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Sample records for reported higher anxiety

  1. Higher Reported Levels of Depression, Stress, and Anxiety Are Associated with Increased Endorsement of ADHD Symptoms by Postsecondary Students

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    Harrison, Allyson G.; Alexander, Sandra J.; Armstrong, Irene T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which postsecondary students endorse symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and whether experienced level of stress, depression, or anxiety are associated with higher reporting of ADHD symptoms. Students attending a combined health and counseling service completed the Conners Adult ADHD Rating…

  2. Evidence of Higher Oxidative Status in Depression and Anxiety

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    G. Grases

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We use a simple method for evaluating antioxidative status, by measuring the redox potential of urine, and correlate the findings with measures of anxiety and depression. We include 63 individuals (28 males and 35 females aged between 20 and 65 years. The validated anxiety State-Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaire and the validated BDI (Beck Depression Inventory questionnaire were used to evaluate anxiety and depression. Antioxidative status was determined by measuring the redox potential of urine collected in standard conditions. Correlation of the antioxidant capacity of urines evaluated using the ferric ion/specific dye method or through redox potential using the platinum electrode demonstrated the suitability of this last procedure. We found that normal anxiety state values corresponded to low urine redox potentials, whereas higher anxiety states were associated with high urinary redox potential. We also found that individuals with normal BDI values had significantly lower urine redox potentials than individuals with higher BDI values.

  3. Dyslexia in higher education: implications for maths anxiety, statistics anxiety and psychological well-being.

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    Jordan, Julie-Ann; McGladdery, Gary; Dyer, Kevin

    2014-08-01

    This study examined levels of mathematics and statistics anxiety, as well as general mental health amongst undergraduate students with dyslexia (n = 28) and those without dyslexia (n = 71). Students with dyslexia had higher levels of mathematics anxiety relative to those without dyslexia, while statistics anxiety and general mental health were comparable for both reading ability groups. In terms of coping strategies, undergraduates with dyslexia tended to use planning-based strategies and seek instrumental support more frequently than those without dyslexia. Higher mathematics anxiety was associated with having a dyslexia diagnosis, as well as greater levels of worrying, denial, seeking instrumental support and less use of the positive reinterpretation coping strategy. By contrast, statistics anxiety was not predicted by dyslexia diagnosis, but was instead predicted by overall worrying and the use of denial and emotion focused coping strategies. The results suggest that disability practitioners should be aware that university students with dyslexia are at risk of high mathematics anxiety. Additionally, effective anxiety reduction strategies such as positive reframing and thought challenging would form a useful addition to the support package delivered to many students with dyslexia.

  4. Technology Adoption in Higher Education: Overcoming Anxiety through Faculty Bootcamp

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    Johnson, Terri; Wisniewski, Mary Ann; Kuhlemeyer, Greg; Isaacs, Gerald; Krzykowski, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    The reluctance to design and teach online courses in higher education is often attributed to technology anxiety in faculty. This article documents a faculty development model that has successfully helped faculty overcome this obstacle. "Bootcamps," faculty development programs held at Carroll University in Waukesha, WI, were specifically and…

  5. Anxiety or neurosis: case report study

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    Miloš Židanik

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Third Edition (DSM-III in 1980, anxiety disorder was first identified as a diagnostic entity. A new theoretical approach regarding aetiology of anxiety disorders came next into the view, far from Freud’s psychoanalytical pathways. The consequences were new therapeutic guidelines, including psychopharmacotherapy and the use of behavioural and cognitive psychotherapy.Methods: The paper presents a case report study of a patient with social phobia. The use of analytical oriented psychotherapy, which helped to resolve Axis I symptoms, is described.Conclusions: In spite of new therapeutic guidelines there is still a certain population of patients with the need for psychoanalytical oriented psychotherapy. If we are to surrender the Freud’s legacy to the medical history, we will weaken psychiatry as a science and will narrow our therapeutic field.

  6. Analyzing International Students' Study Anxiety in Higher Education

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    Khoshlessan, Rezvan; Das, Kumer Pial

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore international students' study anxiety in a mid-sized public four-year university in Southeast Texas by comparing their existing study anxiety along lines of nationality, gender, age, major, degree, and stage of education. The subjects were selected using a convenience sample during the Spring of 2013. The…

  7. Effects of Math Anxiety on Student Success in Higher Education

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    Nunez-Pena, M. I.; Suarez-Pellicioni, M.; Bono, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines whether math anxiety and negative attitudes toward mathematics have an effect on university students' academic achievement in a methodological course forming part of their degree. A total of 193 students were presented with a math anxiety test and some questions about their enjoyment, self-confidence and motivation regarding…

  8. Schizophrenia, Obsessive Covert Mental Rituals and Social Anxiety: Case Report

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    Tully, Phillip J.; Edwards, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    This case study reports the outcomes of cognitive therapy for social anxiety in a 45-year-old man with a 27-year history of paranoid schizophrenia. The intervention targeted the overlapping and interrelated symptoms of social anxiety and delusional beliefs. After 11 sessions of treatment, the patient showed no improvement in social anxiety,…

  9. Schizophrenia, Obsessive Covert Mental Rituals and Social Anxiety: Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Phillip J.; Edwards, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    This case study reports the outcomes of cognitive therapy for social anxiety in a 45-year-old man with a 27-year history of paranoid schizophrenia. The intervention targeted the overlapping and interrelated symptoms of social anxiety and delusional beliefs. After 11 sessions of treatment, the patient showed no improvement in social anxiety,…

  10. Self-reported bruxism mirrors anxiety and stress in adults

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    Ahlberg, J.; Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, K.; Manfredini, D.; Hublin, C.; Sinisalo, J.; Könönen, M.; Savolainen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. Study Design: As part of a study on irregu

  11. Self-reported bruxism mirrors anxiety and stress in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahlberg, J.; Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, K.; Manfredini, D.; Hublin, C.; Sinisalo, J.; Könönen, M.; Savolainen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. Study Design: As part of a study on irregu

  12. Self-reported bruxism mirrors anxiety and stress in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahlberg, J.; Lobbezoo, F.; Ahlberg, K.; Manfredini, D.; Hublin, C.; Sinisalo, J.; Könönen, M.; Savolainen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. Study Design: As part of a study on

  13. Higher Self-Control Capacity Predicts Lower Anxiety-Impaired Cognition During Math Examinations

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    Alex eBertrams

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We assumed that self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem would enable students to keep attentional control during tests. Therefore, we hypothesized that the three personality traits would be negatively related to anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations. Secondary school students (N = 158 completed measures of self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem at the beginning of the school year. Five months later, anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations was assessed. Higher self-control capacity, but neither self-efficacy nor self-esteem, predicted lower anxiety-impaired cognition five months later, over and above baseline anxiety-impaired cognition. Moreover, self-control capacity was indirectly related to math grades via anxiety-impaired cognition. The findings suggest that improving self-control capacity may enable students to deal with anxiety-related problems during school tests.

  14. Higher Self-Control Capacity Predicts Lower Anxiety-Impaired Cognition during Math Examinations.

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    Bertrams, Alex; Baumeister, Roy F; Englert, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We assumed that self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem would enable students to keep attentional control during tests. Therefore, we hypothesized that the three personality traits would be negatively related to anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations. Secondary school students (N = 158) completed measures of self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem at the beginning of the school year. Five months later, anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations was assessed. Higher self-control capacity, but neither self-efficacy nor self-esteem, predicted lower anxiety-impaired cognition 5 months later, over and above baseline anxiety-impaired cognition. Moreover, self-control capacity was indirectly related to math grades via anxiety-impaired cognition. The findings suggest that improving self-control capacity may enable students to deal with anxiety-related problems during school tests.

  15. A STUDY ON PREVALENCE OF ANXIETY DISORDERS AMONG HIGHER SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

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    Srinivasa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are very common in secondary school children with little epidemiological data from countries like India. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of anxiety disorders in higher secondary school students using Screen for Ch ild Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED questionnaire. Methodology: The study was conducted in July 2014 and 100 students belonging to class 11 and class 12 of a higher secondary school at Tiptur were included in the study. The SCARED questionnair es were used to assess anxiety in these children. Results: In this study, 37% were found to have anxiety disorder (p value < 0.001. Of these majority (58% were females which was significant. Of the 100 children, 64% had PN (panic disorder, 10% had GD (g eneralized anxiety disorder, 53% had SP (separation anxiety, 15% had SC (social anxiety disorder and 16% had SH (significant school avoidance. Hence in this study, panic disorder and separation anxiety were found to be highly prevalent. In this study o f the children who had anxiety, majority of these children’s mothers (79% and majority of the children’s fathers were illiterate (54%. In this study, of the children with anxiety, 76% belonged to nuclear family and majority i.e. 84% belonged to rural are a. Conclusion: This study shows the high prevalence of undiagnosed depression and anxiety disorders among adolescents and hence the need for them. Early interventions can provide long - term health and socioeconomic benefits by prevention of the onset of men tal health problems and their development into chronic disorders.

  16. The association between self-reported anxiety symptoms and suicidality.

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    Diefenbach, Gretchen J; Woolley, Stephen B; Goethe, John W

    2009-02-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed the association between self-reported anxiety symptoms and self-reported suicidality among a mixed diagnostic sample of psychiatric outpatients. Data were obtained from chart review of 2,778 outpatients who completed a routine diagnostic clinical interview and a standardized self-report of psychiatric symptoms on admission. Bivariate analyses indicated that those with >or= moderate anxiety symptoms were over three times as likely to report >or= moderate difficulty with suicidality. Self-reported anxiety symptoms were associated with a 2-fold increased likelihood of reporting suicidality after controlling for confounding (demographics, depressive symptoms, and diagnoses). These data are consistent with a growing literature demonstrating an association between anxiety symptoms and suicidality, and suggest that this association is not accounted for by coexisting mood symptoms or diagnoses. A single item, self-report may be a useful screening tool for symptoms that are pertinent to assessment of suicide risk.

  17. Predicting anxiety diagnoses with the youth self-report

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    Ferdinand, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Empirical studies that assess which items of the Youth Self-Report (YSR) are the best predictors of anxiety disorders in adolescents are lacking, whereas several attempts have been made to construct an anxiety scale for the YSR. It is important to gap the bridge between existing YSR and DSM-IV

  18. Predicting anxiety diagnoses with the youth self-report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferdinand, Robert F.

    2007-01-01

    Empirical studies that assess which items of the Youth Self-Report (YSR) are the best predictors of anxiety disorders in adolescents are lacking, whereas several attempts have been made to construct an anxiety scale for the YSR. It is important to gap the bridge between existing YSR and DSM-IV diagn

  19. Predicting anxiety diagnoses with the youth self-report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferdinand, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Empirical studies that assess which items of the Youth Self-Report (YSR) are the best predictors of anxiety disorders in adolescents are lacking, whereas several attempts have been made to construct an anxiety scale for the YSR. It is important to gap the bridge between existing YSR and DSM-IV diagn

  20. An Investigation of L2 Learners' Writing Self-Efficacy, Writing Anxiety and Its Causes at Higher Education in Turkey

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    Kirmizi, Özkan; Kirmizi, Gülin Dagdeviren

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating higher education L2 learners in a Turkish context in terms of writing self-efficacy, writing anxiety, and the causes of writing anxiety. The data have been collected through the Second Language Writing Anxiety Inventory (SLWAI), developed by Cheng, (2004), and Causes of Writing Anxiety Inventory (CWAI), and…

  1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Social Anxiety Disorder, but Not Panic Anxiety Disorder, Are Associated with Higher Sensitivity to Learning from Negative Feedback: Behavioral and Computational Investigation.

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    Khdour, Hussain Y; Abushalbaq, Oday M; Mughrabi, Ibrahim T; Imam, Aya F; Gluck, Mark A; Herzallah, Mohammad M; Moustafa, Ahmed A

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), and panic anxiety disorder (PAD), are a group of common psychiatric conditions. They are characterized by excessive worrying, uneasiness, and fear of future events, such that they affect social and occupational functioning. Anxiety disorders can alter behavior and cognition as well, yet little is known about the particular domains they affect. In this study, we tested the cognitive correlates of medication-free patients with GAD, SAD, and PAD, along with matched healthy participants using a probabilistic category-learning task that allows the dissociation between positive and negative feedback learning. We also fitted all participants' data to a Q-learning model and various actor-critic models that examine learning rate parameters from positive and negative feedback to investigate effects of valence vs. action on performance. SAD and GAD patients were more sensitive to negative feedback than either PAD patients or healthy participants. PAD, SAD, and GAD patients did not differ in positive-feedback learning compared to healthy participants. We found that Q-learning models provide the simplest fit of the data in comparison to other models. However, computational analysis revealed that groups did not differ in terms of learning rate or exploration values. These findings argue that (a) not all anxiety spectrum disorders share similar cognitive correlates, but are rather different in ways that do not link them to the hallmark of anxiety (higher sensitivity to negative feedback); and (b) perception of negative consequences is the core feature of GAD and SAD, but not PAD. Further research is needed to examine the similarities and differences between anxiety spectrum disorders in other cognitive domains and potential implementation of behavioral therapy to remediate cognitive deficits.

  2. Depression, anxiety and stress among higher secondary school students of Imphal, Manipur

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    K Sathish Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence is a stressful period due to physical, psychological, sexual changes, and the presence of psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety, and stress at this stage of life is a matter of concern. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalences of depression, anxiety, and stress among higher secondary school students of Imphal and to determine the association between depression, anxiety, and stress and selected variables such as gender, standard, and religion. Materials and methods: From September 2014 to October 2014, a cross-sectional study was conducted among higher secondary school students of Imphal. The sample size was calculated to be 750. Seven schools were randomly selected, and all the students in that school were enrolled in the study. The study tool used was a questionnaire containing DASS (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and sociodemographic characteristics. Results: The prevalences of depression, anxiety, and stress among 830 valid respondents were 19.5%, 24.4%, and 21.1%, respectively. In total, 81.6% of the respondents had at least one of the studied disorders and 34.7% of the respondents had all the three negative states. The prevalences of depression, anxiety, and stress were high among females and were significant for anxiety (P = 0.00 and stress (P = 0.04. The prevalences of depression and stress were significantly higher among 12th standard students with P-values of 0.00 and 0.02. Conclusion: The prevalences of depression, anxiety, and stress were high with anxiety and stress significantly higher among females, whereas prevalences of depression and stress were significantly higher among 12th standard students. More studies are recommended to determine the factors leading to these mental disorders.

  3. A meta-analysis on the relationship between self-reported presence and anxiety in virtual reality exposure therapy for anxiety disorders.

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    Ling, Yun; Nefs, Harold T; Morina, Nexhmedin; Heynderickx, Ingrid; Brinkman, Willem-Paul

    2014-01-01

    In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) for anxiety disorders, sense of presence in the virtual environment is considered the principal mechanism that enables anxiety to be felt. Existing studies on the relation between sense of presence and level of anxiety, however, have yielded mixed results on the correlation between the two. In this meta-analysis, we reviewed publications on VRET for anxiety that included self-reported presence and anxiety. The comprehensive search of the literature identified 33 publications with a total of 1196 participants. The correlation between self-reported sense of presence and anxiety was extracted and meta-analyzed. Potential moderators such as technology characteristics, sample characteristics including age, gender and clinical status, disorder characteristics and study design characteristics such as measurements were also examined. The random effects analysis showed a medium effect size for the correlation between sense of presence and anxiety (r = .28; 95% CI: 0.18-0.38). Moderation analyses revealed that the effect size of the correlation differed across different anxiety disorders, with a large effect size for fear of animals (r = .50; 95% CI: 0.30-0.66) and a no to small effect size for social anxiety disorder (r = .001; 95% CI: -0.19-0.19). Further, the correlation between anxiety and presence was stronger in studies with participants who met criteria for an anxiety disorder than in studies with a non-clinical population. Trackers with six degrees of freedom and displays with a larger field of view resulted in higher effect sizes, compared to trackers with three degrees of freedom and displays with a smaller field of view. In addition, no difference in effect size was found for the type of presence measurement and the type of anxiety measurement. This meta-analysis confirms the positive relation between sense of presence and anxiety and demonstrates that this relation can be affected by various moderating factors.

  4. A meta-analysis on the relationship between self-reported presence and anxiety in virtual reality exposure therapy for anxiety disorders.

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    Yun Ling

    Full Text Available In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET for anxiety disorders, sense of presence in the virtual environment is considered the principal mechanism that enables anxiety to be felt. Existing studies on the relation between sense of presence and level of anxiety, however, have yielded mixed results on the correlation between the two. In this meta-analysis, we reviewed publications on VRET for anxiety that included self-reported presence and anxiety. The comprehensive search of the literature identified 33 publications with a total of 1196 participants. The correlation between self-reported sense of presence and anxiety was extracted and meta-analyzed. Potential moderators such as technology characteristics, sample characteristics including age, gender and clinical status, disorder characteristics and study design characteristics such as measurements were also examined. The random effects analysis showed a medium effect size for the correlation between sense of presence and anxiety (r = .28; 95% CI: 0.18-0.38. Moderation analyses revealed that the effect size of the correlation differed across different anxiety disorders, with a large effect size for fear of animals (r = .50; 95% CI: 0.30-0.66 and a no to small effect size for social anxiety disorder (r = .001; 95% CI: -0.19-0.19. Further, the correlation between anxiety and presence was stronger in studies with participants who met criteria for an anxiety disorder than in studies with a non-clinical population. Trackers with six degrees of freedom and displays with a larger field of view resulted in higher effect sizes, compared to trackers with three degrees of freedom and displays with a smaller field of view. In addition, no difference in effect size was found for the type of presence measurement and the type of anxiety measurement. This meta-analysis confirms the positive relation between sense of presence and anxiety and demonstrates that this relation can be affected by various moderating

  5. Atomoxetine Induced Seperation Anxiety: A Case Report

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    Gonca Gul Celik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Atomoxetine, a selective norepinephrine (NE inhibitor, is introduced as a safe non-stimulant alternative treatment of children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, especially co-morbid ADHD and anxiety disorder and/or Tourette syndrome. Generally known side effects were including weight loss, decrease appetite, nausea and somnolence, exacerbation of tics. In this paper, we want to present an adolescent case with ADHD-inattention type who developed separation anxiety during Atomoxetine treatment. It will be discussed in light of current knowledge about possible neurotransmitter systems associated with side effects of Atomoxetine. Consequently, atomoxetine treatment may trigger anxiety or obsessional thoughts although without any premorbid psychopathology. However, it is unclear whether effects of genetic, gender or adolescence period are associated with this. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(3.000: 503-505

  6. Maternal phobic anxiety and child anxiety.

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    Bernstein, Gail A; Layne, Ann E; Egan, Elizabeth A; Nelson, Lara P

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between maternal anxiety symptoms and child anxiety symptoms and evaluated whether a reporting bias is associated with maternal anxiety. Fifty-seven mother-child pairs participated. All children had features or diagnoses of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder, and/or social phobia. Measures of maternal symptomatology and child anxiety were administered. Higher levels of maternal phobic anxiety on the Brief Symptom Inventory were significantly associated with higher levels of separation anxiety in children. After controlling for clinician rating of SAD severity, maternal phobic anxiety emerged as a significant predictor of maternal ratings of child separation anxiety, accounting for 19% of the variance. Phobic mothers endorsed levels of separation anxiety in their children that exceeded levels endorsed by clinicians, suggesting maternal overreporting.

  7. Self-reported bruxism mirrors anxiety and stress in adults

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    Lobbezoo, Frank; Ahlberg, Kristiina; Manfredini, Daniele; Hublin, Christer; Sinisalo, Juha; Könönen, Mauno; Savolainen, Aslak

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aims were to analyze whether the levels of self-reported bruxism and anxiety associate among otherwise healthy subjects, and to investigate the independent effects of anxiety and stress experience on the probability of self-reported bruxism. Study Design: As part of a study on irregular shift work, a questionnaire was mailed to all employees of the Finnish Broadcasting Company with irregular shift work (number of subjects: n=750) and to an equal number of randomly selected employees in the same company with regular eight-hour daytime work. Results: The response rates were 82.3% (56.6 % men) and 34.3 % (46.7 % men), respectively. Among the 874 respondents, those aware of more frequent bruxism reported significantly more severe anxiety (p<0.001). Adjusted by age and gender, frequent bruxers were more than two times more likely to report severe stress (odds ratio 2.5; 95% confidence interval 1.5-4.2) and anxiety (odds ratio 2.2; 95% confidence interval 1.3-3.6) than non-or-mild bruxers. Conclusions: Present findings suggest that self-reported bruxism and psychological states such as anxiety or stress may be related in working age subjects. Key words:Bruxism, self-report, anxiety, stress, adult. PMID:22926484

  8. Yoga therapy for anxiety: a case report.

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    Williams-Orlando, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Yoga therapy is a mind-body intervention that can be an important solution in the treatment of anxiety. Yoga therapy alleviates the hyperarousal of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the hypervigilance of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis that occurs in anxiety. Yoga therapy activates the parasympathetic branch of the nervous system, replacing SNS overdrive, or the flight-or-fight response, with the relaxation response and balancing the nervous system. Yoga therapy increases positive coping skills and builds self-esteem without harmful side effects. The results of this case study have demonstrated the clinical efficacy of yoga therapy in the treatment of anxiety and panic disorder (PD) in an adolescent female. Treatment consisted of 4 wks of individual sessions (60-min session/wk) and 6 wks of group sessions (90-min session/wk) with daily home practice. The results of the case study are significant because growing numbers of youth in the United States are presenting with anxiety and seeking nonpharmacological options.

  9. Report on maternal anxiety 16 months after the great East Japan earthquake disaster: anxiety over radioactivity.

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    Yoshii, Hatsumi; Saito, Hidemitsu; Kikuchi, Saya; Ueno, Takashi; Sato, Kineko

    2014-06-25

    The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011. The tsunami caused extensive damage to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, resulting in a level 7 nuclear accident. Among those affected by this combined disaster were many pregnant and parturient women. Sixteen months after the earthquake, we conducted a questionnaire survey on anxiety among 259 women who gave birth around the time of the earthquake in Miyagi Prefecture, one of the affected areas. Participants reported 12 categories of anxiety, including anxiety over radioactivity. This study aimed to determine anxiety over radioactivity among this specific population and to record measures for future study. Anxiety over radiation was classified into seven subcategories: food safety, outdoor safety, effects on the fetuses of pregnant women, effects on children, radiation exposure, economic problems, and distrust of information disclosed. This study confirmed that concrete types of anxiety over radiation were keenly felt by mothers who had experienced the disaster who were currently raising children. The findings suggest the need to provide accurate information to these mothers, who are otherwise inundated with miscellaneous confusing information.

  10. Higher emotional intelligence is related to lower test anxiety among students

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    Ahmadpanah M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Ahmadpanah,1 Mohammadreza Keshavarz,1 Mohammad Haghighi,1 Leila Jahangard,1 Hafez Bajoghli,2 Dena Sadeghi Bahmani,3 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,3 Serge Brand3,4 1Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuse, Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran; 2Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 3Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 4Department of Sport, Exercise and Health Science, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: For students attending university courses, experiencing test anxiety (TA dramatically impairs cognitive performance and success at exams. Whereas TA is a specific case of social phobia, emotional intelligence (EI is an umbrella term covering interpersonal and intrapersonal skills, along with positive stress management, adaptability, and mood. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that higher EI and lower TA are associated. Further, sex differences were explored.Method: During an exam week, a total of 200 university students completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic information, TA, and EI.Results: Higher scores on EI traits were associated with lower TA scores. Relative to male participants, female participants reported higher TA scores, but not EI scores. Intrapersonal and interpersonal skills and mood predicted low TA, while sex, stress management, and adaptability were excluded from the equation.Conclusion: The pattern of results suggests that efforts to improve intrapersonal and interpersonal skills, and mood might benefit students with high TA. Specifically, social commitment might counteract TA. Keywords: test anxiety, emotional intelligence, students, interpersonal skills, intrapersonal skills

  11. Psychophysiological and self-reported reactivity associated with social anxiety and public speaking fear symptoms: Effects of fear versus distress.

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    Panayiotou, Georgia; Karekla, Maria; Georgiou, Dora; Constantinou, Elena; Paraskeva-Siamata, Michaela

    2017-09-01

    This study examines psychophysiological and subjective reactivity to anxiety-provoking situations in relation to social anxiety and public speaking fear. We hypothesized that social anxiety symptoms would be associated with similar reactivity across types of imaginary anxiety scenes and not specifically to social anxiety-related scenes. This would be attributed to co-existing depression symptoms. Public speaking fear was expected to be associated with more circumscribed reactivity to survival-threat scenes, due to its association with fearfulness. Community participants imagined standardized anxiety situations, including social anxiety and animal fear scenes, while their physiological reactivity and self-reported emotions were assessed. Findings supported that social anxiety was associated with undifferentiated physiological reactivity across anxiety-provoking situations, except with regards to skin conductance level, which was higher during social anxiety imagery. Public speaking fear was associated with increased reactivity to animal phobia and panic scenes. Covariance analyses indicated that the lack of response specificity associated with social anxiety could be attributed to depression levels, while the specificity associated with public speaking fear could be explained by fearfulness. Findings highlight the need to assess not only primary anxiety symptoms but also depression and fearfulness, which likely predict discrepant reactions of individuals to anxiogenic situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Language Anxiety: Experiences of Chinese Graduate Students at U.S. Higher Institutions

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    Cheng, Rui; Erben, Antony

    2012-01-01

    It is very common for Chinese graduate students to experience language anxiety in the U.S. higher institutions, yet the literature on this topic is limited. This research study focused on the influence of the length of stay in U.S. higher institutions, various programs, gender, and acculturation process on Chinese graduate students' language…

  13. Relationship between Study Habits and Test Anxiety of Higher Secondary Students

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    Lawrence, Arul A. S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to probe the relationship between study habits and test anxiety of higher secondary students. In this normative study survey method was employed. The population for the present study consisted of higher secondary students studying in Tirunelveli district. The investigator used the simple random sampling technique. The sample…

  14. Ambiguity in the Manifestation of Adult Separation Anxiety Disorder Occurring in Complex Anxiety Presentations: Two Clinical Case Reports

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    Dudaee-Faass, Sigal; Marnane, Claire; Wagner, Renate

    2009-01-01

    Two case reports are described in which patients presented for the treatment of multiple comorbid anxiety disorders, all of which appeared to derive from prolonged separation anxiety disorder. In particular, these adults had effectively altered their lifestyles to avoid separation, thereby displaying only ambiguous separation anxiety symptoms that…

  15. Ambiguity in the Manifestation of Adult Separation Anxiety Disorder Occurring in Complex Anxiety Presentations: Two Clinical Case Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudaee-Faass, Sigal; Marnane, Claire; Wagner, Renate

    2009-01-01

    Two case reports are described in which patients presented for the treatment of multiple comorbid anxiety disorders, all of which appeared to derive from prolonged separation anxiety disorder. In particular, these adults had effectively altered their lifestyles to avoid separation, thereby displaying only ambiguous separation anxiety symptoms that…

  16. Improving Oral English Teaching in Higher Vocational College by Reducing Non-English Majors' Language Anxiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    战飞

    2012-01-01

    Many Non-English majors of vocational college experience language anxiety when they speak English in the class. Many scholars have investigated language anxiety for years, which means that this prob- lem has attracted more and more attention. However, most of the investigations are carried on among university undergraduates while little re- search has been done about vocational college students. So, the purpose of this paper is to analyze the current situations of oral English teaching in vocational colleges and combine the features of English and characteristics of vocational college students to find out the causes of vocational college non-English majors' language anxiety and help students to reduce anxiety so as to improve their oral proficiency and ultimately improving oral English teaching in higher vocational college.

  17. Depression and Anxiety Following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Are Associated With Higher Six-Month Unemployment Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Yassin, Altaib; Ouyang, Bichun; Temes, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Although survival has dramatically improved following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), the reasons for persistent high rates of unemployment in this population remain unknown. Retrospective review for medical records of patients with aSAH admitted to Rush University Medical Center was undertaken. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to test the association of either depression or anxiety with the 6-month employment status. Among the 29 patients who developed depression or anxiety, 86.2% were unemployed at 6 months following their aSAH. After controlling for confounding factors, anxiety and depression were significantly associated with higher 6-month unemployment rates (odds ratio [OR]=0.08, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.02-0.3, p=0.0002). Depression and anxiety are common following aSAH and are associated with increased unemployment rates 6 months post aSAH.

  18. Higher Ambitions Summit. Rapporteur Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The Sutton Trust and Pearson two-day summit on higher ambitions in apprenticeships and vocational education drew more than 120 leaders in education, training and employment, policy makers, academics, and researchers to London. Delegates heard from political leaders stressing the importance they attach to high-quality apprenticeships. Presentations…

  19. The child anxiety impact scale: examining parent- and child-reported impairment in child anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Audra K; Falk, Avital; Peris, Tara; Wiley, Joshua F; Kendall, Philip C; Ginsburg, Golda; Birmaher, Boris; March, John; Albano, Ann Marie; Piacentini, John

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the factor structure, reliability, and construct validity of both the Child and Parent version of the Child Anxiety Impact Scale (CAIS) using data obtained from the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (Walkup et al., 2008 ). The CAIS child and parent versions measure anxiety-related functional impairment in school, social, and family domains. Participants were 488 children ages 7 to 17 (M age = 10.7, SD = 2.8 years) enrolled as part of the CAMS study across 6 sites and their primary parent or caregiver. Families participated in a structured diagnostic interview and then completed the CAIS along with other measures. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the a priori three-factor structure (school, social, and home/family) for the CAIS parent- and CAIS child-report was a reasonable fit, with a comparative fit index of .88 and root mean square error of approximation of .05. Internal consistency was very good for total score and subscales of both versions of the scale (Cronbach's α = .70-.90). The CAIS total scores demonstrated good construct validity, showing predicted significant correlations with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Internalizing Scale, the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) and Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) Total Scores, the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale, and the Children's Global Assessment Scale. In addition, CAIS Social and School subscales were significantly related to similar subscales on the CBCL, SCARED, and MASC. The results provide support that the CAIS is a reliable and valid measure for the assessment of the impact of anxiety on child and adolescent functioning.

  20. Do self-report measures of social anxiety reflect cultural bias or real difficulties for Asian American college students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Lorinda Y; Lau, Anna S

    2011-01-01

    Construal of the self as independent or interdependent in relation to others has been found to correlate significantly with social anxiety symptom ratings, raising concerns about possible cultural bias in these measures for Asian Americans. To investigate the validity of self-reported social anxiety symptoms, we examined the role of ethnicity in the associations among social anxiety, self-construal, and adaptive social functioning in a sample of 229 Asian- and European American college students. Results revealed that ethnicity moderated the relationship between self-construal and social anxiety such that interdependent self-construal was associated with higher social anxiety only for first generation Asian Americans. However, there were no significant ethnic differences in the associations between social anxiety self-reports and several measures of social functioning.

  1. Assessment of patient-reported symptoms of anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Matthias; Devine, Janine

    2014-01-01

    Patient self-reported symptoms are of crucial importance to identify anxiety disorders, as well as to monitor their treatment in clinical practice and research. Thus, for evidence-based medicine, a precise, reliable, and valid (ie, “objective”) assessment of the patient's reported “subjective” symptoms is warranted. There is a plethora of instruments available, which can provide psychometrically sound assessments of anxiety, but there are several limitations of current tools that need to be carefully considered for their successful use. Nevertheless, the empirical assessment of mental health status is not as accepted in medicine as is the assessment of biomarkers. One reason for this may be that different instruments assessing the same psychological construct use different scales. In this paper we present some new developments that promise to provide one common metric for the assessment of anxiety, to facilitate the general acceptance of mental health assessments in the future. PMID:25152658

  2. Maternal Daily Diary Report in the Assessment of Childhood Separation Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jennifer L.; Blatter-Meunier, Judith; Ursprung, Antonia; Schneider, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    The current study evaluated the feasibility and validity of a parent-report measure of separation anxiety, the Separation Anxiety Daily Diary (SADD). Mother and child participants consisted of three groups: 96 children (aged 4-15 years) with separation anxiety disorder, 49 children with "other" anxiety disorders, and 43 healthy controls. The SADD…

  3. Scalp acupuncture treatment protocol for anxiety disorders: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuxin; Chen, Jia; Pan, Zimei; Ying, Zhou

    2014-07-01

    Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric illnesses, and acupuncture treatment is widely accepted in the clinic without the side effects seen from various medications. We designed a scalp acupuncture treatment protocol by locating two new stimulation areas. The area one is between Yintang (M-HN-3) and Shangxing (DU-23) and Shenting (DU-24), and the area two is between Taiyang (M-HN-9) and Tianchong (GB-9) and Shuaigu (GB-8). By stimulating these two areas with high-frequency continuous electric waves, remarkable immediate and long-term effects for anxiety disorders have been observed in our practice. The first case was a 70-year-old male with general anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic attacks at night. The scalp acupuncture treatment protocol was applied with electric stimulation for 45 minutes once every week. After four sessions of acupuncture treatments, the patient reported that he did not have panic attacks at night and he had no feelings of anxiety during the day. Follow-up 4 weeks later confirmed that he did not have any episodes of panic attacks and he had no anxiety during the day since his last acupuncture treatment. The second case was a 35-year-old male who was diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with a history of providing frontline trauma care as a Combat Medics from the Iraq combat field. He also had 21 broken bones and multiple concussions from his time in the battlefield. He had symptoms of severe anxiety, insomnia, nightmares with flashbacks, irritability, and bad temper. He also had chest pain, back pain, and joint pain due to injuries. The above treatment protocol was performed with 30 minutes of electric stimulation each time in combination with body acupuncture for pain management. After weekly acupuncture treatment for the first two visits, the patient reported that he felt less anxious and that his sleep was getting better with fewer nightmares. After six sessions of acupuncture treatments, the patient completely

  4. Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home & Community Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Anxiety Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic Facts & Information Causes & Symptoms Diagnosis & Tests Care & Treatment Lifestyle & Management Other Resources Caregiving How ...

  5. A meta-analysis on the relationship between self-reported presence and anxiety in virtual reality exposure therapy for anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Yun Ling; Nefs, Harold T.; Nexhmedin Morina; Ingrid Heynderickx; Willem-Paul Brinkman

    2014-01-01

    In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) for anxiety disorders, sense of presence in the virtual environment is considered the principal mechanism that enables anxiety to be felt. Existing studies on the relation between sense of presence and level of anxiety, however, have yielded mixed results on the correlation between the two. In this meta-analysis, we reviewed publications on VRET for anxiety that included self-reported presence and anxiety. The comprehensive search of the literature i...

  6. Special Reports: An Empirical Explication of a Concept of Self-Reported Speech Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Gustav W.

    1970-01-01

    Reports a study exploring "the relevance of the sex variable to the usefulness of Howard Gilkinson's "Personal Report of Confidence as a Speaker, an instrument for measuring "self-reported speech anxiety; based in part on the author's doctoral dissertation at the University of Kansas, Lawrence. (Author/RD)

  7. The Vanishing Higher-Education Reporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, Richard

    2008-01-01

    As the Internet continues to drain readers and advertising, newspapers are left with no choice but to cut back on coverage. Many papers have settled on higher education as an expendable beat. At the National Education Writers Association, which represents education reporters and editors around the country, the e-mail list for elementary- and…

  8. Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Connections with Self-Reported Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Jude; Lichtenstein-Phelps, June; Sibrava, Nicholas J.; Thomas, Charles L., Jr.; Borkovec, Thomas D.

    2009-01-01

    Even though generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is one of the most common of the anxiety disorders, relatively little is known about its precursors. Bowlby's attachment theory provides a framework within which these precursors can be considered. According to Bowlby, adult anxiety may be rooted in childhood experiences that leave a child uncertain…

  9. Clinical relevance of comorbidity in anxiety disorders : A report from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeijer-Sevink, Mieke Klein; Batelaan, Neeltje M.; van Megen, Harold J. G. M.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Cath, Danielle C.; van den Hout, Marcel A.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    Background: To study the clinical relevance of type of comorbidity and number of comorbid disorders in anxiety disorders. Four groups were compared according to sociodemographic-, vulnerability- and clinical factors: single anxiety disorder, anxiety-anxiety comorbidity, anxiety-depressive

  10. Clinical relevance of comorbidity in anxiety disorders : A report from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeijer-Sevink, Mieke Klein; Batelaan, Neeltje M.; van Megen, Harold J. G. M.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Cath, Danielle C.; van den Hout, Marcel A.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To study the clinical relevance of type of comorbidity and number of comorbid disorders in anxiety disorders. Four groups were compared according to sociodemographic-, vulnerability- and clinical factors: single anxiety disorder, anxiety-anxiety comorbidity, anxiety-depressive comorbidit

  11. Clinical relevance of comorbidity in anxiety disorders : A report from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeijer-Sevink, Mieke Klein; Batelaan, Neeltje M.; van Megen, Harold J. G. M.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Cath, Danielle C.; van den Hout, Marcel A.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To study the clinical relevance of type of comorbidity and number of comorbid disorders in anxiety disorders. Four groups were compared according to sociodemographic-, vulnerability- and clinical factors: single anxiety disorder, anxiety-anxiety comorbidity, anxiety-depressive comorbidit

  12. Self-reports of anxiety in burn-injured hospitalized adults during routine wound care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrougher, Gretchen J; Ptacek, J T; Honari, Shari; Schmidt, Anne E; Tininenko, Jennifer R; Gibran, Nicole S; Patterson, David R

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the amount of anxiety patients believed tolerable and the amount of anxiety experienced during routine burn wound care. Participants included 47 hospitalized adults who provided data for four consecutive assessment periods. Patients (mean TBSA, 16%; range, 2-70%) were primarily Caucasian (87%) and had an average hospital stays of 23 days (range, 11-130). Reports of what level of anxiety they would be able to tolerate and what level of anxiety had been experienced were assessed using 10-point Graphic Rating Scales. The use of anxiolytic was recorded, and patient suggestions for reducing anxiety were obtained. The single most commonly endorsed anxiety treatment goal was 0, although 53% consistently chose a treatment goal other than 0 (range, 1-6). Two repeated-measure analyses of variance indicated that the amount of anxiety patients could tolerate and the amount they reported experiencing did not change over the course of time. Paired t-tests revealed that patients routinely reported more anxiety than they considered tolerable. Analyses of anxiety reports of patients treated with anxiolytics (n = 6) vs patients receiving no anxiolytics (n = 41) revealed inconsistent differences in actual anxiety and treatment goals across time. In general, patient suggestions for lessening anxiety included requests for education, communication, additional medications, and manipulation of the hospital environment. Anxiety for burn-injured, hospitalized adults remains a concern. Our findings are consistent with the literature indicating that adult patients hospitalized for burn wound care report appreciable anxiety, over and above what they consider "tolerable." Continued research is needed and should include investigations into the relationship between pain and anxiety during routine wound care.

  13. Neurocognitive processing of emotion facial expressions in individuals with self-reported depressive symptoms: the role of personality and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardaga, S; Iakimova, G

    2014-11-01

    Neurocognition may constitute one of the numerous factors that mediate the reciprocal influences between personality and depression. The present study explored the influence of personality and anxiety traits on the neurocognitive processing of emotional faces and specifically focused on personal characteristics related to negative (harm avoidance - HA) and positive affectivity (self-directedness - SD) and to anxiety. Twenty participants with self-reported depressive symptoms and 18 control participants were selected based on their BDI-II scores. Personality (TCI-R), anxiety and attention were measured and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during an implicit emotional face perception task (fear, sadness, happiness, neutrality). The participants who self-reported depressive symptoms had higher HA, lower SD and higher anxiety compared to controls. Controls showed enhanced P300 and LPP amplitudes for fear. Individuals with self-reported depression showed reduced ERPs amplitudes for happiness. HA did not account for the difference between the groups but high HA and high anxiety were positively correlated with enhanced P300 amplitude for fear in participants with depressive symptoms. In contrast, SD accounted for the difference between the groups but was not correlated to the ERP components' amplitudes recorded for facial expressions. Other personality dimensions (reward dependence, cooperativeness) influenced the ERPs recorded for facial emotions. Personality dimensions influence the neurocognitive processing of emotional faces in individuals with self-reported depressive symptoms, which may constitute a cognitive vulnerability to depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Social desirability and self-reported anxiety in children: an analysis of the RCMAS Lie scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadds, M R; Perrin, S; Yule, W

    1998-08-01

    There are important applied and theoretical reasons for research into the association between social desirability and self-reported anxiety in young people. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between anxiety and social desirability in a large normative sample of 7- to 14-year-olds (N = 1,786). Participants completed the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale and their teachers rated children as anxious-not anxious according to specified descriptions. Results indicated that anxiety and lie scores do not correlate for either gender or age grouping. However, anxiety scores interacted with lie scores differently for males and females in terms of the agreement between children's and teacher's ratings of anxiety. Indications are that social desirability levels may in part explain the consistent discrepancies found between child and adult reports of anxiety in young people.

  15. A report on the prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with frozen shoulder and their relations to disease status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Huairong; Tang, Yanming; Xue, Yuan; Yang, Zhong; Li, Zhiyang; He, Dong; Zhao, Ying; Zong, Yaqi

    2014-01-01

    Musculoskeletal diseases often have concomitant psychological disorders, such as depression and anxiety. Frozen shoulder (FS) is a musculoskeletal disease, and causes pain and stiffness in the shoulder. The relationship between FS and psychological disorders has rarely been investigated. This cross-sectional study was to evaluate the risk of depression and anxiety in patients with primary FS, and to explore the relationship between psychological disorders and disease status. In this study, anxiety and depression were evaluated in 124 patients (78 women and 46 men) with primary FS, compared with 130 (72 women and 58 men) age-, sex- and education matched healthy controls between March 2009 and June 2012. Simple shoulder test (SST); shoulder pain and disability index (SPADI); the range of motion (ROM); visual analog scales (VAS) for pain and sleep disturbances; hospital anxiety and depression scale for depression (HADS-D) and for anxiety (HADS-A); and health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) were used to assess clinical and psychological status. In FS patients, the prevalence of depression and anxiety was 28.2 and 24.2%, respectively. Compared with the healthy controls, higher HADS-D (6.41 ± 3.69, 5. 23 ± 2.87 p = 0.006) and HADS-A (6.16 ± 3.62, 4.90 ± 3.05 p = 0.003) were detected. The FS patients with depression or anxiety had significantly lower SST and HAQ scores, significantly higher VAS and SPADI scores and significantly higher prevalence of sleep disturbances compared with the FS patients with normal psychological status. The correlations of SST, SPADI, VAS and sleep disturbances but not ROM with HADS-A and HADS-D were significant ( p anxiety and depression may coexist with FS; patients with psychological disorders have more severe self-reported shoulder pain and functional restriction.

  16. Phobic Anxiety is Associated with Higher Serum Concentrations of Adipokines and Cytokines in Women with Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Aoife M; Fargnoli, Jessica L.; Li, Tricia; Williams, Catherine J.; Willett, Walter C.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Qi, Lu; Hu, Frank B; Mantzoros, Christos S.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Phobic anxiety has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We aimed to determine whether associations of phobic anxiety with several known markers of CVD might be contributors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used a 16-point validated index (Crown-Crisp) measured in 1988 to categorize 984 women with type 2 diabetes from the Nurses' Health Study as having low, moderate, or high phobic anxiety. Groups w...

  17. Anxiety- rather than depression-like behavior is associated with adult neurogenesis in a female mouse model of higher trait anxiety- and comorbid depression-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, A; Schmuckermair, C; Sartori, S B; Gaburro, S; Kandasamy, M; Irschick, R; Klimaschewski, L; Landgraf, R; Aigner, L; Singewald, N

    2012-10-16

    Adult neurogenesis has been implicated in affective disorders and the action of antidepressants (ADs) although the functional significance of this association is still unclear. The use of animal models closely mimicking human comorbid affective and anxiety disorders seen in the majority of patients should provide relevant novel information. Here, we used a unique genetic mouse model displaying higher trait anxiety (HAB) and comorbid depression-like behavior. We demonstrate that HABs have a lower rate of hippocampal neurogenesis and impaired functional integration of newly born neurons as compared with their normal anxiety/depression-like behavior (NAB) controls. In HABs, chronic treatment with the AD fluoxetine alleviated their higher depression-like behavior and protected them from relapse for 3 but not 7 weeks after discontinuation of the treatment without affecting neurogenesis. Similar to what has been observed in depressed patients, fluoxetine treatment induced anxiogenic-like effects during the early treatment phase in NABs along with a reduction in neurogenesis. On the other hand, treatment with AD drugs with a particularly strong anxiolytic component, namely the neurokinin-1-receptor-antagonist L-822 429 or tianeptine, increased the reduced rate of neurogenesis in HABs up to NAB levels. In addition, challenge-induced hypoactivation of dentate gyrus (DG) neurons in HABs was normalized by all three drugs. Overall, these data suggest that AD-like effects in a psychopathological mouse model are commonly associated with modulation of DG hypoactivity but not neurogenesis, suggesting normalization of hippocampal hypoactivity as a neurobiological marker indicating successful remission. Finally, rather than to higher depression-related behavior, neurogenesis seems to be linked to pathological anxiety.

  18. Oxytocin, but not vasopressin, impairs social cognitive ability among individuals with higher levels of social anxiety: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Benjamin A; Meyer, Meghan L; Dutcher, Janine M; Castle, Elizabeth; Irwin, Michael R; Lieberman, Matthew D; Eisenberger, Naomi I

    2016-08-01

    Individuals with social anxiety are characterized by a high degree of social sensitivity, which can coincide with impairments in social cognitive functioning (e.g. theory of mind). Oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) have been shown to improve social cognition, and OT has been theorized as a potential therapeutic agent for individuals with social anxiety disorder. However, no study has investigated whether these neuropeptides improve social cognitive ability among socially anxious individuals. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, between-subjects design we investigated whether social anxiety moderated the effects of OT or AVP (vs placebo) on social working memory (i.e. working memory that involves manipulating social information) and non-social working memory. OT vs placebo impaired social working memory accuracy in participants with higher levels of social anxiety. No differences were found for non-social working memory or for AVP vs placebo. Results suggest that OT administration in individuals with higher levels of social anxiety may impair social cognitive functioning. Randomized-controlled trial registration: NCT01680718.

  19. The role of perceived control over anxiety in prospective symptom reports across the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Jennifer N; Rohan, Kelly J; Nillni, Yael I; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    The present investigation tested the role of psychological vulnerabilities to anxiety in reported menstrual symptom severity. Specifically, the current study tested the incremental validity of perceived control over anxiety-related events in predicting menstrual symptom severity, controlling for the effect of anxiety sensitivity, a documented contributor to menstrual distress. It was expected that women with lower perceived control over anxiety-related events would report greater menstrual symptom severity, particularly in the premenstrual phase. A sample of 49 normally menstruating women, aged 18-47 years, each prospectively tracked their menstrual symptoms for one cycle and completed the Anxiety Control Questionnaire (Rapee, Craske, Brown, & Barlow Behav Ther 27:279-293. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7894(96)80018-9 , 1996) in their follicular and premenstrual phases. A mixed model analysis revealed perceived control over anxiety-related events was a more prominent predictor of menstrual symptom severity than anxiety sensitivity, regardless of the current cycle phase. This finding provides preliminary evidence that perceived control over anxiety-related events is associated with the perceived intensity of menstrual symptoms. This finding highlights the role of psychological vulnerabilities in menstrual distress. Future research should examine whether psychological interventions that target cognitive vulnerabilities to anxiety may help reduce severe menstrual distress.

  20. Cortisol and self-report measures of anxiety as predictors of neuropsychological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leininger, Shelley; Skeel, Reid

    2012-05-01

    Although increased anxiety and cortisol reactivity can disrupt neural activity and impact cognition, little research has evaluated associations between anxiety, cortisol, and performance on neuropsychological instruments. The current study investigated the relationship between exogenous salivary cortisol activity and self-report state anxiety on measures tapping a variety of cognitive domains. Fifty-eight male participants were randomly assigned to either a control (no stress induction) or an experimental condition simulating testing anxiety. Self-report state anxiety measures and saliva samples were jointly collected on three occasions. The experimental group generally performed worse than controls on declarative memory and working memory tests. Cortisol and self-report anxiety were not correlated. Inverse relationships were demonstrated between self-report anxiety and neuropsychological test scores. Baseline levels of cortisol at session arrival were positively associated with facilitative memory effects, though there was little association between changes in cortisol and cognitive performance. This study highlights the importance of considering the impact of anxiety during neuropsychological evaluations.

  1. Stable Early Maternal Report of Behavioral Inhibition Predicts Lifetime Social Anxiety Disorder in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Degnan, Kathryn Amey; Pine, Daniel S.; Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Henderson, Heather A.; Diaz, Yamalis; Raggi, Veronica L.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2009-01-01

    The odds of a lifetime diagnosis of social anxiety disorder increased by 3.79 times for children who had a stable report of behavioral inhibition from their mothers. This finding has important implications for the early identification and prevention of social anxiety disorder.

  2. Predicting Ratings of Counselor Trainee Empathy with Self-Report Anxiety Measures and Skin Conductance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James T.; Giesen, J. Martin

    1982-01-01

    Investigated the degree of relationship between clients' and judges' ratings of counselor trainee (N=29) empathy and self-report anxiety and skin conductance measures. Results indicated the usefulness of anxiety measures to predict counselor empathy is predicated on the criterion for rating counselor empathy. (RC)

  3. Higher Self-Control Capacity Predicts Lower Anxiety-Impaired Cognition During Math Examinations

    OpenAIRE

    Alex eBertrams; Baumeister, Roy F.; Chris eEnglert

    2016-01-01

    We assumed that self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem would enable students to keep attentional control during tests. Therefore, we hypothesized that the three personality traits would be negatively related to anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations. Secondary school students (N = 158) completed measures of self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem at the beginning of the school year. Five months later, anxiety-impaired cognition during math examination...

  4. Higher self-control capacity predicts lower anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrams, Alex; Baumeister, Roy F.; Englert, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We assumed that self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem would enable students to keep attentional control during tests. Therefore, we hypothesized that the three personality traits would be negatively related to anxiety-impaired cognition during math examinations. Secondary school students (N = 158) completed measures of self-control capacity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem at the beginning of the school year. Five months later, anxiety-impaired cognition during math examination...

  5. Psychometric properties of the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS): self- and parent-report versions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSousa, Diogo A; Pereira, Anderson S; Petersen, Circe S; Manfro, Gisele G; Salum, Giovanni A; Koller, Silvia H

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) self- and parent-report versions in a community (n=712) and a clinical (n=70) sample of Brazilian children and adolescents. Confirmatory factor analysis conducted in the community sample provided support to the original six correlated factors model of the SCAS. Moreover, the SCAS demonstrated good internal consistency, convergent and divergent validity, and a significant informant effect on the total score with higher anxiety levels in the self-report than in the parent-report version. Considering the clinical sample, we could demonstrate that the SCAS total scores have good discriminant validity differentiating: (a) anxious, community, and negative screening groups; and (b) children diagnosed with different severity levels of anxiety disorders. Our findings suggest that the SCAS (self- and parent-report versions) is suitable for assessing anxiety symptoms in Brazilian children and adolescents in community and clinical settings.

  6. A Study on Use of Computer among Higher Secondary Students as Related with Their Computer Anxiety, Internet Attitude and Self-Efficacy in Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinaitheerthan, V.; Johnson, Jomy

    2009-01-01

    The present attempt is to study the use of computer and its possible relationship to Internet attitude, self-efficacy in computer and computer anxiety among higher secondary students. The present study aims at finding the levels of use of computer, Internet attitude, Self-efficacy in computer and computer anxiety among higher secondary students.…

  7. Catering Management in Higher Education. National Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

    This study identified the key management issues for senior managers and heads of catering services in higher education in developing and reviewing catering services. The study was conducted with the involvement of 76 universities and colleges with evidence drawn from questionnaires covering the Excellence Model's 9 criteria, an Expert Working…

  8. Have University Sport Students Higher Scores Depression, Anxiety and Psychological Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Havva

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies have now shown that people who maintain appropriate body fitness, using judicious regimens of exercise and weight control, have the additional benefit of prolonged life. In fact, sport or exercise may be also expected to be helpful for psychological health. In the present study, depression, anxiety and psychological stress points…

  9. Women With Addictions Report Reduced Anxiety After Group Music Therapy: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke S. Diestelkamp

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Roughly six million females in the USA abuse or are addicted to alcohol. Women are more likely than men to report depression and anxiety as triggers for substance use and relapse, which emphasizes the importance of therapies designed to help women mitigate anxiety.Research supporting music therapy (MT with women with addictions is scarce. In this quasi-experimental investigation, we hoped to learn: (1 What percentage of women with addictive disorders in a 45-minute group MT session will report pre-session anxiety?; and (2 of these, what percentage will report a palpable reduction in their post-session anxiety? We used a single group design: Participants self-reported anxiety before and after each session.Study participants were 53 women in a gender-specific residential program. Voluntary group MT sessions were held twice weekly for 9 weeks. Four MT methods were used: Composition, Receptive (Listening, Improvisation, and Re-Creative (Performing. Of 53 first-session surveys, 39 (73.6% indicated pre-session anxiety. Of these, 33 (84.6% showed a reduction in post-session anxiety. A sign test confirmed an overall reduction in anxiety.Outcomes may have been related to interventions, group cohesion, or other factors. The absence of a comparison group prevents suppositions of causality. Nonetheless, the results present a compelling case for the use of MT with women with anxiety. Because of the link between trauma and addictive disorders, we encourage exploration of the role and benefits of MT within trauma-informed models of addiction treatment.

  10. Test Anxiety: An Extensive Bibliography. TM Report 64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemuth, Barbara M., Comp.

    A large amount of research has been done in the past few decades to pinpoint the effects of test anxiety on the performance of those taking tests. Much of that research is listed in this bibliography, which originated with a computer search of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) data base, Psychological Abstracts, Comprehensive…

  11. A psychometric systematic review of self-report instruments to identify anxiety in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kerry; Spiby, Helen; Morrell, C Jane

    2015-09-01

    To report a systematic review of the psychometric properties of self-report instruments to identify the symptoms of anxiety in pregnancy to help clinicians and researchers select the most suitable instrument. Excessive anxiety in pregnancy is associated with adverse birth outcomes, developmental and behavioural problems in infants and postnatal depression. Despite recommendations for routine psychological assessment in pregnancy, the optimal methods to identify anxiety in pregnancy have not been confirmed. Psychometric systematic review. A systematic literature search of the multiple databases (1990-September 2014). Identification of self-report instruments to measure anxiety in pregnancy using COSMIN guidelines to assess studies reporting a psychometric evaluation of validity and reliability. Thirty-two studies were included. Studies took place in the UK, Australia, Belgium, Canada, Germany, Italy, Scandinavia, Spain and the Netherlands. Seventeen different instruments were identified. Measures of validity were reported in 19 papers and reliability in 16. The overall quality of the papers was rated as fair to excellent using the COSMIN checklist. Only one paper scored excellent in more than one category. Many instruments have been adapted for use in different populations to those for which they were designed. The State Trait Anxiety Inventory, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale have been tested more frequently than other instruments, yet require further assessment to confirm their value for use in pregnancy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Reported anxieties concerning intimate parenting in women sexually abused as children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, A R

    2000-03-01

    The study had two aims: (1) To investigate whether mothers with a history of contact child sexual abuse were anxious about the intimate aspects of parenting compared with a clinical comparison group. (2) To determine if there was any relationship between the mother's anxieties and the kind of parenting they recalled receiving themselves. Two groups of mothers in mental health out-patient care were interviewed; 34 women with a history of contact child sexual abuse and 29 women with no history of sexual abuse. They completed the Intimate Aspects of Parenting Questionnaire, The Parenting Stress Index (Short form) The Parental Bonding Instrument and The General Health Questionnaire-28. The index group also completed a sexual abuse history questionnaire. Mothers with a history of child sexual abuse were significantly more anxious about intimate aspects of parenting than the comparison group. They also reported significantly more overall stress as parents. The index group recalled that their own parents were significantly less caring and that their fathers more controlling than the comparison group. A low score on Father Care was significantly associated with concerns about intimate parenting, but not with total parenting stress. By contrast, a low score on Mother Care was significantly associated with higher stress experienced as a parent, but not as strongly with anxieties about intimate parenting. Mothers with a history of contact child sexual abuse who attend mental health services are often worried that their normal parenting behaviors may be inappropriate or seen as such by other people. These anxieties seem associated with their history of childhood sexual abuse.

  13. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for comorbid anxiety and depression: case report and clinical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlett-Stevens, Holly

    2012-11-01

    Growing research literature has documented the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions for anxiety and depressive disorders. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) teaches a series of mindfulness meditation and yoga practices, delivered in a group format during eight weekly sessions plus one full-day session. This case report demonstrates how MBSR was associated with dramatic clinical improvement of an individual with symptoms of panic, generalized anxiety, and depression. Scores on clinical assessment measures suggested clinically severe levels of anxious arousal, generalized anxiety, worry, fear of negative evaluation, and depression at the beginning of the intervention. The scores on all these measures fell well within normal limits 7 weeks later at the end of the intervention, and no remaining symptoms were reported afterward. Increased life satisfaction and quality of life were documented as well. This case illustrates the potential benefit of MBSR as an alternative or adjunctive treatment for comorbid anxiety and depressive disorder symptoms.

  14. Language Anxiety: A Case Study of the Perceptions and Experiences of Students of English as a Foreign Language in a Higher Education Institution in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lababidi, Rola Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    This case study explores and investigates the perceptions and experiences of foreign language anxiety (FLA) among students of English as a Foreign Language in a Higher Education Institution in the United Arab Emirates. The first phase explored the scope and severity of language anxiety among all Foundation level male students at a college in the…

  15. Test Anxiety and College Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Test anxiety was examined in college students with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results indicated that, relative to college students without ADHD, college students with ADHD reported higher total test anxiety as well as specific aspects of test anxiety, including worry (i.e., cognitive aspects of test anxiety) and…

  16. Test Anxiety and College Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Test anxiety was examined in college students with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results indicated that, relative to college students without ADHD, college students with ADHD reported higher total test anxiety as well as specific aspects of test anxiety, including worry (i.e., cognitive aspects of test anxiety) and…

  17. Women With Addictions Report Reduced Anxiety After Group Music Therapy: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Diestelkamp, Wiebke S.; Susan C. Gardstrom

    2013-01-01

    Roughly six million females in the USA abuse or are addicted to alcohol. Women are more likely than men to report depression and anxiety as triggers for substance use and relapse, which emphasizes the importance of therapies designed to help women mitigate anxiety.Research supporting music therapy (MT) with women with addictions is scarce. In this quasi-experimental investigation, we hoped to learn: (1) What percentage of women with addictive disorders in a 45-minute group MT session will rep...

  18. Calibration of Self-Reports of Anxiety and Physiological Measures of Anxiety While Reading in Adults With and Without Reading Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meer, Yael; Breznitz, Zvia; Katzir, Tami

    2016-08-01

    Reading difficulty has been linked to anxiety in adults yet and has not been systematically studied especially in compensated adults with dyslexia. This study examined the relationships between anxiety ratings and physiological arousal while reading among adults with reading disability (RD) compared to skilled readers (SR). Nineteen compensated adults with RD and 20 SR adults were administered a battery of reading tasks and anxiety self-report questionnaires. Physiological measures of arousal were recorded during text reading task. Adults with RD scored significantly lower than SR on all cognitive and reading related measures. They showed no differences on any of the self-report anxiety measures. Interestingly, in the skilled readers' sample, physiological arousal while reading correlated with trait anxiety. No correlations between physiological and self-reported data were found in the RD sample. These findings suggest a model of resiliency in compensated adults with reading disabilities that includes lower anxiety levels and a discord between anxiety reports and actual arousal rates. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Orthognathic surgery improves quality of life and depression, but not anxiety, and patients with higher preoperative depression scores improve less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunault, P; Battini, J; Potard, C; Jonas, C; Zagala-Bouquillon, B; Chabut, A; Mercier, J-M; Bedhet, N; Réveillère, C; Goga, D; Courtois, R

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed quality of life (QoL), depression, and anxiety before and after orthognathic surgery and identified risk factors for poorer postoperative outcome. This multicentre prospective study included 140 patients from five French medical centres. We assessed patients before surgery (T1), 3 months after surgery (T2), and 12 months after surgery (T3). We assessed the severity of the orofacial deformity, physical, psychological, social, and environmental QoL (WHOQOL-BREF), and depression and anxiety (GHQ-28). Risk factors for poorer outcome were identified using linear mixed models. Between baseline and 12 months, there was significant improvement in psychological and social QoL and in depression (although below the norms reported in the general population), but not in anxiety. Physical QoL was poorer in patients who were younger, who had a mild orofacial deformity, and who were depressed. Psychological QoL was poorer in younger patients and in depressed patients. Social QoL was poorer in patients who were single, who had a mild orofacial deformity, and who were depressed. Although orthognathic surgery provides a moderate improvement in psychological and social QoL, the systematic screening and treatment of depression could further improve QoL after surgery because it is a major predictor of poor QoL in this population.

  20. The Effects of Anxiety Reduction Techniques on Anxiety and Computer-Assisted Learning and Evaluation of College Students. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Harold F., Jr.; And Others

    The goal of this project was to examine various anxiety reduction techniques on the state anxiety levels and performance of college students. These techniques ranged from instructional to experimental treatments and were investigated in a range of computer-based situations. The state-trait anxiety inventory developed by Spielberger, Gorsuch, and…

  1. Vegans report less stress and anxiety than omnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beezhold, Bonnie; Radnitz, Cynthia; Rinne, Amy; DiMatteo, Julie

    2015-10-01

    Studies investigating mood in vegetarian diets have yielded conflicting results, either demonstrating risk for mental disorders or mood protection. Our objective was to investigate mood, as well as factors that potentially impact mood in vegans (VG), vegetarians (VEG), and omnivores (OMN). We surveyed mood, diet, and lifestyle factors in a broad geographic online sample of adult VG (n = 283), VEG (n = 109), and OMN (n = 228) who were recruited via diet-related social networks. Mood was measured with the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). The sample was mostly female (78.5%), and age was inversely correlated with all DASS scores (p benefits. The improved mood domains were not consistent with those found in other studies, which may be due to methodological differences.

  2. Possible Involvement of Avoidant Attachment Style in the Relations Between Adult IBS and Reported Separation Anxiety in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Israel, Yuval; Shadach, Eran; Levy, Sigal; Sperber, Ami; Aizenberg, Dov; Niv, Yaron; Dickman, Ram

    2016-12-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in adults as well as separation anxiety disorder (SAD) and recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) in childhood are associated with anxiety and somatization. Our aim was to examine possible associations between IBS in adulthood and SAD in childhood. Patients with IBS and healthy subjects completed a demographic questionnaire, the Separation Anxiety Symptom Inventory (SASI), the Somatization Subscale of Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R), the Attachment Style Questionnaire, and a retrospective self-report questionnaire regarding RAP. Compared with controls, patients with IBS were characterized by an avoidant attachment style and scored higher on the SCL-90-R scale regarding the tendency to somatization (25.35 ± 7.47 versus16.50 ± 4.40, p Adults with IBS were characterized by somatization, insecure attachment style and recalled higher rates of RAP and surprisingly less symptoms of SAD in childhood. Based on these results, an etiological model for IBS is suggested, in which an avoidant attachment style and a tendency to somatization play an important role in the development of IBS. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Adult Separation Anxiety and TCI-R Personality Dimensions in Patients with Anxiety, Alcohol Use, and Gambling: A Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Pozzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nowadays, adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD is an established diagnostic category but is little investigated in subjects with addictive behaviours. Objective. To assess the presence of ASAD among patients with addictive disorders in comparison with anxiety patients and measure the personality correlates in all these groups. Methods. 103 outpatients, meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for anxiety disorders (38 patients, alcohol dependence (30 patients, or pathological gambling (35 patients, were assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for Separation Anxiety Symptoms (SCI-SAS and the Adult Separation Anxiety Checklist (ASA-27 for separation anxiety and by the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R for personality characteristics. Results. ASAD is detected in 34.2% of anxiety patients, 13.3% of alcoholics, and 11.4% of gamblers. Separation anxiety scores correlate positively with harm avoidance and negatively with self-directedness in all groups; further correlations are seen among addictive patients only, that is, self-transcendence for gamblers and cooperativeness for both alcoholics and gamblers. Conclusions. The prevalence of ASAD is lower among addictive patients than in those with anxiety disorders; correlations are found between separation anxiety and specific TCI-R dimensions, with some matching across the three diagnostic groups.

  4. Resting vagal tone and vagal response to stress: associations with anxiety, aggression, and perceived anxiety control among youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brandon G; Weems, Carl F

    2014-08-01

    This study tested the associations of both resting vagal tone and vagal response to stress with anxiety control beliefs, anxiety, and aggression among 80 youths (aged 11-17 years). Measures included physiological assessments of emotion regulation along with youth self-report of anxiety control beliefs, anxiety, and aggression and caregiver reports of their child's anxiety and aggression. Resting vagal tone was positively related to anxiety control beliefs, but negatively associated with anxiety. Conversely, higher levels of anxiety and aggression were associated with increased vagal tone during a cognitive stress task. Findings suggest associations between physiological and self-report of emotion regulation (anxiety control beliefs) and that anxiety and aggression may have specific and nonspecific relations with physiological indices of emotion regulation.

  5. Using the Beck Anxiety Inventory among South Africans Living with HIV: Exploratory and Higher Order Factor Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagee, Ashraf; Coetzee, Bronwyne; Saal, Wylene; Nel, Adriaan

    2015-01-01

    We administered the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) to 101 adults receiving HIV treatment. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a single anxiety factor that accounted for 68.7% of the variance in the data. A single score may be used to indicate the overall level of anxiety of individuals receiving HIV treatment in South Africa.

  6. Using the Beck Anxiety Inventory among South Africans Living with HIV: Exploratory and Higher Order Factor Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagee, Ashraf; Coetzee, Bronwyne; Saal, Wylene; Nel, Adriaan

    2015-01-01

    We administered the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) to 101 adults receiving HIV treatment. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a single anxiety factor that accounted for 68.7% of the variance in the data. A single score may be used to indicate the overall level of anxiety of individuals receiving HIV treatment in South Africa.

  7. Mindfulness significantly reduces self-reported levels of anxiety and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtzen, Hanne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Elsass, Peter

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: As the incidence of and survival from breast cancer continue to raise, interventions to reduce anxiety and depression before, during and after treatment are needed. Previous studies have reported positive effects of a structured 8-week group mindfulness-based stress reduction program...

  8. Adult Attachment and Parental Bonding: Correlations between Perceived Relationship Qualities and Self-Reported Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambruster, Ellen W.; Witherington, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Adult attachment and parental bonding have been linked to anxiety disorders, but rarely have these associations been demonstrated in the same study. To fill this gap in the research literature, we utilized several different self-report measures to examine the relationships among adult attachment style, memories of early bonding experiences, and…

  9. Self-hypnosis for anxiety associated with severe asthma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbar Ran D

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management of asthma can be complicated by both medical and psychiatric conditions, such as gastroesophageal reflux, chronic sinusitis, and anxiety. When symptoms of asthma are interpreted without regard to such conditions treatment may yield a suboptimal outcome. For example, anxiety-associated dyspnea, tachypnea, and chest tightness can be mistakenly interpreted as resulting from an exacerbation of asthma. Medical treatment directed only for asthma may thus lead to overuse of asthma medications and increased hospitalizations. Case Presentation The described case illustrates how a systemic steroid-dependent patient with asthma benefited from receiving care from a pediatric pulmonologist who also was well versed in the diagnosis and treatment of anxiety. By using self-hypnosis, the patient was able to reduce her dependence on bronchodilators. Following modification of her medical therapy under supervision of the pulmonologist, and regular use of hypnosis, the patient ultimately was weaned off her systemic steroid therapy. Conclusions This report emphasizes that anxiety must be considered as a comorbid condition in the treatment of asthma. Self-hypnosis can be a useful skill in the treatment of a patient with anxiety and asthma.

  10. Rimonabant effects on anxiety induced by simulated public speaking in healthy humans: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, Mateus M; Queiroz, Regina H C; Chagas, Marcos H N; Linares, Ila M P; Arrais, Kátia C; de Oliveira, Danielle C G; Queiroz, Maria E; Nardi, Antonio E; Huestis, Marilyn A; Hallak, Jaime E C; Zuardi, Antonio W; Moreira, Fabrício A; Crippa, José A S

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that rimonabant, a cannabinoid antagonist/inverse agonist, would increase anxiety in healthy subjects during a simulation of the public speaking test. Participants were randomly allocated to receive oral placebo or 90 mg rimonabant in a double-blind design. Subjective effects were measured by Visual Analogue Mood Scale. Physiological parameters, namely arterial blood pressure and heart rate, also were monitored. Twelve participants received oral placebo and 12 received 90 mg rimonabant. Rimonabant increased self-reported anxiety levels during the anticipatory speech and performance phase compared with placebo. Interestingly, rimonabant did not modulate anxiety prestress and was not associated with sedation, cognitive impairment, discomfort, or blood pressure changes. Cannabinoid-1 antagonism magnifies the responses to an anxiogenic stimulus without interfering with the prestress phase. These data suggest that the endocannabinoid system may work on-demand to counteract the consequences of anxiogenic stimuli in healthy humans. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Plasma insulin-like growth factor I levels are higher in depressive and anxiety disorders, but lower in antidepressant medication users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bot, Mariska; Milaneschi, Yuri; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Drent, Madeleine L

    2016-06-01

    It has been postulated that many peripheral and (neuro)biological systems are involved in psychiatric disorders such as depression. Some studies found associations of depression and antidepressant treatment with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) - a pleiotropic hormone affecting neuronal growth, survival and plasticity - but evidence is mixed. We therefore studied whether depressive and anxiety disorders were associated with plasma IGF-I, and explored the role of antidepressant medication in this association in a large observational study. The sample consisted of 2714 participants enrolled in The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, classified as healthy controls (n=602), antidepressant users (76 remitted and 571 with current depressive and/or anxiety disorder(s), n=647), persons having remitted depressive and/or anxiety disorder(s) without antidepressant use (n=502), and persons having current depressive and/or anxiety disorder(s) without antidepressant use (n=963). Associations with IGF-I concentrations were studied and adjusted for socio-demographic, health, and lifestyle variables. Relative to healthy controls, antidepressant-free individuals with current disorders had significantly higher IGF-I levels (Cohen's d=0.08, p=0.006), whereas antidepressant-free individuals with remitted disorders had a trend towards higher IGF-I levels (d=0.06, p=0.09). Associations were evident for depressive and for anxiety disorders. In contrast, antidepressant users had significantly lower IGF-I levels compared to healthy controls (d=-0.08, p=0.028). Our findings suggests that antidepressant medication use modifies the association between depressive/anxiety disorders and plasma IGF-I. These results corroborate with findings of some previous small-scale case-control and intervention studies. The higher IGF-I levels related to depression and anxiety might point to a compensatory mechanism to counterbalance the impaired neurogenesis, although future studies are needed to

  12. SELF REPORT ASSESSMENT OF ANXIETY - A CROSS VALIDATION OF THE LEHRER WOOLFOLK ANXIETY SYMPTOM QUESTIONNAIRE IN 3 POPULATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHOLING, A; EMMELKAMP, PMG

    1992-01-01

    This study was meant to investigate the psychometric properties and clinical utility of the Lehrer Woolfolk Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (LWASQ), an instrument for assessment of somatic, behavioral and cognitive aspects of anxiety. Confirmatory factor analysis on data from social phobics (n = 108),

  13. Self-Reported Acceptance of Social Anxiety Symptoms: Development and Validation of the Social Anxiety-Acceptance and Action Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Meagan B.; Kocovski, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Mindfulness and acceptance-based interventions have been used in social anxiety treatments with initial success. Further research requires the psychometrically sound measurement of mechanisms of change associated with these treatments. This research was conducted to develop and evaluate such a measure, the Social Anxiety-Acceptance and Action…

  14. Annual Report on Higher Education in New Mexico, 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico State Commission on Postsecondary Education, Santa Fe.

    The 1986 report of the New Mexico Commission on Higher Education first outlines responsibilities of the Commission and developments concerning the Board of Educational Finance and then considers the climate for higher education reform in New Mexico, including economic changes, career changes that require retraining and skill upgrading, and…

  15. Scottish Access Students in Higher Education. Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powney, Janet; Hall, Stuart

    This document is the final report on the experiences of mature students who had entered higher education through the Scottish Wider Access Programme (SWAP), a one-year course designed to provide an alternative route into higher education for adults and which utilizes a supportive environment plus an incremental, modular approach and small-group…

  16. Report of the Select Committee on Higher Education, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Coll. and Univ. System, Austin. Coordinating Board.

    A report of a study of issues in public higher education in Texas is presented, along with recommendations of the Select Committee on Higher Education to improve access, quality, and management. Attention is directed to: institutional role and mission statements, general funding policies, research and technology funding, faculty compensation,…

  17. Parental-reported health anxiety symptoms in 5- to 7-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Elberling, Hanne; Skovgaard, Anne Mette

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Hypochondriasis, now often designated as health anxiety, is important in terms of prevalence, levels of suffering, and health services cost in adults. Whereas the DSM-IV-TR suggests that the condition primarily begins in adulthood, retrospective reports point to a possible origin in c...... and are associated with impairing child health problems in the area of FSS and internalizing disorders. These aspects may be important to understand and also to prevent the development of severe health anxiety....... in childhood with onset as early as preschool age. However, little research has addressed health anxiety in children. In the present study we explored parental-reported health anxiety symptoms (HAS) and their association with physical and mental health in a population-based sample of 5- to 7-year-old children....... METHODS: Parents of 1323 children (49.7% boys), recruited from the birth cohort: Copenhagen Child Cohort CCC 2000, completed questionnaires regarding their child's HAS, and physical and mental health. Associations were examined using multiple logistic regression analyses adjusted for concurrent chronic...

  18. Statistics Report on TEQSA Registered Higher Education Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Government Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This statistics report provides a comprehensive snapshot of national statistics on all parts of the sector for the year 2013, by bringing together data collected directly by TEQSA with data sourced from the main higher education statistics collections managed by the Australian Government Department of Education and Training. The report provides…

  19. Cognitive bias measurement and social anxiety disorder: Correlating self-report data and attentional bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Miloff

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social anxiety disorder (SAD and attentional bias are theoretically connected in cognitive behavioral therapeutic models. In fact, there is an emerging field focusing on modifying attentional bias as a stand-alone treatment. However, it is unclear to what degree these attentional biases are present before commencing treatment. The purpose of this study was to measure pre-treatment attentional bias in 153 participants diagnosed with SAD using a home-based Internet version of the dot-probe paradigm. Results showed no significant correlation for attentional bias (towards or away from negative words or faces and the self-rated version of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS-SR. However, two positive correlations were found for the secondary measures Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 (GAD-7 and Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9. These indicated that those with elevated levels of anxiety and depression had a higher bias towards negative faces in neutral–negative and positive–negative valence combinations, respectively. The unreliability of the dot-probe paradigm and home-based Internet delivery are discussed to explain the lack of correlations between LSAS-SR and attentional bias. Changes to the dot-probe task are suggested that could improve reliability.

  20. Are child and adolescent responses to placebo higher in major depression than in anxiety disorders? A systematic review of placebo-controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cohen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a previous report, we hypothesized that responses to placebo were high in child and adolescent depression because of specific psychopathological factors associated with youth major depression. The purpose of this study was to compare the placebo response rates in pharmacological trials for major depressive disorder (MDD, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD and other anxiety disorders (AD-non-OCD. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We reviewed the literature relevant to the use of psychotropic medication in children and adolescents with internalized disorders, restricting our review to double-blind studies including a placebo arm. Placebo response rates were pooled and compared according to diagnosis (MDD vs. OCD vs. AD-non-OCD, age (adolescent vs. child, and date of publication. From 1972 to 2007, we found 23 trials that evaluated the efficacy of psychotropic medication (mainly non-tricyclic antidepressants involving youth with MDD, 7 pertaining to youth with OCD, and 10 pertaining to youth with other anxiety disorders (N = 2533 patients in placebo arms. As hypothesized, the placebo response rate was significantly higher in studies on MDD, than in those examining OCD and AD-non-OCD (49.6% [range: 17-90%] vs. 31% [range: 4-41%] vs. 39.6% [range: 9-53], respectively, ANOVA F = 7.1, p = 0.002. Children showed a higher stable placebo response within all three diagnoses than adolescents, though this difference was not significant. Finally, no significant effects were found with respect to the year of publication. CONCLUSION: MDD in children and adolescents appears to be more responsive to placebo than other internalized conditions, which highlights differential psychopathology.

  1. Cognitive assessment of social anxiety: a comparison of self-report and thought listing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Nina; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to compare 2 cognitive assessment methods for social anxiety: a thought listing and a self-report method. The focus of this study was on the convergent and divergent validity of these methods using a multi-trait multi-method approach. Furthermore, treatment sensitivity was explored. Fifty-eight patients with social phobia completed thought listings followed by 2 different social stress tasks before and after an exposure group treatment (n = 33), or following a waiting period (n = 25). One task consisted of speaking in front of 2 confederates while the other task involved initiating a conversation with an opposite-sex confederate. Two questionnaires measuring positive and negative self-statements regarding public speaking and social interactions were also completed. To compare the balance of positive and negative thoughts, the State of Mind ratio [positive thoughts/(positive+negative thoughts)] was calculated for both cognitive assessment methods. Results demonstrate that methods related to social interaction anxiety showed better convergent validity than methods related to public speaking anxiety; however, public speaking methods captured treatment effects better than methods related to social interaction anxiety. This study questions the common assumption that different cognitive assessment methods measure the same construct.

  2. Anxiety and depressive symptoms are associated with higher carotid intima-media thickness. Cross-sectional analysis from ELSA-Brasil baseline data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Itamar S; Goulart, Alessandra C; Brunoni, André R; Kemp, Andrew H; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2015-06-01

    Studies focusing on the association between anxiety/depressive symptoms and accelerated subclinical atherosclerosis have yielded mixed results. Our aim is to examine associations between anxiety/depressive symptoms, common mental disorder (CMD), major depression disorder (MDD) or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort baseline. The ELSA-Brasil baseline assessment included CIMT measurements and the Clinical Interview Schedule - Revised (CIS-R), a validated questionnaire for anxiety/depressive symptoms/diagnoses. We analyzed participants without previous coronary heart disease or stroke, and with high-quality CIMT images. We built regression models to determine whether the CIS-R score, CMD, MDD or GAD were associated with maximal CIMT levels. The study sample comprised 9744 participants. We found that individuals with higher CIS-R scores (Odds ratio for one standard deviation increase [OR]:1.12; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]:1.06-1.19), CMD (OR:1.22; 95%CI:1.07-1.38) and GAD (OR:1.19; 95%CI:1.01-1.41) had significantly higher odds of being classified in the highest age, sex and race-specific CIMT quartile. In the linear models, after adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, higher CIS-R scores (β:0.005; P = 0.010) and GAD (β:0.010; P = 0.049) were independently associated with CIMT values. Individuals with more symptoms of anxiety and/or depression, or diagnoses of CMD or GAD, had higher CIMT values, compared to peers of same age, sex and race. CIS-R scores and GAD were independently associated with higher CIMT values. These results suggest an association between anxiety/depressive symptoms (and, most notably, GAD) and accelerated subclinical atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Foreign Language Anxiety and Student Attrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Phillip; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Daley, Christine E.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the role of anxiety in predicting student attrition in college-level foreign language courses. Reports that students who dropped out of their foreign language classes were significantly more likely to report higher levels of input, processing, and output anxiety. Provides recommendations for instructors. (Contains 28 references.) (CAK)

  4. The association between self-reported daily hassles and cortisol levels in depression and anxiety in community living older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadis, H-M; Forget, H; Préville, M

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether the association, in a naturalistic setting, between daily hassles and diurnal salivary cortisol differs in the presence of depression and anxiety in older adults. Data were assessed in a large representative community sample of older adults (n = 1760). A multinomial analysis was used to study as an outcome variable: no disorder, depression only, anxiety only and depression and anxiety, as a function of daily hassles and cortisol levels controlling for age, gender and time of saliva collection. Multivariate regression analyses were also carried out to test the association between daily hassles and cortisol levels stratified by depression and anxiety status. A significant positive association was observed between the number of daily hassles reported and cortisol levels in participants with no depression and no anxiety and in participants with anxiety. Participants without depression and anxiety, and those with depression only, had significant lower cortisol levels later in the day. This was not observed in respondents with anxiety. Stressors such as daily hassles are associated with cortisol secretion in depression and anxiety in older adults in a large epidemiologic setting. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Alcohol use, anxiety, and insomnia in older adults with generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, M Cristina; Amspoker, Amber B; Nadorff, Michael R; Kunik, Mark E; Cully, Jeffrey A; Wilson, Nancy; Calleo, Jessica; Kraus-Schuman, Cynthia; Stanley, Melinda A

    2014-09-01

    To examine alcohol consumption among older primary care patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD); its relationship to demographic variables, insomnia, worry, and anxiety; and its moderating role on the anxiety-insomnia relationship. We expected alcohol use to be similar to previous reports, correlate with higher anxiety and insomnia, and worsen the anxiety-insomnia relationship. Baseline data from a randomized controlled trial. Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center and Baylor College of Medicine. 223 patients, 60 years and older, with GAD. Frequency of alcohol use, insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index), worry (Penn State Worry Questionnaire - Abbreviated, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale), and anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - Trait subscale, Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale [SIGH-A]). Most patients endorsed alcohol use, but frequency was low. Presence and frequency were greater than in previous reports of primary care samples. Alcohol use was associated with higher education, female gender, less severe insomnia, and lower worry (Generalized Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale) and anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait subscale; SIGH-A). Whites reported more drinks/week than African-Americans. More drinks/week were associated with higher education and lower anxiety (SIGH-A). Weaker relationships between worry/anxiety and insomnia occurred for those drinking. Drink frequency moderated the positive association between the Penn State Worry Questionnaire-Abbreviated and insomnia, which was lower with higher frequency of drinking. Older adults with GAD use alcohol at an increased rate, but mild to moderate drinkers do not experience sleep difficulties. A modest amount of alcohol may minimize the association between anxiety/worry and insomnia among this group. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Quality Assurance in Transnational Higher Education. ENQA Workshop Report 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Paul; Bergan, Sjur; Cassar, Daniela; Hamilton, Marlene; Soinila, Michele; Sursock, Andree; Uvalic-Trumbic, Stamenka; Williams, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The present report is the product of an ENQA (European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher Education) Bologna Seminar "Quality Assurance in Transnational Education: from words to action" hosted by the Quality Assurance Agency (QAA, UK) in London in December, 2008. The seminar discussed the current trends in Transnational…

  7. Higher Education Finance. An Annotated Bibliography, Report 96-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, William

    This annotated bibliography on higher education finance lists 79 journal articles, books, conference papers, and reports originally published from 1973 through 1995 with most published in the 1990s. Citations include lengthy analytical summaries and critiques. The bibliography is presented in six sections which cover the following topics: (1)…

  8. A Comparison of Traditional and World Wide Web Methodologies, Computer Anxiety, and Higher Order Thinking Skills in the In-Service Training of Mississippi 4-H Extension Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Julie S.; Raven, Matt R.; Newman, Michael E.

    2002-01-01

    A control group of 13 extension agents received traditional inservice training; 13 others used an interactive website. No posttest differences were found based on training method or level of computer anxiety at the knowledge level of Bloom's taxonomy. At the application level, the traditional group had higher scores. (Contains 27 references.) (SK)

  9. Anxiety reporting and culturally associated interpretation biases and cognitive schemas: a comparison of Mexican, Mexican American, and European American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, R Enrique; Vernberg, Eric M; Sanchez-Sosa, Juan Jose; Riveros, Angelica; Mitchell, Montserrat; Mashunkashey, Joanna

    2004-06-01

    This study examined whether Mexican (n = 53), Mexican American (n = 50), and European American (n = 51) children differed in their reporting of anxiety symptoms and whether parental influence and specific cognitive schemas associated with Mexican culture were related to differences in anxiety reporting. As expected, Mexican and Mexican American children reported significantly more physiological and worry symptoms than the European American children. Mexican and Mexican American children endorsed collectivism as a cultural value more strongly than European American children, and the Mexican children evidenced greatest use of social strategies reflecting simpatia. In family discussions of ambiguous, potentially anxiety-arousing situations, Mexican and Mexican American parents verbalized a greater percentage of somatic interpretations than the European American parents. Results indicate potential linkages between cultural values, socialization practices, and anxiety reporting.

  10. Sustainability Reporting in Higher Education: Interconnecting the Reporting Process and Organisational Change Management for Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Ceulemans; Rodrigo Lozano; María del Mar Alonso-Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been a considerable increase in the publication of sustainability reports in the corporate world in the last decade, sustainability reporting in higher education institutions is still in its early stages. This study’s aim was to explore the relationship between sustainability reporting and organizational change management for sustainability in higher education. A survey was sent to higher education institutions worldwide that have published sustainability reports in the las...

  11. Negative affect and somatically focused anxiety in young women reporting pain with intercourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meana, Marta; Lykins, Amy

    2009-01-01

    After a long history of privileging psychosexual etiological factors over pain and physiological processes, dyspareunia has enjoyed 1 decade of pointed research focused on the presenting problem of pain. Although it is generally acknowledged that certain affective and cognitive styles may play a role in an individual's experience of pain in general, investigations into these questions specifically as they pertain to pain that occurs during sex are relatively scarce. To add to this growing body of knowledge, 759 women aged 18 to 29 completed questionnaires about current sexual functioning, gynecologic history, expectations about intercourse, and various personality and health-related anxiety measures. One-hundred-one women (14% of the sample) reported pain during intercourse on at least 50% of attempts. This group of women significantly differed from 536 women reporting pain on less than 10% of intercourse attempts on personality constructs related to emotional and relational well-being (e.g., neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness), as well as anxiety sensitivity, anxiety related to physical health concerns, and the amplification of somatosensory experiences. This affective and cognitive profile is consistent with previous studies that have found an attentional hypervigilance to health and pain-related information in women with dyspareunia, all of which could prove germane to cognitive-behavioral treatments targeting this disorder.

  12. Emotional reasoning and anxiety sensitivity: Associations with social anxiety disorder in childhood☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkozei, Anna; Cooper, Peter J.; Creswell, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    Background Two specific cognitive constructs that have been implicated in the development and maintenance of anxiety symptoms are anxiety sensitivity and emotional reasoning, both of which relate to the experience and meaning of physical symptoms of arousal or anxiety. The interpretation of physical symptoms has been particularly implicated in theories of social anxiety disorder, where internal physical symptoms are hypothesized to influence the individual's appraisals of the self as a social object. Method The current study compared 75 children on measures of anxiety sensitivity and emotional reasoning: 25 with social anxiety disorder, 25 with other anxiety disorders, and 25 nonanxious children (aged 7–12 years). Results Children with social anxiety disorder reported higher levels of anxiety sensitivity and were more likely than both other groups to view ambiguous situations as anxiety provoking, whether physical information was present or not. There were no group differences in the extent to which physical information altered children's interpretation of hypothetical scenarios. Limitations This study is the first to investigate emotional reasoning in clinically anxious children and therefore replication is needed. In addition, those in both anxious groups commonly had comorbid conditions and, consequently, specific conclusions about social anxiety disorder need to be treated with caution. Conclusion The findings highlight cognitive characteristics that may be particularly pertinent in the context of social anxiety disorder in childhood and which may be potential targets for treatment. Furthermore, the findings suggest that strategies to modify these particular cognitive constructs may not be necessary in treatments of some other childhood anxiety disorders. PMID:24120086

  13. Stuttering and social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaimaat, Floris W; Vanryckeghem, Martine; Van Dam-Baggen, Rien

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of social anxiety in adults who stutter. This was done by administering the Inventory of Interpersonal Situations (IIS) (Van Dam-Baggen & Kraaimaat, 1999), a social anxiety inventory, to a group of 89 people who stuttered and 131 people who did not stutter. Two components of social anxiety were measured by the ISS, the extent to which emotional tension or discomfort is perceived in social situations and the frequency with which social responses are executed. The people who stuttered displayed significantly higher levels of emotional tension or discomfort in social situations. They also reported a significantly lower frequency of social responses compared to their nonstuttering peers. In addition, about 50% of the scores of the people who stuttered fell within the range of a group of highly socially anxious psychiatric patients. The results of the study suggest that the measurement of social anxiety is an important element in the assessment of adults who stutter. The reader will learn about and be able to describe (1) the IIS as an assessment procedure for evaluating social anxiety, (2) the level of discomfort expressed by adult stutterers in social situations, and (3) the effect of social anxiety on stutterers' responsiveness in social situations.

  14. The Role of Cognitive Factors in Childhood Social Anxiety: Social Threat Thoughts and Social Skills Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Niekerk, Rianne E; Klein, Anke M; Allart-van Dam, Esther; Hudson, Jennifer L; Rinck, Mike; Hutschemaekers, Giel J M; Becker, Eni S

    2017-01-01

    Models of cognitive processing in anxiety disorders state that socially anxious children display several distorted cognitive processes that maintain their anxiety. The present study investigated the role of social threat thoughts and social skills perception in relation to childhood trait and state social anxiety. In total, 141 children varying in their levels of social anxiety performed a short speech task in front of a camera and filled out self-reports about their trait social anxiety, state anxiety, social skills perception and social threat thoughts. Results showed that social threat thoughts mediated the relationship between trait social anxiety and state anxiety after the speech task, even when controlling for baseline state anxiety. Furthermore, we found that children with higher trait anxiety and more social threat thoughts had a lower perception of their social skills, but did not display a social skills deficit. These results provide evidence for the applicability of the cognitive social anxiety model to children.

  15. Self-reported depression and anxiety symptoms and usage of computers and mobile phones among working-age Finns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpinen, Leena; Pääkkönen, Rauno

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work is to study self-reported depression and anxiety symptoms among working-age Finns using logistical regression models. The study was carried out as a cross-sectional study by posting a questionnaire to 15,000 working-age persons. The responses (6121) revealed that 101 (1.7%) Finnish working-age persons suffered depression very often and 77 (1.3%) suffered anxiety very often during the last 12 months. Symptoms uncovered in the comparative analysis of respondents who had quite often or more often depression to respondents who had less depression showed differentiation. The same result was obtained in the analysis of self-reported anxiety symptoms. With the logistical regression models (from depression and anxiety), we found associations between physical symptoms (in shoulder) and depression and between different mental symptoms and anxiety or depression. In the future, it is important to take into accout that persons with physical symptoms can also have mental symptoms (depression or anxiety).

  16. Subthreshold anxiety better defined by symptom self-report than by diagnostic interview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsten, J.; Nolen, W. A.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Hartman, C. A.

    Background: There is no consensus on how to define subthreshold anxiety. Based on functional impairment, we aim to evaluate the use of a diagnostic instrument and an anxiety severity questionnaire to derive an empirical cut-off for defining clinically relevant, subthreshold anxiety. Methods: Our

  17. Transient psychosis due to painless thyroiditis in a patient with anxiety disorder: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Nobuyuki

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction There are few reports on thyrotoxic psychosis caused by diseases other than Graves' disease or toxic nodular goiter. Case presentation A 64-year-old Japanese woman was treated for anxiety disorder in our clinic for 10 years. She had five episodes of transient psychosis during the first five years. When she developed psychosis without neck pain 10 years after her first visit, a laboratory reexamination revealed that she had subclinical hyperthyroidism, and tested positive for antithyroid autoantibodies, negative for thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibody and had decreased radioactive iodine uptake. She was diagnosed as having painless thyroiditis. The hyperthyroidism disappeared within a month, and the psychosis lasted for three months. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of psychosis due to painless thyroiditis-induced hyperthyroidism. Physical symptoms of painless thyroiditis are often so mild that careful differential diagnosis is necessary in the cases of transient psychosis.

  18. Assessment of the relationship between self-reported cognitive distortions and adult ADHD, anxiety, depression, and hopelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmeier, Craig W; Rosenfield, Brad; DiTomasso, Robert A; Ramsay, J Russell

    2016-04-30

    The current chart review study examined the relationship between self-reported cognitive distortions, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, and co-occurring symptoms of depression and anxiety in a clinical sample of adults diagnosed with ADHD. Thirty subjects completed inventories measuring cognitive distortions, ADHD, anxiety, depression, and hopelessness as part of the standard diagnostic evaluation protocol used in a university-based outpatient clinic specializing in adult ADHD. A series of correlational analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between self-reported cognitive distortions, ADHD, anxiety, depression, and hopelessness. Results indicated a significant, positive correlation between self-reported cognitive distortions and ADHD. Responses to individual items on the measure of cognitive distortions were tabulated to identify the prevalence of specific cognitive distortion categories, with Perfectionism emerging as the most frequently endorsed. Further clinical implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Spanish Validation of the School Anxiety Scale-Teacher Report (SAS-TR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgilés, Mireia; Fernández-Martínez, Iván; Lera-Miguel, Sara; Marzo, Juan Carlos; Medrano, Laura; Espada, José Pedro

    2016-11-04

    This study aimed to examine the factorial structure and psychometric properties of the School Anxiety Scale-Teacher Report (SAS-TR) in a community sample of 315 Spanish children aged 5 to 12 years. Thirty-seven teachers from eleven schools completed the SAS-TR and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for each child. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the original two-factor structure, but a better fit model was obtained after removing four items. The scale was found to have high internal consistency (α = 0.91) and satisfactory test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.87) for the Spanish sample. Convergent validity was supported by positive significant correlations between the SAS-TR and the Emotional Symptoms subscale of the SDQ. Lower correlations between the SAS-TR and the SDQ Conduct Problems subscale supported the divergent validity. Overall, the findings suggest that the Spanish version of the SAS-TR is a reliable and valid instrument for teachers to assess anxiety in Spanish children.

  20. Visualizing Higher Order Finite Elements: FY05 Yearly Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, David; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2005-11-01

    This report contains an algorithm for decomposing higher-order finite elementsinto regions appropriate for isosurfacing and proves the conditions under which thealgorithm will terminate. Finite elements are used to create piecewise polynomialapproximants to the solution of partial differential equations for which no analyticalsolution exists. These polynomials represent fields such as pressure, stress, and mo-mentim. In the past, these polynomials have been linear in each parametric coordinate.Each polynomial coefficient must be uniquely determined by a simulation, and thesecoefficients are called degrees of freedom. When there are not enough degrees of free-dom, simulations will typically fail to produce a valid approximation to the solution.Recent work has shown that increasing the number of degrees of freedom by increas-ing the order of the polynomial approximation (instead of increasing the number offinite elements, each of which has its own set of coefficients) can allow some typesof simulations to produce a valid approximation with many fewer degrees of freedomthan increasing the number of finite elements alone. However, once the simulation hasdetermined the values of all the coefficients in a higher-order approximant, tools donot exist for visual inspection of the solution.This report focuses on a technique for the visual inspection of higher-order finiteelement simulation results based on decomposing each finite element into simplicialregions where existing visualization algorithms such as isosurfacing will work. Therequirements of the isosurfacing algorithm are enumerated and related to the placeswhere the partial derivatives of the polynomial become zero. The original isosurfacingalgorithm is then applied to each of these regions in turn.3 AcknowledgementThe authors would like to thank David Day and Louis Romero for their insight into poly-nomial system solvers and the LDRD Senior Council for the opportunity to pursue thisresearch. The authors were

  1. The School Anxiety Scale-Teacher Report (SAS-TR: translation and psychometric properties of the Iranian version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajiamini Zahra

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The School Anxiety Scale-Teacher Report (SAS-TR was designed to assess anxiety in children at school. The SAS-TR is a proxy rated measure and could assess social anxiety, generalized anxiety and also gives a total anxiety score. This study aimed to translate and validate the SAS-TR in Iran. Methods The translation and cultural adaptation of the original questionnaire were carried out in accordance with the published guidelines. A sample of students participated in the study. Reliability was estimated using internal consistency and test-retest analysis. Validity was assessed using content validity. The factor structure of the questionnaire was extracted by performing both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Results In all 200 elementary students aged 6 to 10 years were studied. Considering the recommended cut-off values, overall the prevalence of high anxiety condition in elementary students was found to be 21 %. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the Iranian SAS-TR was 0.92 and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was found to be 0.81. The principal component analysis indicated a two-factor structure for the questionnaire (generalized and social anxiety that jointly accounted for 55.3 % of variances observed. The confirmatory factory analysis also indicated a good fit to the data for the two-latent structure of the questionnaire. Conclusion In general the findings suggest that the Iranian version of SAS-TR has satisfactory reliability, and validity for measuring anxiety in 6 to 10 years old children in Iran. It is simple and easy to use and now can be applied in future studies.

  2. The prevalence and correlates of adult separation anxiety disorder in an anxiety clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Renate

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult separation anxiety disorder (ASAD has been identified recently, but there is a paucity of data about its prevalence and associated characteristics amongst anxiety patients. This study assessed the prevalence and risk factor profile associated with ASAD in an anxiety clinic. Methods Clinical psychologists assigned 520 consecutive patients to DSM-IV adult anxiety subcategories using the SCID. We also measured demographic factors and reports of early separation anxiety (the Separation Anxiety Symptom Inventory and a retrospective diagnosis of childhood separation anxiety disorder. Other self-report measures included the Adult Separation Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (ASA-27, the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS-21, personality traits measured by the NEO PI-R and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale. These measures were included in three models examining for overall differences and then by gender: Model 1 compared the conventional SCID anxiety subtypes (excluding PTSD and OCD because of insufficient numbers; Model 2 divided the sample into those with and without ASAD; Model 3 compared those with ASAD with the individual anxiety subtypes in the residual group. Results Patients with ASAD had elevated early separation anxiety scores but this association was unique in females only. Except for social phobia in relation to some comparisons, those with ASAD recorded more severe symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress, higher neuroticism scores, and greater levels of disability. Conclusions Patients with ASAD attending an anxiety clinic are highly symptomatic and disabled. The findings have implications for the classification, clinical identification and treatment of adult anxiety disorders.

  3. Measurement equivalence of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System® (PROMIS® Anxiety short forms in ethnically diverse groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne A. Teresi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study of the measurement equivalence of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System® (PROMIS® Anxiety short forms in a large ethnically diverse sample. The psychometric properties and differential item functioning (DIF were examined across different racial/ethnic, educational, age, gender and language groups. Methods: These data are from individuals selected from cancer registries in the United States. For the analyses of race/ethnicity the reference group was non-Hispanic Whites (n = 2,263, the studied groups were non-Hispanic Blacks (n = 1,117, Hispanics (n = 1,043 and Asians/Pacific Islanders (n = 907. Within the Hispanic subsample, there were 335 interviews conducted in Spanish and 703 in English. The 11 anxiety items were from the PROMIS emotional disturbance item bank. DIF hypotheses were generated by content experts who rated whether or not they expected DIF to be present, and the direction of the DIF with respect to several comparison groups. The primary method used for DIF detection was the Wald test for examination of group differences in item response theory (IRT item parameters accompanied by magnitude measures. Expected item scores were examined as measures of magnitude. The method used for quantification of the difference in the average expected item scores was the non-compensatory DIF (NCDIF index. DIF impact was examined using expected scale score functions. Additionally, precision and reliabilities were examined using several methods. Results: Although not hypothesized to show DIF for Asians/Pacific Islanders, every item evidenced DIF by at least one method. Two items showed DIF of higher magnitude for Asians/Pacific Islanders vs. Whites: “Many situations made me worry” and “I felt anxious”. However, the magnitude of DIF was small and the NCDIF statistics were not above threshold. The impact of DIF was negligible. For education, six items were identified with consistent DIF across

  4. FY-2016 Methyl Iodide Higher NOx Adsorption Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soelberg, Nicholas Ray [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watson, Tony Leroy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Deep-bed methyl iodide adsorption testing has continued in Fiscal Year 2016 under the Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cycle Technology (FCT) Program Offgas Sigma Team to further research and advance the technical maturity of solid sorbents for capturing iodine-129 in off-gas streams during used nuclear fuel reprocessing. Adsorption testing with higher levels of NO (approximately 3,300 ppm) and NO2 (up to about 10,000 ppm) indicate that high efficiency iodine capture by silver aerogel remains possible. Maximum iodine decontamination factors (DFs, or the ratio of iodine flowrate in the sorbent bed inlet gas compared to the iodine flowrate in the outlet gas) exceeded 3,000 until bed breakthrough rapidly decreased the DF levels to as low as about 2, when the adsorption capability was near depletion. After breakthrough, nearly all of the uncaptured iodine that remains in the bed outlet gas stream is no longer in the form of the original methyl iodide. The methyl iodide molecules are cleaved in the sorbent bed, even after iodine adsorption is no longer efficient, so that uncaptured iodine is in the form of iodine species soluble in caustic scrubber solutions, and detected and reported here as diatomic I2. The mass transfer zone depths were estimated at 8 inches, somewhat deeper than the 2-5 inch range estimated for both silver aerogels and silver zeolites in prior deep-bed tests, which had lower NOx levels. The maximum iodine adsorption capacity and silver utilization for these higher NOx tests, at about 5-15% of the original sorbent mass, and about 12-35% of the total silver, respectively, were lower than for trends from prior silver aerogel and silver zeolite tests with lower NOx levels. Additional deep-bed testing and analyses are recommended to expand the database for organic iodide adsorption and increase the technical maturity if iodine adsorption processes.

  5. The role of trait anxiety in induction of state anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovilović Snežana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The reported study had the following goals: to determine psychometric characteristics of a new instrument purpoting to measure trait anxiety - AT29, to explore the effectiveness of a mood induction procedure in eliciting state anxiety, and to determine the role of trait anxiety, as measured by AT29, in responding to mood induction. AT29 was administered as a part of a larger test battery to 232 psychology students during a mass testing session. After three weeks, 90 students were randomly selected to participate in the second, experimental phase of the study. These selected participants were randomly assigned to two groups: experimental (mood-induction group in which participants watched a video clip with a fear-inducing content and control group in which participants watched a neutral video clip of the same duration as the fear-inducing clip. State anxiety was measured in both groups using the STAI-S questionnaire right before and after mood induction. It was demonstrated that there is a significant association between trait anxiety as measured by AT29 and state anxiety obtained at both measurement occasionsbefore and after mood induction. Following fear induction, the experimental group demonstrated higher state anxiety scores. However, the interaction between group membership and trait anxiety was not significant. Potential explanations regarding the lack of effect of trait anxiety on state anxiety in this mood induction experiment were discussed as well as some recommendations for future research. Additionally, the results suggested that AT29 has very good psychometric characteristics: high internal consistency and test-retest reliability (.96 and .86 respectively, as well as good divergent and convergent validity.

  6. Death and Dying Anxiety among Elderly Arab Muslims in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Gigini, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Death and dying anxiety were examined among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel. A total of 145 people aged 60 and over were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Nursing home residents reported higher death anxiety than others; women and uneducated participants reported greater levels of fear of death and dying than others. There were no…

  7. Disability in anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Sanne M; Spijker, Jan; Licht, Carmilla M M; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Hardeveld, Florian; de Graaf, Ron; Batelaan, Neeltje M; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2014-09-01

    This study compares disability levels between different anxiety disorders and healthy controls. We further investigate the role of anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour in disability, and whether differences in these symptom patterns contribute to disability differences between anxiety disorders. Data were from 1826 subjects from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). The Composite Interview Diagnostic Instrument was used to diagnose anxiety disorders. The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II was used to measure disability in six domains (cognition, mobility, selfcare, social interaction, life activities, participation). Severity of anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour symptoms was measured using the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Fear Questionnaire. All anxiety disorders were associated with higher disability. Disability was generally highest in multiple anxiety disorder (e.g. mean disability in cognition=33.7) and social anxiety disorder (mean=32.7), followed by generalized anxiety disorder (mean=27.2) and panic disorder with agoraphobia (mean=26.3), and lowest in panic disorder without agoraphobia (mean=22.1). Anxiety arousal was more associated with disability in life activities (B=8.5, panxiety disorders were not completely explained by anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour. The cross-sectional study design precludes any causal interpretations. In order to examine the full range of comorbidity among anxiety, a greater range of anxiety disorders would have been preferable. Disability is highest in social anxiety disorder and multiple anxiety disorder. Both anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour are associated with higher disability levels but do not fully explain the differences across anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prices, Productivity, and Investment: Assessing Financial Strategies in Higher Education. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. John, Edward P.

    This analysis critically examines the cost controversy in higher education with an eye to resolving the crisis which is currently serving to exacerbate public willingness to fund higher education. An introduction touches on the role and influence of political ideologies and offers a framework to be used throughout the analysis for critically…

  9. Diversity Leadership in Higher Education. ASHE Higher Education Report, Volume 32, Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Adalberto, Jr., Ed.; Martinez, Ruben O., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This monograph examines and discusses the context for diversity leadership roles and practices in higher education by using research and theoretical and applied literatures from a variety of fields, including the social sciences, business, and higher education. Framing the discussion on leadership in this monograph is the perspective that American…

  10. Relationships between physical education students' motivational profiles, enjoyment, state anxiety, and self-reported physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze motivational profiles based on the self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 2000) and how these profiles are related to physical education students' enjoyment, state anxiety, and physical activity. The participants, 429 sixth grade students (girls = 216; boys = 213) completed SMS, Sport Enjoyment Scale, PESAS, and Physical Activity Scale. Cluster analyses identified two motivational profiles: 1) the "High motivation profile", in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2) the "Low motivation profile", in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation. The students in the first cluster enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active. The results revealed that students may be motivated towards physical education lessons both intrinsically and extrinsically, and still experience enjoyment in physical education. Key pointsTWO MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES WERE REVEALED: 1) the "High motivation profile", in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2) the "Low motivation profile", in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation.The students in the first profile enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active than the students in the second profile.Moreover, the representatives of the "High motivation profile "experienced greater anxiety toward physical education than the representatives of the "Low motivation profile"These findings raised an interesting question whether students engaging in physical education benefit more from the presence of both self-determined and non-self-determined forms of motivation, or are the benefits higher if students are primarily self-determined?

  11. A higher inherent trait for fearfulness is associated with increased anxiety-like behaviours and diazepam sensitivity in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulay, J; Chaillou, E; Bertin, A; Constantin, P; Arnould, C; Leterrier, C; Calandreau, L

    2013-01-15

    This study tested whether lines of Japanese quails divergently selected for a fear response, the tonic immobility, might constitute a reliable bird model for studying anxiety. Previous studies demonstrated that the selection modifies the general underlying emotionality of the birds rather than exerting its effect only on tonic immobility. The behavioural effects of intraperitoneal injections of diazepam, an anxiolytic drug, were assessed in two lines of quail selected either for their short (STI) or long (LTI) duration of tonic immobility. Effects of diazepam were examined in two tests used for measuring emotionality in birds, the open field and the tonic immobility tests. After being placed in the centre of the open field, birds with a high emotionality (LTI quails) stayed longer in the centre of the apparatus than STI quail. Diazepam had anxiolytic effect in LTI birds as it increased the time spent in the outer area. This effect of diazepam appears to be selective because the drug has no effect on other behaviours such as distress calls or escape attempts. The drug has also no effect on the tonic immobility response in any of the two lines. These findings reveal an "anxiogenic" trait of LTI birds in the open field test that can be modulated by the administration of an anxiolytic drug. Therefore quails selected for LTI and STI represent a valuable model to study the mechanisms underlying anxiety in birds.

  12. Anxiolytic Effects of Royal Sun Medicinal Mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis (Higher Basidiomycetes) on Ischemia-Induced Anxiety in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunjing; Gao, Xiulan; Sun, Yan; Sun, Xiaojie; Wu, Yanmin; Liu, Ying; Yu, Haitao; Cui, Guangcheng

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the anxiolytic effects Agaricus brasiliensis extract (AbSE) on ischemia-induced anxiety using the plus-maze test and the social interaction test. The animals were treated orally with AbSE (4, 8, and 10 mg/kg/d, respectively) for 30 d, followed by middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced cerebral ischemia. Levels of noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin in the cerebral cortex of rats, as well as oxidative stress and plasma corticosterone levels were analyzed, respectively. The rota-rod test was carried out to exclude any false positive results in experimental procedures related to anxiety disorders, and the catalepsy test was carried out to investigate whether AbSE induces catalepsy. Our results demonstrate that oral administration of AbSE presented anxiolytic-like effects in the elevated plus-maze test and the social interaction test. Furthermore, AbSE did not induce extrapyramidal symptoms in the catalepsy test. The mechanism underlying the anxiolytic effect of AbSE might be increased brain monoamine levels and plasma corticosterone levels and decreased oxidative stress in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion rats.

  13. A Single, One-Off Measure of Depression and Anxiety Predicts Future Symptoms, Higher Healthcare Costs, and Lower Quality of Life in Coronary Heart Disease Patients: Analysis from a Multi-Wave, Primary Care Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E Palacios

    Full Text Available To determine whether a one-off, baseline measure of depression and anxiety in a primary care, coronary heart disease (CHD population predicts ongoing symptoms, costs, and quality of life across a 3-year follow-up.Longitudinal cohort study.16 General Practice surgeries across South-East London.803 adults (70% male, mean age 71 years contributing up to 7 follow-up points.Ongoing reporting of symptoms, health care costs, and quality of life.At baseline, 27% of the sample screened positive for symptoms of depression and anxiety, as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. The probability of scoring above the cut-off throughout the follow-up was 71.5% (p<0.001 for those screening positive at baseline, and for those screening negative, the probability of scoring below the cut-off throughout the follow-up was 97.6% (p<0.001. Total health care costs were 39% higher during follow-up for those screening positive (p<0.05. Quality of life as measured by the SF-12 was lower on the mental component during follow-up for those screening positive (-0.75, CI -1.53 to 0.03, p = 0.059, and significantly lower on the physical component (-4.99, CI -6.23 to -.376, p<0.001.A one-off measure for depression and anxiety symptoms in CHD predicts future symptoms, costs, and quality of life over the subsequent three-years. These findings suggest symptoms of depression and anxiety in CHD persist throughout long periods and are detrimental to a patient's quality of life, whilst incurring higher health care costs for primary and secondary care services. Screening for these symptoms at the primary care level is important to identify and manage patients at risk of the negative effects of this comorbidity. Implementation of screening, and possible collaborative care strategies and interventions that help mitigate this risk should be the ongoing focus of researchers and policy-makers.

  14. Epilepsy and anxiety

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    Marly de Albuquerque

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed 155 subjects with STAI (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory: 75 epileptic patients and 80 normal subjects used as a control group. A higher trait-anxiety score (chronic anxiety than that of controls was found for the epileptic group. For the epileptic group higher levels of the A-trait occurred in patients with EEG abnormalities with left temporal localization. We have also observed that the shorter the epilepsy lasts (less than two years, the higher the trait-anxiety levels. Convulsions and awareness loss during epileptic seizures do not modify state and trait-anxiety scores.

  15. Prevalence of mood and anxiety disorder in self reported irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. An epidemiological population based study of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykletun Arnstein

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is commonly regarded as a functional disorder, and is hypothesized to be associated with anxiety and depression. This evidence mainly rests on population-based studies utilising self-report screening instruments for psychopathology. Other studies applying structured clinical interviews are generally based on small clinical samples, which are vulnerable to biases. The extant evidence base for an association between IBS and psychopathology is hence not conclusive. The aim of this study was therefore to re-examine the hypothesis using population-based data and psychiatric morbidity established with a structured clinical interview. Methods Data were derived from a population-based epidemiological study (n = 1077. Anxiety and mood disorders were established using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID-I/NP and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12. Current and lifetime IBS was self-reported. Hypertension and diabetes were employed as comparison groups as they are expected to be unrelated to mental health. Results Current IBS (n = 69, 6.4% was associated with an increased likelihood of current mood and/or anxiety disorders (OR = 2.62, 95%CI 1.49 - 4.60. Half the population reporting a lifetime IBS diagnosis also had a lifetime mood or anxiety disorder. Exploratory analyses demonstrated an increased prevalence of IBS across most common anxiety and mood disorders, the exception being bipolar disorder. The association with IBS and symptoms load (GHQ-12 followed a curved dose response pattern. In contrast, hypertension and diabetes were consistently unrelated to psychiatric morbidity. Conclusions IBS is significantly associated with anxiety and mood disorders. This study provides indicative evidence for IBS as a disorder with a psychosomatic aspect.

  16. Sport-related performance anxiety in young female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R; Omar, Hatim; Terry, Marisa

    2010-12-01

    The prevalence of anxiety disorders in adolescents range from 6% to 20%, and it is much higher for anxiety symptoms not meeting criteria for a specific anxiety disorder. The prevalence is much higher in females. Athletes participating in sports experience different levels of stress from competitive sports. For most young athletes (generally 13 to 24 years old, i.e., high-school and college age group) sport participation is reported to be no more stressful than many other activities of daily student or work life in general where competition is involved and performance is measured. Some level of sport related performance anxiety is considered to be normal and healthy; however, extreme anxiety in athletes can be detrimental in these performance situations. A number of factors may contribute to the development, severity, and persistence of performance anxiety related to sport participation. This article reviews the definitions, theories, clinical presentation, evaluation, and management principles of performance anxiety symptoms in young athletes.

  17. The Effect of Meditation on Self-Reported Measures of Stress, Anxiety, Depression, and Perfectionism in a College Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jaimie L.; Lee, Randolph M.; Brown, Lauren J.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of meditation, specifically Transcendental Meditation (TM), on college students' experience of stress, anxiety, depression, and perfectionistic thoughts was investigated using 43 undergraduate students. Self-report measures of the variables were completed prior to the start of the study. Student groups were trained in TM and practiced…

  18. Concurrent validity of the DSM-IV scales Affective Problems and Anxiety Problems of the Youth Self-Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lang, NDJ; Ferdinand, RF; Oldehinkel, AJ; Ormel, J; Verhulst, FC

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the concurrent validity of the DSM-IV scales Anxiety Problems and Affective Problems of the Youth Self-Report (YSR) in a community sample of Dutch young adolescents aged 10-12 years. We first examined the extent to which the YSR/DSM-IV scales reflect symptoms of DSM-IV anxiet

  19. Concurrent validity of the DSM-IV scales Affective Problems and Anxiety Problems of the Youth Self-Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lang, NDJ; Ferdinand, RF; Oldehinkel, AJ; Ormel, J; Verhulst, FC

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the concurrent validity of the DSM-IV scales Anxiety Problems and Affective Problems of the Youth Self-Report (YSR) in a community sample of Dutch young adolescents aged 10-12 years. We first examined the extent to which the YSR/DSM-IV scales reflect symptoms of DSM-IV

  20. The Effect of Meditation on Self-Reported Measures of Stress, Anxiety, Depression, and Perfectionism in a College Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jaimie L.; Lee, Randolph M.; Brown, Lauren J.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of meditation, specifically Transcendental Meditation (TM), on college students' experience of stress, anxiety, depression, and perfectionistic thoughts was investigated using 43 undergraduate students. Self-report measures of the variables were completed prior to the start of the study. Student groups were trained in TM and practiced…

  1. Factors influencing competitive anxiety in Brazilian athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gimenes Fernandes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of factors influencing competitive anxiety, according to a multidimensional perspective and supported by valid instruments, is scarce among Brazilian athletes of different sports. The present study aims to: i investigate the theoretical relationship between the different dimensions of the multidimensional theory of anxiety (i.e., cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence; and ii investigate the effects of gender, type of sport (individual or collective and competitive experience levels on cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence. A total of 303 athletes (233 males and 70 females, from different sports, aged between 18 and 40 years (M =24.22, SD = 5.07 completed a shortened version of CSAI-2 (i.e., CSAI-2R, about one hour before the start of competitions. Results revealed significant correlations between cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and self-confidence dimensions, in accordance with the assumptions of the multidimensional theory. Additionally, comparative analyses indicated that female athletes and athletes from collective sports showed higher levels of cognitive anxiety, while male athletes and athletes with high competitive experience reported higher levels of self-confidence. These results were discussed taking into account the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for planning interventions of sport psychology in Brazil with athletes of different contexts.

  2. Is the Parkinson Anxiety Scale comparable across raters?

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    Forjaz, Maria João; Ayala, Alba; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Dujardin, Kathy; Pontone, Gregory M; Starkstein, Sergio E; Weintraub, Daniel; Leentjens, Albert F G

    2015-04-01

    The Parkinson Anxiety Scale is a new scale developed to measure anxiety severity in Parkinson's disease specifically. It consists of three dimensions: persistent anxiety, episodic anxiety, and avoidance behavior. This study aimed to assess the measurement properties of the scale while controlling for the rater (self- vs. clinician-rated) effect. The Parkinson Anxiety Scale was administered to a cross-sectional multicenter international sample of 362 Parkinson's disease patients. Both patients and clinicians rated the patient's anxiety independently. A many-facet Rasch model design was applied to estimate and remove the rater effect. The following measurement properties were assessed: fit to the Rasch model, unidimensionality, reliability, differential item functioning, item local independency, interrater reliability (self or clinician), and scale targeting. In addition, test-retest stability, construct validity, precision, and diagnostic properties of the Parkinson Anxiety Scale were also analyzed. A good fit to the Rasch model was obtained for Parkinson Anxiety Scale dimensions A and B, after the removal of one item and rescoring of the response scale for certain items, whereas dimension C showed marginal fit. Self versus clinician rating differences were of small magnitude, with patients reporting higher anxiety levels than clinicians. The linear measure for Parkinson Anxiety Scale dimensions A and B showed good convergent construct with other anxiety measures and good diagnostic properties. Parkinson Anxiety Scale modified dimensions A and B provide valid and reliable measures of anxiety in Parkinson's disease that are comparable across raters. Further studies are needed with dimension C.

  3. Dental students' perception of patient anxiety.

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    Lodge, J; Tripp, G

    1993-04-01

    This study examined the ability of dental students to assess patients' anxiety during dental treatment, and the relationship between patients' general, waiting room and clinic levels of anxiety. Sixty-six restorative dental patients and 35 Final-year dental students participated in the study. Prior to a routine dental appointment, patients completed visual analogue scales indicating their general and waiting room levels of anxiety. During treatment, patients and dental students completed similar scales to indicate patients' levels of anxiety up to and at that time. Patients' general and waiting room levels of anxiety were found to correlate significantly with their reports of anxiety during treatment. Female patients reported higher levels of anxiety than male patients. The correlations between patient and student ratings of patients' anxiety were small and non-significant, suggesting the students were not accurate in their estimates of patients' anxiety during treatment. It is suggested, therefore, that dental students be encouraged to ask patients directly how they are feeling about the dental situation. Such discussion could take place prior to, or at the beginning of, the dental appointment.

  4. Reducing the Sex Difference in Math Anxiety: The Role of Spatial Processing Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin A.; Waechter, Stephanie; Risko, Evan F.; Fugelsang, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Decades of research have demonstrated that women experience higher rates of math anxiety--that is, negative affect when performing tasks involving numerical and mathematical skill--than men. Researchers have largely attributed this sex difference in math anxiety to factors such as social stereotypes and propensity to report anxiety. Here we…

  5. Anxiety Reactivity and Escape Tendencies in Sociopathic Personalities. Counseling Center Research Report No. 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, James P.; Linden, James D.

    Recent studies have shown that incarcerated primary sociopathic subjects, selected by the Activities Preference Questionnaire (APQ), demonstrate atypical anxiety reactivity when compared with other incarcerated or normal subjects. This study attempted to extend the experimental data relating anxiety reactivity and sociopathy. Three groups of…

  6. Brief Report: Insistence on Sameness, Anxiety, and Social Motivation in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

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    Factor, Reina S.; Condy, Emma E.; Farley, Julee P.; Scarpa, Angela

    2016-01-01

    While the function of restricted repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is unclear, RRBs may function as anxiety reduction strategies (Joosten et al. "J Autism Dev Disord" 39(3):521-531, 2009. Moreover, anxiety in ASD is associated with low social motivation (Swain et al. "J Autism Dev Disord," 2015. The…

  7. Brief Report: The Assessment of Anxiety in High-Functioning Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan W.; Schry, Amie R.; Maddox, Brenna B.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety may exacerbate interpersonal difficulties and contribute to secondary behavioral problems in adolescents with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (HFASD). This study was conducted to assess the psychometric properties and construct validity of measures of anxiety with a sample (n = 30) of adolescents with HFASD and comorbid anxiety…

  8. Sensitivity to Punishment and Explanatory Style as Predictors of Public Speaking State Anxiety. Brief Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopecky, Courtney; Sawyer, Chris; Behnke, Ralph

    2004-01-01

    Recent biological theories of state anxiety have focused on temperament and neurophysiology as factors that predispose some people to be particularly at risk of debilitating levels of performance anxiety. The present study extends Gray's (1982; Gray & McNaughton, 2000) reinforcement sensitivity theory by proposing a linkage between sensitivity to…

  9. A meta-analysis on the relationship between self-reported presence and anxiety in virtual reality exposure therapy for anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ling, Y.; Nefs, H.T.; Morina, N.; Heynderickx, I.; Brinkman, W.P.

    2014-01-01

    In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) for anxiety disorders, sense of presence in the virtual environment is considered the principal mechanism that enables anxiety to be felt. Existing studies on the relation between sense of presence and level of anxiety, however, have yielded mixed results o

  10. A Meta-Analysis on the Relationship between Self-Reported Presence and Anxiety in Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy for Anxiety Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ling, Y.; Nefs, H.T.; Nexhmedin, M.; Heynderickx, I.; Brinkman, W.P.

    2014-01-01

    In virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) for anxiety disorders, sense of presence in the virtual environment is considered the principal mechanism that enables anxiety to be felt. Existing studies on the relation between sense of presence and level of anxiety, however, have yielded mixed results o

  11. The Entrepreneurial Domains of American Higher Education. ASHE Higher Education Report, Volume 34, Number 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Matthew M.; Metcalf, Amy Scott

    2009-01-01

    This volume draws on a diverse set of literatures to represent the various ways in which entrepreneurship is understood in and applied to higher education. It provides a platform for debate for those considering applications of entrepreneurial principles to academic research and practices. Using academic entrepreneurship in the United States as…

  12. Afraid to be there? Evaluating the relation between presence, self-reported anxiety, and heart rate in a virtual public speaking task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felnhofer, Anna; Kothgassner, Oswald D; Hetterle, Thomas; Beutl, Leon; Hlavacs, Helmut; Kryspin-Exner, Ilse

    2014-05-01

    The link between anxiety and presence in a virtual environment (VE) is still a subject of an unresolved debate, with little empirical research to support theoretical claims. Thus, the current study analyzed presence, self-reported anxiety, and a physiological parameter (heart rate [HR]) in a sample of 30 high anxious and 35 low anxious participants. Both groups delivered a 5 minute speech in a virtual lecture hall. Results indicate no mediating influences of presence on group differences in self-reported state anxiety during the speech, but point toward negative correlations between state anxiety and the iGroup Presence Questionnaire (IPQ) scales "sense of being there" and "realism." Furthermore, HR was found to be unrelated to self-reported presence. Only the IPQ scale "spatial presence" showed a marginally significant influence on group differences in state anxiety. The present results support the assumption that presence and anxiety are logically distinct, meaning that presence does not directly influence the intensity of an emotion felt in a VE. Rather, it constitutes a precondition for an emotion to be at all elicited by a VE. Also, HR has proven to be no adequate substitute measure for presence, since it only assesses anxiety not presence. It may, however, mediate the interplay between trait anxiety and state anxiety. Possible implications of the current findings are discussed alongside the problem of using presence questionnaires that seem to be prone to subjective bias (i.e., participants confusing presence and emotion).

  13. Strategies and Consequences. Managing the Costs in Higher Education. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggaman, John S.

    This report focuses on the need for better management of higher education resources in view of the rising costs and changing revenues now confronting higher education institutions in the United States. Rising costs and changing revenues are reflected in stagnating faculty salaries, a decline in enrollment, rising administrative and insurance…

  14. Sleep Paralysis Among Egyptian College Students: Association With Anxiety Symptoms (PTSD, Trait Anxiety, Pathological Worry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalal, Baland; Hinton, Devon E

    2015-11-01

    Among Egyptian college students in Cairo (n = 100), this study examined the relationship between sleep paralysis (SP) and anxiety symptoms, viz., posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), trait anxiety, and pathological worry. SP rates were high; 43% of participants reported at least one lifetime episode of SP, and 24% of those who reported at least one lifetime episode had experienced four or more episodes during the previous year. Fourteen percent of men had experienced SP as compared to 86% of women. As hypothesized, relative to non-SP experiencers, participants who had SP reported higher symptoms of PTSD, trait anxiety, and pathological worry. Also, as hypothesized, the experiencing of hypnogogic/hypnopompic hallucinations during SP, even after controlling for negative affect, was highly correlated with symptoms of PTSD and trait anxiety. The study also investigated possible mechanisms by examining the relationship of hallucinations to anxiety variables.

  15. Headache symptoms consistent with migraine and tension-type headaches in children with anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Jennifer; Young, Sarah; Martin, Paul R; Waters, Allison M

    2016-05-01

    To examine the incidence of headache symptoms consistent with migraine and tension-type headache (TTH) in children with anxiety disorders. Parents of children with anxiety disorders (n=27) and children without anxiety disorders (n=36) completed a headache questionnaire based on the International Classification of Headache Disorders (2nd edition) criteria. Children with anxiety disorders had a higher incidence of headache symptoms consistent with migraine and TTH compared to children without anxiety disorders. Girls with anxiety disorders and children with separation anxiety disorder had a higher incidence of headaches compared to girls without anxiety disorders and children with other anxiety disorders respectively. Children with anxiety disorders and headaches had higher self-reported anxiety symptom severity compared to children with anxiety disorders without headaches and children without anxiety disorders. Findings highlight an overlap in anxiety and headaches in children and warrant further research on factors that contribute to the etiology and maintenance of these co-occurring problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Using virtual humans to alleviate social anxiety: preliminary report from a comparative outcome study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Genevève; Bouchard, Stéphane; Dumoulin, Stéphane; Guitard, Tanya; Klinger, Evelyne

    2010-01-01

    Empirical studies have consistently shown the effectiveness of a multicomponent CBT treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Previous outcome studies on virtual reality and SAD have focused on people suffering from fear of public speaking and not full blown SAD. In this study, 45 adults receiving a DSM-IV-TR diagnostic of social anxiety were randomly assigned to traditional CBT treatment (with in vivo exposure), CBT-VR combined treatment, or a waiting list. Results show significant reduction of anxiety on all questionnaires as well as statistically significant interactions between both treatment groups and the waiting list.

  17. Perfectionism and anxiety: a paradox in intellectual giftedness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guignard, Jacques-Henri; Jacquet, Anne-Yvonne; Lubart, Todd I

    2012-01-01

    Numerous authors reported a prevalence of perfectionism in gifted populations. In addition, an unhealthy form of perfectionism that leads to anxiety disorder has been described. Using self-report measures (CAPS and R-CMAS) with 132 children, we hypothesized that intellectually gifted children express a higher level of perfectionism and anxiety. Our results pointed out a paradox: the gifted group obtained a higher self-oriented perfectionism score than the control group in 6th grade, but present the same level of anxiety. In contrast, the gifted group showed the same level of perfectionism than non-gifted 5(th) graders, but reported a higher anxiety level. Thus, the interplay between perfectionism and anxiety appears to be more complex than a simple linear relationship in giftedness.

  18. Mild test anxiety influences neurocognitive performance among African Americans and European Americans: identifying interfering and facilitating sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thames, April D; Panos, Stella E; Arentoft, Alyssa; Byrd, Desiree A; Hinkin, Charles H; Arbid, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined ethnic/racial differences in test-related anxiety and its relationship to neurocognitive performance in a community sample of African American (n = 40) and European American (n = 36) adults. The authors hypothesized the following: (a) Test-anxiety related to negative performance evaluation would be associated with lower neurocognitive performance, whereas anxiety unrelated to negative evaluation would be associated with higher neurocognitive performance. (b) African American participants would report higher levels of anxiety about negative performance evaluation than European Americans. (c) European Americans would report higher levels of anxiety unrelated to negative performance evaluation. The first two hypotheses were supported: Ethnic/racial differences in test-taking anxiety emerged such that African Americans reported significantly higher levels of negative performance evaluation, which was associated with lower cognitive performance. The third hypothesis was not supported: African Americans and European Americans reported similar levels of test-anxiety unrelated to negative evaluation.

  19. The Moderating Role of Anxiety in the Associations of Callous-Unemotional Traits with Self-Report and Laboratory Measures of Affective and Cognitive Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Rachel E; Frick, Paul J; Golmaryami, Farrah N; Marsee, Monica A

    2017-04-01

    In a sample of detained male adolescents (n = 107; Mean age = 15.50; SD = 1.30), we tested whether anxiety moderated the association of CU traits with self-report and computerized measures of affective (emotional reactivity) and cognitive (affective facial recognition and Theory of Mind [ToM]) empathy. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that CU traits were negatively associated with self-reports of affective empathy and this association was not moderated by level of anxiety. Significant interactions revealed that CU traits were negatively associated with cognitive empathy (self-report) only at high levels of anxiety, whereas CU traits were positively associated with cognitive empathy on the ToM task only at low levels of anxiety. CU traits were also associated with greater fear recognition accuracy at low levels of anxiety. Implications for understanding and treating different variants of CU traits (i.e., primary and secondary) are discussed.

  20. Anxiety and depression in polycystic ovary syndrome: a comprehensive investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeks, Amanda A; Gibson-Helm, Melanie E; Teede, Helena J

    2010-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with high levels of depression, which impact quality of life and limit self-efficacy, yet less is known about prevalence of anxiety. This cross-sectional, observational study of community-based women with PCOS comprehensively examined mood and found that anxiety existed at higher levels than depression, anxiety was underdiagnosed, and more women with PCOS who reported infertility were depressed.

  1. Socially Desirable Responding and College Students with Dyslexia: Implications for the Assessment of Anxiety and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M; Liebel, Spencer W

    2017-07-26

    We investigated self-reported depressive and anxiety-related symptoms among college students with dyslexia, with emphasis on the role of socially desirable responding (SDR) in understanding these reports. Analyses included examination of differences in self-reported depressive symptoms, anxiety-related symptoms, and SDR. We also examined the relationships among SDR, depressive symptoms, anxiety-related symptoms, and reading skills. Participants with dyslexia demonstrated significantly higher SDR than did participants without dyslexia, and higher SDR was significantly associated with lower self-reported depressive and anxiety-related symptoms. Moreover, higher SDR was significantly associated with lower reading skills. There was no group difference on anxiety-related symptoms, but participants with dyslexia had higher depressive symptoms than did participants without dyslexia when SDR was controlled. Implications for the assessment of anxiety and depression among college students with dyslexia are discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Effect of Social Familiarity on Salivary Cortisol and Self-Reports of Social Anxiety and Stress in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Christopher; Volker, Martin A.; Putnam, Susan K.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Nida, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of social familiarity on salivary cortisol and social anxiety/stress for a sample of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. The relationship between self-reported social anxiety/stress and salivary cortisol was also examined. Participants interacted with a familiar peer on one occasion and an…

  3. Effect of Social Familiarity on Salivary Cortisol and Self-Reports of Social Anxiety and Stress in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Christopher; Volker, Martin A.; Putnam, Susan K.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Nida, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of social familiarity on salivary cortisol and social anxiety/stress for a sample of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. The relationship between self-reported social anxiety/stress and salivary cortisol was also examined. Participants interacted with a familiar peer on one occasion and an…

  4. Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Test Anxiety KidsHealth > For Teens > Test Anxiety Print A A ... with their concentration or performance. What Is Test Anxiety? Test anxiety is actually a type of performance ...

  5. Strategic Reporting Tool: Balanced Scorecards in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyddon, Jan W.; McComb, Bruce E.

    2008-01-01

    In this toolbox article, the authors describe the recommended steps for creating a community college balanced scorecard that measures and reports on key performance indicators based on targets and signal values to end-users, college constituents and external stakeholders. Based on extensive experience in the field, the authors provide a…

  6. Cyberchondria: Parsing Health Anxiety From Online Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty-Torstrick, Emily R; Walton, Kate E; Fallon, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with questions about their health often turn to the Internet for information about their symptoms, but the degree to which health anxiety is related to online checking, and clinical variables, remains unclear. The clinical profiles of highly anxious Internet checkers, and the relationship to checking behavior itself, have not previously been reported. In this article, we test the hypothesis, derived from cognitive-behavioral models, that individuals with higher levels of illness anxiety would recall having experienced worsening anxiety after reassurance-seeking on the Internet. Data from 731 volunteers who endorsed engaging in online symptom-searching were collected using an online questionnaire. Severity of health anxiety was assessed with the Whiteley Index, functional impairment with the Sheehan Disability Scale, and distress recall during and after searching with a modified version of the Clinician׳s Global Impairment scale. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine variables contributing to distress during and after Internet checking. Severity of illness anxiety on the Whiteley Index was the strongest predictor of increase in anxiety associated with, and consequent to, online symptom-searching. Individuals with high illness anxiety recalled feeling worse after online symptom-checking, whereas those with low illness anxiety recalled relief. Longer-duration online health-related use was associated with increased functional impairment, less education, and increased anxiety during and after checking. Because individuals with moderate-high levels of illness anxiety recall experiencing more anxiety during and after searching, such searching may be detrimental to their health. If replicated in controlled experimental settings, this would suggest that individuals with illness anxiety should be advised to avoid using the Internet for illness-related information. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier

  7. Death and Dying Anxiety among Bereaved and Nonbereaved Elderly Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Tinsky-Roimi, Tal

    2011-01-01

    This study examines differences in death and dying anxiety between bereaved and nonbereaved elderly Israeli parents, as well as correlates of these factors among bereaved parents. A total of 97 parents (49 bereaved, 48 nonbereaved) completed measures of death and dying anxiety and religiosity. Bereaved parents reported significantly higher dying…

  8. ["Anxiety glistens on our brows". Dream reports in literary works on the horrors of ghettos and concentration camps].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, J

    1991-06-01

    Dream reports occupy a special place in literature about confinement in concentration camps and ghettos (Robert Antelme, Charlotte Delbo, Anna Langfus, André Schwarz-Bart). They are central elements in the narrative that relate the anxiety of those threatened with destruction more faithfully than any realistic account could. They disrupt the chronological linearity and rationality and represent in images horror beyond memory or description.

  9. The Age of Onset of Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijster, Jasmijn M de; Dierckx, Bram; Utens, Elisabeth M W J; Verhulst, Frank C; Zieldorff, Carola; Dieleman, Gwen C; Legerstee, Jeroen S

    2017-04-01

    The objective was to estimate the age of onset (AOO) for all anxiety disorders and for specific subtypes. Gender differences in the AOO of anxiety disorders were examined, as were the influence of study characteristics on reported AOOs. Seven electronic databases were searched up to October 2014, with keywords representing anxiety disorder subtypes, AOO, and study design. The inclusion criteria were studies using a general population sample that provided data on the AOO for all anxiety disorders, or specific anxiety disorders, according to DSM-III-R, DSM-IV, or ICD-10 criteria. There were 1028 titles examined, which yielded 24 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Eight studies reported the AOO and gender. Meta-analysis found a mean AOO of all anxiety disorders of 21.3 years (95% CI 17.46 to 25.07). Separation anxiety disorder, specific phobia, and social phobia had their mean onset before the age of 15 years, whereas the AOO of agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder began, on average, between 21.1 and 34.9 years. Meta-analysis revealed no difference in the AOO between genders. A prospective study design and higher developmental level of the study country were associated with an earlier AOO. Results from this meta-analysis indicate that anxiety disorder subtypes differ in the mean AOO, with onsets ranging from early adolescence to young adulthood. These findings suggest that prevention strategies of anxiety disorders should be directed towards factors associated with the development of anxiety disorder subtypes in the age groups with the greatest vulnerability for developing those disorders.

  10. Emotional reasoning and anxiety sensitivity: associations with social anxiety disorder in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkozei, Anna; Cooper, Peter J; Creswell, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    Two specific cognitive constructs that have been implicated in the development and maintenance of anxiety symptoms are anxiety sensitivity and emotional reasoning, both of which relate to the experience and meaning of physical symptoms of arousal or anxiety. The interpretation of physical symptoms has been particularly implicated in theories of social anxiety disorder, where internal physical symptoms are hypothesized to influence the individual's appraisals of the self as a social object. The current study compared 75 children on measures of anxiety sensitivity and emotional reasoning: 25 with social anxiety disorder, 25 with other anxiety disorders, and 25 nonanxious children (aged 7-12 years). Children with social anxiety disorder reported higher levels of anxiety sensitivity and were more likely than both other groups to view ambiguous situations as anxiety provoking, whether physical information was present or not. There were no group differences in the extent to which physical information altered children's interpretation of hypothetical scenarios. This study is the first to investigate emotional reasoning in clinically anxious children and therefore replication is needed. In addition, those in both anxious groups commonly had comorbid conditions and, consequently, specific conclusions about social anxiety disorder need to be treated with caution. The findings highlight cognitive characteristics that may be particularly pertinent in the context of social anxiety disorder in childhood and which may be potential targets for treatment. Furthermore, the findings suggest that strategies to modify these particular cognitive constructs may not be necessary in treatments of some other childhood anxiety disorders. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) to Treat Social Anxiety Disorder: Case Reports and a Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, Flávia; Baczynski, Tathiana; Novaes, Felipe; Marinho, Tamires; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Budde, Henning; Sack, Alexander T.; Huston, Joseph P.; Almada, Leonardo Ferreira; Carta, Mauro; Silva, Adriana Cardoso; Nardi, Antonio E.; Machado, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common and debilitating anxiety disorders. However, few studies had been dedicated to the neurobiology underlying SAD until the last decade. Rates of non-responders to standard methods of treatment remain unsatisfactorily high of approximately 25%, including SAD. Advances in our understanding of SAD could lead to new treatment strategies. A potential non invasive therapeutic option is repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Thus, we reported two cases of SAD treated with rTMS Methods: The bibliographical search used Pubmed/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge and Scielo databases. The terms chosen for the search were: anxiety disorders, neuroimaging, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Results: In most of the studies conducted on anxiety disorders, except SAD, the right prefrontal cortex (PFC), more specifically dorsolateral PFC was stimulated, with marked results when applying high-rTMS compared with studies stimulating the opposite side. However, according to the “valence hypothesis”, anxiety disorders might be characterized by an interhemispheric imbalance associated with increased right-hemispheric activity. With regard to the two cases treated with rTMS, we found a decrease in BDI, BAI and LSAS scores from baseline to follow-up. Conclusion: We hypothesize that the application of low-rTMS over the right medial PFC (mPFC; the main structure involved in SAD circuitry) combined with high-rTMS over the left mPFC, for at least 4 weeks on consecutive weekdays, may induce a balance in brain activity, opening an attractive therapeutic option for the treatment of SAD. PMID:24278088

  12. Self-attributed seasonality of mood and behavior: a report from the Netherlands study of depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winthorst, Wim H; Roest, Annelieke M; Bos, Elisabeth H; Meesters, Ybe; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Nolen, Willem A; de Jonge, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Seasonal changes in mood and behavior are considered to be common in the general population and in patients with psychiatric disorders. However, in several studies this seasonality could not be demonstrated. The present study examined self-attributed seasonality of depressive symptoms among patients with a lifetime diagnosis of a depressive disorder (D), an anxiety disorder (A), a comorbid depressive and anxiety disorder (DA), and healthy controls (HC). The CIDI was used to establish diagnoses according to DSM-IV criteria in 2,168 participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) was administered to assess variation in mood and behavior. Of the 2,168 participants 53.5% reported seasonality of mood. Highest percentages of low mood were seen in the winter months. Although all groups showed this pattern of lowered mood during the winter months, D, A, and DA were significantly (P < .001) more likely to experience seasonality is this respect. This was also shown for seasonal changes in energy, social activities, sleeping, eating, weight and for the Global Seasonality Score. A limitation of this study was the cross-sectional design. Seasonal variation in mood and behavior was demonstrated for both participants with a lifetime diagnosis of depression and/or anxiety disorder and for healthy controls, but patients with anxiety and/or depression were more likely to experience this seasonal variation. Clinicians should take into account that the time of the year could influence the feelings of well- and ill-being of their patients. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Danish MMR vaccination coverage is considerably higher than reported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Nanna; Mygind, Anna; Bro, Flemming

    2017-02-01

    The Danish childhood vaccination programme offers protection against measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR). Nevertheless, many children appear to be unvaccinated according to the national registers. The aim of this study was to estimate the MMR1 vaccination coverage based on a medical record review of children whose vaccination status is negative according to the register-based data. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 19 randomly selected general practices in the Central Denmark Region including 1,712 children aged 18-42 months. The practices received a registration form listing children with a negative MMR1 vaccination status in the register-based data. The general practices then validated the children's vaccination status by medical record review. In total, 94% of the children had been vaccinated according to the medical records in general practice compared with 86% according to the register-based data. Of the 246 children who were unvaccinated according to the register-based data, 135 (55%) had been vaccinated according to the medical records. This discrepancy was due mainly to administrative reimbursement errors. The MMR1 vaccination coverage in Denmark seems to be considerably higher than reflected in national registers. Using medical record review to re-assess the vaccination status revealed that most of the supposedly unvaccinated children had, in fact, been vaccinated. The Danish Research Foundation for General Practice and the General Practitioners' Foundation for Education and Development. not relevant.

  14. Construction of higher dimensional charged gravastars: a survey report

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, S; Guha, B K; Ray, Saibal

    2015-01-01

    We explore possibility to find out a new model of gravastars in the extended $D$-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell spacetime. The class of solutions as obtained by Mazur and Mottola of a neutral gravastar~\\cite{Mazur2001,Mazur2004} have been observed as an alternative to $D$-dimensional versions of the Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole. To tackle the spherical system in a convenient way we have configured that the gravastar consists of three distinct regions with different equations of state as follows: [I] Interior region $0 \\leq r < r_1$,~$\\rho = -p$, [II] Thin shell region $r_1 \\leq r < r_2$,~$\\rho = p$, and [III] Exterior region $r_2 < r$,~$\\rho = p =0$. The outer region of this gravastar model therefore corresponds to a higher dimensional Reissner-Nordstr{\\"o}m black hole. In connection to this junction conditions are provided and therefore we have formulated mass and the related Equation of State of the gravastar. It has been shown that the model satisfies all the requirements of the physical fea...

  15. ANXIETY DISORDERS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya Ashwani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are a highly prevalent and disabling class of psychiatric disorders. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and associated with substantial distress, morbidity and mortality. Recent epidemiological studies of anxiety disorders provided evidence of their high frequency in the general population worldwide. Anxiety disorders afflict an estimated 15.7 million people in the United States each year. Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in adults with females showing higher preponderance of 2:1 as compared to males. Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by various combinations of key features - Irritability, fear, Insomnia, Nervousness, Tachycardia, Inability to concentrate, poor coping skills, Palpitation, Sweating, Agoraphobia and Social Withdrawal. The anxiety disorders, including panic disorder (PD, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, social anxiety disorder (SAD, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, are among the disabling medical disorders. The neurobiology of anxiety disorders is not fully understood, but several different biologic abnormalities have been implicated in their etiology. The GABA, NE and 5HT systems play crucial roles in mediating the affective circuitry underlying the highly related clinical disorders of anxiety. Anxiety is a common psychiatric condition characterized by unnecessary aggression, poor quality of life, fear, worry, avoidance, and compulsive rituals that are associated with significant distress.

  16. Do girls really experience more anxiety in mathematics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Thomas; Bieg, Madeleine; Lüdtke, Oliver; Pekrun, Reinhard; Hall, Nathan C

    2013-10-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine gender differences in trait (habitual) versus state (momentary) mathematics anxiety in a sample of students (Study 1: N = 584; Study 2: N = 111). For trait math anxiety, the findings of both studies replicated previous research showing that female students report higher levels of anxiety than do male students. However, no gender differences were observed for state anxiety, as assessed using experience-sampling methods while students took a math test (Study 1) and attended math classes (Study 2). The discrepant findings for trait versus state math anxiety were partly accounted for by students' beliefs about their competence in mathematics, with female students reporting lower perceived competence than male students despite having the same average grades in math. Implications for educational practices and the assessment of anxiety are discussed.

  17. Test Anxiety among College Students with Specific Reading Disability (Dyslexia): Nonverbal Ability and Working Memory as Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Test anxiety and its correlates were examined with college students with and without specific reading disability (RD; n = 50 in each group). Results indicated that college students with RD reported higher test anxiety than did those without RD, and the magnitude of these differences was in the medium range on two test anxiety scales. Relative to…

  18. Reporting Bias in Clinical Trials Investigating the Efficacy of Second-Generation Antidepressants in the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders: A Report of 2 Meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, Annelieke M; de Jonge, Peter; Williams, Craig D; de Vries, Ymkje Anna; Schoevers, Robert A; Turner, Erick H

    2015-05-01

    Studies have shown that the scientific literature has overestimated the efficacy of antidepressants for depression, but other indications for these drugs have not been considered. To examine reporting biases in double-blind, placebo-controlled trials on the pharmacologic treatment of anxiety disorders and quantify the extent to which these biases inflate estimates of drug efficacy. We included reviews obtained from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for premarketing trials of 9 second-generation antidepressants in the treatment of anxiety disorders. A systematic search for matching publications (until December 19, 2012) was performed using PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Double data extraction was performed for the FDA reviews and the journal articles. The Hedges g value was calculated as the measure of effect size. Reporting bias was examined and classified as study publication bias, outcome reporting bias, or spin (abstract conclusion not consistent with published results on primary end point). Separate meta-analyses were conducted for the 2 sources, and the effect of publication status on the effect estimates was examined using meta-regression. The findings of 41 of the 57 trials (72%) were positive according to the FDA, but 43 of the 45 published article conclusions (96%) were positive (P antidepressants for anxiety disorders. Although these biases did not significantly inflate estimates of drug efficacy, reporting biases led to significant increases in the number of positive findings in the literature.

  19. Self-reported and physiologically measured dental anxiety, coping styles and personality traits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benjamins, C.; Schuurs, A.H.B.; Kooreman, T.; Hoogstraten, J.

    1996-01-01

    Studied the relationship between verbal-cognitive and physiological measures of dental anxiety, coping styles, and personality traits among 53 undergraduate psychology students (aged 18-31 yrs). Data were collected during 2 separate sessions. The 1st (stress) session involved continuous and

  20. Self-reported and physiologically measured dental anxiety, coping styles and personality traits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benjamins, C.; Schuurs, A.H.B.; Kooreman, T.; Hoogstraten, J.

    1996-01-01

    Studied the relationship between verbal-cognitive and physiological measures of dental anxiety, coping styles, and personality traits among 53 undergraduate psychology students (aged 18-31 yrs). Data were collected during 2 separate sessions. The 1st (stress) session involved continuous and simultan

  1. Self-Constructs and Anxiety Across Cultures. Research Report. ETS RR-09-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihyun

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the factorial structure of three related constructs, math self-concept, math self-efficacy, and math anxiety, across 41 countries. One factorial structure was achieved at both between- and within-country levels. Within-country variations of the self-constructs were also noted in relation to math performance: Self-concept showed…

  2. [Social anxiety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabel-Sarron, Christine

    2010-06-20

    Social anxiety disorders are various, frequent and invalidant. Social phobia is characterized by marked and persistent fear of social or performance situations in which embarrassment may occur including, for example, fear of public speaking. In clinical setting, the majority of social phobics report fears of more than one type of social situation. Social phobia tends to develop early in life, with a life time prevalence of 2-4%. Pharmacotherapy and behavioural and cognitive therapy are communly used.

  3. Anxiety symptoms and disease severity in children and adolescents with Crohn disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigada, Laura C; Hoogendoorn, Claire J; Walsh, Lindsay C; Lai, Joanne; Szigethy, Eva; Cohen, Barry H; Bao, Ruijun; Isola, Kimberly; Benkov, Keith J

    2015-01-01

    Children and adolescents diagnosed as having Crohn disease (CD), a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), have increased vulnerability for anxiety symptoms that may be related to disease-related processes. The aims of this article are 3-fold: to report the proportion of pediatric patients with CD whose self-reported anxiety symptoms are indicative of distress, to describe the constellation of anxiety symptoms, and to examine the relation between anxiety and disease symptoms. Retrospective medical chart review was performed for 93 youths with CD (ages 9-18 years) who had completed the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders during their gastroenterology visit. Medical records were reviewed for demographic and disease characteristics. the Harvey-Bradshaw Index (HBI) was used as a measure of CD activity. Thirty percent of the youths reported experiencing elevated anxiety symptoms (Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorder score >20), and 50% had scored above the cutoff in 1 or more anxiety domains, with school anxiety, general anxiety, and separation anxiety symptoms reported most frequently. Youth rated with moderate/severe disease activity on the HBI (n = 4) self-reported more anxiety symptoms compared with youth with inactive disease (n = 78, P = 0.03). Greater school anxiety was significantly associated with decreased well-being (P = 0.003), more abdominal pain (P < 0.001), and the number of loose stools (P = 0.01). Having extraintestinal symptoms was significantly associated with higher somatic/panic anxiety (P = 0.01). Implementing a brief anxiety screen in tertiary pediatric settings may be one approach to identify young patients with CD in distress. Health care providers should consider periodic assessment of school anxiety among youth with CD.

  4. Parental responsibility beliefs: associations with parental anxiety and behaviours in the context of childhood anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apetroaia, Adela; Hill, Claire; Creswell, Cathy

    2015-12-01

    High levels of parental anxiety are associated with poor treatment outcomes for children with anxiety disorders. Associated parental cognitions and behaviours have been implicated as impediments to successful treatment. We examined the association between parental responsibility beliefs, maternal anxiety and parenting behaviours in the context of childhood anxiety disorders. Anxious and non-anxious mothers of 7-12 year old children with a current anxiety disorder reported their parental responsibility beliefs using a questionnaire measure. Parental behaviours towards their child during a stressor task were measured. Parents with a current anxiety disorder reported a greater sense of responsibility for their child's actions and wellbeing than parents who scored within the normal range for anxiety. Furthermore, higher parental responsibility was associated with more intrusive and less warm behaviours in parent-child interactions and there was an indirect effect between maternal anxiety and maternal intrusive behaviours via parental responsibility beliefs. The sample was limited to a treatment-seeking, relatively high socio-economic population and only mothers were included so replication with more diverse groups is needed. The use of a range of stressor tasks may have allowed for a more comprehensive assessment of parental behaviours. The findings suggest that parental anxiety disorder is associated with an elevated sense of parental responsibility and may promote parental behaviours likely to inhibit optimum child treatment outcomes. Parental responsibility beliefs may therefore be important to target in child anxiety treatments in the context of parental anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Anxiety Disorders KidsHealth > For Teens > Anxiety Disorders A A ... Do en español Trastornos de ansiedad What Is Anxiety? Liam had always looked out for his younger ...

  6. 高职生考试焦虑状况及影响因素分析%Study on Test Anxiety and Influence Factors of Higher Vocational College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申鲁军; 杨磊; 罗艳艳

    2016-01-01

    为考察应对方式、心理弹性对高职生考试焦虑的影响,分析应对方式的中介作用,对596名高职生进行考试焦虑问卷(TAS)、特质应对方式问卷(TCSQ)、心理弹性量表(CD-RISC)测评。结果显示,高职生考试焦虑的检出率是49.329%,考试焦虑的性别差异具有显著统计学意义,但年级差异不具有显著统计学意义;消极应对方式与考试焦虑呈显著正相关;积极应对方式、心理弹性与考试焦虑呈显著负相关;应对方式对心理弹性与考试焦虑起部分中介作用。其结论是:心理弹性不仅对考试焦虑产生直接影响,而且通过应对方式间接影响考试焦虑,可以通过培养积极的应对方式和提高心理弹性能力来缓解高职生的考试焦虑。%To explore the effect of coping style and resilience on test anxiety of higher vocational college students and analyze the mediating role of copying style between them, this paper used the Chinese version of Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), trait coping style questionnaire (TCSQ )and test anxiety scale (TAS) to test the selected 596 higher vocational college students. Results showed that the detection rate of test anxiety was 49.329%. There was not a significant difference among grade, but significantly different in gender. There was significant positive correlation between passive coping and test anxiety, there was significant negative correlation between test anxiety and active coping, resilience; coping style was a part of the mediating role between resilience and test anxiety. Conclusion is that the resilience not only affects test anxiety of higher vocational college students directly, but also affects the test anxiety indirectly through coping style, and the test anxiety level of higher vocational college students can be reduced by developing positive coping style and improving resilience.

  7. Nonadherence to anti-HIV medication is associated with higher level of anxiety: Experience from a tertiary care hospital of Odisha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousumee Panigrahi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To correlate the level of anxiety with nonadherence to antiretroviral medication. Materials and Methods: This observational, cross-sectional, hospital-based study was conducted in 78 patients attending antiretroviral therapy (ART center of a tertiary care hospital of Odisha. The study duration was 6 months. Patients were designated as nonadherent by referring to the white card. Utilization of ART drugs and adverse drug reactions were included in a predesigned format. The anxiety level of all included patients was scored as per Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale. Mean anxiety score of the adherent group was compared with that of the nonadherent group. Possible causes of nonadherence leading to high anxiety level were evaluated. Results: 46% of patients in the nonadherent group had very severe, 17% had moderate to severe, 28% had mild to moderate and 9% had a mild level of anxiety. In the adherent group, however, mild to moderate level of anxiety was observed only in 10% patients. Conclusions: Anxiety is associated with sub-optimal medication adherence in HIV infected patients.

  8. Extended-release Methylphenidate Treatment and Outcomes in Comorbid Social Anxiety Disorder and Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: 2 Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyuncu, Ahmet; Çelebi, Fahri; Ertekin, Erhan; Kahn, David A

    2015-05-01

    Social anxiety disorder is frequently comorbid with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, treatment recommendations are not clear in the presence of such comorbidity. A few studies in the literature have reported improvement in symptoms of both disorders with treatment specific for ADHD (ie, stimulants and atomoxetine). In this report, we present cases of 2 adults with social anxiety disorder and ADHD who were treated with methylphenidate monotherapy. Both cases responded well in terms of not only their ADHD symptoms but also the social anxiety disorder symptoms. Methylphenidate was well tolerated with no significant side effects. More studies are needed to better establish the potential of ADHD medications to be effective for comorbid social anxiety disorder symptoms.

  9. Psychological intervention reduces self-reported performance anxiety in high school music students

    OpenAIRE

    Braden, Alice M.; Margaret Sarah Osborne; Wilson, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Music performance anxiety (MPA) can be distressing for many young people studying music, and may negatively impact upon their ability to cope with the demands and stressors of music education. It can also lead young people to give up music or to develop unhealthy coping habits in their adult music careers. Minimal research has examined the effectiveness of psychological programs to address MPA in young musicians. Sixty-two adolescents were pseudo-randomised to a cognitive behavioural (CB) gro...

  10. Psychological intervention reduces self-reported performance anxiety in high school music students

    OpenAIRE

    Braden, Alice M.; Margaret Sarah Osborne; Sarah J Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Music performance anxiety (MPA) can be distressing for many young people studying music, and may negatively impact upon their ability to cope with the demands and stressors of music education. It can also lead young people to give up music or to develop unhealthy coping habits in their adult music careers. Minimal research has examined the effectiveness of psychological programs to address MPA in young musicians. Sixty-two adolescents were pseudo-randomised to a cognitive behavioural (CB) gro...

  11. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety in Elementary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Gül Kapçı

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study examined the effectiveness of a school-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT program for school aged children with high levels of anxiety symptoms. Method: The study design was a randomized controlled trial (RCT comparing CBT to a waitlist-control condition. A total of 61 children (37 girls and 24 boys; age range 8-13 with high scores on either self-report or parental reports of anxiety participated in the study. The treatment group received 10 weekly sessions over three months that was administered using the Cool Kids treatment manual (Lyneham 2003. Outcome measures included parent-rated scales of anxiety and anxiety interference, and child self-report scales of anxiety, anxiety interference, depression and self-esteem. Both study groups were comparable at baseline for clinical and demographic variables. A mixed design ANOVA with pre-post treatment as within and CBT vs waitlist groups as between group variable was used for statistical analysis. Results: At post-test, CBT group had lower scores on anxiety, interference of anxiety and depression scales and higher scores on self-esteem scales of scholastic competence, social acceptance and behavioral conduct, but not physical appearance and athletic ability compared to the waitlist control group. Conclusions: The study presents empirical evidence for the effectiveness of a school based CBT Cool Kids program for reducing anxiety symptoms and increasing self-esteem in elementary school children. Future studies may examine the durability of treatment gains

  12. A Test of the Effects of Acute Sleep Deprivation on General and Specific Self-Reported Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms: An Experimental Extension

    OpenAIRE

    Babson, Kimberly A; Trainor, Casey D.; Feldner, Matthew T.; Blumenthal, Heidemarie

    2010-01-01

    Evidence indicates acute sleep deprivation affects negative mood states. The present study experimentally tested the effects of acute sleep deprivation on self-reported symptoms of state anxiety and depression as well as general distress among 88 physically and psychologically healthy adults. As hypothesized, the effects of acute sleep deprivation increased state anxiety and depression, as well as general distress, relative to a normal night of sleep control condition. Based on the tripartite...

  13. Mathematics Anxiety and Statistics Anxiety. Shared but Also Unshared Components and Antagonistic Contributions to Performance in Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Paechter

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In many social science majors, e.g., psychology, students report high levels of statistics anxiety. However, these majors are often chosen by students who are less prone to mathematics and who might have experienced difficulties and unpleasant feelings in their mathematics courses at school. The present study investigates whether statistics anxiety is a genuine form of anxiety that impairs students' achievements or whether learners mainly transfer previous experiences in mathematics and their anxiety in mathematics to statistics. The relationship between mathematics anxiety and statistics anxiety, their relationship to learning behaviors and to performance in a statistics examination were investigated in a sample of 225 undergraduate psychology students (164 women, 61 men. Data were recorded at three points in time: At the beginning of term students' mathematics anxiety, general proneness to anxiety, school grades, and demographic data were assessed; 2 weeks before the end of term, they completed questionnaires on statistics anxiety and their learning behaviors. At the end of term, examination scores were recorded. Mathematics anxiety and statistics anxiety correlated highly but the comparison of different structural equation models showed that they had genuine and even antagonistic contributions to learning behaviors and performance in the examination. Surprisingly, mathematics anxiety was positively related to performance. It might be that students realized over the course of their first term that knowledge and skills in higher secondary education mathematics are not sufficient to be successful in statistics. Part of mathematics anxiety may then have strengthened positive extrinsic effort motivation by the intention to avoid failure and may have led to higher effort for the exam preparation. However, via statistics anxiety mathematics anxiety also had a negative contribution to performance. Statistics anxiety led to higher procrastination in

  14. Mathematics Anxiety and Statistics Anxiety. Shared but Also Unshared Components and Antagonistic Contributions to Performance in Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paechter, Manuela; Macher, Daniel; Martskvishvili, Khatuna; Wimmer, Sigrid; Papousek, Ilona

    2017-01-01

    In many social science majors, e.g., psychology, students report high levels of statistics anxiety. However, these majors are often chosen by students who are less prone to mathematics and who might have experienced difficulties and unpleasant feelings in their mathematics courses at school. The present study investigates whether statistics anxiety is a genuine form of anxiety that impairs students' achievements or whether learners mainly transfer previous experiences in mathematics and their anxiety in mathematics to statistics. The relationship between mathematics anxiety and statistics anxiety, their relationship to learning behaviors and to performance in a statistics examination were investigated in a sample of 225 undergraduate psychology students (164 women, 61 men). Data were recorded at three points in time: At the beginning of term students' mathematics anxiety, general proneness to anxiety, school grades, and demographic data were assessed; 2 weeks before the end of term, they completed questionnaires on statistics anxiety and their learning behaviors. At the end of term, examination scores were recorded. Mathematics anxiety and statistics anxiety correlated highly but the comparison of different structural equation models showed that they had genuine and even antagonistic contributions to learning behaviors and performance in the examination. Surprisingly, mathematics anxiety was positively related to performance. It might be that students realized over the course of their first term that knowledge and skills in higher secondary education mathematics are not sufficient to be successful in statistics. Part of mathematics anxiety may then have strengthened positive extrinsic effort motivation by the intention to avoid failure and may have led to higher effort for the exam preparation. However, via statistics anxiety mathematics anxiety also had a negative contribution to performance. Statistics anxiety led to higher procrastination in the structural

  15. Mathematics Anxiety and Statistics Anxiety. Shared but Also Unshared Components and Antagonistic Contributions to Performance in Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paechter, Manuela; Macher, Daniel; Martskvishvili, Khatuna; Wimmer, Sigrid; Papousek, Ilona

    2017-01-01

    In many social science majors, e.g., psychology, students report high levels of statistics anxiety. However, these majors are often chosen by students who are less prone to mathematics and who might have experienced difficulties and unpleasant feelings in their mathematics courses at school. The present study investigates whether statistics anxiety is a genuine form of anxiety that impairs students' achievements or whether learners mainly transfer previous experiences in mathematics and their anxiety in mathematics to statistics. The relationship between mathematics anxiety and statistics anxiety, their relationship to learning behaviors and to performance in a statistics examination were investigated in a sample of 225 undergraduate psychology students (164 women, 61 men). Data were recorded at three points in time: At the beginning of term students' mathematics anxiety, general proneness to anxiety, school grades, and demographic data were assessed; 2 weeks before the end of term, they completed questionnaires on statistics anxiety and their learning behaviors. At the end of term, examination scores were recorded. Mathematics anxiety and statistics anxiety correlated highly but the comparison of different structural equation models showed that they had genuine and even antagonistic contributions to learning behaviors and performance in the examination. Surprisingly, mathematics anxiety was positively related to performance. It might be that students realized over the course of their first term that knowledge and skills in higher secondary education mathematics are not sufficient to be successful in statistics. Part of mathematics anxiety may then have strengthened positive extrinsic effort motivation by the intention to avoid failure and may have led to higher effort for the exam preparation. However, via statistics anxiety mathematics anxiety also had a negative contribution to performance. Statistics anxiety led to higher procrastination in the structural

  16. Social communication deficits: Specific associations with Social Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halls, Georgia; Cooper, Peter J; Creswell, Cathy

    2015-02-01

    Social communication deficits are prevalent amongst children with anxiety disorders; however whether they are over-represented specifically among children with Social Anxiety Disorder has not been examined. This study set out to examine social communication deficits among children with Social Anxiety Disorder in comparison to children with other forms of anxiety disorder. Parents of 404 children with a diagnosed anxiety disorder completed the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ; Rutter, M., Bailey, A., Lord, C., 2003. The Social Communication Questionnaire - Manual. Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles, CA). Children with a diagnosis of Social Anxiety Disorder (n=262) and anxious children without Social Anxiety Disorder (n=142) were compared on SCQ total and subscale scores and the frequency of participants scoring above clinical cut-offs. Children with Social Anxiety Disorder scored significantly higher than anxious children without Social Anxiety Disorder on the SCQ total (t(352)=4.85, pcommunication (t(344)=3.62, pDisorder were three times more likely to score above clinical cut-offs. The participants were a relatively affluent group of predominantly non-minority status. The social communication difficulties measure relied on parental report which could be influenced by extraneous factors. Treatments for Social Anxiety Disorder may benefit from a specific focus on developing social communication skills. Future research using objective assessments of underlying social communication skills is required. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Addressing Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salend, Spencer J.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that between 25% to 40% of students experience test anxiety, with students with disabilities and those from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds having higher prevalence rates. Since test anxiety impacts student well-being and the validity of the important educational decisions based on testing data, this article…

  18. The reported pain coping strategies of pediatric burn survivors-does a correlation exist between coping style and development of anxiety disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmer, Ruth Brubaker; Alam, Now Bahar; Bay, R Curt; Sadler, Ian J; Foster, Kevin N; Caruso, Daniel M

    2015-01-01

    Unresolved pediatric pain, both acute and chronic, has been associated with negative short- and long-term physical and mental health outcomes. This study sought to determine whether an association existed between self-reported pain coping skills and anxiety levels in a cohort of pediatric burn patients, and whether gender would influence their responses. The sample comprised burn-injured children in attendance at one of three mature burn camp sites. The self-report measures utilized included the 41-item Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders Child Version and the 39-item Pain Coping Questionnaire. Parental consent was obtained. A psychologist administered the measures. Participants included 187 youth, mean age 12.4 ± 2.4 years, girls (n = 89) boys (n = 98) with 67% reporting visible burn scars. Among boys, the use of Internalizing Coping Strategies was moderately correlated with elevated scores on Panic Disorder symptoms (r = .42, P Strategies was associated with elevated Generalized Anxiety (r = .51, P Strategies did not have any elevated anxiety scores. These findings suggest that burn-injured children, who employ Internalization as their pain coping strategy, may be more vulnerable to the development of long-term anxiety disorder, which, if left untreated may result in a negative psycho/social outcome. Applicability to Practice: Assessment of in-patient pediatric patients with the Pain Coping Questionnaire may help to identify children who are more likely to experience long-term anxiety. Future studies should seek to confirm these findings and determine whether improved pain management and early treatment of anxiety can help to diminish the long-term implications of unhelpful pain strategies and increased anxiety in burn-injured children.

  19. Self-reported social skills impairment explains elevated autistic traits in individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonge, Natasha A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Fernandez, Katya C; Lim, Michelle H

    2016-03-01

    Screening for autism in individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD) is complicated by symptom overlap between GSAD and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined the prevalence of self-reported autistic traits within a sample of participants with a diagnosis of GSAD (n=37) compared to individuals without a GSAD diagnosis (NOSAD; n=26). Of the GSAD sample participants, 70.84% self-reported autistic traits above a cut-off of 65 on the Autism Quotient-Short (AQ-S) and reported significantly more autistic traits on 3 of 5 AQ-S subscales compared to the NOSAD group. Diagnosis uniquely predicted variation in the social skills subscale above and beyond the other subscales and other predictors. Furthermore, variation in the social skills subscale largely explained group differences on the other subscales. Our results suggest caution in utilizing measures like the AQ-S with clinical populations characterized by social difficulties such as individuals with a GSAD diagnosis.

  20. Uncontrollable and unpredictable stress interacts with subclinical depression and anxiety scores in determining anxiety response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havranek, Michael M; Bolliger, Bianca; Roos, Sophie; Pryce, Christopher R; Quednow, Boris B; Seifritz, Erich

    2016-01-01

    According to learned helplessness theory, uncontrollable stress is assumed to be a critical etiological factor in the pathogenesis of depression. In contrast, unpredictability of stressors is assumed to facilitate the development of sustained anxiety. Despite the frequent co-morbidity of depression and anxiety disorders, these two factors have rarely been studied simultaneously in humans. Therefore, we investigated whether there are interaction effects of uncontrollability and unpredictability on anxiety response in healthy participants. Seventy-nine healthy participants performed a visual dot probe task with emotional faces, while receiving mild electrical shocks in four different conditions (2 × 2 factorial design). In (un)controllable conditions, participants were (not) able to attenuate shock intensity. In (un)predictable conditions, participants were (not) able to anticipate shock occurrence. Before the experiment, participants' subclinical depression and anxiety scores were measured using the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories (BDI/BAI). During the experiment, continuous skin conductance and self-reported state anxiety were assessed and attentional biases towards angry faces were calculated. As expected, participants showed greater anxiety in uncontrollable compared to controllable and in unpredictable compared to predictable conditions. Additionally, anxiety decreased within the test sessions in participants with low BDI/BAI scores but not in participants with higher BDI/BAI scores. Most importantly, controllability and predictability interacted with each other and with BDI/BAI scores with regard to anxiety. Our results provide evidence that uncontrollability and unpredictability of stressors not only have separate but also interaction effects on several anxiety measures in susceptible individuals and may provide insights into the psychological mechanisms underlying a depressive/anxiety co-morbidity.

  1. Anxiety about anxiety in medical undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Ashley; Warren, Rob; Neville, Fergus; Laidlaw, Anita; Ozakinci, Gozde

    2012-10-01

    Effective communication with patients is a vital ability for a doctor, and therefore training in communication skills forms an important component of the undergraduate medical curriculum. However, some medical undergraduates experience anxiety in communicating with patients and this makes it difficult for them to communicate with patients effectively. We developed workshops to equip students with skills to reduce communication-related anxiety, but turnout was low and only female students participated. This study investigated the barriers that existed to workshop participation in order to inform the development of future workshops. Semi-structured interviews with medical students who were completing their pre-clinical training (n = 16) were carried out. Interviews were transcribed and thematically analysed. Participants recognised symptoms of anxiety, and some reported experiencing it when speaking with patients. Participants acknowledged that the workshops would be useful to some students. Labelling the workshops as dealing with 'anxiety' contributed to non-participation, as students perceived their attendance as potentially showing weakness to fellow students and to medical school staff. Our findings indicated that the stigma attached to seeking guidance for communication-related anxiety is exacerbated for male students and by the competitive medical school environment. Attitudes towards 'anxiety' and experiencing anxiety can act as a barrier towards seeking support for communication-related anxiety. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  2. Evaluation of stress, anxiety and depression in parents of children with leukemia: brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Farhangi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer diagnosis is the biggest stress for the child and his family. Diagnosis and treatment of cancer in children can cause stress, which often has a negative effect on the health of parents. Psychological reactions such as anxiety, depression, denial and loss of confidence in parents observed that because of the fear of recurrence and future of children. This study aimed to determine the level of stress and anxiety and depression in parents of children with leukemia who were in the maintenance phase of treatment. Methods: This cross-sectional study has been conducted on 48 parents have referred to the clinic of Dr. Sheikh Hospital of Mashhad City, Iran, whom selected using easy sampling method. DASS-21 questionnaire was used for data collection. Another questionnaire containing demographic information such as age, sex, income, educational level and duration of illness was filled under supervision of the psychologist and pediatric physician. Data with SPSS software, ver. 20 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA, descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation analysis was performed. Results: The results showed that in this study, 37% had abnormal stress levels (33% and 2% of mild stress, moderate stress and severe stress 2% and 79% had abnormal anxiety level (mild 19%, moderate 31% and severe 29% and 67% had abnormal depression level (mild 33%, moderate depression 33% tests, respectively. In our study, there was no relationship between age, sex and duration of illness with these variables. Conclusion: According to this study, in addition to the classic treatment of patients, parent’s mental performance should be paid attention.

  3. Is Behavioral Regulation in Children With ADHD Aggravated by Comorbid Anxiety Disorder?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lin; Plessen, Kerstin J; Nicholas, Jude

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study investigated the impact of coexisting anxiety disorder in children with ADHD on their ability to regulate behavior. Method: Parent reports on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in a comorbid group of children with ADHD and anxiety (n = 11) were...... compared to BRIEF reports in a group of children with a "pure" ADHD (n = 23), a "pure" anxiety (n = 24) and a group without any diagnosis (n = 104) in a 2 (ADHD vs. no ADHD) x 2 (anxiety vs. no anxiety) design. Results: The children with ADHD and anxiety disorder scored significantly higher on the Inhibit...... children is aggravated by comorbid anxiety. (J. of Att. Dis. 2010; XX(X) 1-XX)....

  4. Anxiety and methylphenidate in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a double-blind placebo-drug trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshe, Keren; Karni, Avi; Tirosh, Emanuel

    2012-09-01

    To examine the relationship between attention and anxiety and the response to methylphenidate in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a total of 57 boys, between the ages of 7-12 years, were assessed for their attention and level of anxiety. Methylphenidate was administered for a week in a randomized double-blind drug/placebo-drug cross-over design. The levels of anxiety were evenly distributed between the inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive types. Anxiety was significantly correlated with the attention as reported by both teachers and parents. The response to methylphenidate was inversely correlated with the reported anxiety level only in boys with the hyperactive/impulsive and combined types. The higher the level of anxiety, the lower level of response to methylphenidate was observed. In the assessment and treatment of children with ADHD, the level of anxiety should be evaluated and taken into account while planning and monitoring treatment regiment.

  5. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for generalized anxiety disorder in older adults: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Afari, Niloofar; Ayers, Catherine R; Stoddard, Jill A; Ruberg, Joshua; Sorrell, John T; Liu, Lin; Petkus, Andrew J; Thorp, Steven R; Kraft, Alexander; Patterson, Thomas L

    2011-03-01

    Some evidence suggests that acceptance-based approaches such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) may be well-suited to geriatric generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The primary goal of this project was to determine whether ACT was feasible for this population. Seven older primary-care patients with GAD received 12 individual sessions of ACT; another 9 were treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy. No patients dropped out of ACT, and worry and depression improved. Findings suggest that ACT may warrant a large-scale investigation with anxious older adults. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder in Older Adults: A Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Afari, Niloofar; Ayers, Catherine R.; Stoddard, Jill A.; Ruberg, Joshua; Sorrell, John T.; Liu, Lin; Petkus, Andrew J.; Thorp, Steven R.; Kraft, Alexander; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that acceptance-based approaches such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) may be well-suited to geriatric generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The primary goal of this project was to determine whether ACT was feasible for this population. Seven older primary-care patients with GAD received 12 individual sessions of ACT; another 9 were treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy. No patients dropped out of ACT, and worry and depression improved. Findings suggest that ACT may warrant a large-scale investigation with anxious older adults. PMID:21292059

  7. Reducing barriers to energy efficiency in the German higher education sector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleich, J.; Boede, U.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the empirical research into barriers to energy efficiency in the German higher education (HE) sector. It is one of nine such reports in the BARRIERS project. The report contains description and analysis of six case studies of energy management in German universities. The results are analysed using the theoretical framework developed for the BARRIERS project (Sorrell et al., 2000). The report also provides brief recommendations on how these barriers to the rational use of energy (RUE) may be overcome and how energy efficiency within the sector may be improved. The results of the study for the higher education sector in Germany are summarised in this executive summary under the following headings: - Characterising the higher education sector; - Case studies of energy management in the German higher education sector; - Evidence of barriers in the German higher education sector; - The role of energy service companies in the higher education sector; - Policy implications. (orig.)

  8. A test of the effects of acute sleep deprivation on general and specific self-reported anxiety and depressive symptoms: an experimental extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babson, Kimberly A; Trainor, Casey D; Feldner, Matthew T; Blumenthal, Heidemarie

    2010-09-01

    Evidence indicates acute sleep deprivation affects negative mood states. The present study experimentally tested the effects of acute sleep deprivation on self-reported symptoms of state anxiety and depression as well as general distress among 88 physically and psychologically healthy adults. As hypothesized, the effects of acute sleep deprivation increased state anxiety and depression, as well as general distress, relative to a normal night of sleep control condition. Based on the tripartite model of anxiety and depression, these findings replicate and extend prior research by suggesting sleep deprivation among individuals without current Axis I disorders increases both state symptoms of anxiety and depression specifically, and general distress more broadly. Extending this work to clinical samples and prospectively testing mechanisms underlying these effects are important future directions in this area of research.

  9. Self-esteem, body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and social anxiety in a college sample: the moderating role of weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor

    2016-01-01

    To examine the relationships between self-esteem, body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and social anxiety, as well as to examine the moderating role of weight between exogenous variables and social anxiety, 520 university students completed the self-report measures. Structural equation modeling revealed that individuals with low self-esteem, body-esteem, and emotional intelligence were more likely to report social anxiety. The findings indicated that obese and overweight individuals with low body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and self-esteem had higher social anxiety than others. Our results highlight the roles of body-esteem, self-esteem, and emotional intelligence as influencing factors for reducing social anxiety.

  10. Death and dying anxiety among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Gigini, Ibrahim

    2010-04-01

    Death and dying anxiety were examined among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel. A total of 145 people aged 60 and over were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Nursing home residents reported higher death anxiety than others; women and uneducated participants reported greater levels of fear of death and dying than others. There were no differences based on religiosity. Death anxiety was related to gender and education for elderly living in the community, but social support and self-esteem were additional correlates for those living in nursing homes. The results of this study indicate that fostering a sense that one has a supportive social and familial network is important in decreasing death and dying anxiety among elderly Arab people. It would also be beneficial to provide information and knowledge that might relieve some of the anxiety they experience.

  11. Student teacher anxieties related to class management, pedagogy, evaluation, and staff relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, L L; Vesco, R; Williams, N H; Awender, M A

    1997-03-01

    Anxiety is an important consideration in teaching, with implications for classroom success. We investigated the nature of anxiety in student teachers. Approximately 1000 student teachers in Canada were involved in four studies to explore education-related anxieties. Incorporating a cross-cultural focus, student teachers were tested on an anxiety measure designed for British student teachers, then examined for (1) the impact of practice teaching, (2) the value of instructional preparation, (3) demographic variables, and (4) models that predict anxiety. Anxiety factors (i.e., evaluation, pedagogical, class management, and staff relations), similar to those for British participants, emerged with evaluation anxiety being highest. A practice teaching experience generated reduced anxiety for both sexes, but more so for females, with the greatest reductions for evaluation and pedagogical anxiety. In one study, participants reported anxieties prior to instruction (PRETEST), following instruction (POST-INSTR) and following practice teaching (POST-TEACH). Females showed higher anxiety ratings than males (PRETEST and POST-INSTR) but were comparable to males after practice teaching. Females in the lower grades division showed higher anxiety scores. Anxiety decreased between PRE-TEST and POST-INSTR for all four scales, and between POST-INSTR and POST-TEACH for evaluation, pedagogy and staff relations; however, class management anxiety did not decrease after practice teaching. Also, anxiety increased as placement grade level decreased. All models (demographic, experiential, and dispositional) were predictive but the best predictor was the psychological disposition to feel overwhelmed. Student-teacher anxieties are related to demographic variables, experiential variables, and dispositional variables.

  12. Science Anxiety among Form Four Students in Penang: A Gender Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Foo Lay; Tek, Ong Eng

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports a causal-comparative study of science anxiety among Form Four students in Penang. The Wynstra's (1991) Science Anxiety Inventory (SAI), which consists of six factors (i.e., danger anxiety, science test anxiety, math and problem-solving anxiety, squeamish anxiety, performance anxiety, and science classroom anxiety), was…

  13. The Supply of Part-Time Higher Education in the UK. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Claire; Birkbeck, Anne Jamieson; Mason, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    This report explores the supply of part-time higher education in the UK, with particular consideration to the study of part-time undergraduate provision in England. It is the final publication in the series of reports on individual student markets that were commissioned by Universities UK following the publication of the reports on the Future size…

  14. Item Banks for Measuring Emotional Distress from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS[R]): Depression, Anxiety, and Anger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkonis, Paul A.; Choi, Seung W.; Reise, Steven P.; Stover, Angela M.; Riley, William T.; Cella, David

    2011-01-01

    The authors report on the development and calibration of item banks for depression, anxiety, and anger as part of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS[R]). Comprehensive literature searches yielded an initial bank of 1,404 items from 305 instruments. After qualitative item analysis (including focus groups and…

  15. The impact of a multidimensional exercise program on self-reported anxiety and depression in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: A phase II study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Julie Midtgaard; Rørth, Mikael Rahbek; Stelter, Reinhard

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about the role of exercise in improving cancer patients' mood while undergoing chemotherapy. In this phase II study changes in self-reported anxiety and depression and fitness (VO2max) are reported in relation to a 6-week, 9 h weekly, multidimensional exercise program. A total of 91...

  16. The association between perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology and depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasing, Sanne P. A.; Creemers, Daan H. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental depression and anxiety is known to heighten the risk of internalizing symptoms and disorders in children and adolescents. Ample research has focused on the influence of maternal depression and anxiety, but the contribution of psychopathology in fathers remains unclear. We studied the relationships of perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology with adolescents’ depression and anxiety symptoms in a general population sample of 862 adolescent girls (age M = 12.39, SD = 0.79). Assessments included adolescents’ self-reports of their own depression and anxiety as well as their reports of maternal and paternal psychopathology. We found that perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology were both related to depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls. A combination of higher maternal and paternal psychopathology was related to even higher levels of depression and anxiety in adolescent girls. Our findings showed that adolescents’ perceptions of their parents’ psychopathology are significantly related to their own emotional problems. PMID:26257664

  17. Treatment of Anxiety Disorders and Comorbid Alcohol Abuse with Buspirone in a Patient with Antidepressant-Induced Platelet Dysfunction: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Mazhar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of abnormal bleeding with serotonin reuptake inhibitors has been known, but there is insufficient evidence base to guide pharmacological treatment of anxiety in patients with underlying haematological conditions. The following case report is about a 50-year-old female with generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, and alcohol abuse where pharmacological treatment of anxiety symptoms has been difficult as it would lead to bruising due to the patient’s underlying qualitative platelet dysfunction. Treatment with venlafaxine, citalopram, escitalopram, and clomipramine resulted in improvement and anxiety symptoms, as well as reduction in alcohol use, but pharmacological treatment has to be discontinued because of bruising and hematomas. In view of an active substance use disorder, benzodiazepines were avoided as a treatment option. The patient’s anxiety symptoms and comorbid alcohol abuse responded well to pharmacological treatment with buspirone which gradually titrated up to a dose of 30 mg BID. Patient was followed for around a six-month period while she was on buspirone before being discharged to family doctor’s care. Buspirone is unlikely to have a significant effect on platelet serotonin transponder and could be an effective alternative for pharmacological treatment of anxiety in patients with a bleeding diathesis.

  18. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PHYSICAL EDUCATION STUDENTS' MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES, ENJOYMENT, STATE ANXIETY, AND SELF-REPORTED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Yli-Piipari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze motivational profiles based on the self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 2000 and how these profiles are related to physical education students' enjoyment, state anxiety, and physical activity. The participants, 429 sixth grade students (girls = 216; boys = 213 completed SMS, Sport Enjoyment Scale, PESAS, and Physical Activity Scale. Cluster analyses identified two motivational profiles: 1 the "High motivation profile", in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2 the "Low motivation profile", in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation. The students in the first cluster enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active. The results revealed that students may be motivated towards physical education lessons both intrinsically and extrinsically, and still experience enjoyment in physical education.

  19. Statistics Anxiety and Instructor Immediacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amanda S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between instructor immediacy and statistics anxiety. It was predicted that students receiving immediacy would report lower levels of statistics anxiety. Using a pretest-posttest-control group design, immediacy was measured using the Instructor Immediacy scale. Statistics anxiety was…

  20. Statistics Anxiety and Instructor Immediacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amanda S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between instructor immediacy and statistics anxiety. It was predicted that students receiving immediacy would report lower levels of statistics anxiety. Using a pretest-posttest-control group design, immediacy was measured using the Instructor Immediacy scale. Statistics anxiety was…

  1. Countries with Higher Levels of Gender Equality Show Larger National Sex Differences in Mathematics Anxiety and Relatively Lower Parental Mathematics Valuation for Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoet, Gijsbert; Bailey, Drew H; Moore, Alex M; Geary, David C

    2016-01-01

    Despite international advancements in gender equality across a variety of societal domains, the underrepresentation of girls and women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) related fields persists. In this study, we explored the possibility that the sex difference in mathematics anxiety contributes to this disparity. More specifically, we tested a number of predictions from the prominent gender stratification model, which is the leading psychological theory of cross-national patterns of sex differences in mathematics anxiety and performance. To this end, we analyzed data from 761,655 15-year old students across 68 nations who participated in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Most importantly and contra predictions, we showed that economically developed and more gender equal countries have a lower overall level of mathematics anxiety, and yet a larger national sex difference in mathematics anxiety relative to less developed countries. Further, although relatively more mothers work in STEM fields in more developed countries, these parents valued, on average, mathematical competence more in their sons than their daughters. The proportion of mothers working in STEM was unrelated to sex differences in mathematics anxiety or performance. We propose that the gender stratification model fails to account for these national patterns and that an alternative model is needed. In the discussion, we suggest how an interaction between socio-cultural values and sex-specific psychological traits can better explain these patterns. We also discuss implications for policies aiming to increase girls' STEM participation.

  2. Effects of once-daily extended release quetiapine fumarate on patient-reported outcomes in patients with generalized anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endicott J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Jean Endicott,1 Henrik Svedsäter,2 Julie C Locklear21Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York, NY; 2AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, DE, USABackground: We evaluated the effects of once-daily extended-release quetiapine fumarate (quetiapine XR on patient-reported outcomes in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD.Methods: This is a report of a pooled analysis from three acute 8-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose (50, 150, 300 mg/day studies and a 52-week maintenance flexible dose (50–300 mg/day study of quetiapine XR monotherapy in patients with GAD. Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire Short Form (Q-LES-Q-SF percent maximum total scores (items 1–14, item 15 ("satisfaction with medication", item 16 ("overall life satisfaction", and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI global scores are reported. Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS total scores were also assessed (maintenance study only.Results: The acute studies showed significant improvements at week 8 in Q-LES-Q-SF percent maximum total score with quetiapine XR 150 mg/day (P < 0.001 and item 16 with quetiapine XR 50 (P < 0.05 and 150 mg/day (P < 0.001 versus placebo; PSQI global scores significantly improved with quetiapine XR 50, 150, and 300 mg/day versus placebo (P < 0.001. The maintenance study showed significant benefits versus placebo with quetiapine XR 50–300 mg/day in Q-LES-Q-SF percent total score, item 15 and item 16 scores, PSQI global score, and SDS total score.Conclusion: Quetiapine XR 150 mg/day (acute studies and 50–300 mg/day (maintenance study improved quality of life, overall functioning, and sleep quality in patients with GAD.Keywords: atypical antipsychotic, anxiety disorders, quality of life, sleep quality, functioning, randomized studies

  3. Beliefs regarding child anxiety and parenting competence in parents of children with separation anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herren, Chantal; In-Albon, Tina; Schneider, Silvia

    2013-03-01

    Despite the fact that numerous developmental models have highlighted the role of parental cognitive processes in connection with anxiety disorders in children and adolescents, the role of parents' beliefs about their children and parenting remains largely unexplored. This study investigated the specific association between parental beliefs and child separation anxiety. Parents of children with a diagnosis of Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD) reported on beliefs and expectations related to their child's fears and own parenting competence. To study the potential specificity of relationships, a clinical control group of mothers of children with social phobia (SoP) and a group of mothers of children without a mental disorder (healthy controls, HC) were included. Results indicated that parents of anxious children had significantly higher levels of dysfunctional beliefs than the parents in the HC group. Mothers of children with SAD showed lower levels of parenting self-efficacy than mothers of children with SoP. They also demonstrated lower parenting self-efficacy and satisfaction compared to mothers of healthy children. Parental dysfunctional beliefs about child anxiety and paternal parenting self-efficacy were significantly positively associated with child anxiety. The effects remained significant after controlling for parental anxiety and depression. Due to the cross-sectional design of the study, causality of the found effects cannot be inferred. Data suggest that children's anxiety and parents' beliefs about their child's anxiety, coping skills and parenting are strongly associated. Further research is needed to investigate whether addressing parental cognitions in addition to parents' anxiety may improve prevention and intervention of child anxiety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Higher Education in Kentucky. Final Report of the SCR 30 Study Committee. Program Evaluation. Research Report No. 222.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, Joseph; And Others

    A report on higher education in Kentucky is presented, with attention to governance, funding, tuition, financial aid, staffing and salary comparisons for administrators and faculty, enrollment, degree production, cooperation, and quality issues. The statutory organization of the Kentucky Council on Higher Education is specified, along with the…

  5. An Investigation into the Relationship between Anxiety and Stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Ashley

    1990-01-01

    In this study, 102 adult stutterers were assessed on state and trait anxiety before, and on trait anxiety after, intensive behavioral treatment. Results showed that persons who stutter have significantly higher levels of fear (trait anxiety) in a demanding speech situation and also higher levels of chronic anxiety (trait anxiety) than matched…

  6. Text anxiety in adolescents: the role of self-criticism and acceptance and mindfulness skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Marina; Paiva, Maria Jacinta

    2012-07-01

    The current study sets out to explore test anxiety in adolescent students. The effect of sociodemographic variables on test anxiety was controlled for and the relationship between test anxiety and other psychological constructs, such as self-criticism, social anxiety, acceptance and mindfulness, was examined. In addition, the predictive effect/power of these variables was analyzed and a comparative study between high and low test anxiety adolescents was conducted. Participants in this study were 449 high school students, 211 boys and 238 girls, with a mean age of 16.28 years. These participants completed a battery of self-report questionnaires composed by the Portuguese versions of Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI), Child Acceptance and Mindfulness Measure (CAMM), Forms of Self-Criticizing/Attacking and Self-Reassuring Scale (FSCRS), and the Social Anxiety and Avoidance Scale for Adolescents (SAASA). Results showed that gender, self-criticism and competencies for acceptance and mindfulness had a significant and an independent contribution on the prediction of test anxiety. The comparative study revealed that adolescents with high test anxiety score significantly higher in negative forms of self-criticism, social anxiety and lower in self-reassurance, acceptance and mindfulness, when compared to those with low test anxiety. Despite its exploratory nature, the current study adds to the existing knowledge on the influence of psychological processes, such as self-criticism and acceptance, on test anxiety. These findings might constitute a relevant contribution to psychological intervention with adolescents.

  7. HEMISPHERE PREFERENCE, ANXIETY, AND COVARIATION BIAS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Peter; MERCKELBACH, H; NIJMAN, H

    1995-01-01

    In Study I, normal subjects (N = 70) completed the Preference Test (PT), the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Anxiety Sensitivity Index. Subjects with a preference for a right hemisphere thinking style (as indexed by PT) were found to have higher state anxiety and anxiety sensitivi

  8. A Methodology for Sustainability Evaluation and Reporting in Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Ana C.; Carravilla, Maria Antonia; Oliveira, Jose F.; Costa, Carlos A. V.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology that allows higher education institutions (HEIs) to promote, to evaluate and to report on sustainability. The ultimate goal of the afore-mentioned methodology is to help HEIs achieve sustainability. First, a model entitled Sustainability in Higher Education Institutions (SusHEI) that generally…

  9. Sources of Fluctuations and Growth of Investment in Higher Education. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Walter W.

    A study was undertaken to apply family investment techniques and public expenditure analysis to problems faced in higher education, treating expenditures for higher education as an investment in human resources. The report is addressed to economists, policy makers, and educators and students, and is both technical and nontechnical in its various…

  10. A Management Control Perspective of Sustainability Reporting in Higher Education: In Search of a Holistic View

    OpenAIRE

    Ceulemans, Kim; Van Caillie, Didier; Molderez, Ingrid; Van Liedekerke, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Higher education institutions have been actively attempting to integrate sustainability in their curricula, research, operations, and outreach activities over the last decades. Despite the efforts undertaken, it is currently still challenging for their internal and external stakeholders to assess an institution’s sustainability-related activities and the extent of their implementation within the different activities of higher education. Since sustainability reporting in higher ...

  11. Anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms and disorders among Latinos in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garza, Monica; Valdivieso, Jeanette; Ortiz, Mayra; Bogiaizian, Daniel; Robles, Zuzuky; Vujanovic, Anka

    2015-05-01

    The present investigation examined the interactive effects of anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms and psychopathology among 143 Latinos (85.7% female; Mage=39.0, SD=10.9; 97.2% used Spanish as their first language) who attended a community-based primary healthcare clinic. Results indicated that the interaction between anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status was significantly associated with number of mood and anxiety disorders, panic, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms. The form of the significant interactions indicated that individuals reporting co-occurring higher levels of anxiety sensitivity and lower levels of subjective social status evidenced the greatest levels of psychopathology and panic, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms. The present findings suggest that there is merit in focusing further scientific attention on the interplay between anxiety sensitivity and subjective social status in regard to understanding, and thus, better intervening to reduce anxiety/depressive vulnerability among Latinos in primary care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Student anxiety in introductory biology classrooms: Perceptions about active learning and persistence in the major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Benjamin J; Brigati, Jennifer R; Schussler, Elisabeth E

    2017-01-01

    Many researchers have called for implementation of active learning practices in undergraduate science classrooms as one method to increase retention and persistence in STEM, yet there has been little research on the potential increases in student anxiety that may accompany these practices. This is of concern because excessive anxiety can decrease student performance. Levels and sources of student anxiety in three introductory biology lecture classes were investigated via an online survey and student interviews. The survey (n = 327) data revealed that 16% of students had moderately high classroom anxiety, which differed among the three classes. All five active learning classroom practices that were investigated caused student anxiety, with students voluntarily answering a question or being called on to answer a question causing higher anxiety than working in groups, completing worksheets, or answering clicker questions. Interviews revealed that student anxiety seemed to align with communication apprehension, social anxiety, and test anxiety. Additionally, students with higher general anxiety were more likely to self-report lower course grade and the intention to leave the major. These data suggest that a subset of students in introductory biology experience anxiety in response to active learning, and its potential impacts should be investigated.

  13. Preoperative anxiety in neurosurgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perks, Anna; Chakravarti, Sucharita; Manninen, Pirjo

    2009-04-01

    Anxiety is common in surgical patients, with an incidence of 60% to 92%. There is little information on the incidence and severity of preoperative anxiety in patients scheduled for neurosurgery. The aim of this study was to measure the level of preoperative anxiety in neurosurgical patients and to assess any influencing factors. After the Institutional Review Board approval and informed written consent, 100 patients booked for neurosurgery were interviewed preoperatively. Each patient was asked to grade their preoperative anxiety level on a verbal analog scale, Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale, and a set of specific anxiety-related questions. The anxiety scores and the responses to the questions were compared between the sex, age, weight, diagnosis, and history of previous surgery. The mean age (+/-SD) was 50+/-13 years. The preoperative diagnosis was tumor (n=64), aneurysm (n=14), and other (n=22). Overall verbal analog scale was 5.2+/-2.7; the score was higher for female (5.8+/-2.8) than male patients (4.6+/-2.5) (PAmsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale anxiety and knowledge scores were greater for surgery than for anesthesia. Questionnaire results showed that the most common anxieties were waiting for surgery, physical/mental harm, and results of the operation. In conclusion, our study showed that neurosurgical patients have high levels of anxiety, with a higher incidence in females. There was a moderately high need for information, particularly in patients with a high level of preoperative anxiety.

  14. Gender Atypicality and Anxiety Response to Social Interaction Stress in Homosexual and Heterosexual Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Roi; Cohen, Hagit; Diamond, Gary M

    2016-04-01

    Gender non-conforming behavior and a homosexual sexual orientation have both been linked to higher levels of anxiety. This study examined the independent and interactive effects of gender atypicality and sexual orientation on levels of state anxiety immediately following a stressful social interaction task among a sample of homosexual and heterosexual Israeli men (n = 36). Gender atypicality was measured via both self-report and observer ratings. State anxiety was measured via both self-report immediately subsequent to the stressful social interaction task and pre- to post task changes in salivary cortisol. Results showed that self-reported gender atypicality and heterosexual sexual orientation predicted higher levels of self-reported social interaction anxiety, but not changes in cortisol. There were no sexual orientation by gender behavior interactions and there were no significant effects for observer rated gender atypicality. These findings suggest that gender atypicality, not homosexuality, place individuals at risk for increased anxiety.

  15. Anxiety symptoms in Chinese and German adolescents: their relationship with early learning experiences, perfectionism, and learning motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essau, Cecilia A; Leung, Patrick W L; Conradt, Judith; Cheng, Halina; Wong, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare the frequency and correlates of DSM-IV anxiety disorder symptoms among non-referred adolescents in Germany and in Hong Kong. A total of 1,022 adolescents (594 from Germany and 428 from Hong Kong) between the ages of 12 and 17 years were investigated. Results showed that adolescents in Hong Kong reported significantly higher levels of anxiety symptoms than adolescents in Germany. Anxiety symptoms showed different correlates in different cultures. Specifically, academic motivational goals to compete to get good grades and to be rewarded for their performance correlated significantly with anxiety symptoms in Hong Kong. In Germany, anxiety symptoms correlated significantly with reinforcement received for anxiety-related problems (i.e., instrumental learning) and with parental verbal transmission about the danger of anxiety (i.e., informational learning). The findings underscore the importance of cultural factors on adolescent's anxiety.

  16. Fermented foods, neuroticism, and social anxiety: An interaction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilimire, Matthew R; DeVylder, Jordan E; Forestell, Catherine A

    2015-08-15

    Animal models and clinical trials in humans suggest that probiotics can have an anxiolytic effect. However, no studies have examined the relationship between probiotics and social anxiety. Here we employ a cross-sectional approach to determine whether consumption of fermented foods likely to contain probiotics interacts with neuroticism to predict social anxiety symptoms. A sample of young adults (N=710, 445 female) completed self-report measures of fermented food consumption, neuroticism, and social anxiety. An interaction model, controlling for demographics, general consumption of healthful foods, and exercise frequency, showed that exercise frequency, neuroticism, and fermented food consumption significantly and independently predicted social anxiety. Moreover, fermented food consumption also interacted with neuroticism in predicting social anxiety. Specifically, for those high in neuroticism, higher frequency of fermented food consumption was associated with fewer symptoms of social anxiety. Taken together with previous studies, the results suggest that fermented foods that contain probiotics may have a protective effect against social anxiety symptoms for those at higher genetic risk, as indexed by trait neuroticism. While additional research is necessary to determine the direction of causality, these results suggest that consumption of fermented foods that contain probiotics may serve as a low-risk intervention for reducing social anxiety.

  17. The effect of maternal psychopathology on parent-child agreement of child anxiety symptoms: A hierarchical linear modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affrunti, Nicholas W; Woodruff-Borden, Janet

    2015-05-01

    The current study examined the effects of maternal anxiety, worry, depression, child age and gender on mother and child reports of child anxiety using hierarchical linear modeling. Participants were 73 mother-child dyads with children between the ages of 7 and 10 years. Reports of child anxiety symptoms, including symptoms of specific disorders (e.g., social phobia) were obtained using concordant versions of the Screen for Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED). Children reported significantly higher levels of anxiety symptoms relative to their mothers. Maternal worry and depression predicted for significantly lower levels of maternal-reported child anxiety and increasing discrepant reports. Maternal anxiety predicted for higher levels of maternal-reported child anxiety and decreasing discrepant reports. Maternal depression was associated with increased child-reported child anxiety symptoms. No significant effect of child age or gender was observed. Findings may inform inconsistencies in previous studies on reporter discrepancies. Implications and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 高职护生考试应激源下焦虑及应激症状的调查%Investigate higher vocational nursing students' anxiety and stress symptoms under exam stressor.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芃; 赵岳

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨自然状态下学生考试焦虑、应激症状的变化及考试应激源下焦虑与应激症状的关系.方法:整群抽取天津医学高等专科学校护理系2010届8个班的护生,连续两次期末考试期间采用Sarason考试焦虑量表、考试应激症状问卷进行调查.结果:考试期间存在焦虑者更容易出现应激症状(P<0.05),学生第一次考试期间的焦虑程度高于第二次(P<0.05),学生第一次考试期间的应激症状程度高于第二次(P<0.05),Sarason考试焦虑量表与考试应激症状问卷之间呈正相关(r=0.522).结论:不良心理反应易使人产生应激症状,自然状态下随时间推移大部分学生焦虑及应激症状程度呈下降趋势.%Objective:Probing into students' exam anxiety stress symptoms variation and the relationship between the anxiety and the stress symptoms under natural state. Methods:Extract Tianjin medical college nursing department 2010 graduation 8 classes students by cluster sampling method to test by the inventory of Sarason exam anxiety and the questionnaire of exam stress symptoms during two continuous final exams. Results: Anxiety students has stress symptoms more easier than others ( P < 0, 05 ); the first final exam anxiety degree higher than the second one ( P < 0. 05 ); the first final exam stress symptom degree higher than the second one(P < 0.05) ;the relationship between the inventory of Sarason exam anxiety and the questionnaire of exam stress symptoms is positive correlation ( r = 0.522). Conclusion: Badness mental makes students produce stress symptoms, anxiety and stress symptoms degree descend to moet students under natural state.

  19. Relations of sex, age, perceived fitness, and aerobic activity with social physique anxiety in adults sixty years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanning, Beth A; Bowden, Rodney G; Owens, Robin; Massey-Stokes, Marilyn

    2004-12-01

    Self-reported physical activity, and perceived fitness were examined to assess their effects on social physique anxiety in a sample of older individuals (N= 249; M age=70.4 yr., SD=8.2). Participants reported their fitness as "average" to "above average." There were no significant effects of perceived fitness or age on social physique anxiety scores. The women had significantly higher social physique anxiety scores than the men.

  20. Empirical Study on Language Anxiety of Students of Science in Higher Vocational College%高职院校理工类学生语言焦虑现状的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查巍; 杨金丹

    2012-01-01

    This paper treated students of science from two different majors which studies in the same higher vocational college as subjects,used the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale(FLCAS) as the measurement,and thoroughly studied the students' language anxiety.The results showed that the students of science have quite low language anxiety and the anxiety level is significantly different between the two majors.%本文以某高职院校两种理工类专业学生为研究对象,利用Horwitz et al(1986)的外语课堂学习焦虑度测量表(FLCAS),深入研究高职学生外语学习焦虑情况。研究表明,高职理工类学生的焦虑度偏低,英语课堂学习焦虑与专业有统计意义上的显著性差异。

  1. Determination of students’ general test anxiety and their test anxiety concerning English classes

    OpenAIRE

    Çiğdem Hürsen; İbrahim Tekman

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the students’ general test anxiety and their test anxiety concerning English classes. The research was performed with 871 students. The results of the study reveal that students’ general test anxiety is in the boundaries of “rarely”. However, according to the results about students’ levels of test anxiety concerning English classes, their test anxiety level is in the boundaries of “sometimes”. Female students have a higher level of test anxiety and 15-18 ...

  2. Clinical report: the joint obstetric and psychiatric management of phobic anxiety disorders in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Roshni R; Hollins, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Women who struggle with distressing pregnancy-related phobic anxiety disorders are regularly encountered in maternity services, and their management poses particular challenges. Early identification is crucial in order to offer an opportunity to treat and manage their fears and enable a positive birth experience. In this article, women with different phobias (tokophobia, emetophobia and ante-cubital fossa phobia) describe their first pregnancy experience, and the ways in which the Chelsea and Westminster Hospital offered them joint maternity and psychiatric care. A multidisciplinary hospital-based approach can be effective in managing mental health problems in pregnancy. Despite maternal preconceptions and professional misgivings, this approach can work for women with phobias and enable a good birth experience and successful mother and infant bonding. The lead obstetrician for mental health and perinatal psychiatrist describe their roles in enabling successful outcomes for both the current and subsequent pregnancies. The case is made for training of maternity staff in both the identification of severe pregnancy phobias and the prompt referral for shared psychiatric and maternity care. Even if previous treatments have failed, adequate coping strategies for childbirth may be achieved in a short time frame. Long-term improvements in the phobia itself may also be found.

  3. Psychological intervention reduces self-reported performance anxiety in high school music students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, Alice M; Osborne, Margaret S; Wilson, Sarah J

    2015-01-01

    Music performance anxiety (MPA) can be distressing for many young people studying music, and may negatively impact upon their ability to cope with the demands and stressors of music education. It can also lead young people to give up music or to develop unhealthy coping habits in their adult music careers. Minimal research has examined the effectiveness of psychological programs to address MPA in young musicians. Sixty-two adolescents were pseudo-randomized to a cognitive behavioral (CB) group-delivered intervention or a waitlist condition. The intervention consisted of psychoeducation, cognitive restructuring and relaxation techniques, identification of strengths, goal-setting, imagery and visualization techniques to support three solo performances in front of judges. Significant reductions in self-rated MPA were found in both groups following the intervention and compared to their baseline MPA. This reduction was maintained at 2-months follow-up. There appeared to be inconsistent effects of the intervention upon judge-rated MPA, however the presence of floor effects precluded meaningful reductions in MPA. There appeared to be no effect of the intervention upon judge-rated performance quality. This study highlights the potential for group-based CB programs to be delivered within school music curricula to help young musicians develop skills to overcome the often debilitating effects of MPA.

  4. Psychological intervention reduces self-reported performance anxiety in high school music students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice M Braden

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Music performance anxiety (MPA can be distressing for many young people studying music, and may negatively impact upon their ability to cope with the demands and stressors of music education. It can also lead young people to give up music or to develop unhealthy coping habits in their adult music careers. Minimal research has examined the effectiveness of psychological programs to address MPA in young musicians. Sixty-two adolescents were pseudo-randomised to a cognitive behavioural (CB group-delivered intervention or a waitlist condition. The intervention consisted of psychoeducation, cognitive restructuring and relaxation techniques, identification of strengths, goal-setting, imagery and visualisation techniques to support three solo performances in front of judges. Significant reductions in self-rated MPA were found in both groups following the intervention and compared to their baseline MPA. This reduction was maintained at two-months follow-up. There appeared to be inconsistent effects of the intervention upon judge-rated MPA, however the presence of floor effects precluded meaningful reductions in MPA. There appeared to be no effect of the intervention upon judge-rated performance quality. This study highlights the potential for group-based CB programs to be delivered within school music curricula to help young musicians develop skills to overcome the often debilitating effects of MPA.

  5. LANGUAGE POLICY AND HIGHER EDUCATION IN SOUTHEAST ASIA, FINAL DRAFT OF CONSULTANT'S REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NOSS, RICHARD B.

    A FIELD INVESTIGATION FOR THIS REPORT WAS CONDUCTED FROM SEPTEMBER TO DECEMBER 1964 THROUGH THE FACILITIES OF THE JOINT UNESCO-IAU RESEARCH OFFICE ON HIGHER EDUCATION IN KUALA LUMPUR. IN FIVE OF THE EIGHT COUNTRIES COVERD BY THE REPORT (MALAYSIA, THAILAND, CAMBODIA, SOUTH VIETNAM, AND THE PHILIPPINES), IT WAS POSSIBLE TO MAKE "FAIRLY EXTENSIVE…

  6. Relationship of Death Education to the Anxiety, Fear, and Meaning Associated with Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Kim H.; Elfenbein, Morton H.

    1993-01-01

    Compared death anxiety and fear of death levels expressed by 29 college students who had completed death and dying course with comparison group of 74 students. Found that those enrolled in thanatology class reported significantly higher death anxiety at end of semester. Results suggest different effect that thanatology course can have on…

  7. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Rachel G.

    2009-01-01

    Because of their high prevalence and their negative long-term consequences, child anxiety disorders have become an important focus of interest. Whether pathological anxiety and normal fear are similar processes continues to be controversial. Comparative studies of child anxiety disorders are scarce, but there is some support for the current…

  8. Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A A What's in this article? What Is Test Anxiety? What Causes It? Who's Likely to Have Test Anxiety? What Can You Do? en español Ansiedad ante ... prevent them from doing their best on a test. continue What Causes It? All anxiety is a reaction to anticipating something stressful. Like ...

  9. Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Rachel G.

    2009-01-01

    Because of their high prevalence and their negative long-term consequences, child anxiety disorders have become an important focus of interest. Whether pathological anxiety and normal fear are similar processes continues to be controversial. Comparative studies of child anxiety disorders are scarce, but there is some support for the current…

  10. Parental anxiety in childhood epilepsy: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Chloe; Reilly, Colin

    2016-04-01

    The aim was to systematically review studies that have focused on symptoms of anxiety reported by parents of children (0-18 years) with epilepsy. PubMed was used to identify relevant studies. Selected studies were reviewed with respect to prevalence of above threshold scores and comparisons with controls on standardized measures of anxiety. Studies are also reported with respect to factors associated with parental anxiety, impact on child outcomes, and comparisons with studies that have included equivalent measures of symptoms of depression. Fifteen studies that met inclusion criteria were identified. None of the studies were population based. The percentage of parents scoring above cutoffs on standardized measures of anxiety was 9-58%. In comparison with parents of healthy controls, parents of children with epilepsy had higher mean scores in two of three studies where this was measured. Possible correlates of parental anxiety in childhood epilepsy that were considered varied widely across studies. Factors such as seizure frequency and use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have been associated with parental anxiety in some but not all studies. With respect to child outcome, increased parental anxiety has been associated with lower quality of life and lower scores on adaptive behavior domains. Symptoms of anxiety are common among parents of children with epilepsy. There is a need for more systematic, representative studies to identify the prevalence of clinically significant anxiety and track the course of symptoms. Such studies will help to identify more clearly factors associated with parental anxiety and impact of symptoms on child and parent outcomes. Intervention studies are needed to evaluate approaches that target a reduction in symptoms and the potential impact on parental and child functioning. Furthermore, there is a need to evaluate the impact of antiepileptic therapies and interventions that focus on child neurobehavioral comorbidities on parental anxiety.

  11. Anxiety and depression in adolescents with ADHD and autism spectrum disorders; correlation between parent- and self-reports and with attention and adaptive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsson, Maria; Hult, Nicklas; Gillberg, Carina; Särneö, Charlotte; Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva

    2017-08-24

    Adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at high risk of anxiety and depression. This is important to identify in the clinical assessment to understand its impact. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between parent- and self-reports of anxiety and depression in adolescents with ADHD or ASD, as well as the correlation with adaptive functioning and performance on an attention test. A total of 65 adolescents with an ADHD diagnosis (n = 24) or an ASD diagnosis (n = 41) filled out Beck Youth Inventories of Emotional and Social Impairment (BYI) to assess depression and anxiety and completed a Continuous Performance Test (QbTest) measuring ADHD symptoms. Parents of the participants completed the internalizing domain in the Five to Fifteen questionnaire (FTF), measuring symptoms of anxiety and depression, and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) about the adolescent's adaptive functioning. Approximately a third of the study group self-reported substantial internalizing mental symptoms not always recognized by parents, and not always obvious in adaptive function or performance at ADHD test. Correlations between BYI and FTF were low. The BYI depression inventory correlated negatively with VABS and positively with activity level in a subgroup medicated for ADHD. There was a stronger correlation between girls BYI and FTF results as compared with boys. The results highlight the need for identification of anxiety and depression, using both self- and parent report. Present anxiety and depression symptoms do not seem to affect the clinical assessment of ASD and ADHD.

  12. Anxiety and Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mae Wood

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is the first preventable cause of death. This is associated not only with physical illness and a shorter life expectancy, but also with different mental disorders such as anxiety disorders. Given the low risk perception of use, this paper reports a systematic review of the scientific literature on the relationship between anxiety and tobacco from an emotional perspective, including data on smoking prevalence, factors associated with the onset and maintenance of tobacco use, as well as those factors that hamper smoking cessation and increase relapse rates. The high rates of comorbidity between tobacco use and anxiety disorders make necessary the development of new and better tobacco cessation treatments, especially designed for those smokers with high state anxiety or anxiety sensitivity, with the aim of maximizing the efficacy.

  13. Electrophysiological evidence of the time course of attentional bias in nonpatients reporting symptoms of depression with and without co-occurring anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Sass

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety is characterized by attentional biases to threat, but findings are inconsistent for depression. To address this inconsistency, the present study systematically assessed the role of co-occurring anxiety in attentional bias in depression. In addition, the role of emotional valence, arousal, and gender was explored. Ninety-two nonpatients completed the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ; Meyer et al., 1990; Molina & Borkovec, 1994 and portions of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ; Watson, Clark, et al., 1995; Watson, Weber, et al., 1995. Individuals reporting high levels of depression and low levels of anxiety (depression only, high levels of depression and anxiety (combined, or low levels of both (control completed an emotion-word Stroop task during event-related brain potential (ERP recording. Pleasant and unpleasant words were matched on emotional arousal level. An attentional bias was not evident in the depression-only group. Women in the combined group had larger N200 amplitude for pleasant than unpleasant stimuli, and the combined group as a whole had larger right-lateralized P300 amplitude for pleasant than unpleasant stimuli, consistent with an early and later attentional bias that is specific to unpleasant valence in the combined group. Men in the control group had larger N200 amplitude for pleasant than unpleasant stimuli, consistent with an early attentional bias that is specific to pleasant valence. The present study indicates that the nature and time course of attention prompted by emotional valence and not arousal differentiates depression with and without anxiety, with some evidence of gender moderating early effects. Overall, results suggest that co-occurring anxiety is more important than previously acknowledged in demonstrating evidence of attentional biases in depression.

  14. Addressing the Declining Productivity of Higher Education Using Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. Stretching the Higher Education Dollar. Special Report 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Douglas N.

    2013-01-01

    Higher education productivity, as measured by academic degrees granted by American colleges and universities, is declining. Since the early 1990s, real expenditures on higher education have grown by more than 25 percent, now amounting to 2.9 percent of US gross domestic product (GDP)--greater than the percentage of GDP spent on higher education in…

  15. Addressing the Declining Productivity of Higher Education Using Cost-Effectiveness Analysis. Stretching the Higher Education Dollar. Special Report 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Douglas N.

    2013-01-01

    Higher education productivity, as measured by academic degrees granted by American colleges and universities, is declining. Since the early 1990s, real expenditures on higher education have grown by more than 25 percent, now amounting to 2.9 percent of US gross domestic product (GDP)--greater than the percentage of GDP spent on higher education in…

  16. Self-Efficacy, Test Anxiety, and Self-Reported Test-Taking Ability: How Do They Differ between High- and Low-Achieving Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuk, Jasna; Morse, David T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare high- and low-achieving undergraduate college students on selfefficacy, test anxiety, and self-reported test-taking ability. Eighty students from 2 sections of educational psychology course participated in the study; complete data were collected for 76 students. Before taking their first exam, students…

  17. Is Behavioral Regulation in Children With ADHD Aggravated by Comorbid Anxiety Disorder?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lin; Plessen, Kerstin J; Nicholas, Jude

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study investigated the impact of coexisting anxiety disorder in children with ADHD on their ability to regulate behavior. Method: Parent reports on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) in a comorbid group of children with ADHD and anxiety (n = 11) were...... compared to BRIEF reports in a group of children with a "pure" ADHD (n = 23), a "pure" anxiety (n = 24) and a group without any diagnosis (n = 104) in a 2 (ADHD vs. no ADHD) x 2 (anxiety vs. no anxiety) design. Results: The children with ADHD and anxiety disorder scored significantly higher on the Inhibit...... scale than children within the other three groups. Main effects of diagnosis appeared in ADHD children on the Inhibit, Emotional Control, and Working Memory scales, and on the Shift and Emotional Control scales in anxious children. Conclusion: The results indicate that a behavioral dysregulation in ADHD...

  18. Gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicts girls' and boys' trait-state discrepancy in math anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine eBieg

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics is associated with anxiety for many students; an emotion linked to lower well-being and poorer learning outcomes. While findings typically show females to report higher trait math anxiety than males, no gender differences have to date been found in state (i.e., momentary math anxiety. The present diary study aimed to replicate previous findings in investigating whether levels of academic self-concept was related to this discrepancy in trait versus state anxiety measures. Additionally, mathematics-related gender stereotype endorsement (mathematics is a male domain was investigated as an additional predictor of the trait-state discrepancy. The sample included 755 German 9th and 10th graders who completed self-report measures of trait math anxiety, math self-concept, and gender stereotype endorsement, in addition to state measures of anxiety after math classes by use of a standardized diary for 2-3 weeks (Nwithin = 6207. As expected, females reported higher trait math anxiety but no gender differences were found for state math anxiety. Also in line with our assumptions, multilevel analyses showed the discrepancy between trait and state anxiety to be negatively related to students’ self-concept (i.e., a lower discrepancy for students with higher self-concepts. Furthermore, gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicted the trait-state discrepancy: When controlling for self-concept in mathematics, females who endorsed the gender stereotype of math being a male domain more strongly overestimated their trait math anxiety as compared to their state anxiety whereas this effect was not significant for males. The present findings suggest that gender stereotype endorsement plays an important role in explaining gender differences in math anxiety above and beyond academic self-concept. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed.

  19. Gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicts girls' and boys' trait-state discrepancy in math anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieg, Madeleine; Goetz, Thomas; Wolter, Ilka; Hall, Nathan C

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics is associated with anxiety for many students; an emotion linked to lower well-being and poorer learning outcomes. While findings typically show females to report higher trait math anxiety than males, no gender differences have to date been found in state (i.e., momentary) math anxiety. The present diary study aimed to replicate previous findings in investigating whether levels of academic self-concept was related to this discrepancy in trait vs. state anxiety measures. Additionally, mathematics-related gender stereotype endorsement (mathematics is a male domain) was investigated as an additional predictor of the trait-state discrepancy. The sample included 755 German 9th and 10th graders who completed self-report measures of trait math anxiety, math self-concept, and gender stereotype endorsement, in addition to state measures of anxiety after math classes by use of a standardized diary for 2-3 weeks (N within = 6207). As expected, females reported higher trait math anxiety but no gender differences were found for state math anxiety. Also in line with our assumptions, multilevel analyses showed the discrepancy between trait and state anxiety to be negatively related to students' self-concept (i.e., a lower discrepancy for students with higher self-concepts). Furthermore, gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicted the trait-state discrepancy: When controlling for self-concept in mathematics, females who endorsed the gender stereotype of math being a male domain more strongly overestimated their trait math anxiety as compared to their state anxiety whereas this effect was not significant for males. The present findings suggest that gender stereotype endorsement plays an important role in explaining gender differences in math anxiety above and beyond academic self-concept. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed.

  20. Self-reported stigma and symptoms of anxiety and depression in people with intellectual disabilities: Findings from a cross sectional study in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Afia; King, Michael; Strydom, Andre; Hassiotis, Angela

    2015-11-15

    No studies have investigated the relationship between self-reported stigma and multiple health outcomes in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). The association between self-reported stigma and symptoms of anxiety and depression (psychological distress), quality of life, service utilisation and adherence to treatment were examined. Cross sectional study of 229 participants with ID (without mental illness) recruited from 12 centres in England. Self-reported stigma was positively associated with psychological distress, and number of contacts with services, particularly contact with community intellectual disability services and the police, and negatively associated with quality of life. It was not associated with adherence to treatment. Self-reported stigma was also associated with refusal of at least one service in the last six months. The relationship between stigma and quality of life and stigma and service use were mediated by psychological distress. The Cross-sectional design of this study prevents inferences being made about the direction of causality. IQ was not formally assessed but was based on clinical data. This study provides evidence that stigma may contribute to poor psychological health in people with ID, may be a burden on services due to higher service utilisation but may also prevent people from accessing appropriate services. Services should consider screening people at risk of psychological distress due to stigmatising treatment and provide appropriate support. There is an urgent need to develop evidence-based interventions to reduce societal stigma against people with ID and to reduce the impact of stigma when it is experienced by individuals with ID. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. 交际教学法降低高职学生课堂焦虑的实证研究%Empirical Research on Communicative Language Teaching Reducing Higher Vocational Students' Classroom Anxiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琴

    2011-01-01

    The empirical research on communicative language teaching(CLT) reducing higher vocational students' anxiety is carried out in two parallel classes in Linfen Vocational and Technical College in which the students' anxiety is at the same level.During the experiment,communicative English language teaching is applied in the model class while traditional teaching in the control class.With SPSS and Excel processing the data of pre-and post-questionnaires and oral tests,the experiment shows:1.EFL classroom anxiety is common among higher vocational students;2.it is negatively related to students' oral English proficiency;3.communicative language teaching helps to reduce anxiety and improve oral English.%本实验是在临汾职业技术学院两个焦虑水平相当的平行班进行的,一个为实验班,将交际法运用于其英语教学,一个为控制班,采用传统的英语教学。实验通过前测和后测问卷调查、口语测试来收集数据,实验数据经SPSS和Excel软件处理,结果表明:高职学生中普遍存在着外语课堂焦虑;外语课堂焦虑与口语水平呈负相关;交际教学法能够降低外语课堂焦虑,有助于提高学生口语水平。

  2. Association between anxiety symptoms and problematic alcohol use in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna de Abreu Costa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent, affecting approximately 10% of individuals throughout life; its onset can be detected since early childhood or adolescence. Studies in adults have shown that anxiety disorders are associated with alcohol abuse, but few studies have investigated the association between anxiety symptoms and problematic alcohol use in early ages. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if anxiety symptoms are associated with problematic alcohol use in young subjects. METHODS: A total of 239 individuals aged 10-17 years were randomly selected from schools located in the catchment area of Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. The Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED was used to evaluate the presence of anxiety symptoms, and the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST, to evaluate alcohol use. RESULTS: One hundred twenty-seven individuals (53.1% reported having already used alcohol. Of these, 14 individuals showed problematic alcohol use (5.8% . There was no association between lifetime use of alcohol and anxiety symptoms, but mean SCARED scores in individuals with problematic alcohol use was higher if compared to those without problematic use, even after adjustment for age and gender (29.9±8.5 vs. 23.7±11.8, p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the limitation of a cross-sectional design, our study suggests that anxiety symptoms are associated with problematic alcohol use early in life.

  3. Foreign language anxiety and self-perceived English pronunciation competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Szyszka

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In foreign language learning a negative correlation has been reported be-tween language anxiety and both oral performance (Liu, 2006; Stephenson Wilson, 2006; Woodrow 2006 and self-perceived levels of speaking ability (Kitano, 2001; MacIntyre, Noels, & Clement, 1997; Piechurska-Kuciel, 2008. However, little is known about the relationship between language anxiety and the way students perceive their own competence regarding one of the integral components of oral performance – pronunciation. The present study is an attempt to investigate the link between foreign language anxiety and the self-perceived levels of pronunciation of 48 teacher training college students, who study English as a foreign language. A negative correlation, r = -.54 (p < .05, was found between the level of their language anxiety and self-perceived English pronunciation competence, indicating that more apprehensive teacher trainees perceived their pronunciation as poor, whereas those with lower levels of anxiety declared higher pronunciation competence. Moreover, statistically significant negative correlations were noted between the levels of anxiety and self-perceived competences of several suprasegmental aspects of pronunciation, such as word pronunciation, stress, weak forms, rhythm, linking, and assimilation. The teacher trainees who rated their competence of these suprasegmentals more highly experienced lower levels of foreign language anxiety. The perception of segmentals, however, appeared to be unconnected with the participants’ anxiety.

  4. Associations between Screen-Based Sedentary Behaviour and Anxiety Symptoms in Mothers with Young Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Teychenne

    Full Text Available Anxiety is a serious illness and women (including mothers with young children are at particular risk. Although physical activity (PA may reduce anxiety risk, little research has investigated the link between sedentary behaviour and anxiety risk. The aim of this study was to examine the association between screen-based sedentary behaviour and anxiety symptoms, independent of PA, amongst mothers with young children.During 2013-2014, 528 mothers with children aged 2-5 years completed self-report measures of recreational screen-based sedentary behaviour (TV/DVD/video viewing, computer/e-games/hand held device use and anxiety symptoms (using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HADS-A. Linear regression analyses examined the cross-sectional association between screen-based sedentary behaviour and anxiety symptoms.In models that adjusted for key demographic and behavioural covariates (including moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA, MVPA, computer/device use (B = 0.212; 95% CI = 0.048, 0.377 and total screen time (B = 0.109; 95% CI = 0.014, 0.205 were positively associated with heightened anxiety symptoms. TV viewing was not associated with anxiety symptoms in either model.Higher levels of recreational computer or handheld device use and overall screen time may be linked to higher risk of anxiety symptoms in mothers with young children, independent of MVPA. Further longitudinal and intervention research is required to determine temporal associations.

  5. Anxiety, Mood, and Substance Use Disorders in Parents of Children with Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Alicia A.; Furr, Jami M.; Sood, Erica D.; Barmish, Andrea J.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2009-01-01

    Examined the prevalence of anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders in the parents of anxiety disordered (AD) children relative to children with no psychological disorder (NPD). The specificity of relationships between child and parent anxiety disorders was also investigated. Results revealed higher prevalence rates of anxiety disorders in…

  6. Recurrence of suicidal ideation due to treatment with antidepressants in anxiety disorder: a case report

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    Todder Doron

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This report describes a patient suffering from panic disorder who developed repeated suicidal ideation specifically due to the treatment with Venlafaxine. A first suicide attempt years ago occurred while being treated with Venlafaxine. Subsequent treatment with SSRIs or other antidepressants involved no suicidal ideation. Re-commencement of Venlafaxine four years later immediately led to a second suicide attempt. This unwanted effect subsided immediately after switching to another SNRI (i.e. Duloxetine. The case report underlines the importance of onset of suicide risk in panic disorders due to specific antidepressants.

  7. Financing Higher Education in Francophone West Africa. An EDI Policy Seminar Report, Number 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Angela

    Meetings were held in Senegal in 1985, in Cote d'Ivoire in 1986, and in Zimbabwe in 1987, concerning the current state of higher education finance in Africa, the structure of unit costs, and the role of development assistance agencies and other sources of financial support. Reports are presented concerning the macroeconomic perspective, internal…

  8. Status of anxiety in the patients with facial paralysis ( 56 cases report)%56例Bell's面瘫患者焦虑症状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳红

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨Bell's面瘫患者的焦虑状况及其相关因素.方法 采取汉密尔顿焦虑量表(HAMA)对56例已确诊Bell’s面瘫的患者进行评分,并将56例按相关因素分组,然后比较组间焦虑状况的差异.结果 Bell's面瘫患者有明确焦虑症状的49例,达到了87.7%,并且与患者性别、年龄、病程有关.女性患者较男性患者伴有焦虑症状的比例要高,<30岁的患者比≥30岁的患者更易发生焦虑,但面瘫严重程度与焦虑严重程度无相关关系.结论 Bell's面瘫患者有较高的焦虑症并发率,特别是年轻女性患者.而且应警惕轻度面瘫患者可能并发严重焦虑症状.Bell's面瘫诊治过程中应重视这类患者的心理问题.%Objective To explore the anxiety of the patients with Bell's facial paralysis and its influencing factors. Methods 56 patients with Bell's facial paralysis were rated with the Hamilton anxiety scale. All the patients were grouped by relevant factors, and the differences among the groups were compared. Results There were 49 patients (87.7% ) with obvious symptoms of anxiety, which was related to gender, age and the course of disease. The proportion of female patients suffering from anxiety was higher than the males. Patients less than 30 years old showed more severe anxiety ton those over 30. No correlation was found between the severity of facial paralysis and anxiety. Conclusion Anxiety was common in the Bell's facial paralysis patients, especially in young women. Patients with mild facial paralysis may be accompanied with severe symptoms of anxiety. More attention should be paid to psychological problems of such Bell's facial paralysis patients.

  9. [Emotion Regulation and Emotional Vulnerability in Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Peter; Iwanski, Alexandra; Çelik, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    From an attachment perspective, insecure attachment patterns in both infancy and adolescence are risk factors for the development of anxiety disorders in adolescence. Dysfunctional emotion regulation and biased social information processing are possible mediating processes. This study examines differences in emotion regulation, emotional vulnerability, and behaviour inhibition in adolescents with clinical diagnosis of anxiety disorder and healthy controls. Adolescents with anxiety disorder reported more maladaptive emotion regulation depending on the specific emotion and a higher incidence of reporting hurt feelings in social interactions. In contrast, behaviour inhibition did not explain additional variance. The results suggest that adolescents with anxiety disorders show a bias in the interpretation of social interactions as frequently emotionally hurting, and the use of dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies that minimize the possibility for effective social emotion regulation by close others or therapists. The results are interpreted within attachment framework.

  10. Anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craske, Michelle G; Stein, Murray B; Eley, Thalia C; Milad, Mohammed R; Holmes, Andrew; Rapee, Ronald M; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2017-05-04

    Anxiety disorders constitute the largest group of mental disorders in most western societies and are a leading cause of disability. The essential features of anxiety disorders are excessive and enduring fear, anxiety or avoidance of perceived threats, and can also include panic attacks. Although the neurobiology of individual anxiety disorders is largely unknown, some generalizations have been identified for most disorders, such as alterations in the limbic system, dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and genetic factors. In addition, general risk factors for anxiety disorders include female sex and a family history of anxiety, although disorder-specific risk factors have also been identified. The diagnostic criteria for anxiety disorders varies for the individual disorders, but are generally similar across the two most common classification systems: the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Edition (ICD-10). Despite their public health significance, the vast majority of anxiety disorders remain undetected and untreated by health care systems, even in economically advanced countries. If untreated, these disorders are usually chronic with waxing and waning symptoms. Impairments associated with anxiety disorders range from limitations in role functioning to severe disabilities, such as the patient being unable to leave their home.

  11. 高职高专学生的英语焦虑及其对策%A Study of Foreign Language Anxiety and English Learning Strategies for Higher Vocational and Technical Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张守锐

    2011-01-01

    在英语学习过程中,英语焦虑会对学习产生一定影响。由于高职高专学生的特殊性.英语焦虑对他们的影响尤其重大。因此,教师应当采取相应的措施,帮助学生缓解甚至消除英语焦虑的不良影响.改善英语学习方法,提高学习效果。%In English study, psychological factors, for example, English anxiety exerts great influence on language learning. Because the students of the higher vocational and technical colleges have their own characteristics which are completely different from those in the common universities and high schools, English anxiety has a greater impact on them. Therefore, the teachers should adopt flexible approaches to help students alleviate or release the negative effects from English anxiety, and enable them to improve the way of learning and learn English more independently and efficiently.

  12. 浅析高职学生英语学习焦虑及其应对办法%English Learning Anxiety of Higher Vocational College Students and its Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2015-01-01

    English learning anxiety suffered by higher vocational college students are mainly caused by self-de-valuation, poor communication skills, boring classroom teaching and serious test anxiety. Accordingly, efforts should be made in following ways to help students relieve their anxiety, namely improving teachers′teaching skills, establis-hing good relationship between teachers and students, respecting psychological needs of students, using evaluation mode correctly, advocating cooperative learning, reforming test models, etc.%学生自我评价不足、交际能力欠缺、课堂教学缺乏活力以及考试焦虑是形成高职生英语学习焦虑的主要原因,应从提高教师自身魅力,建立良好的师生关系,尊重学生心理发展需要,正确运用评价方式,积极倡导合作学习及完善考试办法等多方面帮助学生克服焦虑心理。

  13. Public Policies, Prices, and Productivity in American Higher Education. Stretching the Higher Education Dollar. Special Report 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptman, Arthur M.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid increases in what colleges charge and what they spend per student have been and remain one of the most controversial aspects of American higher education. Tuition, fees, and other college charges have increased in both the public and private sectors at more than twice the rate of inflation for over a quarter century. Trends over time in what…

  14. Public Policies, Prices, and Productivity in American Higher Education. Stretching the Higher Education Dollar. Special Report 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptman, Arthur M.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid increases in what colleges charge and what they spend per student have been and remain one of the most controversial aspects of American higher education. Tuition, fees, and other college charges have increased in both the public and private sectors at more than twice the rate of inflation for over a quarter century. Trends over time in what…

  15. Social Anxiety and Social Support in Romantic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Eliora; Chambless, Dianne L

    2017-05-01

    Little is known about the quality of socially anxious individuals' romantic relationships. In the present study, we examine associations between social anxiety and social support in such relationships. In Study 1, we collected self-report data on social anxiety symptoms and received, provided, and perceived social support from 343 undergraduates and their romantic partners. One year later couples were contacted to determine whether they were still in this relationship. Results indicated that men's social anxiety at Time 1 predicted higher rates of breakup at Time 2. Men's and women's perceived support, as well as men's provided support, were also significantly predictive of breakup. Social anxiety did not interact with any of the support variables to predict breakup. In Study 2, a subset of undergraduate couples with a partner high (n=27) or low (n=27) in social anxiety completed two 10-minute, lab-based, video-recorded social support tasks. Both partners rated their received or provided social support following the interaction, and trained observers also coded for support behaviors. Results showed that socially anxious individuals received less support from their partners during the interaction according to participant but not observer report. High and lower social anxiety couples did not differ in terms of the target's provision of support. Taken together, results suggest that social anxiety is associated with difficulties even in the context of established romantic relationships. Clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Blueprint or Blue Remembered Hills? The Relevance of the Robbins Report to the Present Reforms of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Presents opposing interpretations of the Robbins Report, stating that British higher education is still guided by its principles. Examines the report's influence on the size and shape of the higher education system, the character of higher education regarding teaching and research, and higher education's place in modern society. (GEA)

  17. Blueprint or Blue Remembered Hills? The Relevance of the Robbins Report to the Present Reforms of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Presents opposing interpretations of the Robbins Report, stating that British higher education is still guided by its principles. Examines the report's influence on the size and shape of the higher education system, the character of higher education regarding teaching and research, and higher education's place in modern society. (GEA)

  18. Effectiveness of Cannabidiol Oil for Pediatric Anxiety and Insomnia as Part of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Scott; Opila-Lehman, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Anxiety and sleep disorders are often the result of posttraumatic stress disorder and can contribute to an impaired ability to focus and to demonstration of oppositional behaviors. Case Presentation These symptoms were present in our patient, a ten-year-old girl who was sexually abused and had minimal parental supervision as a young child under the age of five. Pharmaceutical medications provided partial relief, but results were not long-lasting, and there were major side effects. A trial of cannabidiol oil resulted in a maintained decrease in anxiety and a steady improvement in the quality and quantity of the patient’s sleep. Discussion Cannabidiol oil, an increasingly popular treatment of anxiety and sleep issues, has been documented as being an effective alternative to pharmaceutical medications. This case study provides clinical data that support the use of cannabidiol oil as a safe treatment for reducing anxiety and improving sleep in a young girl with posttraumatic stress disorder. PMID:27768570

  19. Tomophobia, the phobic fear caused by an invasive medical procedure - an emerging anxiety disorder: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Markus

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Tomophobia refers to fear or anxiety caused by forthcoming surgical procedures and/or medical interventions. Case presentation We present the case of a 69-year-old Caucasian man who refused urgently indicated medical intervention because of severe tomophobia. Conclusion Due to the rising number of surgical interventions in modern medicine, as well as the high number of unrecognised cases of tomophobia, this common but underdiagnosed anxiety disorder should be highlighted.

  20. The Relationship between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL) Symptom Endorsement and Self-Reported Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    syndromal ” presentation of PTSD where criterion B was met and either criterion C or D but not both. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) symptoms were...disorders. Patient health questionnaire. JAMA 282: 1737-1744. 21. Sheehan DV, Harnett- Sheehan K, Raj BA (1996) The measurement of disability. Int Clin...depressive disorders. Med Care 26: 775- 789. 23. Coyne JC, Thompson R (2007) Posttraumatic stress syndromes : Useful or negative Heuristics? J Anxiety Disord

  1. Anxiety before extraction of impacted lower third molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazona, Beatriz; Tarazona-Álvarez, Pablo; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Rojo-Moreno, Juan; Peñarrocha-Diago, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Assess levels of trait anxiety, state anxiety and dental anxiety before extraction of lower third molars and check the correlation and reliability of the scales used for the measurement of preoperative anxiety. A prospective study of patients treated with extraction of a lower third molar between September 2010 to December 2010 was carried out. A total of 125 patients were included in the study. All of them were patients of the Oral Surgery and Implantology Department (Valencia University Medical and Dental School, Valencia, Spain). Before surgery, patients had to complete a preoperative protocol with 4 scales: the STAI-T (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait) for measuring trait anxiety, the STAI-S (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-State) for measuring state anxiety, and DAS (Dental anxiety Scale of N. Corah) and APAIS (Amsterdam Preoperative anxiety and Information Scale) for measuring dental anxiety. Patients undergoing extractions of an impacted lower third molar showed low levels of trait anxiety and moderate levels of state anxiety and dental anxiety. Higher levels of trait anxiety were obtained for older patients. Women had higher mean levels of dental anxiety and state anxiety that men with a statistically significant difference in STAI-S scales, DAS, and APAIS. Patients with higher trait anxiety and state anxiety showed higher levels of dental anxiety. A significant correlation (p ≤ 0.01) (p = 0.00) was found between the four scales used to measure anxiety. The scale showed higher correlation was STAI-S scale. The 4 scales showed high reliability (α of C.> 0.80). Patients with highest levels of trait anxiety and state anxiety, had more dental anxiety. The STAI-T, STAI-S, DAS and APAIS scales provided useful information about anxiety before the extraction of lower impacted third molars. The STAI-S is the scale with highest correlation and reliability.

  2. Modeling the longitudinal latent effect of pregabalin on self-reported changes in sleep disturbances in outpatients with generalized anxiety disorder managed in routine clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz MA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Miguel A Ruiz,1 Enrique Álvarez,2 Jose L Carrasco,3 José M Olivares,4 María Pérez,5 Javier Rejas6 1Department of Methodology, School of Psychology, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, 2Department of Psychiatry, Hospital de la Santa Creu i San Pau, Barcelona, 3Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, 4Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Meixoeiro, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario, Vigo, 5Medical Department, Pfizer, S.L.U., Alcobendas, Madrid, 6Health Economics and Outcomes Research Department, Pfizer, S.L.U., Alcobendas, Madrid, Spain Background: Anxiety disorders are among the most common psychiatric illnesses, with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD being one of the most common. Sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in GAD patients. While treatment with pregabalin has been found to be associated with significant improvement in GAD-related sleep disturbance across many controlled clinical trials, mediational analysis has suggested that a substantial portion of this effect could be the result of a direct effect of pregabalin. Thus, the objective of this study was to model the longitudinal latent effect of pregabalin or usual care (UC therapies on changes in sleep in outpatients with GAD under routine clinical practice. Methods: Male and female GAD outpatients, aged 18 years or above, from a 6-month prospective noninterventional trial were analyzed. Direct and indirect effects of either pregabalin or UC changes in anxiety symptoms (assessed with Hamilton Anxiety Scale and sleep disturbances (assessed with Medical Outcomes Study-Sleep Scale [MOS-S] were estimated by a conditional latent curve model applying structural equation modeling. Results: A total of 1,546 pregabalin-naïve patients were analyzed, 984 receiving pregabalin and 562 UC. Both symptoms of anxiety and sleep disturbances were significantly improved in both groups, with higher mean (95% confidence interval score reductions in subjects receiving

  3. Reliability and convergent validity of the Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Isolan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and the convergent validity of the Children Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI with DSM-IV anxiety disorder symptoms, by comparison with the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED, in a community sample of Brazilian children and adolescents. METHODS: Children and adolescents from five schools were selected from a larger study that aimed to assess different aspects of childhood anxiety disorders. All participants completed the CASI and the SCARED. RESULTS: This study supported the reliability of the CASI total score. Girls reported higher total anxiety sensitivity scores than boys and there were no differences in total anxiety sensitivity scores between children and adolescents. This study showed moderate to high correlations between the CASI scores with SCARED scores, all correlations coefficients being positive and significant. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate an appropriate reliability and evidence of convergent validity in the CASI in a sample of Brazilian children and adolescents.

  4. Cyberchondriasis: fact or fiction? A preliminary examination of the relationship between health anxiety and searching for health information on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muse, Kate; McManus, Freda; Leung, Christie; Meghreblian, Ben; Williams, J Mark G

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between health anxiety and searching for health information online, a phenomenon dubbed 'cyberchondria'. The majority of those with 'high' (n=46) and 'low' (n=36) levels of health anxiety reported seeking health information online. However, those with higher levels of health anxiety sought online health information more frequently, spent longer searching, and found searching more distressing and anxiety provoking. Furthermore, more responses in the high than low health anxiety group related to searching for information on diagnosed and undiagnosed medical conditions, descriptions of others' experiences of illnesses and using message boards/support groups, although the largest proportion of responses in both groups was accounted for by seeking information on symptoms. Linear regression (n=167) revealed significant relationships between health anxiety and the frequency, duration and distress and anxiety associated with searching for health information online. This preliminary data suggests that searching for health information online may exacerbate health anxiety. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A parent-report measure of children's anxiety : psychometric properties and comparison with child-report in a clinic and normal sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, MH; Scholing, A; Rapee, RM; Abbott, M; Spence, SH; Waters, A

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the parent version of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS-P); 484 parents of anxiety disordered children and 261 parents in a normal control group participated in the study. Results of confirmatory factor analysis provided support for six inte

  6. A Conceptual Model of Cultural Predictors of Anxiety among Japanese American and Part-Japanese American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John Kino Yamaguchi; Goebert, Deborah; Hishinuma, Earl; Miyamoto, Robin; Anzai, Neal; Izutsu, Satoru; Yanagida, Evelyn; Nishimura, Stephanie; Andrade, Naleen; Baker, F. M.

    2002-01-01

    Develops and assesses a model integrating Japanese ethnicity, cultural identity, and anxiety in Japanese American and part-Japanese American high school seniors. Japanese American adolescents scored higher on the scale and reported fewer anxiety symptoms than part-Japanese American adolescents. The model had a good overall fit, suggesting that…

  7. The Negative Impact of Death Anxiety on Self-Efficacy and Willingness to Donate Organs among Chinese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anise M. S.; Tang, Catherine So-Kum

    2009-01-01

    Chinese people are consistently reported to be less likely to commit to posthumous organ donation than the Westerners. This study aims at investigating how death anxiety may hinder them from expressing their willingness to donate organs. Among 290 Hong Kong Chinese adults (age greater than or equal 25 years), a higher level of death anxiety was…

  8. Valerian for anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaka, L S; Atallah, A N; Soares, B G O

    2006-10-18

    valerian and placebo groups in HAM-A total scores, or in somatic and psychic factor scores. Similarly, there were no significant differences in HAM-A scores between the valerian and diazepam groups, although based on STAI-Trait scores, significantly greater symptom improvement was indicated in the diazepam group. There were no significant differences between the three groups in the number of patients reporting side effects or in dropout rates. Since only one small study is currently available, there is insufficient evidence to draw any conclusions about the efficacy or safety of valerian compared with placebo or diazepam for anxiety disorders. RCTs involving larger samples and comparing valerian with placebo or other interventions used to treat of anxiety disorders, such as antidepressants, are needed.

  9. Comorbidity of anxiety disorders with anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Walter H; Bulik, Cynthia M; Thornton, Laura; Barbarich, Nicole; Masters, Kim

    2004-12-01

    A large and well-characterized sample of individuals with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa from the Price Foundation collaborative genetics study was used to determine the frequency of anxiety disorders and to understand how anxiety disorders are related to state of eating disorder illness and age at onset. Ninety-seven individuals with anorexia nervosa, 282 with bulimia nervosa, and 293 with anorexia nervosa and bulimia were given the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders and standardized measures of anxiety, perfectionism, and obsessionality. Their ratings on these measures were compared with those of a nonclinical group of women in the community. The rates of most anxiety disorders were similar in all three subtypes of eating disorders. About two-thirds of the individuals with eating disorders had one or more lifetime anxiety disorder; the most common were obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (N=277 [41%]) and social phobia (N=134 [20%]). A majority of the participants reported the onset of OCD, social phobia, specific phobia, and generalized anxiety disorder in childhood, before they developed an eating disorder. People with a history of an eating disorder who were not currently ill and never had a lifetime anxiety disorder diagnosis still tended to be anxious, perfectionistic, and harm avoidant. The presence of either an anxiety disorder or an eating disorder tended to exacerbate these symptoms. The prevalence of anxiety disorders in general and OCD in particular was much higher in people with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa than in a nonclinical group of women in the community. Anxiety disorders commonly had their onset in childhood before the onset of an eating disorder, supporting the possibility they are a vulnerability factor for developing anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa.

  10. A Survey on the Career Selection Anxiety of Rural Graduates from Higher Vocational Colleges%高职院校农村毕业生择业焦虑调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金蓓蕾

    2014-01-01

    为研究高职院校应届农村毕业生择业焦虑的现状、成因及对策,以 SAS 焦虑自评量表和自编问卷为工具,随机抽取5所高职院校应届毕业生447人,调查发现:影响农村毕业生择业焦虑的主要因素是就业环境、职业预期、求职技能,其余依次为职业能力、求职资源、一般能力。据此,提出五点应对策略:加强对农村毕业生就业指导和职业生涯规划教育、择业心理辅导、社会-家庭支持和社会实践与实习指导,以缓解农村毕业生的择业焦虑。%This article randomly selected 447 graduates from 5 higher vocational colleges as subjects by using the SAS Self Rating Anxiety Scale and Self-Questionnaire Survey to study the status, factors and countermeasures of anxiety about career selections of rural graduates in higher vocational colleges. It found that the major factors involve employment environment and occupation expectation, followed by job skills, abilities, job resources and general capabilities. It thus put forward such suggestions as intensifying educational work on employment guidance and career planning, facilitating the mental tutorship for career selections, and making full use of social and family support to relieve rural graduates’ anxiety in career selections.

  11. Anxiety sensitivity and nonmedical benzodiazepine use among adults with opioid use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, R Kathryn; Votaw, Victoria R; Bogunovic, Olivera; Karakula, Sterling L; Griffin, Margaret L; Weiss, Roger D

    2017-02-01

    Nonmedical benzodiazepine use is common among adults with opioid use disorder; however, little is known about this co-occurrence. Anxiety sensitivity-the fear of anxiety symptoms and sensations-motivates behaviors to escape and avoid distressing states, and accordingly is associated with coping motives for substance use. This might be particularly relevant among women, who report using substances to cope with negative emotions more often than men. The aim of the current study was to examine whether nonmedical benzodiazepine use was associated with higher anxiety sensitivity among treatment-seeking adults diagnosed with opioid use disorder, and to investigate whether gender moderated this association. A sample of adults (ranging in age from 18 to 81years) receiving inpatient treatment for opioid use disorder (N=257) completed measures of anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and benzodiazepine use frequency. Results of an analysis of variance indicated that frequency of past-month nonmedical benzodiazepine use was associated with significantly higher anxiety sensitivity. This effect remained when controlling for the effect of anxiety symptoms (F[1, 251]=3.91, p=0.049, ηp(2)=0.02). Gender moderated this association, and post-hoc analyses found a strong association between nonmedical benzodiazepine use and anxiety sensitivity in women, and not men. Anxiety sensitivity, which can be reduced with treatment, might be a candidate therapeutic target in this population, particularly in women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pregnancy anxiety and prenatal cortisol trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Heidi S; Dunkel Schetter, Christine; Glynn, Laura M; Hobel, Calvin J; Sandman, Curt A

    2014-07-01

    Pregnancy anxiety is a potent predictor of adverse birth and infant outcomes. The goal of the current study was to examine one potential mechanism whereby these effects may occur by testing associations between pregnancy anxiety and maternal salivary cortisol on 4 occasions during pregnancy in a sample of 448 women. Higher mean levels of pregnancy anxiety over the course of pregnancy predicted steeper increases in cortisol trajectories compared to lower pregnancy anxiety. Significant differences between cortisol trajectories emerged between 30 and 31 weeks of gestation. Results remained significant when adjusted for state anxiety and perceived stress. Neither changes in pregnancy anxiety over gestation, nor pregnancy anxiety specific to only a particular time in pregnancy predicted cortisol. These findings provide support for one way in which pregnancy anxiety may influence maternal physiology and contribute to a growing literature on the complex biological pathways linking pregnancy anxiety to birth and infant outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Developmental trajectories of anxiety symptoms in early adolescence: the influence of anxiety sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Nicholas P; Capron, Daniel W; Lejuez, Carl W; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; MacPherson, Laura; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-05-01

    Children and adolescents seem to suffer from anxiety disorders at rates similar to adults. Interestingly, anxiety symptoms appear to generally decline over time within children as evidenced by lower rates in early and middle adolescence. There is some evidence that there may be heterogeneous subpopulations of adolescent children with different trajectories of anxiety symptoms, including a class of adolescents with elevated levels of anxiety that do not dissipate over time. Anxiety sensitivity has been identified as an important risk factor in the development of anxiety psychopathology. This study prospectively examined the development of anxiety symptoms in a sample of 277 adolescents (M age = 11.52; 44 % female, 56 % male) over a 3 year period including the influence of anxiety sensitivity on this development. Further, this study investigated whether there were distinct classes of adolescents based on their anxiety symptom trajectories and including anxiety sensitivity as a predictor. Consistent with other reports, findings indicated an overall decline in anxiety symptoms over time in the sample. However, three classes of adolescents were found with distinct anxiety symptom trajectories and anxiety sensitivity was an important predictor of class membership. Adolescents with elevated anxiety sensitivity scores were more likely to be classified as having high and increasing anxiety symptoms over time versus having moderate to low and decreasing anxiety symptoms over time. There are important implications for identification of adolescents and children who are at risk for the development of an anxiety disorder.

  14. Family orientation, language, and anxiety among low-income Latino youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, William; Polo, Antonio J; Carter, Jocelyn Smith

    2012-05-01

    There is emerging evidence that Latino youth report higher levels of anxiety symptoms than children from other ethnic groups. Although often implicated, cultural variables have not been systematically evaluated to determine their relationship to anxiety symptoms in Latino youth. The present study examined family orientation values, as measured by family obligation and affiliative obedience, and their relationship to youth anxiety symptoms. The sample consisted of 133 Latino students (grades 5th through 7th) of low-income backgrounds in an urban public school setting. Structural equation models revealed that higher family orientation was associated with separation anxiety/panic (β=.32) and harm avoidance (β=.51). Models employing language proficiency and use mirrored those employing family orientation, suggesting that language fluency captures, in part, family socialization values. The results provide support for the impact of culture in the assessment and specific needs of Latino youth with anxiety problems.

  15. A comparison of externality, anxiety, and life satisfaction in two aged populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, L; Freitag, C B

    1978-01-01

    An attempt was made to find the relationship between locus of control, anxiety, and life satisfaction and to assess the impact of environmental factors upon these variables in two distinct elderly populations (20 nursing home residents and 20 active elderly). It was hypothesized that internality would be positively correlated with low anxiety and high life satisfaction and that the active elderly group would score higher on internality and life satisfaction and lower on anxiety than the nursing home group. Assessment instruments included a revision of Rotter's I-E Scale, questions from certain MMPI scales, and a life satisfaction questionnaire. Results showed significant correlations between the three measures of locus control, anxiety, and life satisfaction in the nursing home group but not in the active elderly group. As predicted, the active elderly were more internal (p less than .05), showed higher life satisfaction (p less than .01), and reported less anxiety (p less than .01) than the nursing home group.

  16. Military service member and veteran self reports of efficacy of cranial electrotherapy stimulation for anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, insomnia, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Daniel L; Price, Larry R; Nichols, Francine; Marksberry, Jeffrey A; Platoni, Katherine T

    2014-01-01

    Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) is being prescribed for service members and veterans for the treatment of anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), insomnia and depression. The purpose of this study was to examine service members' and veterans' perceptions of the effectiveness and safety of CES treatment. Service members and veterans (N=1,514) who had obtained a CES device through the Department of Defense or Veterans Affairs Medical Center from 2006-2011 were invited to participate in the web based survey via email. One hundred fifty-two participants returned questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Participants reported clinical improvement of 25% or more from using CES for anxiety (66.7%), PTSD (62.5%), insomnia (65.3%) and depression (53.9%). The majority of these participants reported clinical improvement of 50% or more. Respondents also perceived CES to be safe (99.0%). Those individuals who were not taking any prescription medication rated CES more effective than the combined CES and prescription medication group. CES provides service members and veterans with a safe, noninvasive, nondrug, easy to use treatment for anxiety, PTSD, insomnia, and depression that can be used in the clinical setting or self-directed at home.

  17. A case report demonstrating the efficacy of a comprehensive cognitive-behavioral therapy approach for treating anxiety, depression, and problematic eating in polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, John B; Sperry, Steffanie L; Darkes, Jack

    2015-08-01

    Despite elevated prevalence of anxiety and depression among women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), there is a dearth of evidence-based psychotherapies to treat mood-related symptoms among this population. This case report describes the efficacy of The PCOS Workbook in treating symptoms of anxiety, depression, and problematic eating in a 19-year-old female previously diagnosed with PCOS. Using the cognitive-behavioral framework presented in the workbook, the participant experienced a significant reduction in symptoms of anxiety, depression, problematic eating, and general psychosocial dysfunction while simultaneously losing a significant amount of weight during treatment. Six months after the termination of treatment, the participant maintained several improvements in psychological functioning, although she did report a resumption of problematic eating and experience weight regain. These findings provide initial empirical support for the efficacy of this manualized psychotherapy at improving psychosocial functioning in women with PCOS. Recommendations on ways to best utilize this resource and enhance its long-term efficacy, particularly when intervening for problematic eating, are also discussed.

  18. [Portuguese-language cultural adaptation of the Items Banks of Anxiety and Depression of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Natália Fontes Caputo de; Rezende, Carlos Henrique Alves de; Mendonça, Tânia Maria da Silva; Silva, Carlos Henrique Martins da; Pinto, Rogério de Melo Costa

    2014-04-01

    The Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS), structured in Itens Banks, provides a new tool for evaluating results that apply to various chronic diseases through advanced statistical techniques (TRI) and computerized adaptive testing (CAT). The aim of this study was to culturally adapt the Items Banks of Anxiety and Depression of PROMIS to the Portuguese language. The process followed the recommendations of PROMIS through the advanced translation, reconciliation, back-translation, FACIT review, independent review, finalization, pre-test, and incorporation of the results from the pre-test. The translated version was pre-tested in ten patients, and items 3, 46, and 53 of the Bank of Anxiety and item 46 of the bank of Depression had to be changed. Changes affected equivalence of meaning, and the final version was consistent with the Brazilian population's linguistic and cultural skills. In conclusion, for the Brazilian population the translated version proved semantically and conceptually equivalent to the original.

  19. Anxiety Sensitivity and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamari, John E.; Rector, Neil A.; Woodard, John L.; Cohen, Robyn J.; Chik, Heather M.

    2008-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS), a cognitive risk factor for anxiety disorders, was evaluated in a homogeneous obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) sample. A total of 280 individuals with OCD completed measures. Evaluation of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index revealed a latent structure that was congruent with previous studies showing a single higher order…

  20. Anxiety Sensitivity and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamari, John E.; Rector, Neil A.; Woodard, John L.; Cohen, Robyn J.; Chik, Heather M.

    2008-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS), a cognitive risk factor for anxiety disorders, was evaluated in a homogeneous obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) sample. A total of 280 individuals with OCD completed measures. Evaluation of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index revealed a latent structure that was congruent with previous studies showing a single higher order…

  1. Test Anxiety Among College Students With Specific Reading Disability (Dyslexia): Nonverbal Ability and Working Memory as Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Test anxiety and its correlates were examined with college students with and without specific reading disability (RD; n = 50 in each group). Results indicated that college students with RD reported higher test anxiety than did those without RD, and the magnitude of these differences was in the medium range on two test anxiety scales. Relative to college students without RD, up to 5 times as many college students with RD reported clinically significant test anxiety. College students with RD reported significantly higher cognitively based test anxiety than physically based test anxiety. Reading skills, verbal ability, and processing speed were not correlated with test anxiety. General intelligence, nonverbal ability, and working memory were negatively correlated with test anxiety, and the magnitude of these correlations was medium to large. When these three cognitive constructs were considered together in multiple regression analyses, only working memory and nonverbal ability emerged as significant predictors and varied based on the test anxiety measure. Implications for assessment and intervention are discussed.

  2. Spina bifida with higher position of sacral hiatus: a case report with clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srijit, D; Shipra, P

    2007-01-01

    Spina bifida is a developmental defect in the vertebral column, in which the laminae fail to fuse and thereby the spinal cord is relatively unprotected. We report a case of spina bifida, in a dried specimen of sacrum, characterized by a prominent S1 spine and a higher sacral hiatus. Conventional textbooks of anatomy provide less information about the clinical implications of such anomalies and research studies are the only source of information. The present study, discusses in detail, the structural and radiological aspects of spina bifida, with a higher sacral hiatus. Precise knowledge of normal and abnormal anatomy of the sacrum may be clinically important for anesthetists, neurologists, radiologists and orthopedic surgeons, in their clinical practice (Fig. 3, Ref. 16). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk

  3. Higher education and eesearch report of the hearing held on 8 December, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This is a report of the hearing that took place on Tuesday 8th December 2015 from 1730 to 2000hrs. This was the second session in the series of the ‘LSE Commission on the Future of Britain in Europe’.\\ud Respected practitioners and experts in higher education and research took up our invitation to participate in the hearing to discuss the risks of a Brexit and how universities might act at this important moment in British life. Participants included those with high level and/or frontline expe...

  4. Developmental and Contextual Risks of Social Physique Anxiety among Female Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Jennifer L.; Monsma, Eva V.; Torres-McGehee, Toni M.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we examined developmental and contextual factors that may increase the odds of reporting higher social physique anxiety (SPA) among 404 adolescent athletes 11 to 16 years old. Findings showed older, later maturing athletes past peak height velocity and with greater body mass index (BMI) reported higher SPA. Individual…

  5. Synergistic effects of pain intensity and anxiety sensitivity in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms and disorders among economically disadvantaged latinos in a community-based primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Ricardo Valdés; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Walker, Rheeda L; Viana, Andres G; Garza, Monica; Ochoa-Perez, Melissa; Paulus, Daniel J; Robles, Zuzuky; Valdivieso, Jeanette; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    The present investigation examined the interactive effects of anxiety sensitivity and pain intensity in relation to anxious arousal, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms and disorders among 203 Latino adults with an annual income of less than $30,000 (84.4% female; Mage=38.9, SD=11.3 and 98.6% used Spanish as their first language) who attended a community-based primary healthcare clinic. As expected, the interaction between anxiety sensitivity and pain intensity was significantly related to increased anxious arousal, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms as well as number of depressive/anxiety disorder diagnoses. The form of the significant interactions indicated that participants reporting co-occurring higher levels of anxiety sensitivity and pain intensity evinced the greatest levels of anxious arousal, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms as well as higher levels of depressive and anxiety disorders. These data provide novel empirical evidence suggesting that there is clinically-relevant interplay between anxiety sensitivity and pain intensity in regard to a relatively wide array of anxiety and depressive variables among Latinos in a primary care medical setting.

  6. Threat perception bias and anxiety among Chinese school children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weili; Daleiden, Eric; Lu, Shou-En

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between threat perception bias and anxiety among children and adolescents in China. A sample of 1,004 elementary, middle and high school students aged 9 to 19 years listened to stories containing themes of generalized anxiety, social anxiety and separation anxiety in either an ambiguous or non-ambiguous context. The story content included topics such as upset stomach, teacher-student interaction, and parents who are late to return home. Multiple threat perception indices were derived from children's responses. Children's level of anxiety was assessed by means of self-report questionnaires and parental reports. Higher levels of anxiety were related to higher frequencies of threat perception and interpretation, lower thresholds to detect threat and more negative feelings and cognitions. Age and gender were also related to some indices of threat perception bias. Threat perception bias was related to anxious symptomatology in general and was not content specific to particular anxiety disorders. The findings were consistent with studies conducted in Western culture and suggest that cognitive processing theories of childhood anxiety may generalize beyond Western society.

  7. Give or Take a Few? Comparing Measured and Self-Reported Height and Weight as Correlates of Social Physique Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Jennifer; Monsma, Eva V.; Torres-McGehee, Toni

    2009-01-01

    Statistically controlling for physical size is common practice, especially in self-perception studies uncovering the etiology of maladaptive behaviors, such as eating disorders. For example, social physique anxiety (SPA)--apprehension about social evaluations while presenting oneself in front of others (Leary, 1992)--is a prominent correlate of…

  8. The impact of a multidimensional exercise program on self-reported anxiety and depression in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Julie; Rørth, Mikael; Stelter, Reinhard

    2005-01-01

    and -0.44 +/- 2.77 for depression. Improvements in fitness were correlated with improvements in depression, chi2(1) = 3.966, p = 0.046, but not with improvements in anxiety, chi2(1) = 0.540, p = 0.462. The research suggests that exercise intervention may have a beneficial impact on psychological distress...

  9. Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder in the Context of Asperger's Syndrome: A Single-Subject Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardaciotto, LeeAnn; Herbert, James D.

    2004-01-01

    Asperger's Syndrome (AS) is a developmental disorder characterized by social impairment, highly circumscribed interests, repetitive behaviors, and motor clumsiness. The social impairment features of AS are similar to characteristics of social anxiety disorder (SAD). However, little is known about the comorbidity of these disorders or the treatment…

  10. Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Color-Word, Emotional, and Specific Stroop Interference and on Self-Reported Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagaspe, Patricia; Sanchez-Ortuno, Montserrat; Charles, Andre; Taillard, Jacques; Valtat, Cedric; Bioulac, Bernard; Philip, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was principally to assess the impact of sleep deprivation on interference performance in short Stroop tasks (Color-Word, Emotional, and Specific) and on subjective anxiety. Subjective sleepiness and performance on a psychomotor sustained attention task were also investigated to validate our protocol of sleep deprivation.…

  11. Scales for evaluating self-perceived anxiety levels in patients admitted to intensive care units: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perpiñá-Galvañ, Juana; Richart-Martínez, Miguel

    2009-11-01

    To review studies of anxiety in critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit to describe the level of anxiety and synthesize the psychometric properties of the instruments used to measure anxiety. The CUIDEN, IME, ISOC, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and PSYCINFO databases for 1995 to 2005 were searched. The search focused on 3 concepts: anxiety, intensive care, and mechanical ventilation for the English-language databases and ansiedad, cuidados intensivos, and ventilación mecánica for the Spanish-language databases. Information was extracted from 18 selected articles on the level of anxiety experienced by patients and the psychometric properties of the instruments used to measure anxiety. Moderate levels of anxiety were reported. Levels were higher in women than in men, and higher in patients undergoing positive pressure ventilation regardless of sex. Most multi-item instruments had high coefficients of internal consistency. The reliability of instruments with only a single item was not demonstrated, even though the instruments had moderate-to-high correlations with other measurements. Midlength scales, such the anxiety subscale of the Brief Symptom Inventory or the shortened state version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory are best for measuring anxiety in critical care patients.

  12. Social anxiety among East Asians in North America: East Asian socialization or the challenge of acculturation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Lorena; Woody, Sheila R; Lee, Hoon-Jin; Peng, Yunshi; Zhou, Xiaolu; Ryder, Andrew G

    2012-04-01

    North American research has consistently reported higher social anxiety among people of Asian heritage compared to people of Western heritage. The present study used a cross-national sample of 692 university students to explore explanatory hypotheses using planned contrasts of group differences in social anxiety and related variables. The East Asian socialization hypothesis proposed social anxiety would show a linear relation corresponding to the degree of exposure to East Asian cultural norms. This hypothesis was not supported. The cultural discrepancy hypothesis examined whether bicultural East Asian participants (residing in Canada) would endorse higher social anxiety in comparison to unicultural participants (Western-heritage Canadians and native Koreans and Chinese). Compared to unicultural participants, bicultural East Asian participants reported higher social anxiety and depression, a relation that was partially mediated by bicultural participants' reports of lower self-efficacy about initiating social relationships and lower perceived social status. Overall, the results suggest higher reports of social anxiety among bicultural East Asians may be conceptualized within the context of cultural discrepancy with the mainstream culture. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Discriminant and Convergent Validity of the Anxiety Construct in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renno, Patricia; Wood, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite reports of high anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), there is controversy regarding differential diagnosis of ASD symptoms and anxiety symptoms. This study examined 88 children, aged 7-11 years, with ASD referred for concerns about anxiety. A multitrait-(social anxiety, separation anxiety, overall anxiety severity, and…

  14. Discriminant and Convergent Validity of the Anxiety Construct in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renno, Patricia; Wood, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite reports of high anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), there is controversy regarding differential diagnosis of ASD symptoms and anxiety symptoms. This study examined 88 children, aged 7-11 years, with ASD referred for concerns about anxiety. A multitrait-(social anxiety, separation anxiety, overall anxiety severity, and…

  15. [Disease burden of extreme treatment anxiety; quality of life for patients with and without extreme dental treatment anxiety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermaire, J H; van Houtem, C M H H; Ross, J N; Schuller, A A

    2017-09-01

    In this study, a comparison was made between disease-specific (oral health-related) quality of life (OHQoL), measured with the OHIP-14 questionnaire, and generic (general health-related) quality of life (GHQoL), measured with the EQ5D-5L questionnaire, in patients with and without extreme dental treatment anxiety. A total of 76 patients who could not be treated due to extreme dental treatment anxiety were referred to a centre for special dentistry. These patients were matched, according to age, gender and socioeconomic status, with participants in an epidemiological study on oral health (n = 1125). Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used on both groups to compare GHQoL and OHQoL. The total OHIP score was higher (representing a lower quality of life) in the patient group than in the control group. Anxiety patients scored higher on all 7 domains of the OHIP-14. With respect to general quality of life, patients with extreme treatment anxiety were found to report lower utility scores than the matched control group. With these results, a total disease burden of 74,000 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) was calculated for extreme treatment anxiety in the Netherlands. The findings of this study reveal that having extreme dental treatment anxiety results in a significant disease burden in the Netherlands.

  16. Social Interpretation Bias in Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders: Psychometric Examination of the Self-Report of Ambiguous Social Situations for Youth (SASSY) Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Araceli; Rozenman, Michelle; Langley, Audra K.; Kendall, Philip C.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Compton, Scott; Walkup, John T.; Birmaher, Boris; Albano, Anne Marie; Piacentini, John

    2017-01-01

    Background: Anxiety disorders are among the most common mental health problems in youth, and faulty interpretation bias has been positively linked to anxiety severity, even within anxiety-disordered youth. Quick, reliable assessment of interpretation bias may be useful in identifying youth with certain types of anxiety or assessing changes on…

  17. Recurrence of anxiety disorders and its predictors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Willemijn D.; Batelaan, Neeltje M.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.; Penninx, Brenda; Smit, Johannes H.; van Oppen, Patricia

    Background: The chronic course of anxiety disorders and its high burden of disease are partly due to the recurrence of anxiety disorders after remission. However, knowledge about recurrence rates and predictors of recurrence is scarce. This article reports on recurrence rates of anxiety disorders

  18. Recurrence of anxiety disorders and its predictors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Willemijn D.; Batelaan, Neeltje M.; van Balkom, Anton J. L. M.; Penninx, Brenda; Smit, Johannes H.; van Oppen, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Background: The chronic course of anxiety disorders and its high burden of disease are partly due to the recurrence of anxiety disorders after remission. However, knowledge about recurrence rates and predictors of recurrence is scarce. This article reports on recurrence rates of anxiety disorders an

  19. Anxiety symptoms prior to a prostate cancer diagnosis: Associations with knowledge and openness to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, Amanda J; Scherer, Laura D; Ubel, Peter A; Alexander, Stewart; Fagerlin, Angela

    2017-02-01

    Research suggests that anxiety may be a common response to a cancer diagnosis, but research is needed to examine anxiety before diagnosis. Anxiety before diagnosis may relate to the comprehension of relevant health information or openness to potential treatments. This study examined anxiety and these outcomes in men who were waiting to learn of a prostate cancer diagnosis. One goal of this study was to determine whether anxiety would increase as men came closer to learning the results of their prostate cancer biopsy. Another goal was to test whether anxiety was associated with knowledge about prostate cancer or openness to different treatments. Men (N = 265) who were facing a prostate cancer diagnosis were surveyed at two time points. Time 1 occurred at the time of biopsy, and Time 2 occurred immediately before men received their biopsy result. At each time point, men reported their anxiety about prostate cancer and their biopsy result. At Time 2, they completed a knowledge test of information about prostate cancer and reported their openness to different potential treatments. Anxiety symptoms increased as men came closer to learning their diagnosis. Also, higher anxiety was associated with lower knowledge and greater openness to particular treatments like surgery. Interactions showed that when anxiety increased from Time 1 to Time 2, having high or low knowledge mattered less to treatment openness. Waiting for a cancer diagnosis is an important time period in which anxiety may increase and relate to information processing and openness to treatments. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Men undergoing prostate cancer screening have been found to experience high and low levels of anxiety. Research has shown that negative emotions like anxiety are common following a cancer diagnosis, but little research has examined emotions right before diagnosis. Anxiety has been associated with information processing and motivation to engage in

  20. Depression, anxiety and stress in dental students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binanzan, Najla; Alhassan, Aseel

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To measure the occurrence and levels of depression, anxiety and stress in undergraduate dental students using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in November and December of 2014. A total of 289 dental students were invited to participate, and 277 responded, resulting in a response rate of 96%. The final sample included 247 participants. Eligible participants were surveyed via a self-reported questionnaire that included the validated DASS-21 scale as the assessment tool and questions about demographic characteristics and methods for managing stress.  Results Abnormal levels of depression, anxiety and stress were identified in 55.9%, 66.8% and 54.7% of the study participants, respectively. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed multiple predictors: gender (for anxiety b=-3.589, p=.016 and stress b=-4.099, p=.008), satisfaction with faculty relationships (for depression b=-2.318, p=.007; anxiety b=-2.213, p=.004; and stress b=-2.854, pstress b=-2.854, pstress b=-2.648, p=.045). The standardized coefficients demonstrated the relationship and strength of the predictors for each subscale. To cope with stress, students engaged in various activities such as reading, watching television and seeking emotional support from others. Conclusions The high occurrence of depression, anxiety and stress among dental students highlights the importance of providing support programs and implementing preventive measures to help students, particularly those who are most susceptible to higher levels of these psychological conditions. PMID:28553831

  1. Trichotillomania and Co-occurring Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E.; Redden, Sarah A.; Leppink, Eric W.; Chamberlain, Samuel R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Trichotillomania appears to be a fairly common disorder, with high rates of co-occurring anxiety disorders. Many individuals with trichotillomania also report that pulling worsens during periods of increased anxiety. Even with these clinical links to anxiety, little research has explored whether trichotillomania with co-occurring anxiety is a meaningful subtype. Methods 165 adults with trichotillomania were examined on a variety of clinical measures including symptom severity, functioning, and comorbidity. Participants also underwent cognitive testing assessing motor inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Clinical features and cognitive functioning were compared between those with current co-occurring anxiety disorders (i.e. social anxiety, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and anxiety disorder NOS) (n=38) and those with no anxiety disorder (n=127). Results Participants with trichotillomania and co-occurring anxiety reported significantly worse hair pulling symptoms, were more likely to have co-occurring depression, and were more likely to have a first-degree relative with obsessive compulsive disorder. Those with anxiety disorders also exhibited significantly worse motor inhibitory performance on a task of motor inhibition (stop-signal task). Conclusions This study suggests that anxiety disorders affect the clinical presentation of hair pulling behavior. Further research is needed to validate our findings and to consider whether treatments should be specially tailored differently for adults with trichotillomania who have co-occurring anxiety disorders, or more pronounced cognitive impairment. PMID:27668531

  2. The relationships of child and parent factors with children's anxiety symptoms: parental anxious rearing as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Allison M; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Farrell, Lara J

    2012-10-01

    A considerable body of research has identified various child and parent factors that contribute to and maintain anxiety symptoms in children. Yet relatively few studies have examined child factors (including threat-based cognitive bias, neuroticism, gender, puberty and age) as well as parent factors (including maternal anxiety and child-rearing style) in association with child anxiety symptoms, and the extent to which these factors serve as unique predictors of child anxiety. Moreover, research is lacking on whether parent factors such as child-rearing style, which is often targeted in early intervention and treatment programs, might mediate the association between child factors such as neuroticism, and child anxiety symptoms. In a sample of 85 children between 7 and 12 years of age with varying levels of anxiety, including those with diagnosed anxiety disorders, results showed that children were more anxious when they were reported to be more advanced in pubertal status by their parents, when they had a tendency to interpret more threat in ambiguous situations, and when they self-reported more neuroticism. Regarding parent factors, maternal self-reported trait anxiety and children's perceptions of their mother as having an anxious child-rearing style were associated with higher levels of child anxiety. Moreover, when these correlates of child anxiety were examined in a multivariate model to identify those that had direct as well as indirect associations via maternal anxious child-rearing style, child neuroticism remained as a significant and unique predictor of child anxiety that was also mediated by maternal anxious-rearing. Child neuroticism also mediated the relationship between child pubertal stage and anxiety symptoms. Results are discussed in terms of relevant theory and empirical evidence regarding the roles of both child and parent factors in the development of child anxiety.

  3. A novel visual facial anxiety scale for assessing preoperative anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xuezhao; Yumul, Roya; Elvir Lazo, Ofelia Loani; Friedman, Jeremy; Durra, Omar; Zhang, Xiao; White, Paul F.

    2017-01-01

    Background There is currently no widely accepted instrument for measuring preoperative anxiety. The objective of this study was to develop a simple visual facial anxiety scale (VFAS) for assessing acute preoperative anxiety. Methods The initial VFAS was comprised of 11 similarly styled stick-figure reflecting different types of facial expressions (Fig 1). After obtaining IRB approval, a total of 265 participant-healthcare providers (e.g., anesthesiologists, anesthesiology residents, and perioperative nurses) were recruited to participate in this study. The participants were asked to: (1) rank the 11 faces from 0–10 (0 = no anxiety, while 10 = highest anxiety) and then to (2) match one of the 11 facial expression with a numeric verbal rating scale (NVRS) (0 = no anxiety and 10 = highest level of anxiety) and a specific categorical level of anxiety, namely no anxiety, mild, mild-moderate, moderate, moderate-high or highest anxiety. Based on these data, the Spearman correlation and frequencies of the 11 faces in relation to the 11-point numerical anxiety scale and 6 categorical anxiety levels were calculated. The highest frequency of a face assigned to a level of the numerical anxiety scale resulted in a finalized order of faces corresponding to the 11-point numeric rating scale. Results The highest frequency for each of the NVRS anxiety scores were as follow: A0, A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A7, A6, A8, A9 and A10 (Fig 2). For the six categorical anxiety levels, a total of 260 (98.1%) participants chose the face A0 as representing ‘no’ anxiety, 250 (94.3%) participants chose the face A10 as representing ‘highest’ anxiety and 147 (55.5%) participants chose the face A8 as representing ‘moderate-high’ anxiety. Spearman analysis showed a significant correlation between the faces A3 and A5 assigned to the mild-moderate anxiety category (r = 0.58), but A5 was ultimately chosen due to its higher frequency compared to the frequency of A3 (30.6% vs 24.9%)(Fig 3

  4. The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ: a validation study of a multidimensional self-report questionnaire to assess distress, depression, anxiety and somatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Balkom Anton JLM

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ is a self-report questionnaire that has been developed in primary care to distinguish non-specific general distress from depression, anxiety and somatization. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate its criterion and construct validity. Methods Data from 10 different primary care studies have been used. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing the 4DSQ scores with clinical diagnoses, the GPs' diagnosis of any psychosocial problem for Distress, standardised psychiatric diagnoses for Depression and Anxiety, and GPs' suspicion of somatization for Somatization. ROC analyses and logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations. Construct validity was evaluated by investigating the inter-correlations between the scales, the factorial structure, the associations with other symptom questionnaires, and the associations with stress, personality and social functioning. The factorial structure of the 4DSQ was assessed through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. The associations with other questionnaires were assessed with Pearson correlations and regression analyses. Results Regarding criterion validity, the Distress scale was associated with any psychosocial diagnosis (area under the ROC curve [AUC] 0.79, the Depression scale was associated with major depression (AUC = 0.83, the Anxiety scale was associated with anxiety disorder (AUC = 0.66, and the Somatization scale was associated with the GPs' suspicion of somatization (AUC = 0.65. Regarding the construct validity, the 4DSQ scales appeared to have considerable inter-correlations (r = 0.35-0.71. However, 30–40% of the variance of each scale was unique for that scale. CFA confirmed the 4-factor structure with a comparative fit index (CFI of 0.92. The 4DSQ scales correlated with most other questionnaires measuring corresponding constructs. However, the 4DSQ Distress scale appeared to correlate with some other

  5. Children and adolescents referred for treatment of anxiety disorders: Differences in clinical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Polly; Creswell, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    Background Reports of the clinical characteristics of children and adolescents with anxiety disorders are typically based on community populations or from clinical samples with exclusion criterion applied. Little is known about the clinical characteristics of children and adolescents routinely referred for treatment for anxiety disorders. Furthermore, children and adolescents are typically treated as one homogeneous group although they may differ in ways that are clinically meaningful. Methods A consecutive series of children (n=100, aged 6–12 years) and adolescents (n=100, aged 13–18 years), referred to a routine clinical service, were assessed for anxiety and comorbid disorders, school refusal and parental symptoms of psychopathology. Results Children with a primary anxiety disorder were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with separation anxiety disorder than adolescents. Adolescents with a primary anxiety disorder had significantly higher self and clinician rated anxiety symptoms and had more frequent primary diagnoses of social anxiety disorder, diagnoses and symptoms of mood disorders, and irregular school attendance. Limitations Childhood and adolescence were considered categorically as distinct, developmental periods; in reality changes would be unlikely to occur in such a discrete manner. Conclusions The finding that children and adolescents with anxiety disorders have distinct clinical characteristics has clear implications for treatment. Simply adapting treatments designed for children to make the materials more ‘adolescent-friendly’ is unlikely to sufficiently meet the needs of adolescents. PMID:25016489

  6. Factors associated with preoperative anxiety levels of Turkish surgical patients: from a single center in Ankara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkilic, Ezgi; Kesimci, Elvin; Soykut, Cem; Doger, Cihan; Gumus, Tülin; Kanbak, Orhan

    2017-01-01

    Background Preoperative anxiety and stress are undoubtedly a difficult experience in patients undergoing elective surgery. These unpleasant sensations depend on several factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the preoperative anxiety levels in a sample of Turkish population, as well as the underlying causes using the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI anxiety) scale. Methods The study was conducted according to the Declaration of Helsinki and was approved by the local ethical committee. All participants gave written informed consent upon having received detailed information on the study. Upon entry in the study, state and trait anxiety questionnaires were completed by 186 patients scheduled for elective surgery. The influencing factors in regard to age, sex, educational status and others were also reported. Results There was a statistically significant positive correlation between state and trait anxiety scores in this Turkish population. While the most important predictive factors that affected state-STAI scores were age, sex and duration of sleep the night before surgery; educational status and age were the best predictors for determining the variation in trait-STAI scores. Conclusion The factors affecting anxiety levels in different populations might vary among different countries. Interestingly, in this sample of Turkish population, the trait anxiety levels were found to be higher from state-anxiety levels, especially in women and less educated people. Thus, doubts about operation and anesthesia are overlooked. This could be attributed to the low to intermediate life standards of people admitted to our hospital. PMID:28280304

  7. Preschool Anxiety Disorders: Comprehensive Assessment of Clinical, Demographic, Temperamental, Familial, and Life Stress Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Tolep, Marissa R.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dyson, Margaret; Traditi, Jennifer; Rose, Suzanne; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined correlates of preschoolers’ anxiety disorders using a comprehensive, multi-method design. Participants included a community sample of 541 three-year-old children, of whom 106 (19.6%) met criteria for at least one anxiety disorder. Child and parental psychopathology and life stress were assessed with clinical interviews. Child temperament and parenting behavior were assessed with laboratory observations. Mothers and fathers reported on their parenting styles. Compared to preschoolers with no anxiety disorder, preschoolers with an anxiety disorder were more likely to meet criteria for comorbid depressive and oppositional defiant disorders and to exhibit greater temperamental behavioral inhibition and lower positive affectivity, and more sleep problems. Children with anxiety disorders also experienced more stressful life events in the previous six months, and their mothers had a higher rate of current anxiety disorders. Compared to children with other anxiety disorders, children with only specific phobia exhibited a somewhat different pattern of associations than children with other anxiety disorders. Overall, the findings suggest that many of the correlates observed in older youth with anxiety disorders are also observed in preschoolers. PMID:23368788

  8. Social anxiety in orthognathic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, F S; Moles, D R; Shute, J T; Clarke, A; Cunningham, S J

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that patients seeking orthognathic treatment may be motivated by social anxiety disorder (SAD). The aim of this study was to investigate SAD in orthognathic patients using the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (BFNES) and to compare these findings with those of the general population. This was a cross-sectional, questionnaire study conducted in two parts. Firstly, a national survey was conducted to yield data for the BFNES from a large, random sample of the UK general population. Secondly, orthognathic patients completed the BFNES. The BFNES scores are reported in two formats: the original 12-item scale (O-BFNES) and a shorter eight-item version (S-BFNES). With regards to the national survey, 1196 individuals participated. The mean O-BFNES score was 29.72 (standard deviation (SD) 9.39) and S-BFNES score was 15.59 (SD 7.67). With regards to the orthognathic sample, 61 patients participated. The mean O-BFNES score was 39.56 (SD 10.35) and the mean S-BFNES score was 24.21 (SD 8.41). Orthognathic patients had significantly higher scores than the general UK population (Porthognathic patients experience significantly higher levels of social anxiety than the general population.

  9. The role of chronotype, gender, test anxiety, and conscientiousness in academic achievement of high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahafar, Arash; Maghsudloo, Mahdis; Farhangnia, Sajedeh; Vollmer, Christian; Randler, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Previous findings have demonstrated that chronotype (morningness/intermediate/eveningness) is correlated with cognitive functions, that is, people show higher mental performance when they do a test at their preferred time of day. Empirical studies found a relationship between morningness and higher learning achievement at school and university. However, only a few of them controlled for other moderating and mediating variables. In this study, we included chronotype, gender, conscientiousness and test anxiety in a structural equation model (SEM) with grade point average (GPA) as academic achievement outcome. Participants were 158 high school students and results revealed that boys and girls differed in GPA and test anxiety significantly, with girls reporting better grades and higher test anxiety. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between conscientiousness and GPA (r = 0.17) and morningness (r = 0.29), respectively, and a negative correlation between conscientiousness and test anxiety (r = -0.22). The SEM demonstrated that gender was the strongest predictor of academic achievement. Lower test anxiety predicted higher GPA in girls but not in boys. Additionally, chronotype as moderator revealed a significant association between gender and GPA for evening types and intermediate types, while intermediate types showed a significant relationship between test anxiety and GPA. Our results suggest that gender is an essential predictor of academic achievement even stronger than low or absent test anxiety. Future studies are needed to explore how gender and chronotype act together in a longitudinal panel design and how chronotype is mediated by conscientiousness in the prediction of academic achievement.

  10. Stress, anxiety, depression and migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacogne, C; Lacoste, J P; Guillibert, E; Hugues, F C; Le Jeunne, C

    2003-07-01

    This study investigated the intensity of stress, anxiety and depression in a sample of 141 migraineurs compared with a control group of 109 non-migraine workers matched for age and sex. Stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Questionnaire, and anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results indicated that stress and anxiety were higher in the migraine group than in the control group and above the clinical level. Depression scores remained low in both groups, under clinical relevance. Stress is a primordial factor in the triggering and perpetuation of migraine attacks. The high score of the items 'morning fatigue', 'intrusive thoughts about work', 'feeling under pressure', 'impatience', and 'irritability' of the stress questionnaire in the migraineurs is particularly significant in the intensive stress response. It seems necessary to manage stress to improve the daily life of migraineurs and to study the link between stress, anxiety and migraine.

  11. Responsiveness and Minimally Important Differences for 4 Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Short Forms: Physical Function, Pain Interference, Depression, and Anxiety in Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Augustine C; Driban, Jeffrey B; Price, Lori Lyn; Harvey, William F; Rodday, Angie Mae; Wang, Chenchen

    2017-09-01

    Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) instruments can provide valid, interpretable measures of health status among adults with osteoarthritis (OA). However, their ability to detect meaningful change over time is unknown. We evaluated the responsiveness and minimally important differences (MIDs) for 4 PROMIS Short Forms: Physical Function, Pain Interference, Depression, and Anxiety. We analyzed adults with symptomatic knee OA from our randomized trial comparing Tai Chi and physical therapy. Using baseline and 12-week scores, responsiveness was evaluated according to consensus standards by testing 6 a priori hypotheses of the correlations between PROMIS and legacy change scores. Responsiveness was considered high if ≥5 hypotheses were confirmed, and moderate if 3 or 4 were confirmed. MIDs were evaluated according to prospective change for people achieving previously-established MID on legacy comparators. The lowest and highest MIDs meeting a priori quality criteria formed a MID range for each PROMIS Short Form. Among 165 predominantly female (70%) and white (57%) participants, mean age was 61 years and body mass index was 33. PROMIS Physical Function had 5 confirmed hypotheses and Pain Interference, Depression, and Anxiety had 3 or 4. MID ranges were: Depression = 3.0 to 3.1; Anxiety = 2.3 to 3.4; Physical Function = 1.9 to 2.2; and Pain Interference = 2.35 to 2.4. PROMIS Physical Function has high responsiveness, and Depression, Anxiety, and Pain Interference have moderate responsiveness among adults with knee OA. We established the first MIDs for PROMIS in this population, and provided an important standard of reference to better apply or interpret PROMIS in future trials or clinical practice. This study examined whether PROMIS Short Form instruments (Physical Function, Pain Interference, Depression, and Anxiety) were able to detect change over time among adults with knee OA, and provided minimally important change estimates

  12. Intolerance of uncertainty and adult separation anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelen, Paul A; Reijntjes, Albert; Carleton, R Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU)-the tendency to react negatively to situations that are uncertain-is involved in different anxiety disorders and depression. No studies have yet examined the association between IU and symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder. However, it is possible that greater difficulties tolerating uncertainties that can occur in relationships with attachment figures inflate fears and worries about the consequences of being separated from these attachment figures. The current study examined the possible role of IU in symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder, relative to its role in symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), social anxiety, and depression, using self-reported data from 215 undergraduates (92% women) with elevated separation anxiety. Findings showed that IU was significantly associated with symptom levels of separation anxiety disorder, GAD, OCD, social anxiety, and depression (rs > .30). IU continued to explain variance in OCD, social anxiety, and depression (but not GAD and separation anxiety) when controlling for the association of neuroticism, attachment anxiety, and attachment avoidance with these symptoms. Additional findings indicated that IU is more strongly associated with symptoms of GAD, OCD, and social anxiety than symptoms of adult separation anxiety disorder and depression.

  13. Positive thinking in anxiety disordered children reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogendoorn, Sanne M; Prins, Pier J M; Vervoort, Leentje; Wolters, Lidewij H; Nauta, Maaike H; Hartman, Catharina A; Moorlag, Harma; de Haan, Else; Boer, Frits

    2012-01-01

    Negatively valenced thoughts are assumed to play a central role in the development and maintenance of anxiety. However, the role of positive thoughts in anxiety is rather unclear. In the current study we examined the role of negative and positive self-statements in the anxiety level of anxious and non-anxious children. Participants were 139 anxiety disordered children and 293 non-anxious children (8-18 years). Compared to non-anxious children, anxious children reported more negative thoughts, less positive thoughts and lower State of Mind (SOM) ratios (ratio of positive to negative thoughts). Negative thoughts and SOM ratios were the strongest predictors of anxiety level in anxious children; whereas both negative and positive thoughts were the strongest predictors of anxiety level in non-anxious children. To conclude, a lack of positive thoughts might be more than just an epiphenomenon of anxiety level and might deserve a place in the cognitive model of anxiety.

  14. Experiencing More Mathematics Anxiety than Expected? Contrasting Trait and State Anxiety in High Achieving Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, A.-L.; Bieg, M.; Goetz, T.; Frenzel, A. C.; Taxer, J.; Zeidner, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined mathematics anxiety among high and low achieving students (N = 237, grades 9 and 10) by contrasting trait (habitual) and state (momentary) assessments of anxiety. Previous studies have found that trait anxiety measures are typically rated higher than state measures. Furthermore, the academic self-concept has been identified to…

  15. The Influence of Pre-University Students' Mathematics Test Anxiety and Numerical Anxiety on Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Ernest Lim Kok

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between mathematics test anxiety and numerical anxiety on students' mathematics achievement. 140 pre-university students who studied at one of the institutes of higher learning were being investigated. Gender issue pertaining to mathematics anxieties was being addressed besides investigating the magnitude of…

  16. Oncological Patient Anxiety in Imaging Studies: the PET/CT Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Carla; Grilo, Ana; Lucena, Filipa; Carolino, Elisabete

    2016-07-02

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the subjective perception of anxiety pre- and post-procedure, and explore the relationship between demographic, clinical variables and cancer patients' anxiety during a positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan. Two hundred and thirty-two oncological out patients, with clinical indication for performing an (18)F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) PET/CT scan and attending a nuclear medicine (NM) department, participated in the study. Patients' anxiety and subjective experience of PET/CT were examined using two self-report questionnaires. The pre-procedure questionnaire focused on demographic information, level of knowledge regarding the scan and subjective perception of anxiety before the procedure. The post-procedure questionnaire included the subjective perception anxiety after the procedure, information adequacy and satisfaction with the NM department. The self-reported data indicate that patients were anxious during PET/CT. Furthermore, our data revealed a significant difference between the anxiety pre-procedure and post-procedure (z = -3909, p < 0.05), in which the anxiety pre-procedure has significantly higher values. No significant correlation was found between anxiety and age of the patients, education levels, adequacy of information or satisfaction with the NM Department. Perception of anxiety post-procedure differs between gender (U = 5641, p = 0.033). In conclusion, PET/CT generated anxiety levels in oncological patients, especially before the procedure. Although patients seemed to be satisfied with information delivered by staff and with the NM Department, attention has to be focused on effective interventions strategies that help patients to reduce anxiety.

  17. Anxiety sensitivity mediates relations between emotional disorders and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Farris, Samantha G; Leventhal, Adam M; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-09-01

    Research has documented consistent and robust relations between emotional disorders (i.e., depressive and anxiety disorders) and smoking. Yet, it is presently unclear whether anxiety sensitivity--the fear of aversive internal anxiety states--accounts for the relations between emotional disorders and various smoking processes, including nicotine dependence, perceived barriers to smoking cessation, and severity of problematic symptoms during past cessation attempts. Participants (N = 465) were treatment-seeking daily tobacco smokers recruited as part of a larger tobacco-cessation study. Baseline (pretreatment) data were utilized. Emotional disorders were assessed via clinical diagnostic interview; self-report measures were used to assess anxiety sensitivity and 3 criterion variables: nicotine dependence, barriers to smoking cessation, and severity of problematic symptoms while quitting in past attempts. Emotional disorders were predictive of higher levels of nicotine dependence, greater perceived barriers to cessation, and greater severity of problematic symptoms while attempting to quit in the past; each of these relations were accounted for by the indirect effect of anxiety sensitivity. The present findings suggest that anxiety sensitivity may be an important transdiagnostic construct in explicating the nature of the relations between emotional disorders and various smoking processes.

  18. War and Peace among the Words: Rhetoric, Style and Propaganda in Response to National Reports on Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Clifford

    Responses to national reports during October 1984 through May 1985 concerning the state of American higher education are analyzed. Quantitative content analysis and qualitative rehetorical criticism are used to examine responses to national reports. Three national reports are of concern: "Involvement in Learning,""A Nation at…

  19. Gender Differences in the Neurobiology of Anxiety: Focus on Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Although the literature reports a higher incidence of anxiety disorders in women, the majority of basic research has focused on male rodents, thus resulting in a lack of knowledge on the neurobiology of anxiety in females. Bridging this gap is crucial for the design of effective translational interventions in women. One of the key brain mechanisms likely to regulate anxious behavior is adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN). This review paper aims to discuss the evidence on the differences betw...

  20. Gender Differences in the Neurobiology of Anxiety:Focus on Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Although the literature reports a higher incidence of anxiety disorders in women, the majority of basic research has focused on male rodents, thus resulting in a lack of knowledge on the neurobiology of anxiety in females. Bridging this gap is crucial for the design of effective translational interventions in women. One of the key brain mechanisms likely to regulate anxious behavior is adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN). This review paper aims to discuss the evidence on the differences betw...

  1. Compendium on Financing of Higher Education: Final Report of the Financing the Students' Future Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Bethan; Charonis, George-Konstantinos; Haaristo, Hanna-Stella; Maurer, Moritz; Kaiser, Florian; Siegrist, Rahel; McVitty, Debbie; Gruber, Angelika; Heerens, Nik; Xhomaqi, Brikena; Nötzl, Tina; Semjonov, Meeli; Primožic, Rok

    2013-01-01

    Higher education plays a vital role in society and the quality, accessibility, and form of higher education is highly dependent on financing. Financing of higher education is conceived to be of central importance for the future creation and dissemination of knowledge and research. Therefore, the financing of higher education is a topic that has…

  2. Natural gas conversion to higher hydrocarbons using plasma interactions with surfaces. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackinger, W.M.; Kamath, V.A.; Morgan, B.L.; Airey, R.W.

    1993-12-01

    Experiments are reported in which a methane plasma is created, and the methyl ions and hydrogen ions are accelerated within a microchannel array so that they interact with neutral methane molecules on the inside surfaces of the microchannels. No catalysts are used, and the device operates at room temperature. Impact energies of the ions are in the range of 10 eV to greater than 100 eV, and the energy delivered in the interaction at the surfaces causes the production of larger hydrocarbon molecules, such as C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, along with C{sub 3}, C{sub 4}, C{sub 5}m C{sub 6}, C{sub 7}m and C{sub 8} molecules. There is a decreasing percentage of larger molecules produced, in comparison with the C{sub 2} and C{sub 3} types. Conversion effectiveness is greater at higher pressure, due to the increased ionic activity. The yield of the higher hydrocarbons depends upon the external voltage used, and voltage can be used as a control parameter to adjust the output mixture proportions. A conversion energy of 2.59 kilowatt hours/killogram of output has been demonstrated, and a reduction of this by a factor of 10 is possible using known techniques. In batch experiments, the selectivity for C{sub 2} has varied from 47% to 88%, and selectivity for C{sub 6} has ranged from 0% to 12.8%. Other hydrocarbon selectivities also span a wide and useful range. The estimated costs for hydrocarbons produced with this technology are in the range of $200 per tonne, in production quantities, depending upon natural gas costs. Pilot production experiments are recommended to make these estimates more precise, and to address strategies for scaling the technology up to production levels. Applications are discussed.

  3. Sense of presence and anxiety during virtual social interactions between a human and virtual humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Hartanto, Dwi; Emmelkamp, Paul M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) has been shown to be effective in treatment of anxiety disorders. Yet, there is lack of research on the extent to which interaction between the individual and virtual humans can be successfully implanted to increase levels of anxiety for therapeutic purposes. This proof-of-concept pilot study aimed at examining levels of the sense of presence and anxiety during exposure to virtual environments involving social interaction with virtual humans and using different virtual reality displays. A non-clinical sample of 38 participants was randomly assigned to either a head-mounted display (HMD) with motion tracker and sterescopic view condition or a one-screen projection-based virtual reality display condition. Participants in both conditions engaged in free speech dialogues with virtual humans controlled by research assistants. It was hypothesized that exposure to virtual social interactions will elicit moderate levels of sense of presence and anxiety in both groups. Further it was expected that participants in the HMD condition will report higher scores of sense of presence and anxiety than participants in the one-screen projection-based display condition. Results revealed that in both conditions virtual social interactions were associated with moderate levels of sense of presence and anxiety. Additionally, participants in the HMD condition reported significantly higher levels of presence than those in the one-screen projection-based display condition (p = .001). However, contrary to the expectations neither the average level of anxiety nor the highest level of anxiety during exposure to social virtual environments differed between the groups (p = .97 and p = .75, respectively). The findings suggest that virtual social interactions can be successfully applied in VRET to enhance sense of presence and anxiety. Furthermore, our results indicate that one-screen projection-based displays can successfully activate levels of anxiety in

  4. A Review of Two Higher Education Accountability Issues: Student Assessment and Faculty Workload. Report to Utah State Legislature. Report Number 91-03.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah State Office of the Legislative Auditor General, Salt Lake City.

    This report, in examining higher education accountability, reviews how student assessment is used nationally and in Utah to improve higher education accountability, and reviews the methods used in Utah to monitor faculty workload. Student assessments do provide a direct method of evaluating higher education effectiveness, and Utah's institutions…

  5. Anxiety trajectories in response to a speech task in social anxiety disorder: Evidence from a randomized controlled trial of CBT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Amanda S; Brozovich, Faith A; Lee, Ihno A; Jazaieri, Hooria; Goldin, Philippe R; Heimberg, Richard G; Gross, James J

    2016-03-01

    The subjective experience of anxiety plays a central role in cognitive behavioral models of social anxiety disorder (SAD). However, much remains to be learned about the temporal dynamics of anxiety elicited by feared social situations. The aims of the current study were: (1) to compare anxiety trajectories during a speech task in individuals with SAD (n=135) versus healthy controls (HCs; n=47), and (2) to compare the effects of CBT on anxiety trajectories with a waitlist control condition. SAD was associated with higher levels of anxiety and greater increases in anticipatory anxiety compared to HCs, but not differential change in anxiety from pre- to post-speech. CBT was associated with decreases in anxiety from pre- to post-speech but not with changes in absolute levels of anticipatory anxiety or rates of change in anxiety during anticipation. The findings suggest that anticipatory experiences should be further incorporated into exposures.

  6. Implicit beliefs of ability, approach-avoidance goals and cognitive anxiety among team sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenling, Andreas; Hassmén, Peter; Holmström, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    People's implicit beliefs of ability have been suggested as an antecedent of achievement goal adoption, which has in turn been associated with behavioural, cognitive and affective outcomes. This study examined a conditional process model with team sport athletes' approach-avoidance achievement goals as mediators between their implicit beliefs of sport ability and sport-related cognitive anxiety. We expected gender to moderate the paths from implicit beliefs of ability to approach-avoidance goals and from approach-avoidance goals to cognitive anxiety. Team sport athletes with a mean age of 20 years (163 females and 152 males) responded to questionnaires about their implicit beliefs of sport ability, approach-avoidance goals and sport-related cognitive anxiety. Incremental beliefs, gender and the interaction between them predicted mastery-approach goals. Gender also predicted mastery-avoidance goals, with females reporting higher levels than males. Mastery-avoidance goals, gender and the interaction between them predicted cognitive anxiety, with females reporting higher levels of anxiety than males. Entity beliefs positively predicted performance-avoidance goals and the interaction between performance-approach and gender predicted anxiety. The indirect effects also showed gender differences in relation to performance-approach goals. Taken together, our results suggest that coaches trying to create a facilitating climate for their male and female athletes may be wise to consider their athletes' anxiety and achievement goal patterns as these may affect both the athletes' well-being and performance.

  7. Institutional wide implementation of key advice for socially inclusive teaching in higher education. A Practice Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Government policy and institutional initiatives have influenced increases in enrolment of non-traditional students to Australian universities. For these students, university culture is often incongruent with their own, making it difficult to understand the tacit requirements for participation and success. Academic teaching staff are important in creating socially inclusive learning experiences, particularly in first year subjects. This paper presents an institution-wide approach to enhancing socially inclusive teaching at one Australian university. Underpinned by a framework of ”bridging social-incongruity” the initiative was guided by six principles of socially inclusive teaching to support practice as proposed in the 2012 “Effective support of students from low socioeconomic backgrounds in higher education” report commissioned by the Australian Office of Learning and Teaching. Feedback from 150 academic teaching staff from various disciplines and campus locations, suggests this initiative was effective in increasing understanding of socially inclusive teaching practices with many participants indicating the teaching enhancements were applicable for their teaching context.

  8. Increased tobacco and alcohol use among women with joint hypermobility: a way to cope with anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza-Velasco, C; Stoebner-Delbarre, A; Cousson-Gélie, F; Pailhez, G; Bulbena, A; Baguet, F; Gély-Nargeot, M C

    2015-01-01

    Joint hypermobility (JH) is a common trait of heritable disorders of the connective tissue which has been identified as a risk factor for anxiety states. Anxiety and other negative emotions lead some people to use tobacco and alcohol as a coping strategy. The purpose of this study was to examine JH in relation to the consumption of these psychoactive substances and the associated anxiety and coping strategies. A cross-sectional sample of 305 female college students completed self-administered questionnaires on JH, tobacco and alcohol use, state and trait anxiety, and coping strategies. The prevalence of JH in the final sample (N = 301) was 51.8 %. The percentage of smokers, smokers using tobacco to calm anxiety, at-risk drinkers, tobacco and alcohol users, and the number of standard drinks consumed per week were significantly higher among females with JH than among those without it. The percentage of participants with severe state anxiety was significantly higher in the JH group, as were the emotion-focused coping score. The results of the logistic regression analysis showed that the odds of being assessed with JH were greater in those who consume tobacco and alcohol. This study provides evidence that women with JH report higher levels of state anxiety than non-JH women and use emotion-focused coping (i.e., efforts to regulate affect) more than any other coping strategies to deal with stress. These factors may help explain the increase in tobacco and alcohol use observed in this population.

  9. 健美操小组教学对高职生焦虑心理的影响%Effects on Higher Vocational Students’ Anxiety by Group Calisthenics Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬莲; 蒙军; 唐东伟

    2014-01-01

    The experimental results show that the group calisthenics teaching method can improve the sports achievement of higher vocational col-lege students, significantly reduce their anxiety level, enhance self-confidence, improve their performance, make better the sensitive interpersonal rela-tionship, improve the aesthetic ability, and shape a strong wil power, hence to further improve the level of the higher vocational col ege students' men-tal health.%健美操小组教学法能提高高职大学生的体育成绩,显著地降低了他们的焦虑水平,增强自信心,提高表现力,改善敏感的人际关系,提高审美能力,培养坚强的毅志品质,进一步提高了高职大学生的心理健康水平。

  10. Social Anxiety and Loneliness in Adults Who Solicit Minors Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Anja; Bergen, Emilia; Schuhmann, Petya; Hoyer, Jürgen

    2017-09-01

    This study examined the association of social anxiety, loneliness, and problematic Internet use (PIU) with the online solicitation of minors. Within a convenience sample of adult Internet users from Germany, Finland, and Sweden ( N = 2,828), we compared the responses of participants who had not interacted sexually with strangers online ( n = 2,049) with participants who sexually interacted with unknown adults online ( n = 642), and both groups with adults who sexually solicited unknown minors online ( n = 137). Online sexual interaction with adults was associated with higher levels of social anxiety, loneliness, and PIU compared with not sexually interacting with strangers online. Sexually soliciting minors online was associated with higher levels of social anxiety, loneliness, and PIU compared with sexually interacting with adults and not sexually interacting with strangers at all. Interestingly, compared with those with adult contacts, loneliness was specifically pronounced for participants who solicited children, whereas social anxiety and PIU were pronounced for participants soliciting adolescents. These findings suggest that social anxiety, loneliness, and PIU may be among the motivators for using the Internet to solicit individuals of different age groups for sexual purposes. These factors emerged as specifically relevant for adults who sexually solicited minors and who reported greater impairments compared with adults who sexually interacted with adults. These characteristics may thus be important to consider for assessment and treatment procedures for individuals soliciting minors online.

  11. The Economics of Higher Education: A Report Prepared by the Department of the Treasury with the Department of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of the Treasury, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report discusses the current state of higher education, with a brief high-level overview of the market and a more detailed discussion and analysis of the financial aid system. It also discusses the important changes President Obama has made to make higher education more accessible and affordable. The key findings are: (1) The economic returns…

  12. The Hunt Report and Higher Education Policy in the Republic of Ireland: "An International Solution to an Irish Problem?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John; Loxley, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The "National Strategy for Higher Education to 2030" in the Republic of Ireland (universally known as the Hunt Report) represents the latest and most assertive attempt by the Irish state to re-construct higher education in accordance with economic utilitarian objectives. This paper sets out to analyse the historical context, key themes…

  13. Self-esteem and social anxiety in an adolescent female eating disorder population: age and diagnostic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Nicole; Buchholz, Annick; Boerner, Katelynn E; Henderson, Katherine A; Norris, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This study explored symptoms of social anxiety and multidimensional self-esteem in a clinical, adolescent female eating disorder population. Using self-report measures, data from 344 females revealed significant negative relationships between dimensions of self-esteem and social anxiety. A diagnostic difference emerged, with the restricting subgroup reporting significantly higher perceived physical appearance and global self-worth than those with binge/purge symptoms or bulimia nervosa. No significant age differences or age by diagnosis interaction effects emerged. These findings suggest that in clinical samples of adolescent eating disorders, self-esteem and social anxiety share a significant inverse relationship and seem to remain fairly constant across adolescence.

  14. Utilization of social media and web forums by HIV patients - A cross-sectional study on adherence and reported anxiety level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longinetti, Elisa; Manoharan, Vinoth; Ayoub, Hala; Surkan, Pamela J; El-Khatib, Ziad

    2017-06-01

    Due to the high stigma surrounding the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), people living with HIV (PLWH) often reach out peers over the Internet for emotional and social support. The purpose of this study was to assess the characteristics of PLWH who use HIV internet forums. A cross-sectional study was conducted using an online survey investigating demographic characteristics of PLWH, level of satisfaction of the HIV Internet forums, time living with HIV, forum users' anxiety levels, self-reported adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART), and reasons for missing pills (n = 222). Logistic regression models were constructed to compare the use of general HIV forums with social networking sites, general HIV forums with group emails, and social networking sites with group emails. Two hundred and twenty-two patients responded to the survey. Social networking sites were used by recently diagnosed PLWH who were on antiretroviral treatment (ART) > 1 year. Young patients (≤ 40 years) and those diagnosed  40 years), those diagnosed > 5 years, and from low- and middle-income countries, were more likely to use emailing lists. There was no significant difference between PLWH's adherence to treatment and anxiety levels and the usage of different Internet forums. PLWH's Internet resource choice varied depending on the availability of Internet and illness duration. Different segments of the population could be reached via social networking sites versus group emails to provide HIV information.

  15. Does anxiety cause freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaylena A Ehgoetz Martens

    Full Text Available Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD commonly experience freezing of gait under time constraints, in narrow spaces, and in the dark. One commonality between these different situations is that they may all provoke anxiety, yet anxiety has never been directly examined as a cause of FOG. In this study, virtual reality was used to induce anxiety and evaluate whether it directly causes FOG. Fourteen patients with PD and freezing of gait (Freezers and 17 PD without freezing of gait (Non-Freezers were instructed to walk in two virtual environments: (i across a plank that was located on the ground (LOW, (ii across a plank above a deep pit (HIGH. Multiple synchronized motion capture cameras updated participants' movement through the virtual environment in real-time, while their gait was recorded. Anxiety levels were evaluated after each trial using self-assessment manikins. Freezers performed the experiment on two separate occasions (in their ON and OFF state. Freezers reported higher levels of anxiety compared to Non-Freezers (p < 0.001 and all patients reported greater levels of anxiety when walking across the HIGH plank compared to the LOW (p < 0.001. Freezers experienced significantly more freezing of gait episodes (p = 0.013 and spent a significantly greater percentage of each trial frozen (p = 0.005 when crossing the HIGH plank. This finding was even more pronounced when comparing Freezers in their OFF state. Freezers also had greater step length variability in the HIGH compared to the LOW condition, while the step length variability in Non-Freezers did not change. In conclusion, this was the first study to directly compare freezing of gait in anxious and non-anxious situations. These results present strong evidence that anxiety is an important mechanism underlying freezing of gait and supports the notion that the limbic system may have a profound contribution to freezing in PD.

  16. Creating a positive learning environment for students with English classroom anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hung-Chang; Wang, Ya-Huei

    2015-04-01

    Students situated in post-structural feminist pedagogical learning (PFPL) in a freshman English course (37 students) were expected to have lower English classroom anxiety, score higher in English, and have greater satisfaction with the class they attended than those in conventional lecture classes (40 students). Seventy-four students participated in the study (M age=18.5 yr., SD=0.5; 34 men, 43 women). The measures included the English Classroom Anxiety Scale (ECAS), English proficiency tests, the Student Satisfaction Questionnaire (SSQ), and student interviews. After the classes were completed, students in PFPL reported a significant decrease in anxiety toward the English classroom, scored significantly higher on English proficiency, and expressed significantly greater satisfaction with the course. PFPL potentially decreases students' English classroom anxiety and increases their English proficiency.

  17. Building on Success: Educational Diversity and Equity in Kentucky Higher Education. Choices before the Commonwealth. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancheta, Angelo; Ledesma, Maria; Trent, William; Kurlaender, Michal; Yun, John; Lee, Chungmei; Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve; Driscoll, Anne; Orfield, Gary

    2008-01-01

    This report is an effort to assess what has been accomplished in successfully diversifying and desegregating historically segregated and unequal higher educational institutions across Kentucky, and how this was done. The report discusses the changing legal setting for these initiatives, analyzes the educational achievements and challenges, and…

  18. Research Protocol: Development, implementation and evaluation of a cognitive behavioural therapy-based intervention programme for the management of anxiety symptoms in South African children with visual impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Visagie

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood anxiety presents a serious mental health problem, and it is one of the most common forms of psychological distress reported by youth worldwide. The prevalence of anxiety symptoms amongst South African youth is reported to be significantly higher than in other parts of the world. These high prevalence rates become even more significant when viewed in terms of children with visual impairments, as it is suggested that children with physical disabilities may be more prone, than their non-disabled peers, for the development of psychological difficulties. Objectives: The main aim of this study is to develop, implement and evaluate a specifically tailored anxiety intervention programme for use with South African children with visual impairments. Method: A specifically tailored cognitive-behavioural therapy-based anxiety intervention, for 9–13 year old South African children with visual impairments, will be evaluated in two special schools. The study will employ a randomised wait-list control group design with pre- postand follow-up intervention measures, with two groups each receiving a 10 session anxiety intervention programme. The main outcome measure relates to the participants’ symptoms of anxiety as indicated on the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale. Conclusion: If the anxiety intervention programme is found to be effective in reducing symptoms of anxiety, this universal intervention will lay down the foundation upon which future contextually sensitive (South African anxiety intervention programmes can be built.

  19. Factors Related to Mathematics Anxiety in the Secondary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Richard S.

    This study indicates that eighth graders have higher mathematics anxiety than eleventh graders, and boys have higher mathematics anxiety than girls. Eighth-grade classes with high mathematics anxiety tend to have high motivation in mathematics, but tend to see mathematics as not very useful in society. Both grade levels show a positive…

  20. Teaching Strategies Adopted by Teachers at Higher Education Level in Kerala: A Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesa, M.; Nisha, E. V.

    2017-01-01

    In the special context of entrepreneurship, employability skill development, Higher Education 2.0 and the Kovalam Declaration 2016, the present article presents a brief review of genres of teaching strategies at higher education level and attempts to bring to the attention of the readers an account of the teaching strategies adopted by teachers at…

  1. Dimensional assessment of anxiety disorders in parents and children for DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Eline L; Majdandžić, Mirjana; Craske, Michelle G; Bögels, Susan M

    2014-09-01

    The current shift in the DSM towards the inclusion of a dimensional component allows clinicians and researchers to demonstrate not only the presence or absence of psychopathology in an individual, but also the degree to which the disorder and its symptoms are manifested. This study evaluated the psychometric properties and utility of a set of brief dimensional scales that assess DSM-based core features of anxiety disorders, for children and their parents. The dimensional scales and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED-71), a questionnaire to assess symptoms of all anxiety disorders, were administered to a community sample of children (n = 382), aged 8-13 years, and their mothers (n = 285) and fathers (n = 255). The dimensional scales assess six anxiety disorders: specific phobia, agoraphobia, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and separation anxiety disorder. Children rated their own anxiety and parents their child's anxiety. The dimensional scales demonstrated high internal consistency (α > 0.78, except for father reported child panic disorder, for reason of lack of variation), and moderate to high levels of convergent validity (rs  = 0.29-0.73). Children who exceeded the SCARED cutoffs scored higher on the dimensional scales than those who did not, providing preliminary support for the clinical sensitivity of the scales. Given their strong psychometric properties and utility for both child and parent report, addition of the dimensional scales to the DSM-5 might be an effective way to incorporate dimensional measurement into the categorical DSM-5 assessment of anxiety disorders in children.

  2. Test anxiety levels of board exam going students in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Revina Ann; Marslin, Gregory; Franklin, Gregory; Sheeba, Caroline J

    2014-01-01

    The latest report by the National Crime Records Bureau has positioned Tamil Nadu as the Indian state with highest suicide rate. At least in part, this is happening due to exam pressure among adolescents, emphasizing the imperative need to understand the pattern of anxiety and various factors contributing to it among students. The present study was conducted to analyze the level of state anxiety among board exam attending school students in Tamil Nadu, India. A group of 100 students containing 50 boys and 50 girls from 10th and 12th grades participated in the study and their state anxiety before board exams was measured by Westside Test Anxiety Scale. We found that all board exam going students had increased level of anxiety, which was particularly higher among boys and 12th standard board exam going students. Analysis of various demographic variables showed that students from nuclear families presented higher anxiety levels compared to their desired competitive group. Overall, our results showing the prevalence of state anxiety among board exam going students in Tamil Nadu, India, support the recent attempt taken by Tamil Nadu government to improve student's academic performance in a healthier manner by appointing psychologists in all government schools.

  3. Binge eating is associated with trait anxiety in Korean adolescent girls: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jin-Yi; Kim, Kye-Hyun; Woo, Hee-Yeon; Shin, Dong-Won; Shin, Young-Chul; Oh, Kang-Seob; Shin, Eun-Hee; Lim, Se-Won

    2017-01-21

    Binge eating occurs more frequently in women than in men, and is known to be related to psychological factors such as stress, depression, and anxiety. This study examined the relationship between binge eating and depression, trait anxiety, and perceived stress in Korean adolescents. Four hundred girls (aged 17-18 years) from two high schools located in Seoul completed self-report questionnaires. In total, 327 participants returned reliable responses, and were included in the final study. Binge eating was measured using the Bulimic Inventory Test Edinburgh. The questionnaire also included the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Trait Anxiety (TA) of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Anxiety Sensitivity Inventory (ASI), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The binge-eating group had higher BMI than the control group. The binge-eating group showed higher scores than control on the PSS, BDI, ASI, and TA. The TA was most highly correlated with binge eating. From logistic regression analysis, TA was revealed to be the only factor that raised the risk of binge eating, whereas PSS, BDI, and ASI showed no statistical significance. Although binge eating was correlated with perceived stress, depression, and trait anxiety, when their influences were controlled, only binge eating appeared to be associated with trait anxiety.

  4. The effects of social anxiety on interpersonal evaluations of warmth and dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Bielak, Tatiana; Vidovic, Vanja; Moscovitch, David A

    2016-03-01

    Social anxiety disorder is associated with interpersonal dysfunction, but it is not clear why people with the disorder feel unsatisfied with their relationships. One possibility is that higher social anxiety could lead to changes in sensitivity to interpersonal traits. We examined whether social anxiety moderates the types of interpersonal evaluations people make regarding warmth and dominance. We developed vignettes in which central characters systematically varied in dominance and warmth and asked two samples of participants (undergraduate students, n=176, and online workers, n=403) to rate their willingness to interact with, and the social desirability of, these characters. Participants in general reported stronger desire to interact with warmer and less dominant characters, and rated warmer and more dominant characters as being more socially desirable. People with higher social anxiety exhibited greater tolerance for colder and more submissive characters on both rated dimensions. The perceived similarity of the characters accounted for the bulk of these effects. Participants indicated a higher desire to interact with characters more similar to themselves, and people with higher social anxiety were more likely to rate submissive and cold characters as being like themselves. The results have implications for clinical interventions for social anxiety disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reading anxiety, classroom anxiety, language motivation, reader self-perception, and arabic achievement of Arab-American students learning arabic as a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhateeb, Haitham M

    2014-12-01

    The present study assessed the relations between reading anxiety, classroom anxiety, language motivation, and readers' self-perception for a sample of Arab-American students in Arabic classes. The effects of sex, grade, and years studying Arabic on academic achievement were examined as well. Measures were administered to 118 middle school students (56 boys, 62 girls; M age = 13.0 yr., SD = 0.8), and teachers reported academic grades in Arabic. Reading anxiety was significantly correlated with classroom anxiety and reader self-perception. Classroom anxiety scores were significantly correlated with motivation and reader self-perception. Significant positive correlations were found between language motivation and reader self-perception scores, and between years studying Arabic and reader self-perception scores. Boys in the second year of Arabic had significantly lower classroom anxiety than girls, and students in Grade 7 had higher reader self-perception than those in Grade 8. Classroom anxiety, language motivation, and reader self-perception significantly predicted Arabic achievement. Pedagogical implications are discussed.

  6. Reflections on the Future of Global Higher Education - WAAS Conference Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Šlaus

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Education is the most important catalyst of social evolution. Today higher education is in the early stages of a revolutionary transition that will have immense impact on the future of global society. This article presents an overview of perspectives explored at the World Academy's Forum on Global Higher Education conducted at the University of California at Berkeley on October 2-3, 2013. It examines issues resulting from rapid changes in educational technology and organization that impact on accessibility, affordability, quality, relevance, employability and content of higher education. It envisions establishment of a World University Consortium as a network and umbrella group to facilitate educational partnerships and linkages with other interested stakeholders at the international level, to provide a centralized source of information about latest innovative ideas and developments in this field, and to explore creative solutions to enhance the reach, quality and relevance of higher education globally.

  7. Dental treatment of a patient with central sleep apnea and phobic anxiety under sedation: report of a case and clinical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılınç, Yeliz; Işık, Berrin

    2012-11-01

    Central sleep apnea (CSA) results from a reduction in lack of output from the central respiratory generator in the brainstem, manifesting as apneas and hypopneas without discernible efforts. CSA can lead to hypercarbia, arrhythmias, pulmonary hypertension, and heart failure. Indeed, the patient may develop a disturbed breathing during sedation procedures. We report a patient who was diagnosed with CSA and had been on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for 5 years. He was referred for multiple tooth extractions under sedation owing to severe gag reflex and phobic anxiety disorder. The treatment was completed uneventfully under N(2)O and sevoflurane inhalation accompanied by midazolam and ketamine induction. The role of sedative, analgesic, and anesthetic agents as a precipitating factor for CSA is of particular concern. The combined administration of midazolam, ketamine, sevoflurane, and N(2)O/O(2) is a useful and safe option for patients requiring sedation.

  8. Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anxiety, anxiety disorders, anxious, behavior therapy, GAD, generalized anxiety disorder, mental health neuroses, mood disorders, psychiatric disorder, psychotherapy Family Health, Men, Seniors, Women January 1996 Copyright © American Academy of Family PhysiciansThis ...

  9. Anxiety Disorders: Support Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awards Research & Practice News Blog Posts Depression and Anxiety Journal Insights E-Newsletter Clinical Practice Reviews, Teaching ... Member Community Professional Main navigation Understand the Facts Anxiety Tips to Mange Anxiety and Stress Symptoms Myths ...

  10. Separation Anxiety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Separation Anxiety KidsHealth > For Parents > Separation Anxiety Print A A ... both of you get through it. About Separation Anxiety Babies adapt pretty well to other caregivers. Parents ...

  11. Disability in anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, S.M.; Spijker, J.; Licht, C.M.M.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Hardeveld, F.; Graaf, R. de; Batelaan, N.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study compares disability levels between different anxiety disorders and healthy controls. We further investigate the role of anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour in disability, and whether differences in these symptom patterns contribute to disability differences between anxiety

  12. Disability in anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, S.M.; Spijker, J.; Licht, C.M.; Beekman, A.T.; Hardeveld, F.; Graaf, R. de; Batelaan, N.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study compares disability levels between different anxiety disorders and healthy controls. We further investigate the role of anxiety arousal and avoidance behaviour in disability, and whether differences in these symptom patterns contribute to disability differences between anxiety

  13. Separation Anxiety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Separation Anxiety KidsHealth > For Parents > Separation Anxiety A A A ... both of you get through it. About Separation Anxiety Babies adapt pretty well to other caregivers. Parents ...

  14. Prevalence of comorbid anxiety disorders in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Kiran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diagnostic and treatment hierarchical reductionisms have resulted in an oversight of anxiety syndromes in schizophrenia. Aim: The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of different anxiety disorders in schizophrenia patients. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on inpatients of a tertiary care psychiatric hospital using a prospective, purposive sampling technique. The study consisted of 93 schizophrenia patients and a similar number of normal controls. The schizophrenia patients and controls were evaluated for psychopathology and the presence of anxiety disorder. Results: The prevalence of anxiety disorder was significantly higher in schizophrenia patients (45.16% compared to controls (16.12%. Further, the prevalence of panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD was significantly higher in schizophrenia patients. No significant correlation was observed between anxiety disorder scores and psychopathology scores. Conclusions: The prevalence of comorbid anxiety disorders (panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and OCD in schizophrenia is significantly higher in the general population. The onset of anxiety disorder commonly precedes the onset of schizophrenia.

  15. Paradoxical intention and recursive anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascher, L M; Schotte, D E

    1999-06-01

    The present study was designed to investigate a possible relationship between "recursive anxiety" and paradoxical intention. Groups of subjects were chosen from among individuals with public speaking concerns. and for whom fear of fear or recursive anxiety clearly represented an important element, or was completely absent from the clinical profile. These subjects were offered a standard in vivo treatment program for public speaking phobia with inclusion or exclusion of paradoxical intention. A 2 x 2 factorial design was employed. Those whose public speaking anxiety was complicated by recursive anxiety experienced greater improvement when paradoxical intention was included in the treatment program than when it was not employed. In contrast, individuals reporting simple public speaking phobia demonstrated greater success with a treatment program in which paradoxical intention was absent. Wegner's hypothesis of "ironic" cognitive processing was used to explain the proposed relationship between paradoxical intention and fear of fear.

  16. [Anxiety--medical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosiak, M

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the author presented themes connected with anxiety disorder in general medical practice. Pathogenesis, classification, dependence between anxiety and somatic and psychical diseases were described there.

  17. The Relationship between the Physical Activity Environment, Nature Relatedness, Anxiety, and the Psychological Well-being Benefits of Regular Exercisers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Lawton

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research from a variety of scientific fields suggests that physical activity in nature and feelings of connection to nature enhance psychological health and well-being. This study investigated the psychological health and well-being impact of the physical activity environment for those already undertaking the recommended weekly amount of physical activity. This topic is important for the design of health and well-being environments and interventions involving physical activity. Participants (N = 262 aged 18–71 years (M = 34.5, SD = 13.1 who met the UK physical activity guidelines completed the Nature Relatedness Scale, the trait section of the State Trait Inventory for Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety and the Psychological Well-Being Scale. Analysis via Multivariate ANOVA indicated that participants who engaged in outdoor physical activity reported significantly lower somatic anxiety levels and higher Nature Relatedness experience (NRexp. Significant results were not evident for wellbeing. Hierarchical regressions revealed that the psychological well-being facet of autonomy, NRexp, and outdoor physical activity predicted lower somatic anxiety, whereas indoor physical activity predicted higher somatic anxiety. Results indicate that somatic anxiety is lower for outdoor physical activity participation, and that outdoor activity, in conjunction with autonomy and NRexp, predicts lower anxiety levels. The findings extend previous work by demonstrating the impact of the physical activity environment on anxiety levels, as well as the contribution of outdoor physical activity and well-being facets to the previously established Nature Relatedness-anxiety relationship.

  18. Neck pain and anxiety do not always go together

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsen Anders H

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chronic pain and psychosocial distress are generally thought to be associated in chronic musculoskeletal disorders such as non-specific neck pain. However, it is unclear whether a raised level of anxiety is necessarily a feature of longstanding, intense pain amongst patient and general population sub-groups. In a cohort of 70 self-selected female, non-specific neck pain sufferers, we observed relatively high levels of self-reported pain of 4.46 (measured on the 11 point numerical pain rating scale (NRS-101 and a longstanding duration of symptoms (156 days/year. However, the mean anxiety scores observed (5.49, fell well below the clinically relevant threshold of 21 required by the Beck Anxiety Inventory. The cohort was stratified to further distinguish individuals with higher pain intensity (NRS>6 and longer symptom duration (>90 days. Although a highly statistically significant difference (p = 0.000 was subsequently observed with respect to pain intensity, in the resulting sub-groups, none such a difference was noted with respect to anxiety levels. Our results indicate that chronic, intense pain and anxiety do not always appear to be related. Explanations for these findings may include that anxiety is not triggered in socially functional individuals, that individual coping strategies have come into play or in some instances that a psychological disorder like alexithymia could be a confounder. More studies are needed to clarify the specific role of anxiety in chronic non-specific musculoskeletal pain before general evidence-driven clinical extrapolations can be made.

  19. KRONOS: A Monte Carlo event generator for higher order QED corrections at HERA — Status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anlauf, Harald; Manakos, Panagiotis; Mannel, Thomas; Dahmen, Hans D.; Ohl, Thorsten

    1992-12-01

    We report on the status of the Monte Carlo event generator KRONOS for deep inelastic lepton hadron scattering at HERA. KRONOS focusses on the description of electronmagnetic corrections beyond the existing fixed order calculations.

  20. Higher Education for the 1980s. Challenges and Responses. Report of the Hiroshima International Seminar on Higher Education (2nd, Hiroshima, Japan, January 29-31, 1980).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Higher Education.

    The challenges of social change, values crises, societal needs for higher education, the internal dynamics of higher educational systems, and future reforms in higher education were discussed at the Second Hiroshima International Seminar on Higher Education. Topics discussed include: Higher Education in an Age of Internationalization (Michio…

  1. Examination of the Relationship among Death Anxiety, Spirituality, Religious Orientation and Existential Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Halıcı Kurtulan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the associations among death anxiety, spiritual tendencies, existential anxiety, and religious tendencies were examined. In addition, this study investigated whether these variables changed with respect to demographic characteristics. The study group was composed of 404 university students. Data was collected by administering the personal demographic form, Death Anxiety Scale, Existential Scale, Religious Tendency Scale, and Spirituality Scale. In line with the purpose of the study, the relational screening model and descriptive methods have been used and participants are identified as study groups. Male participants scored significantly higher than female participants. Gender was not found to have an effect on the other variables. Existential anxiety did not differ within groups with respect to having a religious education. Participants who had received a religious education had higher death anxiety and less spiritual tendencies. Motivation for religious tendencies was found to be external. According to the results, death anxiety and existential anxiety are negatively correlated; existential anxiety and spiritual tendencies are positively correlated; and religious tendencies, which have externally motivations, and spiritual tendencies are negatively correlated. Death anxiety, spiritual tendencies, and religious tendencies predict existential anxiety. As suggestions, the number of studies that examine the associations among existential anxiety, religious tendencies, and spiritual tendencies should be increased, and the quality of religious education should be discussed in detail.

  2. Prevalence and Prognostic Value of Depression and Anxiety in Patients with Diabetic Foot Ulcers and Possibilities of their Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udovichenko, Oleg V; Maximova, N V; Amosova, M V; Yunilaynen, O A; Berseneva, E A; Starostina, E G

    2017-01-01

    Depression and anxiety can potentially influence treatment results of diabetic complications. Of our study was to explore: (1) prevalence of these disorders in patients with diabetic foot ulcers (DFU); (2) possible risk factors of depression and anxiety; (3) possible links between ulcer treatment results and depression/anxiety status. 285 outpatients with diabetes and foot or leg ulcers were tested for depression and anxiety with self-report scales: CES-D and the anxiety subscale from HADS. Ulcer treatment results, incidence of new ulcers and number of hospital admissions were assessed after 1.5 years of follow-up. Depression was detected in 110 patients (39%), anxiety in 103 (36%). Females had depression and anxiety more often than males (48% and 46% vs. 27% and 25% respectively). A combined score based on diabetes duration, insulin treatment, history of myocardial infarction, history of foot ulcers and recent foot surgery was higher in patients with than without depression (3.0 vs. 2.0, p=0.02). Every of these or other potential risk factors alone was not associated with depression or anxiety. Patients with depression did not demonstrate poorer prognosis except higher mortality in subgroup of severely depressed patients without ulcer history. For anxiety we got similar results as its presence strongly correlated with depression. The overall prevalence of depression and anxiety in DFU patients is compatible with other diabetic populations. Various parameters of ulcer severity and duration did not influence the probability of depression and anxiety occurrence. Depression in general was not associated with poorer ulcer treatment results. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. 2015 Global Information Technology Report: Consequences on Knowledge Management in Higher Education Institutions in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ololube, Nwachukwu Prince; Agbor, Comfort Nkogho; Major, Nanighe Baldwin; Agabi, Chinyere O.; Wali, Worlu I.

    2016-01-01

    This research is a continuation of a theoretical review that evaluated ICT Policy Outcomes for National Development in relation to Networked Readiness Index (NRI) and the impact it has on knowledge integration and management in higher education institutions in Nigeria. A new dawn in information technology (IT) has initiated new trends in…

  4. Special Report #6. Developing Trends in Content of Collective Bargaining Contracts in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andes, John

    The growth in the number of higher education collective bargaining contracts continues at a rapid pace, although it is taking longer for the initial contract to be negotiated. The data on 131 contracts covering 215 institutions is included in the statistical tables in this document. Collective bargaining has increased in the West and at least one…

  5. Report of the Governor's Commission on Higher Education and the Economy, January 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governor's Blue Ribbon Commission on Higher Education and the Economy of Connecticut, Inc., Hartford.

    The Governor's Commission on Higher Education and the Economy's assessment of the Connecticut system and ways that the educational needs of the economy and the state can be met during a period of declining enrollments and fiscal constraints is presented. Working committees of the commission studied governance and management; business, labor, and…

  6. Brief Report: Joint Attention and Information Processing in Children with Higher Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Peter; Kim, Kwanguk; McIntyre, Nancy; Lerro, Lindsay; Jarrold, William

    2016-01-01

    Theory suggests that information processing during joint attention may be atypical in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This hypothesis was tested in a study of school-aged children with higher functioning ASD and groups of children with symptoms of ADHD or typical development. The results indicated that the control groups displayed…

  7. Higher Education Cost Containment. Performance Audit, November 1995. Report of the State Auditor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Office of State Auditor, Denver.

    Between June and September 1995, this performance audit examined Colorado higher education cost containment in debt refinancing and improvements to student loan processes according to generally accepted government auditing standards. With respect to debt refinancing, the audit concluded that in general, governing boards and institutions were…

  8. Prepared in Mind and Resources? A Report on Public Higher Education in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alacbay, Armand; Poliakoff, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In 2011, South Carolina Governor Nikki Haley signed into law the South Carolina Higher Education Efficiency and Administrative Policies Act, maintaining the transparency and accountability that lead to increased academic quality and affordability at colleges and universities. It is in this context that ACTA (American Council of Trustees and…

  9. Made in Maine: A State Report Card on Public Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, Eric; Poliakoff, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Maine is blessed with universities that have records of significant achievement. The seven campuses of the University of Maine System (UMS) together educated over 23,000 students (full-time equivalent) during the past year. But for good reason, in recent years public confidence in higher education throughout the nation has fallen. Half of the…

  10. Reporting the Use of Multiple Imputation for Missing Data in Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manly, Catherine A.; Wells, Ryan S.

    2015-01-01

    Higher education researchers using survey data often face decisions about handling missing data. Multiple imputation (MI) is considered by many statisticians to be the most appropriate technique for addressing missing data in many circumstances. In particular, it has been shown to be preferable to listwise deletion, which has historically been a…

  11. Toward a Definition of Verbal Reasoning in Higher Education. Research Report. ETS RR-09-33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Nancy W.; Welsh, Cynthia; Kostin, Irene; VanEssen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This paper briefly summarizes the literatures of reading and reasoning in the last quarter century, focusing mainly on the disciplines of cognitive science, cognitive developmental psychology, linguistics, and educational psychology. These literatures were synthesized to create a framework for defining verbal reasoning in higher education. Eight…

  12. Interdisciplinarity: The Mutable Paradigm. AAHE/ERIC/Higher Education Research Report No 9, 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayville, William V.

    The many forms of interdisciplinarity in higher education institutions and the various ways it has been used to advance curricular changes are examined. Definitions of interdisciplinarity and its variants (multi-, pluri-, and transdisciplinarity) provide a conceptual framework for the examination. In this study, interdisciplinarity is understood…

  13. Academic Judgment and Grievance Arbitration in Higher Education. Special Report No. 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Harold

    The first known analysis of a substantial number of arbitration awards in higher education is presented in an effort to determine whether arbitrators have confined their awards within the contract limitations. All of the arbitration awards generated by the four-year colleges of the State University of New York as well as the awards of the…

  14. European Union Students Studying in English Higher Education Institutions. DIUS Research Report 08-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Marian; Rutt, Simon

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the pathways, intentions and relevant perceptions of (non-UK) European Union (EU) students entering English higher education. It sought to identify why students wished to obtain an English HE qualification, their attitudes towards the uptake and repayment of tuition fee loans and their future career plans. Drawing on…

  15. Cataloguing E-Books in UK Higher Education Libraries: Report of a Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the results of a 2006 survey of UK Higher Education OPACs in order to provide a snapshot of cataloguing practices for e-books. Design/methodology/approach: The OPACs of 30 UK HE libraries were examined in July/August 2006 to determine which e-books were catalogued, and the level of cataloguing…

  16. 2014-2015 State of CRM Use in Higher Education Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRAO) periodically undertakes research projects to keep themselves and the higher education community in general, informed about relevant current and emerging practices. The aim of this survey was to measure the extent of ownership of Constituent (or Customer)…

  17. Quality: Transforming Postsecondary Education. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 3, 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle; Sherr, Lawrence A.

    Many colleges and universities, in responding to public demand for higher education and the external challenges it creates, are employing Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques to improve quality, increase productivity, and decrease costs. The quality improvement process itself (the tools for problem identification and developing solutions),…

  18. Anxiety and pain in children undergoing elective surgical procedures: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia Shermin, Chieng Ying; Sally, Chan Wai-Chi; Hong-Gu, He

    2012-01-01

    standardised data extraction tools: the Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-MAStARI) for randomised-controlled trials, cohort studies, and descriptive/case series. Since the ten included studies used various study designs and outcome measures for the levels of anxiety and pain, this made meta-analysis impossible and therefore the findings were summarised and presented in narrative form. This review included two randomised-controlled trials, two cohort studies, five observational descriptive studies and one descriptive survey study. Eight studies revealed that children who had higher levels of pre- and post-operative anxiety experienced a higher level of post-operative pain. Pearson correlation coefficients of these eight studies were reported in the findings, with coefficients ranging between r = 0.29 (p pain. Children who had higher levels of pre- and post-operative anxiety experienced a higher level of post-operative pain. The review results inform healthcare providers of the role perioperative anxiety plays on paediatric postoperative pain.This evidence serves to generate implications for clinical practice and future studies in order to better manage children's perioperative anxiety and eventually improve their postoperative pain management. However, this review revealed insufficient evidence supporting the correlation between children's demographic data, namely gender, age and past surgical experience and their perioperative anxiety and pain. Children's perioperative anxiety should be routinely assessed prior to procedures in the clinical setting. This review also recommends that interventions be developed and implemented so as to reduce pain and anxiety for children during the perioperative period. Future studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of different interventions in reducing children's perioperative anxiety and pain, and to examine the relationship between anxiety and pain in other settings and countries

  19. ERP measures of math anxiety: how math anxiety affects working memory and mental calculation tasks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klados, Manousos A; Simos, Panagiotis; Micheloyannis, Sifis; Margulies, Daniel; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2015-01-01

    There have been several attempts to account for the impact of Mathematical Anxiety (MA) on brain activity with variable results. The present study examines the effects of MA on ERP amplitude during performance of simple arithmetic calculations and working memory tasks. Data were obtained from 32 university students as they solved four types of arithmetic problems (one- and two-digit addition and multiplication) and a working memory task comprised of three levels of difficulty (1, 2, and 3-back task). Compared to the Low-MA group, High-MA individuals demonstrated reduced ERP amplitude at frontocentral (between 180-320 ms) and centroparietal locations (between 380-420 ms). These effects were independent of task difficulty/complexity, individual performance, and general state/trait anxiety levels. Results support the hypothesis that higher levels of self-reported MA are associated with lower cortical activation during the early stages of the processing of numeric stimuli in the context of cognitive tasks.

  20. Ancient Anxiety Pathways Influence Drosophila Defense Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Farhan; Aryal, Sameer; Ho, Joses; Stewart, James Charles; Norman, Nurul Ayuni; Tan, Teng Li; Eisaka, Agnese; Claridge-Chang, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Summary Anxiety helps us anticipate and assess potential danger in ambiguous situations [1, 2, 3]; however, the anxiety disorders are the most prevalent class of psychiatric illness [4, 5, 6]. Emotional states are shared between humans and other animals [7], as observed by behavioral manifestations [8], physiological responses [9], and gene conservation [10]. Anxiety research makes wide use of three rodent behavioral assays—elevated plus maze, open field, and light/dark box—that present a choice between sheltered and exposed regions [11]. Exposure avoidance in anxiety-related defense behaviors was confirmed to be a correlate of rodent anxiety by treatment with known anxiety-altering agents [12, 13, 14] and is now used to characterize anxiety systems. Modeling anxiety with a small neurogenetic animal would further aid the elucidation of its neuronal and molecular bases. Drosophila neurogenetics research has elucidated the mechanisms of fundamental behaviors and implicated genes that are often orthologous across species. In an enclosed arena, flies stay close to the walls during spontaneous locomotion [15, 16], a behavior proposed to be related to anxiety [17]. We tested this hypothesis with manipulations of the GABA receptor, serotonin signaling, and stress. The effects of these interventions were strikingly concordant with rodent anxiety, verifying that these behaviors report on an anxiety-like state. Application of this method was able to identify several new fly anxiety genes. The presence of conserved neurogenetic pathways in the insect brain identifies Drosophila as an attractive genetic model for the study of anxiety and anxiety-related disorders, complementing existing rodent systems. PMID:27020741

  1. Exercise for Stress and Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Thrive Managing Anxiety Exercise for Stress and Anxiety The physical benefits of exercise — improving physical condition ... stimulate anti-anxiety effects. Relationship of Exercise to Anxiety Disorders Stress and anxiety are a normal part ...

  2. The Analysis of Adolescents' Anxiety Characteristics in Secondary Vocational Colleges%中职院校青少年焦虑特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庆兴

    2012-01-01

    以Spence儿童焦虑量表中文版与状态——特质焦虑量表中文版考察中职院校青少年焦虑的特点。结果发现:中职院校青少年焦虑问题较为常见,其发生率在15%左右,女孩的焦虑问题相比更多;强迫—冲动障碍、社交恐惧与广泛性焦虑水平较高,是青少年常见的焦虑问题;广泛性焦虑与其他焦虑类型以及特质焦虑间均存在显著的正相关,在各焦虑组中相对稳定。由此,广泛性焦虑可能属特质焦虑范畴,成为青少年发展过程中的基本焦虑。%To evaluate the characteristics of secondary vocational colleges adolescents' anxiety by the Chinese Spence Children's Anxiety Scale and State -Trait Anxiety Inventory. Results are found: anxiety disorders are relatively common problems among adolescents in secondary vocational colleges, existing the incidence of around 15 % and girls report higher levels of anxiety disorders;The levels of Obsessive - compulsive Disorder, Social Phobia and Generalized Anxiety Disorder which as common problems among adolescents are higher;Generalized Anxiety Disorder which is relatively stable in anxiety groups has been reported significant positive correlations with other anxiety types and trait anxiety, thus it probably belongs to the scope of trait anxiety and becomes the basic anxiety in the youth development process.

  3. High anxiety levels are associated with divergent empathising and systemising tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Strutt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available “Systemising” and “Empathising” are two cognitive tendencies that individuals rely on to make sense of the world. Systemising involves the observation of environmental contingencies and the consequent formulation of concrete rules to predict events. Empathising is the drive to attribute affective states to others, and to guide responses based on these inferences. High Anxiety is linked to negative, and erroneous, interpretations of social information, and it is possible that the introduction of systems, and therefore predictive utility, might appeal to anxious individuals. It was hypothesised that individuals with high trait anxiety levels would report higher systemising tendencies and lower empathising tendencies than their less anxious peers. A total of 223 participants completed measures of trait anxiety, empathising and systemising tendencies, and autistic traits. Consistent with the hypotheses, individuals with higher levels of trait anxiety demonstrated high systemising tendencies and relatively low empathising tendencies, whilst their less anxious peers demonstrated balanced tendencies in both domains. The High Anxiety group also scored highest on the self-reported measure of autistic traits. This research has identified anxiety as a potential facilitator of divergence in cognitive tendencies, which will be further enhanced by studies in clinical populations.

  4. The role of pain-related anxiety in adolescents' disability and social impairment: ALSPAC data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caes, L; Fisher, E; Clinch, J; Tobias, J H; Eccleston, C

    2015-07-01

    Anxiety, in particular pain-related anxiety, plays an important role in explaining the severity of pain complaints and pain-related disability in both adults and children with chronic pain. The fear-avoidance model (FAM) describes how pain-related anxiety plays a critical role in the maintenance of pain-avoidance behaviour, which in turn influences pain-related disability. However, the FAM does not take into account broader aspects of adolescence, such as social functioning, which could be negatively impacted by anxiety. In addition, most studies examining the role of anxiety in pain have used small convenience or clinical samples. By using a large UK epidemiological database, this study investigated the associations between pain-related anxiety, disability and judgements of social impairment. Participants (n = 856) with recurrent pain were selected from a larger epidemiological study (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children) of adolescents attending a research clinic at the age of 17 (n = 5170). Adolescents completed a self-report questionnaire on pain-related anxiety, disability and perceived social impairment. High levels of pain-related anxiety were associated with more disability. In girls, higher levels of pain-related anxiety were also related to the self-perception of greater impairment in social functioning compared with their peers. Pain-related anxiety was associated with greater pain-related disability and impaired social functioning. Social functioning should be explored as an integral part of fear-avoidance models of adolescent chronic pain. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  5. Exploring the manifestations of anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Victoria; Lecavalier, Luc; Sukhodolsky, Denis G; Cipriano, Noreen; Aman, Michael G; McCracken, James T; McDougle, Christopher J; Tierney, Elaine; King, Bryan H; Hollander, Eric; Sikich, Linmarie; Bregman, Joel; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Donnelly, Craig; Katsovich, Lily; Dukes, Kimberly; Vitiello, Benedetto; Gadow, Kenneth; Scahill, Lawrence

    2013-10-01

    This study explores the manifestation and measurement of anxiety symptoms in 415 children with ASDs on a 20-item, parent-rated, DSM-IV referenced anxiety scale. In both high and low-functioning children (IQ above vs. below 70), commonly endorsed items assessed restlessness, tension and sleep difficulties. Items requiring verbal expression of worry by the child were rarely endorsed. Higher anxiety was associated with functional language, IQ above 70 and higher scores on several other behavioral measures. Four underlying factors emerged: Generalized Anxiety, Separation Anxiety, Social Anxiety and Over-arousal. Our findings extend our understanding of anxiety across IQ in ASD and provide guidance for improving anxiety outcome measurement.

  6. Test Anxiety and Foreign Language Reading Anxiety in a Reading-Proficiency Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Chin Tsai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The impact of foreign-language anxiety has been researched with respect to the reading domain; however, how it affects reading proficiency in relation to test anxiety in a test situation is yet to be explored. Approach: This study investigated possible relationships between test anxiety, foreign language reading anxiety and English reading proficiency by using scales published in previous studies. A total of 302 EFL college freshmen enrolled in Freshman English were assessed with the Test Anxiety Scale, the Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale and a reading-proficiency test. Data were analyzed by means of Pearson’s product-moment correlations and independent-samples t-tests. Results: Several findings were reported. First, English reading proficiency was found negatively related to test anxiety and foreign language reading anxiety. Second, test anxiety was found correlated positively with foreign language reading anxiety. Third, the reading-proficiency difference between Low Anxiety Testees and High Anxiety Testees did not reach a significance level. Fourth, the reading-proficiency difference between Low Anxiety Readers and High Anxiety Readers did not reach a significance level, either. Conclusion/Recommendations: It was possible that the sample sizes may not be enough to make the reading-proficiency difference between LAT and HAT or between LAR and HAR reach a significance level. In addition, the reading-proficiency test in the form of multiple-choice questions could not have differentiated low anxiety participants from high anxiety ones. In the future, the number of participants should be increased to increase the power of the statistical procedure. In addition, various reading-proficiency assessments should be considered.

  7. Meditation therapy for anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisanaprakornkit, T; Krisanaprakornkit, W; Piyavhatkul, N; Laopaiboon, M

    2006-01-25

    transcendental meditation showed a reduction in anxiety symptoms and electromyography score comparable with electromyography-biofeedback and relaxation therapy. Another study compared Kundalini Yoga (KY), with Relaxation/Mindfulness Meditation. The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale showed no statistically significant difference between groups. The overall dropout rate in both studies was high (33-44%). Neither study reported on adverse effects of meditation. The small number of studies included in this review do not permit any conclusions to be drawn on the effectiveness of meditation therapy for anxiety disorders. Transcendental meditation is comparable with other kinds of relaxation therapies in reducing anxiety, and Kundalini Yoga did not show significant effectiveness in treating obsessive-compulsive disorders compared with Relaxation/Meditation. Drop out rates appear to be high, and adverse effects of meditation have not been reported. More trials are needed.

  8. Social anxiety in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avakyan, Tamara V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Results of research on social anxiety in orphaned children are presented in this article. The goal of this study was to identify the relationship between depressive states, anxiety states, characteristics of the situation at school, and fear of social evaluation in orphaned children. The differences in these parameters between orphaned children and children living with their families were also studied. The sample consisted of 123 teenagers. The main group comprised 57 orphans from an orphanage near the Moscow region, aged 10 to 16 years old. The control group comprised 66 students from a general school, aged 10 to 15 years old, and all living with their families. Differences were found in the parameters studied. The orphans were characterized by higher levels of social and general anxiety. On the one hand, they strove for the attention and approval of adults, but, on the other hand, they were more worried than their peers who lived with their families about the impression they made on others. They were afraid of receiving a negative evaluation.

  9. DSM-IV-defined anxiety disorder symptoms in a middle-childhood-aged group of Malaysian children using the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Ahmadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Pediatric anxiety disorders are the most common mental health disorders in the middle-childhood age group. The purpose of this study is to assess anxiety disorder symptoms, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV, in a large community sample of low socioeconomic level rural children and to investigate some of the psychometric properties (internal consistency, construct and convergent validity and items rated as often or always experienced of the Malay version of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale - Child version (SCAS-C. Method Six hundred children aged 9-11 and 424 of their parents completely answered the child or parent versions of the SCAS. Results Results indicated that the internal reliability of subscales were moderate to adequate. Significant correlations between child and parent reports supported the measure's concurrent validity. Additionally, anxiety levels in this Malaysian sample were lower than among South-African children and higher than among their Western peers. There were both similarities and differences between symptom items reported as often or always experienced by Malaysian students and by children from other cultures. Confirmatory factor analysis provided evidence of the existence of five inter-correlated factors for anxiety disorders based on SCAS-C. Conclusion Although some of the instrument's psychometric properties deviated from those observed in some other countries, it nevertheless appears to be useful for assessing childhood anxiety symptoms in this country.

  10. Self-reported health and cortisol awakening response in parents of people with asperger syndrome: the role of trait anger and anxiety, coping and burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Robledillo, N; Moya-Albiol, L

    2013-11-01

    Caring for offspring with autism spectrum disorders entails high levels of stress for a long period of time and is associated with several types of health complaints. Few studies have focused on specific effects of particular disorders in the spectrum. This study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the global health of parents of people with Asperger syndrome (N = 53) compared to those of typically developing children (N = 54) through self-reported measures (medication consumption and somatic symptoms) and biological markers (cortisol awakening response [CAR]). Additionally, we analysed various psychological variables as potential predictors of caregiver health. We found that caregivers take more medication and have worse self-reported health than controls, but there were no significant differences in CAR between the groups. However, after controlling for negative affect, differences between groups in CAR reached significance. With regards to predictor variables, anxiety trait, cognitive-coping style, burden and anger temperament were significantly associated with caregiver's self-reported health. These findings underline the need to develop interventions that foster improvements in the health of caregivers, reduce their burden and enhance their quality of life.

  11. CEBAF at higher energies: Working group report on hadron spectroscopy and production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)]| [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States); Napolitano, J. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    1994-04-01

    This report summarizes topics in hadron spectroscopy and production which could be addressed at CEBAF with an energy upgrade to E{sub {gamma}} = 8 GeV and beyond. The topics discussed include conventional meson and baryon spectrocopy, spectroscopy of exotica (especially molecules and hybrids), CP and CPT tests using {phi} mesons, and new detector and accelerator options.

  12. Giving to Excellence: Generating Philanthropic Support for UK Higher Education. Ross-CASE Report 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Yashraj

    2016-01-01

    This report presents findings from the 2016 Ross-CASE Survey of Philanthropic Giving to Universities in UK. The project was conducted by CASE Europe and funded by HEFCE and the Ross-Group. This year's survey comes at a time of great change for the UK charity sector. The historical trend data of previous surveys will be invaluable in helping…

  13. Prenatal maternal anxiety and early childhood temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Megan M; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt A; Davis, Elysia Poggi

    2011-11-01

    The consequences of exposure to prenatal maternal anxiety for the development of child temperament were examined in a sample of 120 healthy, 2-year-old children. Prenatal maternal state and pregnancy-specific anxiety (PSA) were measured five times during pregnancy, and maternal state anxiety was measured again at 2 years post partum. Child temperament was measured at 2 years using the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire. The relationship between the trajectory of maternal anxiety across gestation and negative affectivity was evaluated using hierarchical linear growth curve modeling. Higher maternal PSA between 13 and 17 weeks of gestation was associated with increased negative temperament in the children. This association could not be explained by postnatal maternal anxiety, demographic, or obstetric factors. Prenatal maternal state anxiety was not associated with child temperament. These findings demonstrate that PSA early in gestation has a distinctive influence on the developing fetus.

  14. Predictors and characteristics of anxiety among adolescent students: a Greek sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaratou, H; Anagnostopoulos, D C; Vlassopoulos, M; Charbilas, D; Rotsika, V; Tsakanikos, E; Tzavara, Ch; Dikeos, D

    2013-01-01

    In the Greek society, there is a strong cultural tendency to overestimate the value of University studies. So students are under high emotional pressure during the long lasting period of the preparation for the university entrance exams. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the level of anxiety in a general adolescent population of senior high school students in Athens, Greece. Also to examine the association between the anxiety's severity with various demographic and socio-cultural factors, as well as with academic performance, extracurricular activities, sleep duration and presence of somatic problems. The sample consisted of 696 adolescent students of three Senior High Schools (SHS) (391 girls and 305 boys). Two of the schools were general education institutions (GE1 and GE2, N=450), while the third was a technical one (TE, N=246). The school sample was selected to reflect the proportion between the two different types of SHSs in Athens as well as other major urban areas in Greece. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was administered and personal data were also collected. Statistical significance was set at pstudents. Adolescents with extracurricular activities for more than 11 hours per week had lower scores, both on State and Trait scales. More hours in school-related activities were associated with greater levels of Trait anxiety. Adolescents whose father had a high educational level had lower scores on State anxiety compared to those whose father had a low educational level. Adolescents who reported the presence of somatic problems had a higher score in Trait anxiety. A significant negative correlation was found between sleep duration and both State (r=-0.14, pfamilies with low parental education, are particularly prone to higher level of anxiety and that extracurricular activities are linked to lower level of anxiety. These findings could contribute to the planning of preventive measures for student's anxiety.

  15. Anxiety in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechenberg, Kaitlyn; Whittemore, Robin; Grey, Margaret

    Mental health conditions are prevalent in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms are highly correlated and are two of the most prevalent mental health conditions in youth in the general population. The detrimental effect of depressive symptoms in youth with T1D has been well documented, but the effects of anxiety symptoms are not well understood. Studies were included if they were published between 1990 and 2015, and evaluated anxiety symptoms in a population of youth with T1D. A total of 20 studies were identified from a sample of 338 papers. Anxiety symptoms were prevalent in youth with T1D. Anxiety symptoms were associated with higher glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, poorer self-management and coping behaviors, depressive symptoms, fear of hypoglycemia, and lower blood glucose monitoring frequency. State anxiety and trait anxiety symptoms affected health outcomes differently. Girls were at a higher risk of anxiety symptoms than boys. Anxiety symptoms in youth with T1D have detrimental effects on health outcomes, including self-management, quality of life, and HbA1c. Future research should aim to improve our current screening and treatment practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Anxiety in veterinary surgical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebæk, Rikke; Eika, Berit; Jensen, Asger Lundorff

    2012-01-01

    The surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and this can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether veterinary students' level of anxiety is higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course and if pre-surgical training...... in a Surgical Skills Lab (SSL) has an anxiety reducing effect. Investigations were carried out as a comparative study and a parallel group study. Potential participants were fourth-year veterinary students who attended a surgical course (Basic Surgical Skills) and a non-surgical course (Clinical Examination...... and 28 students from 2010). Our results show that anxiety levels in veterinary students are significantly higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course (p...

  17. Flipped Classroom Implementation: A Case Report of Two Higher Education Institutions in the United States and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Jacqueline E.; White, Paul J.; Khanova, Julia; Yuriev, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This case report explored the implementation of flipped classrooms at two higher education institutions. Experiences and publications from the institutions were used to identify and describe common themes, including successes and challenges encountered along with potential solutions to common misalignments, particularly as related to…

  18. Higher Education in Further Education Colleges: Indirectly Funded Partnerships: Codes of Practice for Franchise and Consortia Arrangements. Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

    This report provides codes of practice for two types of indirectly funded partnerships entered into by higher education institutions and further education sector colleges: franchises and consortia. The codes of practice set out guidance on the principles that should be reflected in the franchise and consortia agreements that underpin indirectly…

  19. The influence of endophenotypic, disease-specific, and environmental variables on the expression of anxiety in pediatric epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraegle, William A; Titus, Jeffrey B

    2017-08-23

    Children and adolescents with epilepsy often show higher rates of anxiety, which carries an increased risk for reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The current study assessed the role of parental psychiatric history (i.e., anxiety, depression, and/or bipolar disorder) on the rate of anxiety features in youth seen in a tertiary epilepsy clinic. Data included parental ratings on the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC-2) and the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE) questionnaire for 180 children and adolescents (mean age=11.40, SD=3.98). Our results identified clinically elevated anxiety ratings in nearly half the sample (47%) with previous psychiatric history endorsed by 48% of parents. The effect of parental psychiatric history on youth anxiety was found to be significant and associated with a threefold increase in the rate of youth anxiety features. This risk increased to fourfold in refractory epilepsy, and the impact of family psychiatric history is greater in adolescent females and in families that report higher levels of stress. In those families who reported no psychiatric history, anxiety was best predicted by epilepsy-specific factors above and beyond sociodemographic factors. Parental psychiatric history was also identified as a significant risk factor for diminished patient HRQOL, even after accounting for seizure control. These findings highlight the impact of family and epilepsy factors on psychological functioning and offer further support for the strong relationship between parental adjustment and child outcome in pediatric epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Positive and negative expressions of shyness in toddlers: are they related to anxiety in the same way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonnesi, Cristina; Napoleone, Elisa; Bögels, Susan M

    2014-04-01

    Shyness has generally been investigated as a negative and unpleasant emotional state, strongly related to social anxiety and loneliness. However, recent evidence has suggested that shyness may have a positive and socially adaptive form. We examined whether the positive expression of shyness differs from the negative expression of shyness during toddlerhood, and whether a negative relation to anxiety exists. Participants were 30-month-old children (N=102; 56 girls) who were asked to mimic animal sounds with a novel person (performance) and then to watch their performance (self-watching). Their expression of pleasure (positive reactions) and distress (negative reactions), as well as their positive and negative expressions of shyness, were coded. Children's temperamental level of shyness, sociability, and anxiety were measured with parent-reported questionnaires. Toddlers produced more positive and negative displays of shyness in the performance task than in the self-watching task. Children's positive expression of shyness was associated with lower parent-reported anxiety and higher sociability. Negative reactions, but not negative shyness, were related to children's higher anxiety levels and lower sociability. Multiple linear regression analyses confirmed a negative predictive role of the positive expression of shyness on anxiety. These results suggest that the positive expression of shyness can regulate early anxiety symptoms and already serves a social function in interpersonal interactions in early childhood.

  1. Hey Mr. Sandman: dyadic effects of anxiety, depressive symptoms and sleep among married couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revenson, Tracey A; Marín-Chollom, Amanda M; Rundle, Andrew G; Wisnivesky, Juan; Neugut, Alfred I

    2016-04-01

    This study examined associations among anxiety, depressive symptoms, and sleep duration in a sample of middle-aged couples using the actor-partner interaction model with dyadic data. Self-report measures were completed independently by both partners as part of the health histories obtained during their annual preventive medical examinations in 2011 and 2012. Results showed that husbands' anxiety and depressive symptoms had a stronger effect on their wives' anxiety and depression than the other way around, but this was not moderated by one's own sleep duration. For both wives and husbands, higher levels of depressive symptoms and anxiety predicted shorter sleep duration for their partner 1 year later, although the effect of husbands' mental health on their wives' was again stronger. The findings suggest that sleep problems might better be treated as a couple-level phenomenon than an individual one, particularly for women.

  2. Family environment as a moderator of the association between anxiety and suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machell, Kyla A; Rallis, Bethany A; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne

    2016-05-01

    The present study examined associations among anxiety symptoms, anxiety disorder diagnoses, perceptions of family support and conflict, and suicidal ideation (SI) in a clinical sample of psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. Participants were 185 adolescents (72% female; 84% white, mean age=15.02years, SD=1.33) hospitalized on an acute psychiatric inpatient unit. Results indicated that anxiety disorders and symptoms were positively associated with SI, even after controlling for mood disorder diagnoses and sex. Moreover, this relationship was stronger among youth who reported lower (versus higher) levels of family support. Family conflict was positively associated with SI but did not moderate the relationship between anxiety and SI. Results suggest that family support may represent an important intervention target to decrease suicide risk among anxious youth. Integrating positive parenting techniques (e.g., attending to positive behaviors, providing praise, emotion coaching) and effective parent-child communication into treatment with anxious youth may help achieve this aim.

  3. The effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth anxiety on sleep problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Jeremy S; Carper, Matthew M; Elkins, R Meredith; Comer, Jonathan S; Pincus, Donna B; Kendall, Philip C

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined (a) whether sleep related problems (SRPs) improved following cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for youth with anxiety disorders, (b) whether variables that may link anxiety and SRPs (e.g., pre-sleep arousal, family accommodation, sleep hygiene) changed during treatment, and (c) whether such changes predicted SRPs at posttreatment. Youth were diagnosed with anxiety at pretreatment and received weekly CBT that targeted their principal anxiety diagnosis at one of two specialty clinics (N=69 completers, Mage=10.86). Results indicated that parent-reported SRPs improved from pre- to post-treatment and that treatment responders with regard to anxiety yielded greater SRP improvements than nonresponders. Parent report of bedtime resistance and sleep anxiety showed significant improvements. Youth reported lower rates of SRPs compared to their parents and did not demonstrate pre- to post-treatment changes in SRPs. Pre-sleep arousal and family accommodation decreased over treatment but did not predict lower SRPs at posttreatment. Higher accommodation was correlated with greater SRPs. Sleep hygiene evidenced no change and did not mediate links between accommodation and posttreatment SRPs.

  4. Orthogonal Range Reporting: Query Lower Bounds, Optimal Structures in 3-d, and Higher Dimensional Improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshani, Peyman; Arge, Lars Allan; Larsen, Kasper Dalgaard

    2010-01-01

    Orthogonal range reporting is the problem of storing a set of n points in d-dimensional space, such that the k points in an axis-orthogonal query box can be reported efficiently. While the 2-d version of the problem was completely characterized in the pointer machine model more than two decades ago...... data structure for the d-dimensional orthogonal range reporting problem in the pointer machine model of computation that uses S(n) space must spend Ω((log n/ log(S(n)/n))⌊d/2⌋--1) time to answer queries. Thus, if S(n)/n is poly-logarithmic, then the query time is at least Ω((log n/ log log n)⌊d/2......) to Ω((log n/ log log n)2 + k) somewhere between three and six dimensions. Finally, we show that our techniques also lead to improved structures for point location in rectilinear subdivisions, that is, the problem of storing a set of n disjoint d-dimensional axis-orthogonal rectangles...

  5. The mediating and moderating effects of sleep hygiene practice on anxiety and insomnia in hospital nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Tsui-Lan; Chang, Lu-I; Chung, Min-Huey

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to test the mediating and moderating effects of sleep hygiene practice on the relationship between anxiety and insomnia severity in hospital nurses. A cross-sectional survey was employed, and a convenience sample was recruited from one regional hospital in Taiwan. Participants completed the following self-report questionnaires over a 3-month period in 2009: the Insomnia Severity Index, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Sleep Hygiene Awareness and Practice Scale. The results indicated that nurses with more anxiety tended to have higher insomnia severity. Further, nurses with poor sleep hygiene practice had more insomnia. Sleep hygiene practice partially mediated the effects of anxiety on insomnia severity. Also, sleep hygiene practice was a moderator in the relationship between anxiety and insomnia severity with age and work units as covariates. Sleep hygiene practice mediated and moderated the relationship between anxiety and insomnia severity after controlling the variables of age and work units. Continuing to learn and train sleep hygiene practice might promote nurses' sleep hygiene, and thereby ameliorate anxiety and reduce the risk of insomnia.

  6. What Is the Threshold of Teachers' Recognition and Report of Concerns about Anxiety and Depression in Students? An Exploratory Study with Teachers of Adolescents in Regional Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudgen, Michelle; Lawn, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Anxiety and depression in adolescence is prevalent but often unrecognised and untreated. This can lead to serious disorders in later life. This study explored how teachers recognise anxiety and depression in secondary school students and act on their concerns. Method: Twenty teachers from four secondary colleges in regional Victoria,…

  7. A Case Report for Diagnosing Anxiety in People With Intellectual Disability: The Role of Nurses in the Application of a Multidimensional Diagnostic Guideline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    prof Berno van Meijel; Addy Pruijssers; Theo van Achterberg

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is the presentation of a multidimensional guideline for the diagnosis of anxiety and anxiety-related behavior problems in people with intellectual disability (ID), with a substantial role for the nurse in this diagnostic process. DESIGN AND METHODS:  The guideline is

  8. Anxiety in children having elective surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollin, Sarah R; Plummer, John L; Owen, Harry; Hawkins, Russell M F; Materazzo, Felicity; Morrison, Virginia

    2004-04-01

    One hundred and twenty children aged 5-12 years and their parents were interviewed preoperatively about anxiety and fear. Needles, postoperative pain, the unknown, and many unrecognizable people in the induction room were all reported as increasing anxiety for children. Effective modes of reducing children's anxiety were considered to be the prospect of eating after surgery, staff speaking directly to children in a friendly way, and having a television to watch. Parents' suggestions for reducing children's anxiety included giving better explanations, ensuring that children who have had their operations do not return to the same ward where other children are still waiting, and providing more distractions.

  9. Specificity and sensitivity of Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale and Child Anxiety Life Interference Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Kristian Bech; Thastum, Mikael

    Background: The use of structured diagnostic interviews for assessing youth anxiety in community based clinical practice in Denmark is sparse due to the time and resources required. Rather, questionnaires are often used to assess anxiety in youth, but little is known about the accuracy...... of such questionnaires at identifying anxiety diagnoses compared to structured diagnostic interviews. Aim: The present study examines the specificity and sensitivity of two widely used child and parent report questionnaires of child anxiety symptoms and interference (Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale [SCAS C/P] and Child...... Anxiety Life Interference Scale [CALIS C/P]) based on a “golden standard” diagnostic interview (Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule [ADIS C/P]). Methods Participants The sample consisted of 453 youths between the age of seven and sixteen years and their parents. The sample was combined from five prior...

  10. An investigation into Spanish EFL learners' anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan de Dios Martínez Agudo

    Full Text Available This research article reports the results of a study designed to measure and analyse Spanish students' perceived anxiety when learning and using EFL inside the classroom. This article first includes a review of the literature on foreign language anxiety. Then it describes the participants of the investigation and the research methodology procedures. This is followed by the presentation and discussion of the results and, finally, the conclusions derived from this study. The resulting data revealed interesting information about the anxiety levels present among Spanish EFL learners. While relatively high levels of speaking anxiety have been identified, somewhat lower levels of listening anxiety associated with error correction, by contrast, have also been found. More specifically, the results suggested that the level of listening anxiety seems to slightly increase when error correction is somehow involved in the process.

  11. Regulation of chloroplast number and DNA synthesis in higher plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullet, J.E.

    1995-11-10

    The long term objective of this research is to understand the process of chloroplast development and its coordination with leaf development in higher plants. This is important because the photosynthetic capacity of plants is directly related to leaf and chloroplast development. This research focuses on obtaining a detailed description of leaf development and the early steps in chloroplast development including activation of plastid DNA synthesis, changes in plastid DNA copy number, activation of chloroplast transcription and increases in plastid number per cell. The grant will also begin analysis of specific biochemical mechanisms by isolation of the plastid DNA polymerase, and identification of genetic mutants which are altered in their accumulation of plastid DNA and plastid number per cell.

  12. Regulation of chloroplast number and DNA synthesis in higher plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullet, J.E.

    1995-11-10

    The long term objective of this research is to understand the process of chloroplast development and its coordination with leaf development in higher plants. This is important because the photosynthetic capacity of plants is directly related to leaf and chloroplast development. This research focuses on obtaining a detailing description of leaf development and the early steps in chloroplast development including activation of plastid DNA synthesis, changes in plastid DNA copy number, activation of chloroplast transcription and increases in plastid number per cell. The grant will also begin analysis of specific biochemical mechanisms by isolation of the plastid DNA polymerase, and identification of genetic mutants which are altered in their accumulation of plastid DNA and plastid number per cell.

  13. Higher Education of Specialists of Social Rehabilitation – Reports from Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Kusztal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is a another opinion in the matter of the education of the students of social rehabilitation. In 2012, on the pages of “Resocjalizacja Polska”, came out an article about contemporary status of the social rehabilitation educator and the process of his education in the era of the reform of higher education. The current text is the continuation of this article and also a presentation of an explorative sense and thoughts of the participants of the project, realized since 2011 within the statutory research of the Department of Social Prevention and Rehabilitation in Institiute of Pedagog y in Jagiellonian University and Department of Social Prevention and Rehabilitation in Institiute of Education in Jesuit University in Cracow.

  14. Students' perceptions of school climate and trait test anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang Yang

    2012-12-01

    In a sample of 916 Chinese high school students, the relations among the students' perceptions of school climate and their trait test anxiety were examined. The results indicated that students' perceptions of teacher-student relationships and student-student relationships negatively predicted their trait test anxiety. Furthermore, girls had higher scores on trait test anxiety than boys.

  15. Treating Comorbid Anxiety and Aggression in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Karyn; Hunt, Caroline; Heriot, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that targeted both anxious and aggressive behaviors in children with anxiety disorders and comorbid aggression by parent report. Method: The effects of a cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention targeting comorbid anxiety and aggression problems were compared…

  16. Depression and Anxiety in University Music Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wristen, Brenda G.

    2013-01-01

    Performance anxiety among musicians and music students has been widely addressed, but far less attention has been given to examining the rates and characteristics of broader mental distress in this population. This study examined depression and anxiety in music students at one university. A considerable number of students reported symptoms…

  17. Case report of visual hallucinaitons in anxiety%病例报告:焦虑障碍出现幻视一例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sachdeva A; Saxena A; Kandpal M

    2015-01-01

    Summary:Hallucinations rarely occur in individuals with anxiety disorders. This case report describes a 36-year-old male with Social Phobia and Agoraphobia with Panic Attacks who had prominent visual hallucinations that were both distressing and incapacitating. Treatment with sertraline 200 mg/d, clonazepam 1 mg/d, and propranolol 20 mg/day for one month completely resolved both his anxiety and the hallucinations, after which he was able to return to his social and occupational life. The report underscores the fact that visual hallucinations are not always indicators of a psychotic disorder, they may be present across a spectrum of mental disorders. In cases where hallucinations occur in non-psychoitc disorders, treatment of the underlying condiiton usually simultaneously resolves the associated hallucinaitons without the need to resort to the use of anitpsychoitc medicaiton. Detailed analyses of such unusual cases can help improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of psychoitc-like symptoms.%概述:焦虑障碍患者很少出现幻视。本病例报告描述了一位男性患者,36岁,患有社交恐惧症和伴惊恐发作的广场恐惧症。该患者幻视明显,令其深受困扰、功能受损。用舍曲林200 mg/d、氯硝西泮1mg/d和普萘洛尔20 mg/d治疗一个月后,患者的焦虑和幻视缓解,能继续工作,恢复社会生活。本报告强调这样一个事实,即幻视并不一定预示着精神病性障碍,很多精神障碍都可能出现视幻觉。如果非精神病性障碍患者出现幻视,那么治疗这些非精神病性障碍通常也能同时缓解相关的幻视,而无需使用抗精神病药物。详细分析此类罕见病例有助于加深对精神病样症状的病理机制的认识。

  18. Measuring Social Anxiety in 11 Countries Development and Validation of the Social Anxiety Questionnaire for Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caballo, V.E.; Salazar, I.C.; Irurtia, M.J.; Arias, B.; Hofmann, S.G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on two studies conducted to develop and validate a new self-report measure of social phobia/anxiety - the Social Anxiety Questionnaire for Adults (SAQ-A) (Cuestionario de ansiedad social para adultos, CASO-A). A diary-item recording procedure was used to generate the initial pool

  19. Gender-dependent language anxiety in Polish communication apprehensives

    OpenAIRE

    Ewa Piechurska-Kuciel

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between communication apprehension and language anxiety from the perspective of gender. As virtually no empirical studies have addressed the explicit influence of gender on language anxiety in communication apprehensives, this paper proposes that females are generally more sensitive to anxiety, as reflected in various spheres of communication. For this reason, language anxiety levels in communication apprehensive females should be higher, unlike those of c...

  20. Do Mental Health Outpatient Services Meet Users' Needs? Trial to Identify Factors Associated with Higher Needs for Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrzynska, Ewelina; Rymaszewska, Joanna; Biecek, Przemyslaw; Kiejna, Andrzej

    2016-05-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the extent to which services meet patients' needs and identify the factors associated with higher needs. 174 outpatients were assessed using CANSAS, BPRS and GSDS. The total number of unmet needs in persons with psychotic, eating, personality and affective disorders was higher than in patients with anxiety disorders. Being single, positive symptoms, depression/anxiety, hospitalizations and high social disability accounted for 50 % of the variance in level of unmet need. Persons with eating and personality disorders reported similar level of unmet needs to those with psychotic and affective disorders. The best correlates of unmet needs were depression/anxiety and social disability.

  1. Anxiety and depressive symptoms and medical illness among adults with anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Andrea N; Dour, Halina J; Stanton, Annette L; Roy-Byrne, Peter P; Stein, Murray B; Sullivan, Greer; Sherbourne, Cathy D; Rose, Raphael D; Craske, Michelle G

    2015-02-01

    Anxiety is linked to a number of medical conditions, yet few studies have examined how symptom severity relates to medical comorbidity. The current study assessed associations between severity of anxiety and depression and the presence of medical conditions in adults diagnosed with anxiety disorders. Nine-hundred eighty-nine patients diagnosed with panic, generalized anxiety, social anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorders reported on the severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms and on diagnoses of 11 medical conditions. Severity of anxiety and depressive symptoms was strongly associated with having more medical conditions over and above control variables, and the association was as strong as that between BMI and disease. Odds of having asthma, heart disease, back problems, ulcer, migraine headache and eyesight difficulties also increased as anxiety and depressive symptom severity increased. Anxiety symptoms were independently associated with ulcer, whereas depressive symptoms were independently associated with heart disease, migraine, and eyesight difficulties. These findings add to a growing body of research linking anxiety disorders with physical health problems and indicate that anxiety and depressive symptoms deserve greater attention in their association with disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Experiences of Dental Care and Dental Anxiety in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    My Blomqvist

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental anxiety is associated with previous distressing dental experiences, such as lack of understanding of the dentist intentions, perceptions of uncontrollability and experiences of pain during dental treatment. People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD are impaired in building flexible predictions and expectations, which is very much needed during a dental visit. The aims of the study were to investigate if people with ASD have more negative dental experiences and a higher level of dental anxiety compared to a matched control group. Forty-seven adults with ASD and of normal intellectual performance, and 69 age- and sex-matched typically developing controls completed questionnaires on previous dental experiences and dental anxiety, the Dental Anxiety Scale, and the Dental Beliefs Survey. The ASD group experienced pain during dental treatments more often than the controls and 22% had repeatedly experienced being forced to dental treatment they were not prepared for, compared to 3% of the controls. A higher level of dental anxiety was reported by the ASD group. Dental treatment and methods for supporting the communication with patients with ASD need to be developed, in order to reduce the negative dental experiences and dental anxiety in people with ASD.

  3. Effects of exercise on anxiety and depression disorders: review of meta- analyses and neurobiological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Mirko; Helmich, Ingo; Machado, Sergio; Nardi, Antonio E; Arias-Carrion, Oscar; Budde, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are the most frequently diagnosed psychological diseases showing a high co-morbidity. They have a severe impact on the lives of the persons concerned. Many meta-analytical studies suggested a positive anxiolytic and depression-reducing effect of exercise programs. The aim of the present article is to synthesize metaanalyses on the effects of exercise on anxiety and depression and to describe average effect sizes. For this purpose 37 meta-analyses were included reporting 50 effect sizes for anxiety scores of 42,264 participants and depression scores of 48,207 persons. The average documented anxiolytic effect of exercise in these reviews was small, 0.34. In contrast, the effect of exercise on depression was significantly higher and at a moderate level, 0.56. Data of randomized controlled trials suggest higher sizes for the effect of exercise on anxiety and depression leading to increases up to moderate and large effects, respectively. Additionally, exercise seems to be more beneficial for patients compared to participants within a non-clinical, normal range of psychological disease. Especially for the effect of exercise on anxiety, more high quality meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials are needed. Finally, possible neurobiological explanations are suggested for the positive effect of exercise on psychological disorders like anxiety and depression.

  4. The role of anxiety and perspective-taking strategy on affective empathic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negd, Monika; Mallan, Kimberley M; Lipp, Ottmar V

    2011-12-01

    Empathy is an important pro-social behaviour critical to a positive client-therapist relationship. Therapist anxiety has been linked to reduced ability to empathise and lower client satisfaction with therapy. However, the nature of the relationship between anxiety and empathy is currently unclear. The current study investigated the effect of experimentally-induced anxiety on empathic responses elicited during three different perspective-taking tasks. Perspective-taking was manipulated within-subjects with all participants (N=52) completing imagine-self, imagine-other and objective conditions. A threat of shock manipulation was used to vary anxiety between-subjects. Participants in the threat of shock condition reported higher levels of anxiety during the experiment and lower levels of empathy-related distress for the targets than participants in the control condition. Perspective-taking was associated with higher levels of empathy-related distress and concern compared to the objective condition. The present results suggest that perspective-taking can to a large extent mitigate the influence of heightened anxiety on an individual's ability to empathise.

  5. Anxiety and Depression in Adolescents With Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Karen Ling; Lam, David; Tsui, Sarah; Ngan, Mary; Tsang, Brian; Lai, Tai Sum; Lam, Siu Man

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined anxiety and depression in adolescents with epilepsy and the association of these disorders with seizure-related and sociodemographic variables. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was administered to 140 children with epilepsy and 50 children with asthma aged 10 to 18 years attending mainstream schools. Adolescents with epilepsy had significantly higher scores on the depression subscale than those with asthma (5.2 ± 3.3 vs 4.2 ± 3.2, P = .032). Anxiety subscale scores and the frequency of anxiety and depression in both the epilepsy and asthma groups were not statistically significant. In the epilepsy group, 32.8% had anxiety and 22.1% had depression. Factors associated with anxiety were older age at the time of the study and polytherapy (2 or more antiepileptic drugs). Adolescents who had been seizure-free for 12 months or more at time of the study were less likely to experience anxiety. Factors associated with depression were medical comorbidities, female gender, frequent seizures, and younger age of seizure onset. A common risk factor for both anxiety and depression was the duration of epilepsy. Anxiety and depression were also highly associated with each other. Affective disorders are common in epilepsy and screening for psychiatric symptoms is required.

  6. The Effect of Child Distress on Accommodation of Anxiety: Relations With Maternal Beliefs, Empathy, and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settipani, Cara A; Kendall, Philip C

    2015-12-16

    Little is known about the influence of child behaviors on accommodation of anxiety and how accommodation relates to other parent factors. The present study examined the comparative effect of high and low levels of child distress on mother-reported accommodation, mother factors in relation to accommodation, and moderators of the relation between accommodation and child distress. Maternal perceptions of accommodation were measured by vignettes depicting youth exhibiting high or low levels of distress in anxiety-provoking situations that elicited social anxiety, generalized anxiety, or separation anxiety in a sample of 7- to 17-year-old youth with anxiety disorders (N = 70, M = 11.66, 47.1% male). Findings indicated an effect of child distress on mother-reported accommodation of youth anxiety, such that mothers reported more overall accommodation under conditions of high child distress; situation-level analyses revealed this effect for social and generalized anxiety situations. Furthermore, an association was found between greater mother-reported accommodation and more negative beliefs about their child's experience of anxiety, which held across situations. Maternal empathy moderated the relation between overall accommodation and child distress. Maternal anxiety also moderated the relation between accommodation and child distress, with results varying based on situation type. Findings, consistent with theory, indicate a relation between child distress and mother-reported accommodation and suggest that maternal beliefs about anxiety are an important treatment target. High maternal empathy may be related to a greater degree of adaptability in response to child behaviors, whereas maternal anxiety may be linked with less adaptive responses to child behaviors.

  7. Facilitated acquisition of eyeblink conditioning in those vulnerable to anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Davis Caulfield

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral inhibition (BI increases vulnerability to develop anxiety disorders and is typified by avoidance and withdrawal from novel objects, people, and situations. The present study considered the relationship between behavioral inhibition and temperamental risk factors, such as trait anxiety and acquisition rate of a classically conditioned eyeblink response. 174 healthy undergraduate students (mean age 20.3 years, 71.8% female were given the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and a battery of self-report measures of behavioral inhibition consisting of the Adult and Retrospective Measures of Behavioural Inhibition (AMBI/RMBI and the Concurrent and Retrospective Self Report of Inhibition (CSRI/RSRI. Participants then underwent standard delay classical eyeblink conditioning consisting of 45 trials with a 500-ms CS overlapping and co-terminating with a 10-ms airpuff US. Individuals with higher scores on the AMBI and Trait Anxiety Inventory, but not the other measures, showed faster acquisition of a conditioned eyeblink response than individuals with lower scores. Results support a relationship between facilitated acquisition of inter-stimulus relationships and risk for anxiety, and suggest that some measures assessing anxiety vulnerability better capture this relationship than others.

  8. Associations Between Anxiety Symptoms and Child and Family Factors in Pediatric Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Crystal S; Espil, Flint M; Viana, Andres G; Janicke, David M

    2015-01-01

    This study compared child weight status, social skills, body dissatisfaction, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL), as well as parent distress and family functioning in youth who are overweight or obese (OV/OB) with versus without clinical anxiety symptoms. Participants included 199 children 7 to 12 years of age (mean age = 9.88 years) who were OV/OB, and their parents. Children completed social skills, body dissatisfaction, and HRQOL questionnaires. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and child HRQOL, parent distress, family functioning, and demographic questionnaires. Children were placed in 2 groups based on CBCL anxiety problems scale scores: the OV/OB + clinical anxiety group included children with T scores ≥65 (n = 23) and children with T scores ≤59 comprised the OV/OB group (n = 176). After controlling for covariates, children in the OV/OB + clinical anxiety group reported more body dissatisfaction (F[1,198] = 5.26, p = .023, partial η = .027) and lower total HRQOL (F[1,198] = 8.12, p = .005, η = .041) and had parents who reported higher psychological distress (F[1,198] = 5.48, p = .020, η = .028) and lower child total HRQOL (F[1,198] = 28.23, p family functioning. Clinically significant anxiety among children who are OV/OB is associated with increased body dissatisfaction and parent psychological distress, as well as decreased HRQOL. Findings have implications for the assessment and treatment of anxiety symptoms in pediatric obesity.

  9. Maternal anxiety and infants' hippocampal development: timing matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, A; Rifkin-Graboi, A; Chen, H; Chong, Y-S; Kwek, K; Gluckman, P D; Fortier, M V; Meaney, M J

    2013-09-24

    Exposure to maternal anxiety predicts offspring brain development. However, because children's brains are commonly assessed years after birth, the timing of such maternal influences in humans is unclear. This study aimed to examine the consequences of antenatal and postnatal exposure to maternal anxiety upon early infant development of the hippocampus, a key structure for stress regulation. A total of 175 neonates underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at birth and among them 35 had repeated scans at 6 months of age. Maternal anxiety was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at week 26 of pregnancy and 3 months after delivery. Regression analyses showed that antenatal maternal anxiety did not influence bilateral hippocampal volume at birth. However, children of mothers reporting increased anxiety during pregnancy showed slower growth of both the left and right hippocampus over the first 6 months of life. This effect of antenatal maternal anxiety upon right hippocampal growth became statistically stronger when controlling for postnatal maternal anxiety. Furthermore, a strong positive association between postnatal maternal anxiety and right hippocampal growth was detected, whereas a strong negative association between postnatal maternal anxiety and the left hippocampal volume at 6 months of life was found. Hence, the postnatal growth of bilateral hippocampi shows distinct responses to postnatal maternal anxiety. The size of the left hippocampus during early development is likely to reflect the influence of the exposure to perinatal maternal anxiety, whereas right hippocampal growth is constrained by antenatal maternal anxiety, but enhanced in response to increased postnatal maternal anxiety.

  10. Improvement of the structure of reports of Ukrainian higher educational institutions in terms of deregulation and state authority decentralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Ambarchian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of the structure and content of financial and budgetary reports of domestic higher educational institutions, enhance of financial statements completeness in order to enable citizens to control a university activity. During the research both general scientific and specific scientific economic methods were implemented. The general methods include induction, deduction, analogy and comparison. Among specific methods of economic research grouping, table method, graphical method, method of informational and logical analysis were used. The paper characterizes legal documents which regulate the process of university financial statements preparation and presentation in different countries. Financial reports of Ukrainian, American and British universities are compared. The author determines the major directions of improvement of the structure and content of domestic university reports with the purpose of their completeness enhancing. As a result of the research performed the proper recommendations of improvement of domestic universities reporting are suggested. The author conforms the reporting information with the Managerial report which discloses the information about the reporting period achievements and the efficiency of budget resources expenditure.

  11. Untangling genetic networks of panic, phobia, fear and anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafuerte, Sandra; Burmeister, Margit

    2003-01-01

    As is the case for normal individual variation in anxiety levels, the conditions panic disorder, agoraphobia and other phobias have a significant genetic basis. Recent reports have started to untangle the genetic relationships between predispositions to anxiety and anxiety disorders. PMID:12914652

  12. Anxiety as It Pertains to EFL Writing Ability and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a study conducted to find (a) the impact of anxiety on EFL learners' writing performance, and (b) the relationship between anxiety and foreign language writing ability. 137 (N = 137) EFL learners took the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS), the Oxford Placement Test (OPT), and a writing task on a…

  13. Communicative Anxiety in the Second and Third Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Alaitz; Gorter, Durk; Cenoz, Jasone

    2017-01-01

    The present paper reports a study on communicative anxiety of two groups of adult users. The paper aims at exploring the communicative anxiety of multilingual speakers and at analysing the communicative anxiety in second and third languages. This study includes 532 participants who were divided in two groups according their L1. One group of…

  14. Communicative Anxiety in the Second and Third Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Alaitz; Gorter, Durk; Cenoz, Jasone

    2017-01-01

    The present paper reports a study on communicative anxiety of two groups of adult users. The paper aims at exploring the communicative anxiety of multilingual speakers and at analysing the communicative anxiety in second and third languages. This study includes 532 participants who were divided in two groups according their L1. One group of…

  15. Anxiety as It Pertains to EFL Writing Ability and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a study conducted to find (a) the impact of anxiety on EFL learners' writing performance, and (b) the relationship between anxiety and foreign language writing ability. 137 (N = 137) EFL learners took the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS), the Oxford Placement Test (OPT), and a writing task on a…

  16. Dental anxiety and dental attendance among 25-year-olds in Norway: time trends from 1997 to 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skaret Erik

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background So far, there are few studies considering the development of dental anxiety and dental attendance patterns across time in the general population of Norwegian adults. This study aimed to 1 determine the frequency of dental anxiety and regular dental attendance among 25-year-olds in Norway in 1997 and 2007, 2 to study the development (time trend of dental anxiety and the socio-behavioral distribution of dental anxiety from 1997 to 2007. Method Random samples of 1,190 and 8,000 25-yr-olds were drawn from the populations of three counties in Western Norway in 1997 and 2007, respectively. The eligible participants received questionnaires by mail including questions on socio-demographics, dental anxiety (DAS and dental attendance. Results In 1997, 11.5% males versus 23% females reported high dental anxiety (DAS ≥ 13. Corresponding figures in 2007 were 11.3% and 19.8%. The proportions who had attended yearly for a dental check-up during the past 5 years fell from 62% in 1997 (men 56.9% and women 66.4% to 44.6% (men 38.1% and women 48.6% in 2007. After controlling for potential confounding factors, the 25-year-olds were 1.4 times more likely to report dental anxiety in 1997 compared to 2007. The decrease was largely attributable to a lower mean DAS score among higher educated females in 2007 than in 1997. The discrepancy in dental anxiety between regular and non-regular dental attendees had decreased, largely attributable to a decline in dental anxiety among irregular dental attendees. Conclusion The study showed reduced dental anxiety and dental attendance among 25 year-olds in Norway from 1997 to 2007. This study points to the importance of controlling for possible changes in socio-demographic distributions when different cohorts are compared.

  17. anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey A. Hofflich

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Los síntomas somáticos en niños han sido asociados con trastornos de interiorización, especialmente de ansiedad. Sin embargo, pocos estudios han examinado los síntomas somáticos precisos en trastornos de ansiedad específicos. Desde este estudio cuasi-experimental se examinan el tipo y la frecuencia de síntomas somáticos en niños (n = 178; rango de edad 7–14 años con trastorno generalizado de ansiedad (TAG, fobia social (FS, ansiedad de separación (AS y sin ningún trastorno de ansiedad. Los niños y sus padres, que acudieron en busca de tratamiento, completaron una entrevista diagnóstica estructurada, los niños completaron además la Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC (March, Parker, Sullivan, Stallings, y Conners. Los niños diagnosticados con un trastorno de ansiedad informaron de síntomas somáticos más frecuentes que aquellos sin trastorno de ansiedad, pero los síntomas somáticos no difirieron entre los principales grupos de trastornos de ansiedad. Los niños con trastornos de ansiedad y depresivos comórbidos manifestaron síntomas somáticos más frecuentemente que aquellos sin trastornos comórbidos. Se discuten los resultados en términos de los síntomas somáticos como a criterios dentro del sistema diagnóstico, y b parte del proceso de evitación.

  18. Screening anxiety in the HIV clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, Enbal; Morgan, Jennifer C; Önen, Nur F; Taniguchi, Toshibumi; Overton, Edgar Turner

    2012-11-01

    Individuals with HIV experience fluctuating levels of distress throughout the course of their infection. This cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the prevalence of and associations between anxiety symptoms, sociodemographic, and biomedical markers among individuals presenting for care. A total of 635 individuals were screened, the majority of whom was male and African American. Younger individuals, African Americans, individuals with less education, and those who were unemployed were more likely to express more severe anxiety symptoms. Individuals who were not currently receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) were 1.61 times more likely to experience higher anxiety symptoms. Among individuals receiving ART, higher levels of anxiety were associated with less adherence, higher viral loads and lower CD4 cell counts. Current smokers were 1.66 times more likely to have higher rates of anxiety. When controlling for these significant factors, younger, unemployed, and less educated individuals were more likely to express more severe anxiety symptoms. These findings highlight the importance of screening and management of anxiety as an integral component of HIV care.

  19. Social Networking Sites, Depression, and Anxiety: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Margaret L; Rickard, Nikki S

    2016-01-01

    Background Social networking sites (SNSs) have become a pervasive part of modern culture, which may also affect mental health. Objective The aim of this systematic review was to identify and summarize research examining depression and anxiety in the context of SNSs. It also aimed to identify studies that complement the assessment of mental illness with measures of well-being and examine moderators and mediators that add to the complexity of this environment. Methods A multidatabase search was performed. Papers published between January 2005 and June 2016 relevant to mental illness (depression and anxiety only) were extracted and reviewed. Results Positive interactions, social support, and social connectedness on SNSs were consistently related to lower levels of depression and anxiety, whereas negative interaction and social comparisons on SNSs were related to higher levels of depression and anxiety. SNS use related to less loneliness and greater self-esteem and life satisfaction. Findings were mixed for frequency of SNS use and number of SNS friends. Different patterns in the way individuals with depression and individuals with social anxiety engage with SNSs are beginning to emerge. Conclusions The systematic review revealed many mixed findings between depression, anxiety, and SNS use. Methodology has predominantly focused on self-report cross-sectional approaches; future research will benefit from leveraging real-time SNS data over time. The evidence suggests that SNS use correlates with mental illness and well-being; however, whether this effect is beneficial or detrimental depends at least partly on the quality of social factors in the SNS environment. Understanding these relationships will lead to better utilization of SNSs in their potential to positively influence mental health. PMID:27881357

  20. A study to explore if dentists' anxiety affects their clinical decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipchase, S Y; Chapman, H R; Bretherton, R

    2017-02-24

    Aims To develop a measure of dentists' anxiety in clinical situations; to establish if dentists' anxiety in clinical situations affected their self-reported clinical decision-making; to establish if occupational stress, as demonstrated by burnout, is associated with anxiety in clinical situations and clinical decision-making; and to explore the relationship between decision-making style and the clinical decisions which are influenced by anxiety.Design Cross-sectional study.Setting Primary Dental Care.Subjects and methods A questionnaire battery [Maslach Burnout Inventory, measuring burnout; Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire, measuring decision-making style; Dealing with Uncertainty Questionnaire (DUQ), measuring coping with diagnostic uncertainty; and a newly designed Dentists' Anxieties in Clinical Situations Scale, measuring dentists' anxiety (DACSS-R) and change of treatment (DACSS-C)] was distributed to dentists practicing in Nottinghamshire and Lincolnshire. Demographic data were collected and dentists gave examples of anxiety-provoking situations and their responses to them.Main outcome measure Respondents' self-reported anxiety in various clinical situations on a 11-point Likert Scale (DACSS-R) and self-reported changes in clinical procedures (Yes/No; DACSS-C). The DACSS was validated using multiple t-tests and a principal component analysis. Differences in DACSS-R ratings and burnout, decision-making and dealing with uncertainty were explored using Pearson correlations and multiple regression analysis. Qualitative data was subject to a thematic analysis.Results The DACSS-R revealed a four-factor structure and had high internal reliability (Cronbach's α = 0.94). Those with higher DACSS-R scores of anxiety were more likely to report changes in clinical procedures (DACSS-C scores). DACSS-R scores were associated with decision-making self-esteem and style as measured by the MDMQ and all burnout subscales, though not with scores on the DUQ scale

  1. Separation anxiety in families with emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kins, Evie; Soenens, Bart; Beyers, Wim

    2013-06-01

    In several developmental theories, separation anxiety has been identified as an important feature of close interpersonal relationships. Most often, separation anxiety has been examined in the context of mother-child dyads in infancy. Increasingly, however, it is recognized that separation anxiety is also relevant in other relationships (e.g., the father-child relationship) and in later developmental periods (e.g., adolescence and emerging adulthood). The present study aimed to investigate separation anxiety at the family level in families with emerging adults. By using the Social Relations Model, we aimed to determine the extent to which the actor, the partner, their specific relationships, and the family contribute to separation anxiety in dyadic family relationships. A total of 119 Belgian two-parent families with an emerging adult participated in a round-robin design, in which family members reported on their feelings of separation anxiety toward each other. Findings showed that separation anxiety can be represented as a personal characteristic (i.e., an actor effect) and as a specific feature of the mother-child dyad. Further, findings indicate that separation anxiety is also characteristic of the father-mother marital relationship and of the family climate as a whole. Implications for the meaning of separation anxiety and clinical practice are discussed.

  2. Adult attachment and anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sara Kerstine Kaya; Lønfeldt, Nicole Nadine; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Although there is substantial evidence for the role of emotion regulation in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders, knowledge about what contributes to emotion dysregulation is sparse. Attachment style is related to emotion regulation and anxiety symptoms, but these variables have...... rarely been examined together. Examining emotion dysregulation within the context of anxiety disorders through an attachment theory framework will lead to a better understanding of the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. In the present study we combined theoretically and empirically derived...... knowledge to examine the mediating role of emotion regulation between attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety) and anxiety symptoms....

  3. A Study on Listening Anxiety and Listening Proficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Ju-hong

    2015-01-01

    Three instruments are adopted including the Foreign Language Listening Anxiety Scales (FLLAS), a listening metacog⁃nitive strategy-use questionnaire and a CET-4 listening test. The results indicate that a large proportion of students report experi⁃encing listening anxiety. There is significantly negative correlation between listening anxiety and listening proficiency and there is significant difference in the use of metacognitive strategies across three listening anxiety levels.

  4. Writing Anxiety: A Case Study on Students’ Reasons for Anxiety in Writing

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was twofold. First, the present study set out to investigate the learners‟ attitudes towards academic writing courses that they have to take as part of their curriculum, whether they experience second language writing anxiety and what reasons they report for their anxiety and failure in academic writing courses. Second, the study aimed to develop a selfreport measure of second language writing anxiety reasons

  5. Parents' State and Trait Anxiety: Relationships with Anxiety Severity and Treatment Response in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Caitlin M.; Maddox, Brenna B.; White, Susan W.

    2013-01-01

    Comorbid anxiety is common among children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and parents of children with ASD are more likely to have anxiety disorders. This study investigated the relationship between parents' state and trait anxiety and parent-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms among adolescents (n = 30) with ASD, as well…

  6. Parents' State and Trait Anxiety: Relationships with Anxiety Severity and Treatment Response in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Caitlin M.; Maddox, Brenna B.; White, Susan W.

    2013-01-01

    Comorbid anxiety is common among children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and parents of children with ASD are more likely to have anxiety disorders. This study investigated the relationship between parents' state and trait anxiety and parent-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms among adolescents (n = 30) with ASD, as well…

  7. Comorbidity among the anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C.; Rijken, H.; Garssen, B.; van Schaik, A.; Kraaimaat, F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the diagnoses of 120 consecutive referrals to an outpatient research program on anxiety disorders. Patients were diagnosed according to DSM-III-R criteria using a structured interview. Patterns of comorbidity among disorders were examined using two diagnostic procedures. One

  8. Synergistic effects of pain intensity and experiential avoidance in relation to anxiety symptoms and disorders among economically disadvantaged latinos in a community-based primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshaie, Jafar; Kauffman, Brooke Y; Viana, Andres G; Garza, Monica; Ochoa-Perez, Melissa; Lemaire, Chad; Bogiaizian, Daniel; Robles, Zuzuky; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-09-06

    Latinos are subject to numerous health inequalities, including mental health disparity for anxiety and its disorders. In fact, there is strikingly little understanding of transdiagnostic risk factors for the onset and development of anxiety symptoms and disorders among Latinos. To build knowledge in this domain, the present investigation examined the interactive effects of experiential avoidance and pain intensity in relation to anxious arousal, social anxiety, and anxiety disorders among 361 Latino adults with annual incomes of less than $30,000 (87.5% female; Mage=38.8, SD=11.4, and 98.5% used Spanish as their first language) who attended a community-based primary healthcare clinic. As hypothesized, the interaction between experiential avoidance and pain intensity was significantly related to anxious arousal, social anxiety, and a number of anxiety disorders over and above the effects of other factors. The form of the significant interactions indicated that participants reporting co-occurring higher levels of experiential avoidance and pain intensity evinced the greatest levels of anxious arousal, social anxiety, and anxiety disorders. These data provide novel empirical evidence suggesting that there is clinically-relevant interplay between experiential avoidance and pain intensity in regard to a relatively wide array of anxiety problems among Latinos in a primary care medical setting.

  9. Examining social physique anxiety and disordered eating in college women. The roles of social comparison and body surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Harney, Megan B; Brownstone, Lisa M; Higgins, M K; Bardone-Cone, Anna M

    2012-12-01

    Social physique anxiety has been found to be associated with disordered eating. However, what is not yet known is what behaviors college women may engage in that strengthen this relation. In the current study, we examined two possible moderating factors, social comparison and body surveillance. We examined whether these moderators might also generalize to trait anxiety, as well. Participants were 265 women attending a Southeastern university. Social comparison (both general and appearance-related) and body surveillance were tested as moderators of the relation between social physique anxiety and disordered eating. Results indicated that general social comparison, appearance-related social comparison, and body surveillance significantly moderated this relation. Individuals who were high in social physique anxiety and who reported high levels of general or appearance-related social comparison or body surveillance reported much higher levels of disordered eating than those with high social physique anxiety and low levels of these behaviors. Results indicated that only the trait anxiety×body surveillance interaction was significant in identifying elevated disordered eating. Results provide information regarding who may experience high levels of disordered eating in association with social physique anxiety, which has clinical implications including the conceptualization of social comparison and body surveillance as safety behaviors.

  10. Screening for anxiety symptoms and social desirability in children and adolescents living with chronic illnesses in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabiat, Diana H; Jabery, Mohammad Al; Wardam, Lina

    2013-03-01

    This research aims to investigate the rate and nature of anxiety symptoms in a group of children and adolescents living with chronic illnesses in Jordan, and their relation to social desirability in a cultural sample not previously researched. Using the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (R-CMAS), anxiety and social desirability data were obtained from 114 children diagnosed with chronic illnesses and 162 healthy control participants. Based on children's self-report, participants were categorized according to their adaptive style paradigm as either high anxious, low anxious, or repressor. It was proposed that children who score high on social desirability and low on anxiety are repressors. The prevalence of these categories was compared across the two groups. Anxiety was reported in 9.64 percent of the chronic illnesses and 12.34 percent of the healthy peers. Using the data obtained in the present study, the rate and nature of anxiety in children with chronic illnesses were lower for children in Jordan when compared to previous studies. However, social desirability values were similar to those established in Western societies suggesting a significantly higher percentage of children identified as repressors in children with long-term illnesses. These results supported the hypothesis regarding the relationship between social desirability and expressed anxiety symptoms. © The Author(s) 2012.

  11. Maternal predictors of anxiety risk in young males with fragile X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonnsen, Bridgette L; Cornish, Kim M; Wheeler, Anne C; Roberts, Jane E

    2014-07-01

    Children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) demonstrate high rates of anxiety disorders, with 65-83% meeting diagnostic criteria. The severity of anxiety symptoms in FXS has been shown to be partially predicted by elevated negative affect across early childhood [Tonnsen et al. (2013a); J Abnorm Child Psychol 41:267-280]. This association suggests that biologically driven vulnerability emerges early in development, as is reported in non-clinical populations. However, anxiety emergence is likely moderated by multifaceted genetic, biological and environmental risk and protective factors. Mothers with the FMR1 premutation have been shown to exhibit elevated parenting stress and internalizing symptoms, which have each been associated with child behavior problems [Bailey et al. (2008a); Am J Med Genet Part A 146A:2060-2069 and Bailey et al. (2008b) Am J Med Genet Part A 146A:720-729]. Despite these findings, it is unclear whether maternal factors directly relate to anxiety vulnerability in high-risk children with FXS, a question essential to informing targeted, family-sensitive treatment. The present study examines how maternal protective and risk factors relate to child inhibition reflected in (1) child anxiety symptoms, (2) child trajectories of negative affect, and (3) the association between child anxiety and negative affect. Primary predictors include maternal parenting stress, indicators of mental health risk (anxiety and depressive symptoms), and maternal optimism. We also examine genetic correlates in mothers (CGG repeats, activation ratio, mRNA). Our findings suggest that behavioral inhibition in young children with FXS is associated with higher parenting stress and lower optimism, and higher parenting stress is associated with lower maternal X-activation ratio. These findings underscore the need for family-sensitive treatment strategies for anxiety disorders in children with FXS.

  12. Comparison of maternal anxiety scores in pediatric intensive care unit and general ward parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie Affendi Kartikahadi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Hospitalization of a child is known to be a dreadful and stressful situation for parents. One study reported that admitting a child to a general ward caused mild anxiety to mothers, while admitting a child to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU caused moderate anxiety to mothers. Objective To compare Hamilton anxiety scores of mothers whose children were admitted to the PICU to those of mothers whose children were admitted to the general ward. Methods A cross-sectional study was done on mothers of children aged 1 month-12 years. Children were admitted to either the intensive care unit or the general ward from October 2010-January 2011. All subjects were assessed by Hamilton anxiety scores and questioned for risk factors and other causes of maternal anxiety. Consecutive sampling was used to allocate the subjects. Differences were considered statistically significant for P < 0.05. Results Of the 72 subjects, the median Hamilton anxiety score in mothers of children admitted to the PICU was 20.5 (interquartile range 14-29.75, higher than that of mothers of children admitted to the general ward (14, interquartile range 9-16.75. Mann-Whitney U test revealed a statistically significant difference in scores between the two groups (P = 0.001. Ancova multivariate analysis showed the admission location to be the only significant relationship to Hamilton anxiety score (P = 0.0001. Conclusion Hamilton anxiety scores were higher for mothers of children admitted to the PICU than that of mothers with children admitted to the general ward. [Paediatr Indones.2012;52:95-8].

  13. Interaction between perceived maternal care, anxiety symptoms, and the neurobehavioral response to palatable foods in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Tania Diniz; Dalle Molle, Roberta; Reis, Roberta Sena; Rodrigues, Danitsa Marcos; Mucellini, Amanda Brondani; Minuzzi, Luciano; Franco, Alexandre Rosa; Buchweitz, Augusto; Toazza, Rudineia; Ergang, Bárbara Cristina; Cunha, Ana Carla de Araújo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo

    2016-05-01

    Studies in rodents have shown that early life trauma leads to anxiety, increased stress responses to threatening situations, and modifies food intake in a new environment. However, these associations are still to be tested in humans. This study aimed to verify complex interactions among anxiety diagnosis, maternal care, and baseline cortisol on food intake in a new environment in humans. A community sample of 32 adolescents and young adults was evaluated for: psychiatric diagnosis using standardized interviews, maternal care using the Parental Bonding Inventory (PBI), caloric consumption in a new environment (meal choice at a snack bar), and salivary cortisol. They also performed a brain fMRI task including the visualization of palatable foods vs. neutral items. The study found a three-way interaction between anxiety diagnosis, maternal care, and baseline cortisol levels on the total calories consumed (snacks) in a new environment. This interaction means that for those with high maternal care, there were no significant associations between cortisol levels and food intake in a new environment. However, for those with low maternal care and who have an anxiety disorder (affected), cortisol was associated with higher food intake; whereas for those with low maternal care and who did not have an anxiety disorder (resilient), cortisol was negatively associated with lower food intake. In addition, higher anxiety symptoms were associated with decreased activation in the superior and middle frontal gyrus when visualizing palatable vs. neutral items in those reporting high maternal care. These results in humans mimic experimental research findings and demonstrate that a combination of anxiety diagnosis and maternal care moderate the relationship between the HPA axis functioning, anxiety, and feeding behavior in adolescents and young adults.

  14. Depression and anxiety in labor migrants and refugees--a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindert, Jutta; Ehrenstein, Ondine S von; Priebe, Stefan; Mielck, Andreas; Brähler, Elmar

    2009-07-01

    Prevalence rates of depression and anxiety among migrants (i.e. refugees, labor migrants) vary among studies and it's been found that prevalence rates of depression and anxiety may be linked to financial strain in the country of immigration. Our aim is to review studies on prevalence rates of depression and/or anxiety (acknowledging that Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is within that class of disorders), and to evaluate associations between the Gross National Product (GNP) of the immigration country as a moderating factor for depression, anxiety and PTSD among migrants. We carried out a systematic literature review in the databases MEDLINE and EMBASE for population based studies published from 1990 to 2007 reporting prevalence rates of depression and/or anxiety and or PTSD according to DSM- or ICD- criteria in adults, and a calculation of combined estimates for proportions using the DerSimonian-Laird estimation. A total of 348 records were retrieved with 37 publications on 35 populations meeting our inclusion criteria. 35 studies were included in the final evaluation. Our meta-analysis shows that the combined prevalence rates for depression were 20 percent among labor migrants vs. 44 percent among refugees; for anxiety the combined estimates were 21 percent among labor migrants vs. 40 percent among (n=24,051) refugees. Higher GNP in the country of immigration was related to lower symptom prevalence of depression and/or anxiety in labor migrants but not in refugees. We conclude that depression and/or anxiety in labor migrants and refugees require separate consideration, and that better economic conditions in the host country reflected by a higher GNP appear to be related to better mental health in labor migrants but not in refugees.

  15. The effects of a designer music intervention on patients' anxiety, pain, and experience of colonoscopy: a short report on a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Fiona; Mikocka-Walus, Antonina A; Walus, Bartlomiej P; Keage, Hannah; Andrews, Jane M

    2014-01-01

    There is a controversy on whether listening to music before or during colonoscopy reduces anxiety and pain and improves satisfaction and compliance with the procedure. This study aimed to establish whether specifically designed music significantly affects anxiety, pain, and experience associated with colonoscopy. In this semirandomized controlled study, 34 patients undergoing a colonoscopy were provided with either muted headphones (n = 17) or headphones playing the investigator-selected music (n = 17) for 10 minutes before and during colonoscopy. Anxiety, pain, sedation dose, and overall experience were measured using quantitative measures and scales. Participants' state anxiety decreased over time (P music did not significantly reduce anxiety (P = .441), pain scores (P = .313), or midazolam (P = .327) or fentanyl doses (P = .295). Despite these findings, 100% of the music group indicated that they would want music if they were to repeat the procedure, as compared with only 50% of those in the nonmusic group wanting to wear muted headphones. Although no significant effects of music on pain, anxiety, and sedation were found, a clear preference for music was expressed, therefore warranting further research on this subject.

  16. The Relationship Between Parent Trait Anxiety and Parent-reported Pain, Solicitous Behaviors, and Quality of Life Impairment in Children With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Christopher J; Fortier, Michelle A

    2016-01-01

    Pain-related disability in youth has been shown to be associated with parental psychological distress and solicitous behaviors. This study sought to investigate how parental anxiety may impact children's functioning with respect to pain and health-related quality of life in a sample of children with cancer. A total of 353 parents of children treated for cancer completed measures of anxiety, behavioral responses to children's pain, and of their child's quality of life and pain. Children ages 8 to 18 completed measures of their own quality of life and pain. Parent anxiety was significantly associated with parent ratings of children's pain severity (P=0.004) and frequency (P=0.008), as well as parent solicitous responses (P=0.041) and child quality of life. Regression analysis revealed that parent anxiety significantly predicted solicitous behaviors (P=0.006), pain frequency (P=0.043), and child quality of life (P ≤ 0.004). These findings suggest parent anxiety plays a significant role in parent perception of children's pain and quality of life in pediatric cancer patients. Future research is needed to further clarify the nature of these relationships, which will help identify how parent anxiety may be an important target for pain management in children with cancer.

  17. Relationships among depression, anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and perceived social support in adolescents with conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Savaş; Bilgiç, Ayhan; Akça, Ömer Faruk; Türkoğlu, Serhat; Hergüner, Sabri

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the relationships of depression, anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and perceived social support with conversion symptoms in adolescents with conversion disorder (CD). Fifty outpatients, aged 8-18 years, who had been diagnosed with CD and members of a control group were assessed using the psychological questionnaires. Compared with controls, adolescents with CD scored higher on the Child Depression Inventory (CDI), Screen for Child Anxiety-related Emotional Disorders (SCARED), Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI) total, CASI physical and cognitive subscales, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support family subscale. Multiple regression analysis showed that CDI, CASI total, and CASI cognitive scores predicted the Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire (SDQ) scores and that CDI and CASI total scores predicted the Children's Somatization Inventory (CSI) scores of subjects. This study suggest that adolescents with CD had poor psychosocial well-being, and depression, global anxiety sensitivity and anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns are related to conversion symptoms.

  18. "Library Anxiety" and "Computer Anxiety": Measures, Validity, and Research Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerabek, J. Ann; Meyer, Linda S.; Kordinak, S. Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of library anxiety and computer anxiety focuses on a study of undergraduates that investigated the construct validity of the Computer Anxiety Index and the Library Anxiety Scale. Explains the use of the Institute for Personality and Ability Testing (IPAT) Anxiety Scale for the criterion measure of anxiety. (Author/LRW)

  19. Are there specific metacognitive processes associated with anxiety disorders in youth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terri Landon Bacow

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Terri Landon Bacow1, Jill Ehrenreich May2, Leslie R Brody3, Donna B Pincus41Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York City, NY, USA; 2Department of Psychology, University of Miami, FL, USA; 3Department of Psychology, 4Center for Anxiety and Related Disorders, Boston University, MA, USAAbstract: While Wells’ metacognitive model of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD posits that certain metacognitive processes, such as negative meta-worry (negative beliefs about worry, are more strongly associated with symptoms of GAD than other anxiety disorders in adults, research has yet to determine whether the same pattern is true for younger individuals. We examined the relationship between several metacognitive processes and anxiety disorder diagnostic status in a sample of 98 youth aged 7–17 years. Twenty youth with GAD were compared with similarly sized groups of youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, n = 18, social phobia (SOC, n = 20, separation anxiety disorder (SAD, n = 20, and healthy controls who were not patients (NONP, n = 20 using a self-report measure of metacognition adapted for use with young people in this age range (Metacognitions Questionnaire for Children. Contrary to expectations, only one specific metacognitive process was significantly associated with an anxiety disorder diagnosis, in that the controls endorsed a greater degree of cognitive monitoring (self-reported awareness of one’s thoughts than those with SAD. In addition, there was a trend indicating that nonpatients scored higher than youth with GAD on this scale. These surprising results suggest potentially differing patterns in the relationships between symptoms and metacognitive awareness in anxious youth, depending on the type of anxiety disorder presentation.Keywords: metacognition, childhood, adolescence, anxiety, diagnosis

  20. Increased mortality among people with anxiety disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Sandra M; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mors, Ole

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders and depression are the most common mental disorders worldwide and have a striking impact on global disease burden. Although depression has consistently been found to increase mortality; the role of anxiety disorders in predicting mortality risk is unclear. AIMS......: To assess mortality risk in people with anxiety disorders. METHOD: We used nationwide Danish register data to conduct a prospective cohort study with over 30 million person-years of follow-up. RESULTS: In total, 1066 (2.1%) people with anxiety disorders died during an average follow-up of 9.7 years....... The risk of death by natural and unnatural causes was significantly higher among individuals with anxiety disorders (natural mortality rate ratio (MRR) = 1.39, 95% CI 1.28-1.51; unnatural MRR = 2.46, 95% CI 2.20-2.73) compared with the general population. Of those who died from unnatural causes, 16.5% had...

  1. Social anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to participate in social functions. Social anxiety disorder affects the ability to function in work and relationships. ... Alcohol or other drug use may occur with social anxiety disorder. Loneliness and social isolation may occur.

  2. Illness anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001236.htm Illness anxiety disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Illness anxiety disorder (IAD) is a preoccupation that physical symptoms ...

  3. Separation anxiety in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001542.htm Separation anxiety in children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Separation anxiety in children is a developmental stage in which ...

  4. [Separation anxiety in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purper-Ouakil, Diane; Franc, Nathalie

    2010-06-20

    Separation anxiety disorder can be differentiated from developmental anxiety because of its intensity, persistence and negative impact on adaptive functioning. This disorder is closely linked to other anxiety and mood disorders and can also be associated with externalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents. Severe separation anxiety can result in school refusal and intra-familial violence. Cognitive behavioral therapies have the best evidence-based support for the treatment of separation anxiety disorder in children and adolescents. In addition, it is important to detect factors associated with persistence of anxiety such as systematic avoidance of separation and parental overprotection. The role of pediatricians and general practitioners in recognizing clinical separation anxiety and encouraging appropriate care and positive parental attitudes is essential, as separation anxiety is often associated with a variety of somatic symptoms.

  5. Treatment for Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research & Practice News Blog Posts Depression and Anxiety Journal Insights E-Newsletter Clinical Practice Reviews, Teaching Tools and Other Resources Clinical ... Anxiety disorders and depression are treatable, and the vast majority ...

  6. Soundoff: My Anxieties about Math Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Jay

    1984-01-01

    Math anxiety affects both sexes, and is not the cause of imbalance in mathematical professions. Attempts to broaden perceptions of mathematics deal only with the symptoms of math anxiety. The principal cause is the methodology used to teach mathematics. Problem-solving processes must be employed. (MNS)

  7. Job search self-efficacy as mediator between employment status and symptoms of anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusu, A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the direct and indirect relationship between unemployment and anxiety symptoms, through job search-self efficacy (JSSE. A total of 30 participants who lost their jobs from the same employing organization were used in this two wave longitudinal study. Participants filled out two questionnaires comprising the Trimodal Anxiety Questionnaire and a Job Search Self-Efficacy subscale at the beginning of the study (T1 and after three months (T2. Results show that participants who were still unemployed three months after being laid off reported higher symptoms of anxiety compared to those who had been reemployed (ηp2 = .13. We also found that participants who were reemployed reported higher levels of JSSE at T2 compared to those who were still unemployed (ηp2 = .25. Moreover, there was a significant negative association between JSSE and anxiety at T1 and at T2. Furthermore, the analysis conducted shows evidence for the mediating role of JSSE in the relationship between employment status and anxiety symptoms. The applied potential of these findings is discussed.

  8. The Responsive Classroom approach and fifth grade students' math and science anxiety and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Marissa Swaim; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Merritt, Eileen G; Patton, Christine L

    2013-12-01

    Self-efficacy forecasts student persistence and achievement in challenging subjects. Thus, it is important to understand factors that contribute to students' self-efficacy, a key factor in their success in math and science. The current cross-sectional study examined the contribution of students' gender and math and science anxiety as well as schools' use of Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) practices to students' math and science self-efficacy. Fifth graders (n = 1,561) completed questionnaires regarding their feelings about math and science. Approximately half of the students attended schools implementing the Responsive Classroom® (RC) approach, an SEL intervention, as part of a randomized controlled trial. Results suggested no difference in math and science self-efficacy between boys and girls. Students who self-reported higher math and science anxiety also reported less self-efficacy toward these subjects. However, the negative association between students' anxiety and self-efficacy was attenuated in schools using more RC practices compared with those using fewer RC practices. RC practices were associated with higher science self-efficacy. Results highlight anxiety as contributing to poor self-efficacy in math and science and suggest that RC practices create classroom conditions in which students' anxiety is less strongly associated with negative beliefs about their ability to be successful in math and science.

  9. Adverse Prenatal, Perinatal and Neonatal Experiences in Children with Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnco, Carly; Lewin, Adam B; Salloum, Alison; Murphy, Tanya K; Crawford, Erika A; Dane, Brittney F; McBride, Nicole M; Storch, Eric A

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the incidence of adverse prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal experiences amongst children with anxiety disorders, and the relationship to clinical symptomology and functional impairment in treatment-seeking children (N = 107) with a primary anxiety disorder. Anxious children had higher rates of reported maternal prescription medication use during pregnancy, maternal smoking and illness during pregnancy and neonatal complications (including neonatal intensive care and feeding issues) compared with population base rates and non-affected children. Almost one-third had early problems with sleep. Developmental problems were common with more than half having at least one area of delay. More than three quarters of anxious children had a first-degree family member with a psychiatric history. There were several associations between neonatal complications and subsequent clinical symptomology, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and depressive comorbidity, anxiety severity and functional impairment. Findings suggest higher rates of perinatal complications in anxious children.

  10. Test anxiety and cardiovascular responses to daily academic stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Kristen M; Lehman, Barbara J

    2012-02-01

    Routine academic events may cause stress and produce temporary elevations in blood pressure. Students who experience test anxiety may be especially prone to cardiovascular activation in response to academic stress. This study drew on self-reported stress and ambulatory blood pressure measurements provided by 99 undergraduate participants (30% men, mean age=21 years) who participated over 4 days. Posture, activity level, recent consumption and the previous same-day reading were considered as covariates in a series of hierarchical linear models. Results indicate elevations in systolic blood pressure at times of acute academic stressors; neither diastolic blood pressure nor heart rate was linked with academic stress. In addition, those participants higher in test anxiety exhibited especially pronounced elevations in systolic blood pressure during times of acute academic stress. This research suggests that everyday academic stressors are linked with temporary increases in blood pressure and that test anxiety may contribute to these elevations. Test anxiety has implications for future academic and job success, and cardiovascular responses to everyday stress may contribute to health problems later in life.

  11. Brief report: social and communication abilities and disabilities in higher functioning individuals with autism and Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulnier, Celine A; Klin, Ami

    2007-04-01

    Individuals with higher functioning autism (HFA) fail to translate their cognitive potential into real-life adaptation, and the severity of their symptoms is considerable despite their intellectual ability. This paper reports on a subsample from a larger study (A. Klin et al., in press) analyzed here by autism spectrum subtypes. It focuses on the nature of ability and disability in HFA and Asperger syndrome (AS) in relation to age and IQ. Participants included 32 individuals with autism and 35 with AS. Individuals with AS had significantly higher Verbal IQ scores and less symptomatology than individuals with autism, but their Vineland scores were equally impaired, highlighting the adaptive deficits in ASD regardless of classification. No relationship was found between adaptive functioning and symptom severity.

  12. The impact of smoking in adolescence on early adult anxiety symptoms and the relationship between infant vulnerability factors for anxiety and early adult anxiety symptoms: the TOPP Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Moylan

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is increased in people with trait anxiety and anxiety disorders, however no longitudinal data exist illuminating whether smoking in adolescence can influence the developmental trajectory of anxiety symptoms from early vulnerability in infancy to adult anxiety expression. Using The Tracing Opportunities and Problems in Childhood and Adolescence (TOPP Study, a community-based cohort of children and adolescents from Norway who were observed from the age of 18 months to age 18-19 years, we explored the relationship between adolescent smoking, early vulnerability for anxiety in infancy (e.g. shyness, internalizing behaviors, emotional temperaments and reported early adult anxiety. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that adolescent active smoking was positively associated with increased early adulthood anxiety (β = 0.17, p<0.05, after controlling for maternal education (proxy for socioeconomic status. Adolescent anxiety did not predict early adult smoking. Adolescent active smoking was a significant effect modifier in the relationship between some infant vulnerability factors and later anxiety; smoking during adolescence moderated the relationship between infant internalizing behaviors (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.85, p<0.01, non-active smokers: ns and highly emotional temperament (total sample: active smokers: β = 0.55, p<0.01,non-active smokers: ns, but not shyness, and anxiety in early adulthood. The results support a model where smoking acts as an exogenous risk factor in the development of anxiety, and smoking may alter the developmental trajectory of anxiety from infant vulnerability to early adult anxiety symptom expression. Although alternative non-mutually exclusive models may explain these findings, the results suggest that adolescent smoking may be a risk factor for adult anxiety, potentially by influencing anxiety developmental trajectories. Given the known adverse health effects of cigarette

  13. Deconstructing Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David William

    2008-01-01

    Recent changes to educational policy which have focused attention on the use of high stakes testing as performance and accountability measures have renewed interest in test anxiety both in the UK and the USA. The aim of this paper is to provide a critical examination of the test anxiety construct, and explore the ways in which test anxiety is…

  14. Correlates of well-being among Canadians with mood and/or anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Orpana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Our objective was to examine variables associated with well-being as measured by high self-rated mental health (SRMH and life satisfaction (LS, among Canadian adults (aged 18+ living with a mood and/or an anxiety disorder. Methods: We used nationally representative data from the 2014 Survey on Living with Chronic Diseases in Canada–Mood and Anxiety Disorders Component (SLCDC-MA to describe the association between well-being and self-management behaviours (physical activity, sleep and meditation as well as perceived stress, coping and social support. We used multivariate logistic regression to model the relationship between these factors and measures of well-being. Results: Approximately one in three individuals with mood and/or anxiety disorders reported high SRMH. The logistic regression models demonstrated that several characteristics such as being older, and reporting higher self-rated general health, fewer functional limitations, lower levels of perceived life stress, higher levels of perceived coping and higher levels of perceived social support were associated with higher levels of well-being. Self-management behaviours (including starting physical activity, meditation, adopting good sleep habits and attaining a certain number of hours of nightly sleep were not significantly associated with measures of well-being in our multivariate model. Conclusion: Canadian adults with mood and/or anxiety disorders who reported lower levels of perceived stress and higher levels of social support and coping were more likely to report high levels of well-being. This study contributes evidence from a representative population-based sample indicating well-being is achievable, even in the presence of a mood and/or an anxiety disorder.

  15. Evaluation of higher distribution and/or utilization voltages. Fourth interim report (August 1980): assessment of optimum distribution configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    This interim report provides documentation on the fourth task, Assessment of Optimum Distribution Configuration, of DOE Contract No. ET-78-C-01-2866, Evaluation of Higher Distribution and/or Utilization Voltages. The work performed under this task includes the development of a computer model for assessment of life cycle costs for the distribution and utilization systems, the development of an optimization algorithm to enable distribution system configuration optimization and a net energy analysis to determine potential net energy savings. Input data for this task derive from Task 3. The major output of this task is a documented computer code.

  16. An evaluation of the sociodemographic determinants of dental anxiety in patients scheduled for intra-alveolar extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter E. Egbor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies on anxiety in patients having intra-alveolar extraction as well as the effect of patient's sociodemographic characteristics influencing level of associated anxiety are few in our environment. The aim of this study was to statistically analyze the sociodemographic determinants of dental anxiety in patients scheduled for intra-alveolar extraction. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 93 consecutive patients attending the outpatient clinic of the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Benin Teaching Hospital for intra-alveolar extraction in the months of November and December 2013. An interview-based questionnaire, Corah Dental Anxiety Scale Revised (DAS-R, was administered to evaluate levels of dental anxiety. Sociodemographic characteristics of the subjects were recorded. Descriptive statistics and regression models were done with the independent variables (sociodemographic factors and the dependent variable being the DAS-R. A P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The internal consistency of the scale used as determined by Cronbach alpha was 0.76. Mean DAS score was 8.12±2.58. Dental anxiety and age of subjects showed significant inverse relationship. Females had a higher mean DAS score (8.76 than the males (7.37 (P=0.006. Residence (urban/rural was not statistically significant. Singles reported the highest DAS score (9.41 (P=0.006. The educational level attained was significantly related to dental anxiety (P=0.005. Those with secondary school education had the highest DAS score (9.26. Class V social status had the highest mean anxiety score (P=0.012. Stepwise linear regression showed that the best predictors for dental anxiety were sex (P=0.008 and marital status (P=0.026. Conclusion: This present study demonstrates that sex and marital status are the predictive factors for dental anxiety in the overall management of patients indicated for intra-alveolar extraction.

  17. IRRITABILITY IN CHILD AND ADOLESCENT ANXIETY DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Stoddard, Joel; Stringaris, Argyris; Brotman, Melissa A.; Montville, Daniel; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Our objective was to compare self- and parent-reported irritability in youths with anxiety disorders, healthy youths, and those with mood disorders characterized by irritability. Irritability is a common but relatively understudied psychiatric symptom in child and adolescent anxiety disorders. In anxious youths, little is known about the severity of irritability, its impact on functioning, or the effect of informant source on reports of irritability. Method: We compared parent- an...

  18. Measuring anxiety in depressed patients: A comparison of the Hamilton anxiety rating scale and the DSM-5 Anxious Distress Specifier Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Martin, Jacob; Clark, Heather; McGonigal, Patrick; Harris, Lauren; Holst, Carolina Guzman

    2017-10-01

    DSM-5 included criteria for an anxious distress specifier for major depressive disorder (MDD). In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project we examined whether a measure of the specifier, the DSM-5 Anxious Distress Specifier Interview (DADSI), was as valid as the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) as a measure of the severity of anxiety in depressed patients. Two hundred three psychiatric patients with MDD were interviewed by trained diagnostic raters who administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) supplemented with questions to rate the DADSI, HAMA, and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD). The patients completed self-report measures of depression, anxiety, and irritability. Sensitivity to change was examined in 30 patients. The DADSI and HAMA were significantly correlated (r = 0.60, p < 0.001). Both the DADSI and HAMA were more highly correlated with measures of anxiety than with measures of the other symptom domains. The HAMD was significantly more highly correlated with the HAMA than with the DADSI. For each anxiety disorder, patients with the disorder scored significantly higher on both the DADSI and HAMA than did patients with no current anxiety disorder. A large effect size of treatment was found for both measures (DADSI: d = 1.48; HAMA: d = 1.37). Both the DADSI and HAMA were valid measures of anxiety severity in depressed patients, though the HAMA was more highly confounded with measures of depression than the DADSI. The DADSI is briefer than the HAMA, and may be more feasible to use in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Modified A{sup ++}-standard refrigerator with 30% reduction of energy consumption. Higher efficiency by compressor modification - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegrist, M.; Stahl, S.; Ganz, J.

    2010-06-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at how a modified refrigerator can be given a higher efficiency by modifying the compressor. The modified refrigerator was fitted with a variable-speed compressor. This compressor could be run at much lower speeds so that it was in operation for up to 90% of the time. It was shown that less electricity was consumed the more the compressor ran. The report discusses the aims of the work and presents details on the standard refrigerator used for the tests. The compressor normally used and the variable-speed compressor used in the test are described. Systems for temperature control and data acquisition during the tests are described. The results obtained are examined and the influence of various factors is discussed.

  20. Total Quality Management in Higher Education: Clearing the Hurdles. A Survey on Strategies for Implementing Quality Management Practices in Higher Education. A GOAL/QPC Application Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Daniel

    Based on a survey of Quality Management (QM) practitioners at 21 colleges, this study presents the 10 most difficult implementation hurdles to QM in higher education and a set of hurdle-clearing strategies. The hurdles are: (1) lack of time to implement QM; (2) perception that QM is something for janitorial and housing staffs but not applicable to…