and a significantly higher DEXp score (p = 0.04. These results suggest that (1 PBCs occurring in early MS patients were not different from those induced by comparable chronic non-CNS disorders, (2 qualitative differences in the relationship between behavioral symptoms and executive-behavioral changes may exist between MS and control groups, and (3 behavioral symptoms seem associated with cognitive deficits in MS. We further plan to assess these observations longitudinally.

  3. Actual versus perceived peer sexual risk behavior in online youth social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sandra R; Schmiege, Sarah; Bull, Sheana

    2013-09-01

    Perception of peer behaviors is an important predictor of actual risk behaviors among youth. However, we lack understanding of peer influence through social media and of actual and perceived peer behavior concordance. The purpose of this research is to document the relationship between individual perception of and actual peer sexual risk behavior using online social networks. The data are a result of a secondary analysis of baseline self-reported and peer-reported sexual risk behavior from a cluster randomized trial including 1,029 persons from 162 virtual networks. Individuals (seeds) recruited up to three friends who then recruited additional friends, extending three waves from the seed. ANOVA models compared network means of actual participant behavior across categories of perceived behavior. Concordance varied between reported and perceived behavior, with higher concordance between perceived and reported condom use, multiple partners, concurrent partners, sexual pressure, and drug and alcohol use during sex. Individuals significantly over-reported risk and under-reported protective peer behaviors related to sex.

  4. Perceived racial discrimination and mental health in low-income, urban-dwelling whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Kelly M; Thorpe, Roland J; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and the presence of anxiety and depression in a sample of low-income, urban-dwelling whites. Data were analyzed from a cross-sectional survey of low-income whites living in an inner-city neighborhood in the mid-Atlantic United States. Perceived racial discrimination was reported by 39 percent of participants. Rates of depression in the population exceed prevalence rates in the general U.S. population. Those who perceived racial discrimination and were bothered by it experienced significantly greater odds of being depressed (OR = 2.78, 95% CI 1.60-4.82) and had higher anxiety scores (b = 2.02, SE 0.55, p = 0.000) than those who did not perceive racial discrimination. Low-income, urban white populations have been largely ignored in public health research. This study demonstrates that perceived racial discrimination is common in poor urban whites. Further, exposure to discrimination that is perceived as a stressor is associated with mental illness.

  5. Perceived discrimination, family functioning, and depressive symptoms among immigrant women in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao-Jan; Wu, Jyun-Yi; Huang, Sheng-Shiung; Lien, Mei-Huei; Lee, Tony Szu-Hsien

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of family functioning on the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms in immigrant women. A total of 239 immigrant women were selected from four administrative regions in Central Taiwan. Questionnaires concerning perceived discrimination, family functioning (including family cohesion and family adaptability), depressive symptoms, and demographic characteristics were completed by either women themselves (N = 120) or their husbands (N = 119). The moderating effect of family functioning on the relationship between perceived discrimination and depression symptoms was analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Findings showed that a higher level of perceived discrimination among immigrant women is associated with more severe depressive symptoms. Family functioning serves as a moderator between the relationship of perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms, but the moderating effect of family adaptability was evident only in data reported by immigrant women. The results indicate that perceived discrimination has negative mental health implications, and also point to the importance of family functioning for depression. Findings suggest that providers should consider addressing immigrant women's mental health needs through declining their psychosocial distress at multiple ecological levels.

  6. Perceived positions determine crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maus, Gerrit W; Fischer, Jason; Whitney, David

    2011-01-01

    Crowding is a fundamental bottleneck in object recognition. In crowding, an object in the periphery becomes unrecognizable when surrounded by clutter or distractor objects. Crowding depends on the positions of target and distractors, both their eccentricity and their relative spacing. In all previous studies, position has been expressed in terms of retinal position. However, in a number of situations retinal and perceived positions can be dissociated. Does retinal or perceived position determine the magnitude of crowding? Here observers performed an orientation judgment on a target Gabor patch surrounded by distractors that drifted toward or away from the target, causing an illusory motion-induced position shift. Distractors in identical physical positions led to worse performance when they drifted towards the target (appearing closer) versus away from the target (appearing further). This difference in crowding corresponded to the difference in perceived positions. Further, the perceptual mislocalization was necessary for the change in crowding, and both the mislocalization and crowding scaled with drift speed. The results show that crowding occurs after perceived positions have been assigned by the visual system. Crowding does not operate in a purely retinal coordinate system; perceived positions need to be taken into account.

  7. Perceived positions determine crowding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit W Maus

    Full Text Available Crowding is a fundamental bottleneck in object recognition. In crowding, an object in the periphery becomes unrecognizable when surrounded by clutter or distractor objects. Crowding depends on the positions of target and distractors, both their eccentricity and their relative spacing. In all previous studies, position has been expressed in terms of retinal position. However, in a number of situations retinal and perceived positions can be dissociated. Does retinal or perceived position determine the magnitude of crowding? Here observers performed an orientation judgment on a target Gabor patch surrounded by distractors that drifted toward or away from the target, causing an illusory motion-induced position shift. Distractors in identical physical positions led to worse performance when they drifted towards the target (appearing closer versus away from the target (appearing further. This difference in crowding corresponded to the difference in perceived positions. Further, the perceptual mislocalization was necessary for the change in crowding, and both the mislocalization and crowding scaled with drift speed. The results show that crowding occurs after perceived positions have been assigned by the visual system. Crowding does not operate in a purely retinal coordinate system; perceived positions need to be taken into account.

  8. An Analysis of the Public Reporting to Lothian and Borders Police on Perceived Terrorism-Related Matters after the Glasgow Airport Terrorist Attack in 2007

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The Glasgow Airport terrorist attack of 2007 led to the initiation of a Lothian and Borders Police operation to investigate an expected increase in the public reporting of terrorism-related matters. This paper considers the two specific areas of data in respect of these reports: the reporters and the information they imparted. An analysis of reporter characteristics is undertaken, highlighting areas of interest concerning age, employment and place of birth. The information imparted to the pol...

  9. Perceived Severity and Susceptibility of Diabetes Complications and its Relation to Self-care Behaviors among Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Morowaty Sharifabad

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diabetes is a disease with long cardiovascular, renal, eye and neural complications. It is prevalent all around the world including Iran and especially in Yazd province and its prevalence is increasing. Higher perceived severity and susceptibility of its complications may cause a higher level of self care behaviors in these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the constructs’ status and their related factors in diabetic patients. Materials & Methods: This analytical study was carried out on 120 diabetic patients referred to Yazd Diabetes Research Center which were recruited with a sampling method. A questionnaire was used for data collection which measured the perceived severity and susceptibility and self care behaviors. Subjects’ demographic variables such as age, sex, education level, job, history of diabetes duration and type of diabetes were also recorded. Results: The subjects reported 86.72, 55.72 and 62.79% of receivable scores of perceived severity, perceived susceptibility and self care score, respectively. Deteriorating eyesight was perceived at the highest level of severity and circulatory problems in the feet were at the lowest level. Deteriorating eyesight and aching legs and blurred vision was at the highest level of perceived susceptibility while high and low sugar coma was at the lowest level. Men had a higher level of perceived severity than women. There was a significant correlation between history of diabetes duration and perceived susceptibility and severity × susceptibility. Perceived susceptibility and severity, and severity × susceptibility and self care behaviors had a significant correlation with each other at 0.01 level. Perceived susceptibility and severity predicted 12.1% of variances in self care behaviors while severity × susceptibility predicted 12% of variances in self care behaviors. Conclusion: Despite the fact that perceived severity of diabetes complications among

  10. Development of the Perceived Nutrition Environment Measures Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sarah H; Glanz, Karen

    2015-07-01

    Objective, observational measures of nutrition environments are now well established and widely used. Individuals' perceptions of their nutrition environments may be equally or more important, but are less well conceptualized, and comprehensive measures are not available. This paper describes the development of the Perceived Nutrition Environment Measures Survey (NEMS-P), its test-retest reliability, and its ability to discern differences between lower- and higher-SES neighborhoods. This research involved five steps: (1) development of a conceptual model and inventory of items; (2) expert review; (3) pilot testing and cognitive interviews; (4) revising the survey; and (5) administering the revised survey to participants in neighborhoods of high and low SES on two occasions to evaluate neighborhood differences and test-retest reliability. Data were collected in 2010 and 2011 and analyzed in 2011 and 2012. The final survey has 118 items. Fifty-three core items represent three types of perceived nutrition environments: community nutrition environment, consumer nutrition environment, and home food environment. Test-retest reliability for core constructs of perceived nutrition environments was moderate to good (0.52-0.83) for most measured constructs. Residents of higher-SES neighborhoods reported higher availability scores in stores, stronger agreement that healthy options were available in nearby restaurants, and higher scores for accessibility of healthy foods in their homes. The NEMS-P has moderate to good test-retest reliability and can discriminate perceptions of nutrition environments between residents of higher- and lower-SES neighborhoods. This survey is available and ready to be used. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. An Analysis of the Public Reporting to Lothian and Borders Police on Perceived Terrorism-Related Matters after the Glasgow Airport Terrorist Attack in 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Gallagher

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Glasgow Airport terrorist attack of 2007 led to the initiation of a Lothian and Borders Police operation to investigate an expected increase in the public reporting of terrorism-related matters. This paper considers the two specific areas of data in respect of these reports: the reporters and the information they imparted. An analysis of reporter characteristics is undertaken, highlighting areas of interest concerning age, employment and place of birth. The information imparted to the police is then analysed with particular aspects of reporting identified, primarily the activity the subject was undertaking, with sub-analysis of ethnicity of subjects and premises cited. The influence of the media is also considered. The conclusions centre on the prevalence of Asian subjects in the reporting, an apparent lack of minority reporters and the nature of the public implications concerning terrorist activity as opposed to overt expressions of the nature of suspicions.

  12. Relationship research between the self consistency and congruence、perceived social support and mental health of higher vocational college students%高职生自我和谐、领悟社会支持与心理健康之间的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明兰; 陈旭

    2013-01-01

    采用自我和谐量表、领悟社会支持量表以及心理健康自评量表(SCL-90),对重庆市2所高职院校456名高职生进行自我和谐、领悟社会支持和心理健康的评定分析.结果显示:在所测评的3种自我和谐因子中,高职生所面临的主要自我和谐问题是自我与经验的不和谐;高职生所领悟到的社会支持依次为:家庭支持、其他支持、朋友支持;高职生自我和谐、领悟社会支持与心理健康之间有密切关系,且相关系数均达到显著性水平.%By using self consistency and congruence scale,perceived social support scale and mental health scale (SCL-90),with 2 higher vocational colleges in Chongqing city,self harmony,social support and mental health of 456 students were assessed and analysed.Results:In 3 self harmonious factors evaluated,the main self consistency and congruence problems of vocational college students are facing is the disharmony of self and experience ; The social support the HVC students perceived are in order:family support,other support,friend support;There is a close relationship among self consistency and congruence,perceived social support and mental health of HVC students,and the correlation coefficients reached significant level.

  13. Association of perceived stigma and mood and anxiety disorders : results from the World Mental Health Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, J.; Buron, A.; Bruffaerts, R.; He, Y.; Posada-Villa, J.; Lepine, J-P.; Angermeyer, M. C.; Levinson, D.; de Girolamo, G.; Tachimori, H.; Mneimneh, Z. N.; Medina-Mora, M. E.; Ormel, J.; Scott, K. M.; Gureje, O.; Haro, J. M.; Gluzman, S.; Lee, S.; Vilagut, G.; Kessler, R. C.; Von Korff, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the prevalence of perceived stigma among persons with mental disorders and chronic physical conditions in an international study. Method: Perceived stigma (reporting health-related embarrassment and discrimination) was assessed among adults reporting significant disability. Me

  14. Association of perceived stigma and mood and anxiety disorders: results from the World Mental Health Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, J.; Buron, A.; Bruffaerts, R.; He, Y.; Posada-Villa, J.; Lepine, J.P.; Angermeyer, M.C.; Levinson, D.; De Girolamo, G.; Tachimori, H.; Mneimneh, Z.N.; Medina-Mora, M.E.; Ormel, J.; Scott, K.M.; Gureje, O.; Haro, J.M.; Gluzman, S.; Lee, S.; Vilagut, G.; Kessler, R.C.; Von Korff, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the prevalence of perceived stigma among persons with mental disorders and chronic physical conditions in an international study. Method: Perceived stigma (reporting health-related embarrassment and discrimination) was assessed among adults reporting significant disability.

  15. Association of perceived stigma and mood and anxiety disorders : results from the World Mental Health Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, J.; Buron, A.; Bruffaerts, R.; He, Y.; Posada-Villa, J.; Lepine, J-P.; Angermeyer, M. C.; Levinson, D.; de Girolamo, G.; Tachimori, H.; Mneimneh, Z. N.; Medina-Mora, M. E.; Ormel, J.; Scott, K. M.; Gureje, O.; Haro, J. M.; Gluzman, S.; Lee, S.; Vilagut, G.; Kessler, R. C.; Von Korff, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the prevalence of perceived stigma among persons with mental disorders and chronic physical conditions in an international study. Method: Perceived stigma (reporting health-related embarrassment and discrimination) was assessed among adults reporting significant disability.

  16. Association of perceived stigma and mood and anxiety disorders : results from the World Mental Health Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, J.; Buron, A.; Bruffaerts, R.; He, Y.; Posada-Villa, J.; Lepine, J-P.; Angermeyer, M. C.; Levinson, D.; de Girolamo, G.; Tachimori, H.; Mneimneh, Z. N.; Medina-Mora, M. E.; Ormel, J.; Scott, K. M.; Gureje, O.; Haro, J. M.; Gluzman, S.; Lee, S.; Vilagut, G.; Kessler, R. C.; Von Korff, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the prevalence of perceived stigma among persons with mental disorders and chronic physical conditions in an international study. Method: Perceived stigma (reporting health-related embarrassment and discrimination) was assessed among adults reporting significant disability. Me

  17. Association of perceived stigma and mood and anxiety disorders: results from the World Mental Health Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, J.; Buron, A.; Bruffaerts, R.; He, Y.; Posada-Villa, J.; Lepine, J.P.; Angermeyer, M.C.; Levinson, D.; De Girolamo, G.; Tachimori, H.; Mneimneh, Z.N.; Medina-Mora, M.E.; Ormel, J.; Scott, K.M.; Gureje, O.; Haro, J.M.; Gluzman, S.; Lee, S.; Vilagut, G.; Kessler, R.C.; Von Korff, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the prevalence of perceived stigma among persons with mental disorders and chronic physical conditions in an international study. Method: Perceived stigma (reporting health-related embarrassment and discrimination) was assessed among adults reporting significant disability. Me

  18. Perceived social position and health: Is there a reciprocal relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarski, Dana

    2010-03-01

    Recent work exploring the relationship between socioeconomic status and health has employed a psychosocial concept called perceived social position as a predictor of health. Perceived social position is likely the "cognitive averaging" (Singh-Manoux, Marmot, & Adler, 2005) of socioeconomic characteristics over time and, like other socioeconomic factors, is subject to interplay with health over the life course. Based on the hypothesis that health can also affect perceived social position, in this paper we used structural equation modeling to examine whether perceived social position and three different health outcomes were reciprocally related in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, a longitudinal cohort study of older adults in the United States. The relationship between perceived social position and health differed across health outcomes-self-reported health, the Health Utilities Index, and depressive symptoms-as well as across operationalization of perceived social position-compared to the population of the United States, compared to one's community, and a latent variable of which the two items are indicators. We found that perceived social position affected self-reported health when operationalized as latent and US perceived social position, yet there was a reciprocal relationship between self-reported health and community perceived social position. There was a reciprocal relationship between perceived social position and the Health Utilities Index, and depressive symptoms affected perceived social position for all operationalization of perceived social position. The findings suggest that the causal relationship hypothesized in prior studies--that perceived social position affects health--does not necessarily hold in empirical models of reciprocal relationships. Future research should interrogate the relationship between perceived social position and health rather than assume the direction of causality in their relationship.

  19. The Impact of Perceived College Students and Psychosocial Factors on Missed Class and Work in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jenifer J.; Borrayo, Evelinn A.

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of how missed class and work are influenced by psychosocial factors is important. The authors collected data from 303 college students through self-report questionnaires. Moderation analysis indicated that with higher perceived stress, students were more likely to miss class if they were less satisfied with social support and less…

  20. The Impact of Perceived College Students and Psychosocial Factors on Missed Class and Work in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jenifer J.; Borrayo, Evelinn A.

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of how missed class and work are influenced by psychosocial factors is important. The authors collected data from 303 college students through self-report questionnaires. Moderation analysis indicated that with higher perceived stress, students were more likely to miss class if they were less satisfied with social support and less…

  1. Academic stress differentially influences perceived stress, salivary cortisol, and immunoglobulin-A in undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lara; Denis, Randy; Ward, Christopher P; Tartar, Jaime L

    2010-07-01

    Academic examination stress is reported to increase physiological and self-report measures of stress and to decrease immune functioning. Here, we investigate biochemical and self-report measures of stress, immune functioning, and academic pressures before and during a midterm examination period. Undergraduate students were asked to complete a measure of global stress, the perceived stress scale (PSS-10), and to indicate their current level of perceived stress. They also answered questions regarding specific academic pressures and provided a saliva sample for cortisol and salivary immunoglobulin-A (S-IgA) quantification. Students showed increased salivary cortisol concentrations and also reported greater acute perceived stress during the examination period compared to the non-examination period. Although cortisol concentrations and perceived stress were significantly higher during the examination period, participants reported similar levels of global stress (PSS-10) during both testing sessions. Additional analyses showed a non-significant increase in the level of S-IgA from the non-examination period to the examination period. Specific pressure variables that appeared to contribute to stress regulation during the examination week included the amount of time spent studying and concern about the impact of examinations in the future. By demonstrating measures of chronic examination stress, these findings provide new insight into the complex relationship between examination stress, cortisol, and immune functioning.

  2. Perceived discrimination and self-rated health in South Korea: a nationally representative survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Sup Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is mounting evidence that discriminatory experiences can harm health. However, previous research has mainly focused on the health effects of racial discrimination in U.S. or European countries although there is pervasive discrimination by gender, age, education and other factors in Asian countries. METHODS: We analyzed the data from the 7th wave of Korean Labor and Income Panel Study to investigate the association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health in South Korea. Perceived discriminatory experiences were measured in eight situations through a modified Experience of Discrimination questionnaire. In each of eight situations, the lifetime prevalence of perceived discriminatory experience was compared between men and women and the main causes of those experiences were identified separately by gender. After adjusting for potential confounders, we examined the association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health in each of eight social situations and also checked the association using the number of situations of perceived discriminatory experiences. RESULTS: For both men and women, education level and age were the main sources of work-related perceived discriminatory experiences. Gender was one of the main causes among women across eight situations and more than 90% of women reported their gender as a main cause of discriminatory experience in getting higher education and at home. Discriminatory experiences in four situations were positively associated with poor self-rated health. The odds ratio for poor self-rated health for those exposed to one, two, three or four or more social situations of perceived discrimination were respectively 1.06 (95% CI : 0.87-1.29, 1.15 (95% CI : 0.96-1.55, 1.59 (95% CI : 1.19-2.14, and 1.78 (95% CI :1.26-2.51. CONCLUSION: There is consistent association between perceived discriminatory experience and poor self-rated health across eight

  3. Construct validity of the Perceived Criticism Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambless, Dianne L; Blake, Kimberly D

    2009-06-01

    The construct validity of the Perceived Criticism Measure (PCM) was examined in 2 studies. In Study 1, 50 community couples participated in problem-solving interactions after which they rated interaction-specific perceived criticism and their criticism of their spouses. In addition, they provided ratings of perceived criticism for their relationship overall and completed measures of psychopathology and marital satisfaction. For both husbands and wives, convergent validity was demonstrated by moderate-to-large correlations between the PCM and spouses' own ratings of their criticism for both general and interaction-specific perceived criticism. In Study 2, 37 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and their spouses participated in problem-solving interactions and provided ratings of marital satisfaction and general perceived criticism. Five untrained coders rated the interactions according to their own definitions of the relatives' destructive criticism of the patient. Their aggregated ratings proved strongly related to patients' PCM scores. Higher PCM scores were related to lower marital satisfaction in both Studies 1 and 2. The results of these studies are supportive of the convergent validity of the Perceived Criticism Measure. Evidence of discriminant validity was mixed.

  4. Chinese American adolescents: perceived parenting styles and adolescents' psychosocial health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuwen, W; Chen, A C C

    2013-06-01

    Asian Americans are one of the fastest-growing minority groups in the USA, and Chinese constitute the largest group. Evidence suggests that Asian American adolescents experience higher levels of depressive symptoms than their same-gender white counterparts. Quantitative findings suggest associations between parenting factors and Chinese American adolescents' mental health. A qualitative understanding regarding Chinese American adolescents' perceived parenting styles and its relationship with adolescents' psychosocial health is warranted. To gain an in-depth understanding of Chinese American adolescents' perceived parenting styles and how parenting styles might influence adolescents' psychosocial health. In this qualitative study, we recruited 15 Chinese American adolescents aged 12-17 years in a southwest metropolitan area. We conducted two focus group interviews. Participants also filled out a brief questionnaire that included their socio-demographic information, immigration history and level of acculturation. Participants reported perceiving that parents had high expectations about academic performance and moral values. They also perceived stricter family rules regarding choices of friends compared with their non-Asian peers. Parents tended to be more protective of girls than of boys. Both Chinese American boys and girls reported poor or ineffective communication with their parents, which contributed to increased conflict between parents and adolescents and emotional distress of the adolescents. The findings provide evidence for nurses to develop linguistically and culturally tailored resources (e.g. parent support groups, programs aimed to improving parent-child communication) or connect these families with existing resources to enhance parenting skills and consequently reduce emotional distress of their adolescent children. © 2012 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2012 International Council of Nurses.

  5. Perceived stress and fatigue among students in a doctor of chiropractic training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizhakkeveettil, Anupama; Vosko, Andrew M; Brash, Marissa; Ph, Dr; Philips, Michael A

    2017-03-01

    High levels of stress and fatigue are associated with decreased academic success, well-being, and quality of life. The objective of this research was to quantify levels of perceived stress and fatigue among chiropractic students to identify sources of and student coping mechanisms for perceived stress and fatigue and to identify the relationship between students' perceived stress and fatigue. A survey comprised of the Perceived Stress Scale, the Undergraduate Sources of Stress Survey, and the Piper Fatigue Scale was administered to chiropractic students in their 2nd, 5th, and 8th trimesters of doctoral study. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, 1-way analysis of variance, and linear correlation tests. Students reported having moderate to high levels of stress and fatigue, with higher levels of stress and fatigue seen in women than in men. A nonsignificant difference among stress scores and a significant difference among fatigue scores were observed based on program term. Levels of stress predicted levels of fatigue, and stress was strongly correlated with psychological health, relationships with family members, mood, and need for learning accommodations. Fatigue was strongly correlated with psychological health, academic demands, and conflicts between studies and other activities. There are differences in the reporting of perceived stress and fatigue levels in this chiropractic student population based on gender. The correlation between fatigue and stress also suggests that measures that may alleviate one may likely affect the other.

  6. Impostor feelings as a moderator and mediator of the relationship between perceived discrimination and mental health among racial/ethnic minority college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cokley, Kevin; Smith, Leann; Bernard, Donte; Hurst, Ashley; Jackson, Stacey; Stone, Steven; Awosogba, Olufunke; Saucer, Chastity; Bailey, Marlon; Roberts, Davia

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated whether impostor feelings would both moderate and mediate the relationship between perceived discrimination and mental health in a sample of diverse ethnic minority college students (106 African Americans, 102 Asian Americans, 108 Latino/a Americans) at an urban public university. African American students reported higher perceived discrimination than Asian American and Latino/a American students, while no racial/ethnic group differences were reported for impostor feelings. Analyses revealed that among African American students, high levels of impostor feelings moderated the perceived discrimination and depression relationship and mediated the perceived discrimination and anxiety relationship. Among Asian American students, impostor feelings mediated the relationship between perceived discrimination and both depression and anxiety. Among Latino/a American students low levels of impostor feelings moderated the relationship between perceived discrimination and both depression and anxiety, and partially mediated the relationship between perceived discrimination and anxiety. Multigroup path analyses revealed a significantly stronger impact of impostor feelings on depression among African American students and a stronger impact of perceived discrimination on impostor feelings among African American and Latino/a American students. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Effects of perceived social support and family demands on college students' mental well-being: A cross-cultural investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallad, Yacoub; Jabr, Fares

    2016-10-01

    The effects of perceived social support and family demands on college students' mental well-being (perceived stress and depression) were assessed in 2 samples of Jordanian and Turkish college students. Statistically significant negative correlations were found between perceived support and mental well-being. Multiple regression analyses showed that perceived family support was a better predictor of mental well-being for Jordanian students, while perceived support from friends was a better predictor of mental well-being for Turkish students. Perceived family demands were stronger predictors of mental well-being for participants from both ethnic groups. Jordanian and Turkish participants who perceived their families to be too demanding were more likely to report higher depression and stress levels. None of the interactions between social support or family demands and either of the 2 demographic variables were statistically significant. These findings provide a more nuanced view of the relationship between social support and mental health among college students, and point to the relevance of some cultural and situational factors. They also draw further attention to the detrimental effects of unrealistic family demands and pressures on the mental health of college youths. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  8. Assessing the congruence between perceived connectivity and network centrality measures specific to pandemic influenza preparedness in Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiell Alan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent research has suggested that perceived organizational connectivity may serve as an important measure of public health preparedness. Presumably, organizations with higher perceived connectivity also have a greater number of actual organizational ties. Using network analysis, we evaluate this presumption by assessing the correlation between perceived organizational connectivity and reported inter-organizational connections. Methods During late 2007-early 2008, representatives from organizations involved in the delivery of public health systems in Alberta were asked to complete an online questionnaire on public health preparedness. Organizational jurisdictional information was collected. Items from Dorn and colleagues connectivity scale (2007 were used to measure perceived organizational connectivity. Inter-organizational network data on formal connections in the area of pandemic influenza preparedness were collected using a roster approach. These data were imported into UCINET to calculate in- and out-degree centrality scores for each organization. One-way ANOVA tests assessed if perceived connectivity and in- and out-degree centrality varied among jurisdictions. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess the correlation of perceived connectivity and in- and out-degree centrality. Results Significant mean differences among jurisdictions were observed for in-degree (F(3,116 = 26.60, p F(3,116 = 5.24, p r(123 = 0.22, p r(123 = -0.07, p > 0.05. Conclusions The results suggest in terms of pandemic preparedness that perceived connectivity may serve as a partial proxy measure of formal out-degree network connectivity.

  9. Perceived health, life satisfaction, and cardiovascular risk factors among elderly Korean immigrants and elderly Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Mo-Kyung; Chae, Young-Ran; Choe, Myoung-Ae; Murphy, Patrick; Kim, Jeungim; Jeon, Mi-Yang

    2011-03-01

    Acknowledging that changes in sociocultural environment influence health status, the purpose of this study was to compare perceived health, life satisfaction, and cardiovascular health in elderly Korean immigrants and elderly Koreans. In this cross-sectional study, a convenience sample of 88 elderly Korean immigrants and 295 elderly Koreans 65 and older were recruited from Korean communities in the United States and Korea. Respondents' perceived health was measured by self-assessment; life satisfaction was self-assessed using a dichotomous scale of general satisfaction with life; and cardiovascular health status was surveyed by self-report of major diagnosed cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus) and body mass index measurement for obesity. Despite having better perceived health and life satisfaction, elderly Korean immigrants also had higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. The findings provide health care providers with useful information for effective health assessment of minority immigrants.

  10. Sustainable Facility Development: Perceived Benefits and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinnett, Brad; Gibson, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the perceived benefits and challenges of implementing sustainable initiatives in collegiate recreational sports facilities. Additionally, this paper intends to contribute to the evolving field of facility sustainability in higher education. Design/methodology/approach The design included qualitative…

  11. Sustainable Facility Development: Perceived Benefits and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinnett, Brad; Gibson, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the perceived benefits and challenges of implementing sustainable initiatives in collegiate recreational sports facilities. Additionally, this paper intends to contribute to the evolving field of facility sustainability in higher education. Design/methodology/approach The design included qualitative…

  12. Effects of Perceived Sugar on Chocolate Intake on Self-Reported Food Cravings, Mood States, and Food Intake: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, Lara J.

    1999-01-01

    Many dieters and compulsive overeaters report that sugar and chocolate are the most commonly craved foods. Further, many individuals have proclaimed themselves to be "addicted" to sugar or chocolate. It remains unclear, however, what factors lead to report of specific food addictions. A number of researchers have suggested that highly repetitive consumption of sugar and chocolate may result from various physiological processes (e.g., neurochemical imbalances, glucose/insulin malfunctioning). ...

  13. The University of North Carolina Report on Expanding Access to Higher Education through State-Funded Distance Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of North Carolina General Administration, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Legislation in 1998 provided enrollment funding for UNC distance education. This report documents the growth of UNC distance education programs and their role in meeting the high priority education and economic development needs of the State. As highlighted in the Executive Summary and documented throughout this report, state enrollment funding…

  14. Television for Higher Technical Education of Workers. Final Report On a Pilot Project in Poland. Reports and Papers on Mass Communication Number 67.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Dept. of Mass Communication.

    The "Television Polytechnic" program of 1966 - 1970 was a joint effort of the Polish Ministry of Higher Education and Polish Television to provide televised education for working students. The subjects taught were those normally included in the first two years of the higher technical schools--math, physics, geometry, chemistry, mechanics…

  15. The association between perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology and depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasing, Sanne P. A.; Creemers, Daan H. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental depression and anxiety is known to heighten the risk of internalizing symptoms and disorders in children and adolescents. Ample research has focused on the influence of maternal depression and anxiety, but the contribution of psychopathology in fathers remains unclear. We studied the relationships of perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology with adolescents’ depression and anxiety symptoms in a general population sample of 862 adolescent girls (age M = 12.39, SD = 0.79). Assessments included adolescents’ self-reports of their own depression and anxiety as well as their reports of maternal and paternal psychopathology. We found that perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology were both related to depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls. A combination of higher maternal and paternal psychopathology was related to even higher levels of depression and anxiety in adolescent girls. Our findings showed that adolescents’ perceptions of their parents’ psychopathology are significantly related to their own emotional problems. PMID:26257664

  16. Can negative life events and coping style help explain socioeconomic differences in perceived stress among adolescents? A cross-sectional study based on the West Jutland cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasscock, David J; Andersen, Johan H; Labriola, Merete; Rasmussen, Kurt; Hansen, Claus D

    2013-06-02

    Previous research suggests that perceived stress in adolescence is socially patterned, but that this relationship may depend on the measure of socioeconomic status (SES) used. This study examines if social gradients in perceived stress, negative life events, and coping exist amongst Danish adolescents, and, if life events and coping strategies can partly account for an association between SES and perceived stress. These relationships are studied separately for two different measures of SES. Questionnaire data were collected from 3054 14-15 year old youths (83% response rate) during baseline measurement in the West Jutland birth cohort study. Parents were identified via the Central Office of Civil Registration in which the respondents are linked to their parents or guardians via their CPR-number, a personal identification number given to everyone in Denmark. The study employs data from two independent sources, adolescent self-report data (stress, life events and coping) and national registers (parental educational level, household income and confounder variables). Ordinary Least Squares regression estimated the effects of parental SES, negative life events and coping on perceived stress. Analyses were stratified by gender. Girls reported more perceived stress than boys. SES accounted for a small but significant amount of the variance in perceived stress. Lower parental education and lower household income were associated with higher stress levels irrespective of gender, but the social gradient was strongest amongst girls when parents' education was used to measure SES, and strongest for boys when income was used. Life events and coping were also found to be associated with SES and both mediated part of the SES-perceived stress relationship. In general, the social gradient in perceived stress was accounted for by the study variables to a higher degree among girls than among boys. Lower parental education and household income are associated with higher levels of

  17. Perceived Time as a Measure of Mental Workload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Holmegaard, Kristin Due

    2013-01-01

    paradigm, which asserts that perceived time decreases with increasing mental workload. We also find a higher perceived time ratio for solved than unsolved tasks, while subjective workload ratings indicate lower mental workload for the solved tasks. This finding shows that the relationship between...

  18. Characteristics of Nursing Homes Perceived to Be Effective and Efficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Sharon; McCaffree, Kenneth M.

    1976-01-01

    Characteristics of nursing homes perceived as effective and efficient by other administrators and persons in state government are compared to characteristics of nursing homes across the nation. Facilities perceived as efficient and effective had more staff, were certified for more levels of care, had more beds, and higher occupancy rates. (Author)

  19. The relationship of modern health worries to non-specific physical symptoms and perceived environmental sensitivity : A study combining self-reported and general practice data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baliatsas, Christos; van Kamp, Irene; Hooiveld, Mariëtte; Lebret, Erik; Yzermans, Joris

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study investigates the association of modern health worries (MHW) with self-reported as well as general practitioner (GP)-registered non-specific physical symptoms (NSPS), medication use, alternative therapy consultations, sleep quality and quality of life. The interrelation be

  20. Efficiency and Effectiveness in Higher Education: A Report by the Universities UK Efficiency and Modernisation Task Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universities UK, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Effectiveness, efficiency and value for money are central concerns for the higher education sector. In England, decisions made by the current Government will effect a radical change in the funding for teaching. Institutions will be managing a reduction in public funding for teaching and the transition to the new system of graduate contributions,…

  1. Considering Teaching Excellence in Higher Education: 2007-2013. A Literature Review since the CHERI Report 2007. HEA Research Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Vicky; Fisk, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This research review explores both the research and the grey literature on university teaching excellence with a specific remit to update an earlier review, "Excellence in Teaching and Learning: a review of literature for the Higher Education Academy". Little, B., et al (2007) The two main aims are: (1) to suggest further areas of…

  2. Production of Doctorates in the Biosciences, 1975-1980: An Experimental Forecast. Higher Education Panel Reports, No. 34.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atelsek, Frank J.; Gomberg, Irene L.

    A survey was undertaken in 1976 to obtain short-term estimates of doctorate production directly from the heads of the science departments involved. These biosciences departments were surveyed in the 235 member institutions of the Higher Education Panel that grant doctorates: anatomy, biochemistry, biology, biometry/biostatistics/biomathematics,…

  3. Adult, Continuing, and In-Service Education and the Library in Higher Education: A Bibliographic Check List. Report No. 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Nicholas G.

    As an aid for educational change, a bibliography has been prepared in the areas of: trends and developments in higher education; science, technology, civilization, and social change; the future and future research; the library-college concept; the articulation program; educational coordination; interinstitutional cooperation; transfer students;…

  4. The direction of effects between perceived parental behavioral control and psychological control and adolescents' self-reported GAD and SAD symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Wijsbroek, Saskia A. M.; Hale III, William W.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This study examined the direction of effects and age and sex differences between adolescents? perceptions of parental behavioral and psychological control and adolescents? self-reports of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) symptoms. The study focused on 1,313 Dutch adolescents (early-to-middle cohort n = 923, 70.3%; middle-to-late cohort n = 390, 29.7%) from the general population. A multi-group, structural equation model was employed ...

  5. The Relationship between Reports of Psychological Capital and Reports of Job Satisfaction among Administrative Personnel at a Private Institution of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, James A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this single-site case study was to investigate the relationship between administrative personnel's reports of psychological capital (Luthans, Youssef, & Avolio, 2007) and their reports of job satisfaction (Hackman & Oldham, 1980). Specifically, two surveys, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (Luthans, Youssef, &…

  6. Teachers' self-efficacy, perceived effectiveness beliefs, and reported use of cognitive-behavioral approaches to bullying among pupils: effects of in-service training with the I DECIDE program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    Despite the promise of being effective in tacking bullying and conduct disorder, cognitive-behavioral (C-B) interventions are underused by teachers. Little detailed information exists as to why this is the case. The current study with junior school teachers in the U.K. (N=249) confirmed this low reported usage and showed that while teachers tended to believe that C-B approaches would be effective, most held rather low self-efficacy beliefs. Attending a workshop on a specific C-B approach, the I DECIDE program had positive effects on perceived effectiveness and self-efficacy beliefs, and longer durations of training (3days) were more beneficial than shorter durations (half/1day). In line with outcome-expectancy theory and the theory of planned behavior, self-efficacy and duration of training predicted an increase in reported usage of I DECIDE across an 8-month period, and self-efficacy fully mediated the association between duration of training and increase in reported usage. The implications of these findings for overcoming impediments to the more widespread use of C-B approaches by teachers to tackling bullying were discussed, particularly the notion that attending training of sufficient duration coupled with a more explicit attention on fostering self-efficacy will pay dividends. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Malaysia and the Knowledge Economy: Building a World-Class Higher Education System. Human Development Sector Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regel, Omporn; Salmi, Jamil; Watkins, Alfred; Tan, Hong; Dawkins, John; Saroyan, Alenoush; Vestergaard, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    This report was prepared at the request of the Government of Malaysia (GOM) as a contribution to the long term development objectives for the university sector under the Ninth Malaysia Plan. The GOM is considering new policy directions to make the country a more competitive player in the world economy. Such a strategy will require bold innovations…

  8. Young adolescents who combine alcohol and energy drinks have a higher risk of reporting negative behavioural outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Joppova, Eva; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore whether young adolescents consuming alcohol and energy drinks combined were more likely to report negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drink only one type of these beverages or are abstinent. METHODS: We analysed data on a representative sample of Slovak adolesce

  9. Young adolescents who combine alcohol and energy drinks have a higher risk of reporting negative behavioural outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holubcikova, Jana; Kolarcik, Peter; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Joppova, Eva; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    To explore whether young adolescents consuming alcohol and energy drinks combined were more likely to report negative behavioural outcomes than their peers who drink only one type of these beverages or are abstinent. We analysed data on a representative sample of Slovak adolescents 8502 adolescents

  10. Piecing Together the Student Success Puzzle: Research, Propositions, and Recommendations. ASHE Higher Education Report, Volume 32, Number 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuh, George D., Ed.; Kinzie, Jillian, Ed.; Buckley, Jennifer A., Ed.; Bridges, Brian K., Ed.; Hayek, John C., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This report is an abridged version of work performed for the National Postsecondary Education Cooperative to synthesize the relevant literature and emerging findings related to student success, broadly defined (Kuh and others, 2006). The author's purpose is to provide an informed perspective on policies, programs, and practices that can make a…

  11. Exploring the Validity and Robustness of a Competency Self-Report Instrument for Vocational and Higher Competence-Based Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khaled, A.E.; Gulikers, J.T.M.; Tobi, H.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Oonk, C.; Mulder, M.

    2014-01-01

    Research on the effectiveness of competence-based education (CB-education) across educational contexts and levels requires a new evaluation measurement. This study explores the face validity, construct validity, and robustness of a competency self-report instrument that is aligned with contemporary

  12. The Marketing of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, George; Noble, Michael

    1985-01-01

    Formal college and university marketing programs are challenging to develop and implement because of the complexity of the marketing mix, the perceived inappropriateness of a traditional marketing officer, the number of diverse groups with input, the uniqueness of higher education institutions, and the difficulty in identifying higher education…

  13. The Moderated Influence of Perceived Behavioral Control on Intentions among the General U.S. Population: Implications for Public Communication Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Lourdes S.; Lewis, Nehama

    2016-01-01

    This study reports results from a large population-based survey of U.S. adults showing perceived behavioral control (PBC) moderations of associations between (1) attitude and intention, and (2) perceived norms and intention to engage in six health behaviors. Results are based on data collected from a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults ages 40-70 (N=2,489) and extend understanding of how behavioral theory can be used to guide the design and evaluation of health communication campaigns. OLS regression analyses show evidence for a significant positive PBC moderation of (1) attitude and intention, and (2) perceived norms and intention such that attitude or perceived norms toward the behavior is more strongly associated with behavioral intention among participants reporting higher levels of PBC. Implications for message design and the evaluation of communication campaigns are discussed. PMID:27565188

  14. Co-occurrence of protective health behaviours and perceived psychosocial job characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera J.C. Mc Carthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the association between positive job characteristics of older workers and the co-occurrence of protective health behaviours. This study aims to investigate the association between perceived psychosocial job characteristics and the adoption of protective health behaviours. A population-based cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of 1025 males and females (age-range 50–69-years attending a primary healthcare clinic. Perceived job characteristics (job demands: quantitative and cognitive demands; resources: possibility for development and influence at work were determined using the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. Each scale is presented in tertiles. Protective health behaviours were; consumption of five or more portions of fruit and vegetables a day, moderate alcohol, non/ex-smoker, and high and moderate physical activity. Each participant was scored 0–4 protective health behaviours. The majority of the sample had three protective health behaviours. Higher levels of influence at work and cognitive demands were associated with higher self-reported physical activity, but not with any number of protective health behaviours. Conversely, higher quantitative and higher cognitive demands were associated with reporting any number of protective health behaviours or above average number of protective health behaviours respectively. The findings on protective health behaviours were inconsistent in relation to the different measures of perceived psychosocial job characteristics and were largely confined to physical activity and diet.

  15. Cyberstalking Victimization, Depression, and Academic Performance: The Role of Perceived Social Support from Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michelle F

    2017-08-10

    Little attention has been given to adolescents' experience of cyberstalking and how such experiences relate to their depression and academic performance. It is less clear how other variables, such as perceived social support, might impact these associations. Addressing these gaps in the literature, this study investigated the potential moderating effect of perceived social support from parents on the association between cyberstalking victimization and depression and academic performance, each assessed 1 year later, from 11th to 12th grade. Participants were 413 adolescents (ages 17-19 years old; 54 percent female; M = 17.39 years, SD = 0.53) in the 12th grade from a Midwestern city in the United States. They completed questionnaires on their self-reported face-to-face and cyberstalking victimization, depression, and perceived social support from parents. Adolescents' academic performance was also assessed using their school records. During the 12th grade, depression and academic performance were examined again. The findings indicated that the association between cyberstalking victimization and Time 2 depression was much more positive at lower levels of perceived social support, while such an association was more negative at higher levels of perceived social support. Opposite patterns were found for Time 2 academic performance. The results indicate the need for additional research focused on cyberstalking about adolescents.

  16. Perceived appearance judgments moderate the biological stress effects of social exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Ashley M; Sabik, Natalie J; Lupis, Sarah B; Rene, Kirsten M; Wolf, Jutta M

    2014-12-01

    Social relationships are generally thought of as beneficial. However, the present study set out to test the hypothesis that for individuals who perceive others to judge their appearance negatively, daily social interactions can also be a source of stress. Indeed when assessing 38 young adults, we found that both more incidences of negative exchanges reported during the past month as well as perceived negative appearance judgments by others were associated with more self-reported stress. Interestingly, however, for individuals with low attribution body esteem, higher numbers of positive social exchanges during the past month were related to health-relevant changes in biological markers of chronic stress as well. The same was true for individuals with high attribution body esteem who reported to experience only very few positive exchanges. As such, these findings go beyond the initial focus on low body esteem and negative social exchanges and introduce high body esteem as well as daily positive exchanges as potential health risk factors.

  17. Brief Report: Parent-Adolescent Informant Discrepancies of Social Skill Importance and Social Skill Engagement for Higher-Functioning Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Camilla M.; Solomon, Marjorie

    2015-01-01

    Parent- and adolescent-report of social skill importance and social skill engagement on the Social Skills Rating System (Gresham and Elliott in The social skills rating system, American Guidance Service, Circle Pines, 1990) were assessed in higher-functioning adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Compared to parents, adolescents…

  18. CONCEPT ANALYSIS OF PERCEIVED CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardiyono Mardiyono

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Perceived control is a personality characteristic that contributes psychological adjustment. It was derived from various theories, so that definitions of perceived control were ambiguous meaning. Disclosing concept of perceived control is required.Objective. The analysis aims to identify definition and use of perceived control, examine the basic attributes of perceived control, and the measurements of perceived control.Method. Databases searched for electronic journals and books that were published from 1994 to 2010 were analyzed.Result. Perceived control is personal belief that refers to controllability on behalf of one’s self and ability to control threats or events. The use of perceived control includes maternal, pediatric, medical, surgical, psychiatric, community nursing, and pain management. Perceived control was composed of two dimensions: belief about controllability and belief about ability to control to threats.Conclusion. Instrument of Anxiety Control Questionnaire most closely corresponds to two dimensions: belief about controllability and ability to control. Defining attributes and dimensions of perceived control are useful for developing tool.Keywords: perceived control, controllability, ability to control, and agency

  19. Perceived causality, force, and resistance in the absence of launching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Timothy L; Ruppel, Susan E

    2016-07-29

    In the launching effect, a moving object (the launcher) contacts a stationary object (the target), and upon contact, the launcher stops and the target begins moving in the same direction and at the same or slower velocity as previous launcher motion (Michotte, 1946/1963). In the study reported here, participants viewed a modified launching effect display in which the launcher stopped before or at the moment of contact and the target remained stationary. Participants rated perceived causality, perceived force, and perceived resistance of the launcher on the target or the target on the launcher. For launchers and for targets, increases in the size of the spatial gap between the final location of the launcher and the location of the target decreased ratings of perceived causality and ratings of perceived force and increased ratings of perceived resistance. Perceived causality, perceived force, and perceived resistance exhibited gradients or fields extending from the launcher and from the target and were not dependent upon contact of the launcher and target. Causal asymmetries and force asymmetries reported in previous studies did not occur, and this suggests that such asymmetries might be limited to typical launching effect stimuli. Deviations from Newton's laws of motion are noted, and the existence of separate radii of action extending from the launcher and from the target is suggested.

  20. The influence of perceived stress on work-family conflict and mental health: the moderating effect of person-environment fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Li-Chuan

    2014-07-01

    This study examines whether higher perceived stress among female hospital workers can result in more serious work-family conflict (WFC) and poorer mental health, and also identifies the role that person-environment (P-E) fit plays in moderating these relationships. Female hospital workers with higher perceived stress tend to report greater WFC and worse mental health than others with less perceived stress. A better fit between a person and her environment may lead to lower perceived stress. As a result, she may experience less WFC and better mental health. This study adopts a longitudinal design with 273 participants, all of whom are employed by hospitals in Taiwan. All hypotheses are tested using hierarchical regression analyses. The results show that perceived stress is an effective predictor of WFC and mental health status, whereas the P-E fit can moderate these relationships. Hospitals should pay more attention to the negative effects of perceived high stress on the WFC levels and mental health of their female employees. The P-E fit can buffer effectively the impact of perceived stress on both WFC and mental health. If hospitals can adopt appropriate human resource management practices as well as monitor and manage the P-E fit continuously, they can better help their employees to fit into the overall hospital environment. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Reactions to penalties for an offense in relation to authoritarianism, values, perceived responsibility, perceived seriousness, and deservingness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather, N T

    1996-09-01

    Two studies involving participants from metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia (Study 1: N = 220, Study 2: N = 181) examined variables that were assumed to influence cognitive and affective reactions to penalties imposed for offenses relating to domestic violence, plagiarism, and shoplifting (in Study 1), and resisting a police order in a protest against logging (in Study 2). Results of path analyses supported a model that assumed paths linking perceived responsibility to the perceived seriousness of an offense; responsibility and seriousness to deservingness of the penalty; deservingness to the perceived harshness of the penalty, to reported positive affect about the penalty, and to reported sympathy for the offender; and perceived harshness of the penalty to reported positive affect and sympathy. Right-wing authoritarianism and relevant values had direct effects on perceived seriousness consistent with the assumption that values affect the way an offense is construed in relation to its negative valence or aversiveness. Deservingness had a central role as a mediator of reactions.

  2. Self-reported leadership styles of deans of baccalaureate and higher degree nursing programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, Marion E

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been a lack of attention in the discipline paid to developing strong academic leaders. It is widely acknowledged that the role of the dean has shifted dramatically over the past two decades, with an increasing emphasis on interaction with and accountability to external constituencies at the university, community, and national levels. The overall purpose of this study was to investigate the self-reported leadership styles, behaviors, and experiences of deans of schools of nursing in the United States. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) was sent to 655 deans who were members of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing; 344 returned completed surveys for a return rate of 52.5%. Scores on the transformational scale (n = 321; 20 items) ranged from 2.75 to 4.0, with a mean of 3.79; transactional scores ranged from 1.3 to 4.0, with a mean of 3.3 and mode of 3.5. The passive leadership component was lowest, with a range of 0 to 3.75, mean of 1.1, and mode of 1.0. The highest scores for each dean were then examined and compared across the three components. Seventy-seven percent of the deans' highest scores fell on the transformational, 21% on the transactional, and 2% on the passive-avoidant scale. There were no significant differences in the most commonly reported leadership behaviors by gender, ethnicity, or terminal degree. Deans of nursing, compared with over 3,000 other leaders who have completed the MLQ, ranked in the 80th percentile for self-reported transformative behaviors and outcomes effectiveness. The findings from this sample, who were predominantly female, are congruent with previous research on women leaders. Recommendations for future research leadership development programs are presented.

  3. Perceived Stress, Sources and Severity of Stress among medical undergraduates in a Pakistani Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Samina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently there is a growing concern about stress during undergraduate medical training. However, studies about the same are lacking from Pakistani medical schools. The objectives of our study were to assess perceived stress, sources of stress and their severity and to assess the determinants of stressed cases. Methods A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among undergraduate medical students of CMH Lahore Medical College, Pakistan during January to March 2009. Perceived stress was assessed using the perceived stress scale. A 33-item questionnaire was used to assess sources of stress and their severity. Results The overall response rate was 80.5% (161 out of 200 students. The overall mean perceived stress was 30.84 (SD = 7.01 and was significantly higher among female students. By logistic regression analysis, stressed cases were associated with occurrence of psychosocial (OR 5.01, 95% CI 2.44-10.29 and academic related stressors (OR 3.17 95% CI 1.52-6.68. The most common sources of stress were related to academic and psychosocial concerns. 'High parental expectations', 'frequency of examinations', 'vastness of academic curriculum', 'sleeping difficulties', 'worrying about the future', 'loneliness', 'becoming a doctor', 'performance in periodic examinations' were the most frequently and severely occurring sources of stress. There was a negative but insignificant correlation between perceived stress and academic performance (r = -0.099, p > 0.05. Conclusion A higher level of perceived stress was reported by the students. The main stressors were related to academic and psychosocial domains. Further studies are required to test the association between stressed cases and gender, academic stressors and psychosocial stressors.

  4. The impact of acculturation and religious identification on perceived discrimination for Arab/Middle Eastern Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Germine H

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine the impact of acculturation, ethnic identity, and religious affiliation on perceived discrimination for persons of Arab and Middle Eastern descent. Two aspects of acculturation (ethnic society immersion and dominant society immersion), religious affiliation, and ethnic identity were measured using a final sample of 177 individuals of Arab or Middle Eastern descent. Results indicated that Arab/Middle Eastern Americans who reported lower levels of dominant society immersion tended to report higher levels of discrimination. Furthermore, Muslims reported a higher level of discrimination than Christians but this finding was moderated by level of acculturation. Specifically, Muslims who reported a high level of dominant society immersion experienced the most discrimination, whereas Christians who reported a high level of dominant society immersion reported less discrimination. Study implications are discussed.

  5. Perceived neighborhood social cohesion and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eric S; Park, Nansook; Peterson, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    Research in the last three decades has shown that negative neighborhood factors such as neighborhood violence, noise, traffic, litter, low neighborhood socioeconomic status, and poor air quality increase the risk of poor health. Fewer studies have examined the potential protective effect that neighborhood factors can have on health, particularly stroke. We examined whether higher perceived neighborhood social cohesion was associated with lower stroke incidence after adjusting for traditional risk and psychological factors that have been linked with stroke risk. Prospective data from the Health and Retirement Study--a nationally representative panel study of American adults over the age of 50--were used. Analyses were conducted on a subset of 6740 adults who were stroke-free at baseline. Analyses adjusted for chronic illnesses and relevant sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors. Over a four-year follow-up, higher perceived neighborhood social cohesion was associated with a lower risk of stroke. Each standard deviation increase in perceived neighborhood social cohesion was associated with a multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (O.R.) of 0.85 for stroke incidence (95% CI, 0.75-0.97, p social cohesion remained significant after adjusting for a comprehensive set of risk factors. Therefore, perceived neighborhood social cohesion plays an important role in protecting against stroke.

  6. Perceived stress at work is associated with attenuated DHEA-S response during acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Theorell, Töres; Kushnir, Mark M; Bergquist, Jonas; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2013-09-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) have been suggested to play a protective role during acute psychosocial stress, because they act as antagonists to the effects of the stress hormone cortisol. This study aims to investigate whether prolonged psychosocial stress, measured as perceived stress at work during the past week, is related to the capacity to produce DHEA and DHEA-S during acute psychosocial stress. It also aims to investigate whether prolonged perceived stress affects the balance between production of cortisol and DHEA-S during acute psychosocial stress. Thirty-six healthy subjects (19 men and 17 women, mean age 37 years, SD 5 years), were included. Perceived stress at work during the past week was measured by using the Stress-Energy (SE) Questionnaire. The participants were divided into three groups based on their mean scores; Low stress, Medium stress and High stress. The participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and blood samples were collected before, directly after the stress test, and after 30 min of recovery. General Linear Models were used to investigate if the Medium stress group and the High stress group differ regarding stress response compared to the Low stress group. Higher perceived stress at work was associated with attenuated DHEA-S response during acute psychosocial stress. Furthermore, the ratio between the cortisol production and the DHEA-S production during the acute stress test were higher in individuals reporting higher perceived stress at work compared to individuals reporting low perceived stress at work. There was no statistical difference in DHEA response between the groups. This study shows that prolonged stress, measured as perceived stress at work during the past week, seems to negatively affect the capacity to produce DHEA-S during acute stress. Given the protective functions of DHEA-S, attenuated DHEA-S production during acute stress may lead to higher risk for adverse

  7. Perceived parental alcohol problems, internalizing problems and impaired parent - child relationships among 71 988 young people in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisinger, Veronica S C; Bloomfield, Kim; Tolstrup, Janne S

    2016-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that young people with perceived parental alcohol problems have poorer parent-child relationships and more emotional symptoms, low self-esteem, loneliness and depression than young people without perceived parental alcohol problems. Cross-sectional analysis using data from the Danish National Youth Study 2014, a web-based national survey. Denmark. A total of 71.988 high school and vocational school students (aged 12-25, nested in 119 schools and 3.186 school classes) recruited throughout 2014. Outcome variables included internalizing problems such as emotional symptoms, depression, self-esteem, loneliness and aspects of the parent-child relationship. The main predictor variable was perceived parental alcohol problems, including the severity of the perceived problems and living with a parent with alcohol problems. Control variables included age, sex, education, ethnicity, parents' separation and economic problems in the family. Boys and girls with perceived parental alcohol problems had statistically significant higher odds of reporting internalizing problems (e.g. frequent emotional symptoms: odds ratio (OR)= 1.58 for boys; 1.49 for girls) and poor parent-child relationships (e.g. lack of parental interest: OR = 1.92 for boys; 2.33 for girls) compared with young people without perceived parental alcohol problems. The associations were not significantly stronger for mother's alcohol problems or if the young person lived with the parent with perceived alcohol problems. Boys and girls in secondary education in Denmark who report perceived parental alcohol problems have significantly higher odds of internalizing problems and poorer parent-child relationships compared with young people without perceived parental alcohol problems. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. Perceived Stress in Family Caregivers of Individuals With Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masa'Deh, Rami

    2017-06-01

    The current study aimed to measure the stress levels of family caregivers of individuals with mental illness and compare their stress levels according to the diagnosis and other sociodemographic characteristics. The sample comprised 310 family caregivers of individuals with mental illness in Jordan. Family caregivers completed a demographic checklist and the Arabic version of the Perceived Stress Scale 10-Item (PSS-10) questionnaire. A significant difference was found in PSS-10 levels among family caregivers according to gender, diagnosis of their family member, and time since diagnosis. Female caregivers reported significantly higher stress levels than male caregivers. Family members of individuals with schizophrenia reported the highest stress levels (p stress levels in family members of individuals with mental illness may be helpful when designing interventions to reduce such stress. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(6), 30-35.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Sensitivity for Diagnosing Group A Streptococcal Pharyngitis from Manufacturers is 10% Higher than Reported in Peer-Reviewed Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachhani, Raj; Patel, Toral; Centor, Robert M; Estrada, Carlos A

    2017-01-01

    Meta-analyses based on peer-reviewed publications report a sensitivity of approximately 85% for rapid antigen streptococcus tests to diagnose group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis. Because these meta-analyses excluded package inserts, we examined the test characteristics of rapid antigen streptococcal tests and molecular methods that manufacturers report in their package inserts. We included tests available in the US market (Food and Drug Administration, period searched 1993-2015) and used package insert data to calculate pooled sensitivity and specificity. To examine quality, we used the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2. We excluded 26 tests having different trade names but identical methods and data. The study design was prospective in 41.7% (10 of 24). The pooled sensitivity of the most commonly used method, lateral flow/immunochromatographic, was 95% (95% confidence interval [CI] 94-96) and the pooled specificity was 98% (96-98); 7108 patients. The pooled sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction or molecular methods was 98% (95% CI 96-98) and the pooled specificity was 96% (95% CI 95-97); 5685 patients. Package inserts include sponsored studies that overestimate the sensitivity of rapid tests to diagnose GAS pharyngitis by approximately 10%. Physicians should understand that package inserts overestimate diagnostic test utility; a negative test cannot be used to exclude GAS pharyngitis.

  10. Perceptions of Career Development Learning and Work-Integrated Learning in Australian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlveen, Peter; Brooks, Sally; Lichtenberg, Anna; Smith, Martin; Torjul, Peter; Tyler, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a report on the perceived correspondence between career development learning and work-integrated learning programs that were delivered by career services in Australian higher education institutions. The study entailed a questionnaire survey of representatives of university career services. The questionnaire dealt with the extent to…

  11. The effect of perceived discrimination on the health of immigrant workers in Spain

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    Gil-González Diana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Discrimination is an important determinant of health inequalities, and immigrants may be more vulnerable to certain types of discrimination than the native-born. This study analyses the relationship between immigrants' perceived discrimination and various self-reported health indicators. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted (2008 amongst a non-random sample of 2434 immigrants from Ecuador, Morocco, Romania and Colombia in four Spanish cities: Barcelona, Huelva, Madrid and Valencia. A factorial analysis of variables revealed three dimensions of perceived discrimination (due to immigrant status, due to physical appearance, and workplace-related. The association of these dimensions with self-rated health, mental health (GHQ-12, change in self-rated health between origin and host country, and other self-reported health outcomes was analysed. Logistic regression was used adjusting for potential confounders (aOR-95%CI. Subjects with worsening self-reported health status potentially attributable to perceived discrimination was estimated (population attributable proportion, PAP %. Results 73.3% of men and 69.3% of women immigrants reported discrimination due to immigrant status. Moroccans showed the highest prevalence of perceived discrimination. Immigrants reporting discrimination were at significantly higher risk of reporting health problems than those not reporting discrimination. Workplace-related discrimination was associated with poor mental health (aOR 2.97 95%CI 2.45-3.60, and the worsening of self-rated health (aOR 2.20 95%CI 1.73- 2.80. 40% (95% CI 24-53 PAP of those reporting worse self-rated health could be attributable to discrimination due to immigrant status. Conclusions Discrimination may constitute a risk factor for health in immigrant workers in Spain and could explain some health inequalities among immigrant populations in Spanish society.

  12. An EIAV field isolate reveals much higher levels of subtype variability than currently reported for the equine lentivirus family

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    Zhang Baoshan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV, a lentivirus that infects horses, has been utilized as an animal model for the study of HIV. Furthermore, the disease associated with the equine lentivirus poses a significant challenge to veterinary medicine around the world. As with all lentiviruses, EIAV has been shown to have a high propensity for genomic sequence and antigenic variation, especially in its envelope (Env proteins. Recent studies have demonstrated Env variation to be a major determinant of vaccine efficacy, emphasizing the importance of defining natural variation among field isolates of EIAV. To date, however, published EIAV sequences have been reported only for cell-adapted strains of virus, predominantly derived from a single primary virus isolate, EIAVWyoming (EIAVWY. Results We present here the first characterization of the Env protein of a natural primary isolate from Pennsylvania (EIAVPA since the widely utilized and referenced EIAVWY strain. The data demonstrated that the level of EIAVPA Env amino acid sequence variation, approximately 40% as compared to EIAVWY, is much greater than current perceptions or published reports of natural EIAV variation between field isolates. This variation did not appear to give rise to changes in the predicted secondary structure of the proteins. While the EIAVPA Env was serologically cross reactive with the Env proteins of the cell-adapted reference strain, EIAVPV (derivative of EIAVWY, the two variant Envs were shown to lack any cross neutralization by immune serum from horses infected with the respective virus strains. Conclusion Taking into account the significance of serum neutralization to universal vaccine efficacy, these findings are crucial considerations towards successful EIAV vaccine development and the potential inclusion of field isolate Envs in vaccine candidates.

  13. The evaluation of perceived stress and associated factors in elderly caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchesi, Bruna Moretti; Souza, Érica Nestor; Gratão, Aline Cristina Martins; Gomes, Grace Angélica de Oliveira; Inouye, Keika; Alexandre, Tiago da Silva; Marques, Sueli; Pavarini, Sofia Cristina Iost

    2016-01-01

    Factors associated with perceived stress in older people have been studied previously, but this investigation in elderly caregivers is still scarce in the literature. Our aim was to assess factors that are associated with perceived stress in a sample of elderly caregivers. This cross-sectional investigation assessed 341 elderly caregivers who cared for a dependent older person at home. They answered questionnaires including the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14), a sociodemographic and care characterization, health and cognitive status, and burden related to care. The mean score in PSS-14 was 18.5±9.9. Self-reported pain, difficult to sleep, "very poor/poor" self-rated health, impaired cognitive status, more people living in the house and higher levels of burden related to care were associated with higher levels of perceived stress. The results highlight the importance of the development of stress-reduced interventions directed to elderly caregivers focusing on the associated variables in this study. Attention should be given to cognitive decline prevention and strategies to avoid or reduce burden in the elderly caregivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Direct and Indirect Effects of Five Factor Personality and Gender on Depressive Symptoms Mediated by Perceived Stress.

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    Kim, Song E; Kim, Han-Na; Cho, Juhee; Kwon, Min-Jung; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Hyung-Lae

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate associations among five factor personality traits, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms and to examine the roles of personality and perceived stress in the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. The participants (N = 3,950) were part of a cohort study for health screening and examination at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital. Personality was measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Perceived stress level was evaluated with a self-reported stress questionnaire developed for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A higher degree of neuroticism and lower degrees of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were significantly associated with greater perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Neuroticism and extraversion had significant direct and indirect effects (via stress as a mediator) on depressive symptoms in both genders. Agreeableness and conscientiousness had indirect effects on depression symptoms in both genders. Multiple mediation models were used to examine the mediational roles of each personality factor and perceived stress in the link between gender and depressive symptoms. Four of the personality factors (except openness) were significant mediators, along with stress, on the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that the links between personality factors and depressive symptoms are mediated by perceived stress. As such, personality is an important factor to consider when examining the link between gender and depression.

  15. Direct and Indirect Effects of Five Factor Personality and Gender on Depressive Symptoms Mediated by Perceived Stress.

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    Song E Kim

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate associations among five factor personality traits, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms and to examine the roles of personality and perceived stress in the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. The participants (N = 3,950 were part of a cohort study for health screening and examination at the Kangbuk Samsung Hospital. Personality was measured with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. Perceived stress level was evaluated with a self-reported stress questionnaire developed for the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A higher degree of neuroticism and lower degrees of extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were significantly associated with greater perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Neuroticism and extraversion had significant direct and indirect effects (via stress as a mediator on depressive symptoms in both genders. Agreeableness and conscientiousness had indirect effects on depression symptoms in both genders. Multiple mediation models were used to examine the mediational roles of each personality factor and perceived stress in the link between gender and depressive symptoms. Four of the personality factors (except openness were significant mediators, along with stress, on the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that the links between personality factors and depressive symptoms are mediated by perceived stress. As such, personality is an important factor to consider when examining the link between gender and depression.

  16. Perceived sources of stress within a dental educational environment.

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    Al-Omari, Wael Mousa

    2005-11-15

    The aim of this study was to identify the perceived sources of stress among dental students, dental hygiene students, and dental technology students enrolled at Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST). The modified dental environment stress questionnaire was administered to 183 students. The perceived stressors varied between major and year. Dental students gave high scores for examinations, reduced holidays, inadequate time for relaxation, fear of failure, completing clinical requirements, and differences in opinion between staff. Dental hygiene students gave the highest scores for uncertainty about the field of study as future career, examinations, inadequate clinical training and supervision, inadequate relaxation, and discrimination between students. Dental technology students also gave high scores for uncertainty about future career, examinations, approachability of the staff, inadequate relaxation, and completing requirements. Females are more stressed than males with regard to personal factors. Dental technology and/or dental hygiene students have significantly higher scores than dental students in 12 items. Students who reported their first choice of study was not their current field of study showed more stress concerning their future careers. The high scores reported for some stressors among students emphasize the need to address student's concerns.

  17. Overweight, perceived overweight and involvement in bullying in middle adolescence.

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    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Lankinen, Vilma; Marttunen, Mauri; Lindberg, Nina; Fröjd, Sari

    2016-04-01

    Overweight is reportedly a risk factor for being bullied, and body image may mediate this association. Research on associations between overweight and bullying has so far only focused on children and early adolescents. We explored associations between actual and perceived overweight at age 15 and involvement in bullying at ages 15 and 17. A total of 2070 Finnish adolescents responded to a survey at ages 15 and 17. Self-reported weight and height, perceived weight and involvement in bullying were elicited. Being overweight at age 15 was not associated with being bullied or with being a bully at age 15 or 17. Perceived overweight among girls was associated with subsequent involvement in bullying as a bully and in feeling shunned. Weight related bullying may decrease from pre- and early adolescence to middle adolescence. The associations between perceived overweight and self-identification as a bully, and those between perceived overweight and feeling isolated may be explained by the phenomena representing psychological dysfunction.

  18. Perceived incivility during emergency department phone consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Amith L; Vaghasiya, Milan; Boddy, Rachel; Byth, Karen; Unwin, Danielle

    2016-06-01

    Perceived incivility during ED medical phone consultations is poorly researched. We aimed to determine frequency and factors influencing perceived incivility during ED phone consultations. We conducted a prospective self-reported survey of 40 consecutive phone consultations for 21 ED volunteer doctors. Consultations were classified based on the aim of consultation and deemed as 'positive', 'neutral' or 'negative' based on the perceptions of the consulting doctor. Training levels, time bands and specialty data were collected for both consulting and consulted parties. Fifty-seven of 714 included consultations (7.98%, 95% CI 6.2-10.2%) were reported as negative by ED medical staff. Factors associated with significant incidence of negative grading of consultation involved requests for investigations (19.3% vs 5.3%, P  4 (9.1% vs 3.8%, P incivility during ED phone consultations. Perceived incivility occurs infrequently during ED phone consultations. ED female medical staff are at an increased risk of perceived incivility during phone consultations with non-ED medical professionals. Health organisations should actively pursue programmes to investigate the occurrence of incivility during healthcare consultations and implement programmes to mitigate the risk of developing a negative workplace culture. © 2016 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  19. Perceived superiority of one's own relationship and perceived prevalence of happy and unhappy relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, BP

    2001-01-01

    In a study among 141 Dutch undergraduate students, the participants perceived their relationship sn average ns better than the relationships of most others, and assumed that a majority was happy and that only a minority was unhappy with their relationship. The higher the relationship satisfaction, t

  20. Perceived superiority of one's own relationship and perceived prevalence of happy and unhappy relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, BP

    2001-01-01

    In a study among 141 Dutch undergraduate students, the participants perceived their relationship sn average ns better than the relationships of most others, and assumed that a majority was happy and that only a minority was unhappy with their relationship. The higher the relationship satisfaction, t

  1. Perceived parenting styles differ between genders but not between elite athletes and controls

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    Serge Brand

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Serge Brand1, Markus Gerber2, Johannes Beck1, Nadeem Kalak1, Martin Hatzinger1,3, Uwe Pühse2, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler11Depression and Sleep Research Unit, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 2Institute of Exercise and Health Sciences, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 3Psychiatric Hospital, Solothurn, SwitzerlandAbstract: For adolescent elite athletes, parental financial and emotional support is crucial. However, parents of elite athletes may be critical and demanding. Moreover, there is evidence that girls report more favorable perceived parenting styles compared with boys. The aim of the present study was to investigate perceived parenting styles among female and male adolescent elite athletes and controls. We sampled 258 adolescent elite athletes (139 females, 119 males and 176 controls (139 females, 37 males. Participants completed a questionnaire to assess perceived parenting styles (support, commendation, reproach, restriction, inconsistency. Results showed that parenting styles did not differ between athletes and controls, except for restriction, for which athletes reported lower levels. Female adolescents had higher scores for positive and lower scores for negative perceived parenting styles.Keywords: parenting style, gender, elite athletes, controls

  2. Physical Limitations, Walkability, Perceived Environmental Facilitators and Physical Activity of Older Adults in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portegijs, Erja; Keskinen, Kirsi E; Tsai, Li-Tang; Rantanen, Taina; Rantakokko, Merja

    2017-03-22

    The aim was to study objectively assessed walkability of the environment and participant perceived environmental facilitators for outdoor mobility as predictors of physical activity in older adults with and without physical limitations. 75-90-year-old adults living independently in Central Finland were interviewed (n = 839) and reassessed for self-reported physical activity one or two years later (n = 787). Lower-extremity physical limitations were defined as Short Physical Performance Battery score ≤9. Number of perceived environmental facilitators was calculated from a 16-item checklist. Walkability index (land use mix, street connectivity, population density) of the home environment was calculated from geographic information and categorized into tertiles. Accelerometer-based step counts were registered for one week (n = 174). Better walkability was associated with higher numbers of perceived environmental facilitators (p Perceived environmental facilitators only predicted self-reported physical activity at follow-up. To conclude, high walkability of the living environment provides opportunities for physical activity in old age, but among those with physical limitations especially, awareness of environmental facilitators may be needed to promote physical activity.

  3. Final Report Project Activity Task ORD-FY04-002 Nevada System of Higher Education Quality Assurance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smiecinski, Amy; Keeler, Raymond; Bertoia, Julie; Mueller, Terry; Roosa, Morris; Roosa, Barbara

    2008-03-07

    The principal purpose of DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC28-04RW12232 is to develop and continue providing the public and the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) with an independently derived, unbiased body of scientific and engineering data concerning the study of Yucca Mountain as a potential high-level radioactive waste repository. Under this agreement, the Nevada System of Higher Education (NSHE), formerly the University and Community College System of Nevada (UCCSN), performs scientific or engineering research, and maintains and fosters collaborative working relationships between government and academic researchers. In performing these activities, the NSHE has already developed and implemented a Quality Assurance (QA) program, which was accepted by the DOE Office of Quality Assurance, under the previous Cooperative Agreement Number DE-FC28-98NV12081. The following describes the objectives of Project Activity 002 “Quality Assurance Program” under cooperative agreement DE-FC28-04RW12232. The objective of this QA program was to assure that data produced under the cooperative agreement met the OCRWM QA Requirements and Description (QARD) requirements for quality-affecting (Q) data. The QA Program was written to address specific QARD requirements historically identified and incorporated in Q activities to the degree appropriate for the nature, scope, and complexity of the activity. Additional QARD requirements were integrated into the program when required to complete a specific activity. NSHE QA staff developed a detailed matrix to address each QARD element, identifying the applicable requirements and specifying where each requirement is addressed in the QA program procedures, or identify requirements as “not applicable” to the QA program. Controlled documents were prepared in the form of QA procedures (QAPs) and implementing procedures (IPs). NSHE identified new QAPs and IPs when needed. NSHE PIs

  4. Effects of Perceived Trust and Perceived Price on Customers’ Intention to Buy in Online Store in Indonesia

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    Ricky Setiawan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Price and trust are important factors that influence customer purchasing decision in online shopping. However, the synergy of these two factors in customer intention to buy still needs to get higher attention. This paper examines the relative influence of perceived trust and perceived price on customers intention to buy, both for customers who have bought item from the store (repeat customers and who have not (potential customers, and examines whether a difference exists on the strength of influence of price and trust to purchase intention in those groups. Data are analyzed with the multiple group analysis structural equation modeling, comparing the repeat customers and potential customers. The results of this paper reveal that there is no significant difference of effect between perceived trust and perceived price on intention to buy between potential and repeat customers and that perceived trust exerts a stronger effect than perceived price on purchase intentions for both potential and repeat customers of an online vendor. This paper also reveals that while perceived trust exerts a positive influence, perceived price exerts a negative influence on both perceived value and intention to buy.

  5. Higher Childhood Peer Reports of Social Preference Mediates the Impact of the Good Behavior Game on Suicide Attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Alison R; Roth, Kimberly B; Kellam, Sheppard G; Wang, Wei; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Hart, Shelley R; Wagner, Barry M; Wilcox, Holly C

    2016-02-01

    The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a universal classroom-based preventive intervention directed at reducing early aggressive, disruptive behavior and improving children's social adaptation into the classroom. The GBG is one of the few universal preventive interventions delivered in early elementary school that has been shown to reduce the risk for future suicide attempts. This paper addresses one potential mechanism by which the GBG lowers the risk of later suicide attempt. In this study, we tested whether the GBG, by facilitating social adaptation into the classroom early on, including the level of social preference by classmates, thereby lowers future risk of suicide attempts. The measure of social adaptation is based on first and second grade peer reports of social preference ("which children do you like best?"; "which children don't you like?"). As part of the hypothesized meditational model, we examined the longitudinal association between childhood peer social preference and the risk of future suicide attempt, which has not previously been examined. Data were from an epidemiologically based randomized prevention trial, which tested the GBG among two consecutive cohorts of first grade children in 19 public schools and 41 classrooms. Results indicated that peer social preference partially mediated the relationship between the GBG and the associated reduction of risk for later suicide attempts by adulthood, specifically among children characterized by their first grade teacher as highly aggressive, disruptive. These results suggest that positive childhood peer relations may partially explain the GBG-associated reduction of risk for suicide attempts and may be an important and malleable protective factor for future suicide attempt.

  6. Perceiving persons and groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D L; Sherman, S J

    1996-04-01

    This article analyzes the similarities and differences in forming impressions of individuals and in developing conceptions of groups. In both cases, the perceiver develops a mental conception of the target (individual or group) on the basis of available information and uses that information to make judgments about that person or group. However, a review of existing evidence reveals differences in the outcomes of impressions formed of individual and group targets, even when those impressions are based on the very same behavioral information. A model is proposed to account for these differences. The model emphasizes the role of differing expectancies of unity and coherence in individual and group targets, which in turn engage different mechanisms for processing information and making judgments. Implications of the model are discussed.

  7. Perceived workplace health support is associated with employee productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Hannon, Peggy A; Laing, Sharon S; Kohn, Marlana J; Clark, Kathleen; Pritchard, Scott; Harris, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    To examine the relationship between perceived workplace health support and employee productivity. A quantitative cross-sectional study. Washington State agencies. A total of 3528 employees from six state agencies were included in this analysis. Perceived workplace health support was assessed by two questions that queried respondents on how often they felt supported by the workplace for healthy living and physical activity. The Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire was used to measure health-related absenteeism and presenteeism in the past 7 days. Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate the mean differences in productivity by levels of perceived health support. Most participants were between 45 and 64 years of age and were predominantly non-Hispanic white. Presenteeism varied significantly by the level of perceived workplace health support, with those who felt least supported having higher presenteeism than those who felt most supported. The difference in presenteeism by perceived workplace support remained significant in models adjusting for sociodemographic and health characteristics (mean difference: 7.1% for support for healthy living, 95% confidence interval: 3.7%, 10.4%; 4.3% for support for physical activity, 95% confidence interval: 1.7%, 6.8%). Absenteeism was not associated with perceived workplace health support. Higher perceived workplace health support is independently associated with higher work productivity. Employers may see productivity benefit from wellness programs through improved perceptions of workplace health support.

  8. Perceived barriers to guideline adherence: A survey among general practitioners

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    Besters Casper F

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite considerable efforts to promote and support guideline use, adherence is often suboptimal. Barriers to adherence vary not only across guidelines but also across recommendations within guidelines. The aim of this study was to assess the perceived barriers to guideline adherence among GPs by focusing on key recommendations within guidelines. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional electronic survey among 703 GPs in the Netherlands. Sixteen key recommendations were derived from four national guidelines. Six statements were included to address the attitudes towards guidelines in general. In addition, GPs were asked to rate their perceived adherence (one statement and the perceived barriers (fourteen statements for each of the key recommendations, based on an existing framework. Results 264 GPs (38% completed the questionnaire. Although 35% of the GPs reported difficulties in changing routines and habits to follow guidelines, 89% believed that following guidelines leads to improved patient care. Perceived adherence varied between 52 and 95% across recommendations (mean: 77%. The most perceived barriers were related to external factors, in particular patient ability and behaviour (mean: 30% and patient preferences (mean: 23%. Lack of applicability of recommendations in general (mean: 22% and more specifically to individual patients (mean: 25% were also frequently perceived as barriers. The scores on perceived barriers differed largely between recommendations [minimum range 14%; maximum range 67%]. Conclusions Dutch GPs have a positive attitude towards the NHG guidelines, report high adherence rates and low levels of perceived barriers. However, the perceived adherence and perceived barriers varied largely across recommendations. The most perceived barriers across recommendations are patient related, suggesting that current guidelines do not always adequately incorporate patient preferences, needs and abilities. It may be

  9. Association between perceived social support and anxiety in pregnant adolescents

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    Patrícia J. Peter

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the association between perceived social support and anxiety disorders in pregnant adolescents. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with a sample of 871 pregnant women aged 10 to 19 years who received prenatal care in the national public health care system in the urban area of Pelotas, state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. We assessed perceived social support and anxiety disorders using the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. A self-report questionnaire was used to obtain sociodemographic information. Results: The prevalence of any anxiety disorder was 13.6%. Pregnant adolescents with an anxiety disorder reported less perceived social support in all domains (affectionate, emotional, tangible, informational, and positive social interaction. Older teenagers reported lower perceived support in the emotional, informational, and positive social interaction domains, whereas those with low socioeconomic status reported lower perceived social support in the material domain. Women who did not live with a partner had less perceived social support in the affectionate and positive social interaction domains. Conclusion: Perceived social support seems to be a protective factor against anxiety disorders in pregnant adolescents, with a positive effect on mental health.

  10. Association between perceived social support and anxiety in pregnant adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Patrícia J; de Mola, Christian L; de Matos, Mariana B; Coelho, Fábio M; Pinheiro, Karen A; da Silva, Ricardo A; Castelli, Rochele D; Pinheiro, Ricardo T; Quevedo, Luciana A

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the association between perceived social support and anxiety disorders in pregnant adolescents. We conducted a cross-sectional study with a sample of 871 pregnant women aged 10 to 19 years who received prenatal care in the national public health care system in the urban area of Pelotas, state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. We assessed perceived social support and anxiety disorders using the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. A self-report questionnaire was used to obtain sociodemographic information. The prevalence of any anxiety disorder was 13.6%. Pregnant adolescents with an anxiety disorder reported less perceived social support in all domains (affectionate, emotional, tangible, informational, and positive social interaction). Older teenagers reported lower perceived support in the emotional, informational, and positive social interaction domains, whereas those with low socioeconomic status reported lower perceived social support in the material domain. Women who did not live with a partner had less perceived social support in the affectionate and positive social interaction domains. Perceived social support seems to be a protective factor against anxiety disorders in pregnant adolescents, with a positive effect on mental health.

  11. Pain-related catastrophizing and perceived social responses: Inter-relationships in the context of chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenaver, Luis F; Edwards, Robert R; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A

    2007-02-01

    Pain-related coping, particularly catastrophizing, plays a significant role in shaping pain responses. One way catastrophizing is hypothesized to amplify pain and disability is via its effect on patients' social environments (e.g., communal coping model), though empirical support is limited. The present study tested whether the association between catastrophizing and deleterious pain-related outcomes was mediated by patients' perceptions of significant others' responses to their pain in a sample of 1356 pain patients. Regression analyses showed that perceived significant other punishing responses partially mediated catastrophizing's relationship with pain-related disability, and with depressive symptoms. Further, several variables moderated the association between catastrophizing and perceived social responses to pain. Catastrophizing was more strongly associated with greater perceived solicitous responses for patients of relatively short pain duration. Also, higher catastrophizing was more strongly associated with perceived punishing responses among patients perceiving lower social support. In addition, the mediational effects of perceived punishing responses on catastrophizing's relationship with depressive symptoms, and with pain-related disability were only found in individuals reporting low levels of perceived social support. In sum, perceived social responses were found to play a small role in mediating the relationship between catastrophizing and pain-related outcomes, and these mediational effects may be strongest in particular patient subgroups. The present data suggest that interpersonal mechanisms may not constitute a primary route by which catastrophizing exerts its maladaptive effects on pain responses. The study and further understanding of what principal factors mediate catastrophizing's deleterious effects on pain will be important in illuminating the biopsychosocial model of pain.

  12. Perceived criticism : Associations with perceiver characteristics and interpersonal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlsma, C.; van Duijn, M.A.J.; Hale III, W.W; van Hout, Wiljo

    2009-01-01

    Perceived Criticism (PC) evolved in the context of Expressed Emotion (EE) research and, like EE, predicts the course of various psychiatric disorders. However, little is known about PC's validity. We examined (in Study 1) to what extent PC reflects the perceiver's current depressive and marital

  13. Perceived discrimination and self-esteem among ethnic minority adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuyten, M

    1998-08-01

    In a sample of ethnic minority adolescents in The Netherlands, the relationship between perceived discrimination and self-esteem was investigated. First, the participants perceived a higher level of discrimination directed at their group as a whole than at themselves as individuals. Second, personal self-esteem was relatively independent of group self-esteem. Third, perceived personal discrimination was related to personal self-esteem, and perceived group discrimination was related to group self-esteem. A path model showed 2 pathways to personal self-esteem. In the 1st path, group discrimination had a negative effect on ethnic self-esteem, which, in turn, was related to personal self-esteem. In the 2nd path, perceived personal discrimination had a direct negative effect on personal self-esteem as well as an indirect negative effect stemming from reduced sense of control.

  14. Perceived core competency achievements of fellowship and non-fellowship-trained early career pediatric hospitalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librizzi, Jamie; Winer, Jeffrey C; Banach, Laurie; Davis, Aisha

    2015-06-01

    The pediatric hospital medicine (PHM) core competencies were established in 2010 to identify the specific knowledge base and skill set needed to provide the highest quality of care for hospitalized children. The objectives of this study were to examine the perceived core competency achievements of fellowship-trained and non-fellowship-trained early career pediatric hospitalists and identify perceived gaps in our current training models. An anonymous Web-based survey was distributed in November 2013. Hospitalists within 5 years of their residency graduation reported their perceived competency in select PHM core competencies. χ(2) and multiprobit regression analyses were utilized. One hundred ninety-seven hospitalists completed the survey and were included; 147 were non-fellowship-trained and 50 were PHM fellowship graduates or current PHM fellows. Both groups reported feeling less than competent in sedation and aspects of business practice. Non-fellowship-trained hospitalists also reported mean scores in the less than competent range in intravenous access/phlebotomy, technology-dependent emergencies, performing Plan-Do-Study-Act process and root cause analysis, defining basic statistical terms, and identifying research resources. Non-fellowship-trained hospitalists reported mean competency scores greater than fellowship-trained hospitalists in pain management, newborn care, and transitions in care. Early career pediatric hospitalists report deficits in several of the PHM core competencies, which should be considered when designing PHM-specific training in the future. Fellowship-trained hospitalists report higher levels of perceived competency in many core areas. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  15. Discrimination, perceived social inequity, and mental health among rural-to-urban migrants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Danhua; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Bo; Hong, Yan; Fang, Xiaoyi; Qin, Xiong; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-04-01

    Status-based discrimination and inequity have been associated with the process of migration, especially with economics-driven internal migration. However, their association with mental health among economy-driven internal migrants in developing countries is rarely assessed. This study examines discriminatory experiences and perceived social inequity in relation to mental health status among rural-to-urban migrants in China. Cross-sectional data were collected from 1,006 rural-to-urban migrants in 2004-2005 in Beijing, China. Participants reported their perceptions and experiences of being discriminated in daily life in urban destination and perceived social inequity. Mental health was measured using the symptom checklist-90 (SCL-90). Multivariate analyses using general linear model were performed to test the effect of discriminatory experience and perceived social inequity on mental health. Experience of discrimination was positively associated with male gender, being married at least once, poorer health status, shorter duration of migration, and middle range of personal income. Likewise, perceived social inequity was associated with poorer health status, higher education attainment, and lower personal income. Multivariate analyses indicate that both experience of discrimination and perceived social inequity were strongly associated with mental health problems of rural-to-urban migrants. Experience of discrimination in daily life and perceived social inequity have a significant influence on mental health among rural-to-urban migrants. The findings underscore the needs to reduce public or societal discrimination against rural-to-urban migrants, to eliminate structural barriers (i.e., dual household registrations) for migrants to fully benefit from the urban economic development, and to create a positive atmosphere to improve migrant's psychological well-being.

  16. Bayesian Analysis of Perceived Eye Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orendorff, Elaine E.; Kalesinskas, Laurynas; Palumbo, Robert T.; Albert, Mark V.

    2016-01-01

    To accurately perceive the world, people must efficiently combine internal beliefs and external sensory cues. We introduce a Bayesian framework that explains the role of internal balance cues and visual stimuli on perceived eye level (PEL)—a self-reported measure of elevation angle. This framework provides a single, coherent model explaining a set of experimentally observed PEL over a range of experimental conditions. Further, it provides a parsimonious explanation for the additive effect of low fidelity cues as well as the averaging effect of high fidelity cues, as also found in other Bayesian cue combination psychophysical studies. Our model accurately estimates the PEL and explains the form of previous equations used in describing PEL behavior. Most importantly, the proposed Bayesian framework for PEL is more powerful than previous behavioral modeling; it permits behavioral estimation in a wider range of cue combination and perceptual studies than models previously reported. PMID:28018204

  17. Parental Protectiveness Mediates the Association between Parent-Perceived Child Self-Efficacy and Health Outcomes in Pediatric Functional Abdominal Pain Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPen, Melissa M; van Tilburg, Miranda A L; Langer, Shelby L; Murphy, Tasha B; Romano, Joan M; Levy, Rona L

    2016-09-19

    Previous studies have shown that parental protectiveness is associated with increased pain and disability in Functional Abdominal Pain Disorder (FAPD) but the role that perceived child self-efficacy may play remains unclear. One reason why parents may react protectively towards their child's pain is that they perceive their child to be unable to cope or function normally while in pain (perceived low self-efficacy). This study sought to examine (a) the association between parent-perceived child pain self-efficacy and child health outcomes (symptom severity and disability); and (b) the role of parental protectiveness as a mediator of this association. Participants were 316 parents of children aged 7-12 years with FAPD. Parents completed measures of perceived child self-efficacy when in pain, their own protective responses to their child's pain, child gastrointestinal (GI) symptom severity, and child functional disability. Parent-perceived child self-efficacy was inversely associated with parent-reported child GI symptom severity and disability, and parental protectiveness mediated these associations. These results suggest that parents who perceive their child to have low self-efficacy to cope with pain respond more protectively when they believe he/she is in pain, and this, in turn, is associated with higher levels of GI symptoms and disability in their child. This finding suggests that directly addressing parent beliefs about their child's ability to manage pain should be included as a component of FAPD, and potentially other child treatment interventions.

  18. Hardiness as a mediator between perceived stress and happiness in nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, A; Abu Talib, M; Yaacob, S N; Ismail, Z

    2014-01-01

    The relevance of the study of happiness and stress in nurses has been emphasized. In this sense, the intelligent use of hardiness is enable nurses to cope better with stress and contribute to being happier. This study aimed to examine the relationship among hardiness, perceived stress, and happiness in nurses. Moreover, we examined the mediator role of hardiness on the relationship between perceived stress and happiness in nurses. Our study revealed that hardi-attitude nurses evaluate situations as less stressful which results in a higher happiness. This study showed hardiness as being a protective factor against perceived stress and a facilitating factor for happiness in nurses. The findings could be important in training future nurses so that hardiness can be imparted, thereby giving them the ability to control their stress. Nursing is a stressful occupation with high levels of stress within the health professions. Given that hardiness is an important construct to enable nurses to cope better with stress and contribute to being happier; therefore, it is necessary we advance our knowledge about the aetiology of happiness, especially the role of hardiness in decreasing stress levels and increasing happiness. The present study sought to investigate the role of hardiness as a mediator between perceived stress and happiness. The participants, comprising 252 nurses from six private hospitals in Tehran, completed the Personal Views Survey, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Oxford Happiness Inventory. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used to analyse the data and answer the research hypotheses. As expected, hardiness partially mediated between perceived stress and happiness among nurses, and nurses with low levels of perceived stress were more likely to report greater hardiness and happiness. In addition, nurses with high levels of hardiness were more likely to report happiness. This study showed hardiness as being a protective factor against perceived stress and

  19. Perceived stress and bruxism in university students

    OpenAIRE

    Cavallo, Pierpaolo; Carpinelli, Luna; Savarese, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Background Many studies have shown the correlation between bruxism and stress that affects the quality of life of university students. The present study highlights this correlation—for the first time—in a group of university students in Italy. Methods We have investigated the prevalence of awake and asleep bruxism and its correlation with perceived stress in a group of 278 Italian undergraduate students (117 M). A self report questionnaire was constructed using a socio-demographic test, the P...

  20. Factors Contributing to Perceived Stress among Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kentya C.; Olotu, Busuyi S.; Thach, Andrew V.; Roberts, Rochelle; Davis, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to report on perceived stress levels, identify its contributing factors, and evaluate the association between perceived stress and usage of university resources to cope with stress among a cross-section of Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students. Methods: Perceived stress was measured via a web-based survey of…

  1. Factors Contributing to Perceived Stress among Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kentya C.; Olotu, Busuyi S.; Thach, Andrew V.; Roberts, Rochelle; Davis, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to report on perceived stress levels, identify its contributing factors, and evaluate the association between perceived stress and usage of university resources to cope with stress among a cross-section of Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students. Methods: Perceived stress was measured via a web-based survey of…

  2. Employees' Perceptions of the Opportunities to Utilize Their Competences: Exploring the Role of Perceived Competence Mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Perceived competence mobilization is the degree to which employees perceive that they have adequate opportunities to utilize their competences in their current jobs. The findings of the research reported here suggest that employees' perceived competence mobilization is associated with a number of favourable employee attitudes, including intrinsic…

  3. Non-specific physical symptoms in relation to actual and perceived proximity to mobile phone base stations and powerlines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolte John

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence about a possible causal relationship between non-specific physical symptoms (NSPS and exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF emitted by sources such as mobile phone base stations (BS and powerlines is insufficient. So far little epidemiological research has been published on the contribution of psychological components to the occurrence of EMF-related NSPS. The prior objective of the current study is to explore the relative importance of actual and perceived proximity to base stations and psychological components as determinants of NSPS, adjusting for demographic, residency and area characteristics. Methods Analysis was performed on data obtained in a cross-sectional study on environment and health in 2006 in the Netherlands. In the current study, 3611 adult respondents (response rate: 37% in twenty-two Dutch residential areas completed a questionnaire. Self-reported instruments included a symptom checklist and assessment of environmental and psychological characteristics. The computation of the distance between household addresses and location of base stations and powerlines was based on geo-coding. Multilevel regression models were used to test the hypotheses regarding the determinants related to the occurrence of NSPS. Results After adjustment for demographic and residential characteristics, analyses yielded a number of statistically significant associations: Increased report of NSPS was predominantly predicted by higher levels of self-reported environmental sensitivity; perceived proximity to base stations and powerlines, lower perceived control and increased avoidance (coping behavior were also associated with NSPS. A trend towards a moderator effect of perceived environmental sensitivity on the relation between perceived proximity to BS and NSPS was verified (p = 0.055. There was no significant association between symptom occurrence and actual distance to BS or powerlines. Conclusions Perceived proximity to BS

  4. Emotional intelligence, perceived stress and academic performance of Sri Lankan medical undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, P; Wathurapatha, W S; Mathangasinghe, Y; Ponnamperuma, G

    2017-02-20

    Previous research has shown that higher Emotional Intelligence (EI) is associated with better academic and work performance. The present study intended to explore the relationship between EI, perceived stress and academic performance and associated factors among medical undergraduates. This descriptive cross-sectional research study was conducted among 471 medical undergraduates of 2nd, 4th and final years of University of Colombo, Sri Lanka. Students were rated on self administered Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Test (SEIT). Examination results were used as the dichotomous outcome variable in a logistic regression analysis. Females had higher mean EI scores (p = 0.014). A positive correlation was found between the EI score and the number of extracurricular activities (r = 0.121, p = 0.008). Those who were satisfied regarding their choice to study medicine, and who were planning to do postgraduate studies had significantly higher EI scores and lower PSS scores (p <0.001). Among final year undergraduates, those who passed the Clinical Sciences examination in the first attempt had a higher EI score (p <0.001) and a lower PSS score (p <0.05). Results of the binary logistic-regression analysis in the entire study population indicated that female gender (OR:1.98) and being satisfied regarding their choice of the medical undergraduate programme (OR:3.69) were significantly associated with passing the examinations. However, PSS Score and engagement in extracurricular activities were not associated with 'Examination Results'. Higher EI was associated with better academic performance amongst final year medical students. In addition a higher EI was observed in those who had a higher level of self satisfaction. Self-perceived stress was lower in those with a higher EI. Enhancing EI might help to improve academic performance among final year medical student and also help to reduce the stress levels and cultivate

  5. Intention to Use Smartphone Through Perceived Compatibility, Perceived Usefulness, and Perceived Ease of Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harries Arizonia Ismail

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to test the influence of perceived compatibility perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and intention to use smartphone using five hypotheses. Purposive sampling was used as the technique of sample collection. There are representative samples that are 92 respondents, consists of lecturers, students, and employees from AKI University in Semarang city. The data had been analyzed by using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM and it was processed using AMOS program version 16.0. The result of the hypothesis shows that there is a positive and significant influence on perceived compatibility toward perceived usefulness, perceived compatibility toward perceived ease of use, perceived ease of use toward perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use toward intention to use. However, perceived usefulness toward intention to use is not significant. It can be caused that reason of owning smartphones is only a prestige and the users do not understand benefit of it’s features.Tujuan penelitian ini menguji pengaruh persepsi kesesuaian, persepsi kemanfaatan, persepsi kemudahan dan minat penggunaan smartphone. Teknik pengambilan sampel menggunakan purposive sampling. Jumlah sampel sebanyak 92 responden yang terdiri dari dosen, mahasiswa dan karyawan universitas AKI di kota Semarang. Data dianalisis menggunakan Structural Equation Modelling (SEM dan diolah dengan program AMOS versi 16.0. Hasil pengujian hipotesis menunjukkan pengaruh positif dan signifikan pada persepsi kesesuaian terhadap persepsi kemanfaatan, persepsi kesesuaian terhadap persepsi kemudahan penggunaan, persepsi kemudahan penggunaan terhadap persepsi kemanfaatan dan persepsi kemudahan penggunaan terhadap minat penggunaan. Namun demikian, pengaruh persepsi kemanfaatan terhadap minat penggunaan hasil dinyatakan tidak signifikan. Hal ini dikarenakan responden hanya menggunakan smartphones untuk prestis.JEL Classification: M3, M31

  6. Sex differences in perceived attributes of computer-mediated communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Vernon B

    2003-02-01

    Researchers have pointed to the influence of sex with respect to the attributes of the computer medium. The author elaborates upon possible sex differences in reference to perceived attributes of the computer medium, i.e., Richness, Accessibility, Velocity, Interactivity, Plasticity, and Immediacy. Data from both a pilot and main study are reported and interpreted. The pilot study included 78 participants, while the main study involved 211. The independent samples were composed of Communication Studies students enrolled at two Mid-Atlantic universities. Nine items with anchors of 1: strongly disagree and 7: strongly agree were taken from the 2000 Computer Mediated Communication Competence Scale of Spitzberg to assess the attributes of computer-mediated interaction. The results indicate that women scored higher than men on perceptions of Accessibility, Velocity, Interactivity, and Immediacy.

  7. Perceived strategies and activities for successful later aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Carole K; Velasquez, Katherine S

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated perceived strategies and activities for successful later aging. Participants were 242 members of the Terman Study of the Gifted who responded to an open-ended question concerning how they make the most of their aging years. Data were collected in 1996 and 1999, when the participants were average ages of 84 and 86. Longitudinal analyses examined changes over time and cross-sectional analyses examined correlates of strategies and activities. Results showed that strategies emphasized emotion regulation and adaptation. Activities emphasized family involvement, social relationships, leisure, productive and intellectual activity, and health maintenance. Reports of emotion regulation and adaptation increased over time and mention of an intellectual orientation declined over time. Variations in activity mention were found according to gender, age, self-rated health, health limitations, and life satisfaction. History of higher-level occupations was related to more productive activities. Results are discussed in terms of the challenges of later aging.

  8. Mode of communication, perceived level of understanding, and perceived quality of life in youth who are deaf or hard of hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushalnagar, P; Topolski, T D; Schick, B; Edwards, T C; Skalicky, A M; Patrick, D L

    2011-01-01

    Given the important role of parent-youth communication in adolescent well-being and quality of life, we sought to examine the relationship between specific communication variables and youth perceived quality of life in general and as a deaf or hard-of-hearing (DHH) individual. A convenience sample of 230 youth (mean age = 14.1, standard deviation = 2.2; 24% used sign only, 40% speech only, and 36% sign + speech) was surveyed on communication-related issues, generic and DHH-specific quality of life, and depression symptoms. Higher youth perception of their ability to understand parents' communication was significantly correlated with perceived quality of life as well as lower reported depressive symptoms and lower perceived stigma. Youth who use speech as their single mode of communication were more likely to report greater stigma associated with being DHH than youth who used both speech and sign. These findings demonstrate the importance of youths' perceptions of communication with their parents on generic and DHH-specific youth quality of life.

  9. Perceived Stigma and Quality of Life in Patients Following Recovery From Delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seon-Young; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Sung-Wan; Kang, Hee-Ju; Lee, Ju-Yeon; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2017-07-01

    To elucidate the factors related to perceived stigma and quality of life (QoL) in patients who have recovered from delirium. This prospective cohort investigation of patients with delirium, as diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR criteria, was conducted from July 2011 to May 2013. The perceived stigma level and QoL of each patient was assessed using the Perceived Stigma of Delirium Scale (PSDS) and European Quality of Life Visual Analog Scale (EQ-VAS), respectively, following recovery from delirium. Several clinical characteristics were assessed at baseline and after recovery from delirium, and a multivariate linear regression analysis was conducted. This study included 128 patients who completed a follow-up assessment after recovery from delirium. A multivariate analysis revealed that patients who had a history of depression (B = 3.34, P = .026), could recall their experiences with delirium (B = 1.71, P = .011), and had a longer duration from delirium detection to recovery (B = 1.39, P = .012) obtained higher PSDS scores than patients without these characteristics. The ability to recall delirium experiences (B = -7.17, P = .026) and the use of antipsychotics at follow-up assessment (B = -7.87, P = .039) were associated with lower EQ-VAS scores. Additionally, PSDS scores were negatively correlated with EQ-VAS scores (r = -0.37, P delirium reported varying degrees of perceived stigma and that the ability to recall their delirium experiences was associated with a higher stigma and a poorer QoL. These findings suggest that care teams should pay more attention to perceived stigma in patients with delirium.

  10. Dream recall and its relationship to sleep, perceived stress, and creativity among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Beck, Johannes; Kalak, Nadeem; Gerber, Markus; Kirov, Roumen; Pühse, Uwe; Hatzinger, Martin; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2011-11-01

    To explore associations between dream recall, gender, sleep, perceived stress, and creativity in a large sample of adolescents. In adults, women report a higher frequency of dream recall than men. Moreover, increased awakenings seem to increase dream recall, whereas low sleep quality is associated with low dream recall. In addition, there is some evidence that dream recall is associated with personality traits such as creativity. For adolescents, comparable data from larger samples are missing to date. A total of 5,580 adolescents (mean age: 18.23 years; 3,711 females and 1,869 males) participated in the present study. Participants completed an Internet-administered questionnaire related to dreaming, sleep, perceived stress, and creativity. As compared with males, female adolescents reported a higher dream recall rate and felt a stronger impact of dreams on the subsequent day. Female adolescents also described themselves as more creative, and reported suffering more from sleep complaints and perceived stress. Multiple regression analyses further revealed that increased dream recall was independently predicted by factors such as female gender, sleep quality, and creativity, whereas perceived stress, awakenings during the night, and sleep duration had no predictive value. Similar to the findings of studies conducted on adults, dream recall was also associated with female gender in a large sample of adolescents. Additionally, it seemed that several different factors such as good mood, increased sleep quality, and creativity influenced dream recall. These results can provide a basis for better understanding the psychology of dreams in adolescence. In contrast to nightmares, recalling dreaming is associated with health and well-being. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The relationship of green space, depressive symptoms and perceived general health in urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reklaitiene, Regina; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Dedele, Audrius; Virviciute, Dalia; Vensloviene, Jone; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Baceviciene, Migle; Luksiene, Dalia; Sapranaviciute-Zabazlajeva, Laura; Radisauskas, Ricardas; Bernotiene, Gailute; Bobak, Martin; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2014-11-01

    To assess the relationship between green space proximity, use of green space and depressive symptoms and perceived general health among a random sample men and women. Cross-sectional study of a population-based sample of 6,944 45-72 year old Kaunas city residents. Self-reported questionnaires provided information on sociodemographic variables, health behaviours, depressive symptoms and poor and very poor perceived general health. Residential proximity to green spaces was defined as living less than 300 m, within interval of 300-999 m, and equal or more than 1 km from a park. The use of the park was divided into two categories: no park use or use 300 m from a green space and who used the space ≥4 h/week showed higher odds 1.92 (1.11-3.3) and 1.68 (0.81-3.48) of depressive symptoms and poor and very poor perceived general health as compared to those who used the park 300 m. The results of our study confirmed an association between use of the green space, residential proximity, and depressive symptoms and poor and very poor perceived general health among women only. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  12. Perceived discrimination and smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sanghyuk S; Wan, Xia; Wang, Qian; Raymond, H Fisher; Liu, Huilin; Ding, Ding; Yang, Gonghuan; Novotny, Thomas E

    2013-02-01

    Smoking may be a coping mechanism for psychosocial stress caused by discrimination. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of rural-to-urban migrant women working as restaurant/hotel workers (RHWs) and those working as sex workers (FSWs) in 10 Chinese cities to investigate whether perceived discrimination is associated with smoking. We interviewed RHWs at medical examination clinics and FSWs at entertainment venues. Modified Poisson regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios. Of the 1,696 RHWs and 532 FSWs enrolled, 155 (9.1%) and 63 (11.8%) reported perceived discrimination, respectively. Perceived discrimination was independently associated with ever tried smoking (prevalence ratio [PR], 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-2.23) and current smoking (PR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.32-4.79) among RHWs and ever tried smoking (PR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.16-1.61) and current smoking (PR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.28-2.06) among FSWs. Perceived discrimination is associated with higher prevalence of smoking among rural-to-urban migrant women in China.

  13. European adolescents' level of perceived stress and its relationship with body adiposity--the HELENA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vriendt, Tineke; Clays, Els; Maes, Lea; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Vicente-Rodriguez, Germàn; Moreno, Luis A; Nagy, Eniko; Molnár, Dénes; Ortega, Francisco B; Dietrich, Sabine; Manios, Yannis; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2012-08-01

    Since stress is hypothesized to be involved in the aetiology of obesity, the present study examined the current perception of stress in European adolescents and the association between adolescent perceived stress and their adiposity. Observational data from 1121 adolescents aged 12.5-17.5 years from six European cities involved in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence cross-sectional study, was investigated. The adolescents completed the adolescent stress questionnaire, comprising 10 different stress dimensions. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, skinfold thicknesses and circumferences) and bioelectrical impedance analysis were performed, and personal characteristics (age, pubertal stage and parental education) were collected. The measures of perceived stress were described for boys and girls separately and gender differences were investigated. Associations between the adolescents' perceived stress and indicators of general (body mass index z-score, sum of skinfold thicknesses and body fat%) and abdominal (waist and hip circumference, and waist/height ratio) adiposity were examined using hierarchical linear models. While girls reported systematically higher levels of stress compared with boys, their stress profiles were similar, with highest levels for school-related stress followed by future uncertainty. Only in girls, perceived stress was significantly associated with increased measures of general and abdominal adiposity. In boys, no relationship between perceived stress and adiposity measures was observed. School is reported to be an important source of adolescent stress and should be the focus of stress management campaigns. Only in girls, the hypothesis that stress might be involved in the aetiology of obesity during adolescence was supported.

  14. Supporting the students most in need: academic self-efficacy and perceived teacher support in relation to within-year academic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Sterett H; Nellis, Leah M; Martínez, Rebecca S; Kirk, Megan

    2011-06-01

    Academic self-efficacy and perceived teacher support in relation to academic skill growth across one academic year were examined in the study. Participants included 193 5th-grade students. Teachers collected curriculum-based measures (CBM) of reading and math on three occasions as part of routine academic benchmarks, and researchers collected student-reported measures of academic self-efficacy and perceived teacher support in the spring of the same academic year. Results indicated that academic self-efficacy was positively related to fall reading and math CBM scores and that perceived teacher support was unrelated to fall scores or growth across the academic year. Academic self-efficacy and perceived teacher support interacted in relation to math CBM growth such that low levels of perceived teacher support were related to greater growth, particularly for students with high academic self-efficacy. Follow-up analyses indicated that students with the lowest fall CBM scores and smallest growth rates reported higher levels of perceived teacher support, suggesting that teachers support the students most in need.

  15. [Concordance between self-reported weight and height for nutritional assessment in adults aged between 25 and 50 years without higher education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matínez-Torres, Javier; Lee Osorno, Belinda Inés; Mendoza, Leylis; Mariotta, Sharom; López Epiayu, Yandra; Martínez, Yelitza; Jiménez, Nelly

    2014-11-01

    Overweight and obesity are metabolic disorders that have become a public health problem due to the current high prevalence; therefore, it is important to create simple monitoring systems to assess their trends. To determine the correlation between weight, height and body mass index reported by patients and the values measured directly in adults between 25 and 50 years old without higher education. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with participation of 207 adults between 25 and 50 years old. Each participant was asked weight and height; and body mass index was calculated with these data. Moreover, a qualified person determined the real value of these variables. The coefficient of intra-class correlation between self-reported and measurements was obtained. The body mass index measured for men was 25.8±3.7 kg/m2 and for women 26.0±4.1 kg/m2. Intraclass correlation coefficients were for weight 0.962 (IC95%: 0.950-0.971), height 0.909 (IC95%: 0.882-0.930), and body mass index 0.929 (IC95% 0.907-0.945); the real prevalence of people with a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m2 was 52.1%, whereas the value obtained by self-reported data was 44%. Self-reported weight and height data are useful for obesity assessment in adults aged between 25 and 50 years without higher education at the population level. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Perceived Threat, Risk Perception, and Efficacy Beliefs Related to SARS and Other (Emerging) Infectious Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Zwart, Onno; Veldhuijzen, Irene; Elam, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the levels of perceived threat, perceived severity, perceived vulnerability, response efficacy, and self-efficacy for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and eight other diseases in five European and three Asian countries. METHOD: A computer-assisted phone survey was conduc......PURPOSE: To study the levels of perceived threat, perceived severity, perceived vulnerability, response efficacy, and self-efficacy for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and eight other diseases in five European and three Asian countries. METHOD: A computer-assisted phone survey......-efficacy for SARS were higher in Asia compared to Europe. In multiple linear regression analyses, country was strongly associated with perceived threat. CONCLUSIONS: The relatively high perceived threat for SARS indicates that it is seen as a public health risk and offers a basis for communication in case...

  17. Faster self-reported speed of eating is related to higher body mass index in a nationwide survey of middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Sook Ling; Madden, Clara; Gray, Andrew; Waters, Debra; Horwath, Caroline

    2011-08-01

    This study is the first nationwide population survey to explore the association between speed of eating and degree of obesity. The objective was to cross-sectionally examine the relationship between self-reported speed of eating and body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m(2)) in a nationally representative sample of New Zealand women. In May 2009, a sample of 2,500 New Zealand women aged 40 to 50 years was randomly selected from the nationwide electoral rolls. A 66% participation rate was achieved. Potential participants were mailed a self-administered questionnaire containing questions on self-reported speed of eating, demographics, health conditions, menopause status, physical activity, height, and weight. Univariate models were used to examine the associations between demographic, health and behavioral variables, and BMI, while a multivariate model was developed to investigate the relationship between self-reported speed of eating and BMI. After adjusting for age, smoking status, menopause status, thyroid condition, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and physical activity, BMI statistically significantly increased by 2.8% (95% confidence interval: 1.5% to 4.1%; P<0.001) for each category increase in self-reported speed of eating. Although the direction of causality requires confirmation in longitudinal and randomized intervention studies, the results suggest that faster eating is associated with higher BMI in middle-aged women.

  18. The activation of the Sox2 RR2 pluripotency transcriptional reporter in human breast cancer cell lines is dynamic and labels cells with higher tumorigenic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel eIglesias

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The striking similarity displayed at the mechanistic level between tumorigenesis and the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells and the fact that genes and pathways relevant for embryonic development are reactivated during tumor progression highlights the link between pluripotency and cancer. Based on these observations we tested whether it is possible to use a pluripotency-associated transcriptional reporter, whose activation is driven by the SRR2 enhancer from the Sox2 gene promoter (named S4+ reporter, to isolate cancer stem cells from breast cancer cell lines. The S4+ pluripotency transcriptional reporter allows the isolation of cells with enhanced tumorigenic potential and its activation was switched on and off in the cell lines studied, reflecting a plastic cellular process. Microarray analysis comparing the populations in which the reporter construct is active vs. inactive showed that positive cells expressed higher mRNA levels of cytokines (IL-8, IL-6, TNF and genes (such as ATF3, SNAI2, KLF6 previously related with the cancer stem cell phenotype in breast cancer.

  19. Implicit Motives and Men’s Perceived Constraint in Fatherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Ruppen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that implicit motives influence social relationships. However, little is known about their role in fatherhood and, particularly, how men experience their paternal role. Therefore, this study examined the association of implicit motives and fathers’ perceived constraint due to fatherhood. Furthermore, we explored their relation to fathers’ life satisfaction. Participants were fathers with biological children (N = 276. They were asked to write picture stories, which were then coded for implicit affiliation and power motives. Perceived constraint and life satisfaction were assessed on a visual analog scale. A higher implicit need for affiliation was significantly associated with lower perceived constraint, whereas the implicit need for power had the opposite effect. Perceived constraint had a negative influence on life satisfaction. Structural equation modeling revealed significant indirect effects of implicit affiliation and power motives on life satisfaction mediated by perceived constraint. Our findings indicate that men with a higher implicit need for affiliation experience less constraint due to fatherhood, resulting in higher life satisfaction. The implicit need for power, however, results in more perceived constraint and is related to decreased life satisfaction.

  20. Does psychological need satisfaction perceived online enhance well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ligang; Tao, Ting; Fan, Chunlei; Gao, Wenbin

    2015-09-01

    The Internet has been building a new context, in which adolescents and young people complete their academic tasks, do their work, engage in social interaction, and even conduct anonymous identity experimentation. Therefore, it becomes very significant to assess psychological need satisfaction online, and to relate it to well-being. This study investigated the influence on well-being of psychological need satisfaction perceived online and the regulatory role in this relationship of psychological need satisfaction perceived in daily life. A total of 1,727 students from junior and senior high schools and universities in China were surveyed using the Basic Psychological Needs in General scale, the Basic Psychological Needs in the Online World scale, and the Index of Well-Being, Index of General Affect scale. The mean age of the adolescent sample was 17.47 years (ranging from 12.50 to 25.42 years). The results indicated that both need satisfaction perceived online and that perceived in daily life positively predicted psychological well-being, and psychological need satisfaction in daily life qualified the association between psychological need satisfaction perceived online and well-being. In particular, students who perceived higher psychological need satisfaction in daily life were found to benefit from psychological need satisfaction perceived online, but students with low psychological need satisfaction perceived in daily life did not. We suggest that people who perceive lower basic need satisfaction in daily life are more likely to use the Internet for socioaffective regulation and to consider cyberspace as a new world. Thus, need satisfaction perceived online may not transform into "real" happiness.

  1. Buying higher welfare poultry products? Profiling Flemish consumers who do and do not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhonacker, F; Verbeke, W

    2009-12-01

    A substantial number of studies has already investigated differences within the consumer market with regard to attitudes and perceptions in relation to farm animal welfare. Likewise, several studies focused on the gap that exists between positive attitudes and reported consumption or purchase intentions for sustainable food products in general and higher welfare products more specific, and on the factors influencing this attitude-behavior gap. Little or no studies, however, have started from reported pro-welfare behavior to distinguish between consumer groups and to explore the motivations of the respective behavior. With this study, we aim to group consumers according to their reported buying frequency of higher welfare eggs and higher welfare chicken meat. Similarities and dissimilarities between these groups are mapped in terms of individual characteristics, product attribute importance, perceived consumer effectiveness, perception of higher welfare products, and attitude toward a welfare label. The research methodology applied was a quantitative study with cross-sectional consumer survey data collected in Flanders in spring 2007 (n = 469). Pro-welfare behavior was unevenly distributed across different consumer segments, despite a general interest and concern for bird welfare. A consistent choice for standard (no welfare premium) poultry products was related to strong perceived price and availability barriers, to a low importance attached to ethical issues as product attributes, and to a low perceived consumer effectiveness. A consistent choice for products with higher welfare standards to the contrast associated with a high importance attached to ethical issues; a low effect of price and availability perception; a strong association of higher welfare products with product attributes like health, taste, and quality; and a high perceived consumer effectiveness. The identification of market segments with common characteristics is essential for positioning higher

  2. Enhancement stimulants: perceived motivational and cognitive advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena P. Ilieva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychostimulants like Adderall and Ritalin are widely used for cognitive enhancement by people without ADHD, although the empirical literature has shown little conclusive evidence for effectiveness in this population. This paper explores one potential explanation of this discrepancy: the possibility that the benefit from enhancement stimulants is at least in part motivational, rather than purely cognitive. We review relevant laboratory, survey and interview research and present the results of a new survey of enhancement users with the goal of comparing perceived cognitive and motivational effects. These users perceived stimulant effects on motivationally-related factors, especially energy and motivation, and reported motivational effects to be at least as pronounced as cognitive effects, including effects on "attention."

  3. Knowledge, practices, and perceived barriers regarding cancer pain management among physicians and nurses in Korea: a nationwide multicenter survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jho, Hyun Jung; Kim, Yeol; Kong, Kyung Ae; Kim, Dae Hyun; Choi, Jin Young; Nam, Eun Jeong; Choi, Jin Young; Koh, Sujin; Hwang, Kwan Ok; Baek, Sun Kyung; Park, Eun Jung

    2014-01-01

    Medical professionals' practices and knowledge regarding cancer pain management have often been cited as inadequate. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge, practices and perceived barriers regarding cancer pain management among physicians and nurses in Korea. A nationwide questionnaire survey was administered to physicians and nurses involved in the care of cancer patients. Questionnaire items covered pain assessment and documentation practices, knowledge regarding cancer pain management, the perceived barriers to cancer pain control, and processes perceived as the major causes of delay in opioid administration. A total of 333 questionnaires (149 physicians and 284 nurses) were analyzed. Nurses performed pain assessment and documentation more regularly than physicians did. Although physicians had better knowledge of pain management than did nurses, both groups lacked knowledge regarding the side effects and pharmacology of opioids. Physicians working in the palliative care ward and nurses who had received pain management education obtained higher scores on knowledge. Physicians perceived patients' reluctance to take opioids as a barrier to pain control, more so than did nurses, while nurses perceived patients' tendency to under-report of pain as a barrier, more so than did physicians. Physicians and nurses held different perceptions regarding major cause of delay during opioid administration. There were differences between physicians and nurses in knowledge and practices for cancer pain management. An effective educational strategy for cancer pain management is needed in order to improve medical professionals' knowledge and clinical practices.

  4. The relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological distress among Chinese pulmonary tuberculosis patients: the moderating role of self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Danjun; Xu, Lingzhong

    2015-01-01

    This study described the prevalence of psychological distress and examined the moderating effect of self-esteem in the relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological distress among Chinese pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients. Seven hundred and twenty patients with TB from three cities of Shandong Province in eastern China participated in a cross-sectional survey. Patients were measured with the Kessler 10 (K10), the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and a self-developed perceived discrimination questionnaire. A total of 58.6% of patients with TB scored above 16 on the K10, indicating moderate and serious psychological distress. Chi-square test revealed that female patients reported higher psychological distress than male patients. The structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis among the whole sample indicated that perceived discrimination was significantly related with psychological distress (β = .28, p ≤ .01). The multiple group analysis of SEM showed that perceived discrimination had a significantly substantial (β = .50, p ≤ .001), significantly moderate (β = .15, p ≤ .01), and insignificant effect (β = .05, p ≥ .05) on psychological distress among low self-esteem, moderate self-esteem, and high self-esteem patients with TB, respectively, which verified the moderating effect of self-esteem in the relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological distress.

  5. Social problem-solving, perceived stress, depression and life-satisfaction in patients suffering from tension type and migraine headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskin, Mehmet; Akyol, Ali; Çelik, Emine Yilmaz; Gültekin, Bülent Kadri

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed at investigating social problem solving, perceived stress, depression, and life-satisfaction in patients with tension type and migraine headaches. Forty-nine migraine and 42 tension type headache patients (n = 91) consenting to participate were compared to a total of 49 matched healthy control group. Participants filled in a questionnaire consisting self-report measures of problem solving, perceived stress, depression and life satisfaction. They were also asked about headache duration, frequency, pain severity, psychiatric treatment and sense of control in one's life. T-tests, chi-square, analysis of variance, logistic regression analysis and Pearson product moment correlation coefficient procedures were used to analyze the data. Tension type headache patients reported having had more frequent headaches than the migraine patients but migraine patients reported having had more intense pain than the tension type headache patients. Instances of psychiatric treatment were more common among tension type headache patients than the migraine and the control group. Compared to the healthy controls, headache patients displayed a deficiency in problem solving, higher levels of perceived stress and depression. Levels of problem solving skills in headache patients were related inversely to depression, perceived stress and the number of negative life events but problem solving skills of headache patients was related positively to life-satisfaction. The findings from this study suggested that cognitive behavioral problem solving therapy or training might be a viable option for reducing levels of stress and depression, and to increase life-satisfaction in patients suffering from primary headache.

  6. Private Higher Education and Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisz, Robert D.; Stock, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    In Western Europe, especially in Germany, private higher education is generally perceived as an alternative to public higher education for students from relatively affluent families; more broadly, there is a general perception that attending a private higher education institution is correlated to wealth. This perception is influenced by private…

  7. Development of perceived instrumentality for mathematics, reading and science curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Steve L.

    Perceptions of instrumentality (PI) are the connections one sees between a current activity and a future goal. With high PI, one is motivated to persist with quality effort because the current activity, even when difficult, is perceived as aligned with, and progress toward, the goal. Conversely, with low PI, one is motivated to relinquish effort in pursuit of other, more meaningful goals. In view of the alarming dropout rates in this country, it appears that PI research has much to offer in understanding students' motivations to stay in school and hence to become employed in their field of choice. Because academic achievement motivation can be affected by gender and ethnicity, particularly for specific components of the curriculum, and because curricular content varies across grade levels and school settings, this line of research offers significant potential for understanding and improving student outcomes. This research examined the development of PI among suburban 6th, 8th, 10th and 12th graders from a school district in the southwestern United States. Twelve hundred students completed a one-time paper and pencil survey measuring the perceived instrumentality of mathematics, literacy and science courses in terms of the students' occupational choices. MANOVA was used to determine factors that may affect students' overall PI and individual subject PI. Grade, gender, ethnicity, occupational choice, expectancy and value were the independent variables. A school setting variable was examined for effects on 12th graders. For the 8th through 12th grade sample, significant main effects were observed for grade, gender, minority status, occupational choice and expectancy on PI. Results show that PI is highest in the 6 th grade. Males reported higher Math PI than females. Females reported higher Reading PI and Science PI than males. Minority students reported lower overall PI and Science PI than non-minority students. Students who aspire to professional careers report the

  8. Implementation of a Quality Improvement Process Aimed to Deliver Higher-Value Physical Therapy for Patients With Low Back Pain: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlen, Emily; McCathie, Becky

    2015-12-01

    The current state of health care demands higher-value care. Due to many barriers, clinicians routinely do not implement evidence-based care even though it is known to improve quality and reduce cost of care. The purpose of this case report is to describe a theory-based, multitactic implementation of a quality improvement process aimed to deliver higher-value physical therapy for patients with low back pain. Patients were treated from January 2010 through December 2014 in 1 of 32 outpatient physical therapy clinics within an academic health care system. Data were examined from 47,755 patients (mean age=50.3 years) entering outpatient physical therapy for management of nonspecific low back pain, with or without radicular pain. Development and implementation tactics were constructed from adult learning and change management theory to enhance adherence to best practice care among 130 physical therapists. A quality improvement team implemented 4 tactics: establish care delivery expectations, facilitate peer-led clinical and operational teams, foster a learning environment focused on meeting a population's needs, and continuously collect and analyze outcomes data. Physical therapy utilization and change in functional disability were measured to assess relative cost and quality of care. Secondarily, charge data assessed change in physical therapists' application of evidence-based care. Implementation of a quality improvement process was measured by year-over-year improved clinical outcomes, decreased utilization, and increased adherence to evidence-based physical therapy, which was associated with higher-value care. When adult learning and change management theory are combined in quality improvement efforts, common barriers to implementing evidence-based care can be overcome, creating an environment supportive of delivering higher-value physical therapy for patients with low back pain. © 2015 American Physical Therapy Association.

  9. Quality of life among free clinic patients associated with somatic symptoms, depression, and perceived neighborhood environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Akiko; Christensen, Nancy; Prevedel, Jamie A; Tabler, Jennifer; Hamilton, Brian J; Ashby, Jeanie; Reel, Justine J

    2014-06-01

    Free clinics provide free or reduced fee healthcare to individuals who lack access to primary care and are socio-economically disadvantaged. The purpose of this study is to examine health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among free clinic patients and its association with somatic symptoms, depression, and perceived neighborhood environment. Free clinic patients (n = 186) aged 18 years or older completed a self-administered survey. HRQoL, depression, somatic symptoms, and perceived neighborhood environment were measured using standardized instruments. Overall, the participants reported low level of HRQoL compared to the general healthy population. US born participants (n = 97) reported poorer psychological QoL and social relations, more somatic symptoms, and were more likely to be depressed than non-US born participants (n = 89). Higher numbers of somatic symptoms were associated with poorer environmental QoL. Depression was associated with all aspects of QoL; a higher level of depression was related to poorer QoL in all aspects. Our findings show that free clinic patients, especially US born patients, have poor HRQoL. Depression and perceived neighborhood satisfaction are key factors to determine HRQoL among free clinic patients. Mental health services and collaboration with other community organizations may help in improving HRQoL among free clinic patients. Finally, health promotion programs at the community level, not just at the clinic level, would be valuable to improve health of free clinic patients as perceived neighborhood environment is associated with their HRQoL.

  10. Perceived Thermal Discomfort and Stress Behaviours Affecting Students’ Learning in Lecture Theatres in the Humid Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamaraukuro Tammy Amasuomo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the relationship between students’ perceived thermal discomfort and stress behaviours affecting their learning in lecture theatres in the humid tropics. Two lecture theatres, LTH-2 and 3, at the Niger Delta University, Nigeria, were used for the study. Two groups of students from the Faculties of Agriculture and Engineering and the Department of Technology Education constituted the population. The sample size selected through random sampling for Groups A and B was 210 and 370 students, respectively. Objective and self-report instruments were used for data collection. The objective instrument involved physical measurement of the two lecture theatres and of the indoor temperature, relative humidity and air movement. The self-report instrument was a questionnaire that asked for the students perceived indoor thermal discomfort levels and the effect of indoor thermal comfort level on perceived stress behaviours affecting their learning. The objective indoor environmental data indicated thermal discomfort with an average temperature of 29–32 °C and relative humidity of 78% exceeding the ASHARE [1] and Olgyay [2].The students’ experienced a considerable level of thermal discomfort and also perceived that stress behaviours due to thermal discomfort affected their learning. Further, there were no significant differences in the perceived thermal discomfort levels of the two groups of students in LTH-2 and 3. Furthermore, stress behaviours affecting learning as perceived by the two groups of students did not differ significantly. In addition, no correlation existed between the perceived indoor thermal discomfort levels and stress behaviour levels affecting learning for students in LTH-2, because the arousal level of the students in the thermal environment was likely higher than the arousal level for optimal performance [3,4]. However, a correlation existed in the case of students in LTH-3, which was expected because it only

  11. Mother-child discrepancy in perceived parental control and adolescent filial piety in poor single-mother families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L; Lin, Li

    2017-10-01

    Based on a sample of 432 poor Chinese single-mother families (mean age of adolescents = 13.7 years; 51.2% girls; mean age of mothers = 43.5 years) in Hong Kong, the interaction effect of mother-reported and adolescent-reported maternal control on filial piety of Chinese adolescents was examined. Results of polynomial multiple regression analyses showed that the interaction between mother-reported and adolescent-reported maternal control predicted perceived filial piety in adolescents. At high levels of mother-reported maternal control, high adolescent-perceived parental control was associated with higher filial piety. At low levels of mother-reported maternal control, filial piety increased initially and then decreased when adolescents reported higher levels of maternal control. Using multiple group analyses, these associations were found to be stable across gender and age. The present findings provide insights on how congruencies and discrepancies between mother-reported and adolescent-reported maternal control predict filial piety of Chinese adolescents growing up in poor single-mother families. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Understanding Suicide Attempts Among Gay Men From Their Self-perceived Causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jen; Plöderl, Martin; Häusermann, Michael; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2015-07-01

    Gay men are at higher risk of suicidality. This paper describes the causes of suicide attempts as perceived by the men themselves and analyzes their impact on severity and recidivism. Mental health surveys conducted among gay men in Geneva, Switzerland, from two probability-based time-space samples in 2007 and 2011, were merged to yield a combined sample N = 762. Suicide ideation, plans, and attempts were assessed, and respondents who had ever attempted suicide answered open questions about perceived causes which were coded and categorized for analysis within the framework of cultural epidemiology. In all, 16.7% of the respondents reported a suicide attempt in their lifetime (59.5% of them with multiple attempts). At their latest attempt, over two thirds asserted intent to die, and half required medical assistance. There was a wide variety of perceived causes, with most individuals reporting multiple causes and many of the most common causes cited at both the first and most recent subsequent attempts. Social/inter-personal problems constitute the most prominent category. Problems with love/relationship and accepting one's homosexuality figure consistently among the top three causes. Whereas the former tend to be associated with weaker intent to die, the latter are associated with the strongest intent to die and reported at multiple attempts. Problems with family are among the most common perceived causes at first attempt but not at the most recent subsequent attempt. Nevertheless, they tend to be related to the strongest intent to die and the greatest medical severity of all the perceived causes. Ten percent of men attempting suicide cited depression as a cause. Although it tended to be associated with weaker intent to die, depression was most likely to be reported at multiple attempts. Respondent-driven assessment yielded both common and idiosyncratic causes of suicide and their distinct effects. Some of these perceived causes are not prominent in the current

  13. Caregiving demands and caregivers’ psychological outcomes: the mediating role of perceived injustice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi, Somayyeh; de Boer, Maaike J.; Sanderman, Robbert; Hagedoorn, Mariët

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study hypothesized that higher caregiving demands are related to higher perceived injustice. Furthermore, this study investigated the mediating role of perceived injustice in the link between caregiving demands and caregivers’ psychological well-being. Design: A cross-sectional desi

  14. Caregiving demands and caregivers' psychological outcomes : The mediating role of perceived injustice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi, Somayyeh; de Boer, Maaike J; Sanderman, Robbert; Hagedoorn, Mariët

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study hypothesized that higher caregiving demands are related to higher perceived injustice. Furthermore, this study investigated the mediating role of perceived injustice in the link between caregiving demands and caregivers' psychological well-being. Design: A cross-sectional desi

  15. Staying Current in a Changing Profession: Evaluating Perceived Change Resulting from Continuing Professional Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charles A.; Cohen-Callow, Amy; Dia, David A.; Bliss, Donna Leigh; Gantt, Ann; Cornelius, Llewellyn J.; Harrington, Donna

    2006-01-01

    In this study, 230 licensed social workers participated in a cross-sectional survey to examine participants' self-perceived change in knowledge, attitude, and behavior (KAB) following formal and informal continuing professional education (CPE). Self-perceived change scores were significantly higher for informal than formal CPE. Higher motivational…

  16. Sick regimes and sick people: a multilevel investigation of the population health consequences of perceived national corruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witvliet, Margot I; Kunst, Anton E; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Stronks, Karien

    2013-10-01

    There is a paucity of empirical work on the potential population health impact of living under a regime marred by corruption. African countries differ in the extent of national corruption, and we explore whether perceived national corruption is associated with population health across all rungs of society. World Health Survey data were analysed on 72 524 adults from 20 African countries. The main outcome was self-reported poor general health. Multilevel logistic regression was used to assess the association between poor health and perceived corruption, while jointly accounting for individual- and country-level human development factors. In this research, we use Transparency International's corruption perception index (CPI), which measures 'both administrative and political corruption' on a 0-10 scale. A higher score pertains to a higher rate of perceived corruption within society. We also examined effect modification by gender, age and socio-economic status. Higher national corruption perception was consistently associated with an increase in poor health prevalence, also after multivariable adjustments, with odds ratio (OR) of 1.62 (95% CI: 1.01-2.60). Stratified analyses by age and gender suggested this same pattern in all subgroups. Positive associations between poor health and perceived corruption were evident in all socio-economic groups, with the association being somewhat more positive among less educated people (OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.01-2.58) than among more educated people (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 0.83-2.37). This study is a cautious first step in empirically testing the general health consequences of corruption. Our results suggest that higher perceived national corruption is associated with general health of both men and women within all socio-economic groups across the lifespan. Further research is needed using more countries to assess the magnitude of the health consequences of corruption. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Symptoms and health complaints and their association with perceived stress at university: survey of students at eleven faculties in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Oskrochi, Reza; Labeeb, Shokria; Stock, Christiane

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationships between perceived stress and a range of self reported symptoms and health complaints in a representative sample of students at one university in Egypt. The data (3,271 students) was collected during the academic year 2009-2010 at eleven faculties at the university of Assiut city, Egypt. A self-administered questionnaire measured health complaints (22 symptoms) and Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale. Socio-demographic and lifestyle data were also collected. Factor analysis generated four groups of health complaints: psychological, circulatory/breathing, gastrointestinal, and pains/aches, and the internal consistency of each group of symptoms was computed using reliability analyses (Cronbach's alpha). Perceived stress was categorized into four levels based on quartiles. Multiple binomial or multinomial logistic regression analyses analysed the relationship between each of the four groups of symptoms and other students' general characteristics adjusted for the effect of all other groups of symptoms. The symptoms most often reported as having occurred sometimes/very often in the last 12 months were fatigue (85.3%), difficulties to concentrate (78.1%), headache (77.9%), and mood swings (74.5%), while nervousness/anxiety (63.2%) and sleep disorder (63.7%) affected many students. Multinominal logistic regression revealed a clear association and a linear trend between increasing level of stress and a higher frequency of psychological symptoms that remained significant after adjustment for other groups of symptoms. There were no associations between perceived stress and circulatory/breathing symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms, or for pains/aches. Poor health was consistently associated with higher frequency of symptoms across all symptom groups except for gastrointestinal symptoms. Higher health awareness was associated with lower frequency of psychological and circulatory/breathing symptoms but not for the other two symptom groups. Better

  18. Perceived discrimination is associated with health behaviours among African-Americans in the Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Mario; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Gebreab, Samson Y; Brenner, Allison; Dubbert, Patricia; Wyatt, Sharon; Bruce, Marino; Hickson, DeMarc; Payne, Tom; Taylor, Herman

    2016-02-01

    Using Jackson Heart Study data, we examined associations of multiple measures of perceived discrimination with health behaviours among African-Americans (AA). The cross-sectional associations of everyday, lifetime and burden of discrimination with odds of smoking and mean differences in physical activity, dietary fat and sleep were examined among 4925 participants aged 35-84 years after adjustment for age and socioeconomic status (SES). Men reported slightly higher levels of everyday and lifetime discrimination than women and similar levels of burden of discrimination as women. After adjustment for age and SES, everyday discrimination was associated with more smoking and a greater percentage of dietary fat in men and women (OR for smoking: 1.13, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.28 and 1.19, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.34; mean difference in dietary fat: 0.37, pdiscrimination were associated with fewer hours of sleep in men and women (mean difference for everyday discrimination: -0.08, pdiscrimination: -0.08, pdiscrimination was associated with more smoking and fewer hours of sleep in women only. Higher levels of perceived discrimination were associated with select health behaviours among men and women. Health behaviours offer a potential mechanism through which perceived discrimination affects health in AA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Adolescents' perceived risk for STDs and HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen, J M; Boyer, C B; Tschann, J M; Shafer, M A

    1996-03-01

    In 1991, 881 urban US high school students participated in a survey designed to determine their perceptions of risk for acquiring sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and to test whether results of a previously reported clinic-based study on perceptions of risk are generalizable. Of the students, 278 had engaged in sexual intercourse, and 231 of these returned questionnaires with usable answers to each question. The analysis was based on this latter cohort. The mean age of this group was 15.5 years. 53% were male, 34% Black, 27% Hispanic, 14% Asian, 9% White, and 16% other. The perceived relative risks for STDs and HIV (dependent measures) were submitted to separate analysis using the 5-point Likert scales. Independent measures included demographic variables, STD and HIV anxiety, condom use, number of partners, and STD and HIV beliefs. It was found that 24% never used a condom and 43% always used condoms. The subjects showed no optimistic bias in their perceptions of the relative risk of STDs or HIV (they believed their risks to be the same as those of other people their age). The only variance found was that the White subjects believed themselves at less relative risk than the other subjects. These findings contrast those of the clinic-based study and suggest that perceptions of risk may vary among different cohorts. Higher levels of anxiety were also found to be associated with higher levels of perceived risk whereas other factors were not. A possible limitation of this study was that the group to which the study population was asked to compare itself was not clearly defined. However, this study indicates that sexually active adolescents are well aware of their STD and HIV risks and that their decision to engage in risky behavior may be due to factors other than a heightened sense of invulnerability (such as perception of social norms or alcohol use).

  20. Perceived parental affectionless control is associated with high neuroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Nana; Suzuki, Akihito; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Shirata, Toshinori; Otani, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Depressed patients are prone to perceive that they were exposed to affectionless control by parents. Meanwhile, high neuroticism is a well-established risk factor for developing depression. Therefore, this study examined whether perceived parental affectionless control is associated with high neuroticism. The subjects were 664 healthy Japanese volunteers. Perceived parental care and protection were assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument. Parental rearing was categorized into either optimal parenting (high care/low protection) or three dysfunctional parenting styles including affectionless control (low care/high protection). Neuroticism was evaluated by the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised. The subjects with paternal affectionless control had higher neuroticism scores than those with paternal optimal parenting. Similar tendency was observed in maternal rearing. Neuroticism scores increased in a stepwise manner with respect to the increase in the number of parents with affectionless control. The present study shows that perceived parental affectionless control is associated with high neuroticism, suggesting that this parental style increases neuroticism in recipients.

  1. Self-reported empathy and neural activity during action imitation and observation in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. Horan

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Although patients with schizophrenia demonstrated largely normal patterns of neural activation across the finger movement and facial expression tasks, they reported decreased self perceived empathy and failed to show the typical relationship between neural activity and self-reported empathy seen in controls. These findings suggest that patients show a disjunction between automatic neural responses to low level social cues and higher level, integrative social cognitive processes involved in self-perceived empathy.

  2. Perceived sources of stress among Malaysian dental students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Syed S.; Ooi, Yong J.; Ahmed, Syed I.; Wong, Pei S.; Ahmad, Siti F.; MNM-Rosdy, Nik M.; Malik, Normaliza A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The study objectives were to identify the stress levels and to explore the impact of students' year of study and gender on the perceived sources of stress among Malaysian dental students. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving dental students from year one to year five from private and public universities in Malaysia. The study was formally approved by the Research and Ethics Committee, International Medical University Malaysia. Dental Environment Stress (DES) questionnaire was used for data collection and the gathered data were analyzed using SPSS® version 18. The Kruskal-Wallis and the Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare stress items across various academic years and universities. Results A total of five hundred and twenty nine (529) students participated in this study. Fear of failing the course at the end of year exams (mean stress level=5.57); concerns regarding completion of clinical work (mean=5.30); and examination results and grades (mean=5.27) were found as top stressors among dental students. Female students had higher stress scores than males with respect to personal issues, academic performance, educational environment and learning of clinical skills. Students from public universities had higher stress scores than their counterparts from private universities. Conclusion The Malaysian dental students reported higher levels of stress. Present study identified stressors affecting dental students' academic life, and highlights the importance of stress management programs and other measures to minimize the impact of stress on both academic and personal lives of the students. PMID:25935506

  3. Perceived sources of stress among Malaysian dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Muneer G; Hasan, Syed S; Ooi, Yong J; Ahmed, Syed I; Wong, Pei S; Ahmad, Siti F; Mnm-Rosdy, Nik M; Malik, Normaliza A

    2015-05-02

    The study objectives were to identify the stress levels and to explore the impact of students' year of study and gender on the perceived sources of stress among Malaysian dental students. This was a cross-sectional study involving dental students from year one to year five from private and public universities in Malaysia. The study was formally approved by the Research and Ethics Committee, International Medical University Malaysia. Dental Environment Stress (DES) questionnaire was used for data collection and the gathered data were analyzed using SPSS® version 18. The Kruskal-Wallis and the Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare stress items across various academic years and universities. A total of five hundred and twenty nine (529) students participated in this study. Fear of failing the course at the end of year exams (mean stress level=5.57); concerns regarding completion of clinical work (mean=5.30); and examination results and grades (mean=5.27) were found as top stressors among dental students. Female students had higher stress scores than males with respect to personal issues, academic performance, educational environment and learning of clinical skills. Students from public universities had higher stress scores than their counterparts from private universities. The Malaysian dental students reported higher levels of stress. Present study identified stressors affecting dental students' academic life, and highlights the importance of stress management programs and other measures to minimize the impact of stress on both academic and personal lives of the students.

  4. Associations Between Perceived Race-based Discrimination and Contraceptive Use Among Women Veterans in the ECUUN Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Serena; Hausmann, Leslie R M; Sileanu, Florentina E; Zhao, Xinhua; Mor, Maria K; Borrero, Sonya

    2017-09-01

    To describe perceived race-based discrimination in Veterans Affairs (VA) health care settings and assess its associations with contraceptive use among a sample of women Veterans. This study used data from a national telephone survey of women Veterans aged 18-44 receiving health care in VA who were at risk of unintended pregnancy. Participants were asked about their perceptions of race-based discrimination while seeking VA health care and about their contraceptive use at last heterosexual intercourse. Logistic and multinomial regression analyses were used to examine associations between perceived race-based discrimination with use of prescription contraception. In our sample of 1341 women Veterans, 7.9% report perceived race-based discrimination when receiving VA care, with blacks and Hispanics reporting higher levels of perceived discrimination than white women (11.3% and 11.2% vs. 4.4%; Pdiscrimination were less likely to use any prescription birth control than women who did not (odds ratio, 0.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.42-1.00), with the largest difference seen in rates of intrauterine device or implant use (odds ratio, 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.79). In this national sample of women Veterans, over 10% of racial/ethnic minority women perceived race-based discrimination when receiving care in VA settings, and perceived racial/ethnic discrimination was associated with lower likelihood of prescription contraception use, especially intrauterine devices and implants. VA efforts to enhance respectful interactions may not only improve patient health care experiences, but also represent an opportunity to improve reproductive health outcomes for women Veterans.

  5. Farmers' Perceived Risks of Climate Change and Influencing Factors: A Study in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Dang, Hoa; Li, Elton; Nuberg, Ian; Bruwer, Johan

    2014-08-01

    Many countries are confronting climate change that threatens agricultural production and farmers' lives. Farmers' perceived risks of climate change and factors influencing those perceived risks are critical to their adaptive behavior and well-planned adaptation strategies. However, there is limited understanding of these issues. In this paper, we attempt to quantitatively measure farmers' perceived risks of climate change and explore the influences of risk experience, information, belief in climate change, and trust in public adaptation to those perceived risks. Data are from structured interviews with 598 farmers in the Mekong Delta. The study shows that perceived risks to production, physical health, and income dimensions receive greater priority while farmers pay less attention to risks to happiness and social relationships. Experiences of the events that can be attributed to climate change increase farmers' perceived risks. Information variables can increase or decrease perceived risks, depending on the sources of information. Farmers who believe that climate change is actually happening and influencing their family's lives, perceive higher risks in most dimensions. Farmers who think that climate change is not their concern but the government's, perceive lower risks to physical health, finance, and production. As to trust in public adaptation, farmers who believe that public adaptive measures are well co-ordinated, perceive lower risks to production and psychology. Interestingly, those who believe that the disaster warning system is working well, perceive higher risks to finance, production, and social relationships. Further attention is suggested for the quality, timing, and channels of information about climate change and adaptation.

  6. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation presenting with steroid-responsive higher brain dysfunction: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeda Yasushi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 56-year-old man noticed discomfort in his left lower limb, followed by convulsion and numbness in the same area. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed white matter lesions in the right parietal lobe accompanied by leptomeningeal or leptomeningeal and cortical post-contrast enhancement along the parietal sulci. The patient also exhibited higher brain dysfunction corresponding with the lesions on MRI. Histological pathology disclosed β-amyloid in the blood vessels and perivascular inflammation, which highlights the diagnosis of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA-related inflammation. Pulse steroid therapy was so effective that clinical and radiological findings immediately improved. CAA-related inflammation is a rare disease, defined by the deposition of amyloid proteins within the leptomeningeal and cortical arteries associated with vasculitis or perivasculitis. Here we report a patient with CAA-related inflammation who showed higher brain dysfunction that improved with steroid therapy. In cases with atypical radiological lesions like our case, cerebral biopsy with histological confirmation remains necessary for an accurate diagnosis.

  7. PERSONAL ATTITUDES, PERCEIVED SOCIAL NORMS, AND HEALTH RISK BEHAVIOR AMONG FEMALE ADOLESCENTS WITH CHRONIC MEDICAL CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Jennifer Hauser; Greenley, Rachel Neff; Mussatto, Kathleen A.; Roth-Wojcicki, Betsy; Miller, Tami; Freeman, Mary Ellen; Lerand, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether perceived peer/parent norms or personal beliefs about adolescent substance use influence substance use among female adolescents with chronic medical conditions. Methods 68 females reported on substance use, personal beliefs, and perceived peer/parent norms. Results Personal beliefs and perceived peer/parent norms were associated with adolescent’s current and future substance use. Although perceived peer norms accounted for variance in current substance use, only personal beliefs accounted for variance in future alcohol use. Conclusions Targeting perceived peer norms may be effective for intervention efforts among adolescents endorsing current substance use, whereas alcohol use prevention efforts should target personal beliefs. PMID:23524992

  8. Problem-solving skills and perceived stress among undergraduate students: The moderating role of hardiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor; Carlbring, Per; Harvey, Richard; Yaacob, Siti Nor; Ismail, Zanariah

    2016-06-26

    This study was designed to examine the relationships between problem-solving skills, hardiness, and perceived stress and to test the moderating role of hardiness in the relationship between problem-solving skills and perceived stress among 500 undergraduates from Malaysian public universities. The analyses showed that undergraduates with poor problem-solving confidence, external personal control of emotion, and approach-avoidance style were more likely to report perceived stress. Hardiness moderated the relationships between problem-solving skills and perceived stress. These findings reinforce the importance of moderating role of hardiness as an influencing factor that explains how problem-solving skills affect perceived stress among undergraduates.

  9. Emotional intelligence, life satisfaction and subjective happiness in female student health professionals: the mediating effect of perceived stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Aranda, D; Extremera, N; Pineda-Galán, C

    2014-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to extend previous findings by examining the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and well-being indicators (life satisfaction and happiness) in a 12-week follow-up study. In addition, we examined the influence of perceived stress on the relationship between EI and well-being. Female students from the School of Health Sciences (n = 264) completed an ability measure of emotional intelligence. After 12 weeks, participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale and Subjective Happiness Scale. Participants with higher EI reported less perceived stress and higher levels of life satisfaction and happiness. The results of this study suggest that perceived stress mediates the relationship between EI and well-being indicators, specifically life satisfaction and happiness. These findings suggest an underlying process by which high emotional intelligence may increase well-being in female students in nursing and allied health sciences by reducing the experience of stress. The implications of these findings for future research and for working with health professions to improve well-being outcomes are discussed.

  10. Impulsivity, perceived self-regulatory success in dieting, and body mass in children and adolescents: A moderated mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian; Hofmann, Johannes; Weghuber, Daniel; Blechert, Jens

    2016-12-01

    Impulsivity has been suggested to contribute to overeating and obesity. However, findings are inconsistent and it appears that only specific facets of impulsivity are related to eating-related variables and to body mass. In the current study, relationships between self-reported impulsivity, perceived self-regulatory success in dieting, and objectively measured body mass were examined in N = 122 children and adolescents. Scores on attentional and motor impulsivity interactively predicted perceived self-regulatory success in dieting, but not body mass: Higher attentional impulsivity was associated with lower perceived self-regulatory success at high levels of motor impulsivity, but not at low levels of motor impulsivity. A moderated mediation model revealed an indirect effect of attentional and motor impulsivity on body mass, which was mediated by perceived self-regulatory success in dieting. Thus, results show that only specific facets of impulsivity are relevant in eating- and weight-regulation and interact with each other in the prediction of these variables. These facets of impulsivity, however, are not directly related to higher body mass, but indirectly via lower success in eating-related self-regulation in children and adolescents.

  11. Psychosocial Adjustment and Perceived Risk Among Adolescent Girls From Families With BRCA1/2 or Breast Cancer History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Angela R; Patrick-Miller, Linda; Schwartz, Lisa A; Egleston, Brian L; Henry-Moss, Dare; Domchek, Susan M; Daly, Mary B; Tuchman, Lisa; Moore, Cynthia; Rauch, Paula K; Shorter, Rebecca; Karpink, Kelsey; Sands, Colleen Burke

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the impact of breast cancer family history and maternal BRCA1/2 mutation on the psychosocial adjustment and perceived risk in girls age 11 to 19 years old. Girls age 11 to 19 years old with one or more relatives with breast cancer or a familial BRCA1/2 mutation (breast cancer family history [BCFH] positive, n = 208; n = 69 with BRCA1/2-positive mother), peers (BCFH negative, n = 112), and their mothers completed assessments of psychosocial adjustment, breast cancer-specific distress, and perceived risk of breast cancer. General psychosocial adjustment did not differ significantly between BCFH-positive and BCFH-negative girls, either by self-report or mother report, except for higher self-esteem among BCFH-positive girls (P = .01). BCFH-positive girls had higher breast cancer-specific distress than BCFH-negative girls (P < .001), but girls from BRCA1/2-positive families did not differ from other BCFH-positive peers. BCFH-positive girls were more likely to report themselves at increased self-risk for breast cancer in adulthood than BCFH-negative peers (74% v 33%, respectively; P ≤ .001). Girls from BRCA1/2-positive families were more likely than other BCFH-positive and BCFH-negative peers to report themselves at increased risk (P < .001). In all groups, perceived risk of breast cancer was associated with older age. Higher breast cancer-specific distress among adolescent girls was associated with higher self-perceived risk of breast cancer and higher maternal breast cancer-specific distress. Adolescent girls from BRCA1/2-positive and breast cancer families have higher self-esteem and do not have poorer psychosocial adjustment than peers. However, they do experience greater breast cancer-specific distress and perceived risk of breast cancer, particularly among older girls. Understanding the impact is important to optimize responses to growing up in families at familial and genetic risk for breast cancer, particularly given the debate over the genetic

  12. Usage Pattern, Perceived Usefulness and Ease of Use of Computer Games among Malaysian Elementary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Habibian Naeini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ICT and computer games for academic purposes are aggressively promoted among school children in Malaysia. However, no study has investigated the use of computer games among primary school children and whether ease of use and perceived usefulness affected the actual use of computer games. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of computer games among elementary school children in Malaysia by location, school type and gender. Also investigated was whether ease of use and perceived usefulness effected the use of computer games following the prescriptions of the TAM model. The survey method was employed to collect the data and a questionnaire was administered to 201 primary school students from the National, Chinese and Tamil Schools in Penang. Data was analyzed using oneway ANOVA and Pearson correlation. The findings found that computer ownership and internet access by type of school, location and gender were high and were almost equal by percentage. However, the findings revealed that playing of computer games were at low levels among National school students and also by location and gender. In contrast, more than 50% of SKRJC and SKJRT students reported playing computer games at the medium and high levels. Also, students reported low overall perceptions towards perceived usefulness and ease of use of the games towards their academic performance and there were no significant differences in perceived usefulness and ease of use between the groups by demographic factors. However, further analysis by construct revealed that there was a significant difference in perception towards social value by location with students from urban schools reporting higher means, indicating that urban school students were playing the games as part of their social activities. Finally, following the predictions of the TAM model, it was found that Ease of use was significantly correlated to Perceived usefulness and that both ease of use and perceived

  13. Perceived stress and risk of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Naja Rod; Kristensen, Tage Søndergård; Prescott, Eva

    2006-01-01

    It is unclear whether the commonly recognized link between stress and cardiovascular disease is causal or the result of reporting bias. The objective of this study was to address the association between perceived stress and first incidence of ischemic heart disease and to evaluate the suggested...... reporting bias by addressing subdiagnoses of ischemic heart disease separately....

  14. Perceived discrimination and youths' adjustment: sleep as a moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Mona; Tu, Kelly M; Saini, Ekjyot K; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Buckhalt, Joseph A

    2016-02-01

    Adolescents' sleep duration was examined as a moderator of the association between perceived discrimination and internalizing (anxiety, depression) and externalizing symptoms. Participants were 252 adolescents (mean: 15.79 years; 66% European American, 34% African American) who reported on their perceived discrimination (racial and general) and adjustment. Sleep duration was measured using actigraphy. Moderation effects were evident. The lowest levels of internalizing symptoms were observed for adolescents with longer sleep duration in conjunction with lower levels of perceived racial discrimination. Further, general perceived discrimination was associated more strongly with externalizing behaviours for youth with shorter versus longer sleep. Findings highlight the importance of sleep as a bioregulatory system that can ameliorate or exacerbate the effects of discrimination on youths' adjustment. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  15. Perceived service quality, perceived value, overall satisfaction and happiness of outlook for long-term care institution residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jesun; Hsiao, Chih-Tung; Glen, Robert; Pai, Jar-Yuan; Zeng, Sin-Huei

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the psychometric properties and relationships of perceived service quality, perceived value and overall satisfaction for residents with respect to their long-term care institutions. The five-point Likert scale questionnaire administered through facetoface interviews. Fourteen long-term care institutions located in central and southern Taiwan stratified according to services and accommodation population. One hundred and eighty long-term institutional care residents. Perceived service quality (the SERVPERF model), perceived value and overall satisfaction (models based on the literature on perceived value and satisfaction). Student's t-test on institutional location shows a significant difference between overall satisfaction for central and southern institution long-term care recipients. The correlation test revealed that the higher a resident's level of education, the higher the scores for perceived value. The factor loading results of confirmation factor analysis show acceptable levels of reliability and index-of-model fits for perceived service, perceived value and overall satisfaction. In addition, the results suggest that an additional construct, a positive attitude (happiness of outlook) towards long-term care institutions, is also an important factor in residents' overall satisfaction. The primary goal of long-term institutional care policy in Taiwan, as in other countries, is to provide residents with practical, cost-effective but high-quality care. On the basis of the results of in-depth interviews with long-term institutional care residents, this study suggests long-term care institutions arrange more family visit days to increase the accessibility and interaction of family and residents and thereby increase the happiness of outlook of the residents. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Facebook Users’ Engagement and Perceived Life Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy R. Vigil

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study extends existing research on Facebook’s impact on users’ life satisfaction. The results from two surveys of college students demonstrate a tension between Facebook use and users’ perceived contentment with their lives. Existing literature indicates students use Facebook to enhance self-esteem, yet the results from this study connect increased Facebook use to lower self-reported levels of happiness. In particular, respondents’ interactions with photos and videos increase users’ dissatisfaction. This phenomenon may be due to the impact photos have on the ways users engage in social comparisons with Facebook “friends” and the self-construals they create based on these comparisons.

  17. Facebook Users’ Engagement and Perceived Life Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy R. Vigil

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study extends existing research on Facebook’s impact on users’ life satisfaction. The results from two surveys of college students demonstrate a tension between Facebook use and users’ perceived contentment with their lives. Existing literature indicates students use Facebook to enhance self-esteem, yet the results from this study connect increased Facebook use to lower self-reported levels of happiness. In particular, respondents’ interactions with photos and videos increase users’ dissatisfaction. This phenomenon may be due to the impact photos have on the ways users engage in social comparisons with Facebook “friends” and the self-construals they create based on these comparisons.

  18. Contraction of Perceived Size and Perceived Depth in Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiyama, Atsuki; Shimono, Koichi; Zaitsu, Wataru

    2005-01-01

    We investigated how size and depth are perceived in a plane or convex mirror. In Experiment 1, using a plane or convex mirror, 20 observers viewed a separation between two objects that were presented at a constant distance and reproduced it by a separation between other two objects in a natural viewing situation. The mean matches generally…

  19. Association of perceived racial discrimination with eating behaviors and obesity among participants of the SisterTalk study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Portia; Risica, Patricia Markham; Gans, Kim M; Kirtania, Usree; Kumanyika, Shiriki K

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the association of perceived racial discrimination with emotional eating behaviors, weight status, and stress levels among obese African-American women, who volunteered to enter a weight control study (SisterTalk) in the New England region of the United States. The sample of women was taken from the baseline data of participants in SisterTalk, a randomized, controlled trial of a cable TV-delivered weight control program. Using the Krieger instrument, telephone and in-person surveys were used to assess perceived discrimination, emotional eating behaviors, and stress. Height and weight were measured to calculate BMI in order to assess weight status. ANOVA models were constructed to assess the association of discrimination with demographics. Correlations were calculated for discrimination, stress, emotional eating, and weight variables. ANOVA models were also constructed to assess discrimination with emotional eating, after adjusting for appropriate demographic variables. Perceived discrimination was associated with education and stress levels but was not associated with weight status (BMI). The frequency of eating when depressed or sad, and eating to manage stress, were both significantly higher among women who reported higher perceived discrimination and higher stress levels. Discrimination may contribute to stress that leads to eating for reasons other than hunger among African-American women, although the causal direction of associations cannot be determined with cross sectional data. Associations of discrimination with weight status were not found, although it is likely that emotional eating behaviors related to perceived discrimination are unhealthy. Future research should examine these relationships more closely in longitudinal studies.

  20. [Compassion as a mediator between stressful events and perceived stress in Greek students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholouli, E; Maridaki-Kassotaki, A; Varvogli, L; Chrousos, G P

    2016-01-01

    Compassion is closely related with human's survival as a mammal and has been developed through evolution for pain reduction, for forming affiliative bonds and alliances with non kin in order to increase protection and cope with external threats. Compassion seems to influence people's ability to deal with life's adverse situations such as stress and it is linked with lower psychopathology and greater wellbeing. Compassion is closely related to empathy and altruism and it is defined as the recognition of the pain of the self or others' that is accompanied with the will to take action in order to relieve the person from pain. Its main features are kindness instead of self-judgment and indifference, the recognition of common humanity instead of the feeling of separation and mindfulness when facing adverse conditions instead of over-identification with one's pain or disengagement with the pain of others. According to the biopsychosocial approach, stress can be defined by three dimensions such as the cause or stressful factors that can be major life events or daily hassles, the perception of stress that is manifested through cognitive, emotional and behavioural reactions and the physiological response for achieving homeostasis. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of compassion for self and others in the occurrence of stressful events and levels of perceived stress in students. Participants were 280 undergraduate students from two Greek universities. Results indicated that students who had experienced a greater amount of stressful events during the past year reported having higher levels of perceived stress and that higher self-compassion was correlated with less perceived stress. Moreover, the adverse effect of stressful events on perceived stress was partially explained by the mediating role of self-compassion. Students who reported more stressful events showed higher compassion for others in opposition to compassion towards themselves but

  1. Discrepancies between estimated and perceived risk of cancer among individuals with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanska, K; Nilbert, Mef; Soller, M;

    2007-01-01

    to individual characteristics. A perceived risk of colorectal cancer above 60% was reported by 22/45 individuals, and only one out of five mutation carriers reported a perceived risk > 80%. Female mutation carriers, individuals below age 50, and individuals who received their oncogenetic counseling within 1...

  2. Perceived cognitive deficits, emotional distress and disability following whiplash injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Michael J L; Hall, Erin; Bartolacci, Rosita; Sullivan, Maureen E; Adams, Heather

    2002-01-01

    To describe the pattern of perceived cognitive deficits in patients with whiplash injury, to examine the relation between perceived cognitive deficits and disability, and to examine the determinants of perceived cognitive deficits in patients with whiplash injury. A total of 81 individuals participated in the study. There were 29 patients (13 men, 16 women) with a diagnosis of whiplash, grade I or II. Patients with work-related soft-tissue injuries (n=24) and nonclinical controls (n=28) were included as comparison groups. Participants completed measures of perceived cognitive deficits, pain severity, depression, anxiety and pain-related disability. Both patient groups scored significantly higher than the nonpatient control group on the measure of perceived cognitive deficits, but did not differ significantly from each other. Perceptions of cognitive deficits were significantly correlated with pain-related disability. A hierarchical regression examining the relative contribution of anxiety, depression and pain showed that only anxiety and depression contributed significant unique variance to the prediction of perceived cognitive deficits. The potential benefits of focusing interventions on the management of anxiety and depression in the rehabilitation of patients with whiplash injuries are discussed.

  3. Adolescent body satisfaction: the role of perceived parental encouragement for physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Downs Danielle

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents play an important role in the development of children's health behaviors, but less is known about the role of parental encouragement for physical activity (PA on youth PA behavior and body image satisfaction. The purposes of this study were to: (1 longitudinally assess whether adolescent PA at age 15 mediates the effect of perceived parental encouragement for PA at age 15 for predicting adolescent body satisfaction at age 16, while controlling for body mass index (BMI, and (2 examine the extent to which adolescent sex moderates this association. Methods Participants were 379 boys and girls assessed at 15 and 16 years of age, who completed surveys as part of a larger longitudinal study in their health/physical education classes in a school district in Central Pennsylvania. Participants completed measures of their perception of parental encouragement for PA, PA behavior, body satisfaction, and height and weight to calculate BMI at age 15 and 16 (i.e., 10th and 11th grades. Pearson correlations were used to examine the association among the study variables and hierarchical regression analyses were used to predict body satisfaction at age 16. Results Perceived encouragement for PA from fathers, but not mothers, at age 15, was significantly associated with adolescent PA at age 15 and body satisfaction scores at age 16. Adolescents reporting higher PA behavior and perceived encouragement for PA from fathers at age 15 had higher body satisfaction scores at age 16. Moreover, adolescent PA at age 15 mediated the association between perceived fathers' encouragement for PA at age 15 and adolescent body satisfaction at age 16, when controlling for BMI. Examining the moderating effect of adolescent sex on this association revealed that adolescent PA no longer mediated the association between perceived encouragement for PA from fathers and adolescent body satisfaction, and sex moderated this association. Discussion These findings

  4. Is exposure to e-cigarette communication associated with perceived harms of e-cigarette secondhand vapour? Results from a national survey of US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andy S L; Bigman, Cabral A; Mello, Susan; Sanders-Jackson, Ashley

    2015-03-26

    E-cigarettes are frequently advertised and portrayed in the media as less harmful compared with regular cigarettes. Earlier surveys reported public perceptions of harms to people using e-cigarettes; however, public perceptions of harms from exposure to secondhand vapour (SHV) have not been studied. We examined associations between self-reported exposure to e-cigarette advertising, media coverage, and interpersonal discussion and perceived harms of SHV. Observational study. National online sample of US adults aged ≥18 years. 1449 US adults (mean age 49.5 years), 51.3% female, 76.6% non-Hispanic Caucasian, 7.5% African-American, 10.0% Hispanic and 5.9% other races. Perceived harm measures included (1) harmfulness of SHV to one's health, (2) concern about health impact of breathing SHV and (3) comparative harm of SHV versus secondhand smoke (SHS). Predictors were (1) self-reported frequency of exposure to e-cigarette advertising, media coverage and interpersonal discussion (close friends or family) and (2) perceived valence of exposure from each source. Covariates were demographic characteristics, cigarette smoking status and e-cigarette use, and were weighted to the general US adult population. More frequent interpersonal discussion was associated with lower perceived harmfulness of SHV to one's health and lower perceived comparative harm of SHV versus SHS. Frequency of e-cigarette ad and other media exposure were not significant predictors. Perceived negative valence of ad exposure and interpersonal discussion (vs no exposure) was associated with higher perceived harm across all three outcomes, while negative valence of media coverage was associated with higher concern about health impact of breathing SHV. Perceived positive valence (vs no exposure) of interpersonal discussion was associated with lower perceived harm across all three outcomes about health impact of breathing SHV. Exposure to information about e-cigarettes through advertising, media coverage

  5. Perceived Demands of Schooling, Stress and Mental Health: Changes from Grade 6 to Grade 9 as a Function of Gender and Cognitive Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giota, Joanna; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    2016-08-17

    The link between perceived demands of school, stress and mental health in relation to gender is complex. The study examined, with two waves of longitudinal data at age 13 and age 16, how changes in perceived academic demands relate to changes in perceived stress, taking into account gender and cognitive ability, and to investigate how these factors affect the level of psychosomatic and depressive symptoms at the age of 16. A nationally representative sample including about 9000 individuals from the Swedish longitudinal Evaluation Through Follow up database born in 1998 was included. A growth modelling approach was applied to examine relations over time. The results show girls to have a considerably higher self-reported level of mental health problems at the end of compulsory school than boys. This gender difference is entirely accounted for by perceived school demands and stress in grades 6 and 9. Students who were stronger in inductive than vocabulary ability reported lower levels of perceived academic demands and less stress in grade 6. There is a need to develop interventions for minimizing the consequences of stress among adolescents and modify those particular aspects of academic demands which cause stress and poor mental health, especially among girls. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Perceiving Tonal Structure in Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, Carol L.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses research that may broaden understanding of how music of other styles and cultures is perceived and remembered. Experiments examined serve to isolate similarities and differences that exist across musical cultures and characterize their psychological effects and to study perception of compositional styles in Western music outside the…

  7. CONSIDERATIONS ON CONSUMER PERCEIVED RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catalina Timiras

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we identified a number of factors influencing the consumers’ perceived risk. In the first part we conducted a review of the main issues that define the perceived risk by the consumer at the time of purchase, some of the lines of action of the organizations to diminish this risk perception and a number of influencing factors presented in the literature, with significant impact on the intensity with which risk is perceived by consumers. The second part of the article is based on the statistical information regarding e-commerce market, market in which the perceived risk plays an important role in the purchasing decision. Thus, based on available official statistics provided by Eurostat we have revealed the existence of certain links between electronic commerce and orientation towards risk and income levels, age and consumer educational level. The review is not intended to be exhaustive, the study taking into consideration only those links that can be identified from using official statistical data.

  8. Perceived prominence and scale types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøndering, John; Jensen, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Three different scales which have been used to measure perceived prominence are evaluated in a perceptual experiment. Average scores of raters using a multi-level (31-point) scale, a simple binary (2-point) scale and an intermediate 4-point scale are almost identical. The potentially finer gradat...

  9. How Affective Is a "Like"?: The Effect of Paralinguistic Digital Affordances on Perceived Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohn, Donghee Yvette; Carr, Caleb T; Hayes, Rebecca A

    2016-09-01

    A national survey asked 323 U.S. adults about paralinguistic digital affordances (PDAs) and how these forms of lightweight feedback within social media were associated with their perceived social support. People perceived PDAs (e.g., Likes, Favorites, and Upvotes) as socially supportive both quantitatively and qualitatively, even without implicit meaning associated with them. People who are highly sensitive about what others think of them and have high self-esteem are more likely to perceive higher social support from PDAs.

  10. Floristics of Higher Plants in China——Report from Catalogue of Life: Higher Plants in China Database%中国高等植物编目信息系统进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Song WANG; Yu-Cheng ZHANG; Na-Xin XUE; Hai-Ning QIN

    2011-01-01

    Biodiversity research increasingly relies on distribution networks for dealing with large-scale primary data.Up-to-date information on biodiversity is critical for the proper management and conservation of any area. The first step towards conservation should be to compile an authoritative species inventory or checklist. Catalogue of Life:Higher Plants in China (CNPC) is an ongoing biodiversity informatics project with the aim to integrate existing higher plants inventory data, and provide access via an internet based web service to public user and the scientific com-munity. The CNPC, for the first time, provides integrated and authoritative taxonomic information on higher plant species found in China, and this database will be permanent, free and continously updated. Presently, a total of 34377 species have been included in the database. Among of them, 16 620 species are only found in China. Taxa are classified into 432 families and 3 941 genera. The CNPC will be an important source for scientists working on Chinese flora, and will play an important role in helping to achieve the targets set under the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation in the future.

  11. Women and Minority Faculty in the Academic Workplace: Recruitment, Retention, and Academic Culture. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report, Volume 27, Number 6. Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Adalberto, Jr.

    In an attempt to address the need for substantive comparisons in the minority university faculty population, this monograph examines the relative differences in minority groups in the faculty population when the data permit comparisons. The report also examines research on the status of women faculty members. The discussion assembles a large…

  12. The influence of perceived family support on post surgery recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Moreno, M J; Tomás-Aragones, L

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the possible relationship between perceived family support, levels of cortisol and post surgery recovery. The study sample comprised 42 patients that were due to undergo open cholecystectomy surgery in a Regional Health Authority Reference Centre of the Autonomous Community of Extremadura in Spain. The FACES-II questionnaire was used for the evaluation of perceived family support and to measure the three fundamental dimensions of perceived family behaviour: cohesion, adaptability and family type. The day before surgery, a sample of saliva was taken from each subject in order to determine the level of cortisol. Results showed a clear relationship between family support and recovery. Patients with higher scores on the Cohesion Scale demonstrated better post surgery recovery (F = 8.8; gl = 40; p = .005). A relationship between levels of cortisol, perceived family support and recovery was also revealed. Patients with lower scores on the Cohesion scale and higher cortisol levels demonstrated poorer post surgery recovery (F = 10.96; gl = 40; p = .006). These results are coherent with other studies that have highlighted the beneficial effects of perceived family support on mental and physical health.

  13. Trait and Perceived Environmental Competitiveness in Achievement Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Andrew J; Jury, Mickaël; Murayama, Kou

    2017-04-08

    Trait and perceived environmental competitiveness are typically studied separately, but they undoubtedly have a joint influence on goal pursuit and behavior in achievement situations. The present research was designed to study them together. We tested the relation between trait and perceived environmental competitiveness, and we tested these variables as separate and sequential predictors of both performance-based goals and performance attainment. In Studies 1a (N = 387 U.S. undergraduates) and 1b (N = 322 U.S. undergraduates), we assessed participants' trait and perceived environmental competitiveness, as well as third variable candidates. In Study 2 (N = 434 MTurk workers), we sought to replicate and extend Study 1 by adding reports of performance-based goal pursuit. In Study 3 (N = 403 U.S. undergraduates), we sought to replicate and extend Study 2 by adding real-world performance attainment. The studies focused on both the classroom and the workplace. Trait and perceived environmental competitiveness were shown to be positively related and to positively predict separate variance in performance-approach and performance-avoidance goal pursuit. Perceived environmental competitiveness and performance-based goal pursuit were shown to be sequential mediators of the indirect relation between trait competitiveness and performance attainment. These studies highlight the importance of attending to the interplay of the person and the (perceived) situation in analyses of competitive striving. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The Stability of Perceived Pubertal Timing across Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cance, Jessica Duncan; Ennett, Susan T.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.; Foshee, Vangie A.

    2011-01-01

    It is unknown whether perceived pubertal timing changes as puberty progresses or whether it is an important component of adolescent identity formation that is fixed early in pubertal development. The purpose of this study is to examine the stability of perceived pubertal timing among a school-based sample of rural adolescents aged 11 to 17 (N=6,425; 50% female; 53% White). Two measures of pubertal timing were used, stage-normative, based on the Pubertal Development Scale, a self-report scale of secondary sexual characteristics, and peer-normative, a one-item measure of perceived pubertal timing. Two longitudinal methods were used: one-way random effects ANOVA models and latent class analysis. When calculating intraclass correlation coefficients using the one-way random effects ANOVA models, which is based on the average reliability from one time point to the next, both measures had similar, but poor, stability. In contrast, latent class analysis, which looks at the longitudinal response pattern of each individual and treats deviation from that pattern as measurement error, showed three stable and distinct response patterns for both measures: always early, always on-time, and always late. Study results suggest instability in perceived pubertal timing from one age to the next, but this instability is likely due to measurement error. Thus, it may be necessary to take into account the longitudinal pattern of perceived pubertal timing across adolescence rather than measuring perceived pubertal timing at one point in time. PMID:21983873

  15. Body satisfaction, thin-ideal internalization, and perceived pressure to be thin among Canadian women: The role of acculturation and religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaker, Zina; Chang, Felicia M; Hakim-Larson, Julie

    2015-06-01

    In an online study, 143 Canadian women of various religious backgrounds completed measures of acculturation, religiosity, body satisfaction, internalization of the thin ideal, perceived pressure from media, and manner of dress. Heritage acculturation correlated with appearance satisfaction, but not weight satisfaction. After accounting for BMI and social desirability, higher heritage acculturation and lower mainstream acculturation were associated with lower perceived pressure from media. Thus, heritage acculturation across religious denominations may serve as a buffer against appearance dissatisfaction and perceived media pressure. Manner of dress among the Muslim subgroup and its relation to religiosity and acculturation were also assessed. Muslim women who dressed in greater accordance with Islamic principles reported lower heritage acculturation and greater religiosity. Thus, Muslim women's manner of dress was related to their religiosity and the extent to which they embraced cultural values. These findings are discussed in terms of the possible distinctions between heritage acculturation and religiosity.

  16. The Perceived Effects of Flipped Teaching on Knowledge Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Galen; Kim, Jun-Hyun; Lee, Ryun Jung; Brown, Brandy A.; Huston, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Increased demands for technological integration in higher education have resulted in new forms of course instruction. Under a flipped approach, students learn course materials outside the classroom while active learning methods are employed inside. This study focuses on the perceived effects of flipped instruction on knowledge acquisition in…

  17. Raising aspirations: increasing the participation of students with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (Social Communication Difficulties) in Higher Education: report of the HEFCE strand two disability ASPIHE project

    OpenAIRE

    Blamires, M.; Gee, S; HEFCE strand two disability

    2002-01-01

    The Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) funded a Social Communication and Understanding Project in Higher Education (ASPIHE) for a period of two years during 2000-2002. This was a strand two disability project, which aimed to promote and disseminate existing expertise and good practice across the higher education community. The focus was on support for students in higher education who have difficulties in social understanding and communication. This largely consists of studen...

  18. Physical activity and perceived insecurity from crime in adults: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio de Almeida Mendes

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to describe the perception of safety from crime in the neighborhood and to evaluate its association with leisure-time and transport-related physical activity in adults.A cross-sectional population based study was conducted in the urban area of Pelotas, Brazil, in 2012. Perceived insecurity from crime in the neighborhood was measured using the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS and the City Stress Inventory (CSI. Physical activity was measured using an adapted version of the leisure and transportation sections of the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire.Overall, 52.3% (95%CI49.0; 55.6 of the participants reported perceived exposure to an unsafe neighborhood. Subjects who practiced 150 or more minutes per week of physical activity during leisure-time and transportation were 10.5% (95%CI9.0; 12.0 and 51.7% (95%CI 48.7; 54.7, respectively. There were no significant associations between physical activity (leisure-time or transport-related and perceived insecurity from crime, neither in unadjusted nor in adjusted analyses.There was no evidence that the perception of safety from crime is associated to higher physical activity levels among Brazilian adults.

  19. Ways of coping with stress and perceived social support in gynecologic cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Sema Dereli; Bal, Meltem Demirgöz; Beji, Nezihe Kzlkaya; Arvas, Macit

    2015-01-01

    Stress is commonly encountered among cancer patients and may be a challenge affecting immune system resistance. Social support may contribute positively to the health of cancer patients, playing a role in coping with stress. The aim of this study was to determine whether ways of coping are related to social support given to women with gynecologic cancer. The study was performed as a cross-sectional design in a university hospital in Istanbul, Turkey, with 221 women with gynecologic cancer; the data were collected via 3 questionnaires, the first with sociodemographic and clinical features, the second with multidimensional scale of perceived social support, and the third with the scale of ways of coping with stress. Women with gynecologic cancer who were employed and declared their incomes as balanced and reported more years of education were more likely to perceive higher social support and to use the ineffective coping ways with stress at a lower rate (P stress increase as perceived social support from family, friends, significant other, and total increases (P stress by women with gynecologic cancer. Nurses are indispensable in increasing social support required by women with gynecologic cancer. Well-trained clinical nurses via in-service programs should be experienced and aware of women diagnosed with gynecologic cancer in need of social support during hospital visits and provide necessary guidance.

  20. Tool Use Influences Perceived Shape and Perceived Parallelism, Which Serve as Indirect Measures of Perceived Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Jessica K.

    2011-01-01

    Targets presented just beyond arm's reach look closer when observers intend to touch them with a reach-extending tool rather than without the tool. This finding is one of several that suggest that a person's ability to act influences perceived distance to objects. However, some critics have argued that apparent action effects were actually due to…

  1. Team building and perceived effort in an exercise setting: gender effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Mark W; Spink, Kevin S

    2011-03-01

    This study examined the moderating role of gender on the team building (TB)/perceived effort relationship in an exercise setting. Youths (n=100) who participated in either a TB or control group exercise setting completed a measure of perceived effort prior to and following a TB intervention. A 2 (group)×2 (gender) ANCOVA controlling for baseline perceived effort revealed a significant interaction, F (1, 95)=4.50, p<.05. The interaction revealed that females in the TB condition reported significantly more perceived effort at the post-assessment than did those in the control condition whereas the perceived effort reported by males did not differ between conditions. These results provide preliminary evidence that gender may need to be considered in future TB investigations that include perceived effort as a dependent measure.

  2. Salivary protein levels as a predictor of perceived astringency in model systems and solid foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Erin E; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2016-09-01

    Salivary protein difference value (SP D-value) is a quantitative measure of salivary protein replenishment, which reportedly relates to individual differences in perceived astringency. This in vitro measure is calculated as the difference in total salivary protein before (S1) and after (S2) stimulation with tannic acid, with a greater absolute value (S2-S1) indicating less protein replenishment. Others report that this measure predicts perceived astringency and liking of liquid model systems and beverages containing added polyphenols. Whether this relationship generalizes to astringent compounds other than polyphenols, or to solid foods is unknown. Here, the associations between SP D-values and perceived astringency and overall liking/disliking for alum and tannic acid (experiment 1) as well as solid chocolate-flavored compound coating with added tannic acid or grape seed extract (GSE) (experiment 2) were examined. In both experiments, participants (n=84 and 81, respectively) indicated perceived intensity of astringency, bitterness, sweetness, and sourness, and degree of liking of either aqueous solutions, or solid chocolate-flavored compound coating with added astringents. Data were analyzed via linear regression, and as discrete groups for comparison to prior work. Three discrete groups were formed based on first and third quartile splits of the SP D-value distribution: low (LR), medium (MR), and high responding (HR) individuals. In experiment 1, significantly higher mean astringency ratings were observed for the HR as compared to the LR/MR groups for alum and tannic acid, confirming and extending prior work. In experiment 2, significantly higher mean astringency ratings were also observed for HR as compared to LR groups in solid chocolate-flavored compound containing added tannic acid or GSE. Significant differences in liking were found between HR and LR groups for alum and tannic acid in water, but no significant differences in liking were observed for

  3. Sexual satisfaction, perceived availability of alternative partners, and marital quality in newlywed African American couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanik, Christine E; Bryant, Chalandra M

    2012-01-01

    The goal for this project was to examine the manner in which husbands' and wives' sexual satisfaction was related to their perceptions of the availability of alternative partners and overall marital quality. Participants were 470 newlywed African American couples residing in the southern region of the United States. Path analysis was used to simultaneously examine actor (individuals' sexual satisfaction on their own outcomes) and partner (individuals' sexual satisfaction on their partners' outcomes) effects. Wives' and husbands' sexual satisfaction was strongly and positively associated with their own reports of marital quality, although it was not associated with their partners' reports of marital quality. For both wives and husbands, higher sexual satisfaction was associated with lowered perceptions that they would be able to find other acceptable partners should their current relationship end. Perceived availability of alternative partners was, in turn, negatively associated with reports of marital quality.

  4. Direct and Indirect Effects of Young Adults’ Relationship Status on Life Satisfaction through Loneliness and Perceived Social Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Adamczyk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the indirect effects of relationship status (single vs. in a relationship on life satisfaction through social and emotional (romantic and family loneliness and perceived social support from significant others, family, and friends. Five hundred and fifty three Polish young adults (335 females and 218 males, ranging in age from 20–30 years ('M' = 23.42, completed the Polish versions of the Satisfaction With Life Scale, the Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. The results indicated that single individuals reported significantly lower satisfaction with life and social support from a significant other, but higher romantic and social loneliness, and higher family support compared to participants in a relationship. A path analysis revealed no direct effect of relationship status on satisfaction with life. However, there were significant indirect effects from relationship status to life satisfaction though romantic, family, and social loneliness, and through perceived social support from significant others and from family. Therefore, singlehood may be deleterious to life satisfaction because of the higher loneliness and lower social support from a significant other.

  5. Perceived social stress and symptom severity among help-seeking adolescents with versus without clinical high-risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millman, Zachary B; Pitts, Steven C; Thompson, Elizabeth; Kline, Emily R; Demro, Caroline; Weintraub, Marc J; DeVylder, Jordan E; Mittal, Vijay A; Reeves, Gloria M; Schiffman, Jason

    2017-06-16

    Research suggests that social stress exposure influences illness presentation and course among youth at clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis, though less is known about the extent to which self-reported perceptions of social stress relate to the severity of positive symptoms. Importantly, despite the notion that youth at CHR are especially susceptible to elevations in positive symptoms under conditions of stress, no study has examined this presumption relative to other psychiatric groups. Extending previous work demonstrating that perceived social stress was higher in a CHR group than in a clinical group of non-CHR, help-seeking controls, the current study aimed to: (1) examine whether perceived social stress is related to the severity of attenuated positive symptoms in the full sample (N=110); and (2) determine whether CHR status moderates the stress-symptom relation. Exploratory analyses examined relations of perceived social stress to negative, disorganized, and general symptoms. Greater perceptions of social stress were associated with more severe positive symptoms in the entire sample; however, although positive symptoms and perceived social stress were higher in the CHR group, the strength of this relation was statistically indistinguishable across groups. No differential effect of perceived social stress was observed for any symptom domain. Results provide some support for the diathesis-stress model of psychosis, while also suggesting that social stress and symptomatology are related independent of clinical vulnerability to psychosis. Future research would benefit from longitudinal studies of stress-symptom relations across CHR and help-seeking control groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Community-level adult daily smoking prevalence moderates the association between adolescents' cigarette smoking and perceived smoking by friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrul, Johannes; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W; Friend, Karen B

    2014-09-01

    Few studies have investigated the complex interactions among the individual- and community-level social risk factors that underlie adolescents' smoking behaviors. This study investigated whether community-level adult daily smoking prevalence is associated with adolescents' smoking and whether it moderates the associations between perceived friends' smoking approval and smoking behavior and adolescents' own smoking. Self-reported data from 1,190 youths (50.3% female; 13-18 years old) in 50 midsized Californian cities were obtained through telephone interviews. Community characteristics were obtained from 2010 GeoLytics data. Community adult daily smoking prevalence was ascertained from telephone interviews with 8,918 adults conducted in the same 50 cities. Multilevel analyses, controlling for individual and city characteristics, were used to predict adolescents' past 12-month smoking from perceived friends' smoking approval and smoking behavior and from community adult daily smoking prevalence. Results showed that perceived friends' smoking approval and behavior were associated positively with adolescents' smoking, as was the community-level prevalence of adult daily smoking. Furthermore, the association between perceived friends' smoking behavior and adolescents' own smoking was moderated by the prevalence of adult daily smokers in the community. Specifically, the association was stronger in cities with higher prevalence of adult smokers. These results suggest that adult community norms that are more supportive of smoking may enhance the influence of friends' smoking behavior. Therefore, interventions designed to prevent or reduce youths' smoking should also focus on reducing smoking by adults.

  7. Perceived Professional Development Needs of Business Education Teachers in West Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Robinett, Susan Kirby

    2001-01-01

    This study identified the perceived professional development needs of secondary business educators in West Virginia related to professional and business education content competency areas. A population of 408 secondary business educators was randomly assigned to two groups to evaluate their perceived professional development needs. A total of 104 (51.40% of 202) respondents reported their perceived need for professional development for professional competencies based on Policy 5310: Perfor...

  8. Relationship between social anxiety and perceived trustworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Ruth; Doehrmann, Oliver; Fang, Angela; Gerlach, Alexander L; Hoijtink, Herbert J A; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2014-01-01

    Four different patterns of biased ratings of facial expressions of emotions have been found in socially anxious participants: higher negative ratings of (1) negative, (2) neutral, and (3) positive facial expressions than nonanxious controls. As a fourth pattern, some studies have found no group differences in ratings of facial expressions of emotion. However, these studies usually employed valence and arousal ratings that arguably may be less able to reflect processing of social information. We examined the relationship between social anxiety and face ratings for perceived trustworthiness given that trustworthiness is an inherently socially relevant construct. Improving on earlier analytical strategies, we evaluated the four previously found result patterns using a Bayesian approach. Ninety-eight undergraduates rated 198 face stimuli on perceived trustworthiness. Subsequently, participants completed social anxiety questionnaires to assess the severity of social fears. Bayesian modeling indicated that the probability that social anxiety did not influence judgments of trustworthiness had at least three times more empirical support in our sample than assuming any kind of negative interpretation bias in social anxiety. We concluded that the deviant interpretation of facial trustworthiness is not a relevant aspect in social anxiety.

  9. Perceived Competence and Depressive Symptoms among Adolescents: The Moderating Role of Attributional Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Ollendick, Thomas H.; Seligman, Laura D.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the interactive effects of depressive attributional style and multiple domains of perceived competence on depressive symptoms among 431 adolescents. Our structural equation modeling with latent factor interactions indicated that (1) for girls with a higher depressive attributional style, lower perceived competence…

  10. Self-perceived facture risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothmann, M J; Ammentorp, J; Bech, M

    2015-01-01

    factors associated with this and to compare self-perceived risk with absolute fracture risk estimated by FRAX® in women aged 65-80 years. METHODS: Data from 20,905 questionnaires from the ROSE study were analyzed. The questionnaire included 25 items on osteoporosis, risk factors for fractures, and self......-perceived risk of fractures and enabled calculation of absolute fracture risk by FRAX®. Data were analyzed using bivariate tests and regression models. RESULTS: Women generally underestimated their fracture risk compared to absolute risk estimated by FRAX®. Women with risk factors for facture estimated......-rated heath, conditions related to secondary osteoporosis, and inability to do housework. CONCLUSIONS: These women aged 65-81 years underestimated their risk of fracture. However, they did seem to have an understanding of the importance of some risk factors such as previous fractures, parental hip fracture...

  11. Thinking Aloud Influences Perceived Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Holmegaard, Kristin Due

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We investigate whether thinking aloud influences perceived time. Background: Thinking aloud is widely used in usability evaluation, yet it is debated whether thinking aloud influences thought and behavior. If thinking aloud is restricted to the verbalization of information to which...... a person is already attending, there is evidence that thinking aloud does not influence thought and behavior. Method: In an experiment, 16 thinking-aloud participants and 16 control participants solved a code-breaking task 24 times each. Participants estimated task duration. The 24 trials involved two...... levels of time constraint (timed, untimed) and resulted in two levels of success (solved, unsolved). Results: The ratio of perceived time to clock time was lower for thinking-aloud than control participants. Participants overestimated time by an average of 47% (thinking aloud) and 94% (control...

  12. Perceived Displacement explains Wolfpack Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matúš eŠimkovic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the influence of perceived displacement of moving agent-like stimuli on the performance in dynamic interactive tasks. In order to reliably measure perceived displacement we utilize multiple tasks with different task demands. The perceived center of an agent’s body is displaced in the direction in which the agent is facing and this perceived displacement is larger than the theoretical position of the center of mass would predict. Furthermore, the displacement in the explicit judgment is dissociated from the displacement obtained by the implicit measures. By manipulating the location of the pivot point, we show that it is not necessary to postulate orientation as an additional cue utilized by perception, as has been suggested by earlier studies. These studies showed that the agent’s orientation influences the detection of chasing motion and the detection-related performance in interactive tasks. This influence has been labeled wolfpack effect. In one of the demonstrations of the wolfpack effect participants control a green circle on a display with a computer mouse. It has been shown that participants avoid display areas withagents pointing towards the green circle. Participants do so in favor of areas where the agents point in the direction perpendicular to the circle. We show that this avoidance behavior arises because the agent’s pivot point selected by the earlier studies is different from where people locate the center of agent’s body. As a consequence, the nominal rotation confounds rotation and translation. We show that the avoidance behavior disappears once the pivot point is set to the center of agent’s body.

  13. Perceived Organisational Support and Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Graafland, J.J.; Rutten, B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of perceived organizational support (POS) on performance.We predict that POS will be reciprocated by positive discretionary employee behavior, which in turn has a positive impact on performance.Empirical research on a sample of Dutch construction companies indeed corroborates a positive relationship between POS and performance. Moreover, the POS-performance link is found to be stronger for good performing firms than for bad performing firms, which supports t...

  14. Dispositional optimism and perceived risk interact to predict intentions to learn genome sequencing results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Jennifer M; Klein, William M P; Ferrer, Rebecca A; Lewis, Katie L; Biesecker, Leslie G; Biesecker, Barbara B

    2015-07-01

    Dispositional optimism and risk perceptions are each associated with health-related behaviors and decisions and other outcomes, but little research has examined how these constructs interact, particularly in consequential health contexts. The predictive validity of risk perceptions for health-related information seeking and intentions may be improved by examining dispositional optimism as a moderator, and by testing alternate types of risk perceptions, such as comparative and experiential risk. Participants (n = 496) had their genomes sequenced as part of a National Institutes of Health pilot cohort study (ClinSeq®). Participants completed a cross-sectional baseline survey of various types of risk perceptions and intentions to learn genome sequencing results for differing disease risks (e.g., medically actionable, nonmedically actionable, carrier status) and to use this information to change their lifestyle/health behaviors. Risk perceptions (absolute, comparative, and experiential) were largely unassociated with intentions to learn sequencing results. Dispositional optimism and comparative risk perceptions interacted, however, such that individuals higher in optimism reported greater intentions to learn all 3 types of sequencing results when comparative risk was perceived to be higher than when it was perceived to be lower. This interaction was inconsistent for experiential risk and absent for absolute risk. Independent of perceived risk, participants high in dispositional optimism reported greater interest in learning risks for nonmedically actionable disease and carrier status, and greater intentions to use genome information to change their lifestyle/health behaviors. The relationship between risk perceptions and intentions may depend on how risk perceptions are assessed and on degree of optimism. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. The perceived familiarity gap hypothesis: examining how media attention and reflective integration relate to perceived familiarity with nanotechnology in Singapore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Edmund W. J., E-mail: leew0124@e.ntu.edu.sg; Ho, Shirley S. [Nanyang Technological University, Wee Kim Wee School of Communication and Information (Singapore)

    2015-05-15

    Public level of familiarity with nanotechnology partly determines their acceptance or rejection of the technology. This study examines the differential influence of public attention to science news in the media and reflective integration on perceived familiarity with nanotechnology among people in the higher and lower socioeconomic status (SES) groups in Singapore. Significant three-way interactions among education, science news attention, and reflective integration variables were found. Attention to television science news narrowed the level of perceived familiarity with nanotechnology between the higher and lower SES groups for those who engaged in high elaborative processing. Science newspaper attention, on the other hand, widened the familiarity gap between the higher and lower SES groups among those who engaged in high elaborative processing. Two-way interaction among education and elaborative processing were found—elaborative processing closed the familiarity gap between higher and lower SES groups. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed.

  16. Perceived discrimination, cultural identity development, and intimate partner violence among a sample of Hispanic young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Myriam; Grigsby, Timothy J; Soto, Daniel W; Sussman, Steve Y; Unger, Jennifer B

    2017-10-01

    Despite the prevalence of interpersonal violence (IPV), scientific understanding of the risk and protective factors for unidirectional and bidirectional IPV, and especially the role of sociocultural variables in these behaviors, is limited. This study investigates the association between ethnic-identity search, ethnic-identity affirmation, perceived discrimination, and unidirectional (victimization only, perpetration only) and bidirectional (reciprocal violence) IPV behaviors among foreign-born and U.S.-born Hispanic young adults. Data are from Project RED (Reteniendo y Entendiendo Diversidad para Salud), a study investigating the effect of psychosocial and sociocultural factors on health behavior among a community sample of Hispanic young adults in Southern California (n = 1,267). Approximately 40% of the sample reported unidirectional or bidirectional IPV, with significant gender differences across the three categories. Compared with men, women had approximately 70% lower odds of victimization (OR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.15-0.71), over twice the odds of perpetration (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.98-3.62), and 35% higher odds (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.04-1.81) of bidirectional IPV. Higher ethnic-identity affirmation was protective for victimization (OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.81-0.99) and bidirectional IPV (OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.62-0.89), whereas higher perceived discrimination scores increased the odds for bidirectional IPV (OR = 1.37 95% CI = 1.26-1.56) and was particularly detrimental for foreign-born participants. Intervention strategies should consider gender-specific risk profiles, cultural contexts, and the influence of sociocultural stressors. Addressing the harmful effects of perceived discrimination and leveraging the protective effects of ethnic-identity affirmation may be promising IPV-prevention strategies for Hispanic young adults. Future research directions and implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Perceived learned skills and professional development of graduates from a master in dental public health programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, S; Delgado-Angulo, E K; Bernabé, E

    2017-02-01

    Assessing the impact of a training programme is important for quality assurance and further development. It also can helps with accountability and marketing purposes. This study evaluated the impact of King's College London (KCL) Master of Science programme in Dental Public Health in terms of graduates' perceived learned skills and professional development. An online questionnaire was sent to individuals who completed successfully the KCL Master of Science programme in Dental Public Health and had a valid email address. Participants provided information on demographic characteristics, perceived learned skills (intellectual, practical and generic) and professional development (type of organisation, position in the organisation and functions performed at work before and after the programme). Learned skills' scores were compared by demographic factors in multiple linear regression models, and the distribution of responses on career development was compared using nonparametric tests for paired groups. Although all scores on learned skills were on the favourable side of the Likert scale, graduates reported higher scores for practical skills, followed by intellectual and generic skills. No differences in scores were found by sex, age, nationality or time since graduation. In terms of career development, there were significantly higher proportions of graduates working in higher education institutions and taking leadership/managerial roles in organisations as well as greater number and variety of functions at work after than before the programme. This online survey shows that the programme has had a positive impact on graduates in terms of perceived learned skills and professional development. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Dental Education Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Chronic hepatitis B and C: Exploring perceived stigma, disease information, and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazic, Yvonne Nelly; Caltabiano, Marie Louise

    2013-06-01

    Research indicates that chronic hepatitis C affects people's quality of life, but such reports are scarce about hepatitis B. This Australian study explored whether perceived stigma and satisfaction with received information and care were related to health-related quality of life in people with chronic hepatitis B or C. A questionnaire was constructed comprising demographic questions and existing scales to measure the variables. The 77 participants were recruited through various online channels. The median age was 48 years, 74% had hepatitis C, 60% were female, and 73% were Caucasian. Participants with Hepatitis B reported substantially less perceived stigma than those with Hepatitis C, but there was no significant difference between the two groups in health-related quality of life. Participants with Hepatitis C reported higher satisfaction with received information. The results highlight specific aspects to consider in the care of people with chronic hepatitis. For example, people with hepatitis B do not seem to enjoy better health-related quality of life despite lower perceived stigmatization. Therefore, these patients may require other improvements in service delivery such as the provision of more culturally appropriate information and education about chronic hepatitis B.

  19. Perceived Discrimination, Social Support, and Quality of Life in Gender Dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başar, Koray; Öz, Gökhan; Karakaya, Jale

    2016-07-01

    Transgender individuals experience discrimination in all domains of their personal and social life. Discrimination is believed to be associated with worse quality of life (QoL). To investigate the relation between QoL and perceived levels of discrimination and social support in individuals with gender dysphoria (GD). Individuals with GD who attended a psychiatry clinic from January 2012 through December 2014 were recruited. Demographic, social, and medical transition features were collected with standardized forms. Self-report measurements of QoL (Turkish version of the World Health Organization's Quality of Life-BREF) that included physical, psychological, social, and environmental domains, perceived discrimination with personal and group subscales (Perceived Discrimination Scale [PDS]), and social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support) were completed. Ninety-four participants (76.6% trans men) adequately completed the study measurements. Regression models with each QoL domain score as a dependent variable indicated a significant predictor value of personal PDS in social and environmental QoL. Social support from family was associated with better QoL in psychological QoL, whereas perceived support from friends significantly predicted all other domains of QoL. There was a tendency for group PDS to be rated higher than personal PDS, suggesting personal vs group discrimination discrepancy. However, group PDS was not found to be a predictor of QoL in the multivariate model. Perceived personal discrimination and social support from different sources predicted domains of QoL with a non-uniform pattern in individuals with GD. Social support and discrimination were found to have opposing contributions to QoL in GD. The present findings emphasize the necessity of addressing discrimination and social support in clinical work with GD. Moreover, strategies to improve and strengthen friend and family support for individuals with GD should be explored by

  20. Evaluation of Pressure Pain Threshold as a Measure of Perceived Stress and High Job Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hven, Lisbeth; Frost, Poul; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether pressure pain threshold (PPT), determined by pressure algometry, can be used as an objective measure of perceived stress and job strain. We used cross-sectional base line data collected during 1994 to 1995 within the Project on Research and Intervention in Monotonous work (PRIM), which included 3123 employees from a variety of Danish companies. Questionnaire data included 18 items on stress symptoms, 23 items from the Karasek scale on job strain, and information on discomfort in specified anatomical regions was also collected. Clinical examinations included pressure pain algometry measurements of PPT on the trapezius and supraspinatus muscles and the tibia. Associations of stress symptoms and job strain with PPT of each site was analyzed for men and women separately with adjustment for age body mass index, and discomfort in the anatomical region closest to the point of pressure algometry using multivariable linear regression. We found significant inverse associations between perceived stress and PPT in both genders in models adjusting for age and body mass index: the higher level of perceived stress, the lower the threshold. For job strain, associations were weaker and only present in men. In men all associations were attenuated when adjusting for reported discomfort in regions close to the site of pressure algometry. The distributions of PPT among stressed and non-stressed persons were strongly overlapping. Despite significant associations between perceived stress and PPT, the discriminative capability of PPT to distinguish individuals with and without stress is low. PPT measured by pressure algometry seems not applicable as a diagnostic tool of a state of mental stress.

  1. Social Media Use and Perceived Emotional Support Among US Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shensa, Ariel; Sidani, Jaime E; Lin, Liu Yi; Bowman, Nicholas D; Primack, Brian A

    2016-06-01

    Low emotional support is associated with poor health outcomes. Engagement with face-to-face social networks is one way of increasing emotional support. However, it is not yet known whether engagement with proliferating electronic social networks is similarly associated with increased emotional support. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess associations between social media use and perceived emotional support in a large, nationally-representative sample. In October 2014, we collected data from 1796 U.S. adults ages 19-32. We assessed social media use using both total time spent and frequency of visits to each of the 11 most popular social media platforms. Our dependent variable was perceived emotional support as measured by the brief Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) emotional support scale. A multivariable model including all sociodemographic covariates and accounting for survey weights demonstrated that, compared with the lowest quartile of time on social media, being in the highest quartile (spending two or more hours per day) was significantly associated with decreased odds of having higher perceived emotional support (AOR 0.62, 95 % CI 0.40, 0.94). However, compared with those in the lowest quartile, being in the highest quartile regarding frequency of social media use was not significantly associated with perceived emotional support (AOR 0.70, 95 % CI 0.45, 1.09). In conclusion, while the cross-sectional nature of these data hinder inference regarding directionality, it seems that heavy users of social media may actually feel less and not more emotional support.

  2. Social Media Use and Perceived Emotional Support Among US Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shensa, Ariel; Sidani, Jaime E.; Lin, Liu yi; Bowman, Nicholas; Primack, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Low emotional support is associated with poor health outcomes. Engagement with face-to-face social networks is one way of increasing emotional support. However, it is not yet known whether engagement with proliferating electronic social networks is similarly associated with increased emotional support. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess associations between social media use and perceived emotional support in a large, nationally-representative sample. In October 2014, we collected data from 1,796 U.S. adults ages 19-32. We assessed social media use using both total time spent and frequency of visits to each of the 11 most popular social media platforms. Our dependent variable was perceived emotional support as measured by the brief Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) emotional support scale. A multivariable model including all sociodemographic covariates and accounting for survey weights demonstrated that, compared with the lowest quartile of time on social media, being in the highest quartile (spending two or more hours per day) was significantly associated with decreased odds of having higher perceived emotional support (AOR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.40, 0.94). However, compared with those in the lowest quartile, being in the highest quartile regarding frequency of social media use was not significantly associated with perceived emotional support (AOR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.45, 1.09). In conclusion, while the cross-sectional nature of these data hinder inference regarding directionality, it seems that heavy users of social media may actually feel less and not more emotional support. PMID:26613936

  3. The effects of odor and body posture on perceived duration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, E.; Hoeksma, M.R.; Smeets, M.A.M.; Semin, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports an examination of the internal clock model, according to which subjective time duration is influenced by attention and arousal state. In a time production task, we examine the hypothesis that an arousing odor and an upright body posture affect perceived duration. The experimental

  4. Counselor Beliefs and Perceived Knowledge Regarding Clients with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Tamekia R.

    2012-01-01

    Clients with learning disabilities constitute a cultural group that has not been extensively studied. The professional literature has found that counselors have reported the need for additional training in working with clients with disabilities. This study explored counselors' beliefs and perceived knowledge regarding counseling clients with…

  5. When Using Facebook to Avoid Isolation Reduces Perceived Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Ju; Cho, Eugene

    2017-06-26

    A survey (N = 316) examined how other-directed Facebook use driven by fear of social isolation affects users' perception of social support they possess. As predicted, those higher on fear of isolation were more likely to (a) closely monitor others' activities for self-evaluation (i.e., social comparison) and (b) regulate their self-presentation to garner social approval (i.e., other-directed self-presentation), but less likely to (c) express their true inner feelings and thoughts (i.e., inner-directed self-presentation) on Facebook. Social comparison, in turn, lowered perceived social support among heavy Facebook users, whereas inner-directed self-presentation heightened it. Other-directed self-presentation had no significant effect on perceived social support. Results indicate that the desire to avoid social isolation may paradoxically diminish perceived social support by promoting social comparison, while suppressing the expression of true self on Facebook.

  6. Perceived timing of a postural perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Julian; Barnett-Cowan, Michael

    2017-02-03

    Falling down is a common event that threatens the survival of an organism. Simple, yet sophisticated neural mechanisms allow for rapid detection of a fall as well as the generation of compensatory reflexes designed to prevent a fall. Fall awareness and preventative alerting devices could potentially mitigate the likelihood of a fall, however, relatively little is known about the perceived timing of a fall. Common anecdotal reports suggest that humans often describe distortions in their perception of time with very little recollection of what occurred during the fall. Previous research has also found that the vestibular system is perceptually slow compared to the other senses (45-160ms delay), indicating that vestibular stimuli must occur prior to other sensory stimuli in order for it to be perceived as synchronous. Here we examine whether fall perception is similarly slow. Participants made temporal order judgments identifying whether fall or sound onset came first to measure the point of subjective simultaneity. Results show that fall perception is slow, where the onset of a perturbation has to precede an auditory stimulus by ∼44 ms to appear coincident with the fall. We suggest that the central nervous system's rapid detection and response capabilities are restricted to reflexive behaviour, with conscious awareness of a fall being prioritized less. The additional lead times for detecting perturbation onset constrain possible fall detection and alert systems that have been proposed to inform a user to prevent falls and may also help explain the increased likelihood for fall incidence in the elderly.

  7. Self-perceived health in institutionalized elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerez-Roig, Javier; Souza, Dyego Leandro Bezerra; Andrade, Fabienne Louise Juvêncio Paes de; Lima, Bartolomeu Fagundes de; Medeiros, Rafaela Jordânia de; Oliveira, Nayara Priscila Dantas de; Cabral, Sadote Macêdo; Lima, Kenio Costa

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to verify health self-perception, its prevalence and associated factors in institutionalized elderly. A cross-sectional study is presented herein, conducted in 10 Long-Term care Institutions for the Elderly (LTIE) in the city of Natal (Northeast Brazil), between October and December 2013. Sociodemographic variables were analyzed, along with institution-related and health state variables. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were carried out (Chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test or linear trend Chi-squared test), as well as multivariate analysis (logistic regression). The final sample consisted of 127 elderly. The prevalence of negative self-perceived health was 63.19% (CI 95%: 55.07-70.63), and was associated with weight loss (PR: 1.54; CI 95%: 1.19-1.99), rheumatic disease (PR: 1.46; CI 95%: 1.05-2.01) and not-for-profit LTIE (PR: 1.37; CI 95%: 1.03-1.83), adjusted by sex. More than half of the elderly reported negative self-perceived health, which was associated with weight loss, rheumatic disease and type of institution. Actions must be developed to promote better health conditions in LTIE, such as nutrition consulting and physical therapy, to improve quality of life.

  8. Relations among perceived parental rearing behaviors, attachment style, and worry in anxious children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy M; Whiteside, Stephen P

    2008-01-01

    The present study extended the findings of Muris et al. [Muris, P., Meesters, C., Merckelbach, H., & Hulsenbeck, P. (2000). Worry in children is related to perceived parental rearing and attachment. Behavior Research and Therapy, 38, 487-497] regarding the relations between perceived parental rearing behaviors, self-reported attachment style, and worry in a community sample to a clinical sample of anxious children. Sixty-four children and adolescents, aged 7-18 years, with a primary anxiety disorder completed (a) the EMBU-C, a questionnaire measuring perceptions of parental rearing behaviors, (b) a single-item measure of attachment style, and (c) an index of worry severity. Findings revealed that child rated parental rearing behaviors, particularly parental rejection, were positively related to child worry. Self-reported attachment style was also related to worry, such that children who classified themselves as ambivalently attached reported higher levels of worry than did children who classified themselves as securely attached. Parenting style and attachment were found to make independent contributions to worry. The results are compared to those from Muris et al.'s community study, and implications for future research are discussed.

  9. Perceived assistance in pursuing personal goals and personal recovery among mental health consumers across housing services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Galia S; Westman, Kinneret; Weissberg, Esther; Melamed, Samuel

    2017-03-01

    Personal goals/plans play a central role in personal recovery and psychiatric rehabilitation of persons with mental illnesses. Yet, few studies have explored whether perceiving practitioners' assistance towards the pursuit of goals are associated with personal recovery and other favorable rehabilitation outcomes. A total of 2121 mental health consumers, of which 1222 use supported-housing services and 899 use group-home services, completed self-report questionnaires as part of a larger quality-assurance study conducted during the years 2013-2014. Eighty percent of participants living in supported-housing and 72% living in group-homes reported having personal goals/plans for the forthcoming year. Furthermore, their type of goals was different. Irrespective of the type of goal or housing service, participants who reported having goals/plans (compared with those who did not) showed higher levels of personal recovery and more favorable psychosocial outcomes. Regression analyses showed that perceiving professional staff members (but not para-professionals) as assisting in pursuing goals/plans was positively associated with personal recovery. This study empirically validates the value of having personal goals and professionals' assistance in pursuing goals/plans in regards to personal recovery. We propose that recovery-oriented services should seek to enhance goal setting and goal-pursuit, and to train practitioners in these areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [The relationship between perceived personality and Ieading/following roles in university students' close friendships, using Gitaigo personality scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Koji; Mukoyama, Yasuyo; Nishioka, Miwa; Sakai, Keiko

    2016-02-01

    Based on the recently developed Gitaigo personality scale (Komatsu, Sakai, Nishioka, & Mukoyama, 2012), we investigated the relationship between perceived personality and leading/following roles in close friend dyads. Primary participants rated their own and one of their close friend's personality with Gitaigo personality scale. They also described who takes the role of leader in the relationship with the friend they rated. When one in the pair is reported as leader, the other is considered as follower. Subsidiary participants who were cited as close friends rated their own personality. Our analysis of the 215 pairs showed that the participants taking the role of follower were rated higher in the traits of Cowardliness and Mildness by the primary participants. Regarding Mildness, this tendency was also clear in subsidiary participants' self-ratings. Primary participants rated the Preciseness and Candidness of their friends lower if their friend was considered a follower. Gitaigo personality scale describes the perceived personality well, at least for several traits.

  11. The Moderator Role of Perceived Emotional Intelligence in the Relationship between Sources of Stress and Mental Health in Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido-Martos, Manuel; Lopez-Zafra, Esther; Estévez-López, Fernando; Augusto-Landa, José María

    2016-03-03

    This study analyzes the role of Perceived Emotional Intelligence (PEI) on sources of job stress and mental health in 250 elementary school teachers from Jaén (Spain). The aim of the study was two-fold: (1) to analyze the associations between Perceived Emotional Intelligence (PEI), sources of occupational stress and mental health; and (2) to determine whether PEI moderates the relationship between sources of occupational stress and mental health. An initial sample of 250 teachers was assessed Three questionnaires, the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, the Sources of Stress Scale in Teachers and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey, were used to evaluate PEI, sources of occupational stress and mental health, respectively. Teachers with higher levels of emotional attention reported lower levels of mental health (r = -.30; p mental health.

  12. The association of perceived abuse and discrimination after September 11, 2001, with psychological distress, level of happiness, and health status among Arab Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I; Heisler, Michele

    2010-02-01

    We assessed the prevalence of perceived abuse and discrimination among Arab American adults after September 11, 2001, and associations between abuse or discrimination and psychological distress, level of happiness, and health status. We gathered data from a face-to-face survey administered in 2003 to a representative, population-based sample of Arab American adults residing in the greater Detroit area. Overall, 25% of the respondents reported post-September 11 personal or familial abuse, and 15% reported that they personally had a bad experience related to their ethnicity, with higher rates among Muslims than Christians. After adjustment for socioeconomic and demographic factors, perceived post-September 11 abuse was associated with higher levels of psychological distress, lower levels of happiness, and worse health status. Personal bad experiences related to ethnicity were associated with increased psychological distress and reduced happiness. Perceptions of not being respected within US society and greater reported effects of September 11 with respect to personal security and safety were associated with higher levels of psychological distress. Perceived post-September 11 abuse and discrimination were associated with increased psychological distress, reduced levels of happiness, and worse health status in our sample. Community-based, culturally sensitive partnerships should be established to assess and meet the health needs of Arab Americans.

  13. Perceived Stress and Coffee and Energy Drink Consumption Predict Poor Sleep Quality in Podiatric Medical Students A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawah, Mohomad Al; Ruffin, Naeemah; Rimawi, Mohammad; Concerto, Carmen; Aguglia, Eugenio; Chusid, Eileen; Infortuna, Carmenrita; Battaglia, Fortunato

    2015-09-01

    A cross-sectional survey administered to first- and second-year podiatric medical students aimed to investigate the effect of coffee intake, energy drink consumption, and perceived stress on sleep quality in medical students during their preclinical studies. Ninety-eight of 183 students contacted (53.6%) completed a questionnaire comprising standard instruments measuring sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness scale), and perceived stress (ten-item Perceived Stress Scale). Furthermore, we investigated coffee and energy drink consumption. Logistic regression was conducted to identify factors associated with poor sleep quality and the relation between sleep quality and academic performance (grade point average). High prevalences of poor sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness, and perceived stress were reported. In addition, higher odds of developing poor sleep quality were associated with coffee and energy drink intake, perceived stress, and excessive daytime sleepiness. The total Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score was inversely correlated with grade point average. First- and second-year podiatric medical students have poor sleep quality. Further research is needed to identify effective strategies to reduce stress and decrease coffee and energy drink intake to minimize their negative effect on sleep quality and academic performance in podiatric medical students.

  14. Perceived emotion genuineness: normative ratings for popular facial expression stimuli and the development of perceived-as-genuine and perceived-as-fake sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawel, Amy; Wright, Luke; Irons, Jessica; Dumbleton, Rachael; Palermo, Romina; O'Kearney, Richard; McKone, Elinor

    2016-12-07

    In everyday social interactions, people's facial expressions sometimes reflect genuine emotion (e.g., anger in response to a misbehaving child) and sometimes do not (e.g., smiling for a school photo). There is increasing theoretical interest in this distinction, but little is known about perceived emotion genuineness for existing facial expression databases. We present a new method for rating perceived genuineness using a neutral-midpoint scale (-7 = completely fake; 0 = don't know; +7 = completely genuine) that, unlike previous methods, provides data on both relative and absolute perceptions. Normative ratings from typically developing adults for five emotions (anger, disgust, fear, sadness, and happiness) provide three key contributions. First, the widely used Pictures of Facial Affect (PoFA; i.e., "the Ekman faces") and the Radboud Faces Database (RaFD) are typically perceived as not showing genuine emotion. Also, in the only published set for which the actual emotional states of the displayers are known (via self-report; the McLellan faces), percepts of emotion genuineness often do not match actual emotion genuineness. Second, we provide genuine/fake norms for 558 faces from several sources (PoFA, RaFD, KDEF, Gur, FacePlace, McLellan, News media), including a list of 143 stimuli that are event-elicited (rather than posed) and, congruently, perceived as reflecting genuine emotion. Third, using the norms we develop sets of perceived-as-genuine (from event-elicited sources) and perceived-as-fake (from posed sources) stimuli, matched on sex, viewpoint, eye-gaze direction, and rated intensity. We also outline the many types of research questions that these norms and stimulus sets could be used to answer.

  15. Perceived Social Support Mediating the Relationship between Perceived Stress and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Sarwat; Rashid, Safia

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to examine the mediating effect of perceived social support between perceived stress and job satisfaction among employees. A conveniently selected sample of 280 employees provided the information on Perceived Social Support Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, and Job Satisfaction Survey. Employing Regression analyses,…

  16. Perceived quality of health care services among people with osteoarthritis – results from a nationwide survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grønhaug G

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gudmund Grønhaug,1 Jon Hagfors,2 Ingebjørg Borch,2 Nina Østerås,1 Kåre Birger Hagen11National Advisory Unit on Rehabilitation in Rheumatology, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, 2Norwegian Rheumatism Association, Oslo, NorwayObjective: To assess the perceived quality of care received by people with osteoarthritis (OA in Norway and explore factors associated with the quality of care.Methods: A national survey in which members of the Norwegian Rheumatism Association with OA registered as their main diagnosis completed a questionnaire. The perceived quality of care was reported on a 17-item OsteoArthritis Quality Indicator questionnaire, covering both pharmacological and non-pharmacological aspects of OA care. In addition, the four-page questionnaire covered areas related to demographic characteristics, the location and impact of the OA, and utilization and satisfaction with health care services. The quality of care is calculated as pass rates, where the numerator represents the number of indicators passed and the denominator represents the number of eligible persons.Results: In total, 1,247 participants (response rate 57% completed the questionnaire. Mean age was 68 years (standard deviation 32 and 1,142 (92% were women. Respondents reported OA in hand only (12.4%, hip only (7.3%, knee only (10.4%, in two locations (42% or all three locations (27%. The overall OsteoArthritis Quality Indicator pass rate was 47% (95% confidence interval [CI] 46%–48%, and it was higher for pharmacological aspects (53% [51%–54%] than for non-pharmacological aspects of care (44% [43%–46%]. The pass rate for the individual quality indicators ranged from 8% for “referral for weight reduction” to 81% for “receiving advice about exercises”. Satisfaction with care was strongly associated with perceived quality. The pass rate for those who were “very satisfied” was 33% (25%–40% higher than those who were “very unsatisfied” with care.Conclusion: While the OA

  17. Parental Protectiveness Mediates the Association between Parent-Perceived Child Self-Efficacy and Health Outcomes in Pediatric Functional Abdominal Pain Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. DuPen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that parental protectiveness is associated with increased pain and disability in Functional Abdominal Pain Disorder (FAPD but the role that perceived child self-efficacy may play remains unclear. One reason why parents may react protectively towards their child’s pain is that they perceive their child to be unable to cope or function normally while in pain (perceived low self-efficacy. This study sought to examine (a the association between parent-perceived child pain self-efficacy and child health outcomes (symptom severity and disability; and (b the role of parental protectiveness as a mediator of this association. Participants were 316 parents of children aged 7–12 years with FAPD. Parents completed measures of perceived child self-efficacy when in pain, their own protective responses to their child’s pain, child gastrointestinal (GI symptom severity, and child functional disability. Parent-perceived child self-efficacy was inversely associated with parent-reported child GI symptom severity and disability, and parental protectiveness mediated these associations. These results suggest that parents who perceive their child to have low self-efficacy to cope with pain respond more protectively when they believe he/she is in pain, and this, in turn, is associated with higher levels of GI symptoms and disability in their child. This finding suggests that directly addressing parent beliefs about their child’s ability to manage pain should be included as a component of FAPD, and potentially other child treatment interventions.

  18. Perceived Environmental Pollution and Its Impact on Health in China, Japan, and South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Akiko; Armenta, Bianca; Nourian, Maziar; Assasnik, Nushean; Nourian, Kimiya; Chernenko, Alla

    2017-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a significant global issue. Both objective (scientifically measured) environmental pollution and perceived levels of pollution are important predictors of self-reported health. The purpose of this study was to compare the associations between perceived environmental pollution and health in China, Japan, and South Korea. Data were obtained from the East Asian Social Survey and the Cross-National Survey Data Sets: Health and Society in East Asia, 2010 (n=7938; China, n=3866; Japan, n=2496; South Korea, n=1576). South Koreans perceived environmental pollution to be the most severe, while Japanese participants perceived environmental pollution to be the least severe. Although the Japanese did not perceive environmental pollution to be very severe, their self-rated physical health was significantly related to perceived environmental pollution, while the analogous relationships were not significant for the Chinese or Korean participants. Better mental health was related to lower levels of perceived air pollution in China, as well as lower levels of perceived all types of pollution in Japan and lower levels of perceived noise pollution in South Korea. Physical and mental health and individual socio-demographic characteristics were associated with levels of perceived environmental pollution, but with different patterns among these three countries.

  19. Competence Beliefs and Perceived Ability Evaluations: How Do They Contribute to Intrinsic Motivation and Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiberger, Verena; Steinmayr, Ricarda; Spinath, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    To study the role of students' competence beliefs and their perceived teachers' ability evaluations for intrinsic motivation and achievement in math, 459 second graders from 27 German classrooms were examined. Students provided self-reports on their intrinsic motivation, competence beliefs and perceived teachers' ability evaluations in math.…

  20. Perceived Racism and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, LaBarron K.; Kobayashi, Ihori; Hughes, Joel W.

    2007-01-01

    Experiences with racial discrimination may contribute to stress-induced blood pressure (BP) elevations among African Americans. It was reported that perceived racism was associated with ambulatory BP (ABP) during waking hours. This study examined perceived racism and ABP among 40 African American college students, who completed an ABP assessment…