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Sample records for reported hepatitis-b antigen

  1. Hepatitis B e Antigen-Negative Chronic Hepatitis B

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    Seyed-Moayed Alavian

    2006-12-01

    Ag. Patients from the Mediterranean area, although negative for HBeAg and positive for antibodies to HBeAg (anti- HBe, were reported to have CHB with replicating HBV. The term anti-HBe-positive or HBe Ag negative CHB was then proposed and subsequently became widely accepted. In 1989 the molecular basis of this form of CHB was discovered with the identification of HBV mutations preventing HBeAg formation from an otherwise normally replicating HBV(7. With time, it became apparent that HBeAg-negative CHB, initially viewed as an atypical and rare form of CHB mainly restricted in the Mediterranean area, had a much wider geographical distribution and that its frequency was increasing(6. Its molecular virology and immunology were found to be more complex than initially thought(8, whereas the selection of precore HBV mutants was shown to be largely determined by the HBV genotype(9. Mutations abolishing or diminishing HBeAg formation were identified along with changes in other parts of the HBV genome(9.Overview of the hepatitis B genome and itsmutational frequencyThe hepatitis B virus is a small, DNA-containingCorrespondence:Maryam Vaez Jalali, Department of Virology, Faculty ofPublic Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences,Poorsina St., Enghelab Ave., Tehran, IranTel: +98 21 8896 2343Fax: +98 21 8895 0595E-mail: vaezjalali@razi.tums.ac.irHep Mon 2006; 6 (1: 31-35virus with 4 overlapping open reading frames (i.e., several genes overlap and use the same DNA to encode viral proteins (Fig. 1. The 4 genes are core, surface, X, and polymerase. The core gene encodes the core nucleocapsid protein (important in viral packaging and hepatitis B e antigen. The surface gene encodes pre-S1, pre-S2, and S protein (yielding large, middle, and small surface proteins, respectively. The X gene encodes the X protein, which has transactivating properties and may be important in hepatic carcinogenesis. Thepolymerase gene encodes a large protein with functions critical for packaging and DNA

  2. Effect of hepatitis B immunisation in newborn infants of mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Chuanfang; Gong, Yan; Brok, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of hepatitis B vaccine and immunoglobulin in newborn infants of mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen.......To evaluate the effects of hepatitis B vaccine and immunoglobulin in newborn infants of mothers positive for hepatitis B surface antigen....

  3. Prevalence of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen among hepatitis B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen among hepatitis B surface antigen-negative ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... donor selection criteria and screening for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). ... Rwanda (3); Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1); South Africa (96); South Sudan (1); Sudan (3) ...

  4. 21 CFR 660.40 - Hepatitis B Surface Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. 660.40 Section 660.40...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.40 Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of this...

  5. Hepatitis B e Antigen-Negative Chronic Hepatitis B

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    IntroductionHepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global health problem. Current estimates are that 2 billion people have been infected worldwide, of these, 360 million suffer from chronic HBV infection resulting in over 520 000 deaths from acute hepatitis B and 470 000 from cirrhosis or liver cancer(1). The prevalence of hepatitis B carriers varies in different parts of the world, ranging from less than 1% to 15%. In the Middle East, the endemicity is intermittent, with a carrier rate of 2%...

  6. Linearized hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B core-related antigen in the natural history of chronic hepatitis B.

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    Seto, W-K; Wong, D K-H; Fung, J; Huang, F-Y; Liu, K S-H; Lai, C-L; Yuen, M-F

    2014-11-01

    Changes in two novel HBV serological markers, linearized hepatitis B surface antigen (HQ-HBsAg) and hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg), in the natural history of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) have not been well characterized. Serum HQ-HBsAg and HBcrAg levels of 404 Asian treatment-naïve CHB patients were analysed in a cross-sectional manner. Patients were categorized into five groups: immune tolerant (IT group, n=52), immune clearance (IC group, n=105), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative hepatitis (ENH group, n=97), HBeAg-negative quiescent group (ENQ group, n=95) and CHB with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroclearance (SC group, n=55). HQ-HBsAg and HBcrAg were measured and correlated with HBV DNA, HBsAg, HBV genotype and clinical parameters. HQ-HBsAg showed good correlation with HBsAg, especially in the ENQ group (r=0.874, pHBcrAg correlated best with HBV DNA in the ENQ group (r=0.537, pHBcrAg; this subgroup of patients, when compared with those with detectable HBcrAg, had significantly lower median HBV DNA (3.17/4.48 log IU/mL, pHBcrAg up to 42 months after HBsAg seroclearance. When comparing anti-HBs positivity and median time after HBsAg seroclearance in the SC group with and without detectable HQ-HBsAg/HBcrAg, there was no significant difference (22.7% and 36.4%, respectively, p 0.284, and 76.5 and 93.2 months, respectively, p 0.245). HQ-HBsAg and HBcrAg showed unique patterns of distribution throughout the five disease phases of CHB, including high detectability rates after HBsAg seroclearance, opening up different possibilities for their applicability.

  7. Immunological Properties of Hepatitis B Core Antigen Fusion Proteins

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    Francis, Michael J.; Hastings, Gillian Z.; Brown, Alan L.; Grace, Ken G.; Rowlands, David J.; Brown, Fred; Clarke, Berwyn E.

    1990-04-01

    The immunogenicity of a 19 amino acid peptide from foot-and-mouth disease virus has previously been shown to approach that of the inactivated virus from which it was derived after multimeric particulate presentation as an N-terminal fusion with hepatitis B core antigen. In this report we demonstrate that rhinovirus peptide-hepatitis B core antigen fusion proteins are 10-fold more immunogenic than peptide coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin and 100-fold more immunogenic than uncoupled peptide with an added helper T-cell epitope. The fusion proteins can be readily administered without adjuvant or with adjuvants acceptable for human and veterinary application and can elicit a response after nasal or oral dosing. The fusion proteins can also act as T-cell-independent antigens. These properties provide further support for their suitability as presentation systems for "foreign" epitopes in the development of vaccines.

  8. Hepatitis B Virus e Antigen Variants

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    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 300 million people worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV. Considering the very short generation time for a virus, and the high error rate associated with the reverse transcription step of HBV replication, decades of HBV infection are probably equivalent to million years of human evolution. The most important selective force during the natural course of HBV infection appears to be the immune response. The development of anti-HBe antibody in hepatitis B patients usually correlates with reduction of HBV viremia. As a consequence, escape mutants of anti-HBe are selected. The core promoter mutants express less HBe antigen (HBeAg through transcriptional down regulation, while precore mutants express truncated products. We recently identified additional mutations that modulate HBeAg translation initiation, proteolytic cleavage, and secondary structure maintenance through a disulfide bond. The core promoter mutants have been associated with the development of fulminant hepatitis during acute infection and liver cancer during chronic infection. Consistent with their enhanced pathogenicity, core promoter mutants were found to replicate at up to 10-fold higher levels in transfected human hepatoma cells than the wild-type virus. Moreover, some core promoter mutants are impaired in virion secretion due to missense mutations in the envelope gene. These virological properties may help explain enhanced pathogenicity of core promoter mutants in vivo.

  9. Quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen analysis in hepatitis B e antigen-positive nucleoside-naive patients treated with entecavir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. Gish; T. Chang; C.L. Lai (Chen); R.A. de Man (Robert); A. Gadano; C. Llamoso (Cyril); H. Tang (Hui)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Entecavir is a potent nucleoside analogue for treating chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen (qHBsAg) levels are predictive of response to interferon-α in CHB treatment; however, the clinical utility of qHBsAg in nucleoside/nucleotide

  10. Viral hepatitis and hepatitis B antigen: recent advances

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    Krugman, Saul

    1974-01-01

    Recent advances in hepatitis research have shed new light on the etiology, pathogenesis, epidemiology and prevention of type B hepatitis infection. The so-called ‘Dane’ particle is probably the complete hepatitis B virion; its outer coat is the hepatitis B (Australia) antigen (HB Ag) and its inner core is an immunologically distinct particle. Subtypes of HB Ag (a, d, y, w and r) are useful indices for epidemiological surveys. Concepts of epidemiology have changed: type B hepatitis is transmissible by contact as well as by inoculation. The presence of HB Ag in blood is indicative of the presence of hepatitis B virus. Tests to detect antigen and use of voluntary blood donors have played a major role in the decreased incidence of post transfusion hepatitis. A special hepatitis B gammaglobulin preparation and a heat-inactivated hepatitis B vaccine have proved to be effective in preliminary studies. PMID:4219230

  11. Hepatitis B Virus Core-Related Antigens as Markers for Monitoring Chronic Hepatitis B Infection▿

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    Wong, Danny Ka-Ho; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Lai, Ching-Lung; Mizokami, Masashi; Fung, James; Yuen, Man-Fung

    2007-01-01

    A sensitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay has been developed for hepatitis B virus (HBV) core-related antigen (HBcrAg) detection. We aimed to investigate the usefulness of HBcrAg measurement for monitoring chronic hepatitis B disease. HBcrAg levels were measured by a chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay in 54 untreated patients and 39 patients treated with either entecavir or lamivudine. The HBcrAg concentration correlated positively with the levels of serum HBV DNA (r = 0.820), intrahepatic total HBV DNA (r = 0.700), and covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) (r = 0.664; for all, P values were HBcrAg concentration was associated with a greater proportion of hepatitis B core antigen immunostaining. Although the differences were not statistically significant, patients with higher Knodell necroinflammation and fibrosis scores tended to have higher serum HBcrAg concentration levels. In the treated patients, the logarithmic reduction in HBcrAg at week 48 correlated positively with the logarithmic reduction of serum HBV DNA, intrahepatic total HBV DNA, and cccDNA. Of the 31 patients with undetectable serum HBV DNA (HBcrAg. A greater reduction in posttreatment HBcrAg concentration was associated with histological improvement and a decrease in hepatitis B core antigen immunostaining. HBcrAg concentrations of HBcrAg levels correlated with HBV virological markers and reflected the chronic hepatitis B disease activity in the liver. PMID:17942661

  12. Hepatitis B virus core-related antigens as markers for monitoring chronic hepatitis B infection.

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    Wong, Danny Ka-Ho; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Lai, Ching-Lung; Mizokami, Masashi; Fung, James; Yuen, Man-Fung

    2007-12-01

    A sensitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay has been developed for hepatitis B virus (HBV) core-related antigen (HBcrAg) detection. We aimed to investigate the usefulness of HBcrAg measurement for monitoring chronic hepatitis B disease. HBcrAg levels were measured by a chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay in 54 untreated patients and 39 patients treated with either entecavir or lamivudine. The HBcrAg concentration correlated positively with the levels of serum HBV DNA (r = 0.820), intrahepatic total HBV DNA (r = 0.700), and covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) (r = 0.664; for all, P values were HBcrAg concentration was associated with a greater proportion of hepatitis B core antigen immunostaining. Although the differences were not statistically significant, patients with higher Knodell necroinflammation and fibrosis scores tended to have higher serum HBcrAg concentration levels. In the treated patients, the logarithmic reduction in HBcrAg at week 48 correlated positively with the logarithmic reduction of serum HBV DNA, intrahepatic total HBV DNA, and cccDNA. Of the 31 patients with undetectable serum HBV DNA (HBcrAg. A greater reduction in posttreatment HBcrAg concentration was associated with histological improvement and a decrease in hepatitis B core antigen immunostaining. HBcrAg concentrations of HBcrAg levels correlated with HBV virological markers and reflected the chronic hepatitis B disease activity in the liver.

  13. 21 CFR 660.1 - Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. 660.1... Hepatitis B Surface Antigen § 660.1 Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of this product shall be Antibody to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. The product...

  14. Clinical and histological characteristics of chronic hepatitis B with negative hepatitis B e-antigen

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    彭劼; 骆抗先; 朱幼芙; 郭亚兵; 章廉; 侯金林

    2003-01-01

    Abstract:Objective To study the clinical and histological features of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) with negative hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg). Methods A tatal of 743 in-patients with chronic hepatitis B were recruited into the study and divided into two groups according to the HBeAg status. The correlation among alanine transaminase (ALT) levels, hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA semiquantification, and the liver histopathological data were dectected.Results Of the 743 successive in-patients, 267 (35.9%) were HBeAg-negative. The HBDAG-negative group had significantly lower serologic HBV DNA levels (63.0% of100 pg/ml, while 8.2% of them had HAIinf≥9 and 12.3% had HAIfib≥3 with HBV DNA<20 pg/ml, indicating an obverse correlation between HBV DNA levels and histology scores.Conclusions As regards clinical and histological background, the chronic HBeAg-negative hepatitis B is a different subpopulation from the HBeAg-positive counterpart.

  15. Hepatitis B immunisation for newborn infants of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, C; Gong, Yanzhang; Brok, J

    2006-01-01

    Hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin are considered for newborn infants of HBsAg-positive mothers to prevent hepatitis B infection.......Hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin are considered for newborn infants of HBsAg-positive mothers to prevent hepatitis B infection....

  16. [Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen in general population of coast, mountain and forest regions of Peru. A preliminary report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vildósola, H; Farfán, G; Colan, E; Delgado, G; Mendoza, L; Pineda, R; Linares, O; Miyasato, D; Lescano, R

    1990-01-01

    A prospective study was performed in order to establish HBsAg prevalence on population living in urban areas of three geographical regions of Peru. There were included 100 apparently healthy people of each city, with a residence major to 5 years, no migrate neither transitory. Each subdivided group in 50 adults and 50 children. Of these last ones 15 between 1 to 7 years old and 20 cases between 7 to 14 years old. Samples were obtained by venipuncture, then they were centrifuged and the serum obtained was stored at -20 degrees C before being sent to Lima for processing. Determination of HBsAg was made by the Elisa's technic (Abbott Lab-III.-USA). In this preliminary report we informed about results in 7 cities (Lima, Iquitos, Chiclayo, Arequipa,Ica, Chachapoyas y Tarapoto) that include 680 persons of which 373 were adults and 307 children. The HBsAg, was positive in 26 cases (3.8%). In the adult group were 13 positives (3.4%), and in the children also 13 cases (4.2%). Result of all sample shows figures of prevalence (3.8%) major to that reported before at national level. The same phenomenon was observed in the cost while in the jungle our results were similar to those found before. In the andean area not studied previously there were obtained similar results to the rest of the country. It is also interesting to mention the high percentages of prevalence in children. These results indicate that hepatitis B is a serious problem of public health in our country that merit to take immediate prophylactic measures.

  17. Quantitative Measurement of Serum Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Using an Immunoradiometric Assay in Chronic Hepatitis B

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    Kwon, Hyun Woo; Lee, Ho Young; Kim, Seog Gyun; Kim, Won; Jung, Wong Jin; Kang, Keon Wook; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National Univ. Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    Measurement of serum hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) levels is important for the management of chronic hepatitis D patients in terms of monitoring response to antiviral therapy. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of a new diagnostic kit, which quantitatively measures serum HBsAg level using an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) based method. Measurements were compared with those obtained using a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) based method. The blood samples of 96 patients with chronic hepatitis B were used in this study. Copy numbers of serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA were determined in 23 of these samples. The correlation between and the concordance of IRMA and CMIA results were determined using Pearson's correlation coefficients. P values of 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant throughout. Laboratory diagnoses based on CMIA. Furthermors, serum HBsAg levels by IRMA were found to be highly correlated with those determined by CMIA (correlation coefficient R{sup 2=}0.838, P<0.001). Serum HBsAg level and serum HBV DNA copies were found to be linearly related by both methods (R{sup 2=}0.067, P=0.316 by IRMA, and R{sup 2=}0.101, P=0.215 by CMIA). The diagnostic performance of the investigated IRMA method of determining HBsAg levels was found to be comparable with that of a CMIA based method in chronic hepatitis B patients.

  18. Serum anti-hepatitis B surface antigen in hemodialysis patients

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    Rafieian-Kopaei Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the immune response to hepatitis B vaccination in stable hemodialysis (HD patients, a retro-prospective investigation was conducted on 68 HD patients. Participants were vaccinated against hepatitis B virus with an intramuscular hepatitis B vaccination schedule, 40 micrograms at 0, 1, and 6 months. The serum antibody level against hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs in HD patients was 35±55. In this study, no significant differences of Anti-HBs antibody between diabetic and non-diabetics or male and female subjects were observed. There were not any significant correlation between antibody against HBs-Ag and serum albumin. There was not significant correlation between anti-HBs antibody and age, proportion of HD, duration of HD or dialysis efficacy. In this study, there was not significant correlation between serum antibody level against hepatitis B surface antigen and some demographic indices of HD patients, however, these findings need to re-test in other centers with more participants.

  19. Genetic variation and significance of hepatitis B surface antigen

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    ZHANG Zhenhua

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV is prone to genetic variation because there is reverse transcription in the process of HBV replication. The gene mutation of hepatitis B surface antigen may affect clinical diagnosis of HBV infection, viral replication, and vaccine effect. The current research and existing problems are discussed from the following aspects: the mechanism and biological and clinical significance of S gene mutation. Most previous studies focused on S gene alone, so S gene should be considered as part of HBV DNA in the future research on S gene mutation.

  20. Some additional bioethical questions related to hepatitis B antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, L B

    1977-09-01

    Dr. Baruch S. Blumberg has recently raised important questions concerning the bioethics of prevention and cure of hepatitis. This paper extends his inquiry with a view toward examining the full range of the complexity of such issues as the restriction of the use of blood infected with hepatitis B antigen, the screening and possible isolation of health care personnel found to be carriers, and the like. It pointed out that for issues like these, there is not only a conflict between personal liberties and the public interest but also a potential conflict of individual rights, a theme not treated fully by Blumberg. The complex issues that emerge when these two themes are considered together are examined in light of the work of the contemporary American philosopher, John Rawls. His theory permits one to consider these two ethical themes together in analyzing moral problems. In this light, a new strategy is proposed for addressing bioethical questions concerning hepatitis B antigen.

  1. OCCULT HEPATITIS B VIRUS INFECTION AMONG BLOOD DONORS WITH ANTIBODIES TO HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGEN

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    A. Jafarzadeh

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of hepatitis B is routinely based on of serological assay of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg. Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is generally defined as the detection of HBV -DNA in the serum or tissues of subjects who have negative test for HBsAg. Transmission of HBV infection has been documented from HBsAg negative, anti-HBc positive blood and organ donors. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of occult HBV infection among HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive blood donors of Rafsanjan blood transfusion center. ‎ Sera from 270 healthy blood donors who were negative for both HBsAg and anti-HCV, were tested for anti-HBc antibodies by use of ELISA technique. The samples that were negative for HBsAg but positive for anti-HBc markers also examined for the presence of HBV-DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. ‎ Out of 270 HBsAg negative blood samples, 14 samples (5.18% were positive for anti-HBc antibodies. HBV-DNA was detected in 4/14 (28.57% of HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive samples. Moreover, anti-HBs antibody was detected in 2/4 (50% of HBV-DNA positive samples. ‎ These results indicated that HBV-DNA found in the majority of HBsAg negative and anti-HBc-positive donors. In addition, the present study recommend the incorporation of routine anti-HBc screening of blood as a surrogate marker of occult HBV infection to prevent some transfusion-transmitted HBV infections.

  2. Hepatitis B antigen in hepatocytes of chronic active liver disease.

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    Kawanishi, H

    1979-04-01

    To study the morphologic interrelation of hepatocytes with the replication of hepatitis B vius (HBV) and immunocompetent cells in chronic active liver disease(CALD), organ cultures were prepared from liver biopsy specimens. Replication of hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) appears to occur in the nucleus of the hepatocyte in close association with intranuclear electron-dense strands and sometimes intranucleolar matrixes (likely HBcAg genomes), and cytoplasmic maturation of the HBcAg takes place in the preautolytic condition of host hepatocytes. Immunocompetent cells became progressively autolyzed in the early period of cultures. No difference in progression of hepatocyte injury in tissues from normal subjects and from hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive and HBsAg-negative patients with CALD may suggest that intracellular synthesis of HBV alone is not cytopathic to host hepatocytes. This model is promising for the study of HBV replication and development, and also for testing the efficacy of new antiviral agents against the virus.

  3. Maturation of recombinant hepatitis B virus surface antigen particles.

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    Zhao, Qinjian; Wang, Yang; Freed, Daniel; Fu, Tong-Ming; Gimenez, Juan A; Sitrin, Robert D; Washabaugh, Michael W

    2006-01-01

    The major surface antigen of Hepatitis B virus (HBsAg) is a cysteine-rich, lipid-bound protein with 226 amino acids. Recombinant HBsAg (rHBsAg) with associated lipids can self-assemble into 22-nm immunogenic spherical particles, which are used in licensed Hepatitis B vaccines. Little is known about the structural evolvement or maturation upon assembly beyond an elevated level of disulfide formation. In this paper, we further characterized the maturation of HBsAg particles with respect to their degree of cross-linking, morphological changes, and changes in conformational flexibility. The lipid-containing rHBsAg particles undergo KSCN- and heat-induced maturation by formation of additional intra- and inter-molecular disulfide bonds. Direct measurements with atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed morphological changes upon maturation through KSCN-induced and heat-/storage-incurred oxidative refolding. Particle uniformity and regularity was greatly improved, and protrusions formed by the protein subunits were more prominent on the surface of the mature particles. Decreased conformational flexibility in the mature rHBsAg particles was demonstrated by millisecond-scale unfolding kinetics in the presence of an environment-sensitive conformation probe. Both the accessible hydrophobic cavities under native conditions and the changeable hydrophobic cavities upon denaturant-induced unfolding showed substantial decrease upon maturation of the rHBsAg particles. These changes in the structural properties may be critical for the antigenicity and immuno-genicity of this widely-used vaccine component.

  4. Clinical significance of hepatitis B surface antigen mutants.

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    Coppola, Nicola; Onorato, Lorenzo; Minichini, Carmine; Di Caprio, Giovanni; Starace, Mario; Sagnelli, Caterina; Sagnelli, Evangelista

    2015-11-28

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major public health problem in many countries, with nearly 300 million people worldwide carrying HBV chronic infection and over 1 million deaths per year due to cirrhosis and liver cancer. Several hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) mutations have been described, most frequently due to a single amino acid substitution and seldom to a nucleotide deletion. The majority of mutations are located in the S region, but they have also been found in the pre-S1 and pre-S2 regions. Single amino acid substitutions in the major hydrophilic region of HBsAg, called the "a" determinant, have been associated with immune escape and the consequent failure of HBV vaccination and HBsAg detection, whereas deletions in the pre-S1 or pre-S2 regions have been associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. This review article will focus on the HBsAg mutants and their biological and clinical implications.

  5. Clinical significance of hepatitis B surface antigen mutants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nicola; Coppola; Lorenzo; Onorato; Carmine; Minichini; Giovanni; Di; Caprio; Mario; Starace; Caterina; Sagnelli; Evangelista; Sagnelli

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus(HBV) infection is a major public health problem in many countries, with nearly 300 million people worldwide carrying HBV chronic infection and over 1 million deaths per year due to cirrhosis and liver cancer. Several hepatitis B surface antigen(HBs Ag) mutations have been described, most frequently due to a single amino acid substitution and seldom to a nucleotide deletion. The majority of mutations are located in the S region, but they have also been found in the pre-S1 and pre-S2 regions. Single amino acid substitutions in the major hydrophilic region of HBs Ag, called the "a" determinant, have been associated with immune escape and the consequent failure of HBV vaccination and HBs Ag detection, whereas deletions in the pre-S1 or pre-S2 regions have been associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. This review article will focus on the HBs Ag mutants and their biological and clinical implications.

  6. Kinetics of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Level in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients who Achieved Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Loss during Pegylated Interferon Alpha-2a Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Hui; Zhang, Lu; Qu, Xiao-Jing; Lu, Yao; Shen, Ge; Wu, Shu-Ling; Chang, Min; Liu, Ru-Yu; Hu, Lei-Ping; Li, Zhen-Zhen; Hua, Wen-Hao; Song, Shu-Jing; Xie, Yao

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss/seroconversion is considered to be the ideal endpoint of antiviral therapy and the ultimate treatment goal in chronic hepatitis B (CHB). This study aimed to assess the patterns of HBsAg kinetics in CHB patients who achieved HBsAg loss during the treatment of pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) α-2a. Methods: A total of 150 patients were enrolled, composing of 83 hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg)-positive and 67 HBeAg-negative patients. Patients were treated with PEG-IFN α-2a180 μg/week until HBsAg loss/seroconversion was achieved, which occurred within 96 weeks. Serum hepatitis B virus deoxyribonucleic acid and serological indicators (HBsAg, anti-HBs, HBeAg, and anti-HBe) were determined before and every 3 months during PEG-IFN α-2a treatment. Biochemical markers and peripheral blood neutrophil and platelet counts were tested every 1–3 months. Results: Baseline HBsAg levels were 2.5 ± 1.3 log IU/ml, and decreased rapidly at 12 and 24 weeks by 48.3% and 88.3%, respectively. The mean time to HBsAg loss was 54.2 ± 30.4 weeks, though most patients needed extended treatment and 30.0% of HBsAg loss occurred during 72–96 weeks. Baseline HBsAg levels were significantly higher in HBeAg-positive patients (2.9 ± 1.1 log IU/ml) compared with HBeAg-negative patients (2.0 ± 1.3 log IU/ml; t = 4.733, P < 0.001), but the HBsAg kinetics were similar. Patients who achieved HBsAg loss within 48 weeks had significantly lower baseline HBsAg levels and had more rapid decline of HBsAg at 12 weeks compared to patients who needed extended treatment to achieve HBsAg loss. Conclusions: Patients with lower baseline HBsAg levels and more rapid decline during early treatment with PEG-IFN are more likely to achieve HBsAg loss during 96 weeks of treatment, and extended therapy longer than 48 weeks may be required to achieve HBsAg loss. PMID:28229987

  7. [Reporting chronic hepatitis B and C in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N.; Cowan, S.; Christensen, P.B.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: It became mandatory to report cases of chronic hepatitis B and C in Denmark in May 2002. The "treating doctor" is obliged to make the report. The purpose of this study is to find out how many patients with chronic hepatitis B or C who are monitored in the Danish health care system...... are reported to the State Serum Institute (SSI) and to find out who makes the report and from these numbers to estimate the total number of patients in Denmark with chronic hepatitis B and C. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with chronic hepatitis B or C who were reported to the SSI before June 20th 2006 were...... cross-referenced with patients included in the Danish Database of Hepatitis B and C (DANHEP) on the basis of their social security number. RESULTS: The study found that only 50% of patients monitored at Danish hospitals with chronic hepatitis B or C are registered with the SSI. Respectively 47% and 38...

  8. Complexes of hepatitis B surface antigen and immunoglobulin M in the sera of patients with hepatitis B virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palla, M; Rizzi, R; Toti, M; Almi, P; Rizzetto, M; Bonino, F; Purcell, R

    1983-01-01

    Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) bound to immunoglobulin M (IgM) was detected in sera of HBsAg carriers by a radioimmunoassay based on selective absorption of the immunoglobulin on a solid phase coated with antiserum to human IgM. Isopycnic banding and rate-zonal sedimentation have shown that the reaction is related to particulate forms of the HBsAg complexed with IgM. The binding of IgM possibly occurred because of a selective affinity of these molecules to the surface of HBsAg particles. HBsAg/IgM was found transiently in 24 of 25 (96%) patients with acute self-limited hepatitis B and persistently in 6 of 25 patients whose acute hepatitis B progressed to chronicity. It was also found in 20 of 39 (51%) chronic HBsAg carriers with inactive and asymptomatic infection. The HBsAg/IgM phenomenon is not dependent on replication of hepatitis B virions; its persistence in patients with acute hepatitis B may provide complementary evidence of transition of the infection to chronicity. PMID:6309673

  9. Artificial neural network accurately predicts hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hua Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg seroclearance and seroconversion are regarded as favorable outcomes of chronic hepatitis B (CHB. This study aimed to develop artificial neural networks (ANNs that could accurately predict HBsAg seroclearance or seroconversion on the basis of available serum variables. METHODS: Data from 203 untreated, HBeAg-negative CHB patients with spontaneous HBsAg seroclearance (63 with HBsAg seroconversion, and 203 age- and sex-matched HBeAg-negative controls were analyzed. ANNs and logistic regression models (LRMs were built and tested according to HBsAg seroclearance and seroconversion. Predictive accuracy was assessed with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC. RESULTS: Serum quantitative HBsAg (qHBsAg and HBV DNA levels, qHBsAg and HBV DNA reduction were related to HBsAg seroclearance (P<0.001 and were used for ANN/LRM-HBsAg seroclearance building, whereas, qHBsAg reduction was not associated with ANN-HBsAg seroconversion (P = 0.197 and LRM-HBsAg seroconversion was solely based on qHBsAg (P = 0.01. For HBsAg seroclearance, AUROCs of ANN were 0.96, 0.93 and 0.95 for the training, testing and genotype B subgroups respectively. They were significantly higher than those of LRM, qHBsAg and HBV DNA (all P<0.05. Although the performance of ANN-HBsAg seroconversion (AUROC 0.757 was inferior to that for HBsAg seroclearance, it tended to be better than those of LRM, qHBsAg and HBV DNA. CONCLUSIONS: ANN identifies spontaneous HBsAg seroclearance in HBeAg-negative CHB patients with better accuracy, on the basis of easily available serum data. More useful predictors for HBsAg seroconversion are still needed to be explored in the future.

  10. Limited benefit of hepatitis B immunoglobulin prophylaxis in children of hepatitis B e antigen-negative mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Le Ye; Aw, Marion M; Saw, Sharon; Rauff, Mary; Tong, Pearl YS; Lee, Guan Huei

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In 2006, Singapore adopted the universal hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIg) policy. Since then, all infants of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive mothers receive HBIg, irrespective of maternal hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) status. However, the benefits of HBIg for infants of HBeAg-negative mothers are unclear. We compared the vertical transmission rates among children of HBeAg-negative mothers who were given HBIg versus a retrospective cohort who were not given HBIg, to determine its protective effect. METHODS This observational study involved pregnant HBsAg-positive women seen at National University Hospital, Singapore, between June 2009 and December 2013. If the infants of these mothers completed the recommended vaccination schedule, they were recruited into the study, along with their older siblings. Serological testing for the children was performed three months after completion of the last dose of vaccine, and hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface gene sequencing was carried out if HBV DNA was detected. RESULTS A total of 111 infants and 47 siblings were recruited. 2 (1.5%) children were found to have vertical transmission despite receiving HBIg, while no incidences of vertical transmission were found among the historical controls who did not receive HBIg (p = 1.00). CONCLUSION The overall effectiveness of the hepatitis B vaccination programme for children of HBsAg-positive mothers was high, regardless of HBIg administration. The addition of HBIg did not appear to confer additional benefits, in terms of vertical transmission rate, among infants born to HBeAg-negative mothers. PMID:26778725

  11. The Immune Response Induced by Hepatitis B Virus Principal Antigens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chien-Fu Huang; Shih-Shen Lin; Yung-Chyuan Ho; Fong-Ling Chen; Chi-Chiang Yang

    2006-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection occurs primarily in hepatocytes in the liver with release of infectious virions and non-infectious empty surface antigen particles into the bloodstream. HBV replication is non-cytopathic. Transient infections run a course of several months, and chronic infections are often life-long. Chronic infections can lead to liver failure with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. It is generally accepted that neutralizing anti-HBs antibodies plays a key role in recovery from HBV infection by containing the spread of infection in the infected host and facilitating the removal and destruction of viral particles. However, the immune response initiated by the T-cell response to viral antigens is also important for viral clearance and disease pathogenesis in HBV infection.The three structural forms of the viral proteins, the HBsAg, the particulate HBcAg, and the nonparticulate HBeAg,may preferentially elicit different Th cell subsets. The different IgG subclass profiles of anti-HBs, anti-HBc, and anti-HBe in different HBV infection status were revealed. Moreover, the different IgG subclass profiles in chronic carriers did not change with different ALT and AST levels and may reflect the difference between stimulating antigens, immune response, and the stages of viral disease and provide the basis for the use of vaccines and prophylactic treatments for individuals at high risk of human HBV infection. This review elucidates the detailed understanding of the immune responses induced during transient and persistent infection, and the development of immunotherapy and immunodiagnosis in patients with HBV infection, and possible means of reducing the liver damage.

  12. Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that express hepatitis B virus surface antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geoffrey L.; Mackett, Michael; Moss, Bernard

    1983-04-01

    Potential live vaccines against hepatitis B virus have been produced. The coding sequence for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) has been inserted into the vaccinia virus genome under control of vaccinia virus early promoters. Cells infected with these vaccinia virus recombinants synthesize and excrete HBsAg and vaccinated rabbits rapidly produce antibodies to HBsAg.

  13. Hepatitis B virus prevention strategies for antibody to hepatitis B core antigen-positive liver donation: a survey of North American, European, and Asian-Pacific transplant programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrillo, Robert

    2009-02-01

    Prophylactic therapy is generally used to prevent reactivated hepatitis B after transplantation of an antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc)-positive liver. To gain insight into current practice, a questionnaire was e-mailed to 89 liver transplant physicians in the United States, Europe, and Asia/Australia and 4 hepatitis B experts. Addressees were asked if they prefer lamivudine or other nucleoside analogs and whether these drugs are used indefinitely. They were also questioned about the use of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIg), the preferred duration of its administration, and whether treatment strategies differ according to the knowledge of the serologic status of the recipient. Responses were obtained from 78 physicians. All transplant physicians reported the use of nucleoside analog therapy, and 65% prefer lamivudine (58% versus 81% for US and non-US physicians, P = 0.05). Sixty-one percent use HBIg (38% always, 23% sometimes). HBIg was used more frequently in the United States than other parts of the world (69% versus 46%, P = 0.03). Eighty-one percent of transplant physicians use nucleoside analog therapy for an indefinite period, but the duration of HBIg treatment varies widely. Although some centers omit nucleoside analog or HBIg therapy in antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen-positive recipients, 90% will not omit these agents if the recipient is positive for anti-HBc alone. In conclusion, nucleoside analog therapy is nearly always used for anti-HBc-positive livers, and most transplant physicians treat for an indefinite period. Lamivudine continues to be preferred as first-line therapy. Many programs also use HBIg, but there is wide variation in the way this is administered. Further study is needed to determine the most cost-beneficial regimen. (c) 2009 AASLD.

  14. Evaluation of hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B virus-DNA results in postmortem plasma specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihan Ziyade

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen, one of the serologic markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection, in postmortem blood samples from autopsy cases using ELISA, and to compare the results with those obtained by PCR, which is the gold standard method in assessing HBV infection. Methods: The HBV test results of the blood samples from 880 autopsy cases determined in our laboratory, were retrospectively studied. Results: When compared with the gold standard method PCR, the sensitivity and specificity of postmortem ELISA were 100% and 84.1%, respectively. Conclusions: The increasingly used molecular diagnostic methods, such as PCR, should be used in cases where serological tests remain insufficient.We think that prospective studies on the comparison of ELISA and PCR assessment of postmortem blood samples with larger material should be carried out.

  15. Evaluation of hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B virus-DNA results in postmortem plasma specimens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nihan Ziyade; Sermet Koc; Fatih Abali

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To assess the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen, one of the serologic markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, in postmortem blood samples from autopsy cases using ELISA, and to compare the results with those obtained byPCR, which is the gold standard method in assessingHBV infection. Methods: TheHBV test results of the blood samples from 880 autopsy cases determined in our laboratory, were retrospectively studied. Results:When compared with the gold standard methodPCR, the sensitivity and specificity of postmortemELISA were 100% and 84.1%, respectively. Conclusions: The increasingly used molecular diagnostic methods, such asPCR, should be used in cases where serological tests remain insufficient.We think that prospective studies on the comparison ofELISA andPCR assessment of postmortem blood samples with larger material should be carried out.

  16. The effect of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease on virologic response in patients with hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B treated with nucleoside analogues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梅琴

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD)on virologic response in chronic hepatitis B patients treated with nucleoside analogues.Methods Three hundred and thirty-two treatment-naive patients with hepatitis B e antigen(HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B(CHB)who visited clinic or hospitalized in the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College from January 2007 to December 2009

  17. Effects of entecavir on hepatitis B virus covalently closed circular DNA in hepatitis B e antigen-positive patients with hepatitis B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Shi

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of 48-week entecavir therapy on serum and intrahepatic hepatitis B virus, covalently closed circular DNA (HBV cccDNA levels in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg-positive patients. A total of 120 patients with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis were treated with entecavir for 48 weeks. Serum HBV markers, total HBV DNA, and HBV cccDNA levels were measured at baseline and week 48. Biopsies from 20 patients were available for both intrahepatic total HBV DNA and cccDNA testing at these timepoints. HBV cccDNA levels were decreased from a median level of 5.1×106 copies/mL at baseline to a median level of 2.4×103 copies/mL at week 48. Reduction magnitudes of HBV cccDNA in patients with normalized alanine aminotransferase levels and those undergoing HBeAg seroconversion were significantly greater than those in alanine aminotransferase-abnormal and HBeAg positive patients. Intrahepatic HBV cccDNA was decreased significantly after 48 weeks of treatment, but could not be eradicated. In conclusion, treatment of HBeAg-positive hepatitis B patients with entecavir for 48 weeks decreased serum and intrahepatic HBV cccDNA significantly, and the magnitude of HBV cccDNA reduction was related to total HBV DNA decrease, alanine aminotransferase normalization, and HBeAg seroconversion.

  18. Hepatitis B virus genotype has no impact on hepatitis B e antigen seroconversion after lamivudine treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Henry Lik-Yuen Chan; May-Ling Wong; Alex Yui Hui; Angel Mei-Ling Chim; Ada Mei-Ling Tse; Lawrence Cheung-Tsui Hung; Francis Ka-Leung Chan; Joseph Jao-Yiu Sung

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype and HBeAg seroconversion after nucleotide analogue treatment.METHODS: Chronic hepatitis B patients receiving lamivudine followed up for at least 6 months post-treatment were studied. Consecutive treatment-naive patients who were prospectively followed up in the clinic for at least 18 months were studied as controls. HBeAg seroconversion was defined as loss of HBeAg, appearance of anti-HBe and normalization of alanine aminotransferase for at least 6 months.RESULTS: Thirty-five patients on lamivudine and 96 control patients followed up for 39 (18-49) months were studied.Lamivudine was given for 12 (10-18) months, and patients were followed up for 15 (6-34) months after drug cessation.Genotype B and C HBV were found in 43 and 88 patients and HBeAg seroconversion occurred in 12 (28 %) and 16(18 %) patients, respectively (P=0.30). There was no difference in HBeAg seroconversion between patients infected by genotype B and C HBV in the control (35 % vs 21%, P=0.25) and lamivudine-treated (14 % vs 10 %,P=1.00) groups.CONCLUSION: HBeAg seroconversion after treatment by lamivudine was not influenced by the HBV genotype.

  19. Expression of Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen Gene in Cultured Cells by Using Recombinant Plasmid Vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Aleem

    1983-01-01

    By using a new host-vector system, expression of the gene coding for hepatitis B surface antigen has been studied. A subgenomic fragment of cloned hepatitis B viral DNA was inserted into the plasmid vector pSV010. Transfection of COS cells with the recombinant plasmid vector containing hepatitis sequences leads to the synthesis of hepatitis B surface antigen, which is released in the culture medium in the form of 22-nm particles similar to those found in the sera of hepatitis carriers.

  20. Hepatitis B Vaccination Coverage and Prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Among Children in French Polynesia, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal K; Le Calvez, Evelyne; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Ségalin, Jean-Marc

    2016-06-01

    French Polynesia is considered to be moderately endemic for chronic hepatitis B virus infection, with an estimated 3% of the population having hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). From 1990 to 1992, a 3-dose hepatitis B vaccination series was introduced into the routine infant immunization schedule in French Polynesia, including a birth dose (BD). In 2014, a nationally representative 2-stage cluster survey was undertaken to evaluate the impact of the vaccination program on HBsAg prevalence among school children (∼6 years of age) in Cours Préparatoire (CP). Documented vaccination data were reviewed for all eligible children; children with consent were tested for HBsAg with a rapid point-of-care test. In total, 1,660 students were identified; 1,567 (94%) had vaccination data for review and 1,196 (72%) participated in the serosurvey. Three-dose vaccination coverage was 98%, while timely BD coverage, defined as a dose administered within 24 hours of life, was 89%. Receipt of the second and third doses was often delayed, with 75% and 55% receiving a second and third dose within 1 month of the recommended age, respectively. No children tested positive for HBsAg. French Polynesia's vaccination program has achieved high coverage and an HBsAg seroprevalence of 0% (0-0.5%) among CP school children, but timeliness of vaccination could be improved.

  1. Early hepatitis B surface antigen decline predicts treatment response to entecavir in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng-Yuan; Lai, Hsueh-Chou; Su, Wen-Pang; Lin, Chia-Hsin; Chuang, Po-Heng; Chen, Sheng-Hung; Chen, Ching-Hsiang

    2017-01-01

    Early declines in serum hepatitis B surface (HBsAg) levels, their optimal cutoffs, and association with therapeutic endpoints in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients receiving entecavir treatment remain unclear. We prospectively enrolled 529 patients (195 hepatitis B e antigen [HBeAg]-positive and 334 HBeAg-negative) with a median treatment duration of 49.2 months. Median HBsAg levels declined significantly in both groups at Month 3, but only at Months 6–12 in the HBeAg-negative group. Both groups exhibited a significant HBsAg decline with each successive year of treatment. An HBsAg decline of ≥75% from baseline, assessed at Months 3 and 12 of treatment in the HBeAg-positive and -negative patients, respectively, independently predicted a virological response and HBeAg seroconversion in the HBeAg-positive patients, an HBsAg level of B-infected or C-infected CHB patients receiving entecavir therapy. PMID:28220833

  2. Hepatitis B surface antigen quantity positively correlates with plasma levels of microRNAs differentially expressed in immunological phases of chronic hepatitis B in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Thilde Nordmann; Heiberg, Ida Louise; Bang-Berthelsen, Claus Heiner

    2013-01-01

    Children with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) are at high risk of progressive liver disease. It is suggested that a newly-identified panel of 16 microRNAs is important in the pathogenesis of CHB in children. Subviral hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) particles are produced in large excess over...

  3. A prophylactic approach for bone marrow transplantation from a hepatitis B surface antigen-positive donor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abhasnee Sobhonslidsuk; Artit Ungkanont

    2007-01-01

    It has been accepted that bone marrow transplantation (BMT)is the only curative therapeutic option for certain hematologic malignancies.The southeast Asia region is an endemic area of hepatitis B virus(HBV)infection;thus,BMT using a hepatitis B surface antigen(HBsAg)-positive donor is occasionally unavoidable.Organ transplantation using a HBsAg-positive donor can lead to post-transplantation de novo HBV infection and severe HBV-related hepatitis if no effective prophylactic measures are taken prior to and after transplantation.In this report,a four-level approach was designed for a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia,beginning with a booster HBV vaccination before performing BMT with a HBsAg-positive donor.Prior to BMT,the HBV viral load of the donor was reduced to an undetectable level by antiviral therapy.After BMT,hepatitis B immunoglobulin was administered intramuscularly for 1 wk together with a long-term antiviral drug,lamivudine.One year after discontinuation of lamivudine,the patient is still free of HBV infection.

  4. Quantification of hepatitis B surface antigen: a new concept for the management of chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moucari, Rami; Marcellin, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    HBsAg is a very important clinical test that might not only indicate active hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection but might also be used to predict clinical and treatment outcome. Clearance of HBsAg in patients with chronic HBV infection is associated with a much better clinical outcome, although surveillance for early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) should continue. HBV DNA quantification is currently used for selecting candidates for therapy, monitoring response to therapy and detecting the emergence of drug resistance. Assays for HBsAg quantification are less expensive than HBV DNA and fully automated with a high throughput capacity. HBsAg titering may be a useful tool to manage patients with chronic HBV, to more clearly define which patients may, and more importantly, may not, benefit from treatment. Baseline and on-treatment HBsAg quantification may help to refine future treatment algorithms for both immune-modulator therapy and nucleos(t)ide analogues. Both HBV markers provide complementary information on the status of HBV infection. However, the relevance of serum HBsAg levels and its use as a reliable replacement for both covalently closed circular DNA and HBV DNA remain unclear.

  5. Docking of B-cell epitope antigen to specific hepatitis B antibody

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Rajkannan; E J Padma Malar

    2007-09-01

    The interaction of pres1 region of hepatitis B virus B-cell epitope antigen with specific hepatitis B neutralizing monoclonal antibody was examined by docking study. We modelled the 3D complex structure of B-cell epitope antigen residues CTTPAQGNSMFPSCCCTKPTDGNCY by homology modelling and docked it with the crystal structure of monoclonal antibody specific for the pres1 region of the hepatitis B virus. At the optimized docked conformation, the interactions between the amino acids of antigen and antibody were examined. It is found that the docked complex is stabilized by 59.3 kcal/mol. The stability of the docked antigen-antibody complex is due to hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions. The amino acids of the antigen and antibody responsible for the interaction were identified.

  6. [Consistency analysis on acute hepatitis B inpatients reported by hepatitis B surveillance pilot spots in six provinces of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, N; Zhang, G M; Wang, F Z; Zheng, H; Sun, X J; Ma, X J; Cui, F Q

    2017-02-10

    Objective: To understand the characteristics of acute hepatitis B inpatients reported by the hepatitis B surveillance pilot points and to estimate the consistency between the diagnosed and reported types of hepatitis B by the clinicians involved. Methods: Data related to acute hepatitis B was from the NNDRS and the characteristics of acute hepatitis B were classified by querying Hospital Information System. We recorded the results based on clinical diagnosis and analyzed the consistency between the reported and diagnosed types that the clinicians made, on hepatitis B. Results: A total of 179 patients were included in this study with all of them as acute hepatitis B reported through NNDRS in 2015-2016. In terms of the durations of disease, among the 179 cases who were HBsAg positive, 32.40% (58/179) of them exceeding 6 months, 2.79% (5/179) within 6 months and 64.80% (116/179) tested the first time or never. Among the 179 cases who claimed having the history of hepatitis, 33.52% (60/179) of them identified as having hepatitis B, 1.12% (2/179) were hepatitis A, C or E, 41.34% (74/179) did not have the signs on hepatitis, while the rest 24.02% (43/179) did not know the situation. Only 79.89% (143/179) of the patients showed the symptoms or signs of hepatitis, but the rest 20.11% (36/179) did not. Among the 179 reported acute hepatitis patients, 67 of them were diagnosed as acute hepatitis B while 112 cases were as non-acute hepatitis B. The consistent rate of acute hepatitis B was 37.43% (67/179). Among the 112 cases that were diagnosed as non-acute hepatitis B, proportions of chronic hepatitis B and cirrhosis were 49.11%(55/112) and 16.07%(18/112) respectively. Conclusion: Consistency between the reported type of acute hepatitis B inpatients and the types diagnosed by clinicians was poor. Our results suggested that clinicians should make the accurate diagnosis at first place and then report to the Network in accordance with the clinical diagnosis classification

  7. Early hepatitis B surface antigen decline predicts treatment response to entecavir in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng-Yuan; Lai, Hsueh-Chou; Su, Wen-Pang; Lin, Chia-Hsin; Chuang, Po-Heng; Chen, Sheng-Hung; Chen, Ching-Hsiang

    2017-02-21

    Early declines in serum hepatitis B surface (HBsAg) levels, their optimal cutoffs, and association with therapeutic endpoints in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients receiving entecavir treatment remain unclear. We prospectively enrolled 529 patients (195 hepatitis B e antigen [HBeAg]-positive and 334 HBeAg-negative) with a median treatment duration of 49.2 months. Median HBsAg levels declined significantly in both groups at Month 3, but only at Months 6-12 in the HBeAg-negative group. Both groups exhibited a significant HBsAg decline with each successive year of treatment. An HBsAg decline of ≥75% from baseline, assessed at Months 3 and 12 of treatment in the HBeAg-positive and -negative patients, respectively, independently predicted a virological response and HBeAg seroconversion in the HBeAg-positive patients, an HBsAg level of <100 IU/mL in the HBeAg-negative patients, and HBsAg loss in all the patients during treatment. HBsAg levels of <3,000 IU/mL at baseline combined with an HBsAg decline of ≥75% from baseline provided a predictive algorithm for HBsAg loss (positive and negative predictive values: 70% and 100%, respectively) during 5 years of treatment. The proposed cutoffs for defining an HBsAg decline may assist clinicians in early assessments of treatment responses in genotype B-infected or C-infected CHB patients receiving entecavir therapy.

  8. Hepatitis B core-related antigen levels are associated with response to entecavir and peginterferon add-on therapy in hepatitis Bantigen-positive chronic hepatitis B patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Campenhout, M J H; Brouwer, W P; van Oord, G W; Xie, Q; Zhang, Q; Zhang, N; Guo, S; Tabak, F; Streinu-Cercel, A; Wang, J; Pas, S D; Sonneveld, M J; de Knegt, R J; Boonstra, A; Hansen, B E; Janssen, H L A

    2016-06-01

    Hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg), a new serum marker, may be useful in monitoring chronic hepatitis B infection. HBcrAg was measured in 175 hepatitis B e antigen-positive patients treated with entecavir (ETV) with or without peginterferon (PEG-IFN) add-on therapy. Decline in HBcrAg was stronger in patients with vs. without combined response (ETV: -3.22 vs. -1.71 log U/mL, p HBcrAg was associated with combined response (adjusted odds ratio 0.3, 95% confidence interval 0.2-0.5, p <0.001), but was not superior to quantitative HBsAg (qHBsAg).

  9. Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Antigens in Paraffin-embedded Liver Specimens from the Amazon Region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonetti SRR

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic viscerotomy of paraffin-preserved old specimens, collected in the period from 1934 to 1967, were analyzed by immunohistochemical assays to detect hepatitis B, hepatitis D, dengue and yellow fever virus antigens. The material belongs to the Yellow Fever Collection, Department of Pathology, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and the cases were diagnosed at that time according to clinical aspects and histopathological findings reporting viral hepatitis, yellow fever, focal necrosis and hepatic atrophy. From the 79 specimens, 69 were collected at the Labrea Region and the other 10 in different other localities in the Amazon Region. The five micra thick histological slices were analyzed for the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg by immunoperoxidase technique. An immunofluorescence assay was applied to the detection of hepatitis D, yellow fever and dengue virus antigens. Nine (11.4% histological samples were HBsAg reactive and 5 (6.3% were HBcAg reactive. The oldest reactive sample was from 1934. Viral antigens related to the other pathologies were not detected in this study. Our results confirm that the methodology described may be used to elucidate the aetiology of hepatitis diseases even after a long time of conservation of the specimens.

  10. Determination of hepatitis B surface antigen using magnetic immunoassays in a thin channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, H Y; Chan, J R; Li, Y C; Cheng, F C; Fuh, C Bor

    2010-08-15

    We report novel methods for detection of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) based on competitive and sandwiched magnetic immunoassays using functional magnetic nanoparticles in a thin channel. Magnetic nanoparticles labeled with hepatitis B antibody are flowed through a thin channel to form a predeposition layer for capturing HBsAg. Competitive and sandwiched magnetic immunoassays were studied and detection limit, linear range, and sample selectivity were compared. The detection limits of competitive and sandwiched magnetic immunoassays were found to be 0.26 and 0.25 pg/ml, respectively. The linear range of HBsAg concentration was 0.26 pg/ml-2.6 ng/ml for competitive magnetic immunoassay and was 0.89 pg/ml-8.9 ng/ml for sandwiched magnetic immunoassay. The advantages of these methods over ELISA and other methods for HBsAg detection are lower detection limits and wider linear ranges. The running time was less than 30 min. Competitive magnetic immunoassay was faster than sandwiched magnetic immunoassay for detection of HBsAg. The measurements of HBsAg in serum samples from these methods differed by about 10% from those of ELISA. These methods can provide simple, fast, and sensitive detections of biomarkers and other immunoassay-related samples.

  11. High affinity mouse-human chimeric Fab against Hepatitis B surface antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Biplab Bose; Navin Khanna; Subrat K Acharya; Subrata Sinha

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Passive immunotherapy using antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) has been advocated in certain cases of Hepatitis B infection. We had earlier reported on the cloning and expression of a high affinity scFv derived from a mouse monoclonal (5S) against HBsAg. However this mouse antibody cannot be used for therapeutic purposes as it may elicit anti-mouse immune responses. Chimerization by replacing mouse constant domains with human ones can reduce the immunogenicity of this antibody.METHODS: We cloned the VH and VL genes of this mouse antibody; and fused them with CH1 domain of human IgG1 and CL domain of human kappa chain respectively. These chimeric genes were cloned into a phagemid vector. After initial screening using the phage display system, the chimeric Fab was expressed in soluble form in E. Coli.RESULTS: The chimeric Fab was purified from the bacterial periplasmic extract. We characterized the chimeric Fab using several in vitro techniques and it was observed that the chimeric molecule retained the high affinity and specificity of the original mouse monoclonal.This chimeric antibody fragment was further expressed in different strains of E> coli to increase the yield.CONCLUSION: We have generated a mouse-human chimeric Fab against HBsAg without any significant loss in binding and epitope specificity. This chimeric Fab fragment can be further modified to generate a fulllength chimeric antibody for therapeutic uses.

  12. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amir Houshang Mohammad Alizadeh; Mehrdad Hajilooi; Mitra Ranjbar; Farahnaz Fallahian; Seyed Mohsen Mousavi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the three polymorphism regions within cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) gene, a C/T base exchange in the promoter region-318 (CTLA-4 -318C/T), an A/G substitution in the exon 1 position 49 (CTLA-4 49A/G), a T/C substitution in 1172 (CTLA-4 -1172T/C) in patients with chronic hepatitis B.METHODS: Fifty-one patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection and 150 healthy subjects were recruited sequentially as they presented to the hepatic clinic. Classification of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients was as asymptomatic carrier state (26 patients) and chronic hepatitis B (25 patients). Genomic DNA was isolated from anti-coagulated peripheral blood Buffy coat using Miller's salting-out method. The presence of the CTLA-4 gene polymorphisms was determined using polymerase chain reaction amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS).RESULTS: We observed a significant association between -318 genotypes frequency (T+C-, T+C+, T-C+) and susceptibility to chronic hepatitis B (P=0.012,OR=0.49, 95%CI: 0.206-1.162). However, we did not observe a significant association for +49 genotype frequency (T+C+, T+C- T-C+) and -1172 genotype frequency (C+T+, T+C- C+T-) and state of disease.CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that CTLA-4 gene polymorphisms may partially be involved in the susceptibility to chronic hepatitis B.

  13. Performance evaluation of new automated hepatitis B viral markers in the clinical laboratory: two quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen assays and an HBV core-related antigen assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongjung; Hong, Duck Jin; Shin, Saeam; Cho, Yonggeun; Kim, Hyon-Suk

    2012-05-01

    We evaluated quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen (qHBsAg) assays and a hepatitis B virus (HBV) core-related antigen (HBcrAg) assay. A total of 529 serum samples from patients with hepatitis B were tested. HBsAg levels were determined by using the Elecsys (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN) and Architect (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL) qHBsAg assays. HBcrAg was measured by using Lumipulse HBcrAg assay (Fujirebio, Tokyo, Japan). Serum aminotransferases and HBV DNA were respectively quantified by using the Hitachi 7600 analyzer (Hitachi High-Technologies, Tokyo, Japan) and the Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan test (Roche). Precision of the qHBsAg and HBcrAg assays was assessed, and linearity of the qHBsAg assays was verified. All assays showed good precision performance with coefficients of variation between 4.5% and 5.3% except for some levels. Both qHBsAg assays showed linearity from 0.1 to 12,000.0 IU/mL and correlated well (r = 0.9934). HBsAg levels correlated with HBV DNA (r = 0.3373) and with HBcrAg (r = 0.5164), and HBcrAg also correlated with HBV DNA (r = 0.5198; P HBcrAg assays.

  14. Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection: The Relation between Hepatitis B Antigen Expression, Telomere Length, Senescence, Inflammation and Fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaedra M Tachtatzis

    Full Text Available Chronic Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection can lead to the development of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. We hypothesized that HBV might accelerate hepatocyte ageing and investigated the effect of HBV on hepatocyte cell cycle state and biological age. We also investigated the relation between inflammation, fibrosis and cell cycle phase.Liver samples from patients with chronic HBV (n = 91, normal liver (n = 55 and regenerating liver (n = 15 were studied. Immunohistochemistry for cell cycle phase markers and HBV antigens was used to determine host cell cycle phase. Hepatocyte-specific telomere length was evaluated by quantitative fluorescent in-situ hybridization (Q-FISH in conjunction with hepatocyte nuclear area and HBV antigen expression. The effects of induced cell cycle arrest and induced cellular senescence on HBV production were assessed in vitro.13.7% hepatocytes in chronic HBV had entered cell cycle, but expression of markers for S, G2 and M phase was low compared with regenerating liver. Hepatocyte p21 expression was increased (10.9% in chronic HBV and correlated with liver fibrosis. Mean telomere length was reduced in chronic HBV compared to normal. However, within HBV-affected livers, hepatocytes expressing HBV antigens had longer telomeres. Telomere length declined and hepatocyte nuclear size increased as HBV core antigen (HBcAg expression shifted from the nucleus to cytoplasm. Nuclear co-expression of HBcAg and p21 was not observed. Cell cycle arrest induced in vitro was associated with increased HBV production, in contrast to in vitro induction of cellular senescence, which had no effect.Chronic HBV infection was associated with hepatocyte G1 cell cycle arrest and accelerated hepatocyte ageing, implying that HBV induced cellular senescence. However, HBV replication was confined to biologically younger hepatocytes. Changes in the cellular location of HBcAg may be related to the onset of cellular senescence.

  15. Expression of Human Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen Gene in Transgenic Tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉乐; 王晋芳; 邱并生; 赵淑珍; 田波

    1994-01-01

    Expression of Human hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) gene in plant was reported for the first time. The recombinant plasmid pRoKⅡ-HBsAg was constructed by inserting HBsAg gene into the downstream of CaMV 35S promoter of binary vector pRoKⅡ and then introduced into Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404. The kanamycin-resistant plants were obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system. It was shown that HBsAg gene was expressed in transgenic tobacco plants and their progenies by ELISA. The spherical particles of ψ 22 nm in the leaf extract of trangenic tobacco were observed by immunosorbent electron microscopy.

  16. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in blood donors from Bombay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoskar, A; Ray, V

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of serum samples from 3104 blood donors from Bombay screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) by ELISA. HBsAg was detected in 4.7% of the subjects. Relatives showed a significantly higher prevalence of HBsAg than volunteer donors. There was no significant association between HBsAg positivity and a particular blood group.

  17. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Honiara Solomon Islands, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getahun, Aneley; Baekalia, Margaret; Panda, Nixon; Lee, Alice; Puiahi, Elliot; Khan, Sabiha; Tahani, Donald; Manongi, Doris

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Honiara, Solomon Islands. METHODS This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in seven area health centers in Honiara. From March to June 2015, identification of eligible pregnant women in each site was conducted using systematic random sampling technique. A total of 243 pregnant women who gave written informed consent were enrolled. Standardized tool was used to record demographics, obstetric history and serology results. HBsAg and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) were tested using point-of-care rapid diagnostic test. All HBsAg positive samples were verified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS The mean age of participants was 26 ± 6 years. The overall hepatitis HBsAg prevalence was 13.8% with higher rate (22%) reported in women between 30-34 years of age. Majority of HBsAg positive participants were Melanesians (29 out for 33). None of the pregnant women in the 15-19 years and ≥ 40 years tested positive for HBsAg. There was no statistically significant difference in HBsAg prevalence by age, ethnicity, education and residential location. The overall HBeAg seroprevalence was 36.7%. Women between 20-24 years of age had the highest rate of 54.5%. Low level of knowledge about hepatitis B vaccination was reputed. Overall, 54.6% of participants were not aware of their hepatitis B vaccination status and only 65.2% of mothers reported their child had been vaccinated. CONCLUSION Hepatitis B is a disease of public health importance in Solomon Islands and emphasize the need for integrated preventative interventions for its control. PMID:28008343

  18. Preliminary report of hepatitis B virus genotype prevalence in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed-Moayed Alavian; Hossein Keyvani; Mahdi Rezai; Neda Ashayeri; Homa Mohammad Sadeghi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes in Iranian hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers, chronic hepatitis B and cirrhotic patients.METIHODS: A total of 109 HBsAg-positive patients were included in this study. HBV genotypes were determined by using INNO-LiPA methodology which is based on the reverse hybridization principle.RESULTS: The distribution of patients with different stages of liver disease was as follows: 95 (86.4%) chronic hepatitis, 11 (10%) liver cirrhosis, and 3 (2.7%)inactive carrier. Of the chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis patients, 26.4% were HBeAg-positive while 70% were HBeAg-negative. Genotype D was the only detected type found in all patients. CONCLUSION: Classifying HBV into genotypes has to be cost-effective and clinically relevant. Our study indicates that HBV genotype D prevails in the Mediterranean area, Near and Middle East, and South Asia. Continued efforts for understanding HBV genotype through international co-operation will reveal further virological differences of the genotypes and their clinical relevance.

  19. An immunodominant HLA-A*1101-restricted CD8+ T-cell response targeting hepatitis B surface antigen in chronic hepatitis B patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoling; Wang, Wenbo; Wang, Shufeng; Meng, Gang; Zhang, Mengjun; Ni, Bing; Wu, Yuzhang; Wang, Li

    2013-12-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a worldwide public health problem. HBV-specific CD8(+) CTLs are vital for viral clearance. Identification of immunodominant CTL epitopes from HBV-associated antigens is necessary for therapeutic vaccine development. We showed that the HLA-A*1101 allele is one of the most common alleles in both healthy individuals and chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients in the Chongqing area, China. However, less than 10% of epitopes of HBV-associated antigens have been identified in an HLA-A*1101 context. Here, we describe an immunodominant CD8(+) T-cell response targeting a hepatitis B surface antigen determinant (HBs(295-304)) restricted by HLA-A*1101 in both healthy individuals and CHB patients. Moreover, HBs(295-304) is more immunogenic for CTL induction than a known naturally HLA-A*1101-processed epitope from hepatitis B core antigen (HBc(88-96)). Therefore, the newly identified epitope, HBs(295-304), will benefit the development of immunotherapeutic approaches for HBV infection.

  20. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen among refugees entering the United States between 2006 and 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, David B; Lesesne, Sarah B; O'Fallon, Ann; Weinbaum, Cindy M

    2010-02-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) testing to identify chronic hepatitis B virus infection for foreign-born persons from countries or regions with HBsAg prevalence of >or=2%. However, limited data exist to indicate which countries meet this definition. To address this data gap, we estimated the HBsAg prevalence among refugees entering the United States between 2006 and 2008. We contacted state refugee health coordinators and asked them to report the number of refugees, country of origin, and HBsAg prevalence among refugees screened in their jurisdiction during the most recently available 12-month period prior to August 2008. We pooled data across jurisdictions and calculated the prevalence for any country with more than 30 refugees entering the United States, and where this level of data was not available by country, continents were considered. Of the 47 jurisdictions contacted, we received basic information from 31, with nine jurisdictions reporting HBsAg prevalence by country of origin applicable to 31,980 refugees (approximately 42% of refugees entering the United States during the observation period). We estimated an HBsAg prevalence of 2.8% (95% confidence interval 2.6%-3.0%) for refugees overall. Of the 37 countries with 30 or more refugees entering the United States, 25 had a prevalence of >or=2%. Prevalence was highest among refugees from Africa and Southeast Asia, and lowest among refugees from the Middle East and South/Central America. In the eight countries for which we had comparison data, six had lower HBsAg prevalence than in 1991.

  1. Detection of hepatitis B surface antigen subtype adr in an epidemic of papular acrodermatitis of childhood (Gianotti's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanzaki,Susumu

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Papular acrodermatitis of childhood (PAC has recently been reported to be associated with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg subtype ayw. Between September, 1978, and June, 1979, we saw 14 patients with PAC in a small epidemic occurring in Iwakuni City, Japan. HBsAg was detected in sera from all patients. Subtyping of HBsAg in 11 patients showed that 8 had a determinant adr and 3 had no detectable determinant because of low antigen titers. The result suggests that factors other than the specific HBsAg subtype contribute to the development of PAC.

  2. Detection of hepatitis B surface antigen subtype adr in an epidemic of papular acrodermatitis of childhood (Gianotti's disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzaki, S; Kanda, S; Terada, K; Nohno, S; Kumano, K; Narahara, K; Hayashi, H; Kimoto, H

    1981-12-01

    Papular acrodermatitis of childhood (PAC) has recently been reported to be associated with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) subtype ayw. Between September, 1978, and June, 1979, we saw 14 patients with PAC in a small epidemic occurring in Iwakuni City, Japan. HBsAg was detected in sera from all patients. Subtyping of HBsAg in 11 patients showed that 8 had a determinant adr and 3 had no detectable determinant because of low antigen titers. The result suggests that factors other than the specific HBsAg subtype contribute to the development of PAC.

  3. Long-Term Outcome of Sequential Therapy with Lamivudine Followed by Interferon-β in Nucleoside-Naive, Hepatitis B e-Antigen-Positive Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Genotype C Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Masaru; Nishiguchi, Shuhei; Tamori, Akihiro; Kozuka, Ritsuzo; Hayashi, Takehiro; Kohmoto, Madoka Toyama; Jomura, Hisato; Morikawa, Hiroyasu; Murakami, Yoshiki; Shiomi, Susumu; Kawada, Norifumi

    2015-08-01

    It is unclear whether the combination of a nucleos(t)ide analog and interferon (IFN) is superior to monotherapy for treating chronic hepatitis B. In this study, we report the long-term outcomes of sequential therapy using lamivudine followed by IFN-β. This study included 24 hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg)-positive patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype C infection who were treated with lamivudine alone for 16-32 weeks, then with both IFN-β and lamivudine for 4 weeks, and finally with IFN-β alone for 20 weeks. All patients were followed up for 7.1±2.8 years post-treatment. The rate of response, defined as transaminase normalization, HBeAg loss, and HBV DNA genotype C infection at 24 weeks post-treatment. In the majority of the short-term responders, however, the response was sustainable in the long term.

  4. Predictive value of interferon-gamma inducible protein 10 kD for hepatitis B e antigen clearance and hepatitis B surface antigen decline during pegylated interferon alpha therapy in chronic hepatitis B patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yadong; Zhao, Caiyan; Zhang, Li; Yu, Weiyan; Shen, Chuan; Wang, Wei; Zhen, Zhen; Zhou, Junying

    2014-03-01

    Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is an immune-mediated infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). No ideal immunological markers are available at present. In this study, the expression level of interferon-gamma inducible protein 10 kD (IP-10) in chronic asymptomatic HBV carriers (AsC), patients with CHB, and patients with HBV-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) was detected. Serum IP-10 level changes were evaluated during the pre-, on- and post-treatment periods for CHB patients receiving Peg IFN-α therapy. The correlation between the IP-10 level and the inflammation activity (IA) score, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level, HBV DNA load, and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) quantification were also evaluated. The IP-10 expression gradually increased from AsC to patients with CHB and was highest in patients with ACLF. Serum IP-10 levels were positively correlated with the hepatic IA score and ALT level, but negatively with the HBV DNA load and HBsAg quantification. The CHB patients achieved hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) clearance or HBsAg decline >1 log10 IU/ml had higher pre-treatment IP-10 levels and more obvious on-treatment reduction of the IP-10 level than did patients with HBeAg persistent-positive or HBsAg decline <1 log10 IU/ml. Multivariate logistic-regression analysis revealed that the serum IP-10 level was an independent predictor of HBeAg clearance and HBsAg decline. In conclusion, IP-10 expression distinctly varies at different clinical stages of HBV infection. Higher pre-treatment serum IP-10 expression and dynamic down-regulation might be associated with an increased probability of HBeAg clearance and HBsAg decline in CHB patients during Peg IFN-α therapy.

  5. Better Efforts Could Help Rid the U.S. of Hepatitis B, C: Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Better Efforts Could Help Rid the U.S. of Hepatitis B, C: Report Plus, 90,000 fewer deaths would ... Improved prevention, screening and treatment could help eliminate hepatitis B and C as serious public health problems in ...

  6. Immunofluorescent Staining for the Detection of the Hepatitis B Core Antigen in Frozen Liver Sections of Human Liver Chimeric Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allweiss, Lena; Lütgehetmann, Marc; Dandri, Maura

    2017-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the causative agent for chronic hepatitis B infection, which affects an estimate of 240 million people worldwide and puts them at risk of developing terminal liver disease. The life cycle of the virus and its interactions with the host immune system are still incompletely understood, and currently available treatment options rarely achieve a cure. Therefore, basic research and new drug development are needed. One parameter for measuring the intrahepatic activity of the virus is monitoring the production of the HBV core antigen (HBcAg), which not only serves as the main structural protein of its nucleocapsid but is also recruited to the covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), the nuclear HBV genome responsible for infection persistence. Here, we report a sensitive immunofluorescence staining method to detect HBcAg in cryopreserved liver sections. The method combines conventional immunofluorescence staining procedures with the Tyramide Signal Amplification (TSA) system.

  7. A novel hepatitis B virus mutant with A-to-G at nt551 in the surface antigen gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Biao Chen; De-Xing Fang; Fa-Qing Li; Hui-Ying Jing; Wei-Guo Tan; Su-Qin Li

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) mutant of hepatitisB virus (HBV) is one of the important factors that result inimmune escape and cause failure of immunization. In thisstudy we reported and characterized a novel HBV mutantwith A-to-G at nt551 and intended to provide theoreticaldata for prevention of HBV infection in China.METHODS: A methodology comprising polymerase chainreaction (PCR) amplifying, M13 bacteriophage cloning andnucleotide sequencing was used to analyze the sera of thepediatric patient who was hepatitis B (HB) immune failure.Expression plasmids containing the mutant S gene and awild-type (adr) S gene were constructed respectively andthe recombinant HBsAg were expressed in COS-7 cells underthe regulation of SV40 early promoter. The recombinantproteins were investigated for their immunological reactivitywith different monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against 'a'determinant and vaccine-raised human neutralizingantibodies.RESULTS: It was found that there was a new point mutationat nt551 of the HBV (adr) genome from A to G, leading to asubstitution of methionine (Met) to valine (Val) at position133 in the 'a' determinant of HBsAg. Compared to the wild-type HBsAg, the binding activity of the muant HBsAg tomAbs (A6, A11 and S17) and to vaccine-raised human anti-hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) decreased significantly.CONCLUSION: According to the facts that the patient hasbeen immunized with HB vaccine and that the serum is anti-HBs positive and HBsAg negative, and based on thenucleotide sequence analysis of the mutant HBV S geneand its alteration of antigenicity, the HBV is considered tobe a new vaccine-induced immune escape mutant differentfrom the known ones.

  8. The prevalence of hepatitis B virus E antigen among Ghanaian blood donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufai, Tanko; Mutocheluh, Mohamed; Kwarteng, Kwaku; Dogbe, Elliot

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B viral infection is an important clinical problem due to its worldwide distribution and potential of adverse sequelae, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We studied the prevalence of hepatitis B virus ‘e’ antigen (HBeAg) among individuals determined to be hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen-positive and analyzed the gender/age category associated with more active HBV infection and whether alteration in the levels of alanine aminotransferase could be associated with HBeAg positivity. A total of 150 prospective blood donors who tested positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) at the blood transfusion center of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hosptital (KATH), Kumasi were randomly selected for the study. The serum samples were further tested for HBsAg and HBeAg using a lateral flow immunochromatographic assay. Twenty (20) individuals were found to be HBeAg-positive giving an overall prevalence of 13.3%, of which 18 (15.5%) were males and 2 (5.9%) were females. Our results also revealed that the prevalence of HBeAg was higher in patients between the age group of 10-20 years and appeared to decrease with increase in age. There was no statistical difference between the HBeAg positive and negative individuals with respect to alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. We show for the first time that approximately 1/10 of HBV-infected individuals are HBeAg positive in the Ashanti Region of Ghana, suggestive of active viral replication and liver-cell infectivity thereby contributing to an increased HBV-transmission pool within the Ghanaian population. PMID:25018803

  9. Cationic Lipid-Formulated DNA Vaccine against Hepatitis B Virus : Immunogenicity of MIDGE-Th1 Vectors Encoding Small and Large Surface Antigen in Comparison to a Licensed Protein Vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endmann, Anne; Klunder, Katharina; Kapp, Kerstin; Riede, Oliver; Oswald, Detlef; Talman, Eduard G.; Schroff, Matthias; Kleuss, Christiane; Ruiters, Marcel H. J.; Juhls, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Currently marketed vaccines against hepatitis B virus (HBV) based on the small (S) hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) fail to induce a protective immune response in about 10% of vaccinees. DNA vaccination and the inclusion of PreS1 and PreS2 domains of HBsAg have been reported to represent feasible

  10. Prediction of Response to Immune Modifying Therapy for Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B using Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Rijckborst (Vincent)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe treatment of chronic hepatitis B has greatly improved with the introduction of potent nucleos(t)ide analogues with a high barrier to resistance and peginterferon. The advantages and limitations of both treatment options should be considered when a patient has an indication to initiat

  11. Recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen production in Aspergillus niger: evaluating the strategy of gene fusion to native glucoamylase

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    James, ER

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbiology and Biotechnology October 2012/ Vol. 96, No.2 Recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen production in Aspergillus niger: evaluating the strategy of gene fusion to native glucoamylase ER James a,c & WH van Zyl b & PJ van Zyl c & JF Görgens..., Pretoria 0001, South Africa Abstract This study demonstrates the potential of Aspergillus niger as a candidate expression system for virus- like particle production using gene fusion. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) production, targeted...

  12. Postvaccination seroconversion against the surface antigen of Hepatitis B virus, in nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Amanda Mera-Urbano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the status of seroconversion after vaccination against the surface antigen of hepatitis B virus in nursing students, University of Cauca. Methods: Cross sectional study in students of V and VI semester. The sample was taken from 37 students, 15 of V and 22 of VI semester. The instrument used was a survey that included 11 questions of multiple selections. Records for weight, height and laboratory results were collected; blood samples for antibody titers were performed with informed consent. The data were tabulated and analyzed using SPSS, version 17.0. Results: 89.2% of students had levels of antibodies to the surface antigen. This value was greater than 10 mUI/ml, considered by the scientific community as a protector value of Hepatitis B. 10.8% of had lesser values. Regarding vaccination scheme, 24% had a dose, 19% two, 48% three and 8% had a one dose. The population with 3 doses and reinforcement seroconverted by 100%. Conclusion: This study demonstrated failings in the scheme of vaccination of the students of nursing and that 10.8 % presented lower values than 10 mIU/ml. It is necessary to apply the institutional rules with more strength as a preventive measure for hepatitis B.

  13. Overexpression of Hepatitis B Virus-binding Protein, Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen 1, Extends Retention of Hepatitis B Virus in Mouse Liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Bin XIA; Xi-Gu CHEN

    2006-01-01

    How receptors mediate the entry of hepatitis B virus (HBV) into the target liver cells is poorly understood. Recently, human squamous cell carcinoma antigen 1 (SCCA1) has been found to mediate binding and internalization of HBV to liver-derived cell lines in vitro. In this report, we investigate if SCCA1 is able to function as an HBV receptor and mediate HBV entry into mouse liver. SCCA1 transgene under the control of Rous sarcoma virus promoter was constructed in a minicircle DNA vector that was delivered to NOD/SCID mouse liver using the hydrodynamic technique. Subsequently, HBV-positive human serum was injected intravenously. We demonstrated that approximately 30% of the mouse liver cells expressed a high level of recombined SCCA1 protein for at least 37 d. The HBV surface antigen was found to persist in mouse liver for up to 17 d. Furthermore, HBV genome also persisted in mouse liver, as determined by polymerase chain reaction, for up to 17 d, and in mouse circulation for 7 d. These results suggest that SCAA1 might serve as an HBV receptor or co-receptor and play an important role in mediating HBV entry into hepatocytes, although its role in human HBV infection remains to be determined.

  14. Clinical significance of hepatitis B e antigen level measurement during long-term lamivudine therapy in chronic hepatitis B patients with e antigen positive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jung Woo Shin; Neung Hwa Park; Seok Won Jung; Byung Chul Kim; Sung Ho Kwon; Jae Serk Park; In Du Jeong; Sung-Jo Bang; Do Ha Kim

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the changes of quantitative hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) that predicts early detection of nonresponse or breakthrough to long-term lamivudine (LAM)therapy.METHODS: Among HBeAg positive chronic hepatitis B patients who failed to achieve HBeAg seroconversion within 12 mo, we retrospectively analyzed 220 patients who had received LAM more than 24 mo.RESULTS: The mean duration of LAM therapy was 36(range, 24-72) mo. HBeAg seroconversion after the first 12 mo of LAM therapy was achieved in 53 (24.1%)patients. Viral breakthrough was observed in 105 (47.7%)patients. To find out whether the changing patterns of HBeAg levels can predict the outcome of LAM therapy,we analyzed the reduction rates of HBeAg levels during LAM therapy. Using the decrease more than 90% of pretreatment HBeAg levels, the sensitivity and specificity of response were 96.2% and 70.1%, respectively.Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the reduction patterns of the decrease of quantitative HBeAg: decrescendo, decrescendo-crescendo, no change or fluctuating groups. The optimal time to predict nonresponse or breakthrough was the first 9 mo of therapy.At 9 mo of therapy, 49 (92.5%) of 53 patients who had achieved HBeAg seroconversion were included in the decrescendo group. On the contrary, in the no change or fluctuating group, only four (7.5%) had achieved HBeAg seroconversion. Among patients who did not show the continuous decrease of HBeAg levels at 9 mo, 95.2%(negative predictive value) failed to achieve HBeAg seroconversion.CONCLUSION: Almost all patients who failed to show a continuous decrease of HBeAg levels at 9 mo of LAM therapy were non-response or breakthrough. Therefore,monitoring changes of HBeAg levels during LAM therapy in HBeAg positive chronic hepatitis B may be valuable for identifying patients who are at high risk of non-response or breakthrough.

  15. Hepatitis delta virus: protein composition of delta antigen and its hepatitis B virus-derived envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonino, F; Heermann, K H; Rizzetto, M; Gerlich, W H

    1986-01-01

    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV)-associated particles were purified from the serum of an experimentally infected chimpanzee by size chromatography and by density centrifugation. Hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) was detected after mild detergent treatment at a column elution volume corresponding to 36-nm particles and banded at a density of 1.25 g/ml. The serum had an estimated titer of 10(9) to 10(10) HDV-associated particles and had only a 10-fold excess of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) not associated with HDAg. Therefore, HDV appears to be much more efficiently packed and secreted than is its helper virus, hepatitis B virus (HBV), which is usually accompanied by a 1,000-fold excess of HBsAg. The protein compositions of the HDAg-containing particles were analyzed by immunoblotting with HDAg-, HBsAg-, and hepatitis B core antigen-specific antisera and monoclonal antibodies to HBV surface gene products. The HBsAg envelope of HDAg contained approximately 95% P24/GP27s, 5% GP33/36s, and 1% P39/GP42s proteins. This protein composition was more similar to that of the 22-nm particles of HBsAg than to that of complete HBV. The significant amount of GP33/36s suggests that the HBsAg component of the HDV-associated particle carries the albumin receptor. Two proteins of 27 and 29 kilodaltons which specifically bound antibody to HDAg but not HBV-specific antibodies were detected in the interior of the 36-nm particle. Since these proteins were structural components of HDAg and were most likely coded for by HDV, they were designated P27d and P29d. Images PMID:3701932

  16. Transplacentally acquired maternal antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen in infants and its influence on the response to hepatitis B vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqun Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Passively acquired maternal antibodies in infants may inhibit active immune responses to vaccines. Whether maternal antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs in infants may influence the long-term immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Totally 338 pairs of mothers and children were enrolled. All infants were routinely vaccinated against hepatitis B based on 0-, 1- and 6-month schedule. We characterized the transplacental transfer of maternal anti-HBs, and compared anti-HBs response in children of mothers with or without anti-HBs. In a prospective observation, all 63 anti-HBs positive mothers transferred anti-HBs to their infants; 84.1% of the infants had higher anti-HBs concentrations than their mothers. One and half years after vaccination with three doses of hepatitis B vaccine, the positive rate and geometric mean concentration (GMC of anti-HBs in 32 infants with maternal anti-HBs were comparable with those in 32 infants without maternal antibody (90.6% vs 87.5%, P = 0.688, and 74.5 vs 73.5 mIU/ml, P = 0.742, respectively. In a retrospective analysis, five and half years after vaccination with three doses vaccine, the positive rates of anti-HBs in 88 children of mothers with anti-HBs ≥1000 mIU/ml, 94 children of mothers with anti-HBs 10-999 mIU/ml, and 61 children of mothers with anti-HBs <10 mIU/ml were 72.7%, 69.2%, and 63.9% (P = 0.521, respectively; anti-HBs GMC in these three groups were 38.9, 43.9, and 31.7 mIU/ml (P = 0.726, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data demonstrate that maternal anti-HBs in infants, even at high concentrations, does not inhibit the long-term immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine. Thus, current hepatitis B vaccination schedule for infants will be still effective in the future when most infants are positive for maternal anti-HBs due to the massive vaccination against hepatitis B.

  17. Intrahepatic distribution of hepatitis B virus antigens in patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaie, Parham; Poongkunran, Mugilan; Kuang, Ping-Ping; Javaid, Asad; Jacobs, Carl; Pohlmann, Rebecca; Nasser, Imad; Lau, Daryl TY

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To study the intrahepatic expression of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) in chronic hepatitis B patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODS: A total of 33 chronic hepatitis B patients (mean age of 40.3 ± 2.5 years), comprising of 14 HBeAg positive and 19 HBeAg negative patients; and 13 patients with hepatitis B virus related hepatocellular carcinoma (mean age of 49.6 ± 4.7 years), were included in our study. Immunohistochemical staining for HBcAg and HBsAg was done using standard streptavidin-biotin-immunoperoxidase technique on paraffin-embedded liver biopsies. The HBcAg and HBsAg staining distributions and patterns were described according to a modified classification system. RESULTS: Compared to the HBeAg negative patients, the HBeAg positive patients were younger, had higher mean HBV DNA and alanine transaminases levels. All the HBeAg positive patients had intrahepatic HBcAg staining; predominantly with “diffuse” distribution (79%) and “mixed cytoplasmic/nuclear” pattern (79%). In comparison, only 5% of the HBeAg-negative patients had intrahepatic HBcAg staining. However, the intrahepatic HBsAg staining has wider distribution among the HBeAg negative patients, namely; majority of the HBeAg negative cases had “patchy” HBsAg distribution compared to “rare” distribution among the HBeAg positive cases. All but one patient with HCC were HBeAg negative with either undetectable HBV DNA or very low level of viremia. Intrahepatic HBcAg and HBsAg were seen in 13 (100%) and 10 (77%) of the HCC patients respectively. Interestingly, among the 9 HCC patients on anti-viral therapy with suppressed HBV DNA, HBcAg and HBsAg were detected in tumor tissues but not the adjacent liver in 4 (44%) and 1 (11%) patient respectively. CONCLUSION: Isolated intrahepatic HBcAg and HBsAg can be present in tumors of patients with suppressed HBV DNA on antiviral therapy; that may predispose them to cancer development

  18. Enhancement of antibody production to hepatitis B surface antigen by anti-idiotypic antibody.

    OpenAIRE

    Kakumu, S; Murase, K.; A Tsubouchi; Yoshioka, K.; Sakamoto, N.

    1986-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine whether anti-idiotypic antibody (anti-Id) against antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) could modulate in vitro anti-HBs production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with pokeweed mitogen. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients positive for serum anti-HBs produced significantly increased amounts of anti-HBs by the addition of IgG fraction of anti-anti-HBs as well as purified HBsAg in a soluble form when compared ...

  19. Poly-ϵ-caprolactone/chitosan nanoparticles provide strong adjuvant effect for hepatitis B antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Sandra; Soares, Edna; Borchard, Gerrit; Borges, Olga

    2017-10-01

    This work aims to investigate the adjuvant effect of poly-ϵ-caprolactone/chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and the plasmid DNA encoding HBsAg (pRC/CMV-HBs). Both antigens were adsorbed onto preformed NPs. Vaccination studies were performed in C57BL/6 mice. Transfection efficiency was investigated in A549 cell line. HBsAg-adsorbed NPs generated strong anti-HBsAg IgG titers, mainly of IgG1 isotype, and induced antigen-specific IFN-γ and IL-17 secretion by spleen cells. The addition of pRC/CMV-HBs to the HBsAg-adsorbed NPs inhibited IL-17 secretion but had minor effect on IFN-γ levels. Lastly, pRC/CMV-HBs-loaded NPs generated a weak serum antibody response. Poly-ϵ-caprolactone/chitosan NPs provide a strong humoral adjuvant effect for HBsAg and induce a Th1/Th17-mediated cellular immune responses worth explore for hepatitis B virus vaccination.

  20. [Quantification of the hepatitis B surface antigen in the characterization and follow-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Manuel; González-Diéguez, María Luisa

    2014-07-01

    The recent availability of commercial techniques for the quantification of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) has revived interest in this antigen. In recent years, the antigen's potential as a biomarker of the natural history of the disease and its response to antiviral treatment has been assessed. HBsAg serum values reflect the transcriptional activity of cccDNA; reading these values could therefore complement the reading of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in the categorization of the various phases of chronic HBV infection. During its natural history, HBsAg values progressively decrease from the immune-tolerant phase to the inactive carrier phase. For patients who are HBeAg-negative, the combined reading of HBV DNA and HBsAg can be useful for differentiating inactive carriers from patients with chronic HBeAg-negative hepatitis, for stratifying the risk of developing hepatocarcinoma and for predicting HBsAg clearance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  1. T cell responses to hepatitis B surface antigen are detectable in non-vaccinated individuals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin R Weihrauch; Michael von Bergwelt-Baildon; Milos Kandic; Martin Weskott; Winfried Klamp; Joachim R(o)sier; Joachim L Schultze

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate, whether humoral hepatitis-B-vaccine non-responders also fail to mount a T cell response and to compare these results to normal vaccinees.METHODS: Fourty-seven health care employees were enrolled in this study including all available nonresponders (n = 13) with an anti-HBsAg titer 1000 kU/L as controls.PBMC from all subjects were analyzed by IFN-γ and IL-4 ELISPOT assays for the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) reactive T cells.RESULTS: Non-responders and low-responders had no or only very limited T cell responses, respectively.Individuals responding to vaccination with the induction of a high anti-HBsAg titer showed a strong T cell response after the third vaccination.Surprisingly, these individuals showed response even before the first vaccination.T cell response to control antigens and mitogens was similar in all groups.CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that there is no general immune deficiency in non-/low-responders.Thus,we hypothesize that the induction of anti-HBsAg responses by vaccination is significantly dependent on the pre-existing T cell repertoire against the specific antigen rather than the presence of a general T cell defect.

  2. Prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen in US-Born and Foreign-Born Asian/Pacific Islander College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quang, Yen N.; Vu, Joanne; Yuk, Jihey; Li, Chin-Shang; Chen, Moon; Bowlus, Christopher L.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B (HBV) among college-age US-born Asian and Pacific Islanders (A/PI) is not well known. Objectives: To compare the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seropositivity in US-born to A/PI-born students at a public university. Participants: Undergraduate who self-identified themselves as A/PI. Results:…

  3. Prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen in US-Born and Foreign-Born Asian/Pacific Islander College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quang, Yen N.; Vu, Joanne; Yuk, Jihey; Li, Chin-Shang; Chen, Moon; Bowlus, Christopher L.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B (HBV) among college-age US-born Asian and Pacific Islanders (A/PI) is not well known. Objectives: To compare the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seropositivity in US-born to A/PI-born students at a public university. Participants: Undergraduate who self-identified themselves as A/PI. Results:…

  4. Role of quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen in predicting inactive carriers and HBsAg seroclearance in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungtrakul, Teerapat; Sriprayoon, Tassanee; Kusuman, Pattama; Chunnuan, Pitchayachuda; Soonklang, Kamonwan; Sornsamdang, Gaidganok; Auewarakul, Chirayu U.; Tanwandee, Tawesak

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen (qHBsAg) as a diagnostic marker for inactive carriers (ICs) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroclearance in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. We retrospectively studied 300 HBeAg-negative CHB patients with initial serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) levels <2000 IU/mL. Serum HBV DNA and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were monitored every 6 months for 24 months. ICs were identified as having persistent HBV DNA levels <2000 IU/mL and normal ALT levels, whereas active carriers (ACs) were identified as having HBV DNA levels ≥2000 IU/mL, with or without elevated ALT levels. The serum qHBsAg level was defined at baseline and evaluated as a diagnostic predictor using a receiver-operating characteristic curve. The study group comprised 134 men and 166 women with a median age of 41.5 years. At baseline, 200 ICs displayed lower levels of qHBsAg (1492 IU/mL) compared with 100 ACs (2936 IU/mL) (P = 0.005). The qHBsAg level was independently associated with the IC state and HBsAg seroclearance. Baseline qHBsAg levels <1000 IU/mL and HBV DNA levels <2000 IU/mL, when detected simultaneously, allowed for identification of ICs with 41% sensitivity and 72% specificity. Fifteen patients (5%) displayed HBsAg seroclearance after 24 months. A qHBsAg cutoff value of <50 IU/mL provided 100% sensitivity and 92% specificity in predicting HBsAg seroclearance. The qHBsAg level at a single timepoint among HBeAg-negative CHB patients with low HBV DNA levels at baseline was not a predictive marker for ICs; however, it accurately predicted spontaneous HBsAg seroclearance at 24 months. PMID:28353619

  5. Isolated antibody to hepatitis B core antigen in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed Helmy; Mohammed Ibrahim Al-Sebayel

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of isolated anti-HBc in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection,and its relation to disease severity.METHODS: We screened all patients with chronic HCV infection referred to King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (antiHBs), and anti-HBc. One hundred and sixty nine patients who tested negative for both HBsAg and anti-HBs were included in this study.RESULTS: Pathologically, 59 had biopsy-proven cirrhosis and 110 had chronic active hepatitis (CAH). Of these 169 patients, 85 (50.3%) tested positive for anti-HBc.Patients with CAH had significantly higher prevalence of isolated anti-HBc than patients with cirrhosis, 71 (64.5%)and 14 (23.7%) respectively (P < 0.001). Twenty-five patients were tested for HBV DNA by qualitative PCR.The test was positive in 3 of them (12%; occult HBV infection).CONCLUSION: Isolated anti-HBc alone is common in Saudi patients with chronic HCV infection, and is significantly more common in those with CAH than those with cirrhosis. Therefore, a screening strategy that only tests for HBsAg and anti-HBs in these patients will miss a large number of individuals with isolated anti-HBc, who may be potentially infectious.

  6. Immuno disc assay for screening duck hepatitis B surface antigen in serum, liver tissue and cultured hepatocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. de Wilde (G.); R.A. Heijtink

    1993-01-01

    textabstractAn immuno disc assay (IDA) for semi-quantitative analysis of the surface antigen (DHBsAg) of duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) is described. Unpurified antigen preparations were adsorbed onto punched-out nitrocellulose membrane discs. Rabbit antiserum raised against serum-derived

  7. Hepatitis B vaccination coverage and risk factors associated with incomplete vaccination of children born to hepatitis B surface antigen-positive mothers, Denmark, 2006 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunoee, Asja; Nielsen, Jens; Cowan, Susan

    2016-01-01

    In Denmark, universal screening of pregnant women for hepatitis B has been in place since November 2005, with the first two years as a trial period with enhanced surveillance. It is unknown what the change to universal screening without enhanced surveillance has meant for vaccination coverage among children born to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive mothers and what risk factors exist for incomplete vaccination. This retrospective cohort study included 699 children of mothers positive for HBsAg. Information on vaccination and risk factors was collected from central registers. In total, 93% (651/699) of the children were vaccinated within 48 hours of birth, with considerable variation between birthplaces. Only 64% (306/475) of the children had received all four vaccinations through their general practitioner (GP) at the age of two years, and 10% (47/475) of the children had received no hepatitis B vaccinations at all. Enhanced surveillance was correlated positively with coverage of birth vaccination but not with coverage at the GP. No or few prenatal examinations were a risk factor for incomplete vaccination at the GP. Maternity wards and GPs are encouraged to revise their vaccination procedures and routines for pregnant women, mothers with chronic HBV infection and their children.

  8. Biotin avidin amplified magnetic immunoassay for hepatitis B surface antigen detection using GoldMag nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, An; Geng, Tingting; Fu, Qiang; Chen, Chao; Cui, Yali

    2007-04-01

    Using GoldMag (Fe3O4/Au) nanoparticles as a carrier, a biotin-avidin amplified ELISA was developed to detect hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). A specific antibody was labeled with biotin and then used to detect the antigen with an antibody coated on GoldMag nanoparticles by a sandwich ELISA assay. The results showed that 5 mol of biotin were surface bound per mole of antibody. The biotin-avidin amplified ELISA assay has a higher sensitivity than that of the direct ELISA assay. There is 5-fold difference between HBsAg positive and negative serum even at dilution of 1:10000, and the relative standard deviation of the parallel positive serum at dilution of 1:4000 is 5.98% (n=11).

  9. Long-term real-world entecavir therapy in treatment-naïve hepatitis B patients: base-line hepatitis B virus DNA and hepatitis B surface antigen levels predict virologic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ju-Yeon; Sohn, Won; Sinn, Dong-Hyun; Gwak, Geum-Youn; Paik, Yong-Han; Choi, Moon Seok; Koh, Kwang Cheol; Paik, Seung Woon; Yoo, Byung Chul; Lee, Joon Hyeok

    2017-07-01

    Entecavir is a potent nucleoside analogue with high efficacy and barrier for resistance. We aimed to investigate the long-term efficacy and viral resistance rate of entecavir and explore the factors associated with virologic response, including quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen (qHBsAg) levels. One thousand and nine treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients were evaluated for cumulative rates of virologic response, biochemical response, and entecavir mutations. The role of baseline qHBsAg for virologic response was assessed in 271 patients with qHBsAg prior to entecavir treatment. The median duration of entecavir treatment was 26.5 months. The cumulative rate of virologic response at years 1, 3, and 5 were 79.0%, 95.6%, and 99.4%, respectively. The cumulative rate of entecavir resistance was 1.0% and 2.1% in years 3 and 5. Multivariate analysis identified baseline hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) negative status (p < 0.001) and lower hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA (p < 0.001) as predictors of virologic response. Lower qHBsAg was an independent predictor of virologic response in patients with baseline qHBsAg. There were no serious adverse events during treatment. Long-term entecavir treatment of nucleos(t)ide-naïve CHB patients was associated with an excellent virologic response and a low rate of entecavir-resistant mutations at 5 years. Baseline HBV DNA load, qHBsAg levels, and HBeAg status were predictors of virologic response during entecavir treatment.

  10. Multicenter Evaluation of the Elecsys Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Quantitative Assay ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacher, B. J.; Moriconi, F.; Bowden, S.; Hammond, R.; Louisirirotchanakul, S.; Phisalprapa, P.; Tanwandee, T.; Wursthorn, K.; Brunetto, M. R.; Wedemeyer, H.; Bonino, F.

    2011-01-01

    The Elecsys hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) II quantitative assay is a new quantitative electrochemiluminescence immunoassay which uses onboard dilution and a simple algorithm to determine HBsAg levels expressed in international units (IU)/ml (standardized against the World Health Organization [WHO] Second International Standard). This study evaluated its performance using routine serum samples from a wide range of HBsAg carriers and patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). HBsAg levels were measured in serum samples collected independently by five centers in Europe, Australia, and Asia. Serial dilution analyses were performed to assess the recommended dilution algorithm and determine the assay range free of hook effect. Assay precision was also established. Following assessment of serial dilutions (1:100 to 1:1,000,000) of the 611 samples analyzed, 70.0% and 85.6% of samples tested with analyzers incorporating 1:100 (Elecsys 2010 and cobas e 411) and 1:400 (Modular Analytics E170) onboard dilution, respectively, fell within the linear range of the assay, providing a final result on the first test. No high-dose hook effect was seen up to the maximum HBsAg serum level tested (870,000 IU/ml) using the dilution algorithm. HBsAg levels were reliably determined across all hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes, phases of HBV infection, and stages of disease tested. Precision was high across all analyzers (% coefficient of variation [CV], 1.4 to 9.6; HBsAg concentrations, 0.1 to 37,300 IU/ml). The Elecsys HBsAg II quantitative assay accurately and reliably quantifies HBsAg in routine clinical samples. Onboard dilution minimizes retesting and reduces the potential for error. PMID:21880853

  11. Multicenter evaluation of the Elecsys hepatitis B surface antigen quantitative assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacher, B J; Moriconi, F; Bowden, S; Hammond, R; Louisirirotchanakul, S; Phisalprapa, P; Tanwandee, T; Wursthorn, K; Brunetto, M R; Wedemeyer, H; Bonino, F

    2011-11-01

    The Elecsys hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) II quantitative assay is a new quantitative electrochemiluminescence immunoassay which uses onboard dilution and a simple algorithm to determine HBsAg levels expressed in international units (IU)/ml (standardized against the World Health Organization [WHO] Second International Standard). This study evaluated its performance using routine serum samples from a wide range of HBsAg carriers and patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). HBsAg levels were measured in serum samples collected independently by five centers in Europe, Australia, and Asia. Serial dilution analyses were performed to assess the recommended dilution algorithm and determine the assay range free of hook effect. Assay precision was also established. Following assessment of serial dilutions (1:100 to 1:1,000,000) of the 611 samples analyzed, 70.0% and 85.6% of samples tested with analyzers incorporating 1:100 (Elecsys 2010 and cobas e 411) and 1:400 (Modular Analytics E170) onboard dilution, respectively, fell within the linear range of the assay, providing a final result on the first test. No high-dose hook effect was seen up to the maximum HBsAg serum level tested (870,000 IU/ml) using the dilution algorithm. HBsAg levels were reliably determined across all hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes, phases of HBV infection, and stages of disease tested. Precision was high across all analyzers (% coefficient of variation [CV], 1.4 to 9.6; HBsAg concentrations, 0.1 to 37,300 IU/ml). The Elecsys HBsAg II quantitative assay accurately and reliably quantifies HBsAg in routine clinical samples. Onboard dilution minimizes retesting and reduces the potential for error.

  12. Maternal ABO and rhesus blood group phenotypes and hepatitis B surface antigen carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, T T; Sahota, D S; Chung, M-K; Cheung, T K W; Cheng, Y K Y; Leung, T Y

    2014-11-01

    In view of a persistently high prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriage in our obstetric population, we examined the association between HBsAg carriage with maternal ABO and rhesus (Rh) blood group phenotypes determined at routine antenatal screening. In a retrospective study, the antenatal screening results of women booked for confinement between 1998 and 2011 in our hospital were examined for the relationship between HBsAg carriage with the ABO and rhesus blood groups, taking into account also the effects of advanced maternal age (≥ 35 years) and parity status (nulliparous or multiparous), and year of birth before or following the availability of the hepatitis B vaccine (1984). HBsAg carriage was found in 9.9%, 9.6%, 9.1% and 10.2% (P = 0.037) for group-A (n = 20 581 or 26.1%), -B (n = 20 744 or 26.4%), -AB (n = 5138 or 6.5%) and -O (n = 32 242 or 41.0%) among the 78705 women in the study cohort. Rhesus negativity was found in 0.6%, and HBsAg carriage was 12.3% and 9.8%, respectively, for the Rh-negative and Rh-positive women (P = 0.071). Carriage rate between group-O and non-O was influenced by nulliparity, age ≥ 35 years and Rh-positive status. Regression analysis indicated that group-B (P = 0.044, aOR = 1.062, 95% CI 1.002-1.127) and group-AB (P = 0.016, aOR = 1.134, 95% CI 1.024-1.256) were associated with HBsAg carriage. Blood groups-B and -AB are associated with increased hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in our population, and further studies are warranted to elucidate the implications of this on the sequelae of HBV infection.

  13. Liver grafts from hepatitis B surface antigen-positive donors: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loggi, Elisabetta; Conti, Fabio; Cucchetti, Alessandro; Ercolani, Giorgio; Pinna, Antonio Daniele; Andreone, Pietro

    2016-09-21

    The scarcity of available organs and the gap between supply and demand continue to be the main limitations of liver transplantation. To relieve the organ shortage, current transplant strategies have implemented extended criteria, which include the use of liver from patients with signs of past or present hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. While the use of liver grafts from donors with evidence of past HBV infection is quite limited, some data have been collected regarding the feasibility of transplanting a liver graft from a hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive donor. The aim of the present work was to review the literature regarding liver transplants from HBsAg-positive donors. A total of 17 studies were identified by a search in Medline. To date, HBsAg positive grafts have preferentially been allocated to HBsAg positive recipients. The large majority of these patients continue to be HBsAg positive despite the use of immunoglobulin, and infection prevention can only be guaranteed by using antiviral prophylaxis. Although serological persistence is evident, no significant HBV-related disease has been observed, except in patients coinfected with delta virus. Consistently less data are available for HBsAg negative recipients, although they are mostly promising. HBsAg-positive grafts could be an additional organ source for liver transplantation, provided that the risk of reinfection/reactivation is properly prevented.

  14. [Validation of a ultramicroELISA for detecting antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, L; Balmaseda, A; Bravo, J; Trujillo, J; Martínez, L; Ochoa, R; Díaz, M; Laferté, J; Ramos, F

    1996-01-01

    The results of a validation study of the ultramicroanalitical assay for the detection of antibodies against the hepatitis B surface antigen (UMELISA anti-HBsAg), which was carried out by comparing the results obtained with the Hepanostika anti-HBsAg, commercial diagnosis kit are presented. For this purpose, sera from the clinical assays of the Cuban recombinant vaccine against hepatitis B were used. With the first sera group (n = 30) it was obtained, 93.1% of sensitivity, 98.5% of specificity and a concordance of 94.3%. The correlation coefficient showed a similar trend of the results (p 0.05). With the second group (n = 100), whose assays were carried out at the "Pedro Kouri" Institute of Tropical Medicine (PKI) and at the Immunoassay Center (IAC) simultaneously, it was observed a sensitivity of 96.25% in both centers, a specificity of 75% at the PKI and of 90% at the IAC, and a coincidence of 92% and 95%, respectively. The correlation coefficient presented similar values and there were no significant differences between the TPG obtained by the two methods (p > 0.05). The results attained show in general the validity of the new assay and the feasibility to put it into practice either for following up the infection, or for carrying out clinical assays of vaccine evaluations.

  15. Analysis of precore/core covariances associated with viral kinetics and genotypes in hepatitis B e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Pei Cheng

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV is one of the most common DNA viruses that can cause aggressive hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although many people are persistently infected with HBV, the kinetics in serum levels of viral loads and the host immune responses vary from person to person. HBV precore/core open reading frame (ORF encoding proteins, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg and core antigen (HBcAg, are two indicators of active viral replication. The aim of this study was to discover a variety of amino acid covariances in responses to viral kinetics, seroconversion and genotypes during the course of HBV infection. A one year follow-up study was conducted with a total number of 1,694 clones from 23 HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients. Serum alanine aminotransferase, HBV DNA and HBeAg levels were measured monthly as criteria for clustering patients into several different subgroups. Monthly derived multiple precore/core ORFs were directly sequenced and translated into amino acid sequences. For each subgroup, time-dependent covariances were identified from their time-varying sequences over the entire follow-up period. The fluctuating, wavering, HBeAg-nonseroconversion and genotype C subgroups showed greater degrees of covariances than the stationary, declining, HBeAg-seroconversion and genotype B. Referring to literature, mutation hotspots within our identified covariances were associated with the infection process. Remarkably, hotspots were predominant in genotype C. Moreover, covariances were also identified at early stage (spanning from baseline to a peak of serum HBV DNA in order to determine the intersections with aforementioned time-dependent covariances. Preserved covariances, namely representative covariances, of each subgroup are visually presented using a tree-based structure. Our results suggested that identified covariances were strongly associated with viral kinetics, seroconversion and genotypes. Moreover

  16. [Study on expression of Fas/FasL and HBV antigens in liver tissue of patients with hepatitis B].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Hu, J; Zhu, K

    2001-03-01

    To evaluate the role of apoptosis mediated by Fas/FasL in the liver of hepatitis B and the expression status of Fas, FasL, and HBV antigens. We studied the expression of Fas antigen, Fas-ligand (FasL) and hepatitis B virus(HBV) antigens(HBsAg and HBcAg) in the livers of 62 patients with hepatitis B using immunohistochemistry ABC method. Six normal liver samples were used as control. Hepatocytes in normal liver had no Fas/FasL expression, but in the cases of hepatitis B, Fas was expressed mainly in the cytoplasm in 58 cases(93.5%); FasL was observed in infiltrating mononuclear cells and in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes in 37 cases (59.7%). The expressions of Fas/FasL were closely related to the liver histological inflammation degrees. The apoptosis mediated by Fas/FasL may play an important role in the hepatocellular injury in hepatitis B. No correlation was found between the degrees of Fas/FasL expression and the presence of HBsAg and HBcAg in the liver.

  17. Expression and characterization of hepatitis C virus core protein fused to hepatitis B virus core antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨莉; 王春林; 汪垣; 李光地

    1999-01-01

    Recombinant plasmids were constructed by fusing the gene fragments encoding the full-length (1-191aa) and the truncated (1-40aa and 1-69aa) HCV core proteins (HCc) respectively to the core gene of HBV at the position of amino acid 144 and expressed in E. coli. The products were analyzed by ELISA, Western blotting as well as the immunization of the mice. The results showed that those fusion proteins (B144C191, B144C69, B144C40) possessed the dual antigenicity and immunogenicity of both hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) and hepatitis C virus core protein (HCc). Analysis by electron microscopy and CsCl density gradient ultra-centrifugation revealed that similar to the HBcAg itself, all fusion proteins were able to form particles. Comparison of the antigenicity and immunogenicity of those fusion proteins showed that the length of HCc gene fused to HBeAg had no much effect on the antigenicity and immunogenicity of HBcAg, however, B144C69 and B144C40 induced higher titres antibodies against HCc than B14d

  18. Virological pattern of hepatitis B infection in an HIV-positive man with fatal fulminant hepatitis B: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagaglio Sabrina

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction There seem to be no published data concerning the clinical impact of populations of hepatitis B virus (HBV in the hepatic and extrahepatic compartments of HIV-infected people with severe acute hepatitis. Case presentation A 26-year-old Caucasian man presenting to our hospital with clinical symptoms suggesting acute hepatitis was found to have an acute hepatitis B profile upon admission. He developed fatal fulminant hepatitis and was found to be heavily immunocompromised due to HIV-1 infection. He had a high plasma HBV and HIV load, and analysis of the partial pre-S1/pre-S2 domain showed the presence of mixed infection with D and F genotypes. Analysis of the point mutations within this region revealed the presence of HBV strains with amino acid substitutions at the immunodominant epitopes involved in B or T cell recognition. A homogeneous population of a pre-core mutant strain harbouring the A1896G and A1899G affecting HBeAg expression was invariably found in the liver tissue, plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells despite active HBeAg secretion; it was the dominant strain in the liver only, and was characterised by the presence of two point mutations in the direct repeat 1 domain involved in HBV replication activity. Taken together, these mutations are indicative of a highly replicative virus capable of evading immune responses. Conclusion This case report provides clinical evidence of a possible association between the rapid spread of highly replicative escape mutants and the development of fulminant hepatitis in a heavily immunocompromised patient. Virological surveillance of severe acute hepatitis B may be important in establishing an early treatment strategy involving antiviral drugs capable of preventing liver failure, especially in individuals for whom liver transplantation is not accepted as a standard indication.

  19. Acute hepatitis B in a healthcare worker: A case report of genuine vaccination failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, H.J.; Van Der Waaij, L.A.; Schirm, J.; Kallenberg, Cees; van Steenbergen, J.; Wolters, B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Individuals who reach the antibody threshold level of 10 IU/I against the surface protein of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) after completion of a series of hepatitis B vaccination are considered to be long-term protected against a clinically manifest HBV infection. Case report: Here we

  20. Acute hepatitis B in a healthcare worker : A case report of genuine vaccination failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, Hein J.; van der Waaij, Laurens A.; Schirm, Jurien; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.; van Steenbergen, Jim; Wolters, Bert

    Background: Individuals who reach the antibody threshold level of 10 IU/I against the surface protein of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) after completion of a series of hepatitis B vaccination are considered to be long-term protected against a clinically manifest HBV infection. Case report: Here we

  1. Acute hepatitis B in a healthcare worker : A case report of genuine vaccination failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, Hein J.; van der Waaij, Laurens A.; Schirm, Jurien; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.; van Steenbergen, Jim; Wolters, Bert

    2009-01-01

    Background: Individuals who reach the antibody threshold level of 10 IU/I against the surface protein of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) after completion of a series of hepatitis B vaccination are considered to be long-term protected against a clinically manifest HBV infection. Case report: Here we desc

  2. Acute hepatitis B in a healthcare worker: A case report of genuine vaccination failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, H.J.; Van Der Waaij, L.A.; Schirm, J.; Kallenberg, Cees; van Steenbergen, J.; Wolters, B.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Individuals who reach the antibody threshold level of 10 IU/I against the surface protein of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) after completion of a series of hepatitis B vaccination are considered to be long-term protected against a clinically manifest HBV infection. Case report: Here we desc

  3. Acute hepatitis B in a healthcare worker : A case report of genuine vaccination failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, Hein J.; van der Waaij, Laurens A.; Schirm, Jurien; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.; van Steenbergen, Jim; Wolters, Bert

    2009-01-01

    Background: Individuals who reach the antibody threshold level of 10 IU/I against the surface protein of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) after completion of a series of hepatitis B vaccination are considered to be long-term protected against a clinically manifest HBV infection. Case report: Here we desc

  4. Expression of hepatitis B surface antigen gene (HBsAg) in Laminaria japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyta)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A transformation model for Laminaria japonica was established from 1993 to 1998, on the basis of which the transgenic kelp with heterologous gene encoding hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was obtained by using the micro- particle bombardment transformation method. Results of quantitative ELISA showed that HBsAg in transgenic kelp was 0.529 μg/mg soluble proteins on average and the highest value was 2.497 μg/mg, implying that recombinant HBsAg had natural epitope. Further support for the integration of HBsAg gene into kelp genome was obtained by PCR- Southern and total DNA hybridization. Prospect of kelp bioreactor producing high value materials such as edible HBV vaccine was discussed as well.

  5. Biodegradable polylactide microspheres enhance specific immune response induced by Hepatitis B surface antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shaohui; Wei, Qiang; Liang, Zhenglun; Ma, Guanghui; Wang, Lianyan; An, Wenqi; Ma, Xiaowei; Fang, Xin; He, Peng; Li, Hemin; Hu, Zhongyu

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B (HB) infection caused by Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most common liver disease in the world. HB vaccine, when administered in conjunction with alum adjuvants, induces Th2 immunity that confers protection against HBV. However, currently available vaccine formulations and adjuvants do not elicit adequate Th1 and CTL responses that are important for prevention of maternal transmission of the virus. Microspheres synthesized from poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) or poly (D, L-lactide) (PLA) polymers have been considered as promising tools for in vivo delivery of antigens and drugs. Here we describe PLA microspheres synthesized by premix membrane emulsification method and their application in formulating a new microsphere based HB vaccine. To evaluate the immunogenicity of this microsphere vaccine, BALB/c mice were immunized with microsphere vaccine and a series of immunological assays were conducted. Results of Enzyme-linked ImmunoSpot (ELISPOT) assays revealed that the number of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-producing splenocytes and CD8(+) T cells increased significantly in the microsphere vaccine group. Microsphere vaccine group showed enhanced specific cell lysis when compared with HB surface antigen (HBsAg) only group in (51)Cr cytotoxicity assays. Moreover, microsphere vaccine elicited a comparable level of antibody production as that of HB vaccine administered with alum adjuvant. We show that phagocytosis of HBsAg by dendritic cells is more pronounced in microsphere vaccine group when compared with other control groups. These results clearly demonstrate the potential of using PLA microspheres as effective HB vaccine adjuvants for an enhanced Th1 immune response.

  6. Enteric trimethyl chitosan nanoparticles containing hepatitis B surface antigen for oral delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadian, Asma; Dounighi, Naser Mohammadpour; Avadi, Mohammadreza

    2015-01-01

    Oral vaccination is the preferred route of immunization. However, the degradative condition of the gastrointestinal tract and the higher molecular size of peptides pose major challenges in developing an effective oral vaccination system. One of the most excellent methods used in the development of oral vaccine delivery system relies on the entrapment of the antigen in polymeric nanoparticles. In this work, trimethyl chitosan (TMC) nanoparticles were fabricated using ionic gelation teqnique by interaction hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP), a pH-sensitive polymer, with TMC and the utility of the particles in the oral delivery of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was evaluated employing solutions that simulated gastric and intestinal conditions. The particle size, morphology, zeta potential, loading capacity, loading efficiency, in vitro release behavior, structure, and morphology of nanoparticles were evaluated, and the activity of the loaded antigen was assessed. Size of the optimized TMC/HPMCP nanoparticles and that of the antigen-loaded nanoparticles were 85 nm and 158 nm, respectively. Optimum loading capacity (76.75%) and loading efficiency (86.29%) were achieved at 300 µg/mL concentration of the antigen. SEM images revealed a spherical shape as well as a smooth and near-homogenous surface of nanoparticles. Results of the in vitro release studies showed that formulation with HPMCP improved the acid stability of the TMC nanoparticles as well as their capability to preserve the loaded HBsAg from gastric destruction. The antigen showed good activity both before and after loading. The results suggest that TMC/HPMCP nanoparticles could be used in the oral delivery of HBsAg vaccine.

  7. PreS deletion mutations of hepatitis B virus in chronically infected patients with simultaneous seropositivity for hepatitis-B surface antigen and anti-HBS antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiangyan; Qin, Yanghua; Zhang, Peng; Tang, Gusheng; Shi, Qingfen; Xu, Jun; Qi, Falian; Shen, Qian

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HBs antibodies (anti-HBs) may coexist in certain chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. This study was designed to further explore the relationship between this coexistence and hepatitis B Virus (HBV) preS deletions. Sera of 28 patients carrying both HBsAg and anti-HBs (Group I) and those of another 28 HBsAg positive but anti-HBs negative patients (Group II) were collected from CHB patients. Direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction products or sequencing of clones was applied to both groups to determine sequences of HBV preS and S genes. Genotyping of the S gene indicated that all sampled HBVs were either Genosubtype Ba or Genosubtype Ce. Seven samples in Group I harbored HBV preS deletion mutations. Three of the seven samples showed large deletion mutations in 3' terminus of preS1 and co-existence of the mutant type and the full-length wild type, and the remaining four samples showed deletion mutations in 5' terminus of preS2. All mutant strains were found to be genosubtype Ce. Only two samples in Group I showed G145R/A mutation. Only one sample in Group II contained preS deletion mutation. It is therefore concluded that HBV preS deletion mutations are likely to be related to the coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HBs in CHB patients (P-value = 0.024). Some immune reactions may select for the preS deletion in CHB patients with anti-HBs, the possible marker for immune selection.

  8. Yeast expressing hepatitis B virus surface antigen determinants on its surface: Implications for a possible oral vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, M.P.; Deen, C.; Boersma, W.J.A.; Pouwels, P.H.; Klis, F.M.

    1996-01-01

    The two major hydrophilic regions of the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) have been expressed in the outer mannoprotein layer of the cell wall of 'Bakers Yeast', Saccharomyces cerevisiae, by fusing them between the yeast invertase signal sequence and the yeast α-agglutinin carboxyterminal c

  9. The Expression of Sperm Membrane Peptide-Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Fusion Protein with Recombinant Vaccinia Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓鸣; 赵峰; 严缘昌; 李光地; 汪垣

    1998-01-01

    A synthetic oligonucleotide, HSD-2a, encoding a peptide segment of the extracellular domain of a human sperm membrane protein, YWK-Ⅱ, was fused with hepatitis B surface antigen gene (HBs gene). The fused gene was then cloned to pUC18 plasmid.

  10. Measurement of the hepatitis B core-related antigen is valuable for predicting the pathological status of liver tissues in chronic hepatitis B patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhan-Qing; Lu, Wei; Wang, Yan-Bing; Weng, Qi-Cheng; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Yang, Zhi-Qiang; Feng, Yan-Ling

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the validities of serum hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) for predicting the pathological status of liver tissues of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). A total of 205 Chinese patients with CHB, including 121 HBeAg-positive and 84 HBeAg-negative patients, were enrolled in this study. In HBeAg-positive patients, AUCs of serum HBcrAg for predicting severe necro-inflammation and advanced fibrosis were greater than 0.70; using serum HBcrAgHBcrAg for predicting significant necro-inflammation and significant fibrosis were greater than 0.70; using serum HBcrAg>=1.70×10(2)kUmL(-1) and >=4.02kUmL(-1) as cutoffs, the sensitivities, specificities, accuracies for predicting significant necro-inflammation and significant fibrosis were 0.929, 0.964, 0.952 and 1.000, 1.000, 1.000, respectively. These results indicated favorable performances of serum HBcrAg for predicting severe necro-inflammation and advanced fibrosis in HBeAg-positive patients and significant necro-inflammation and significant fibrosis in negative patients.

  11. Association between CISH polymorphisms and spontaneous clearance of hepatitis B virus in hepatitis B extracellular antigen-positive patients during immune active phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Guangjun; Rao Huiying; Feng Bo; Wei Lai

    2014-01-01

    Background Some hepatitis B extracellular antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients in their immune active phase can clear the virus spontaneously and enter into an inactive hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrier state,indicating a benign prognosis.In this study,the association between cytokine-inducibie SRC homology 2 domain protein (C/SH) gene polymorphisms at-292 (rs414171) and the spontaneous clearance of HBV in HBeAg-positive CHB patients in immune the active phase was investigated.Methods Seventy HBeAg-positive CHB patients in the immune active phase were followed up for 76 weeks without antiviral therapy.The alanine transaminase,aspartate transaminase,HBV DNA,HBeAg and hepatitis B extracellular antibody levels were tested regularly.At week 76,27 patients were classified into group A (HBV DNA level below 2 104 IU/ml and the value of HBeAg declined below 10% of the baseline at week 76),and 43 patients were classified into group B (HBV DNA level higher than 2×104 IU/ml or the value of HBeAg did not decline substantially at week 76).CISH (rs414171) polymorphisms were also tested using the iPLEX system.Results The HBV DNA levels at week 12 were significantly greater in group B compared with group A (group A:(6.87±1.40) log10IU/ml; group B:(7.61±1.38) log10IU/ml,P=0.034) and the HBeAg values were greater in group B at week 28 compared with group A (P=0.001).The differences in HBV DNA and HBeAg values increased between the groups over time.Sixteen patients in group A and 11 in group B were genotype AA.Those with genotype AT or TT included 11 in group A and 31 in group B (AA vs.AT and TT,odds ratio 4.10 (95% confidence interval:1.462-11.491),P=0.006).Conclusion CISH gene polymorphisms at-292 (rs414171) are associated with HBV clearance in HBeAg-positive CHB patients in the immune active phase,and AA is a favorable genotype for this effect.

  12. PRISM hepatitis B surface antigen detection of hepatits B virus minipool nucleic acid testing yield samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linauts, Sandy; Saldanha, John; Strong, D Michael

    2008-07-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) residual risk has been estimated at 1:63,000-1:205,000 and introduction of more sensitive serological tests and nucleic acid testing (NAT) would reduce that risk. Sensitivity of the recently licensed Abbott PRISM hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) CLIA and minipool (MP) HBV NAT has been described as comparable and thus the need for HBV NAT has not been compelling. In this study, eight samples identified as yield samples with MP HBV NAT were tested using the PRISM test. Seven samples were identified using the Roche COBAS AmpliScreen HBV test and one additional sample was obtained from the clinical trial for the Roche cobas TaqScreen MPX test. Each of these samples was reactive by MP HBV NAT and nonreactive for HBsAg using one of three licensed enzyme immunoassay (EIA) tests. After licensure of the PRISM HBsAg, aliquots were tested with this assay, and DNA quantitation and genotyping were repeated where sample volume permitted. Three samples (2000, 2300, and 61,000 copies/mL) produced reactive results with PRISM. Four samples with viral loads less than 300 copies per mL produced nonreactive results. One sample, originally quantitated at 37,000 copies per mL (but 3850 copies/mL in repeat testing) was also nonreactive by PRISM. Genotyping of this sample indicated a type C genotype with no mutations. Adding serological sensitivity of PRISM CLIA reduced the NAT yield from the original 1: 385,555 to 1:610,488. However, MP HBV NAT still provides additional sensitivity over CLIA, even for a donation with a viral load of almost 4000 copies per mL.

  13. [Fundamental and clinical evaluation of hepatitis B virus core-related antigen assay by LUMIPULSE f].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasuhito; Takagi, Kazumi; Hiramatsu, Kumiko; Naganuma, Hatsue; Iida, Takayasu; Takasaka, Yoshimitsu; Mizokami, Masashi

    2006-07-01

    A sensitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) has been developed for hepatitis B virus (HBV) core-related antigens (HBcrAg) detection. The HBcrAg is designated as the precore/core gene products including HBeAg. The aim of this study is to evaluate reproducibility of HBcrAg and correlation with HBV-DNA in serum using the automatic LUMIPULSE f to estimate an assay suitable for general laboratory use. In this study, we demonstrated that HBcrAg assay had highly intra-assay reproducible [coefficients of variation(CVs); 2.8-5.2%] and inter-assay reproducible [CVs; 3.9-9.1%]. When the cutoff value was tentatively set at 1 kU/ml, all healthy controls (HBsAg/HBV-DNA negative; n=100) and anti-HCV antibody-positive (n=50) sera were identified as negative. The assay showed a detection limit of 0.5 kU/ml using four serially diluted HBV high-titer sera, indicating higher sensitivity than HBV-DNA (transcription-mediated amplification). The HBcrAg concentration correlated positively with serum HBV-DNA (n=125, r = 0.860, p HBcrAg levels were higher in HBeAg-positive group than in HBeAg-negative group. In the natural course of HBV infection, the HBcrAg concentration usually changed in accordance with HBV-DNA levels, however during lamivudine therapy the change of HBcrAg was more gradual than that of HBV-DNA. In conclusion, HBcrAg concentration provides a reflection of HBV virus load equivalent to HBV-DNA level, and the assay therefore offers a simple method for monitoring hepatitis B patients.

  14. Hepatitis B virus e antigen induces activation of rat hepatic stellate cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zan, Yanlu [Center for Molecular Virology, CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Yuxia, E-mail: yzhang@wehi.edu.au [Center for Molecular Virology, CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Tien, Po, E-mail: tienpo@sun.im.ac.cn [Center for Molecular Virology, CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2013-06-07

    Highlights: •HBeAg expression in HSCs induced production of ECM protein and liver fibrotic markers. •The activation and proliferation of HSCs were mediated by TGF-β. •HBeAg protein purified from cell medium directly activated HSCs. -- Abstract: Chronic hepatitis B virus infection is a major cause of hepatic fibrosis, leading to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg) is an accessory protein of HBV, not required for viral replication but important for natural infection in vivo. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the major producers of excessive extracellular matrix during liver fibrogenesis. Therefore, we examined the influence of HBeAg on HSCs. The rat HSC line HSC-T6 was transfected with HBeAg plasmids, and expression of α-smooth muscle actin, collagen I, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β), and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR. The proliferation of HSCs was determined by MTS analysis. HBeAg transduction induced up-regulation of these fibrogenic genes and proliferation of HSCs. We found that HBeAg induced TGF-β secretion in HSCs, and the activation of HSCs was prevented by a neutralizing anti-TGF-β antibody. Depletion and addition of HBeAg protein in conditioned medium from HSC-T6 cells transduced with HBeAg indicated that HBeAg directly induced the activation and proliferation of rat primary HSCs. Taken together, HBeAg induces the activation and proliferation of HSCs, mainly mediated by TGF-β, and HBeAg protein purified from cell medium can directly activate HSCs.

  15. Sensitive enzyme immunoassay for hepatitis B virus core-related antigens and their correlation to virus load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tatsuji; Rokuhara, Akinori; Sakamoto, Yoko; Yagi, Shintaro; Tanaka, Eiji; Kiyosawa, Kendo; Maki, Noboru

    2002-02-01

    A sensitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) specific for hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) was developed. We designated the precore/core gene products as hepatitis B virus (HBV) core-related antigens (HBcrAg). In order to detect HBcrAg even in anti-HBc/e antibody-positive specimens, the specimens were pretreated in detergents. The antibodies are inactivated by this pretreatment and, simultaneously, the antigens are released and the epitopes are exposed. The assay demonstrated 71 to 112% recovery using HBcrAg-positive sera. We observed no interference from the tested anticoagulants or blood components. When the cutoff value was tentatively set at 10(3) U/ml, all healthy control (HBsAg/HBV-DNA negative; n = 108) and anti-HCV antibody-positive (n = 59) sera were identified as negative. The assay showed a detection limit of 4 x 10(2) U/ml using recombinant antigen. Detection limits were compared in four serially diluted HBV high-titer sera. The HBcrAg assay demonstrated higher sensitivity than HBV-DNA transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) or HBeAg radio immunoassay (RIA) in the dilution test. HBcrAg concentrations correlated well with HBV-DNA TMA (r = 0.91, n = 29) and in-house real-time detection-PCR (r = 0.93, n = 47) in hepatitis B patients. On HBeAg/anti-HBe antibody seroconversion panels, the HBcrAg concentration changed in accordance with HBV-DNA levels. HBcrAg concentration provides a reflection of HBV virus load equivalent to HBV-DNA level, and the assay therefore offers a simple method for monitoring hepatitis B patients.

  16. Should antibody to hepatitis B core antigen be tested in routine screening of donor corneas for transplant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, R M; Cavanagh, H D

    1997-03-01

    A review of the literature on transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases shows that antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) is not presently viewed as helpful for hepatitis C or hepatitis non-ABC screening of blood donors. Its utility as a screen for hepatitis B or human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) is controversial among experts. We compare relevant aspects of the screening of blood donations and the screening of cornea transplant donors to assess implications for the screening of donor corneas. We conclude that there is not sufficient evidence to warrant introducing anti-HBc as a routine screening test for cornea donors.

  17. Vaccine adjuvant ginsenoside Rg1 enhances immune responses against hepatitis B surface antigen in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ding; Yuan, Qin; Cui, Qianqian; Liu, Chaoqi; Zhou, Zhiyong; Zhao, Haixia; Dun, Yaoyan; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Changcheng

    2016-06-01

    The adjuvant effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on immune responses against hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in mice was investigated. Female BALB/c mice were subcutaneously injected with saline or HBsAg antigen with or without Rg1 on days 7 and 21. Samples were collected 2 weeks after the boosting for the detection of anti-HBsAg immunoglobulin G (IgG) isotypes in sera and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) produced in splenocytes. The innate and adaptive immune responses were measured in mice immunized as described above. The results showed that ginsenoside Rg1 had adjuvant properties in stimulating IgG, splenocyte proliferation, and mRNA expression of cytokines IFN-γ and IL-4, as well as the expression of cell surface marker TLR4 in the HBsAg-immunized mice. These results indicate that Rg1 enhances both Th1 (IgG2b and IFN-γ) and Th2 (IgG1 and IL-4) responses. In addition, the TLR4 signaling pathway is involved in the adjuvant activities of ginsenoside Rg1.

  18. Generation of Hepatitis B virus PreS2-S antigen in Hansenula polymorpha

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaowei; Xu; Sulin; Ren; Xiaoxiao; Chen; Jun; Ge; Zhenxing; Xu; Hongying; Huang; Honglin; Sun; Yue; Gu; Tong; Zhou; Jianqiang; Li; Hanmei; Xu

    2014-01-01

    Despite the long availability of a traditional prophylactic vaccine containing the HBV surface antigen(HBsA g) and aluminum adjuvant, nearly 10% of the population remains unable to generate an effective immune response. Previous studies have indicated that hepatitis B virus(HBV) PreS 2-S is abundant in T/B cell epitopes, which induces a stronger immune response than HBsA g, particularly in terms of cytotoxic T lymphocyte(CTL) reaction. In the current study, the HBV PreS 2-S gene encoding an extra26 amino acids(PreS 2 C-terminus) located at the N-terminus of HBsA g was cloned into the pV CH1300 expression vector. Pre S2-S expressed in the methylotrophic yeast, Hansenula polymorpha, was produced at a yield of up to 250 mg/L. Subsequent purification steps involved hydrophobic adsorption to colloidal silica, ion-exchange chromatography and density ultracentrifugation. The final product was obtained with a total yield of ~15% and purity of ~99%. In keeping with previous studies, ~22 nm viruslike particles were detected using electron microscopy. The generated PreS 2-S antigen will be further studied for efficacy and safty in animals.

  19. Liver Allograft Its Use in Chronic Active Hepatitis With Macronodular Cirrhosis, Hepatitis B Surface Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, Jarques L.; Putnam, Charles W.; Iwatsuki, Shunzaburo; Redeker, Allan G.; Porter, K. A.; Peters, Robert L.; Schröter, Gerhard; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    A patient suffering from chronic active hepatitis with macronodular cirrhosis, positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HB,Ag), was treated with an orthoiopic liver allograft. The HB, antigenemia, as measured with several precipltation tests and by complement fixation, became negative after transplantation and remained so for about 2½ months. During the interval, very low Iters of the antigen were detectable by, radioimmunoassay. At about three months after transplantation, she had an attack of acute hepatitis, at which time HB,Ag became detectable by all tests. She recovered, but progressive liver disease developed during the remaining 1½ years of her life. She died of disseminaled nocardiosis and candidiasis with deteriorating hepatic function. The homograft at autopsy, showed no evidence of rejection, but was the site of chronic active liver disease, although of a different pathologic pattern than that affecting her native liver. The differences in histology may reflect the influence of chronic Immunosuppression on the features of chronic active hepatitis. PMID:365134

  20. Immunofluorescence detection of new antigen-antibody system (delta/anti-delta) associated to hepatitis B virus in liver and in serum of HBsAg carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzetto, M; Canese, M G; Aricò, S; Crivelli, O; Trepo, C; Bonino, F; Verme, G

    1977-01-01

    A new antigen-antibody system associated with the hepatitis B virus and immunologically distinct from the HB surface, core, and e systems is reported. The new antigen, termed delta, was detected by direct immunofluorescence only in the liver cell nuclei of patients with HBsAg positive chronic liver disease. At present, the intrahepatic expression of HBcAg and delta antigen appears to be mutually exclusive. No ultrastructural aspect corresponding to the delta antigen could be identified under the electron microscope. delta antibody was found in the serum of chronic HBsAg carriers, with a higher prevalence in patients with liver damage. The nuclear fluorescence patterns of HBcAg and delta antigen were similar; it is only possible to discriminate between the two antigens by using the respective specific antisera. Images Figure PMID:75123

  1. Systemic and mucosal immune response induced by transcutaneous immunization using Hepatitis B surface antigen-loaded modified liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Dinesh; Mishra, Pradyumna Kumar; Dubey, Vaibhav; Nahar, Manoj; Dabadghao, Sunil; Jain, N K

    2008-04-23

    We have evaluated the efficiency of novel modified liposomes (ethosomes) for transcutaneous immunization (TCI) against Hepatitis B. Antigen-loaded ethosomes were prepared and characterized for shape, lamellarity, fluidity, size distribution, and entrapment efficiency. Spectral bio-imaging and flow cytometric studies showed efficient uptake of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-loaded ethosomes by murine dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro, reaching a peak by 180 min. Transcutaneous delivery potential of the antigen-loaded system using human cadaver skin demonstrated a much higher skin permeation of the antigen in comparison to conventional liposomes and soluble antigen preparation. Topically applied HBsAg-loaded ethosomes in experimental mice showed a robust systemic and mucosal humoral immune response compared to intramuscularly administered alum-adsorbed HBsAg suspension, topically applied plain HBsAg solution and hydroethanolic (25%) HBsAg solution. The ability of the antigen-pulsed DCs to stimulate autologous peripheral blood lymphocytes was demonstrated by BrdU assay and a predominantly TH1 type of immune response was observed by multiplex cytometric bead array analysis. HBsAg-loaded ethosomes are able to generate a protective immune response and their ability to traverse and target the immunological milieu of the skin may find a potential application in the development of a transcutaneous vaccine against Hepatitis B virus (HBV).

  2. Case Report of Relay Liver Transplantation With Graft Infected With Hepatitis B Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, T C L; She, W H; Cheung, T T; Chan, S C; Lo, C M

    2015-11-01

    Reuse of liver graft for transplantation is extremely uncommon. We report the 1st case of reuse of liver graft from a recipient who had hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, 11 years after the 1st transplantation. Our relay liver transplantation challenged conventional thinking because of late reuse of graft in the presence of HBV infection. Moreover, both the 1st and the 2nd donors were of advanced age. The key questions were whether the liver graft could be reused safely, especially in the setting of HBV infection, and technical concerns during organ procurement and implantation. The absence of HBV replication was confirmed with negative hepatitis B surface antigen and undetectable serum HBV DNA in the 2nd donor. Based on our experience in managing HBV infection after liver transplantation, we were confident that the adequately suppressed HBV infection in the donor would not jeopardize graft function and that the graft would be able to withstand another ischemia-perfusion injury to continue to function well in our recipient.

  3. Hepatitis B surface antigen variants in voluntary blood donors in Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is still one of the serious infectious risks for the blood transfusion safety in China. One plausible reason is the emergence of the variants in the major antigenic alpha determinant within the major hydrophilic region (MHR) of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), which have been assumed to evade the immune surveillance and pose a challenge to the disease diagnosis. It is well documented that some commercial ELISA kits could detect the wild-type but not the mutant viruses. The high prevalence of HBV in China also impaired the application of nucleic acid testing (NAT) in the improvement of blood security. Molecular epidemiological study of HBsAg variations in China is still limited. This study was designed to identify the prevalence of mutations in the HBsAg in voluntary blood donors in Nanjing, China. Methods A total of 20,326 blood units were enrolled in this study, 39 donors were positive for HBV S gene in the nested-PCR. Mutations in the major hydrophilic region (MHR; aa 99-169) were identified by direct sequencing of S region. Results Among of 20,326 blood units in the Red Cross Transfusion Center of Nanjing from October 2008 to April 2009, 296 samples (1.46%, 296/20,326) were HBsAg positive in the 2 successive rounds of the ELISA test. In these HBsAg positive units, HBV S gene could be successfully amplified from 39 donors (13.18%, 39/296) in the nested-PCR. Sequence analysis revealed that 32 strains (82.1%, 32/39) belong to genotype B, 7 strains (17.9%, 7/39) to genotype C. Besides well known G145R, widely dispersed variations in the MHR of S region, were observed in 20 samples of all the strains sequenced. Conclusions HBV/B and HBV/C are dominant in Nanjing, China. The mutations in the MHR of HBsAg associated with disease diagnosis are common. PMID:22500577

  4. Hepatitis B surface antigen variants in voluntary blood donors in Nanjing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-lin Yang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV is still one of the serious infectious risks for the blood transfusion safety in China. One plausible reason is the emergence of the variants in the major antigenic alpha determinant within the major hydrophilic region (MHR of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, which have been assumed to evade the immune surveillance and pose a challenge to the disease diagnosis. It is well documented that some commercial ELISA kits could detect the wild-type but not the mutant viruses. The high prevalence of HBV in China also impaired the application of nucleic acid testing (NAT in the improvement of blood security. Molecular epidemiological study of HBsAg variations in China is still limited. This study was designed to identify the prevalence of mutations in the HBsAg in voluntary blood donors in Nanjing, China. Methods A total of 20,326 blood units were enrolled in this study, 39 donors were positive for HBV S gene in the nested-PCR. Mutations in the major hydrophilic region (MHR; aa 99-169 were identified by direct sequencing of S region. Results Among of 20,326 blood units in the Red Cross Transfusion Center of Nanjing from October 2008 to April 2009, 296 samples (1.46%, 296/20,326 were HBsAg positive in the 2 successive rounds of the ELISA test. In these HBsAg positive units, HBV S gene could be successfully amplified from 39 donors (13.18%, 39/296 in the nested-PCR. Sequence analysis revealed that 32 strains (82.1%, 32/39 belong to genotype B, 7 strains (17.9%, 7/39 to genotype C. Besides well known G145R, widely dispersed variations in the MHR of S region, were observed in 20 samples of all the strains sequenced. Conclusions HBV/B and HBV/C are dominant in Nanjing, China. The mutations in the MHR of HBsAg associated with disease diagnosis are common.

  5. Association of Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I Polymorphism with Spontaneous Clearance of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen in Qidong Han Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengqin Miao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate whether HLA class I polymorphisms could influence the clearance of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg in Qidong Han population. Methods. We genotyped HLA-A, -B, and -C loci of 448 individuals with HBV persistent infection and 140 persons with spontaneous clearance of HBsAg by polymerase chain reaction with sequencing based typing (PCR/SBT. All the individuals were unrelated males enrolled from Qidong Han population and were followed up for 10 years. Results. The frequency of HLA-A*33:03:01G was increased in persistent HBV infection group (P value is 0.028, while frequency of HLA-B*13:01:01G was increased in HBsAg clearance group (P value is 0.0004. Conclusion. These findings suggested that the host HLA class I polymorphism is an important factor in determining the outcomes of HBV infection.

  6. Total Hepatitis B Core Antigen Antibody, a Quantitative Non-Invasive Marker of Hepatitis B Virus Induced Liver Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Yuan

    Full Text Available Non invasive immunologic markers of virus-induced liver disease are unmet needs. We tested the clinical significance of quantitative total and IgM-anti-HBc in well characterized chronic-HBsAg-carriers. Sera (212 were obtained from 111 HBsAg-carriers followed-up for 52 months (28-216 during different phases of chronic-HBV-genotype-D-infection: 10 HBeAg-positive, 25 inactive-carriers (HBV-DNA≤2000IU/ml, ALT<30U/L, 66 HBeAg-negative-CHB-patients and 10 with HDV-super-infection. In 35 patients treated with Peg-IFN±nucleos(tide-analogues (NUCs sera were obtained at baseline, end-of-therapy and week-24-off-therapy and in 22 treated with NUCs (for 60 months, 42-134m at baseline and end-of-follow-up. HBsAg and IgM-anti-HBc were measured by Architect-assays (Abbott, USA; total-anti-HBc by double-antigen-sandwich-immune-assay (Wantai, China; HBV-DNA by COBAS-TaqMan (Roche, Germany. Total-anti-HBc were detectable in all sera with lower levels in HBsAg-carriers without CHB (immune-tolerant, inactive and HDV-superinfected, median 3.26, range 2.26-4.49 Log10 IU/ml versus untreated-CHB (median 4.68, range 2.76-5.54 Log10 IU/ml, p<0.0001. IgM-anti-HBc positive using the chronic-hepatitis-cut-off" (0.130-S/CO were positive in 102 of 212 sera (48.1%. Overall total-anti-HBc and IgM-anti-HBc correlated significantly (p<0.001, r=0.417. Total-anti-HBc declined significantly in CHB patients with response to Peg-IFN (p<0.001 and in NUC-treated patients (p<0.001; the lowest levels (median 2.68, range 2.12-3.08 Log10 IU/ml were found in long-term responders who cleared HBsAg subsequently. During spontaneous and therapy-induced fluctuations of CHB (remissions and reactivations total- and IgM-anti-HBc correlated with ALT (p<0.001, r=0.351 and p=0.008, r=0.185 respectively. Total-anti-HBc qualifies as a useful marker of HBV-induced-liver-disease that might help to discriminate major phases of chronic HBV infection and to predict sustained response to antivirals.

  7. Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Accomplishments Annual Reports Our Videos What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  8. Measurement of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Concentrations Using a Piezoelectric Microcantilever as a Mass Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangkyu Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg concentrations were measured using a piezoelectric microcantilever sensor (PEMS developed by the authors. The developed PEMS is label-free and detects the sensing signal electrically. It was designed to measure the mass of biomolecules attached to it using an accurate mass-microbalancing technique; its probe area is confined to the end of the cantilever, and its equivalent spring constant is relatively high to minimize the effect of changes in the surface stress when the biomolecules are attached to it. The “dip- and-dry” technique was used to enable the probe area of the sensor to react with reagents in controlled environmental conditions. HBsAg was detected by an immunoreaction whereas the reaction time, antibody density, and its area on the probe were kept at a constant level. The mass of the detected HBsAg was measured in the range of 0.1–100 ng/mL.

  9. Upregulated Expression of a Unique Gene by Hepatitis B x Antigen Promotes Hepatocellular Growth and Tumorigenesis

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    Zhaorui Lian

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B x antigen (HBxAg is a trans-activating protein that may be involved in hepatocarcinogenesis, although few natural effectors of HBxAg that participate in this process have been identified. To identify additional effectors, whole cell RNA isolated from HBxAg-positive and HBxAg-negative HepG2 cells were compared by polymerase chain reaction select cDNA subtraction, and one clone, upregulated gene, clone 11 (URG11, was chosen for further characterization. Elevated levels of URG11 mRNA and protein were observed in HBxAg-positive compared to HBxAg-negative HepG2 cells. Costaining was observed in infected liver (P<.01. URG11 stimulated cell growth in culture (P<.01, anchorage-independent growth in soft agar (P<.001, and accelerated tumor formation (P<.01, and yielded larger tumors (P<.02 in SCID mice injected subcutaneously with HepG2 cells. These data suggest that URG11 is a natural effector of HBxAg that may promote the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  10. Hepatitis B e antigen polypeptides isolated from sera of individuals infected with hepatitis B virus: comparison with HBeAg polypeptide derived from Dane particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K; Imai, M; Gotanda, T; Sano, T; Oinuma, A; Mishiro, S; Miyakawa, Y; Mayumi, M

    1980-09-01

    Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) occurs in the serum of individuals infected with hepatitis B virus both free and in association with IgG. Utilizing a succession of steps involving salt precipitation, affinity chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography and isoelectrofocusing, we isolated free and IgG-bound forms of HBeAg from the sera of infected individuals with an overall gain in specific activity of 3000-fold and 540-fold, respectively. Polypeptide profiles of purified HBeAg preparations were studied by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol. Both free and IgG-bound preparations revealed polypeptides with mol. wt. of 15500 (P15.5) and 16 500 (P16.5), and HBeAg activity was detected corresponding to their positions. The HBeAg polypeptides (P15.5/16.5) derived from sera were physicochemically different from the two polypeptides with HBeAg activity (P19 and P45) liberated from Dane particle cores by the conventional method involving incubation with Nonidet P40 and 2-mercaptoethanol. However, when core particles were prepared in the presence of a proteolytic enzyme, in addition to Nonidet P40 and 2-mercaptoethanol, they gave rise to HBeAg polypeptides with mol. wt. of 31000 (P31) and 15 500. Furthermore, P31 split into P15.5 when heated at 100 degrees C for 2 min. On the basis of these results, P15.5 may be assumed to be the essential polypeptide bearing HBeAg activity in the serum and also in Dane particles.

  11. Coexistence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs Ag) and anti-HBs antibodies in chronic hepatitis B virus carriers: influence of "a" determinant variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lada, Olivier; Benhamou, Yves; Poynard, Thierry; Thibault, Vincent

    2006-03-01

    In chronic hepatitis B (CHB), the persistence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs Ag) is sometimes associated with antibodies (Ab) to HBs (anti-HBs). To assess the hypothesis of the selection of HBs Ag immune escape variants in CHB patients, the variability of the HBV S gene was determined for patients persistently carrying both HBs Ag and anti-HBs antibodies and patients solely positive for HBs Ag. We selected 14 patients who presented both markers (group I) in several consecutive samples and 12 patients positive for HBs Ag only (group II). The HBs Ag-encoding gene was amplified and cloned, and at least 15 clones per patient were sequenced and analyzed. The number of residue changes within the S protein was 2.7 times more frequent for group I than for group II patients and occurred mostly in the "a" determinant of the major hydrophilic region (MHR), with 9.52 versus 2.43 changes per 100 residues (P = 0.009), respectively. Ten patients (71%) from group I, but only three (25%) from group II, presented at least two residue changes in the MHR. The most frequent changes in group I patients were located at positions s145, s129, s126, s144, and s123, as described for immune escape variants. In CHB patients, the coexistence of HBs Ag and anti-HBs Ab is associated with an increase of "a" determinant variability, suggesting a selection of HBV immune escape mutants during chronic carriage. The consequences of this selection process with regard to vaccine efficacy, diagnosis, and clinical evolution remain partially unknown.

  12. Interferon and lamivudine combination therapy versus lamivudine monotherapy for hepatitis B e antigen-negative hepatitis B treatment:a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuShi; Yi-HuaWu; Zhe-YueShu; Wan-JunZhang; JunYang; ZhiChen

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated that only a minority of patients with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) obtain a sustained response after either interferon (IFN) or nucleos(t)ide analogue monotherapy. Therefore, combination therapy of drugs with synergistic antiviral effects was proposed to have a sustained response in these patients. We compared the effect and safety of lamivudine monotherapy and its combination with IFN including conventional interferon (CON-IFN) and pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) for HBeAg-negative CHB patients. DATA  SOURCES: A group of three independent reviewers identified 9 eligible randomized controlled trials through electronic searches (MEDLINE, OVID, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library Clinical Trials Registry, and the Chinese Medical Database), manual searches, and contact with experts. Sustained virological and biochemical responses were defined as primary efficacy measures. We performed quantitative meta-analyses to assess differences between CON-IFN plus lamivudine combination and lamivudine monotherapy groups. RESULTS: No greater sustained virological and biochemical rates were found in patients receiving CON-IFN/lamivudine combination therapy [29.1% vs. 26.7%, odds ratio (OR)=0.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65-1.50, P=0.94, and 41.8%vs. 40.3%, OR=1.13, 95% CI 0.78-1.65, P=0.51, respectively], though a reduced YMDD mutation rate was achieved in the combination group [8.39% vs. 30.0%, OR=0.16, 95% CI 0.076-0.33, P CONCLUSIONS: Addition of CON-IFN to lamivudine did not improve treatment efficacy but suppressed YMDD mutation by lamivudine. Combination of PEG-IFN and lamivudine might increase the sustained response, and further clinical trials are needed for confirmation.

  13. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen seropositivity among HIV-infected and non-infected individuals in Nnewi, Nigeria

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    E C Okocha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Co-infection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV is common as both viruses share common routes of transmission. HIV significantly affects the natural history of HBV, hence the need to determine the prevalence of co-infection. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study between 2005 and 2009, in which is a total of 2018 subjects who reported at our University Teaching Hospital blood bank and human immunodeficiency virus clinic were studied. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg was tested for using a one step lateral flow rapid chromatographic immunoassay (Acumen labs and diagnostic centre, Bangalore, India and HIV 1/2 was tested using two kits, Determine (made by Abbot, Japan for Inverness Medical, Japan. Results: A total of 2018 subjects were studied out of which 1176 were HIV positive (964 males and 212 females and 842 (334 males and 508 females were negative. The prevalence of HBsAg positivity in the study population was 5.9%. It was 6.3% and 5.6% in the HIV-infected and un-infected population, respectively. Although the prevalence was higher in those who are HIV infected, the difference was not statistically significant ( P=0.52. Males who were HIV positive were found to be more likely to have co-infection than females (8.7% vs. 4.2%, P=0.02, OR=1.917. Conclusion: This study showed that in south-eastern Nigeria, infection with HBV is relatively common in both HIV-infected and un-infected individuals. Routine screening for HBV should be done for all HIV positive individuals.

  14. The Murine Humoral Immune Response to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen: Idiotype Network Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Michael Roy

    Recognition of a wide spectrum in disease outcomes following Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection has led to the suggestion that individual differences may be due to characteristics of the immune response. HBV, a hepatotropic virus, is not directly cytopathic to the host hepatocytes but the cellular damage which does not occur may be due to the host's own immune response. It is this variety in immune response capabilities following natural infection or vaccination which led to the present study in which the murine humoral immune response to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was examined. Following immunization with purified HBsAg an anti-HBs response could be detected in 19 inbred strains of mice. The response, which varied among the strains, was linked to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Among high responders to HBsAg were two strains in which a poor response to a single epitope could be detected. Although quantitatively serum from these strains resembled serum from other high responders, there was a major difference in the qualitative aspects. Included within this study was the role of idotype networks within the murine anti-HBs response. By directly targeting HBsAg-specific B cells within the framework of an idiotype network by an Ab-2, it was possible to circumvent T cell-dependent regulation of an immune response. In each of five inbred strains of mice immunized with a polyclonal rabbit Ab-2 an Ab-3 population with HBsAg-specificity (Ab -1^') was induced. These mice were also immunized with HBsAg resulting in a higher anti-HBs response as compared to HBsAg immunization alone in all of the strains tested except for one. The response in this strain, normally a low responder to HBsAg, indicated that the mechanisms for genetic restriction of the anti -HBs response was still active, although it was not apparent during anti-Id immunization. The effects of an anti-Id on the murine antibody response to HBsAg may lead to insights on the presence of idiotype

  15. Circulating hepatitis B surface antigen particles carry hepatocellular microRNAs.

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    Luisa Novellino

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV produces high quantities of subviral surface antigen particles (HBsAg which circulate in the blood outnumbering virions of about 1\\10(3-6 times. In individuals coinfected with the defective hepatitis Delta virus (HDV the small HDV-RNA-genome and Delta antigen circulate as ribonucleoprotein complexes within HBsAg subviral particles. We addressed the question whether subviral HBsAg particles may carry in the same way cellular microRNAs (miRNAs which are released into the bloodstream within different subcellular forms such as exosomes and microvescicles. Circulating HBsAg particles were isolated from sera of 11 HBsAg carriers by selective immunoprecipitation with monoclonal anti-HBs-IgG, total RNA was extracted and human miRNAs were screened by TaqMan real-time quantitative PCR Arrays. Thirty-nine human miRNAs were found to be significantly associated with the immunoprecipitated HBsAg, as determined by both comparative DDCT analysis and non-parametric tests (Mann-Whitney, p<0.05 with respect to controls. Moreover immunoprecipitated HBsAg particles contained Ago2 protein that could be revealed in ELISA only after 0.5% NP40. HBsAg associated miRNAs were liver-specific (most frequent = miR-27a, miR-30b, miR-122, miR-126 and miR-145 as well as immune regulatory (most frequent = miR-106b and miR-223. Computationally predicted target genes of HBsAg-associated miRNAs highlighted molecular pathways dealing with host-pathogen. The finding that HBsAg particles carry selective pools of hepatocellular miRNAs opens new avenues of research to disentangle the complex interactions between host and HBV and provides a non invasive tool to study the physiopathology of liver epigenetics.

  16. Circulating hepatitis B surface antigen particles carry hepatocellular microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novellino, Luisa; Rossi, Riccardo L; Bonino, Ferruccio; Cavallone, Daniela; Abrignani, Sergio; Pagani, Massimiliano; Brunetto, Maurizia R

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) produces high quantities of subviral surface antigen particles (HBsAg) which circulate in the blood outnumbering virions of about 1\\10(3-6) times. In individuals coinfected with the defective hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) the small HDV-RNA-genome and Delta antigen circulate as ribonucleoprotein complexes within HBsAg subviral particles. We addressed the question whether subviral HBsAg particles may carry in the same way cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) which are released into the bloodstream within different subcellular forms such as exosomes and microvescicles. Circulating HBsAg particles were isolated from sera of 11 HBsAg carriers by selective immunoprecipitation with monoclonal anti-HBs-IgG, total RNA was extracted and human miRNAs were screened by TaqMan real-time quantitative PCR Arrays. Thirty-nine human miRNAs were found to be significantly associated with the immunoprecipitated HBsAg, as determined by both comparative DDCT analysis and non-parametric tests (Mann-Whitney, p<0.05) with respect to controls. Moreover immunoprecipitated HBsAg particles contained Ago2 protein that could be revealed in ELISA only after 0.5% NP40. HBsAg associated miRNAs were liver-specific (most frequent = miR-27a, miR-30b, miR-122, miR-126 and miR-145) as well as immune regulatory (most frequent = miR-106b and miR-223). Computationally predicted target genes of HBsAg-associated miRNAs highlighted molecular pathways dealing with host-pathogen. The finding that HBsAg particles carry selective pools of hepatocellular miRNAs opens new avenues of research to disentangle the complex interactions between host and HBV and provides a non invasive tool to study the physiopathology of liver epigenetics.

  17. Preparation and testing of a Haemophilus influenzae Type b/Hepatitis B surface antigen conjugate vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, So Jung; Woo, Joo Sung; Chae, Myung Hwa; Kothari, Sudeep; Carbis, Rodney

    2015-03-24

    The majority of conjugate vaccines focus on inducing an antibody response to the polysaccharide antigen and the carrier protein is present primarily to induce a T-cell dependent response. In this study conjugates consisting of poly(ribosylribitolphosphate) (PRP) purified from Haemophilus influenzae Type b bound to Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) virus like particles were prepared with the aim of inducing an antibody response to not only the PRP but also the HBsAg. A conjugate consisting of PRP bound to HBsAg via an adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) spacer induced strong IgG antibodies to both the PRP and HBsAg. When conjugation was performed without the ADH spacer the induction of an anti-PRP response was equivalent to that seen by conjugate with the ADH spacer, however, a negligible anti-HBsAg response was induced. For comparison, PRP was conjugated to diphtheria toxoid (DT) and Vi polysaccharide purified from Salmonella Typhi conjugated to HBsAg both using an ADH spacer. The PRPAH-DT conjugate induced strong anti-PRP and anti-DT responses, the Vi-AHHBsAg conjugate induced a good anti-HBsAg response but not as strong as that induced by the PRPAH-HBsAg conjugate. This study demonstrated that in mice it was possible to induce robust antibody responses to both polysaccharide and carrier protein provided the conjugate has certain physico-chemical properties. A PRPAH-HBsAg conjugate with the capacity to induce anti-PRP and anti-HBsAg responses could be incorporated into a multivalent pediatric vaccine and simplify formulation of such a vaccine.

  18. Predictive Value of Hepatitis B Core-Related Antigen (HBcrAg) During the Natural History of Hepatitis B Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Yu; Zhao, Yanhua; Rao, Chenli; Feng, Shu; Wang, Tingting; Li, Dongdong; Tao, Chuanmin

    2017-07-01

    The natural history of HBV infection includes immune tolerance (IT), immune clearance (IC), HBeAg-negative inactive/quiescent carrier (ENQ), and HBeAg-negative hepatitis (ENH) phases. As the current biomarkers for discriminating the four phases still have some weaknesses, additional serological indicators are needed. Hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) encoded with the precore/core gene contains denatured HBeAg, HBV core antigen (HBcAg), and a 22-KDa precore protein (p22cr) and has been demonstrated to have a close association with the natural history of hepatitis B infection. However, no specific cutoff values and diagnostic parameters have been identified to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy. This study aimed to clarify the distribution of HBcrAg levels and evaluate the diagnostic performance during the natural history of HBV infection in a Western Chinese population. In this study, 294 samples were collected from treatment-naive HBV infection patients in different phases (IT = 64; IC = 72; ENQ = 100, and ENH = 58). We detected the HBcrAg values and analyzed the relationship between HBcrAg and HBV DNA. HBsAg and other clinical parameters were quantitatively detected. The HBcrAg levels of IT, IC, ENQ, and ENH were 9.30 log U/mL, 8.80 log U/mL, 3.00 log U/mL, and 5.10 log U/mL, respectively (p values of 9.25 log U/mL and 4.355 log IU/mL for distinguishing the IT phase from the IC phase were 0.704 and 0.694, with a sensitivity of 53.13% and 79.69% and specificity of 76.39% and 59.72%, respectively. AUCs of HBcrAg and quantitative HBsAg at cutoff values of 4.15 log U/mL and 2.395 log IU/mL for discriminating between the ENQ and ENH phases were 0.931 and 0.653, with a sensitivity of 87.93% and 91.38% and specificity of 84.00% and 39.00%, respectively. HBcrAg levels varied significantly among the four natural phases of HBV infection and had higher predictive performance than quantitative HBsAg for distinguishing between ENQ-patients and ENH-patients and a similar

  19. Reactivation of hepatitis B infection following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in a hepatitis B-immune patient: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempinska, Anna; Kwak, Eun J; Angel, Jonathan B

    2005-11-01

    Reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is a rare phenomenon. Reverse seroconversion, defined as the clearance of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAb) and the appearance of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in a patient with resolved HBV infection (i.e., a HBsAg-negative, HBsAb-positive, hepatitis B core antibody-positive patient) following receipt of a bone marrow transplant is described. A review of related cases in the literature was undertaken to identify clinical features associated with this phenomenon. We present a case of reactivation of HBV infection in a 47-year-old man after receipt of an allogeneic bone marrow transplant for acute myelogenous leukemia. Before undergoing bone marrow transplantation, the presence of HBsAb and hepatitis B core antibody and the absence of HBsAg indicated clearance of natural HBV infection. The donor was HBsAg and HBsAb negative. Twenty-nine months after bone marrow transplantation, the patient developed transaminitis and evidence of active HBV infection (the patient had test results positive for HBsAg, negative for HBsAb, and positive for HBV DNA). A total of 28 other cases of reverse seroconversion have been described in the literature, 11 of which provided adequate information to be summarized in detail together with the present case. Reactivation of HBV infection following bone marrow transplantation appears to occur almost exclusively in patients who have received marrow from an HBsAb-negative donor and have experienced graft-versus-host disease, the onset of which is associated with tapering of immunosuppressive therapy. Although HBV reverse seroconversion is an uncommon event, understanding the clinical features associated with the development of HBV reverse seroconversion may provide insight into how such a potentially fatal complication may be avoided.

  20. Perinatal hepatitis B virus detection by hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    De Virgiliis, S; Frau, F; Sanna, G; Turco, M P; Figus, A L; Cornacchia, G; Cao, A.

    1985-01-01

    Maternal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in relation to the hepatitis B e antigen/antibody system and serum hepatitis B virus-DNA were evaluated. Results indicate that hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis can identify hepatitis B serum antigen positive mothers who may transmit infection to their offspring.

  1. Perinatal hepatitis B virus detection by hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Virgiliis, S; Frau, F; Sanna, G; Turco, M P; Figus, A L; Cornacchia, G; Cao, A

    1985-01-01

    Maternal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in relation to the hepatitis B e antigen/antibody system and serum hepatitis B virus-DNA were evaluated. Results indicate that hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis can identify hepatitis B serum antigen positive mothers who may transmit infection to their offspring. Images Figure PMID:3970570

  2. Perinatal hepatitis B virus detection by hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    De Virgiliis, S; Frau, F; Sanna, G; Turco, M P; Figus, A L; Cornacchia, G; Cao, A

    1985-01-01

    Maternal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in relation to the hepatitis B e antigen/antibody system and serum hepatitis B virus-DNA were evaluated. Results indicate that hepatitis B virus-DNA analysis can identify hepatitis B serum antigen positive mothers who may transmit infection to their offspring.

  3. Surface antigen-negative hepatitis B virus infection in Dutch blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieshout-Krikke, R W; Molenaar-de Backer, M W A; van Swieten, P; Zaaijer, H L

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) is a reliable marker for HBV infection, but HBsAg-negative forms of HBV infection occur. The introduction of HBV DNA screening of Dutch blood donors, which were not preselected for absence of HBV core antibodies, enabled the characterization of HBsAg-negative HBV infection in healthy persons and a comparison of the HBV genomes involved. The screening of 4.4 million Dutch blood donations identified 23 HBsAg-negative, HBV DNA-positive persons. Serological testing of the index donations, follow-up samples and archived earlier samples was performed to determine the nature of each HBV DNA-only case. Despite low viral loads HBV DNA could be sequenced in 14 out of 23 donors, allowing HBV genotyping and the analysis of mutations in the HBV surface gene. Four types of HBsAg-negative HBV infection were detected: infection in the early stage before occurrence of HBsAg; suppressed infection after vaccination; HBV genotype G infection with decreased HBsAg production; and chronic occult (HBsAg negative) HBV infection. In the donors with occult HBV genotype D infection the HBV surface gene showed multiple "escape" mutations in the HBsAg a-determinant and CTL epitopes, while in an occult genotype A case the surface gene showed no mutations. HBsAg-negative forms of HBV infection in healthy blood donors explain the ongoing transmission of HBV via blood transfusion, if donor screening is limited to HBsAg. The screening of blood donors for HBV DNA and HBV core antibodies seems to cover all stages and variants of HBV infection.

  4. Gender disparity in distribution of the major hydrophilic region variants of hepatitis B virus genotype C according to hepatitis B e antigen serostatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seoung-Ae; Cho, Yoo-Kyung; Lee, Keun-Hwa; Hwang, Eung-Soo; Kook, Yoon-Hoh; Kim, Bum-Joon

    2011-03-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion during chronic HBV infection is known to play an important role in disease progression and patient response to antiviral agents. The aim of the present study was to analyze gender disparity in distribution of major hydrophilic region (MHR) variants according to HBeAg serostatus. Prevalence of MHR variants from 68 Korean patients with chronic hepatitis (31 HBeAg-positive and 37 HBeAg-negative) was examined in terms of HBeAg serostatus and sex by direct sequencing analysis of the MHR. Gender disparity was observed in the distribution of MHR variants according to HBeAg serostatus. In male patients, the prevalence of MHR variants was significantly higher in HBeAg negative patients than in HBeAg positive patients [58.8% (10/17 patients) vs. 14.3% (3/21 patients), P=0.004]. However, the same was not true in female patients [55.0% (11/20 patients) vs. 60.0% (6/10 patients), P=1.000)]. In addition, 2 mutation types (L110I and G145A) related to HBeAg serostatus were found. In conclusion, HBeAg seroconversion in male chronic patients infected with genotype C could lead to mutations of MHR, major target to host immune response, which might in turn contribute to HBV persistence and immune evasion. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Association Between Serum Level of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen at End of Entecavir Therapy and Risk of Relapse in E Antigen-Negative Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yao-Chun; Mo, Lein-Ray; Chang, Chi-Yang; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Kao, Jia-Horng; Wang, Wen-Lun; Yang, Tzeng-Huey; Wang, Chaur-Shine; Chiang, Ming-Feng; Chen, Chieh-Chang; Fang, Yu-Jen; Hung, Hsu-Wei; Wu, Chun-Ying; Lin, Jaw-Town

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated whether serum level of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) at the end of entecavir treatment was associated with risk of relapse. We performed a prospective multicenter study of 161 consecutive patients with chronic hepatitis B in whom the hepatitis B virus was no longer detected after 3 years or more of entecavir therapy. Treatment ended between July 1, 2011 and July 1, 2015. Patients were monitored for clinical relapse (hepatitis B virus DNA >2000 IU/mL and level of alanine aminotransferase more than 2-fold the upper limit of normal) and virologic relapse (hepatitis B virus DNA >2000 IU/mL). Outcomes were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and risk factors were identified by Cox proportional hazards modeling. Two years after therapy ended, 49.2% of patients in the entire cohort had a clinical relapse (95% confidence interval [CI], 40.9%-58.1%) and 81.7% had a virologic relapse (95% CI, 74.3%-88.0%). Among patients who were hepatitis B e antigen-negative at the end of therapy, 39.2% had a clinical relapse (95% CI, 30.3%-49.6%) and 77.4% had a virologic relapse (95% CI, 68.6%-85.2%). Serum level of HBsAg was associated with relapse in the hepatitis B e antigen-negative patients (Ptrend = .006 for clinical relapse; Ptrend = .0001 for virologic relapse). In multivariate Cox regression analysis, the hazard ratio (per log IU/mL increment) for clinical relapse was 2.47 (95% CI, 1.45-4.23) and for virologic relapse was 1.80 (95% CI, 1.33-2.45). The 11 (9%) patients with levels of HBsAg <10 IU/mL did not relapse. Serum level of HBsAg is associated with risk of relapse in patients who are hepatitis B e antigen-negative after treatment with entecavir. A low titer of HBsAg might be used to identify patients at low risk for relapse after treatment. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Small-angle neutron scattering study of recombinant yeast-derived human hepatitis B virus surface antigen vaccine particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, M.; Ito, Y.; Kameyama, K.; Imai, M.; Ishikawa, N.; Takagi, T.

    1995-02-01

    The overall and internal structure of recombinant yeast-derived human hepatitis B virus surface antigen vaccine particles was investigated by small-angle neutron scattering using the contrast variation method. The vaccine is a nearly spherical particle, and its contrast-matching point was determined to be at about 24% D 2O content, indicating that a large part of the vaccine particle is occupied by lipids and carbohydrates from the yeast. The Stuhrmann plot suggests that the surface antigens exist predominantly in the peripheral region of the particle, which is favorable to the induction of anti-virus antibodies.

  7. Long-term effect of interferon plus ribavirin on hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance in patients dually infected with hepatitis B and C viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Lun Yeh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interferon-α/ribavirin combination therapy might promote hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg seroclearance in patients dually infected with hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV/HCV, but the long-term effect remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the rate of and the factors associated with HBsAg seroclearance during long-term follow-up after interferon-α/ribavirin combination therapy in HBV/HCV dually-infected patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eighty-one patients who received interferon-α/ribavirin combination therapy for 24 weeks with a follow-up period of >24 weeks were enrolled. HBV serological markers and HBV DNA were determined every 6 months. Early and late HBsAg seroclearance were defined as HBsAg loss in less or more than 6 months after end-of-treatment, respectively. Fifteen (18.5% patients had HBsAg seroclearance during a mean follow-up period of 3.4 (0.5-5.1 years. The 5-year cumulative incidence was 25.6%. Baseline cirrhosis and HBV DNA negativity 1 year after end-of-treatment were independently predictive of HBsAg seroclearance with an odds ratio (OR, 95% confidence intervals (CI of 16.6, 1.8-153 and 9.2, 1.4-62.1, respectively, by Cox regression hazard analysis. Four patients developed early and 11 developed late HBsAg seroclearance, respectively. Cox regression hazard analysis showed no factor was associated with early HBsAg seroclearance, whilst HBV DNA negativity 1 year after end-of-treatment was the only significant factor predicting late HBsAg loss (OR, 43.0; CI, 2.5-745. Five patients had HBsAg seroconversion with a 5-year cumulative incidence of 8.3%. HBV DNA negativity at baseline and one year after EOT had a trend for HBsAg seroconversion. HCV response did not correlate to HBsAg loss. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that interferon-α/ribavirin had long-term effect on HBsAg seroclearance in dually HBV/HCV-infected patients. Baseline cirrhosis and seroclearance of HBV DNA 1 year after end-of-treatment were

  8. Natural killer cells contribute to hepatic injury and help in viral persistence during progression of hepatitis B e-antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S; Nandi, M; Pal, S; Mukhopadhyay, D; Chakraborty, B C; Khatun, M; Bhowmick, D; Mondal, R K; Das, S; Das, K; Ghosh, R; Banerjee, S; Santra, A; Chatterjee, M; Chowdhury, A; Datta, S

    2016-08-01

    Hepatitis B e-antigen negative (e(-)) chronic HBV infection (CHI) encompasses a heterogeneous clinical spectrum ranging from inactive carrier (IC) state to e(-) chronic hepatitis B (CHB), cirrhosis and hepatic decompensation. In the backdrop of dysfunctional virus-specific T cells, natural killer (NK) cells are emerging as innate effectors in CHI. We characterized CD3(-) CD56(+) NK cells in clinically well-defined, treatment-naive e(-) patients in IC, e(-)CHB or decompensated liver cirrhosis (LC) phase to appraise their role in disease progression. The NK cell frequencies increased progressively with disease severity (IC 8.2%, e(-)CHB 13.2% and LC 14.4%). Higher proportion of NK cells from LC/e(-)CHB expressed CD69, NKp46, NKp44, TRAIL and perforin, the last two being prominent features of CD56(bright) and CD56(dim) NK subsets, respectively. The frequencies of CD3(-) CD56(+) NK cells together with TRAIL(+) CD56(bright) and Perforin(+) CD56(dim) NK cells correlated positively with serum alanine transaminase levels in e(-)CHB/LC. K562 cell-stimulated NK cells from e(-)CHB/LC exhibited significantly greater degranulation but diminished interferon-γ production than IC. Further, Perforin(+) NK cell frequency inversely correlated with autologous CD4(+) T-cell count in e(-) patients and ligands of NK receptors were over-expressed in CD4(+) T cells from e(-)CHB/LC relative to IC. Co-culture of sorted CD56(dim) NK cells and CD4(+) T cells from e(-)CHB showed enhanced CD4(+) T-cell apoptosis, which was reduced by perforin inhibitor, concanamycin A, suggesting a possible perforin-dependent NK cell-mediated CD4(+) T-cell depletion. Moreover, greater incidence of perforin-expressing NK cells and decline in CD4(+) T cells were noticed intrahepatically in e(-)CHB than IC. Collectively, NK cells contribute to the progression of e(-)CHI by enhanced TRAIL- and perforin-dependent cytolytic activity and by restraining anti-viral immunity through reduced interferon-γ secretion and

  9. Hepatitis B surface antigen quantity positively correlates with plasma levels of microRNAs differentially expressed in immunological phases of chronic hepatitis B in children.

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    Thilde Nordmann Winther

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Children with chronic hepatitis B (CHB are at high risk of progressive liver disease. It is suggested that a newly-identified panel of 16 microRNAs is important in the pathogenesis of CHB in children. Subviral hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg particles are produced in large excess over infectious virions. Interestingly, circulating HBsAg particles have been shown to carry microRNAs. A thorough characterisation of the identified microRNAs and HBsAg over time in plasma from children with CHB may provide useful information about the natural course of childhood CHB. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cohort of 42 children with CHB was followed over time. Three to five blood samples were obtained from each child at minimum intervals of half a year; in total 180 blood samples. Plasma levels of the 16 microRNAs previously identified were analysed by quantitative real-time polymerase-chain-reaction. Plasma HBsAg was quantified using ARCHITECT® HBsAg assay. RESULTS: The presence of 14/16 plasma microRNAs in children with CHB was confirmed. All 14 microRNAs were significantly differentially expressed in different immunological phases of the disease. MicroRNA plasma levels were highest in immune-tolerant children, lower in immune-active children, and reached the lowest values in immune-inactive children, p<0.001. Plasma levels of four microRNAs decreased significantly over time in immune-tolerant and immune-active children whereas the microRNA plasma levels were stable in immune-inactive children, p<0.004. HBsAg quantity was positively correlated with plasma levels of 11/14 microRNAs, p<0.004. CONCLUSION: This is the first study to characterise plasma microRNAs and HBsAg over time in children with CHB. Our data suggest that plasma levels of selected microRNAs and HBsAg are inversely correlated with immunological control of CHB in children. Further studies are, however, needed to advance the understanding of microRNAs and HBsAg in the

  10. Complement fixing hepatitis B core antigen immune complexes in the liver of patients with HBs antigen positive chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzetto, M; Bonino, F; Crivelli, O; Canese, M G; Verme, G

    1976-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-two biopsies from serologically HBsAg positive and negative patients with liver disease were studied in immunofluorescence: for the presence of the surface (HBs) and the core (HBc) antigenic determinants foeterminants of the hepatitis B virus, of immunoglobulins and complement (C) deposits, and for the capacity to fix human C. Circumstantial evidence is presented suggesting that HBc immune-complexes are a relevant feature in the establishment and progression of chronic HBSAg liver disease. C fixation by liver cells was shown in all HBC positive patients with chronic hepatitis; an active form was present in every case, except two with a persistent hepatitis, an inverse ratio of HBc to C binding fluorescence being noted between active chronic hepatitis and cirrhotic patients. HBc without C fixation was observed in only three patients in the incubation phase of infectious hepatitis. IgG deposits were often found in HBc containing, C fixing nuclei. No C binding or IgG deposits were observed in acute self-limited type B hepatitis, in serologically positive patients with normal liver or minimal histological lesions, with and without HBs cytoplasmic fluorescence in their biopsy, or in serologically negative individuals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:1001973

  11. Circulating MicroRNAs in Plasma of Hepatitis B e Antigen Positive Children Reveal Liver-Specific Target Genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Thilde Nordmann; Jacobsen, Kari Stougaard; Mirza, Aashiq Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim. Hepatitis B e antigen positive (HBeAg-positive) children are at high risk of severe complications such as hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis. Liver damage is caused by the host immune response to infected hepatocytes, and we hypothesise that specific microRNAs play a role...... with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and in healthy controls, candidate microRNAs with aberrant plasma expressions in HBeAg-positive children were identified. MicroRNAs targeting liver-specific genes were selected based on bioinformatics analysis and validated by qRT-PCR using plasma samples from 34 HBe...... in this complex interaction between virus and host. The study aimed to identify microRNAs with aberrant plasma expressions in HBeAg-positive children and with liver-specific target genes. Methods. By revisiting our previous screen of microRNA plasma levels in HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative children...

  12. Evaluation of the KEMRI Hep-cell II test kit for detection of hepatitis B surface antigens in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilale, Andrew M; Range, Nyagosya S; Ngowi, Prosper H; Kahwa, Amos M; Mfinanga, Sayoki G

    2012-07-01

    Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is one of the most important serological markers used to diagnose acute and chronic hepatitis B infection. The objective of the current evaluation was to assess the operational characteristics of the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) Hep-cell II against an ELISA Exsym HBsAg in the detection of hepatitis B surface antigens. To evaluate the Hep-cell II test, blood samples were collected from blood donors and processed for detection of HBsAg using Hep-cell II based on the test principle and procedure outlined by the manufacturer. ELISA Axsym HBsAg test was used as golden standard. Of the 400 samples tested, 287 (71.8%) were positive by Hep-cell test and 295 (73.8%) were positive by the ELISAAxsym. Hep-cell test had a sensitivity of 98.6% and specificity of 95.96%. Similar values of sensitivity and specificity of the Hep-cell test were obtained even when Bayesian Analysis Model was applied. The positive and negative predictive values of Hep-cell test were 98.61% and 95.96%, respectively. The positive and negative diagnostic likelihood ratios of Hep-cell test were 24.4% and 0.0145, respectively. In conclusion, the Hep-cell test is useful for detecting hepatitis B virus and the high likelihood ratio observed suggests that it may be useful in blood screening. However, it may be necessary to evaluate for cost-effectiveness and robustness in field conditions before the test is recommended for use.

  13. Factors associated with the decrease in hepatitis B surface antigen titers following interferon therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B: Is interferon and adefovir combination therapy effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Yoshihiko; Seo, Yasushi; Hayashi, Hiroki; Hatazawa, Yuri; Hirano, Hirotaka; Minami, Akihiro; Kawano, Yuki; Saito, Masaya; Ninomiya, Toshiaki; Sugano, Masahiko; Yamada, Hajime; Kitajima, Naoto; Yoon, Seitetsu; Hayashi, Yoshitake

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is generally to achieve a decrease and ultimately disappearance of HBs antigen (HBsAg). Interferon (IFN) therapy of CHB appears to be less effective in Asian countries than in European countries, and the advantage of IFN and nucleotide(s) analog (NA) combination therapy has yet to be fully investigated. The present study focused on the factors associated with a decrease in HBs antigen following IFN monotherapy or IFN + NA combination therapy. A total of 35 patients with CHB who received IFN-based therapy (mean ± standard deviation age 36.7±8.5 years; 27 males and 8 females) were enrolled in this study. Of the 35 patients, 21 patients received pegylated IFN monotherapy and 14 patients received IFN and adefovir (ADV) combination therapy. We examined the factors associated with reductions in the HBsAg titer of >1.0 log IU/ml from the initial HBsAg titer to the end of treatment and to 24 weeks after treatment. Although 13 patients (37%) had a reduction in HBsAg of >1.0 IU/ml at the end of treatment, it was only maintained to 24 weeks after treatment in 7 patients (20%). The HBV core-related antigen (HBcrAg) titer before treatment was significantly higher in patients with a decrease in HBsAg at the end of treatment than in patients without a decrease in HBsAg (6.56±0.78 vs. 5.30±1.66 log IU/ml, P2 times from baseline occurred significantly more frequently in patients with a decrease in HBsAg (62 vs. 14%, Pdecrease in HBsAg was significantly greater in patients who received IFN monotherapy than in patients who received IFN and ADV combination therapy (43 vs. 29%, Pdecrease in HBsAg titers after IFN-based therapy. The efficacy of IFN and ADV combination therapy was not apparent in terms of a reduction in the HBsAg titer.

  14. Expression of hepatitis B virus surface antigens induces defective gonad phenotypes in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Yin; Lee, Li-Wei; Hong, Wei-Ning; Lo, Szecheng J

    2017-01-01

    AIM To test whether a simple animal, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), can be used as an alternative model to study the interaction between hepatitis B virus antigens (HBsAg) and host factors. METHODS Three plasmids that were able to express the large, middle and small forms of HBsAgs (LHBsAg, MHBsAg, and SHBsAg, respectively) driven by a ubiquitous promoter (fib-1) and three that were able to express SHBsAg driven by different tissue-specific promoters were constructed and microinjected into worms. The brood size, egg-laying rate, and gonad development of transgenic worms were analyzed using microscopy. Levels of mRNA related to endoplasmic reticulum stress, enpl-1, hsp-4, pdi-3 and xbp-1, were determined using reverse transcription polymerase reaction (RT-PCRs) in three lines of transgenic worms and dithiothreitol (DTT)-treated wild-type worms. RESULTS Severe defects in egg-laying, decreases in brood size, and gonad retardation were observed in transgenic worms expressing SHBsAg whereas moderate defects were observed in transgenic worms expressing LHBsAg and MHBsAg. RT-PCR analysis revealed that enpl-1, hsp-4 and pdi-3 transcripts were significantly elevated in worms expressing LHBsAg and MHBsAg and in wild-type worms pretreated with DTT. By contrast, only pdi-3 was increased in worms expressing SHBsAg. To further determine which tissue expressing SHBsAg could induce gonad retardation, we substituted the fib-1 promoter with three tissue-specific promoters (myo-2 for the pharynx, est-1 for the intestines and mec-7 for the neurons) and generated corresponding transgenic animals. Moderate defective phenotypes were observed in worms expressing SHBsAg in the pharynx and intestines but not in worms expressing SHBsAg in the neurons, suggesting that the secreted SHBsAg may trigger a cross-talk signal between the digestive track and the gonad resulting in defective phenotypes. CONCLUSION Ectopic expression of three forms of HBsAg that causes recognizable phenotypes in

  15. New broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies against hepatitis B virus surface antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucinskaite-Kodze, Indre; Pleckaityte, Milda; Bremer, Corinna M; Seiz, Pia L; Zilnyte, Milda; Bulavaite, Aiste; Mickiene, Gitana; Zvirblis, Gintautas; Sasnauskas, Kestutis; Glebe, Dieter; Zvirbliene, Aurelija

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) is considered to be the most important target for the diagnosis and immune prophylaxis of HBV infection. HBsAg-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are extensively used for studying the complex structure of the HBsAg, mapping the neutralizing epitopes and development of HBV diagnostic tests. However, the efficiency of anti-HBV binding strongly depends on the epitope structure and MAb capability to recognize different HBV variants. In the current study, 9 MAbs against yeast-expressed HBsAg of ayw2 serotype were generated and 7 of them were shown to recognize a linear epitope comprising amino acid (aa) residues 119-GPCRTCT-125 within the main antigenic "a" determinant of HBsAg. One MAb of the highest affinity (clone HB1) was selected for detailed cross-reactivity studies, generation of recombinant single-chain antibody (scFv) and molecular modelling of antibody-epitope interaction. The importance of each aa residue within the identified MAb epitope was determined by alanine substitution study that revealed aa residues C(121), T(123), C(124) and T(125) as essential for binding. These aa residues are highly conserved among HBV variants. In contrast, alanine substitution of G119, P120 and R122 had no or minor influence on the reactivity with the MAb. Certain aa residues at position 122 (either R or K) define different HBV serotypes (either d or y), therefore, the affinity of the MAb HB1 for the epitope with R122K substitution was determined to evaluate its diagnostic potential. The MAb recognized both epitope variants with high affinity. Sequence alignment of the MAb epitope within different HBV strains demonstrated that the shortest peptide recognized by the MAb 121-CR(K)TCT-125 is identical among different human HBV genotypes (HBV A-F, H) and monkey HBV species (HBVCP, HBVGO, HBVGB, WMHBV). In line with these data, the MAb HB1 was cross-reactive in Western blot with a large panel of antigens derived from different HBV

  16. Hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) levels in the natural history of hepatitis B virus infection in a large European cohort predominantly infected with genotypes A and D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maasoumy, B; Wiegand, S B; Jaroszewicz, J; Bremer, B; Lehmann, P; Deterding, K; Taranta, A; Manns, M P; Wedemeyer, H; Glebe, D; Cornberg, M

    2015-06-01

    Hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) has been suggested as an additional marker of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. HBcrAg combines the antigenic reactivity resulting from denatured hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), HBV core antigen and an artificial core-related protein (p22cr). In Asian patients, high levels of HBcrAg have been suggested to be an independent risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma, while low levels could guide safe cessation of treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogues. We here studied HBcrAg levels in different phases of HBV infection in a large European cohort predominantly infected with genotypes A and D: HBeAg-positive immune tolerance (n = 30), HBeAg-positive immune clearance (IC) (n = 60), HBeAg-negative hepatitis (ENH) (n = 50), HBeAg-negative inactive/quiescent carrier phase (c) (n = 109) and acute hepatitis B (n = 8). Median HBcrAg levels were high in the immune tolerance and immune clearance phases (8.41 and 8.11 log U/mL, respectively), lower in ENH subjects (4.82 log U/mL) but only 2.00 log U/mL in ENQ subjects. Correlation between HBcrAg and HBV DNA varied among the different phases of HBV infection, while HBcrAg moderately correlated with hepatitis B surface antigen in all phases. ENQ patients had HBcrAg levels infection. HBcrAg may serve as valuable marker for virus replication and reflect the transcriptional activity of intrahepatic cccDNA. In HBeAg-negative patients, HBcrAg may help to distinguish between inactive carriers (ENQ) and those with active disease (ENH). Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Correlation between serum hepatitis B virus core-related antigen and intrahepatic covalently closed circular DNA in chronic hepatitis B patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Fumitaka; Miyakoshi, Hideo; Kobayashi, Mariko; Kumada, Hiromitsu

    2009-01-01

    Nucleos(t)ide analogues are utilized for the treatment of chronic HBV infection, and HBe seroconversion and HBV DNA levels are commonly used as markers of viral status and as primary treatment endpoints. Recently, a new assay was prepared for the detection of serum HBV core-related antigen (HBcrAg), consisting of HBcAg, HBeAg, and p22cr, which is a precore protein from amino acid -28 to at least amino acid 150, by coding the precore/core region. In this study, we examined the correlation between serum HBcrAg concentration and viral status by the analysis of serum HBeAg, HBsAg, peripheral HBV DNA, and intrahepatic covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in 57 chronic hepatitis B patients. Intrahepatic cccDNA was detected in all 57 patients, 42 patients were HBcrAg-positive, and serum HBcrAg concentration level was closely correlated with cccDNA. Additionally, positive HBcrAg concentration level results were observed in 6 out of 13 HBsAg seroclearance patients and 20 out of 31 HBV DNA-negative patients. Moreover, the correlation between HBcrAg and cccDNA in these 31 HBV DNA-negative patients was statistically significant (r = 0.482, P = 0.006). These data suggest that serum HBcrAg concentration is well correlated with intrahepatic cccDNA level, and that the measurement of serum HBcrAg may be clinically useful for monitoring intrahepatic HBV viral status, especially in patients under treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogues.

  18. KIR3DS1/HLA-B Bw4-80Ile Genotype Is Correlated with the IFN-α Therapy Response in hepatitis B e antigen-Positive Chronic Hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenting Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To date, several on-treatment-level virological and serological indices that may predict the response to interferon alpha (IFN-α have been reported. However, no effective predictors, such as drug–response genes, that can be detected before administration of anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV therapy with IFN-α, have been found. In the diverse range of chronic viral infection, genes that affect human immunity play important roles in understanding host and viral co-evolution. Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs, which are highly polymorphic at the allele and haplotype levels, participate in the antiviral function of natural killer (NK cells via fine-tuning inhibition and activation of NK-cell responses that occur when the NK cells interact with human leukocyte antigen (HLA class I molecules on target cells. For each individual, the pairing of KIR and HLA ligand is genetically determined. To investigate whether a particular KIR and HLA repertoire influences the risk of HBV infection and response to IFN-α treatment for chronic hepatitis B (CHB, we genotyped the KIRs and HLA ligands of 119 hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg-positive CHB patients. These patients included 43 patients who achieved sustained response (SR induced by IFN-α treatment for 48 weeks, 76 patients who achieved no response (NR, and 96 healthy subjects as controls. SR was defined as HBeAg loss with HBV DNA < 2,000 IU/ml and alanine aminotransferase normalization at 24 weeks posttreatment (week 72. In this study, we showed that activating KIR genes were less prevalent in Han Chinese, especially in Han Chinese with CHB, than in Caucasians. Furthermore, the KIR3DS1 gene, in combination with HLA-B Bw4-80Ile, strongly influenced the therapeutic outcomes for CHB patients who were treated with IFN-α. The frequency of the combination of genes encoding KIR3DS1 and HLA-B Bw4-80Ile was higher in patients who had a sustained treatment response than in patients who had NR [35

  19. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B e antigen (HBe antigen and B core antibodies (IgG anti-HBcore and IgM anti-HBcore among hepatitis B surface antigen positive blood donors at a Tertiary Centre in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbami Akinsegun A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV is a common cause of liver disease throughout the world. HBV is transmitted through blood and other body fluids, including semen and saliva. Chronic replication of HBV virons is characterized by persistence circulation of HBsAg, HBeAg and HBV DNA; usually with anti-HBc and occasionally with anti-HBs. Aim: To determine the prevalence of HBeAg, IgG anti-HBcore and IgM anti-HBcore amongst HBsAg positive blood donors. These parameters are reflective of transmissibility and active hepatitis B infection. A cross sectional study was carried out at the blood donor clinics of Lagos State University Teaching Hospital Ikeja and Lagos University Teaching Hospital Idiaraba. A total of 267 donors were recruited to determine HBe antigen, IgG and IgM anti-HBcore antibodies amongst hepatitis BsAg positive donors. Five milliliters of blood was collected from those who tested positive to HBsAg screen during donation. The sera were subjected to enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Pearson chi-squared test was used for the analytical assessment. Findings A total number of 267 HBsAg positive blood donors were studied. A seroprevalence of 8.2% (22 of 267 HBeAg was obtained, 4 of 267 (1.5% were indeterminate while 241 (90.3% tested negative. Only 27 out of 267 donors (10.1% tested positive to IgM anti-HBcore, 234(87.6% tested negative, while 6(2.2% were indeterminate. A higher percentage of 60.7% (162 of 267 tested positive to IgG anti-HBcore, while 39.3% (105 of 267 tested negative. Conclusion There is a low seroprevalence rate of HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis and relatively high IgG anti-HBcore and IgM anti-HBcore rates in South West Nigeria.

  20. Familial clustering of hepatitis B infection in South India: A case report

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    Anand Pai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B is a public health problem of worldwide importance. Familial clustering of HBV infection has been reported infrequently. Intrafamilial transmission of HBV plays a substantial role in maintaining the endemicity of the virus in the region. We report a family of 8 members, among which 5 members across 3 generations were HBsAg positive.

  1. Antigenicity and immunogenicity of novel chimeric hepatitis B surface antigen particles with exposed hepatitis C virus epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netter, H J; Macnaughton, T B; Woo, W P; Tindle, R; Gowans, E J

    2001-03-01

    The small envelope protein of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg-S) can self-assemble into highly organized virus like particles (VLPs) and induce an effective immune response. In this study, a restriction enzyme site was engineered into the cDNA of HBsAg-S at a position corresponding to the exposed site within the hydrophilic a determinant region (amino acid [aa] 127-128) to create a novel HBsAg vaccine vector allowing surface orientation of the inserted sequence. We inserted sequences of various lengths from hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) E2 protein containing immunodominant epitopes and demonstrated secretion of the recombinant HBsAg VLPs from transfected mammalian cells. A number of different recombinant proteins were synthesized, and HBsAg VLPs containing inserts up to 36 aa were secreted with an efficiency similar to that of wild-type HBsAg. The HVR1 region exposed on the particles retained an antigenic structure similar to that recognized immunologically during natural infection. VLPs containing epitopes from either HCV-1a or -1b strains were produced that induced strain-specific antibody responses in immunized mice. Injection of a combination of these VLPs induced antibodies against both HVR1 epitopes that resulted in higher titers than were achieved by vaccination with the individual VLPs, suggesting a synergistic effect. This may lead to the development of recombinant particles which are able to induce a broad anti-HCV immune response against the HCV quasispecies or other quasispecies-like infectious agents.

  2. Antigenicity and Immunogenicity of Novel Chimeric Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Particles with Exposed Hepatitis C Virus Epitopes†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netter, Hans J.; Macnaughton, Thomas B.; Woo, Wai-Ping; Tindle, Robert; Gowans, Eric J.

    2001-01-01

    The small envelope protein of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg-S) can self-assemble into highly organized virus like particles (VLPs) and induce an effective immune response. In this study, a restriction enzyme site was engineered into the cDNA of HBsAg-S at a position corresponding to the exposed site within the hydrophilic a determinant region (amino acid [aa] 127–128) to create a novel HBsAg vaccine vector allowing surface orientation of the inserted sequence. We inserted sequences of various lengths from hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) E2 protein containing immunodominant epitopes and demonstrated secretion of the recombinant HBsAg VLPs from transfected mammalian cells. A number of different recombinant proteins were synthesized, and HBsAg VLPs containing inserts up to 36 aa were secreted with an efficiency similar to that of wild-type HBsAg. The HVR1 region exposed on the particles retained an antigenic structure similar to that recognized immunologically during natural infection. VLPs containing epitopes from either HCV-1a or -1b strains were produced that induced strain-specific antibody responses in immunized mice. Injection of a combination of these VLPs induced antibodies against both HVR1 epitopes that resulted in higher titers than were achieved by vaccination with the individual VLPs, suggesting a synergistic effect. This may lead to the development of recombinant particles which are able to induce a broad anti-HCV immune response against the HCV quasispecies or other quasispecies-like infectious agents. PMID:11160717

  3. Human leukocyte antigen-DRB1*1101 correlates with less severe hepatitis in Taiwanese male carriers of hepatitis B virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Wen; Hu, Chung-Yi; Chen, Chi-Lin; Liao, Ya-Tang; Liu, Chun-Jen; Lai, Ming-Yang; Chen, Pei-Jer; Yang, Sien-Sing; Hu, Jui-Ting; Chen, Ding-Shinn; Kao, Jia-Horng

    2009-04-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules are associated with host immune responses against hepatitis B virus infection. Male gender is the apparent host factor when someone encounters with the severity of hepatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the most polymorphic HLA class II allele, human leukocyte antigen-DRB1, with the severity of hepatitis in male carriers of hepatitis B virus. In this prospective cohort study, a total of 204 carriers of hepatitis B virus (131 men and 73 women) who have been followed-up for more than 1 year at the outpatient clinic of a university hospital were collected consecutively. Fifty carriers of hepatitis B virus (group I) with alanine aminotransferase /=2x upper limit of normal (mean follow-up 81.3 months). Alleles of HLA-DRB1 were typed by the polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific oligonucleotide probe hybridization and genotypes of hepatitis B virus by melting curve analysis. HLA-DRB1*1101 was found in 18% of group I versus 8% of group II in male carriers (OR 0.23, P = 0.020, after adjustment for age) and 4% versus 9.4% in female carriers (P = 0.094). In male carriers harboring DRB1*1101, the distribution of hepatitis B viral genotype was comparable between the two groups. HLA-DRB1*1101 correlates with less severe hepatitis in Taiwanese male carriers of hepatitis B virus.

  4. Fermentation study for the production of hepatitis B virus pre-S2 antigen by the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roubin, M R; Bastien, L; Shen, S H; Groleau, D

    1991-10-01

    Various physico-chemical parameters have been studied in order to improve the production of hepatitis B virus pre-S2 antigen (middle surface antigen) by the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha. Antigen production was done in two steps: first, production of cells on glycerol (Phase 1), followed by induction of antigen expression with methanol (Phase 2). Dense cultures of H. polymorpha, equivalent to 35-40 g/l (dry weight), were readily obtained in small fermenters using minimal medium containing glycerol as carbon source. Antigen expression in this minimal medium, after induction with methanol, was however, low and never exceeded 1.6 mg/l of culture. Antigen production was greatly enhanced by adding complex organic nitrogen sources along with methanol at induction time; yeast extract was the best of all the sources tested. In shake flasks, antigen production was proportional to yeast extract concentration up to 7% (w/v) yeast extract, it became clear the the nutritional conditions for good antigen expression were different from those for good biomass production. The effects of yeast extract were reproduced in small fermenters: antigen levels reached 8-9 mg/l in medium containing 6% (w/v) yeast extract during induction with methanol. The mechanisms of yeast extract's effects are still unknown but are probably nutritional. The recombinant H. polymorpha strain produced both periplasmic and intracellular antigen. The periplasmic antigen was shown to be present as 20-22-nm particles and was therefore immunogenic. Immunoblotting indicated that part of the pre-S2 antigen was present as a 24-kDa degradation product. These studies have led to a 140-fold increase in volumetric productivity of antigen and to a 4.6-fold increase in specific production.

  5. Ultra-deep sequencing reveals high prevalence and broad structural diversity of hepatitis B surface antigen mutations in a global population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencay, Mikael; Hübner, Kirsten; Gohl, Peter; Seffner, Anja; Weizenegger, Michael; Neofytos, Dionysios; Batrla, Richard; Woeste, Andreas; Kim, Hyon-Suk; Westergaard, Gaston; Reinsch, Christine; Brill, Eva; Thu Thuy, Pham Thi; Hoang, Bui Huu; Sonderup, Mark; Spearman, C Wendy; Pabinger, Stephan; Gautier, Jérémie; Brancaccio, Giuseppina; Fasano, Massimo; Santantonio, Teresa; Gaeta, Giovanni B; Nauck, Markus; Kaminski, Wolfgang E

    2017-01-01

    The diversity of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) has a significant impact on the performance of diagnostic screening tests and the clinical outcome of hepatitis B infection. Neutralizing or diagnostic antibodies against the HBsAg are directed towards its highly conserved major hydrophilic region (MHR), in particular towards its "a" determinant subdomain. Here, we explored, on a global scale, the genetic diversity of the HBsAg MHR in a large, multi-ethnic cohort of randomly selected subjects with HBV infection from four continents. A total of 1553 HBsAg positive blood samples of subjects originating from 20 different countries across Africa, America, Asia and central Europe were characterized for amino acid variation in the MHR. Using highly sensitive ultra-deep sequencing, we found 72.8% of the successfully sequenced subjects (n = 1391) demonstrated amino acid sequence variation in the HBsAg MHR. This indicates that the global variation frequency in the HBsAg MHR is threefold higher than previously reported. The majority of the amino acid mutations were found in the HBV genotypes B (28.9%) and C (25.4%). Collectively, we identified 345 distinct amino acid mutations in the MHR. Among these, we report 62 previously unknown mutations, which extends the worldwide pool of currently known HBsAg MHR mutations by 22%. Importantly, topological analysis identified the "a" determinant upstream flanking region as the structurally most diverse subdomain of the HBsAg MHR. The highest prevalence of "a" determinant region mutations was observed in subjects from Asia, followed by the African, American and European cohorts, respectively. Finally, we found that more than half (59.3%) of all HBV subjects investigated carried multiple MHR mutations. Together, this worldwide ultra-deep sequencing based genotyping study reveals that the global prevalence and structural complexity of variation in the hepatitis B surface antigen have, to date, been significantly underappreciated.

  6. Air sampling for hepatitis B surface antigen in a dental operatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, N J; Bond, W W; Favero, M S

    1979-09-01

    Forty samples of air with a mean sample volume of 104 liters were collected during the treatment of patients whose blood was positive for HBsAG: no samples contained HBsAG and occult blood. These findings suggest that, if environmentally mediated transmission of hepatitis B occurs in the dental operatory, it is more likely to occur through contact with contaminated surfaces than through the airborne route.

  7. Prevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg among visitors of Shashemene General Hospital voluntary counseling and testing center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhin Girmay

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is significant health problem, as it can lead to chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatic carcinoma. Due to shared routes of transmission, HBV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV co-infection is common and is an emerging concern in the clinical management of patients because of increased mortality, accelerated hepatic disease progression, and the frequent hepatotoxicity caused by anti-retroviral therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and its risk factors, among individuals visiting Shashemene General Hospital VCT center. Findings Institution based cross-sectional study was performed from November 3, 2008 to December 29, 2008 and 384 voluntary counseling and testing (VCT clients were investigated. Data on socio demographic and HBV risk factors was collected using structured questionnaires. Blood samples were collected and screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and HIV by commercially available rapid test kits. The prevalence of HBsAg in this study group was 5.7%. Fourteen percent of HIV positive subjects (8/57 and 4.3% (14/327 of HIV negative subjects were positive for HBsAg. Significantly high prevalence of HBsAg was observed among individuals who had history of invasive procedures, like tooth extraction, abortion and ear piercing; history of hospital admission, history of unsafe inject and HIV positives. Conclusions Although HBsAg prevalence is much higher among subjects who are HIV positive (14.0% versus 4.3%, the prevalence of HBsAg in HIV negative subjects is high enough to warrant a recommendation to screen all clients at VCT centers irrespective of HIV status.

  8. Hepatitis B surface antigen nanoparticles coated with chitosan and trimethyl chitosan: Impact of formulation on physicochemical and immunological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafaghodi, Mohsen; Saluja, Vinay; Kersten, Gideon F A; Kraan, Heleen; Slütter, Bram; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Jiskoot, Wim

    2012-08-03

    Mucosal immunization offers various advantages over parenteral vaccination, but typically requires potent delivery systems and/or adjuvants to result in protective immunity. Here we report on the preparation of trimethylated chitosan (TMC) and chitosan (CHT) nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with hepatitis B surface antigen (HB), by a simple and scalable method. TMC:HB and CHT:HB NPs were prepared by direct coating of antigen by polymer. The impact of buffer, pH and tonicity of the dispersion medium on NPs' polydispersity, zeta potential and association percentage of polymer with antigen was evaluated. Moreover, biological properties of both NPs were addressed in vitro by studying their effect on cell viability, transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and dendritic cell (DC) maturation. Finally, immunogenicity was assessed by evaluating IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, IgA titers and sIgA after both mucosal (nasal) as well intramuscular (i.m.) vaccination in a murine model. TMC:HB and CHT:HB NPs, prepared in acetate buffer pH 6.7 of three different tonicities, had comparable size, polydispersity, zeta potential and association percentage. TMC:HB NPs, but not CHT:HB NPs, had a mild negative effect on cell viability and TEER, and a considerable positive effect on DC maturation. After nasal and i.m. immunization, TMC:HB NPs in hypotonic medium and CHT:HB NPs in all media induced higher serum and nasal antibody titers compared with HB solution (P<0.001). After i.m. injection, both TMC:HB and CHT:HB NPs induced higher IgG and IgG2a titers compared with alum adsorbed HB (P<0.001). For CHT:HB NPs, the tonicity of the dispersion medium did not affect the mucosal and systemic immune responses. In conclusion, TMC NPs and CHT NPs are similarly potent mucosal immunoadjuvants for HB. Moreover, both polymers are potent immunoadjuvants for i.m. administered isotonic HB, resulting in higher IgG2a/IgG1 ratios compared with alum adjuvanted HB.

  9. Targeting the hepatitis B virus precore antigen with a novel IgNAR single variable domain intrabody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Renae; Nuttall, Stewart; Revill, Peter; Colledge, Danni; Cabuang, Liza; Soppe, Sally; Dolezal, Olan; Griffiths, Kate; Bartholomeusz, Angeline; Locarnini, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    The Hepatitis B virus precore protein is processed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) into secreted hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), which acts as an immune tolerogen to establish chronic infection. Downregulation of secreted HBeAg should improve clinical outcome, as patients who effectively respond to current treatments (IFN-α) have significantly lower serum HBeAg levels. Here, we describe a novel reagent, a single variable domain (V(NAR)) of the shark immunoglobulin new antigen receptor (IgNAR) antibodies. V(NAR)s possess advantages in stability, size (~14 kDa) and cryptic epitope recognition compared to conventional antibodies. The V(NAR) domain displayed biologically useful affinity for recombinant and native HBeAg, and recognised a unique conformational epitope. To assess therapeutic potential in targeting intracellular precore protein to reduce secreted HBeAg, the V(NAR) was engineered for ER-targeted in vitro delivery to function as an intracellular antibody (intrabody). In vitro data from HBV/precore hepatocyte cell lines demonstrated effective intrabody regulation of precore/HBeAg.

  10. Association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms and early spontaneous hepatitis B virus e antigen seroconversion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Haruki; Murakami, Jun; Inui, Ayano; Tsunoda, Tomoyuki; Sogo, Tsuyoshi; Fujisawa, Tomoo

    2014-11-06

    The disease progression following hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is associated with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, the role of SNPs in chronic HBV infection in children remains unclear. Here, we investigate the association between SNPs and early spontaneous hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion in children with chronic hepatitis B infection. This was a retrospective cohort study. We genotyped seven SNPs in the following genes, interleukin (IL)-10 (rs1800871 and rs1800872), human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DPA1 (rs3077), HLA-DPB1 (rs9277535), HLA-DQB2 (rs7453920), HLA-DQB1 (rs2856718), and IL28B (rs8099917), in patients with chronic HBV infection using PCR and sequencing. These variants were analyzed for an association with early HBeAg seroconversion in children. Of 225 Japanese patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection (male/female: 105/120, median age at initial visit: 6 years; range 0-44 years), 52 achieved spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion at the age of 10 years or younger (G1: early seroconversion group), and 57 did not achieve spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion under the age of 20 years (G2: late or no seroconversion group). Of the seven SNPs, only the HLA-DPA1 SNP displayed a low p-value (P = 0.070), but not significant, to have early HBeAg seroconversion in the dominant model and in the allele model (P = 0.073) using the chi-square test. The association study found a low p-value, but not significant, to have early HBeAg seroconversion in the dominant model for HLA-DPA1 (genotype TC + TT vs. CC, P = 0.070, odds ratio: 2.016, 95% confidence interval: 0.940-4.323) using a logistic regression model. Although the HLA-DPA1 SNP did not show a statistically significant association with early HBeAg seroconversion in this study, the HLA-DPA1 SNP might increase the likelihood of achieving early spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion in children.

  11. Prevalence, correlates and pattern of hepatitis B surface antigen in a low resource setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezebialu Ifeanyichukwu U

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection in Nigeria has remained a Public Health issue. It is a major cause of mortality, especially in developing countries. Vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus infection is thought to be a major route of transmission in low resource areas. In spite of this, routine antenatal screening for hepatitis B infection is not yet practiced in many Nigerian hospitals. This paper present the findings of a study conducted among antenatal women in Nnewi, Nigeria. Methods It was a cross-sectional study carried out over a 3-month period (August - October, 2009. Recruitment of 480 women attending antenatal clinics in Nnewi, Nigeria was done by simple random sampling using computer generated random numbers. HBsAg screening was done using rapid ELISA Kits. Statistical analysis was computed using STATA 11 package. The results were subjected to analysis using cross tabulations to explore statistical relationships between variables. Chi square test was used to explore proportional relationship between groups. The level of statistical significance was set at p Results Four hundred and eighty pregnant women were recruited into the study. Of these, 40 tested positive to HBsAg, accounting for 8.3% of the sample population. The age of the subjects studied varied from 14 to 45 years (mean age - 24.3 years while the mean parity was 2.18. The HIV/HBV co-infection rate was 4.2%. The vertical transmission rate was 51.6%. There were statistically significant relationships between HBV infection and previous history of tribal marks/tattoos (χ2 = 27.39, P = 0.001, df = 1, history of contact with previously infected HBV patients (χ2 = 23.11, P = 0.001, df = 1 and occupation of the women (χ2 = 51.22, P = 0.001, df = 1. Multiple sexual partners, blood transfusion, dental manipulations, sharing of sharps/needles, and circumcision were not significant modes of transmission. There was no statistically significant relationship

  12. Deficient Knowledge on Hepatitis B Infection in Pregnant Women and Prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Carriage in an Endemic Area: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oi Ka Chan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B infection is a major global health problem. Vertical transmission is the commonest route of spreading hepatitis B virus (HBV in many endemic areas. In order to control such transmission in Hong Kong, neonatal immunization programme was implemented for more than two decades. A declining prevalence of HBV infection was expected. However, the prevalence remained unabated at around 10% in recent studies. We suspect that one of the explanations of this persistent high prevalence is deficient knowledge on infection with the HBV and its prevention. Our paper gives an overview of the knowledge on HBV infection among Chinese population in both high and low endemic areas and discusses the potential factors that influenced the knowledge on as well as the implication of the sources of information for HBV infection, which was not addressed in previous studies.

  13. Long term follow-up and outcome of liver transplantation from hepatitis B surface antigen positive donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarin, Roberto; Cucchetti, Alessandro; Russo, Francesco Paolo; Magistri, Paolo; Cescon, Matteo; Cillo, Umberto; Burra, Patrizia; Pinna, Antonio Daniele; Di Benedetto, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    Liver transplant for hepatitis B virus (HBV) currently yields excellent outcomes: it allows to rescue patients with an HBV-related advanced liver disease, resulting in a demographical modification of the waiting list for liver transplant. In an age of patient-tailored treatments, in liver transplantation as well the aim is to offer the best suitable graft to the patient who can benefit from it, also expanding the criteria for organ acceptance and allocation. With the intent of developing strategies to increase the donor pool, we set-up a multicenter study involving 3 Liver Transplant Centers in Italy: patients undergoing liver transplantation between March 03, 2004, and May 21, 2010, were retrospectively evaluated. 1408 patients underwent liver transplantation during the study period, 28 (2%) received the graft from hepatitis B surface antigen positive (HBsAg)-positive deceased donors. The average follow-up after liver transplantation was 63.7 mo [range: 0.1-119.4; SD ± 35.8]. None Primary non-function, re-liver transplantation, early or late hepatic artery thrombosis occurred. The 1-, 3- and 5-year graft and patient survival resulted of 85.7%, 82.1%, 78.4%. Our results suggest that the use of HBsAg-positive donors liver grafts is feasible, since HBV can be controlled without affecting graft stability. However, the selection of grafts and the postoperative antiviral therapy should be managed appropriately.

  14. First evaluation of the serum level of anti-hepatitis B surface antigen after vaccination in Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madour, A; Alkout, A; Vanin, S

    2013-12-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination schedule in Libya follows international recommendations (1st dose at birth, 2nd after 1 month and 3rd after 6 months). This research aimed to evaluate the long-term protection of the HBV immunization programme in Tripoli and to determine the best age to administer booster doses. Serum levels of hepatitis B surface antigen were determined in 277 randomly selected children aged 1-12 years. The response to HBV vaccine in 1-3-year-olds was 93.2%, but this declined with age and at 7-9 years after initial vaccination only 53.1% of children had protective titres (> or = 10 mIU/mL). No significant differences between males and females in antibody persistence or response to vaccine were observed. We recommend continuing the HBV vaccination programme and that a booster dose be given to 6-year-old children to ensure maximum protection during the period of school entry and beyond.

  15. Long-term efficacy of hepatitis B vaccination as post-transplant prophylaxis in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive recipients and HBsAg negative recipients of anti-hepatitis B core positive grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Atsushi; Yamashiki, Noriyo; Ueda, Yoshihide; Kaido, Toshimi; Okajima, Hideaki; Marusawa, Hiroyuki; Chiba, Tsutomu; Uemoto, Shinji

    2016-05-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation after liver transplantation in HBV patients, or in HBV negative recipients of anti-hepatitis B core (HBc) positive grafts, has been prevented by prophylactic use of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and/or nucleoside/nucleotide analogs (NA). Vaccination against HBV is an alternative that may provide a chance to discontinue prophylaxis by producing anti-hepatitis B surface (HBs) antibodies. We retrospectively reviewed 40 HBV positive recipients (HBV+ group) and 27 HBV negative recipients of anti-HBc positive grafts (HBV-/anti-HBc+ graft group), who were administrated double-dose hepatitis B vaccination. Recipients were regarded as responders when anti-HBs greater than 100 IU/L was maintained for 6 months or more without HBIG. Response rates of vaccine and long-term outcomes were analyzed. Eighteen of the 40 patients in the HBV+ group (45%) and 18 of the 27 patients in the HBV-/anti-HBc+ graft group (67%) responded to vaccination after a median of four and three times, respectively. Younger age was the only independent factor associated with vaccine response in the HBV-/anti-HBc+ graft group (P = 0.03), whereas no factor was found to be an independent predictor for vaccine response in the HBV+ group. Among the 18 responders in the HBV+ group, 17 remained without NA or HBIG 8.2 years after the start of vaccination. Ten of those required periodic booster vaccination. All 18 responders in the HBV-/anti-HBc+ graft group remained free from HBV prophylaxis 6.2 years after the start of vaccination. Younger recipients have a greater chance to develop sufficient anti-HBs after double-dose HBV vaccination, leading to discontinue HBV prophylaxis. © 2015 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  16. Three Cases of Radiation-Induced Hepatitis B Virus Reactivation after Hepatic Tomotherapy: Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Moon Kyoo; Hong, Seong Eon; Kim, Byung Ho; Choi, Jin Hyun [Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    Radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) has been characterized as a veno-occlusive disease with anicteric elevation of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). However, some RILD patients present with elevated transaminase levels rather than with anicteric elevation of ALP, and these findings are common in the Asia-Pacific region where hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is associated with 70-90% of hepatocelluar carcinoma (HCC) cases. In addition, the development of RILD is more common in patients with hepatitis B virus-related HCC. These findings indicate that susceptibility to RILD might be different in HBV carriers and non-carriers, and moreover, RILD in patients with HBV-related HCC might be associated with another unique pathogenesis such as HBV reactivation. However, HBV reactivation after hepatic irradiation has been reported in only a few studies. This study reports three cases of HBV reactivation after hepatic tomotherapy for management of HCC.

  17. Entecavir treatment may be associated with decreased libido in male patients with chronic hepatitis B: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turker, Kamuran; Sonbahar, Adil Emrah; Serefoglu, Ege Can; Korkmaz Fidan, Munire; Kanarya Vardar, Melek

    2016-06-01

    Various types of drugs are being used to treat patients with chronic hepatitis B infection. However, these treatment modalities are not without side effects, which may result in decreased patient adherence. Entecavir is an oral reverse transcriptase inhibitor, which is widely used in patients with hepatitis B. Although headache, fatigue and nausea are well-documented side effects of entecavir, its sexual side effects have not been reported yet. We here report on two male patients with chronic hepatitis B infection who reported decreased libido under entecavir treatment. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. A self-amplified transistor immunosensor under dual gate operation: highly sensitive detection of hepatitis B surface antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I.-K.; Jeun, M.; Jang, H.-J.; Cho, W.-J.; Lee, K. H.

    2015-10-01

    Ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs), although they have attracted considerable attention as effective immunosensors, have still not been adopted for practical applications owing to several problems: (1) the poor sensitivity caused by the short Debye screening length in media with high ion concentration, (2) time-consuming preconditioning processes for achieving the highly-diluted media, and (3) the low durability caused by undesirable ions such as sodium chloride in the media. Here, we propose a highly sensitive immunosensor based on a self-amplified transistor under dual gate operation (immuno-DG ISFET) for the detection of hepatitis B surface antigen. To address the challenges in current ISFET-based immunosensors, we have enhanced the sensitivity of an immunosensor by precisely tailoring the nanostructure of the transistor. In the pH sensing test, the immuno-DG ISFET showed superior sensitivity (2085.53 mV per pH) to both standard ISFET under single gate operation (58.88 mV per pH) and DG ISFET with a non-tailored transistor (381.14 mV per pH). Moreover, concerning the detection of hepatitis B surface antigens (HBsAg) using the immuno-DG ISFET, we have successfully detected trace amounts of HBsAg (22.5 fg mL-1) in a non-diluted 1× PBS medium with a high sensitivity of 690 mV. Our results demonstrate that the proposed immuno-DG ISFET can be a biosensor platform for practical use in the diagnosis of various diseases.Ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs), although they have attracted considerable attention as effective immunosensors, have still not been adopted for practical applications owing to several problems: (1) the poor sensitivity caused by the short Debye screening length in media with high ion concentration, (2) time-consuming preconditioning processes for achieving the highly-diluted media, and (3) the low durability caused by undesirable ions such as sodium chloride in the media. Here, we propose a highly sensitive immunosensor

  19. Electron microscopic and solution X-ray scattering observations on the structure of hepatitis B surface antigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggerbeck, L.P.; Peterson, D.L.

    1985-02-01

    The structure of the small, spherical hepatitis B surface antigen was studied by negative staining, freeze-fracture and freeze-etching electron microscopy and solution X-ray scattering techniques. The protein appears to be organized at the surface into a small number of morphological subunits which display two- and threefold axes of symmetry. The mean particle size was 18.3 nm by negative staining and 19.6 nm by freeze-fracture electron microscopy. The diameter of the individual subunits was about 7.5 nm with an intersubunit distance of about 10.0 nm. The lipid is distributed more homogeneously. Some heterogeneity of the particle structure is apparent which may be due to a slightly variable lipid-protein composition or incomplete or defective particle formation.

  20. Hepatitis B Foundation Newsletter: B Informed

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    ... Our Accomplishments Annual Reports Our Videos What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  1. A self-amplified transistor immunosensor under dual gate operation: highly sensitive detection of hepatitis B surface antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-K; Jeun, M; Jang, H-J; Cho, W-J; Lee, K H

    2015-10-28

    Ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs), although they have attracted considerable attention as effective immunosensors, have still not been adopted for practical applications owing to several problems: (1) the poor sensitivity caused by the short Debye screening length in media with high ion concentration, (2) time-consuming preconditioning processes for achieving the highly-diluted media, and (3) the low durability caused by undesirable ions such as sodium chloride in the media. Here, we propose a highly sensitive immunosensor based on a self-amplified transistor under dual gate operation (immuno-DG ISFET) for the detection of hepatitis B surface antigen. To address the challenges in current ISFET-based immunosensors, we have enhanced the sensitivity of an immunosensor by precisely tailoring the nanostructure of the transistor. In the pH sensing test, the immuno-DG ISFET showed superior sensitivity (2085.53 mV per pH) to both standard ISFET under single gate operation (58.88 mV per pH) and DG ISFET with a non-tailored transistor (381.14 mV per pH). Moreover, concerning the detection of hepatitis B surface antigens (HBsAg) using the immuno-DG ISFET, we have successfully detected trace amounts of HBsAg (22.5 fg mL(-1)) in a non-diluted 1× PBS medium with a high sensitivity of 690 mV. Our results demonstrate that the proposed immuno-DG ISFET can be a biosensor platform for practical use in the diagnosis of various diseases.

  2. M-cell targeted delivery of recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen using cholera toxin B subunit conjugated bilosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Anshuman; Katare, O P; Singh, Bhupinder; Vyas, Suresh P

    2010-01-29

    The present study aims to improve upon our earlier findings with bilosomes as potential delivery vehicle through oral route for recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). The work entails the conjugation of bilosomal system with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) to increase transmucosal uptake via M-cell specific delivery approach. The study encompasses the development and characterization of HBsAg-loaded CTB-conjugated system for percent antigen entrapment, size, shape, and stability in SGF (USP, pH 1.2), SIF (USP, pH 7.5) and in bile salt solutions. Biological activity of CTB, subsequent to conjugation, was verified by hemagglutination test. Anti-HBsAg IgG response in serum and anti-HBsAg sIgA in various body secretions were estimated using ELISA, following oral immunization with 10 microg dose-loaded CTB-conjugated bilosomes (CTB2) and 20 microg dose-loaded CTB-conjugated bilosomes (CTB1) in BALB/c mice. The results showed that CTB1 produced anti-HBsAg IgG antibody titre response comparable to that of the intramuscular (i.m.) injection of 10 microg of alum-adsorbed HBsAg. Moreover, all the bilosomal preparations elicited measurable sIgA vis-à-vis negligible response with i.m. administered HBsAg. Thus, HBsAg-loaded CTB-conjugated bilosomes provide a promising potential for targeted oral immunization against hepatitis B. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Immunological evaluation of colonic delivered Hepatitis B surface antigen loaded TLR-4 agonist modified solid fat nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Kantrol Kumar; Pandey, Ravi Shankar

    2016-10-01

    Hepatitis B is one of the leading liver diseases and remains a major global health problem. Currently available vaccines provide protection but often results in weaker/minimal mucosal immunity. Thus the present study is devoted to the development and in-vivo exploration of the colonically delivered biomimetic nanoparticles which capably enhance humoral as well as cellular immune response. In present work, Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) entrapped nanoparticles containing Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) (HB+L-NP) were prepared by solvent evaporation method and characterized for particle size (~210nm), shape, zeta potential (-24mV±0.68), entrapment efficiency (58.45±1.68%), in-vitro release and antigen integrity. Dose escalation study was done to confirm prophylactic immune response following defined doses of prepared nanoparticulate formulations with or without MPLA. Intramuscular administered alum based marketed HBsAg (Genevac B) was used as standard (10μg) and were able to induce significant systemic (IgG) but remarkably low mucosal immune (IgA) response. Notably, HB+L-NP (0.5ml-10μg) induced strong systemic and robust mucosal immunity (510 and 470 mIU/ml respectively, p<0.001) from which mucosal was more significant due to the involvement of Common Mucosal Immune System (CMIS). Likewise, significant cellular immune response was elicited by HB+L-NP through T-cell activation (mixed Th1 and Th2) as confirmed by significantly increased cytokines level (IL-2 and Interferon-γ) in spleen homogenates. This study supports that delivery of HBsAg to the colon may open new vista in designing oral vaccines later being one of most accepted route for potential vaccines in future.

  4. Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... using an infected person’s razor, toothbrush, or nail clippers You can’t get hepatitis B from being ... personal items such as toothbrushes, razors, or nail clippers using a latex or polyurethane condom during sex ...

  5. Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... personal items (such as toothbrush, razor, and nail clippers) with a person who has the virus Were ... B virus Digestive system Aggressive hepatitis Gianotti-Crosti syndrome on the leg Hepatitis B References Kim DK, ...

  6. Fine-mapping of the B-cell epitope domain at the N-terminus of the preS2 region of the hepatitis B surface antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sominskaya, Irina; Paulij, Wilma; Jansons, Juris; Sobotta, Dirk; Dreilina, Dzidra; Sunnen, Cecile; Meisel, Helga; Gerlich, Wolfram H; Pumpens, Paul

    2002-02-01

    In this study, we report the exact localization and substitutional characterization of a B-cell epitope domain at the N-terminus of the preS2 region of the hepatitis B surface antigen. A set of deletion variants containing preS2 sequences of different length was generated on the basis of frCP as a carrier. It was found after Western blot analysis that three monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) (2-11B1, 3-11C2, HB.OT10) recognized the linear preS2 sequence within the amino acid (aa) stretch 3-WNSTTFHQTLQDP-13. The importance of each aa residue of the epitope was proved by comparison of antibody binding to alanine-substituted peptides in both free-peptide and Pepscan variants.

  7. Expression of the hepatitis B surface antigen gene containing the preS2 region in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshida,Iwao

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available We constructed a plasmid, pBH103-ME5, in which the region encoding the 10 preS2 amino acid residues and the S domain of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg were regulated by the promoter of the yeast repressible acid phosphatase gene. Saccharomyces cerevisiae carrying pBH103-ME5 produced the HBs antigen (yHBsAg, when it was cultured in a medium containing a low concentration of phosphate. The antigen was purified to homogeneity. Its molecular weight was determined by Western blotting to be 24,000, and its amino acid composition agreed well with that deduced from the nucleotide sequence. The C-terminal amino acid sequence of yHBsAg was exactly the same as that predicted from the nucleotide sequence, while the N-terminal amino acid acetylserine, which was followed by 8 amino acid residues coded by the preS2 region. These results indicate that the recombinant yeast produced a single polypeptide consisting of the preS2 region and the subsequent S domain after being processed at the N-terminus

  8. Confluent peripheral multiple mononeuropathy associated to acute hepatitis B: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CANIELLO Marcello

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A thirty three year-old, male patient was admitted at the Hospital of the São Paulo University School of Medicine, at the city of São Paulo, Brazil, with complaint of pains, tingling and decreased sensibility in the right hand for the last four months. This had progressed to the left hand, left foot and right foot, in addition to a difficulty of flexing and stretching in the left foot. Tests were positive for HBeAg, IgM anti-HBc and HBsAg, thus characterizing the condition of acute hepatitis B. The ALT serum level was 15 times above the upper normal limit. Blood glucose, cerebral spinal fluid, antinuclear antibodies (ANA and anti-HIV and anti-HCV serum tests were either normal or negative. Electroneuromyography disclosed severe peripheral neuropathy with an axon prevalence and signs of denervation; nerve biopsy disclosed intense vasculitis. The diagnosis of multiple confluent mononeuropathy associated to acute hepatitis B was done. This association is not often reported in international literature and its probable cause is the direct action of the hepatitis B virus on the nerves or a vasculitis of the vasa nervorum brought about by deposits of immune complexes.

  9. Human hepatitis B viral e antigen and its precursor P20 inhibit T lymphocyte proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purvina, Maija; Hoste, Astrid; Rossignol, Jean-Michel [Universite de Versailles-Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Laboratoire de Genetique et Biologie Cellulaire, EA 4589, 45 avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Lagaudriere-Gesbert, Cecile, E-mail: cecile.lagaudriere-gesbert@u-psud.fr [Universite de Versailles-Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Laboratoire de Genetique et Biologie Cellulaire, EA 4589, 45 avenue des Etats-Unis, 78035 Versailles (France)

    2012-01-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer P20, precursor of the HBeAg, interacts with the cellular protein gC1qR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBeAg and P20 bind to T cell surface and inhibit mitogen-induced T cell division. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBeAg and P20 inhibition of T cell proliferation is gC1qR and IL-1RAcP-independent. -- Abstract: The hepatitis B virus (HBV) Precore protein is processed through the secretory pathway directly as HBeAg or with the generation of an intermediate (P20). Precore gene has been shown to be implicated in viral persistence, but the functions of HBeAg and its precursors have not been fully elucidated. We show that the secreted proteins HBeAg and P20 interact with T cell surface and alter Kit-225 and primary T cells proliferation, a process which may facilitate the establishment of HBV persistence. Our data indicate that the N-terminal end of Precore is important for these inhibitory effects and exclude that they are dependent on the association of HBeAg and P20 with two characterized cell surface ligands, the Interleukin-1 Receptor Accessory Protein and gC1qR (present study).

  10. Seroprevalence of anti-HCV and hepatitis B surface antigen in HIV infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tankhiwale S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is known to influence the natural history of infections with certain hepatitis viruses and interactions between HIV and hepatitis viruses may potentiate HIV replication. There is high degree of epidemiological similarity between hepatitis B virus and HIV as regard to high-risk group and route of transmission. Transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV through blood transfusion and intravenous drug abuse is well documented. Present study deals with the study of concurrent infection of HBV and HCV with HIV infection. In the study of 110 HIV seropositive patients, 34(30.4% were positive for HBV and 8(7.27% for HCV. The difference of concomitant infection was highly significant compared to controls. (p value < 0.0001. Heterosexual high risk behaviour was observed in 89(80.91% of 110 HIV positive patients, out of which 23(25.8% and 5(5.62% were HBsAg and anti-HCV positive respectively. History of transmission was unclear in remaining patients. Concomitant infection of HIV and HBV was found to be significantly more in the symptomatic group (40.68% compared to asymptomatic group (19.6%. As HIV infection is known to affect the natural history of both HBV and HCV infection, screening of their concurrent association is necessary.

  11. Hepatitis B virus-like particles access major histocompatibility class I and II antigen presentation pathways in primary dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, Jessica M; Cheong, Wan-Shoo; Villadangos, José A; Mintern, Justine D; Netter, Hans J

    2013-04-26

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) represent high density displays of viral proteins that efficiently trigger immunity. VLPs composed of the small hepatitis B virus envelope protein (HBsAgS) are useful vaccine platforms that induce humoral and cellular immune responses. Notably, however, some studies suggest HBsAgS VLPs impair dendritic cell (DC) function. Here we investigated HBsAgS VLP interaction with DC subsets and antigen access to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II antigen presentation pathways in primary DCs. HBsAgS VLPs impaired plasmacytoid DC (pDC) interferon alpha (IFNα) production in response to CpG in vitro, but did not alter conventional DC (cDC) or pDC phenotype when administered in vivo. To assess cellular immune responses, HBsAgS VLPs were generated containing the ovalbumin (OVA) model epitopes OVA(257-264) and OVA(323-339) to access MHCI and MHCII antigen presentation pathways, respectively; both in vitro and following immunisation in vivo. HBsAgS VLP-OVA(257-264) elicited CTL responses in vivo that were not enhanced by inclusion of an additional MHCII helper epitope. HBsAgS VLP-OVA(257-264) administered in vivo was cross-presented by CD8(+) DCs, but not CD8(-) DCs. Therefore, HBsAgS VLPs can deliver antigen to both MHCI and MHCII antigen presentation pathways in primary DCs and promote cytotoxic and helper T cell priming despite their suppressive effect on pDCs.

  12. Hepatitis B virus infection risk factors and immunity among sexually transmitted disease clinic clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepka, Mary Jo; Weisbord, Joanna S; Zhang, Guoyan; Brewer, Toye

    2003-12-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a sexually transmitted infection that can be prevented with hepatitis B vaccination. The goal was to determine prevalence and risk factors for HBV infection and immunity among sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic clients. In this cross-sectional study, consenting adult STD clinic clients were interviewed regarding HBV risk factors and vaccination history, and blood was drawn for HBV serologic testing. Of the 682 participants, 154 (22.6%) had antibody to hepatitis B core antigen, indicating previous infection, and 64 (9.4%) had only antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen, indicating immunity as a result of hepatitis B vaccination. Only 130 (19.1%) of all participants reported receiving at least one dose of hepatitis B vaccine. The majority of clients were susceptible to HBV, were at high risk for HBV infection, and would benefit from hepatitis B vaccination.

  13. Fulminant hepatitis B reactivation leading to liver transplantation in a patient with chronic hepatitis C treated with simeprevir and sofosbuvir: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ende, Alexander R.; Kim, Nina H.; Yeh, Matthew M.; Harper, Jason; Landis, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hepatitis B and C coinfection is commonly seen in clinical practice. In coinfected individuals, high levels of hepatitis C viremia are often associated with low levels of serum hepatitis B DNA. Hepatitis B reactivation in hepatitis C-infected patients treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin has been reported, but severe or fulminant reactivation is uncommon. Hepatitis C treatment-associated hepatitis B reactivation in patients with chronic hepatitis C and isolated core an...

  14. EVALUATION OF HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGEN POSITIVITY IN ANTENATAL WOMEN AND ROLE OF ANTIVIRAL THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhansi Rani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Hepatitis B infection is a major global health problem . AIM : of the study is to identify the antenatal women who are HBsAg positive and to evaluate their viremic status to prevent vertical transmission from mother to foetus and role of antiviral therapy in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN : I s two centres prospective cohort study. All the pregnant women who attended the antenatal OPD in Government Victoria hospital/ Andhra Medical C ollege , Visakhapatnam between February 2013 and September 2014 were evaluated. METHODS AND MATERIAL : HBs Ag screening was done using Rapid Stick test to all the pregnant women attending the OPD. 6400 members were screened. 100 subjects were HBsAg positive and confirmed by using ELISA technique. Evaluation for HBeAg and HBV viral load is done in all subjects. If HBV DNA is > 10 5 log copies/ml and Alanine transaminase (ALT is > 2 ULN or HBV DNA is >10 8 log copies/ml will be offered telbivudine therapy. RESULTS: Of the 6400 members screened , 100(1.5% were HBsAg positive. Of them , 10% were HBe Ag positive and 2% had HBV DNA > 10 5 log copies/ml. These patients were treated with drug , telbivudine in their third trimester. The HBV DNA level at the time of delivery is below 10 5 log copies/ml. The babies of these patients were checked for HBsAg and HBV DNA at birth and at 7th month which were negative and also for anti HBS at 7th month. CONCLUSIONS : The present study shows that HBsAg positive antenatal women are not prone for maternal and foetal complications. HBeAg positive individuals with high viremia need to be treated with antiviral drugs during the last trimester of pregnancy in order to prevent vertical transmission.

  15. Cycling and Tai Chi Chuan exercises exert greater immunomodulatory effect on surface antigen expression of human hepatitis B virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yu-yawn; CHIANG Jasson; CHEN Yu-jen; CHEN Kung-tung; YANG Rong-sen; LIN Jaung-geng

    2008-01-01

    Background Both athletes with intensive exercise and aged people may have weakened immunity against virus infection.This study aimed to evaluate whether people undergoing aerobic exercises including competitive cyctists with moderate training (CMT) and middle-aged people practicing Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) exercise have higher immunity against hepatitis B virus than age-matched sedentary controls including college students (CSC) and middle-aged people (MSC).Methods Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from competitive cyclists and sedentary controls were stimulated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) to prepare conditioned medium (MNC-CM) for the assessment of inhibitory effects on hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) expression in human hepatoma Hep3B cells.Results The inhibitory effects on the relative HBsAg expression of CMT's and TCC's MNC-CM were greater than those of the controls.The CMT's MNC-CM prepared from 5 pg/ml PHA decreased HBsAg expression to 61.5%,whereas that of CSC remained at 83.8%.Similarly,this expression by treatment of TCC group' MNC-CM was 68.4% whereas that of MSC group was 84.3%.The levels of cytokines such as interferon-y (IFN-y),tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-α),IFN-α and interleukin-1β(1L-1β) in the MNC-CM from the CMT and TCC groups were greater than those in the controls.Antibody neutralization of CMT's MNC-CM and addition of recombinant cytokines into CSC's MNC-CM indicated that IFN-y,TNF-α and IFN-α had synergistic effects against HBsAg expression.Similar blocking effect was noted in TCC versus MSC groups.Conclusion These results suggest that the immunomodulatory response to suppress HBsAg expression in CMT and TCC with moderate aerobic exercise is greater than that in age-matched sedentary controls.

  16. Use of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive grafts in liver transplantation: a matched analysis of the US National database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiwei; Hu, Zhenhua; Xiang, Jie; Zhou, Jie; Yan, Sheng; Wu, Jian; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Shusen

    2014-01-01

    The scarcity of available donor organs is the key challenge in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). A viable way of expanding the donor pool is the use of liver grafts from hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive donors. The present study used the US Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients database (1987-2010), and each of the 78 patients who underwent OLT with HBsAg-positive grafts was matched with 4 patients who received HBsAg-negative grafts by urgent status, donor sex, recipient sex, donor age, recipient age, transplant date, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score, and warm ischemia time. The overall graft and patient survival rates were similar for recipients of HBsAg-positive grafts and matched controls: the 5-year graft survival rates were 66% and 64%, respectively (P = 0.95), and the 5-year patient survival rates were 71% and 71%, respectively (P = 0.87). A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis that was adjusted for other variables showed no impact of the donor HBsAg status on graft or patient survival. The use of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) was independently associated with better posttransplant graft survival [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.06-0.81] and patient survival (HR = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.04-0.75) for recipients of HBsAg-positive grafts. In conclusion, the use of HBsAg-positive liver grafts did not reduce posttransplant graft or patient survival. Moreover, matching these donors to recipients treated with HBIG may improve safety.

  17. A simple and inexpensive point-of-care test for hepatitis B surface antigen detection: serological and molecular evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gish, R G; Gutierrez, J A; Navarro-Cazarez, N; Giang, K; Adler, D; Tran, B; Locarnini, S; Hammond, R; Bowden, S

    2014-12-01

    Early identification of chronic hepatitis B is important for optimal disease management and prevention of transmission. Cost and lack of access to commercial hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) immunoassays can compromise the effectiveness of HBV screening in resource-limited settings and among marginalized populations. High-quality point-of-care (POC) testing may improve HBV diagnosis in these situations. Currently available POC HBsAg assays are often limited in sensitivity. We evaluated the NanoSign(®) HBs POC chromatographic immunoassay for its ability to detect HBsAg of different genotypes and with substitutions in the 'a' determinant. Thirty-seven serum samples from patients with HBV infection, covering HBV genotypes A-G, were assessed for HBsAg titre with the Roche Elecsys HBsAg II quantification assay and with the POC assay. The POC assay reliably detected HBsAg at a concentration of at least 50 IU/mL for all genotypes, and at lower concentrations for some genotypes. Eight samples with substitutions in the HBV 'a' determinant were reliably detected after a 1/100 dilution. The POC strips were used to screen serum samples from 297 individuals at risk for HBV in local clinical settings (health fairs and outreach events) in parallel with commercial laboratory HBsAg testing (Quest Diagnostics EIA). POC testing was 73.7% sensitive and 97.8% specific for detection of HBsAg. Although the POC test demonstrated high sensitivity over a range of genotypes, false negatives were frequent in a clinical setting. Nevertheless, the POC assay offers advantages for testing in both developed and resource-limited countries due to its low cost (0.50$) and immediately available results. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Circulating MicroRNAs in Plasma of Hepatitis B e Antigen Positive Children Reveal Liver-Specific Target Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilde Nordmann Winther

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. Hepatitis B e antigen positive (HBeAg-positive children are at high risk of severe complications such as hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis. Liver damage is caused by the host immune response to infected hepatocytes, and we hypothesise that specific microRNAs play a role in this complex interaction between virus and host. The study aimed to identify microRNAs with aberrant plasma expressions in HBeAg-positive children and with liver-specific target genes. Methods. By revisiting our previous screen of microRNA plasma levels in HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative children with chronic hepatitis B (CHB and in healthy controls, candidate microRNAs with aberrant plasma expressions in HBeAg-positive children were identified. MicroRNAs targeting liver-specific genes were selected based on bioinformatics analysis and validated by qRT-PCR using plasma samples from 34 HBeAg-positive, 26 HBeAg-negative, and 60 healthy control children. Results. Thirteen microRNAs showed aberrant plasma expressions in HBeAg-positive children and targeted liver-specific genes. In particular, three microRNAs were upregulated and one was downregulated in HBeAg-positive children compared to HBeAg-negative and healthy control children, which showed equal levels. Conclusion. The identified microRNAs might impact the progression of CHB in children. Functional studies are warranted, however, to elucidate the microRNAs’ role in the immunopathogenesis of childhood CHB.

  19. Expression of transforming growth factor-α and hepatitis B surface antigen in human hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and its significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Zhang; Wen-Liang Wang; Qing Li; Qing Qiao

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the expression of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-α) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and its significance. METHODS: Seventy specimens of HCC tissues were detected by immunohistochemical method. Five specimens of normal human liver tissues were used as control. RESULTS: The TGF-α positive expression rates in HCC and its surrounding tissues were 74.3%(52/70) and 88. t%(52/59), respectively. TGF-α positive granules were mainly in the cytoplasm and fewer existed on the karyotheca. The TGF-α positive expressing rate in well differentiated HCC was significantly higher than that in moderately and poorly differentiated HCC (P<0.05). The TGF-α positive expression also was observed in intrahepatic bile ducts (part of those were hyperplastic ducts). The HBsAg positive expression rates in HCC and its surrounding tissues were 21.4%(15/70) and 79.7%(47/59), respectively. HBsAg positive granules were in the cytoplasm, inclusion and on the karyotheca. There was a prominent positive correlation between TGF-α and HBsAg expression in HCC surrounding tissues (P<0.05, γ=0.34). TGF-α was usually existed with HBsAg in regenerated and/or dysplastic liver cells. In the five normal liver tissues, TGF-α and HBsAg were not detectable in hepatocytes and bile ducts.CONCLUSION: Hepatitis B virus infection is closely related with hepatocarcinogenesis. The overexpression of TGF-α in the liver seems to be associated with the regeneration of hepatocytes injured by HBsAg. The continued expression of TGF-α might lead to dysplasia of liver cells and development of HCC. Furthermore, TGF-α might play a role in morphogenesis and regeneration of intrahepatic bile ducts.

  20. Breaking tolerance in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) transgenic mice by vaccination with cross-reactive, natural HBsAg variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schirmbeck, Reinhold; Dikopoulos, Nektarios; Kwissa, Marcin;

    2003-01-01

    Processing exogenous hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) generates the K(b)-binding S(208-215) epitope 1; processing endogenous HBsAg generates the K(b)-binding S(190-197) epitope 2. Cross-reactive CD8(+) T cell responses were primed to epitope 1 but not epitope 2...... HBs-tg mice showed reduced antigenemia. Hence, vaccination with natural HBsAg variants from different HBV sero/genotypes can prime cross-reactive, specific CD8(+) T cell immunity that breaks tolerance to HBsAg....

  1. Long-term outcome of hepatitis B e antigen-positive patients with compensated cirrhosis treated with interferon alfa. European Concerted Action on Viral Hepatitis (EUROHEP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattovich, G; Giustina, G; Realdi, G;

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether interferon alfa (IFN-alpha) treatment-associated virological and biochemical remission improves survival in a cohort of 90 white patients with compensated cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B (Child A) followed for a mean period of 7 years. Inclusion...... criteria were biopsy-proven cirrhosis, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positivity, abnormal serum aminotransferase levels, exclusion of hepatitis delta virus, and absence of complications of cirrhosis. Of the 40 IFN-treated patients, 27 (67%) showed sustained HBeAg loss with alanine aminotransferase (ALT...

  2. The risk of perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission: hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg prevalence estimates for all world regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ott Jördis J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HBeAg presence in childbearing-age women is a major determinant of perinatal hepatitis B virus (HBV transmission. The risk of developing chronic HBV infection and liver disease is highest at young age. Our aim was to assess perinatal HBV transmission risk by means of estimating age- and region-specific HBeAg prevalence. Methods Based on observed HBeAg seroprevalence data obtained from a systematic literature review, we modeled HBeAg prevalence using an empirical Bayesian hierarchical model. Age- and region-specific estimates were generated for 1990 and 2005. Results Globally, highest HBeAg prevalence of over 50 % was found in 0–9 years old girls. At reproductive age, HBeAg prevalence was 20-50 %. Prevalence was highest in young females in East Asia in 1990 (78 %, the infection was less common in Sub-Saharan and North Africa. Regional differences in prevalence were smaller in 2005. There was an overall decrease in HBeAg between 1990 and 2005, which was strongest among girls in Oceania (23.3 % decline, South and South-East Asia (14 % decline. However, in these regions, prevalence remained high at 67 % among young females in 2005. Smaller decreases were observed in women at reproductive age, at which 24-32 % of all HBsAg-positive women were HBeAg-positive in 2005, with lowest prevalence in Southern Sub-Saharan Africa and highest prevalence in Oceania and South-East Asia. Conclusions HBeAg estimates are crucial for understanding the epidemiology of HBV and for prioritizing implementation of WHO`s prevention recommendations for all infants to receive the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine within 24 hours of birth. Results will have importance as access to treatment for chronic HBV infection is expanded.

  3. Rapid detection of hepatitis B virus DNA in liver tissue by in situ hybridisation and its combination with immunohistochemistry for simultaneous detection of HBV antigens.

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, J. Y.; Naoumov, N V; Alexander, G J; Williams, R

    1991-01-01

    A rapid technique using a non-radioactive receptor molecule (digoxigenin) for intrahepatic hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA detection using in situ hybridisation was developed. It can be adapted for use in combination with standard immunohistochemistry for simultaneous detection of both HBV DNA and HBV antigens. The total time required for dual detection of HBV antigens and HBV DNA starting from paraffin wax liver sections was two working days. A good signal to background ratio for the detection o...

  4. Combination of small interfering RNAs mediates greater inhibition of human hepatitis B virus replication and antigen expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhe; XU Ze-feng; YE Jing-jia; YAO Hang-ping; ZHENG Shu; DING Jia-yi

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the inhibitory effect mediated by combination of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting different sites of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transcripts on the viral replication and antigen expression in vitro. Methods: (1) Seven siRNAs targeting surface (S), polymerase (P) or precore (PreC) region ofHBV genome were designed and chemically synthesized.(2) HBV-producing HepG2.2.15 cells were treated with or without siRNAs for 72 h. (3) HBsAg and HBeAg in the cell culture medium were detected by enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay. (4) Intracellular viral DNA was quantified by real-time PCR(Polymerase Chain Reaction). (5) HBV viral mRNA was reverse transcribed and quantified by real-time PCR. (6) The change of cell cycle and apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. Results: Our data demonstrated that synthetic small interfering RNAs(siRNAs) targeting S and PreC gene could efficiently and specifically inhibit HBV replication and antigen expression. The expression of HBsAg and HBeAg and the replication of HBV could be specifically inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by siRNAs.Furthermore, our results showed that the combination of siRNAs targeting various regions could inhibit HBV replication and antigen expression in a more efficient way than the use of single siRNA at the same final concentration. No apoptotic change was observed in the cell after siRNA treatment. Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that siRNAs exerted robust and specific inhibition on HBV replication and antigen expression in a cell culture system and combination of siRNAs targeting different regions exhibited more potency.

  5. The supercritical CO₂ extract from the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor blocks hepatitis B virus antigen secretion in HepG2.2.15 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaoyan; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Wang, Dongliang; Gao, Jianjun; Qi, Fanghua; Gao, Bo; Kokudo, Norihiro; Fang, Dingzhi; Tang, Wei

    2014-02-01

    The skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor has long been used for the treatment of hepatitis B in China and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SC-CO₂) is widely used in extracting active ingredients from natural products. The aim of present study was to assess the anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) effect of the supercritical CO₂ extract from the skin of Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor (SCE-BC). Cytotoxicity of SCE-BC was analyzed using an MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay in HepG2.2.15 cells. The hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), and hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) concentrations in cell culture medium were determined by chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay. HBV mRNA in cells was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. SCE-BC concentrations below 10(-2) μg/mL had no significant toxicity to HepG2.2.15 cells. SCE-BC at 10(-4) μg/mL effectively inhibited the secretion of HBeAg by 23.36% on day 6. It was more potent than the positive control lamivudine (100 μg/mL) in terms of the inhibition of HBeAg and HBcrAg secretion on day 6. Consistent with the HBV antigen reduction, HBV mRNA expression was markedly inhibited in comparison to the control when HepG2.2.15 cells were treated with SCE-BC. Moreover, SCE-BC had greater inhibitory activity with respect to HBeAg than to HBsAg. Since HBeAg promotes immune tolerance and persistent infection during HBV infection, the present results suggest that immune tolerance induced by HBeAg might be overcome by SCE-BC. Therefore, SCE-BC warrants further investigation.

  6. Development of hepatitis C virus vaccine using hepatitis B core antigen as immuno-carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Yu Chen; Fan Li

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To develop hepatitis C virus (HCV) vaccine using HBcAg as the immuno-carrier to express HCV T epitope and to investigate its immunogenicity in mice.METHODS: We constructed the plasmid pTrc-coreNheI using gene engineering technique, constructed the pcDNA3.1-coreNheI-GFP plasmid with GFP as the reporter gene, and transfected them into Hela cells.The expression of GFP was observed under confocal microscopy and the feasibility of using HBcAg as an immuno-carrier vaccine was studied. pTrc-core gene with a synthetic T epitope antigen gene of HCV (35-44aa) was fused and expressed in the plasmid pTrccore-HCV (T). For the fusion of the HBcAg-T protein,sucrose, density gradient centrifugation was used, and its molecular weight and purity were analyzed by SDSPAGE. Then balb/c mice were immunized by the plasmid with the HBcAg (expressed by pTrc-core) protein as control. The tumor regression potential was investigated in mice and evaluated at appropriate time. After three times of immunization, the peripheral blood and spleen of vaccinated mice were collected. HBcAb was detected by ELISA, and nonspecific T lymphocyte proliferation and response of splenocytes were respectively examined by MTT assay. T cell subset of blood and spleen were detected by FACS.RESULTS: GFP was successfully expressed. Tumor regression trial showed that no tumor formation was found in the group receiving immunization, while tumor xenograft progression was not changed in the control group. Strong nonspecific lymphocyte proliferation response was induced. FACS also showed that the ratio of CD8+T cells in the experimental group was higher than the controls, but the serum HBcAb in experimental group was similar to the control.CONCLUSION: HBcAg can be used as an immunocarrier of vaccine, the fusion of HBcAg-T protein could induce stronger cellular immune responses and it might be a candidate for therapeutic vaccines specific for HCV.

  7. Hepatitis B Virus Reactivation after Partial Hepatic Irradiation Alone: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Kyung [Dankook University College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    Reactivation of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a well-recognized complication in patients with chronic HBV infection who receive cytotoxic or other immunosuppressive therapy. In cases of patients treated by radiotherapy however, only a few of such reports exist and most of these include the patients previously treated by chemotherapy or transarterial chemoembolization. The results of this study point to a case of a patient with reactivation of HBV after radiotherapy alone. This study shows the possibility of HBV reactivation by partial hepatic irradiation alone hence, special attention should be paid to patients with HBV disease.

  8. Human leukocyte antigen-DP loci are associated with the persistent infection of hepatitis B virus in Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Yun; ZHANG Dong-Hua; JIN Gen-Di; GONG Qi-Ming; ZHANG Xin-Xin; LIAO Xiang-Wei; LI Xin-Hua; HAN Yue; YANG Zhi-Tao; KONG Xiao-Fei; GU Lei-Lei; YU De-Ming; YAO Bi-Lian

    2012-01-01

    A genome-wide association study recently showed that genetic variants in human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DP loci were strongly associated with a risk of persistent infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Japanese and Thai individuals and variants in interleukin 28B (IL-28B) have been associated with responses to anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment.The aim of this study was to investigate whether the HLA-DP loci and IL-28B were associated with different outcomes of chronic HBV infection (CHB) in Chinese subjects.The rs9277535 near HLA-DPB1,rs3077 near HLA-DPA1,and rs12979860 near IL-28B were genotyped by direct sequencing in 185 CHB patients and 193 self-limited hepatitis B virus (SLHBV)-infected subjects who recovered from HBV infection.The rs9277535 near HLA-DPB1 was strongly associated with CHB ( P =0.000018 1,OR =1.905).This association was observed independent of HBV e antigen (HBeAg) status and HBV viral loads in HBeAg-positive CHB patients (P =0.0004,OR =1.956),in HBeAg-negative CHB patients (P =0.000 9,OR =1.857),and in HBeAg-negative CHB individuals without detectable levels of HBV DNA in serum ( P =0.001 1,OR =2.05).The rs3077 near HLA-DPA1 was associated with CHB (P =0.020 6,OR =0.686 5) and HBeAg-positive CHB infection status ( P =0.014 3,OR =0.604 7).Meanwhile,a genetic variation of insertion-deletion (INDEL) polymorphism (rs361527,-/ATAAATGTTGA) near HLA-DPA1 was found to be associated with CHB (P =0.030 7,OR =0.702 8)and HBeAg-positive CHB infection status (P =0.023 3,OR =0.619).However,the rs12979860 genotype near IL-28B had no correlation with CHB.This study demonstrated that in the Han Chinese populations,HLA-DP loci,but not IL-28B,were associated with persistence of infection in different outcomes of HBVinfected patients; however,the mechanism needs to be further investigated.

  9. HD-03/ES: A Herbal Medicine Inhibits Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Secretion in Transfected Human Hepatocarcinoma PLC/PRF/5 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Sandeep R; Sundaram, R; Gopumadhavan, S; Vidyashankar, Satyakumar; Patki, Pralhad S

    2013-01-01

    HD-03/ES is a herbal formulation used for the treatment of hepatitis B. However, the molecular mechanism involved in the antihepatitis B (HBV) activity of this drug has not been studied using in vitro models. The effect of HD-03/ES on hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) secretion and its gene expression was studied in transfected human hepatocarcinoma PLC/PRF/5 cells. The anti-HBV activity was tested based on the inhibition of HBsAg secretion into the culture media, as detected by HBsAg-specific antibody-mediated enzyme assay (ELISA) at concentrations ranging from 125 to 1000  μ g/mL. The effect of HD-03/ES on HBsAg gene expression was analyzed using semiquantitative multiplex RT-PCR by employing specific primers. The results showed that HD-03/ES suppressed HBsAg production with an IC50 of 380  μ g/mL in PLC/PRF/5 cells for a period of 24 h. HD-03/ES downregulated HBsAg gene expression in PLC/PRF/5 cells. In conclusion, HD-03/ES exhibits strong anti-HBV properties by inhibiting the secretion of hepatitis B surface antigen in PLC/PRF/5 cells, and this action is targeted at the transcription level. Thus, HD-03/ES could be beneficial in the treatment of acute and chronic hepatitis B infections.

  10. Construction of Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) Expressing Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The T lymphocyte response has been shown to be the determinant in the clearance of many viral infections.Hence, therapeutic vaccine candidates against HBV are designed to enhance this response of the immune system.Vaccinia virus vector-based vaccines have been proposed as excellent candidates to elicit long-term and strong T lymphocyte mediated immune responses. In this study, the recombinant MVA expressing HBV surface antigen has been constructed, which can elicit a potent T cell mediated response. The ELISA results for the surface protein in the medium of the recombinant MVA, strongly indicate that the recombinant virus has been successfully obtained.

  11. De Novo Hepatitis B Infection From Hepatitis B Core Antibody-Positive Donors During Hepatitis B Immunoglobulin Prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Milljae; Chang, Seong-Hwan

    2016-02-01

    De novo hepatitis B infection in patients receiving liver transplants from hepatitis B core antibody-positive donors is well known, but the effective prevention strategy has not been well established. In our hospital, recipients receive hepatitis B immunoglobulin monotherapy if they are hepatitis B surface antigen negative at the time of transplant and are receiving a liver from a hepatitis B core antibody-positive donor. Since August 2006, we have had 4 patients who were naïve to hepatitis B virus and received a hepatitis B core antibody-positive graft. Two patients died of other causes, and 2 patients, who had liver transplant in October 2006 and October 2009, developed de novo hepatitis B. Both patients were tested annually for serum hepatitis B surface antigen as part of routine visit. Tests were negative; however, both patients recently became hepatitis B surface antigen positive. Other laboratory results, including liver function test, were unremarkable, except HBsAb titer was undetectable even though hepatitis B immunoglobulin monotherapy had been administrated 2 months previously in both patients. The patients had hepatitis B virus DNA levels of 3.07E+08 copies/mL and 1.51E+08 copies/mL. We suggest that additional prophylactic therapies above hepatitis B immunoglobulin monotherapy are needed for these recipients.

  12. The prevalence of mutations in the major hydrophilic region of the surface antigen of hepatitis B virus varies with subgenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X Y; Harrison, T J; He, X; Chen, Q Y; Li, G J; Liu, M H; Li, H; Yang, J Y; Fang, Z L

    2015-12-01

    Mutations in the major hydrophilic region (MHR) of the surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBV) may result in vaccine escape, failure of immunotherapy and antiviral resistance. These mutants may be transmitted and constitute a public health threat. We aimed to determine the prevalence of MHR mutations of HBV in areas of high endemicity in Guangxi, China. HBV surface gene was analysed from 278 HBsAg-positive asymptomatic individuals recruited from Guangxi using cluster sampling. Three genotypes, B, C and I, were identified. The overall prevalence of MHR mutations is 17·6%. The prevalence of MHR mutations in genotype B (15·1%) is not significantly different from that in genotype C (16·4%). However, the prevalence in subgenotype C5 (31·1%) is significantly higher than in subgenotype C2 (13·0%) (χ 2 = 6·997, P subgenotype C5 is significantly higher than in subgenotypes B2 and C2. In total, 7·9% of MHR mutants are escape mutations and 72·1% of MHR mutations produced amino-acid changes in the overlapping polymerase, including resistance mutations to entecavir. Our results suggest that the prevalence of MHR mutations varies with subgenotype. The prevalence of escape mutations and polymerase mutations may be associated with subgenotype.

  13. Sero-Prevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Amongst Pregnant Women Attending an Antenatal Clinic, Volta Region, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassah, Sylvester; Lokpo, Sylvester; Ameke, Louise; Noagbe, Mark; Adatara, Peter; Hagan, Oheneba; Binka, Fred

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a global challenge, although there is currently a safe and effective vaccine available. HBV prevalence in Ghana is not well documented, but vary regionally from 4.8% to 12.3% in the general population, 10.8% to 12.7% in blood donors and about 10.6% in pregnant women. This puts Ghana among the high endemic countries in Africa. The study objective was to determine the sero-prevalence of HBs antigen (Ag) and HBeAg among pregnant women in the Ho municipality. Two hundred and eigh participants (pregnant women), attending Ho Municipal antenatal clinic were enrolled into the study. This study recorded a HBsAg sero-prevalence rate of 2.4% among the pregnant women, with primigravida pregnant women recording (0.98%) and multigravida (1.42%). The prevalence of HBsAg among the pregnant women can be classified as Low Intermediate; therefore there is still the need for routine screening of pregnant women during antenatal visits. Amongst HBsAg positives, HBeAg positivity was significantly high (40% of all HBsAg positive women), which suggests high chances of carrier and vertical transmission (mother to child) state. PMID:28299162

  14. Pectinesterase Inhibitor from Jelly Fig (Ficus awkeotsang Makino Achene Inhibits Surface Antigen Expression by Human Hepatitis B Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chuen Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pectinesterase inhibitor (PEI isolated from jelly fig (Ficus awkeotsang Makino is an edible component of a popular drink consumed in Asia. Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is prevalent in Asia, and current treatments for HBV infection need improvement. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of PEI on the surface antigen expression by HBV (HBsAg. Human hepatoma cell lines Hep3B and Huh7 served as in vitro models for assessing the cytotoxicity and HBsAg expression. A culture of primary hepatocytes cultured from mice served as the normal counterpart. Cell viability was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT colorimetric assay. HBsAg expression was evaluated by measuring HBsAg secretion into the culture medium using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed that PEI did not affect the viability of the human hepatoma cell lines or primary mouse hepatocytes. PEI inhibited the expression of HBsAg in hepatoma cell lines harboring endogenous (Hep3B and integrated (Huh7 HBV genomes in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, thus implicating a universal activity against HBV gene expression. In conclusion, it suggests that PEI from jelly fig inhibits the expression of human HBsAg in host cells without toxic effects on normal primary hepatocytes.

  15. Detection of Rubisco and mycotoxins as potential contaminants of a plantibody against the hepatitis B surface antigen purified from tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geada, Déborah; Valdés, Rodolfo; Escobar, Arturo; Ares, Dulce M; Torres, Edel; Blanco, Reinaldo; Ferro, Williams; Dorta, Dayamí; González, Marcos; Alemán, María R; Padilla, Sigifredo; Gómez, Leonardo; Del Castillo, Norma; Mendoza, Otto; Urquiza, Dioslaida; Soria, Yordanka; Brito, José; Leyva, Alberto; Borroto, Carlos; Gavilondo, Jorge V

    2007-10-01

    Antibodies have been one of the proteins widely expressed in tobacco plants for pharmaceutical purposes, which demand contaminant free preparations. Rubisco constitutes 40-60% of tobacco leaf soluble proteins; therefore it is the major potential protein contaminant of plantibodies, while mycotoxins are toxic compounds that could be introduced during the biomass production and post-harvest stages with important consequences to human health. The objective of this paper was to investigate whether Rubisco and mycotoxins are present in Plantibody HB-01 preparations used in the immunopurification of the hepatitis B surface antigen. Rubisco was purified from Nicotiana tabacum yielding 154 microg of protein per gram of leaves and purity over 95%. Among mouse monoclonal antibodies generated against this enzyme, the CBSS.Rub-2 was selected for its immunodetection. It recognizes a conserved sequential epitope of Rubisco large subunit with an affinity constant of 0.13 x 10(8)M(-1). Rubisco quantification limit was 1 microg spreading to the measurement of this contaminant less than 4% of plantibodies samples. Additionally, according to a Reverse Phase-HPLC used to measure the level of adventitiously introduced contaminants, it can be concluded that aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 were undetected in the purified Plantibody HB-01 samples.

  16. Enhanced cell disruption strategy in the release of recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen from Pichia pastoris using response surface methodology

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    Tam Yew

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell disruption strategies by high pressure homogenizer for the release of recombinant Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg from Pichia pastoris expression cells were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM based on the central composite design (CCD. The factors studied include number of passes, biomass concentration and pulse pressure. Polynomial models were used to correlate the above mentioned factors to project the cell disruption capability and specific protein release of HBsAg from P. pastoris cells. Results The proposed cell disruption strategy consisted of a number of passes set at 20 times, biomass concentration of 7.70 g/L of dry cell weight (DCW and pulse pressure at 1,029 bar. The optimized cell disruption strategy was shown to increase cell disruption efficiency by 2-fold and 4-fold for specific protein release of HBsAg when compared to glass bead method yielding 75.68% cell disruption rate (CDR and HBsAg concentration of 29.20 mg/L respectively. Conclusions The model equation generated from RSM on cell disruption of P. pastoris was found adequate to determine the significant factors and its interactions among the process variables and the optimum conditions in releasing HBsAg when validated against a glass bead cell disruption method. The findings from the study can open up a promising strategy for better recovery of HBsAg recombinant protein during downstream processing.

  17. [Development of a new hydrophobic interaction chromatography absorbent and its application to the purification of recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang-Mu; Bi, Jing-Xiu; Zhao, Lan; Zhou, Wei-Bin; Li, Yan; Huang, Yong-Dong; Zhang, Yan; Lin, Hai; Su, Zhi-Guo

    2006-03-01

    A new hydrophobic absorbent based on homemade highly cross-linked agarose beads was synthesized by immobilizing butyl derivative onto the matrix linkage. The density of ligand was controlled by adjusting the concentration of butanethiol and the synthesis route was optimized by evaluating the purification efficiency of recombinant Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) expressed by Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line. A high performance absorbent was finally screened out with up to 80% of HBsAg recovery and purification-fold (PF) about 20. Furthermore, the column pressure was about 0.06 MPa under the flow rate of 500cm/h, and no leaked butyl were detected after exposing the gel in common buffers, chaotropic agents, high concentrations of denaturing agents such as guanidine hydrochloride, urea and polar organic solvents. These results demonstrated that the absorbent have high physico-chemical stability, so it was available for the downstream process. Finally, after scaled up to 2L wet gel/batch, the absorbent was applied to the integration of three-step chromatography and obtained the purified CHO-HBsAg with 95% purity by SDS-PAGE and HPLC, which meet the requirements of SFDA. The purification efficiency and the reproducible ability of the absorbents were also evaluated from batch-to-batch. The results demonstrated that the absorbent met the requirement of scalable, reproducible, economic effect as well. This absorbent is a promising alternative exported HIC gel for wildly being used in Chinese pharmaceutical industries.

  18. Immunogenicity and safety of liposome-vaccine encapsulating hepatitis B surface antigen and phosphodiester CpG oligodeoxynucleotides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHUN YAN HE; QING LIANG LIU

    2006-01-01

    CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODN) as adjuvant have been extensively studied in recent years. Phosphodiester CpG ODN (PO CpG ODN) can perfectly mimic bacterial DNA in enhancing immune response but are vulnerable to nucleases in vivo. This study aimed to evaluate the immunostimu latory potential and safety of phosphodiester CpG ODN encapsulated in nonphospholipid liposomes.BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly with different formulations of liposomes, CpG ODN and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). The results demonstrated that the encapsulated PO CpG ODN were protected against rapid degradation in vivo and retained their adjuvant activity. PO CpG ODN encapsulated with HBsAg in liposomes induced strong Th1-biased or Th1/Th2 mixed humoral immune response in mice with the magnitude similar to their phosphothioate equivalent in the same formulation.High IFN-gamma production induced by this formulation confirmed the generation of strong cellular immune response. Additionally, co-delivery of HBsAg and PO CpG ODN improved the immune response over that obtained with separate delivery. Safety experiment showed that liposome-encapsulaed PO CpG ODN and HBsAg caused mild systemic and moderate local adverse reaction. In conclusion, our data shows that PO CpG ODN encapsulated in liposomes fully exhibit their Th1-type adjuvant activity and act as a potential adjuvant for vaccines.

  19. Bortezomib Induced Hepatitis B Reactivation

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    Salwa Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It has recently been reported that hepatitis B (HBV reactivation often occurs after the use of rituximab and stem cell transplantation in patients with lymphoma who are hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg negative. However, clinical data on HBV reactivation in multiple myeloma (MM is limited to only a few reported cases. Bortezomib and lenalidomide have remarkable activity in MM with manageable toxicity profiles, but reactivation of viral infections may emerge as a problem. We present a case of MM that developed HBV reactivation after bortezomib and lenalidomide therapy. Case Report. A 73-year-old female with a history of marginal cell lymphoma was monitored without requiring therapy. In 2009, she developed MM, presenting as a plasmacytoma requiring vertebral decompression and focal radiation. While receiving radiation she developed renal failure and was started on bortezomib and liposomal doxorubicin. After a transient response to 5 cycles, treatment was switched to lenalidomide. Preceding therapy initiation, her serology indicated resolved infection. Serial monitoring for HBV displayed seroconversion one month after change in therapy. Conclusion. Bortezomib associated late HBV reactivation appears to be a unique event that requires further confirmation and brings to discussion whether hepatitis B core positive individuals would benefit from monitoring of HBV activation while on therapy.

  20. Effects of hepatitis B virus precore and basal core promoter mutations on the expression of viral antigens: genotype B vs C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C-J; Cheng, H-R; Chen, C-L; Chen, T-C; Tseng, T-C; Wang, Z-L; Chen, P-J; Liu, C-H; Chen, D-S; Kao, J-H

    2011-10-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes/mutants are known to affect natural outcomes. The virologic differences among HBV genotype, precore and basal core promoter (BCP) mutations were investigated. HBV strains were isolated from 18 hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive patients (nine genotype B and nine genotype C). All had precore and BCP wild-type sequences. After cloning of full-length HBV genome, the effects of viral genotype, precore and BCP mutations singly or additively on the expression of viral DNA and antigens were investigated by mutagenesis and transfection assays in Huh7 cells. Significant findings included the following: (i) expression of intracellular core protein increased when precore or BCP mutation was introduced in genotype C strains; (ii) expression of intracellular surface protein was lower in genotype C precore wild-type strain compared with genotype B; (iii) precore mutation was associated with a lower extracellular expression level of HBV DNA; (iv) secretion of hepatitis B surface antigen in genotype C was lower than that in genotype B; and (v) secretion of HBeAg in genotype B was lower than that in genotype C. No additive effect was observed by combining precore and BCP mutations. Hence, HBV genotype and precore/BCP mutations correlate with intrahepatic expression of viral antigens in vitro.

  1. Clinical evaluation of a new enzyme immunoassay for hepatitis B virus core-related antigen; a marker distinct from viral DNA for monitoring lamivudine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokuhara, A; Tanaka, E; Matsumoto, A; Kimura, T; Yamaura, T; Orii, K; Sun, X; Yagi, S; Maki, N; Kiyosawa, K

    2003-07-01

    We aimed to assess the clinical performance of a newly developed chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for the detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) core-related antigen (HBcrAg) in patients with chronic HBV infection. A total of 82 patients with chronic HBV infection and 167 HBV-negative controls were studied. HBcrAg was measured by CLEIA with monoclonal antibodies to hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg), and HBV DNA was measured by transcription-mediated amplification assay (TMA) and in-house real-time detection polymerase chain reaction (RTD-PCR). The HBcrAg assay detected viremia in 189 of 216 samples (88%) collected from 72 patients whilst the TMA assay detected viremia in 178 of the 216 samples (82%) (P = 0.019). The HBcrAg concentration correlated linearly with the HBV DNA concentration (P HBcrAg assay was not affected by the absence of hepatitis B e antigen from the serum or the presence of precore mutations in the HBV genome. In patients without anti-viral drugs, changes in their serum HBcrAg concentration over time corresponded to their HBV DNA concentration. In six additional patients who were later treated with lamivudine, HBV DNA concentration declined more rapidly than their HBcrAg concentration. Three months after treatment commenced, the ratio of HBcrAg: HBV DNA had increased in all six patients (P = 0.031). The HBcrAg assay is a sensitive and useful test for the assessment of a patient's HBV load. When monitoring the anti-viral effect of lamivudine, HBcrAg provides a viral marker which is independent of HBV DNA.

  2. Hepatitis B Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worldwide 2 Billion People have been infected with Hepatitis B Worldwide The Hepatitis B Foundation is working on ... of people living with hepatitis B. Learn About Hepatitis B in 11 Other Languages . Resource Video See More ...

  3. Severe Acute Hepatitis B Treated With Entecavir.

    OpenAIRE

    De Socio, Giuseppe Vittorio Luigi; Sgrelli, Alessio; Tosti, Andrea; Baldelli, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection constitutes a serious global health problem. Nowadays there are divergent data regarding the use of antiviral drugs to treat acute hepatitis B. We present here a case of a 62-year-old man affected by severe acute hepatitis B with progressive worsening of clinical and hepatic function. The patient was treated with entecavir without critical side effects. We observed rapid clinical and laboratory improvements and the disappearance of hepatitis B surface antigen...

  4. Prediction of conformational changes by single mutation in the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg identified in HBsAg-negative blood donors

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    Roni Martono

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selection of hepatitis B virus (HBV by host immunity has been suggested to give rise to variants with amino acid substitutions at or around the 'a' determinant of the surface antigen (HBsAg, the main target of antibody neutralization and diagnostic assays. However, there have never been successful attempts to provide evidence for this hypothesis, partly because the 3 D structure of HBsAg molecules has not been determined. Tertiary structure prediction of HBsAg solely from its primary amino acid sequence may reveal the molecular energetic of the mutated proteins. We carried out this preliminary study to analyze the predicted HBsAg conformation changes of HBV variants isolated from Indonesian blood donors undetectable by HBsAg assays and its significance, compared to other previously-reported variants that were associated with diagnostic failure. Results Three HBV variants (T123A, M133L and T143M and a wild type sequence were analyzed together with frequently emerged variants T123N, M133I, M133T, M133V, and T143L. Based on the Jameson-Wolf algorithm for calculating antigenic index, the first two amino acid substitutions resulted in slight changes in the antigenicity of the 'a' determinant, while all four of the comparative variants showed relatively more significant changes. In the pattern T143M, changes in antigenic index were more significant, both in its coverage and magnitude, even when compared to variant T143L. These data were also partially supported by the tertiary structure prediction, in which the pattern T143M showed larger shift in the HBsAg second loop structure compared to the others. Conclusions Single amino acid substitutions within or near the 'a' determinant of HBsAg may alter antigenicity properties of variant HBsAg, which can be shown by both its antigenic index and predicted 3 D conformation. Findings in this study emphasize the significance of variant T143M, the prevalent isolate with highest degree of

  5. Chronic Hepatitis B: Individualized Antiviral Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.H.C.J. Buster (Erik)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe hepatitis B virus (HBV) was discovered in 1966 with the identification of the Australia antigen in Aboriginals by Dr. Baruch Blumberg, who received the 1976 Nobel Prize in Medicine for his work. We now know the Australia antigen as hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). HBV belongs to

  6. Hepatocellular carcinoma. A study of 50 autopsy cases with detection of hepatitis B surface antigen in fixed tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Barrios, A; Colina-Ruizdelgado, F; Gallego, I; Martinez-Tello, F J

    1983-03-01

    Fifty patients who died of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were autopsied at the Ciudad Sanitaria "1 degree de Octubre" and the Hospital de la Cruz Roja (Madrid) from 1974 to 1980. Formalin fixed paraffin-embedded autopsy tissue of liver and tumor from the 50 HCC and liver tissue from 50 liver cirrhosis (LC) and from 50 autopsy of non cirrhotic control cases were examined for the presence of cytoplasmic hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). The study was carried out using orcein staining, immunoperoxidase technique (IP) and indirect immunofluorescence (IF). In livers with HCC the HBsAg was detected in the cytoplasm of the hepatocytes in 10 cases (20%) with the orcein staining and in 11 (22%) with the IP and IF techniques. In one case (2%) HBsAg was found in the cytoplasm of tumor cells with the three methods--In four cases (8%) of LC and 2 (4%) control cases cytoplasmic positive cells were found. In 41 patients with HCC HBsAg was studied in the serum by radio-immunoassay (RIA) (13 cases) and immunodiffussion (28 cases). 5 patients (12,1%) were positive and 36 (72%) were negative. In the 5 serum positive HBsAg HCC the staining methods for cytoplasmic HBsAg were positive (100%). In 36 serum negative HBsAg HCC the staining method were positive in 2 cases. The results let us to conclude that HBV is a probable important etiologic factor of HCC in our milieu. 54% of the patients with HCC had a previous history of alcohol abuse; however, histologic features compatible with an alcoholic etiology were found in only 5 cases. Nevertheless we consider that the described histopathologic findings do not exclude excess alcohol consumption as a possible etiologic factor for HCC in our series.

  7. Interleukin 28B genetic polymorphism and hepatitis B virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toru

    2014-09-14

    Interleukin (IL) 28B genetic polymorphism is significantly associated with the sustained virological response rate in patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with pegylated interferon-α (PEG-IFN) plus ribavirin and with spontaneous hepatitis C virus clearance. However, a consensus on the relationship between IL28B genetic polymorphism and the favorable outcome of chronic hepatitis B virus infection defined by hepatitis B e antigen seroconversion, and/or hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance in patients treated with interferon or PEG-IFN has not been reached. Several reports failed to show a positive association, while some studies demonstrated a positive association in certain subject settings. More prospective studies including large cohorts are needed to determine the possible association between IL28B genetic polymorphism and the outcome of interferon or PEG-IFN treatment for chronic hepatitis B.

  8. Rapid improvement of distal vasculitis in PAN related to hepatitis B with alprostadil infusion: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mie-Jin; Kwon, Seong Ryul; Lee, Seunghee; Park, Won

    2006-08-01

    Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) related to hepatitis B is an uncommon vasculitis that is sometimes associated with the rapid progression of distal ischemia. A few recent reports have proposed the use of antiviral therapy. However, there is not yet a consensus for the standard treatment of this disease entity and none of these treatments have been focused on fast symptomatic improvement. We describe here a 39-year-old female patient with PAN related to hepatitis B infection who completely recovered from the acutely progressing ischemic manifestations of her distal extremities with the use of alprostadil infusion (prostaglandin E1). The reactivation of her hepatitis B infection after glucocorticoid and cyclophosphamide therapy was successfully managed by the antiviral lamuvudine therapy. Most importantly, the vasodilator together with the conventional therapy may be desirable in the early stages of the disease before irreversible ischemic tissue damage can occur.

  9. Anti-hepatits B core antigen testing, viral markers, and occult hepatitis B virus infection in Pakistani blood donors: implications for transfusion practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Farhat Abbas; Ullah, Zia; Salamat, Nuzhat; Ayub, Muhammad; Ghani, Ejaz

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of anti-hepatitis B core antigen (HBc) and the impact of its testing along with other markers of hepatitis B, hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA, hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV), and syphilis in Pakistani blood donors. The study design was cross-sectional. A total of 966 donors were selected randomly for testing of anti-HBc and HBV markers, including HBV DNA, of 94,177 blood donors who were routinely screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HCV, human immunodeficiency virus antibody (anti-HIV), Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA), and malarial parasites from 2003 to October 2005. The seroprevalence of various infectious markers was as follows: HBsAg, 2.16 percent; anti-HCV, 4.16 percent; anti-HIV, 0.004 percent; TPHA, 0.75 percent; and malaria, 0.002 percent. Anti-HBc prevalence in HBsAg-negative, HBV DNA-negative blood donors was 167 of 966 (17.28%), with 76 percent demonstrating anti-HBs positivity. Younger donors with mean age of 25 years were exposed to HBV to a lesser extent compared to those with a mean age of 29 years. Anti-HBc positivity was significantly higher in anti-HCV-reactive individuals. HBV DNA was detectable in 5 blood donors who were HBsAg-, anti-HBc-positive and were categorized as having occult HBV infection. The study shows that more than 17 percent of healthy, young blood donors in Pakistan are already exposed to HBV, with two-thirds showing anti-HBs levels of greater than 100 mIU per mL. One in 200 blood donors who are HBsAg-, anti-HBc-positive, however, have occult HBV infection, with likelihood of transmission of hepatitis B in recipients of blood components derived from them. HBsAg-negative individuals who are anti-HBc-negative and those who are anti-HBc-positive, anti-HBs-positive, and HBV DNA-negative should be selected as regular blood donors to minimize transmission due to occult hepatitis B infection.

  10. The full-length clone of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus and its application as an expression system for Hepatitis B surface antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Aikseng; Tan, Sianghee; Mohamed, Rosmawati; Rahman, Noorsaadah Abdul; Othman, Rofina Yasmin

    2006-02-24

    A cucumber green mosaic mottle virus (CGMMV) full-length clone was developed for the expression of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). The expression of the surface displayed HBsAg by the chimeric virus was confirmed through a double antibody sandwich ELISA. Assessment of the coat protein composition of the chimeric virus particles by SDS-PAGE analysis showed that 50% of the coat proteins were fused to the HBsAg. Biological activity of the expressed HBsAg was assessed through the stimulation of in vitro antibody production by cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). PBMC that were cultured in the presence of the chimeric virus showed up to an approximately three-fold increase in the level of anti HBsAg immunoglobulin thus suggesting the possible use of this new chimeric virus as an effective Hepatitis B vaccine.

  11. Dysfunctional CD8+ T cells in hepatitis B and C are characterized by a lack of antigen-specific T-bet induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raziorrouh, Bijan; Schraut, Winfried; Backmund, Markus; Wächtler, Martin; Wendtner, Clemens-Martin; Bengsch, Bertram; Thimme, Robert; Denk, Gerald; Zachoval, Reinhart; Dick, Andrea; Spannagl, Michael; Haas, Jürgen; Diepolder, Helmut M.; Jung, Maria-Christina; Gruener, Norbert H.

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor T-bet regulates the production of interferon-γ and cytotoxic molecules in effector CD8 T cells, and its expression correlates with improved control of chronic viral infections. However, the role of T-bet in infections with differential outcome remains poorly defined. Here, we report that high expression of T-bet in virus-specific CD8 T cells during acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection was associated with spontaneous resolution, whereas T-bet deficiency was more characteristic of chronic evolving infection. T-bet strongly correlated with interferon-γ production and proliferation of virus-specific CD8 T cells, and its induction by antigen and IL-2 stimulation partially restored functionality in previously dysfunctional T-bet–deficient CD8 T cells. However, restoration of a strong interferon-γ response required additional stimulation with IL-12, which selectively induced the phosphorylation of STAT4 in T-bet+ CD8 T cells. The observation that T-bet expression rendered CD8 T cells responsive to IL-12 suggests a stepwise mechanism of T cell activation in which T-bet facilitates the recruitment of additional transcription factors in the presence of key cytokines. These findings support a critical role of T-bet for viral clearance and suggest T-bet deficiency as an important mechanism behind chronic infection. PMID:25225458

  12. Proteaselike sequence in hepatitis B virus core antigen is not required for e antigen generation and may not be part of an aspartic acid-type protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassal, M; Galle, P R; Schaller, H

    1989-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) C gene directs the synthesis of two major gene products: HBV core antigen (HBcAg[p21c]), which forms the nucleocapsid, and HBV e antigen (HBeAg [p17e]), a secreted antigen that is produced by several processing events during its maturation. These proteins contain an amino acid sequence similar to the active-site residues of aspartic acid and retroviral proteases. On the basis of this sequence similarity, which is highly conserved among mammalian hepadnaviruses, a model has been put forward according to which processing to HBeAg is due to self-cleavage of p21c involving the proteaselike sequence. Using site-directed mutagenesis in conjunction with transient expression of HBV proteins in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2, we tested this hypothesis. Our results with HBV mutants in which one or two of the conserved amino acids have been replaced by others suggest strongly that processing to HBeAg does not depend on the presence of an intact proteaselike sequence in the core protein. Attempts to detect an influence of this sequence on the processing of HBV P gene products into enzymatically active viral polymerase also gave no conclusive evidence for the existence of an HBV protease. Mutations replacing the putatively essential aspartic acid showed little effect on polymerase activity. Additional substitution of the likewise conserved threonine residue by alanine, in contrast, almost abolished the activity of the polymerase. We conclude that an HBV protease, if it exists, is functionally different from aspartic acid and retroviral proteases. Images PMID:2657101

  13. Transient facial nerve paralysis (Bell's palsy) following administration of hepatitis B recombinant vaccine: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, R; Stassen, L F A

    2014-01-01

    Bell's palsy is the sudden onset of unilateral transient paralysis of facial muscles resulting from dysfunction of the seventh cranial nerve. Presented here is a 26-year-old female patient with right lower motor neurone facial palsy following hepatitis B vaccination. Readers' attention is drawn to an uncommon cause of Bell's palsy, as a possible rare complication of hepatitis B vaccination, and steps taken to manage such a presentation.

  14. Anti-hepatitis B core antigen testing with detection and characterization of occult hepatitis B virus by an in-house nucleic acid testing among blood donors in Behrampur, Ganjam, Orissa in southeastern India: implications for transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panigrahi Rajesh

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV infection might transmit viremic units into the public blood supply if only hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg testing is used for donor screening. Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence of occult HBV infection among the HBsAg negative/antiHBc positive donations from a highly HIV prevalent region of India. Methods A total of 729 HBsAg negative donor units were included in this study. Surface gene and precore region were amplified by in house nucleic acid test (NAT for detection of occult HBV infection and surface gene was analyzed after direct sequencing. Results A total of 220 (30.1% HBsAg negative donors were antiHBc positive, of them 66 (30% were HBV DNA positive by NAT. HBV DNA positivity among 164 antiHBc only group, was 27.1% and among 40 antiHBs positive group was 30.0%. HBV/D (93.3% was predominant and prevalence of both HBV/C and HBV/A was 3.3%. Single or multiple amino acids substitutions were found in 95% samples. Conclusion Thus, a considerable number of HBV infected donors remain undiagnosed, if only HBsAg is used for screening. Addition of antiHBc testing for donor screening, although will lead to rejection of a large number of donor units, will definitely eliminate HBV infected donations and help in reducing HBV transmission with its potential consequences, especially among the immunocompromised population. The HBV genetic diversity found in this donor population are in accordance with other parts of India.

  15. [Comparison of antibody responses to hepatitis B surface antigen among four recipient groups of hepatitis B vaccines that have been approved in Japan: evaluation using passive hemagglutination assay and chemiluminescent immunoassay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Norio

    2009-10-01

    In hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection-preventing programs, serum or plasma levels of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) are important to determine whether individuals are protective or not. We compared anti-HBs responses using passive hemagglutination assay (Mycell) and chemiluminescent immunoassay (Architect) among four recipient groups of HB vaccines, Meinyu, HBY, Bimmugen and Heptavax II, that have been approved in Japan. Overall, in a total of 1875 vaccinees Mycell results showed recipient groups of Meinyu and HBY acquired higher anti-HBs levels than those of Bimmugen and Heptavax II. Comparison of anti-HBs responses by both Mycell and Architect in recipient groups of Meinyu (n=150), HBY (n=218), Bimmugen (n=260), and Heptavax II (n=47) demonstrated the order of vaccinees' responses, such as geometric mean titers, ratios of acquiring high antibody levels (Mycell titers over 1024, Architect measurements over 1000 mIU/mL), and ratios of having unsuccessful antibody responses (Mycell titers under 8, Architect measurements under 10 mIU/mL), were somewhat different between the two assays. Comparison of Architect measurements at given Mycell titers revealed Bimmugen-recipients showed significantly lower values than HBY- or Heptavax II-recipients. Around critical protective levels, 5 of 22 Bimmugen-recipients with Mycell titers 16 or 32 showed Architect measurements under 10 mIU/mL, while 8 of 11 Heptavax II-recipients with Mycell titers below 8 demonstrated Architect measurements over 10 mIU/mL. Thus, discrepancies in anti-HBs evaluation between Mycell and Architect seemed to partly depend on administered vaccines. These results indicate anti-HBs concentration should be evaluated carefully so that we could completely prevent HBV infection.

  16. Immunogenicity of three recombinant hepatitis B vaccines administered to students in three doses containing half the antigen amount routinely used for adult vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldy José Luís da Silveira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the immunogenicity of three recombinant hepatitis B vaccines, one Brazilian (Butang, Instituto Butantan and two Korean vaccines (Euvax-B, LG Chemical Ltd. and Hepavax-Gene, Greencross Vaccine Corp., administered intramuscularly to students aged 17 to 19 years in three 10-µg doses (corresponding to half the amount of antigen routinely used for adult vaccination at intervals of one month between the first and second dose, and of four months between the second and third dose. A total of 316 students non-reactive for any serological marker of hepatitis B virus infection were vaccinated: 77 (24.4% with the Butang vaccine, 71 (22.5% with Euvax-B, 85 (26.9% with Hepavax-Gene and, for comparison, 83 (26.2% with Engerix-B (GlaxoSmithKline, whose efficacy in young adults at the dose used here has been confirmed in previous studies. Similar seroconversion rates (anti-HBs > 10 mIU/mL about one month after application of the third dose were obtained for the Butang, Euvax-B, Hepavax-Gene and Engerix-B vaccines (96.2%, 98.6%, 96.5% and 97.6%, respectively. The frequency of good responders (anti-HBs > 100 mIU/mL was also similar among students receiving the four vaccines (85.8%, 91.6%, 89.4% and 89.2%, respectively. The geometric mean titers (GMT of anti-HBs about one month after the third dose obtained with these vaccines were 727.78 ± 6.46 mIU/mL, 2009.09 ± 7.16 mIU/mL, 1729.82 ± 8.85 mIU/mL and 2070.14 ± 11.69 mIU/mL, respectively. The GMT of anti-HBs induced by the Euvax-B and Engerix-B vaccines were higher than those obtained with the Butang vaccine (p < 0.05; this difference was not significant when comparing the other vaccines two-by-two. No spontaneous adverse effects attributable to the application of any dose of the four vaccines were reported.

  17. Immunogenicity of standard and low dose vaccination using yeast-derived recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen in elderly volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. de Rave (Sjoerd); R.A. Heijtink; M. Bakker-Bendik (M.); J. Boot (Jenneke); S.W. Schalm (Solko)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThere is no conclusive evidence that age influences the response to vaccination against hepatitis B virus. We therefore studied the immunogenicity of yeast-derived rHBsAg vaccine in elderly volunteers. The study was conducted in the outpatient clinics of an academic and a regional hospit

  18. Prevention of Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mei-Hwei; Chen, Ding-Shinn

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes life-threatening liver disease. It is transmitted through a horizontal route or a mother-to-infant route, and the latter is the major route in endemic areas. Prevention of HBV infection by immunization is the best way to eliminate HBV-related diseases. The HBV vaccine is the first human vaccine using a viral antigen from infected persons, which is safe and effective. Either passive immunization by hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) or active immunization by HBV vaccine is effective, and a combination of both yields the best efficacy in preventing HBV infection. The impact of universal HBV immunization is huge, with 90%–95% effectiveness in preventing chronic HBV infection. It is the first cancer preventive vaccine with a protective efficacy against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) of ∼70%. Nevertheless, further effort is still needed to avoid vaccine failure and to increase the global coverage rate. PMID:25732034

  19. A homosexual japanese man with acute hepatitis due to hepatitis B virus genotype ae, concurrent with amebic colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Sakaguchi, Kohsaku; KOBASHI, HARUHIKO; Takaki,Akinobu; Kato, Jun; Nawa,Toru; Tatsukawa, Masashi; ISHIKAWA, SHIN; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Miyake,Yasuhiro; Shiratori, Yasushi

    2007-01-01

    We report herein a case with acute hepatitis due to hepatitis B virus genotype Ae, concurrent with amebic colitis. A 39-year-old homosexual Japanese man was admitted to our hospital with jaundice. Laboratory tests showed an elevation of transaminase and positivity for hepatitis B surface antigen and IgM-type antibody to hepatitis B core antigen. The hepatitis B virus genotype was determined to be Ae. Furthermore, a mud-like stool with blood and mucous had sometimes been noted during the past ...

  20. HIV and Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections and Coinfections HIV and Hepatitis B (Last updated 8/31/2016; last reviewed ... should be treated for both diseases. What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a liver disease caused ...

  1. Travelers' Health: Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapter 3 - Hepatitis A Chapter 3 - Hepatitis C Hepatitis B Francisco Averhoff INFECTIOUS AGENT Hepatitis B is ... their exposures. Map 3-04. Prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection among adults PDF Version (printable) ...

  2. Hepatitis B Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... helpful? Also known as: HBV Tests; Hep B; anti-HBs; Hepatitis B Surface Antibody; HBsAg; Hepatitis B Surface ... including "HBV carrier" state. Hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) Detects antibody produced in response to HBV surface ...

  3. Viral blips during long-term treatment with standard or double dose lamivudine in HBe antigen negative chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate safety and effect on hepatitis B virus (HBV) suppression of a long-term treatment with lamivudine (LAM) at standard (100 mg/d) or double (200 mg/d) dose in chronic hepatitis B. METHODS: This was a case study with matched controls (1:3) in patients with chronic hepatitis B with anti-Hbe antibodies. RESULTS: Twelve patients received LAM 200 mg/d and 35 LAM 100 mg/d, for a median of 28 mo. A primary response (PR; I.e. Negative HBV-DNA with Amplicor assay) was achieved in 100% of LAM-200 patients and 83% of LAM-100 patients. A virological breakthrough occurred in 16.7 and 24.7%, respectively, of the PR-patients, with the appearance of typical LAM resistance mutations in all but one patient. Viremia blips (I.e. Transient HBV-DNA below 80 IU/Ml in patients who tested negative at Amplicor assay) were detected using a real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and occurred in seven out of nine patients with subsequent BT and in four out of 32 patients with end-of-study response (77.7% vs 12.5%; P = 0.001) at chi-square test). At the end of the study, 51.4% of LAM-100 patients and 83.3% of LAM-200 patients had remained stably HBV-DNA negative. Double-dose LAM was well tolerated. CONCLUSION: Long-term treatment of anti-Hbe positive chronic hepatitis B with double dose lamivudine causes a more profound and stable viral suppression as compared to conventional treatment.

  4. Pegylated Interferon Alfa-2b Monotherapy and Pegylated Interferon Alfa-2b plus Lamivudine Combination Therapy for Patients with Hepatitis B Virus E Antigen-Negative Chronic Hepatitis B▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymakoglu, Sabahattin; Oguz, Dilek; Gur, Gurden; Gurel, Selim; Tankurt, Ethem; Ersöz, Galip; Ozenirler, Seren; Kalayci, Cem; Poturoglu, Sule; Cakaloglu, Yılmaz; Okten, Atilla

    2007-01-01

    Forty-eight hepatitis B virus (HBV) E antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B patients received pegylated interferon alfa-2b either alone or with lamivudine for 48 weeks and were followed for an additional 24 weeks. At the end of follow-up, virological response rates (HBV DNA levels of <400 copies/ml) were similar in the monotherapy (24%) and combination therapy (26%) groups. PMID:17517832

  5. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a combination product containing Haemophilus influenzae type b, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Polio Vaccine)

  6. Coimmunization with IL-15 plasmid enhances the longevity of CD8 T cells induced by DNA encoding hepatitis B virus core antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Sheng-Fu Dong; Shu-Hui Sun; Yuan Wang; Guang-Di Li; Di Qu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To test the feasibility of delivering a plasmid encoding IL-15 as a DNA vaccine adjuvant for improving the immune responses induced by hepatitis B virus core gene DNA vaccine.METHODS: We used RT-PCR based strategies to develop IL-15 expression constructs. We first confirmed that the gene could be expressed in Escherichia coli due to the poor expression of IL-15. Then the bioactivity of IL-15 plasmid expression product was identified by CTLL-2 proliferation assay. One hundred micrograms of DNA from each of the IL-15 eukaryotic expressed plasmid and the recombinant plasmid harboring DNA encoding the 144 amino acids of the N-terminus of HBV core gene (abbreviated pHBc144) was used to co-immunize C57 BL/6 mice. The titer of anti-HBcIgG was detected by ELISA and the antigen-specific CD8+T cells (CD8+IFN-γ+ T cells) were detected by intracellular cytokine staining at different time points.RESULTS: After co-immunization by pIL-15 and pHBc144 DNA vaccine the antigen-specific CD8+ cells of mice increased gradually, the first peak of immune response appeared 14 d later, then the number of antigen-specific CD8+ Ts cells decreased gradually and maintained at a steady level in 3 mo. After boosting, the number of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells reached the second peak 10 d later with a double of the 1st peak, then the number of antigen-specific CD8+T cells decreased slowly. IL-15 as a gene adjuvant had no significant effect on humoral immune responses induced by hepatitis B virus core gene DNA vaccine, but increased the memory antigen-specific CD8+ T cells induced by hepatitis B virus core gene DNA vaccine.CONCLUSION: DNA vaccine constructed by HBc Ag 1-144 amino acid induces effective cell immunity, and cytokine plasmid-delivered IL-15 enhances the longevity of CD8+ T cells.

  7. Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg and antibody (anti-HBs forming immune complexes in fulminant hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares Manoel C.P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports an unusual pattern of serological HBV markers and the presence of HBsAg/anti-HBs immune complexes in serum samples from two patients with fulminant hepatitis from the Brazilian Western Amazon Basin. The diagnosis was made by both serologic tests and demonstration of antigen/antibody complexes by transmission electron microscopy. Concurrent Delta virus superinfection is also discussed.

  8. Wide dynamic range of surface-plasmon-resonance-based assay for Hepatitis-B-surface-antigen-antibody optimal detection in comparison with ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Yew Joon; Zeenathul, Nazariah Allaudin; Rezaei, Morvarid Akhavan; Mustafa, Nor Hidayah; Azmi, Mohd Lila Mohd; Bahaman, Abdul Rani; Lo, Sewn Cen; Tan, Joo Shun; Hani, Homayoun; Rasedee, Abdullah

    2016-08-10

    Limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ) and the dynamic range of detection of hepatitis B surface antigen antibody (anti-HBs) using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) chip-based approach with Pichia pastoris derived recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) as recognition element were established through the scouting for optimal conditions for the improvement of immobilization efficiency and in the use of optimal regeneration buffer. Recombinant HBsAg was immobilized onto the sensor surface of CM5 chip at a concentration of 150 mg/L, in sodium acetate buffer at pH 4 with added 0.6% Triton X-100. Regeneration solution of 20 mM HCl was optimally found to effectively unbind analytes from the ligand, thus allowing for multiple screening cycles. A dynamic range of detection of ∼0.00098 to 0.25 mg/L was obtained and a 7-fold higher LOD, as well as a 2-fold increase in coefficient of variance (CV) of the replicated results, were shown as compared to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Evaluation of the assay for specificity showed no cross-reactivity with other antibodies tested. The ability of SPR chip-based assay and ELISA to detect anti-HBs in human serum was comparable, indicating that the SPR chip-based assay with its multiple screening capacity has greater advantage over ELISA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Immunogenicity and safety of Advax™, a novel polysaccharide adjuvant based on delta inulin, when formulated with hepatitis B surface antigen: a randomized controlled Phase 1 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David; Kelley, Peter; Heinzel, Susanne; Cooper, Peter; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2014-11-12

    There is a need for additional safe and effective human vaccine adjuvants. Advax™ is a novel adjuvant produced from semi-crystalline particles of delta inulin. In animal studies Advax enhanced humoral and cellular immunity to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) without inducing local or systemic reactogenicity. This first-in-man Phase 1 clinical trial tested the safety and tolerability of three intramuscular doses of HBsAg formulated with Advax in a group of healthy adult subjects. Advax was well tolerated with injection site pain scores not significantly different to subjects receiving HBsAg alone and no adverse events were reported in subjects that received Advax. Seroprotection and HBsAb geometric mean titers (GMT) after three immunizations were higher in the Advax 5mg (seroprotection 5/6, 83.3%, GMT 40.7, 95% CI 11.9-139.1) and 10mg (seroprotection 4/5, 80%, GMT 51.6, 95% CI 10.0-266.2) groups versus HBsAg alone (seroprotection 1/5, 20%, GMT 4.1, 95% CI 1.3-12.8). Similarly the proportion of subjects with positive CD4 T-cell responses to HBsAg was higher in the Advax 5mg (4/6, 67%) and Advax 10mg (4/5, 80%) groups versus HBsAg alone (1/5, 20%). These results confirm the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of Advax adjuvant observed in preclinical studies. Advax may represent a suitable replacement for alum adjuvants in prophylactic human vaccines subject to confirmation of current results in larger studies. Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry: ACTRN12607000598482.

  10. Severe Acute Hepatitis B Treated with Entecavir

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Vittorio Luigi De Socio; Alessio Sgrelli; Andrea Tosti; Franco Baldelli

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection constitutes a serious global health problem. Nowadays there are divergent data regarding the use of antiviral drugs to treat acute hepatitis B. We present here a case of a 62-year-old man affected by severe acute hepatitis B with progressive worsening of clinical and hepatic function. The patient was treated with entecavir without critical side effects. We observed rapid clinical and laboratory improvements and the disappearance of surface antigen (HBsAg). Th...

  11. Serum HBV core-related antigen is a good predictor for spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion in chronic hepatitis B patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guangjun; Yang, Ruifeng; Rao, Huiying; Feng, Bo; Ma, Hui; Jin, Qian; Wei, Lai

    2017-03-01

    Early prediction of spontaneous hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion is pivotal in the prevention of unnecessary drug prescription, corresponding financial burden, and adverse reactions. One hundred and thirteen chronic hepatitis B patients with HBeAg-positive in the immune active phase were followed up for about 1.5 years. Patients were classified into two groups: spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion group (group A, n = 18) and non-spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion group. Among the non-spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion group, 35 patients were selected as controls (group B, n = 35). At week 12, there was a significant difference in hepatitis B core-related antigen (HBcrAg) levels between the two groups (group A 4.32 ± 1.05 log10  kU/ml, and group B 5.16 ± 0.53 log10  kU/ml, P = 0.004), and this significance magnified at week 28. Only two variables, HBcrAg level and the reduction in the HBcrAg levels (ΔHBcrAg) at week 28 were enrolled, with the odds ratio of 4.19 and 0.21, respectively. The optimal cutoffs of HBcrAg levels and the ΔHBcrAg at week 28 were 4.90 and 2.00 log10  kU/ml, respectively. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value of HBcrAg levels at week 28 were 73.9% and 96.7%, respectively. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the ΔHBcrAg at week 28 were 76.2% and 93.8%, respectively. The measurement of HBcrAg is useful for monitoring the natural course of chronic hepatitis B virus infection. The dynamics of HBcrAg levels could accurately predict the spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion. J. Med. Virol. 89:463-468, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Viral Load Pattern Among Hepatitis B Surface Antigen-positive Patients: Laboratory Perspective and Implications for Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iregbu, KC; Nwajiobi-Princewill, PI

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis B viral infection is an old medical problem with worldwide distribution. It is usually diagnosed using serologic methods. However, the decision as to which patient to treat or not remains challenging due to the poor sensitivity of serologic markers as prognostic or severity markers. Viral load (VL) determination using polymerase chain reaction techniques is a useful tool in decision-making. Aim: To determine the proportion of hepatitis B-positive patients who fall into different care groups based on the Society for Gastroenterology and Hepatology in Nigeria (SOGHIN) and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines, respectively, using result of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA determination. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective and descriptive study. Data from all patients sent to the medical microbiology laboratory, National Hospital Abuja over a period of 28 months (November 2012 to February 2015) for hepatitis B DNA VL determinations were analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2010 (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA, USA) and IBM SPSS version 20.0 (IBM SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: A total 666 patients, with mean age of 33.2 years, were tested. For those whose ages were known 36.2% (100/276) were below 30 years and 63.8% (176/276) 30 years and above. Exactly 66.7% (444/666) were males and the remaining 33.3% (222/666) were females. The VL of the patients varied from 20 to 1.7 × 108 IU/ml, with an average of 3.5 × 106 IU/ml. Around 76.1% (507/666) had measurable assay levels (20 − 1.7 × 108 IU/ml); 10.8% (76/666) had below 20 IU/ml and 3.8% (25/666) above 1.7 × 108 IU/ml. About 9.3% (62/666) had no detectable HBV DNA in their samples. About 46.8% (312/666) of the patients had levels between 20 and 2 × 103 IU/ml; 16.4% (109/666) had between 2001 and 2 × 104 IU/ml while 16.7% (111/666) had VL of between 20,001 and 1.7 × 108 IU/ml. Males tended to have detectable and higher VLs than females (P = 0

  13. Genetic Association of Human Leukocyte Antigens with Chronicity or Resolution of Hepatitis B Infection in Thai Population

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the HLA-DP, TCF19 and EHMT2 genes may affect the chronic hepatitis B (CHB). To predict the degree of risk for chronicity of HBV, this study determined associations with these SNPs. METHODS: The participants for this study were defined into 4 groups; HCC (n = 230), CHB (n = 219), resolved HBV infection (n = 113) and HBV uninfected subjects (n = 123). The HLA-DP SNPs (rs3077, rs9277378 and rs3128917), TCF19 SNP (...

  14. Effect on HBs antigen clearance of addition of pegylated interferon alfa-2a to nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy versus nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy alone in patients with HBe antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B and sustained undetectable plasma hepatitis B virus DNA: a randomised, controlled, open-label trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourlière, Marc; Rabiega, Pascaline; Ganne-Carrie, Nathalie; Serfaty, Lawrence; Marcellin, Patrick; Barthe, Yoann; Thabut, Dominique; Guyader, Dominique; Hezode, Christophe; Picon, Magali; Causse, Xavier; Leroy, Vincent; Bronowicki, Jean Pierre; Carrieri, Patrizia; Riachi, Ghassan; Rosa, Isabelle; Attali, Pierre; Molina, Jean Michel; Bacq, Yannick; Tran, Albert; Grangé, Jean Didier; Zoulim, Fabien; Fontaine, Hélène; Alric, Laurent; Bertucci, Inga; Bouvier-Alias, Magali; Carrat, Fabrice

    2017-03-01

    Findings from uncontrolled studies suggest that addition of pegylated interferon in patients with HBe antigen (HBeAg)-negative chronic hepatitis B receiving nucleos(t)ide analogues with undetectable plasma hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA might increase HBs antigen (HBsAg) clearance. We aimed to assess this strategy. In this randomised, controlled, open-label trial, we enrolled patients aged 18-75 years with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B and documented negative HBV DNA while on stable nucleos(t)ide analogue regimens for at least 1 year from 30 hepatology tertiary care wards in France. Patients had to have an alanine aminotransferase concentration of less than or equal to five times the upper normal range, no hepatocellular carcinoma, and a serum α fetoprotein concentration of less than 50 ng/mL, normal dilated fundus oculi examination, and a negative pregnancy test in women. Patients with contraindications to pegylated interferon were not eligible. A centralised randomisation used computer-generated lists of random permuted blocks of four with stratification by HBsAg titres (sida et les hépatites virales (France Recherche Nord&sud Sida-vih Hepatites). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Selection of an entecavir-resistant mutant despite prolonged hepatitis B virus DNA suppression, in a chronic hepatitis B patient with preexistent lamivudine resistance : successful rescue therapy with tenofovir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, Wilhelmus F; Niesters, Hubert G; van der Eijk, Annemiek A; Janssen, Harry L; Schalm, Solko W; de Man, Robert A

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Entecavir has potent activity against hepatitis B virus. Drug resistance has not been reported in nucleoside-naïve patients and is low in lamivudine-refractory patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: A 43-year-old man was treated with lamivudine for hepatitis B e antigen-positive

  16. Selection of an entecavir-resistant mutant despite prolonged hepatitis B virus DNA suppression, in a chronic hepatitis B patient with preexistent lamivudine resistance : successful rescue therapy with tenofovir

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, Wilhelmus F; Niesters, Hubert G; van der Eijk, Annemiek A; Janssen, Harry L; Schalm, Solko W; de Man, Robert A

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Entecavir has potent activity against hepatitis B virus. Drug resistance has not been reported in nucleoside-naïve patients and is low in lamivudine-refractory patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: A 43-year-old man was treated with lamivudine for hepatitis B e antigen-positive ch

  17. Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Hepatitis B Are Accompanied by Decline of Core Antigen-Specific Regulatory T-Cell Frequencies: Implications for Successful Anti-HBV Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Lung Tsai

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Acute exacerbations (AEs of perinatally-acquired chronic hepatitis B (CHB are accompanied by increased T cell responses to hepatitis B core and e antigens (HBcAg & HBeAg. Naturally-arising forkhead transcription factor Foxp3 (forkhead box p3-expressing CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (Treg cells are thought to be important in the control of infectious diseases. This study aimed to investigate whether HBcAg-specific Treg cells play a role in modulating spontaneous AEs and in influencing the outcome of anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV treatments.Methods: The SYFPEITHI scoring system was employed to predict epitope peptides on HBcAg overlapping with HBeAg for the construction of peptide-HLA class II tetramers to measure HBcAg-specific Treg cell frequencies (Treg f . Results: HBcAg-specific Treg f declined significantly in association with increased HBcAg-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte frequencies during spontaneous AEs without treatment. Vigorous in vitro expansion of CD4+CD25+ Treg cells from CHB patients responding to HBcAg and/or its peptides plus interleukin-2 (IL-2 was consistently detected. Depletion of Treg cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells enhanced proliferation to HBcAg. In contrast, patients with AEs who received anti-HBV treatments with oral nucleoside analogues or interferon-alpha injection revealed that more post-treatment increase of HBcAg-specific Treg f correlated with a higher sustained remission rate to the therapy.Conclusions: These data indicate that HBcAg-specific Treg cells from perinatally-acquired CHB patients are proliferative to HBcAg and its peptides and exhibit suppressor activity. They play a crucial role in modulating spontaneous AEs and in successful anti-HBV treatments.

  18. Fatal hepatitis B reactivation treated with entecavir in an isolated anti-HBs positive lymphoma patient: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rosa; Carvalheiro, Joana; Torres, Joana; Fernandes, Alexandra; Giestas, Sílvia; Mendes, Sofia; Agostinho, Cláudia; Campos, Mário J

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation is a well-recognized complication that occurs in lymphoma patients who undergo chemotherapy. Only very few cases of HBV reactivation in patients with isolated antibody against hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) have been reported. We present a case of a 78-year-old woman diagnosed with diffuse large B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma who only displayed a positive anti-HBs, as the single possible marker of occult HBV infection, before starting therapy. She was treated with several chemotherapeutic regimens (including rituximab) for disease relapses during 3 years. Forty days after the last cycle of chemotherapy, she presented with jaundice, markedly elevated serum aminotransferase levels, and coagulopathy. HBV serology showed positivity for HBsAg, anti-HBc and anti-HBs. HBV DNA was positive. Antiviral treatment with entecavir was promptly initiated, but the patient died from liver failure. A review of the literature of HBV reactivation in patients with detectable anti-HBs levels is discussed.

  19. Influence of mutations in hepatitis B virus surface protein on viral antigenicity and phenotype in occult HBV strains from blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Hao; Yuan, Quan; Chen, Pei-Jer; Zhang, Ya-Li; Chen, Chang-Rong; Zheng, Qing-Bing; Yeh, Shiou-Hwei; Yu, Hai; Xue, Yu; Chen, Yi-Xin; Liu, Ping-Guo; Ge, Sheng-Xiang; Zhang, Jun; Xia, Ning-Shao

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed at investigating mutations in the hepatitis B surface protein (HBsAg) in occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) and their influence on viral antigenicity and phenotype. The characteristics of 61 carriers with OBI (OBI group), 153 HBsAg(+) carriers with serum HBsAg ≤ 100 IU/ml (HBsAg-L group) and 54 carriers with serum HBsAg >100 IU/ml (HBsAg-H group) from 38,499 blood donors were investigated. Mutations in the major hydrophilic region (MHR) of the viral sequences were determined. Thirteen representative MHR mutations observed in OBI sequences were antigenically characterized with a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and commercial HBsAg immunoassays and functionally characterized in HuH7 cells and hydrodynamically injected mice. Of 61 OBI sequences, 34 (55.7%) harbored MHR mutations, which was significantly higher than the frequency in either the HBsAg-L (34.0%, p=0.003) or the HBsAg-H group (17.1%, pMHR mutations identified in the OBI group were assessed by reacting recombinant HBV mutants with 30 different MAbs targeting various epitopes. Four out of the 13 mutations (C124R, C124Y, K141E, and D144A) strongly decreased the analytical sensitivity of seven commercial HBsAg immunoassays, and 10 (G119R, C124Y, I126S, Q129R, S136P, C139R, T140I, K141E, D144A, and G145R) significantly impaired virion and/or S protein secretion in both HuH7 cells and mice. MHR mutations alter antigenicity and impair virion secretion, both of which may contribute to HBsAg detection failure in individuals with OBI. Copyright © 2012 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Virus-like particle production with yeast: ultrastructural and immunocytochemical insights into Pichia pastoris producing high levels of the Hepatitis B surface antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Ahmad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A protective immune response against Hepatitis B infection can be obtained through the administration of a single viral polypeptide, the Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg. Thus, the Hepatitis B vaccine is generated through the utilization of recombinant DNA technology, preferentially by using yeast-based expression systems. However, the polypeptide needs to assemble into spherical particles, so-called virus-like particles (VLPs, to elicit the required protective immune response. So far, no clear evidence has been presented showing whether HBsAg assembles in vivo inside the yeast cell into VLPs or later in vitro during down-stream processing and purification. Results High level production of HBsAg was carried out with recombinant Pichia pastoris using the methanol inducible AOX1 expression system. The recombinant vaccine was isolated in form of VLPs after several down-stream steps from detergent-treated cell lysates. Search for the intracellular localization of the antigen using electron microscopic studies in combination with immunogold labeling revealed the presence of HBsAg in an extended endoplasmic reticulum where it was found to assemble into defined multi-layered, lamellar structures. The distance between two layers was determined as ~6 nm indicating that these lamellas represent monolayers of well-ordered HBsAg subunits. We did not find any evidence for the presence of VLPs within the endoplasmic reticulum or other parts of the yeast cell. Conclusions It is concluded that high level production and intrinsic slow HBsAg VLP assembly kinetics are leading to retention and accumulation of the antigen in the endoplasmic reticulum where it assembles at least partly into defined lamellar structures. Further transport of HBsAg to the Golgi apparatus is impaired thus leading to secretory pathway disfunction and the formation of an extended endoplasmic reticulum which bulges into irregular cloud-shaped formations. As VLPs were

  1. Translational Enhancer of Tobacco mosaic virus Enhancing Expression of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen in Transgenic Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer Callus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The 5'-nontranslated leader(omega sequence) of Tobacco mosaic virus(TMV) was used as a translational enhancer sequence in the expression of the hepatitis B surface antigen(HBsAg) gene in transgenic ginseng callus cultures.The adr subtype HBsAg gene was placed under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus(CaMV) 35S promoter linking to the TMV leader sequence. The antisense omega sequence was used in a control construct. The resulting constructs cloned in the binary vector pBI121 were used to transform the ginseng callus tissue via the Agrobacterium-mediated procedure. The integration and expression of the HBsAg gene were evaluated by PCR and western blot, respectively. Enzyme-linked immunoassays(ELISA) using a monoclonal antibody directed against human serum-derived HBsAg revealed a three to four-fold enhanced expression of HBsAg in ginseng cells conferred by the TMV omega element.

  2. Cationic lipid-formulated DNA vaccine against hepatitis B virus: immunogenicity of MIDGE-Th1 vectors encoding small and large surface antigen in comparison to a licensed protein vaccine.

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    Anne Endmann

    Full Text Available Currently marketed vaccines against hepatitis B virus (HBV based on the small (S hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg fail to induce a protective immune response in about 10% of vaccinees. DNA vaccination and the inclusion of PreS1 and PreS2 domains of HBsAg have been reported to represent feasible strategies to improve the efficacy of HBV vaccines. Here, we evaluated the immunogenicity of SAINT-18-formulated MIDGE-Th1 vectors encoding the S or the large (L protein of HBsAg in mice and pigs. In both animal models, vectors encoding the secretion-competent S protein induced stronger humoral responses than vectors encoding the L protein, which was shown to be retained mainly intracellularly despite the presence of a heterologous secretion signal. In pigs, SAINT-18-formulated MIDGE-Th1 vectors encoding the S protein elicited an immune response of the same magnitude as the licensed protein vaccine Engerix-B, with S protein-specific antibody levels significantly higher than those considered protective in humans, and lasting for at least six months after the third immunization. Thus, our results provide not only the proof of concept for the SAINT-18-formulated MIDGE-Th1 vector approach but also confirm that with a cationic-lipid formulation, a DNA vaccine at a relatively low dose can elicit an immune response similar to a human dose of an aluminum hydroxide-adjuvanted protein vaccine in large animals.

  3. Measurement of hepatitis B virus core-related antigen is valuable for identifying patients who are at low risk of lamivudine resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Eiji; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Suzuki, Fumitaka; Kobayashi, Mariko; Mizokami, Masashi; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Okanoue, Takeshi; Minami, Masahito; Chayama, Kazuaki; Imamura, Michio; Yatsuhashi, Hiroshi; Nagaoka, Shinya; Yotsuyanagi, Hiroshi; Kawata, Sumio; Kimura, Tatsuji; Maki, Noboru; Iino, Shiro; Kiyosawa, Kendo

    2006-02-01

    The clinical usefulness of hepatitis B virus core-related antigen (HBVcrAg) assay was compared with that of HBV DNA assay in predicting the occurrence of lamivudine resistance in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Of a total of 81 patients who were treated with lamivudine, 25 (31%) developed lamivudine resistance during a median follow-up period of 19.3 months. The pretreatment positive rate of HBe antigen, or pretreatment levels of HBVcrAg or HBV DNA did not differ between patients with and without lamivudine resistance. Levels of both HBVcrAg and HBV DNA decreased after the initiation of lamivudine administration; however, the level of HBVcrAg decreased significantly more slowly than that of HBV DNA. The occurrence of lamivudine resistance was significantly less frequent in the 56 patients whose HBV DNA level was less than 2.6 log copy/ml at 6 months of treatment than in the remaining 25 patients. The cumulative rate of lamivudine resistance was as high as 70% within 2 years in the latter group, while it was only 28% in the former group. Lamivudine resistance did not occur during the follow-up period in the 19 patients whose HBVcrAg level was less than 4.6 log U/ml at 6 months of treatment, while it did occur in 50% of the remaining patients within 2 years. These results suggest that measurement of HBV DNA is valuable for identifying patients who are at high risk of developing lamivudine resistance, and that, conversely, measurement of HBVcrAg is valuable for identifying those who are at low risk of lamivudine resistance.

  4. Hepatitis B virus induces IL-23 production in antigen presenting cells and causes liver damage via the IL-23/IL-17 axis.

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    Qinghong Wang

    Full Text Available IL-23 regulates myriad processes in the innate and adaptive immune systems, and is a critical mediator of the proinflammatory effects exerted by Th17 cells in many diseases. In this study, we investigated whether and how hepatitis B virus (HBV causes liver damage directly through the IL-23 signaling pathway. In biopsied liver tissues from HBV-infected patients, expression of both IL-23 and IL-23R was remarkably elevated. In vivo observations also indicated that the main sources of IL-23 were myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs and macrophages. Analysis of in vitro differentiated immature DCs and macrophages isolated from healthy donors revealed that the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg efficiently induces IL-23 secretion in a mannose receptor (MR-dependent manner. Culture with an endosomal acidification inhibitor and the dynamin inhibitor showed that, upon binding to the MR, the HBsAg is taken up by mDCs and macrophages through an endocytosis mechanism. In contrast, although the HBV core antigen (HBcAg can also stimulate IL-23 secretion from mDCs, the process was MR- and endocytosis-independent. In addition, IL-23 was shown to be indispensible for HBsAg-stimulated differentiation of naïve CD4(+ T cells into Th17 cells, which were determined to be the primary source of IL-17 in HBV-infected livers. The cognate receptor, IL-17R, was found to exist on the hepatic stellate cells and mDCs, both of which might represent the potential target cells of IL-17 in hepatitis B disease. These data provide novel insights into a yet unrecognized mechanism of HBV-induced hepatitis, by which increases in IL-23 expression, through an MR/endocytosis-dependent or -independent manner, produce liver damage through the IL-23/IL-17 axis.

  5. Impacts of the G145R Mutation on the Structure and Immunogenic Activity of the Hepatitis B Surface Antigen: A Computational Analysis

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    Rezaee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Vaccine-escaped hepatitis B virus (HBV mutations occur within the “a” determinant area, which is located in the major hydrophilic region (MHR of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg protein. It is now well established that the common G145R mutation is highly capable of escaping from HBsAg immune recognition. However, the impacts of this mutation on the structure and immunogenic activity of HBsAg have been poorly investigated. Objectives The present study analyzed the effects of the G145R mutation on the structure and immunogenic activity of the HBsAg. Materials and Methods Three-dimensional (3D structure of HBsAg for both the wild-type and G145R mutant were predicted and refined using several web tools. After quantitative evaluations, the effects of the G145R mutation on the secondary and 3D structures of the HBsAg were investigated. In parallel, the immunogenic activity of the wild-type and mutant HBsAg was also analyzed using a ClusPro docking server as well as the IEDB web tool. Further analyses were performed via molecular dynamics (MD simulations using the GROMACS v5.0.2 simulation package. Results The G145R mutation causes a considerable reduction in the immunogenic activity of the HBsAg through a conformational change in the HBsAg antigenic loops. This mutation inserts a new β-strand in the “a” determinant region of the HBsAg, leading to a reduced binding affinity to its monoclonal antibody, MAb12. The G145R mutation also increased the compactness and stability of the HBsAg by enhancing the rigidity of the “a” determinant. Conclusions These data will be beneficial for designing more advanced antibodies for the recognition of the HBsAg in diagnostics. In addition, the results of this study may assist in the design or development of more effective hepatitis B vaccines.

  6. Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a pathogenic microorganism that can cause potentially life- threatening disease in humans. HBV infection is transmitted through exposure ...

  7. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  8. Suppression of humoral immune response to hepatitis B surface antigen vaccine in BALB/c mice by 1-methyl-tryptophan co-administration

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    T Sparopoulou

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available   Background and the purpose of the study:Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO suppresses adaptive immune response. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the IDO inhibitor namely 1-methyl-DL-tryptophan (DL-1-MT on antibody production after vaccination with hepatitis B surface (HBs antigen. Methods:Four groups of BALB/c mice were immunized with a HBs antigen vaccine. In the first group the vaccine had no DL-1-MT, whereas in the other three groups the vaccine contained 1 mg , 10 mg and 20 mg DL-1-MT. Blood samples were collected 5 weeks post-vaccination and anti-HBs antibodies in the serum were measured by ELISA. Results:Compared to the three groups of mice that were immunized with the vaccines containing DL-1-MT, serum anti-HBs level was much higher in the mice that were immunized with the vaccine with out DL-1-MT. Conclusions:Inhibition of IDO at the time of vaccination decreased humoral immune response to HBs antigen vaccine. The idea that IDO activity is simply immunosuppressive may need to be re-evaluated.

  9. Fatal liver failure caused by reactivation of lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuka Suzuki; Fumio Itoh; Hiroshi Yotsuyanagi; Chiaki Okuse; Yoshihiko Nagase; Hideaki Takahashi; Kyoji Moriya; Michihiro Suzuki; Kazuhiko Koike; Shiro lino

    2007-01-01

    We present a case of fetal liver failure caused by the activation of lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV) nine months after lamivudine treatment. A 57-year old man visited our hospital for the treatment of decompensated chronic hepatitis B. Lamivudine was started in December 2001. Subsequently, serum HBV was negative for HBV DNA with seroconversion from HBeAg to anti-HBe and improvement of liver function. However, HBV DNA and HBeAg were again detected in September 2002. He was complicated by breakthrough hepatitis and admitted to our hospital in November for severely impaired liver function. Vidarabine treatment was started and serum HBV DNA and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) decreased transiently. However, after the start of a-interferon treatment, HBV DNA level increased and liver function deteriorated. He died 1 mo after admission. An analysis of amino acid sequences in the polymerase region revealed that rtM204I/V with rtL80I/V occurred at the time of viral breakthrough. After the start of antiviral treatment, rtL180M was detected in addition to rtM204I/V and rtL80I/V, and became predominant in the terminal stage of the disease. HBV clone with a high replication capacity may be produced by antiviral treatment leading to the worsening of liver function. Antiviral therapy for patients with breakthrough hepatitis in advanced liver disease should be carefully performed.

  10. Identification of Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen (HBsAg Genotypes and Variations in Chronic Carriers from Isfahan Province, Iran

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    A Khedive

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV gene and protein variations are frequently been seen in chronic patients. The aims of study were to determine the genotypes as well as the patterns of variations distribution in chronically-infected patients from the central part of Iran.Methods: The surface gene was amplified, sequenced and subsequently aligned using international and national Iranian database. Results: All strains belonged to genotype D, subgenotype D1 and subtype ayw2. Of all 62 mutations occurred at 39 nucleotide positions, 31 (50% were missense (amino acid altering and 31 (50% were silent (no amino acid changing. At the amino acid level, 30 substitutions occurred, however, 3 were in positions 122 and 127, corresponded to subtypic determination. 22 (73% out of 30 amino acid mutations occurred in different immune epitopes within surface protein, of which 12 (54.54% in B cell epitopes in 10 residues; 5 (45.45% in T helper epitopes in positions; 5 (22.73% in inside CTL epitopes in 4 residues. Conclusion: The distribution of amino acid mutations as well as the ratio between silent and missense nucleotide mutations showed a narrowly focused immune pressure had already been on the surface protein in these patients, led to the emergence of escape mutants in these patients.

  11. Genetic association of human leukocyte antigens with chronicity or resolution of hepatitis B infection in thai population.

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    Nawarat Posuwan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the HLA-DP, TCF19 and EHMT2 genes may affect the chronic hepatitis B (CHB. To predict the degree of risk for chronicity of HBV, this study determined associations with these SNPs. METHODS: The participants for this study were defined into 4 groups; HCC (n = 230, CHB (n = 219, resolved HBV infection (n = 113 and HBV uninfected subjects (n = 123. The HLA-DP SNPs (rs3077, rs9277378 and rs3128917, TCF19 SNP (rs1419881 and EHMT2 SNP (rs652888 were genotyped. RESULTS: Due to similar distribution of genotype frequencies in HCC and CHB, we combined these two groups (HBV carriers. The genotype distribution in HBV carriers relative to those who resolved HBV showed that rs3077 and rs9277378 were significantly associated with protective effects against CHB in minor dominant model (OR = 0.45, p<0.001 and OR = 0.47, p<0.001. The other SNPs rs3128917, rs1419881 and rs652888 were not associated with HBV carriers. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variations of rs3077 and rs9277378, but not rs3128917, rs1419881 and rs652888, were significantly associated with HBV carriers relative to resolved HBV in Thai population.

  12. Intranasal Administration of Novel Chitosan Nanoparticle/DNA Complexes Induces Antibody Response to Hepatitis B Surface Antigen in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebre, F; Borchard, G; Faneca, H; Pedroso de Lima, M C; Borges, O

    2016-02-01

    The generation of strong pathogen-specific immune responses at mucosal surfaces where hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission can occur is still a major challenge. Therefore, new vaccines are urgently needed in order to overcome the limitations of existing parenteral ones. Recent studies show that this may be achieved by intranasal immunization. Chitosan has gained attention as a nonviral gene delivery system; however, its use in vivo is limited due to low transfection efficiency mostly related to strong interaction between the negatively charged DNA and the positively charged chitosan. We hypothesize that the adsorption of negatively charged human serum albumin (HSA) onto the surface of the chitosan particles would facilitate the intracellular release of DNA, enhancing transfection activity. Here, we demonstrate that a robust systemic immune response was induced after vaccination using HSA-loaded chitosan nanoparticle/DNA (HSA-CH NP/DNA) complexes. Furthermore, intranasal immunization with HSA-CH NP/DNA complexes induced HBV specific IgA in nasal and vaginal secretions; no systemic or mucosal responses were detected after immunization with DNA alone. Overall, our results show that chitosan-based DNA complexes elicited both humoral and mucosal immune response, making them an interesting and valuable gene delivery system for nasal vaccination against HBV.

  13. The Lumipulse G HBsAg-Quant assay for screening and quantification of the hepatitis B surface antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruifeng; Song, Guangjun; Guan, Wenli; Wang, Qian; Liu, Yan; Wei, Lai

    2016-02-01

    Qualitative HBsAg assay is used to screen HBV infection for decades. The utility of quantitative assay is also rejuvenated recently. We aimed to evaluate and compare the performance of a novel ultra-sensitive and quantitative assay, the Lumipulse assay, with the Architect and Elecsys assays. As screening methods, specificity was compared using 2043 consecutive clinical routine samples. As quantitative assays, precision and accuracy were assessed. Sera from 112 treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B patients, four patients undergoing antiviral therapy and one patient with acute infection were tested to compare the correlations. Samples with concurrent HBsAg/anti-HBs were also quantified. The Lumipulse assay precisely quantified ultra-low level of HBsAg (0.004 IU/mL). It identified additional 0.98% (20/2043) clinical samples with trance amount of HBsAg. Three assays displayed excellent linear correlations irrespective of genotypes and S-gene mutations (R(2)>0.95, PLumipulse assay did not yield higher HBsAg concentrations in samples with concomitant anti-HBs. Compared with other assays, the Lumipulse assay is sensitive and specific for detecting HBsAg. The interpretation of the extremely low-level results, however, is challenging. Quantitative HBsAg results by different assays are highly correlated, but they should be interpreted interchangeably only after conversion to eliminate the biases.

  14. Late Reactivation of Hepatitis B Virus after Chemotherapies for Hematological Malignancies: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Toshiki; Nannya, Yasuhito; Suetsugu, Atsushi; Shimizu, Shogo; Sugihara, Junichi; Shimizu, Masahito; Seishima, Mitsuru; Tsurumi, Hisashi

    2017-01-01

    Reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a serious complication of immunosuppressive therapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy. The optimal duration of HBV-DNA monitoring for at-risk patients depends on the clinical features of reactivation, especially the range of potency from therapies to reactivation. We present a case of very late reactivation after chemotherapy for lymphoma and review previous reports of late reactivation cases. We also underscore the significance of developing an indicator for anti-HBV immunity which can be used to determine the optimal monitoring period. PMID:28049989

  15. Hepatitis B (HBV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hepatitis B (HBV) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hepatitis B (HBV) Print A A A What's in this ... poisons). There are several different types of hepatitis . Hepatitis B is a type that can move from one ...

  16. Hepatitis B (HBV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hepatitis B (HBV) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hepatitis B (HBV) A A A What's in this article? ... poisons). There are several different types of hepatitis . Hepatitis B is a type that can move from one ...

  17. Hepatitis D Virus Infection Among Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Carriers and in “Isolated anti-HBc” Antibodies Profile in Central Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhalla, Salma; Kadri, Yosr; Alibi, Sana; Letaief, Amel; Boukadida, Jalel; Hannachi, Naila

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis D Virus (HDV) causes accelerated liver diseases in patients with Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection. There is lack of data about its prevalence, related risk factors and interaction with HBV carriers in our country. Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis delta and associated risk factors among Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and “isolated anti-HBc” profile carriers in central Tunisia. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 540 patients with positive HBsAg and 109 “isolated anti-HBc” profile receiving care in a teaching hospital were tested for the presence of HDV serum-markers using commercially available enzyme immunoassay kit. HBV-DNA was detected by nested PCR in “isolated anti-HBc” profile group. Results: Prevalence of HDV was 8.1% in HBsAg carriers group, but it was significantly higher in active than inactive hepatitis (30.2% and 4.5%, respectively, OR = 9, 95% CI: [4.48-18.58]). There was no significant association between studied risk factors and HDV infection. In the “isolated anti-HBc” profile group, prevalence of HDV was 4.6% and HBV-DNA had negative result in all patients with positive results for HDV. Conclusions: Although HDV had low prevalence in our area, it is vital to plan preventive strategies for HDV spread as well as HBV prevention. It is particularly important to suspect HDV infection in active HBV carriers to manage a particularly severe dual infection. HDV infection should be suspected even in negative HBsAg patients having “isolated anti-HBc” profile. PMID:27110257

  18. Evaluation of the performance of four methods for detection of hepatitis B surface antigen and their application for testing 116,455 specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Can; Chen, Tianbin; Lin, Jinpiao; Chen, Huijuan; Chen, Jing; Lin, Sheng; Yang, Bin; Shang, Hongyan; Ou, Qishui

    2014-02-01

    Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is a crucial serum marker for the diagnosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. It is imperative to compare test results from different detection methods based on different principles. Four methods, chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA), electrochemiluminescent immunoassay (ECLIA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and golden immunochromato-graphic assay (GICA) were applied to test the HBsAg level in 250 specimens. According to the EP12-A2 and EP15-A2 documents from Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), the concentration at which repeated results are 50% positive (C50) of HBsAg detected by CMIA, ECLIA, ELISA and GICA was 0.05, 0.08, 0.15 and 15.0IU/ml, respectively. When the detection concentration of HBsAg was 0.5IU/ml, the imprecision degree of CMIA, ECLIA and ELISA was 8.1%, 5.9% and 14.9% respectively. When detecting high HBsAg level (≥20.0IU/ml) and HBsAg negative specimens, the consistency of the four methods was high, while for the low level (0.05-20.0IU/ml), the consistency was poor (except for the CMIA and ECLIA, Pevaluation of the four methods in qualitative diagnosis of HBsAg level in the 116,455 specimens, there was no significant discrepancy among CMIA, CMIA and ECLIA, however, GICA was significantly different from the other 3 methods. Compared with CMIA, the false negative rate of ECLIA, ELISA and GICA was 0.2%, 1.3% and 12.3% respectively. In conclusion, GICA was only suitable for the preliminary screening of HBsAg positive individuals and ELISA can be applied to the qualitative diagnosis of HBsAg. Both CMIA and ECLIA were suitable for the quantitative determination of HBsAg.

  19. DNA-based vaccination induces humoral and cellular immune responses against hepatitis B virus surface antigen in mice without activation of C-myc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lian-San; Qin, Shan; Zhou, Tao-You; Tang, Hong; Liu, Li; Lei, Bing-Jun

    2000-04-01

    AIM:To develop a safe and effective DNA vaccine for inducing humoral and cellular immunological responses against hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg).METHODS:BALB/c mice were inoculated with NV-HB/s, a recombinant plasmid that had been inserted S gene of hepatitis B virus genome and could express HBsAg in eukaryotes. HBsAg expression was measured by ABC immunohis tochemical assay, generation of anti-HBs by ELISA and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL), by MTT method, existence of vaccine DNA by Southern blot hybridization and activation of oncogene C-myc by in situ hybridization.RESULTS:With NV-HB/s vaccination by intramuscular injection, anti-HBs was initially positive 2 weeks after inoculation while all mice tested were HBsAg positive in the muscles.The titers and seroconversion rate of anti-HBs were steadily increasing as time went on and were dose dependent. All the mice inoculated with 100&mgr;g NV-HB/s were anti-HBs positive one month after inoculation, the titer was 1 1024 or more. The humoral immune response was similar induced by either intramuscular or intradermal injection. CTL activities were much stronger (45.26%) in NV-HB/s DNA immunized mice as compared with those (only 6%) in plasma-derived HBsAg vaccine immunized mice. Two months after inoculation, all muscle samples were positive by Southernblot hybridization for NV-HB/s DNA detection, but decreased to 25% and all were undetectable by in situ hybridiza-tion after 6 months.No oncogene C-myc activation was found in the muscle of inoculation site.CONCLUSION:NV-HB/s could generate humoral and cellular immunolo-gical responses against HBsAg that had been safely expressed in situ by NV-HB/s vaccination.

  20. Yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine: efficacy with hepatitis B immune globulin in prevention of perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, C.E.; Taylor, P.E.; Tong, M.J.; Toy, P.T.; Vyas, G.N.; Nair, P.V.; Weissman, J.Y.; Krugman, S.

    1987-05-15

    A yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine was licensed recently by the Food and Drug administration and is now available. To assess the efficacy of the yeast-recombinant vaccine, the authors administered the vaccine in combination with hepatitis B immune globulin to high-risk newborns. If infants whose mothers were positive for both hepatitis B surface antigen and the e antigen receive no immunoprophylaxis, 70% to 90% become infected with the virus, and almost all become chronic carriers. Among infants in this study who received hepatitis B immune globulin at birth and three 5-/sup +/g doses of yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine, only 4.8% became chronic carriers, a better than 90% level of protection and a rate that is comparable with that seen with immune globulin and plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine. Hepatitis surface antigen and antibodies were detected by radioimmunoassay. These data suggest that, in this high-risk setting, the yeast-recombinant vaccine is as effective as the plasma-derived vaccine in preventing hepatitis B virus infection and the chronic carrier state.

  1. Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination Information for Diabetes Educators What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a contagious liver disease that results from infection with the hepatitis B virus. When first infected, a person can develop ...

  2. Freeze-thaw stress of Alhydrogel ® alone is sufficient to reduce the immunogenicity of a recombinant hepatitis B vaccine containing native antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Tanya; Munks, Michael W; Trivedi, Ruchit; Kompella, Uday B; Braun, LaToya Jones

    2014-06-24

    Preventing losses in vaccine potency due to accidental freezing has recently become a topic of interest for improving vaccines. All vaccines with aluminum-containing adjuvants are susceptible to such potency losses. Recent studies have described excipients that protect the antigen from freeze-induced inactivation, prevent adjuvant agglomeration and retain potency. Although these strategies have demonstrated success, they do not provide a mechanistic understanding of freeze-thaw (FT) induced potency losses. In the current study, we investigated how adjuvant frozen in the absence of antigen affects vaccine immunogenicity and whether preventing damage to the freeze-sensitive recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen (rHBsAg) was sufficient for maintaining vaccine potency. The final vaccine formulation or Alhydrogel(®) alone was subjected to three FT-cycles. The vaccines were characterized for antigen adsorption, rHBsAg tertiary structure, particle size and charge, adjuvant elemental content and in-vivo potency. Particle agglomeration of either vaccine particles or adjuvant was observed following FT-stress. In vivo studies demonstrated no statistical differences in IgG responses between vaccines with FT-stressed adjuvant and no adjuvant. Adsorption of rHBsAg was achieved; regardless of adjuvant treatment, suggesting that the similar responses were not due to soluble antigen in the frozen adjuvant-containing formulations. All vaccines with adjuvant, including the non-frozen controls, yielded similar, blue-shifted fluorescence emission spectra. Immune response differences could not be traced to differences in the tertiary structure of the antigen in the formulations. Zeta potential measurements and elemental content analyses suggest that FT-stress resulted in a significant chemical alteration of the adjuvant surface. This data provides evidence that protecting a freeze-labile antigen from subzero exposure is insufficient to maintain vaccine potency. Future studies should

  3. The expression of miR-125b-5p is increased in the serum of patients with chronic hepatitis B infection and inhibits the detection of hepatitis B virus surface antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, M; Kondo, Y; Kimura, O; Funayama, R; Nagashima, T; Kogure, T; Morosawa, T; Tanaka, Y; Nakayama, K; Shimosegawa, T

    2016-05-01

    MicroRNAs were first discovered as small endogenous RNA molecules and some viruses have been reported to interact with host miRNAs. By investigating miRNA expression in serum derived from HBV-infected patients, we have clarified the relationship between miRNA expression and chronic HBV infection. Additionally, we demonstrate the use of miRNAs as both novel biomarkers and new therapies against HBV. We included the sera of 20 patients with chronic HBV infection, sera of 20 patients with HCV infection and sera of 10 healthy controls in this study. The miRNA libraries were sequenced using a 32-mer single end sequence. The validation study of circulating miRNA in serum was conducted by qRT-PCR. The HBV genomic regions of genotype B and genotype C that were speculated to be targeted by miRNA were constructed using complementary oligonucleotides in the vectors. Reporter assays were performed 48 h after transfection. The expression levels of 21 miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in the three groups. 10 miRNAs (hsa-miR-100-5p, miR-125b-5p, miR-193b-3p, miR-194-3p, miR-30a-3p, miR-30c-2-3p, miR-3591-5p, miR-4709-3p, miR-574-3p and miR-99a-5p) were found to be upregulated in CH-B by deep sequence analysis. The computer analysis showed that two regions of HBsAg are potential targets of miR-125b-5p and miR-30c-2-3p and that these miRNAs may downregulate the expression of HBV-S. The HBV genotype C segment speculated to be targeted by hsa-miR-125b-5p significantly decreased the expression of the reporter. This study indicated that expression of miR-125b-5p was related to the etiology of chronic hepatitis B infection and regulated the expression of HBsAg. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Is there an association of hepatitis B virus infection with minimal change disease of nephrotic syndrome? A clinical observational report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tian-Biao; Jiang, Zong-Pei

    2015-04-01

    The rate of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is high in the Chinese population, and the implications of HBV infection are widely recognized, and membranous nephropathy is the most common renal lesion to be associated with HBV infection. Minimal change disease (MCD) is one of the most important histopathological characteristics in patients with nephrotic syndrome. There is no any study to report that HBV infection is associated with the etiology of MCD. Herein, we report four MCD patients with HBV infection and speculate that there is an association of HBV infection with the pathological type of MCD. In this study, we also reported the treatment schedule for these four MCD patients, and found that the anti-virus alone and combination of anti-virus with immunosuppressive agent could obtain a benefit for MCD patients with HBV infection. However, a well-designed study should be performed to confirm this association.

  5. Enhancement of cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity by dendritic cells loaded with Tat-protein transduction domain-fused hepatitis B virus core antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The protein transduction domain (PTD) of human immuno-deficiency virus-1-Tat protein has a unique potency to pen-etrate the cellular membranes. To synthesize the sequence of Tat-PTD and hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg), we spliced these sequences and linked a fusion gene into the pMAL-c2x vector. The fusion proteins were purified by affin-ity chromatography and pulsed with bone marrow -derived den-dritic cells (DCs), and the transduction of recombinant pro-tein was detected by immunofluorescence antibody assay.Results showed that recombinant PTD-HBcAg could pen-etrate into DC cytoplasm while recombinant HBcAg was de-tected on the surface of cells. The percentage of DC surface molecules, such as CD80, CD86 and major histocompatibii-ity complex Ⅱ, and production of cytokine (IL-12pT0) induced by recombinant PTD-HBcAg were significantly higher than those induced by recombinant HBcAg or tumor necrosis fac-tor-α. DCs treated with PTD-HBcAg induced T cells to dif-ferentiate into specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and enhanced the CTL killing response. In conclusion, the ex-pressed and purified PTD-HBcAg fusion protein could pen-etrate into cells through the plasma membrane, promote DC maturation, and enhance T cells response to generate HBcAg-specific CTLs efficiently.

  6. Targeting hepatitis B virus antigens to dendritic cells by heat shock protein to improve DNA vaccine potency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate a novel DNA vaccination based upon expression of the HBV e antigen fused to a heat shock protein (HSP) as a strategy to enhance DNA vaccine potency.METHODS: A pCMV-HBeAg-HSP DNA vaccine and a control DNA vaccine were generated. Mice were immunized with these different construct. Immune responses were measured 2 wk after a second immunization by a T cell response assay, CTL cytotoxicity assay, and an antibody assay in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. CT26-HBeAg tumor cell challenge test in vivo was performed in BALB/c mice to monitor anti-tumor immune responses.RESULTS: In the mice immunized with pCMV-HBe-HSP DNA, superior CTL activity to target HBV-positive target cells was observed in comparison with mice immunized with pCMV-HBeAg (44% ± 5% vs 30% ± 6% in E: T > 50:1, P < 0.05). ELISPOT assays showed a stronger T-cell response from mice immunized with pCMV-HBe-HSP than that from pCMV-HBeAg immunized animals when stimulated either with MHC class Ⅰ or class Ⅱ epitopes derived from HBeAg (74% ± 9% vs 31% ± 6%, P < 0.01). ELISA assays revealed an enhanced HBeAg antibody response from mice immunized with pCMV-HBe-HSP than from those immunized with pCMV-HBeAg. The lowest tumor incidence and the slowest tumor growth were observed in mice immunized with pCMV-HBe-HSP when challenged with CT26-HBeAg.CONCLUSION: The results of this study demonstrate a broad enhancement of antigen-specific CD4+ helper,CD8+ cytotoxic T-cell, and B-cell responses by a novel DNA vaccination strategy. They also proved a stronger antigen-specific immune memory, which may be superior to currently described HBV DNA vaccination strategies for the treatment of chronic HBV infection.

  7. Self-reported history of vaccination and disease and immunity against hepatitis A, hepatitis B, tetanus, diphtheria and varicella among Spanish military recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Alejandro; Desviat, Pilar Vallejo; Jaqueti, Jeronimo; Santos, Juana; de Miguel, Angel Gil; Garcia, Rodrigo Jiménez

    2010-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate the immune status against hepatitis A, hepatitis B, tetanus, diphtheria and varicella in military recruits and the validity of self-reporting of their disease and vaccination history. A total of 226 participants were studied (mean age, 20.2 years; SD 1.7). 10.4% presented antibodies to hepatitis A, 78.3% to hepatitis B, 94.2% to tetanus, 77.4% to diphtheria and 81.9% to varicella. The relationship between self-reporting of vaccination history and seroprotection showed a high Positive Predictive Value for tetanus (98.8%) and a high Negative Predictive Value for hepatitis A (91%). Hepatitis A vaccination and serology testing for varicella and Hepatitis B on joining the Spanish armed forces are recommended.

  8. [Hepatitis B virus in patients with renal transplant. Report of 52 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C R; Virginillo, M B; Palmitano, J B; Tani, R D; Aguirre, C

    1990-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a high risk factor in the frequently found liver involvement of renal transplant recipients. As in other immunosuppressed patients, these often follow a course of slight jaundice, with a progressive tendency and great replicative and infectious power. Also, in addition to an increased incidence of chronic hepatitis (CH) in transplanted when compared with hemodialized patients, specially when HBsAg is present, it is surprising the poor correlation between enzyme levels and the grade of activity of the hepatic lesion. In a retro and prospective study, we present 52 patients of the 73 transplant reviewed. There are 32 men and 20 females, with and average age of 34 years, minimum time on dialysis of 2 months and maximum of 7 years, time of renal transplant from 6 moth to 15 years (average 4.9 years). There were 31 cadaver transplants and 21 live donors. The HBsAg was + in 20 (9 seroconverted), HBeAg was + in 4 (with 2 seroconvertions), hyperbilirrubinemia in 5, hyperalkaline phosphatasemia (2 or more times) in 11 and elevated serum transaminases (SGPT) (3 times or more) in 20 cases. Positive HBsAg plus SGPT x 3 was found on 9 occasions and positive HBsAg with SGPT x 3 in 3 cases. liver biopsy (LB), in those with enzymatic changes and/or positive antigenemia, was performed in 15 instances and there were 5 autopsies. The most important histological findings were: 5 acute viral hepatitis, 2 active chronic hepatitis (CAH), 2 persistent chronic hepatitis (CPH), 5 with fat infiltration and 4 with colestasis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Humoral and cellular immunity to hepatitis B virus-derived antigens: comparative activity of Freund complete adjuvant alum, and liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Y; Ionescu-Matiu, I; Dreesman, G R; Kramp, W; Six, H R; Hollinger, F B; Melnick, J L

    1980-01-01

    Complete Freud adjuvant, aluminum gel, and liposomes were compared for their ability to enhance the immunogenicity of an intact 22-nm HBsAg particle vaccine and an HBsAg-derived polypeptide vaccine in guinea pigs. Both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses were evaluated. The greatest immune response was obtained with complete Freund adjuvant, regardless of the antigen preparation. Aluminum gel appeared to be a better adjuvant for 22-nm HBsAg particles, but the liposomes rendered polypeptide preparations more immunogenic. The possibility that various proportions were entrapped in aqueous compartments instead of being inserted into the lipid bilayers of liposomes might account for this difference. The development of both humoral and cellular immunity was dependent upon the use of an adjuvant, because aqueous preparations had poor immunogenicity. PMID:7014445

  10. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen & its subtypes in high risk group subjects & voluntary blood donors in Bombay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavia, A J; Banker, D D

    1991-09-01

    HBsAg positive subjects belonging to high risk groups and voluntary blood donors were analysed for prevalence of HBsAg among various groups of subjects for ascertaining the carrier status among the voluntary blood donors, HBsAg subtype distribution, and association of HBsAg with blood groups and caste or religion. The prevalence of HBsAg varied from 2.02 per cent in voluntary blood donors to 58.38 per cent in patients of acute viral hepatitis. 70.5 per cent subjects had subtype 'ay' while 23.9 per cent of the subjects had subtype 'ad'. We also found compound 'ady' subtype in 5.6 per cent of our subjects. HBsAg/adr, a subtype not usually prevalent in India, was found in 30 of the 90 'ad' sera. Co-occurrence of HBsAg and anti-HBs was noted in 9 subjects. Homotypic anti-HBs was found to occur together mainly in voluntary blood donors, while heterotypic anti-HBs was found to occur together mainly multi-transfused patients. There was no significant correlation between HBsAg and blood group antigens and a relatively higher incidence of HBsAg among the Jain community was observed.

  11. Improved cell mediated immune responses after successful re-vaccination of non-responders to the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) vaccine using the combined hepatitis A and B vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Jessica; Cardell, Kristina; Björnsdottir, Thora Björg; Fryden, Aril; Hultgren, Catharina; Sällberg, Matti

    2008-11-01

    We successfully re-vaccinated hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine non-responders using a double dose of the combined hepatitis A virus (HAV) and HBV vaccine. The hope was to improve priming of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-specific cell mediated immune response (CMI) by an increased antigen dose and a theoretical adjuvant-effect from the local presence of a HAV-specific CMI. A few non-responders had a detectable HBsAg-specific CMI before re-vaccination. An in vitro detectable HBsAg-specific CMI was primed equally effective in non-responders (58%) as in first time vaccine recipients (68%). After the third dose a weak, albeit significant, association was observed between the magnitude of HBsAg-specific proliferation and anti-HBs levels. This regimen improves the priming of HBsAg-specific CMIs and antibodies.

  12. Hepatitis B virus gene mutations in liver diseases: a report from New Delhi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Malik

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The study was designed to characterize the surface, core promoter, precore/core region sequences for the presence of mutations in hepatitis B virus (HBV associated with different liver diseases. METHODS: 567 HBV associated patients with different liver diseases were enrolled in this study. All samples were analyzed for HBV surface, core promoter, precore/core region mutations and genotypes using PCR and direct sequencing. RESULTS: HBV genotype D (72.8% was the predominant type followed by genotype A (27.2%. The serum viral load of HBV was highest in HBsAg carriers group and lowest in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. 17.9% patients with cirrhosis and 24.6% hepatocellular carcinoma cases were ADV-resistant with rtA181T/V mutations in the S-gene. A1896T was found more frequently in fulminant hepatic failure compared to acute viral hepatitis patients (p = 0.038. T1753V mutation was significantly higher in patients with cirrhosis of liver (34.6% than in chronic hepatitis (18.9% and hepatocellular carcinoma patients (21.2%; p = 0.001. T1762/A1764 mutation was observed in all the groups. C1914G core gene mutation was associated with the hepatocellular carcinoma (32.2% compared to other groups. HBV genotype D predominated in comparison to genotype A. An increased frequency of precore mutation and BCP double mutations amongst the population studied was also observed. CONCLUSION: Mutations such as T1762/A1764, T1753V and C1914G were usually associated with advanced forms of liver disease and had an increased risk of HCC. The nucleotide variability in the basal core promoter and precore regions possibly plays a role in the progression of HBV disease. Prospective studies on the sequence variations of the preC/C region of the HBV genome and the molecular mechanisms in relation to progression of liver disease would aid in better understanding of the biological significance of HBV strains in India.

  13. Antiviral effects of anti-HBs immunoglobulin and vaccine on HBs antigen seroclearance for chronic hepatitis B infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuge, Masataka; Hiraga, Nobuhiko; Uchida, Takuro; Kan, Hiromi; Miyaki, Eisuke; Masaki, Keiichi; Ono, Atsushi; Nakahara, Takashi; Abe-Chayama, Hiromi; Zhang, Yizhou; Naswa, Makokha Grace; Kawaoka, Tomokazu; Miki, Daiki; Imamura, Michio; Kawakami, Yoshiiku; Aikata, Hiroshi; Ochi, Hidenori; Hayes, C Nelson; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2016-11-01

    Interferon and nucleotide/nucleoside analogues are the main treatments for chronic hepatitis B. These drugs effectively reduce serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA titers but fail to sufficiently reduce hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) levels. Following the recent identification of sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide as a receptor for HBV entry, inhibition of HBV entry has become an attractive therapeutic target for chronic hepatitis B treatment. We therefore evaluated the antiviral effects of antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs) immunoglobulin (HBIG), which can inhibit HBV entry, by in an vivo study and a clinical trial. In the in vivo study, HBV-infected mice were generated from human hepatocyte chimeric mice and treated with HBIG. A clinical trial evaluating HBIG therapy in patients was also performed. In the mouse study, HBV DNA titers were reduced and serum HBsAg titers decreased to undetectable levels following high-dose HBIG injection. On the basis of this result, eight chronic hepatitis B patients, who had received long-term nucleotide analogue treatment, were treated with monthly HBIG injections as an additional treatment. After 1 year of treatment, an HBsAg level reduction of more than 1 log IU/mL was observed in four patients, and three patients became anti-HBs positive. No adverse events occurred during HBIG therapy. These results suggest that monthly HBIG injection might benefit patients with chronic hepatitis B whose HBsAg titer becomes lower following long-term nucleotide/nucleoside analogue treatment.

  14. Hepatitis B therapy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbegov, Amethyst C; Sokol, Ronald J

    2009-02-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of liver disease throughout the world, leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in many individuals. Children are more likely to develop chronic HBV infection as they demonstrate greater immunotolerance to the virus, and response to therapy in children remains disappointing. Three therapeutic agents for chronic HBV infection in children have been approved in the USA, including standard IFN-alpha, lamivudine and adefovir. IFN-alpha has been the most effective ( approximately 30% hepatitis B e antigen [HBeAg] seroconversion; 10% hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] seroconversion), although benefits are primarily observed in children with alanine aminotransferase levels over two-times the upper limit of normal and must be weighed against significant side effects. Studies comparing the long-term outcome of chronic hepatitis B in children treated with IFN-alpha and in untreated controls show that the rate of anti-HBeAb seroconversion tends to overlap in treated and untreated patients within a few years of follow-up, suggesting that IFN-alpha simply accelerates a spontaneous event. Lamivudine's virologic response rates mirror those of IFN-alpha (23-31% HBeAg seroconversion) with easier administration and a better safety profile but lower HBsAg seroconversion (2-3%) and high rates of drug resistance. Adefovir data show low rates of resistance and a good safety profile, but virologic response was limited to adolescent patients and was lower than that of lamivudine (16% HBeAg seroconversion; therapies for adults with chronic HBV infection, are in trials for use in children. Future therapies will probably include these agents as well as combined therapies. Finally, watchful waiting of children is an option since current therapies are only 30% effective at best, although the long-term impact of therapy in childhood on rates of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma remains unknown.

  15. Mapping of immunodominant B-cell epitopes and the human serum albumin-binding site in natural hepatitis B virus surface antigen of defined genosubtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotta, D; Sominskaya, I; Jansons, J; Meisel, H; Schmitt, S; Heermann, K H; Kaluza, G; Pumpens, P; Gerlich, W H

    2000-02-01

    Twelve MAbs were generated by immunization of BALB/c mice with plasma-derived hepatitis B virus surface spherical antigen particles subtype ayw2 (HBsAg/ayw2 genotype D). Their epitopes were mapped by analysis of reactivity with plasma-derived HBsAg/ayw2 and HBsAg/adw2 (genotype A) in enzyme immunoassays and blots. Mapping was supported by nested sets of truncated preS2 proteins and preS2 peptides. Five antibodies were S domain-specific, seven were preS2-specific and 11 had a preference for genotype D. According to our data, group I of the three known epitope groups of preS2 has to be divided into IA and IB. Three preS2-specific MAbs forming the new group IA reacted with genotype D residues 3-15 which have not yet been described as an epitope region. IA antibodies strongly inhibited the binding of polymerized human serum albumin. Two antibodies (group II) reacted with the glycosylated N-terminal region of preS2 in plasma-derived HBsAg, but not with a preparation from transfected murine cells. One group III antibody was subtype-specific and reacted with the highly variable preS2 sequence 38-48. Only one antibody (group IB) mapped to the region (old group I) which was believed to be immunodominant and genotype-independent. Geno(sub)type-specific epitopes of preS2 are obviously the immunodominant components of natural HBsAg in BALB/c mice, but these epitopes may be masked by serum albumins in humans. The data may explain why it is difficult to detect anti-preS2 antibodies in human recipients of preS2-containing vaccines, in spite of the preS2 immunodominance in mice.

  16. Severe Acute Hepatitis B Treated with Entecavir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Vittorio Luigi De Socio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection constitutes a serious global health problem. Nowadays there are divergent data regarding the use of antiviral drugs to treat acute hepatitis B. We present here a case of a 62-year-old man affected by severe acute hepatitis B with progressive worsening of clinical and hepatic function. The patient was treated with entecavir without critical side effects. We observed rapid clinical and laboratory improvements and the disappearance of surface antigen (HBsAg. The treatment with entecavir was protracted until 17th week when the antibody antiHBs (anti HBs appeared. Entecavir should be carefully considered for the treatment of severe acute hepatitis B cases.

  17. Immunological response to parenteral vaccination with recombinant hepatitis B virus surface antigen virus-like particles expressing Helicobacter pylori KatA epitopes in a murine H. pylori challenge model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotiw, Michael; Johnson, Megan; Pandey, Manisha; Fry, Scott; Hazell, Stuart L; Netter, Hans J; Good, Michael F; Olive, Colleen

    2012-02-01

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) based on the small envelope protein of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg-S) are immunogenic at the B- and T-cell level. In this study, we inserted overlapping sequences encoding the carboxy terminus of the Helicobacter pylori katA gene product into HBsAg-S. The HBsAg-S-KatA fusion proteins were able to assemble into secretion-competent VLPs (VLP-KatA). The VLP-KatA proteins were able to induce KatA-specific antibodies in immunized mice. The mean total IgG antibody titers 41 days post-primary immunization with VLP-KatA (2.3 × 10(3)) were significantly greater (P < 0.05) than those observed for vaccination with VLP alone (5.2 × 10(2)). Measurement of IgG isotypes revealed responses to both IgG1 and IgG2a (mean titers, 9.0 × 10(4) and 2.6 × 10(4), respectively), with the IgG2a response to vaccination with VLP-KatA being significantly higher than that for mice immunized with KatA alone (P < 0.05). Following challenge of mice with H. pylori, a significantly reduced bacterial load in the gastric mucosa was observed (P < 0.05). This is the first report describing the use of VLPs as a delivery vehicle for H. pylori antigens.

  18. Occult hepatitis B among Iranian hepatitis C patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad shavakhi; Babak Norinaier; Fatomeh Esteghamat; Mohamad Seghatoleslami; Mahsa Khodadustan; Mohamad hossein Somi; Mohsen Masoodi; Mohamad reza Zali

    2009-01-01

    • BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B is defined as presence of HBV DNA in tissue or serum without hepatitis B surface antigen. The aim of this study is to determine frequency of occult hepatitis B among hepatitis C patients in Tehran and compare the route of transmission and liver enzymes between positive and negative HBV DNA patients.
    • METHODS: In a cross sectional study, serum of 103 hepatitis C cas...

    • Occult Hepatitis B Virus Related Decompensated Cirrhosis of Liver in Young Males: First Report of Two Cases from Bangladesh

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Mamun Al-Mahtab

      2008-05-01

      Full Text Available Cryptogenic cirrhosis is a diagnosis of exclusion. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR has demonstrated persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV infection in serum and liver tissue of HBsAg-negative chronic hepatitis, HBsAg-negative cirrhosis, and HBsAg-negative HCC patients. The entity of occult HBV infection is well established. We report two patients with occult HBV related decompensated cirrhosis of liver for the first time from Bangladesh. The first patient is a young male with jaundice and hepato-splenomegaly. The second patient is also a young male with ascites. Both had altered liver function tests. Diagnosis of decompensated cirrhosis of liver was established in both cases and in both the etiology was identified by PCR to be occult HBV infection. In areas with high prevalence of HBV, a diagnosis of "cryptogenic" cirrhosis based on HBsAg testing alone is not adequate. The so called "cryptogenic" but actually occult HBV cirrhotics are suitable candidates for antiviral treatment. Occult HBV infection must be considered in all patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis of liver in areas where HBV infection is prevalent.

    • Comparison of hepatitis B, core, HBc, and hepatitis B antibody, anti HBs, in a presumed low risk donor population.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Heck, Ellen; Cavanagh, H Dwight

      2014-09-01

      Donors screened by medical social history interview negative for high risk behavior or communicable disease history, but subsequently exhibiting reactive serological markers, emphasize importance of duel safe guarding factors for determining donor suitability. This report examines a relationship between two immunoabsorption assay tests, hepatitis B core (HBc) antibody, a required food and drug administration (FDA) test, and hepatitis B antibody (anti HBs), non-required test. Reactive serology results, 129 cases, 3,581 donors (2008-2012) for HBc as the only initially positive serological marker were subjected to anti HBs testing in this history pre-screened donor population. Enzyme linked immunoabsorption assay kits hepatitis B, core and antibody, were used in this study. All samples were initially tested for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, utilizing nucleic acid testing and antigen antibody immunoabsorption assay. Testing was performed by a FDA-registered CLEA-certified reference laboratory. Samples were deceased donor blood samples and a limited number of pre-mortem samples, separated, stored and analyzed according to manufacturer recommendation and FDA regulations. 129 reactive HBc only samples, were subsequently tested for anti HBs. Of these 129, 94 were found to be reactive for anti HBs. This represented 72 % of samples tested for antibody, a higher percentage than anticipated for a medical history negative, low risk population.

  1. Nucleoside analogue therapy following one-year course of hepatitis B immunoglobulin in preventing hepatitis B virus reactivation after living donor liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawagishi, Naoki; Takeda, Ikuo; Miyagi, Shigehito; Satoh, Kazushige; Akamatsu, Yorihiro; Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Satomi, Susumu

    2010-12-01

    The combination therapy with hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and nucleoside analogue is well tolerated for the hepatitis B recipients after liver transplantation, but its cost is an important problem in these days. Here we report the efficacy of nucleoside analogue therapy following one-year course of HBIG plus nucleoside analogue after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Out of 103 LDLTs, we selected 14 recipients who received the post-transplant therapy against reactivation of hepatitis B virus for more than 30 months. Those were eight patients with chronic hepatitis B, three with fulminant hepatitis, and three whose donors were positive for antibody to HB core antigen (HBc). During two days after the operation, HBIG (40,000 units) was administered, and the serum level of antibody to HB surface antigen (HBs) was maintained at around 150 IU/L for one year by monthly administration of HBIG. After one year, HBIG was withdrawn. A nucleoside analogue was administered daily from just after LDLT, and it was continued up to the present. Among the 14 patients, two recipients had recurrence of hepatitis B. Three patients, including one patient with recurrence of hepatitis B, died due to hepatocellular carcinoma or its associated cirrhosis; namely, their deaths are unrelated to hepatitis B-related diseases. The remaining 11 patients are leading normal lives. In conclusion, nucleoside analogue therapy after one-year course of HBIG plus nucleoside analogue is feasible and cost-effective in preventing HBV reactivation. But the patients are still at risk of breakthrough and some patients may need continued prophylaxis with HBIG.

  2. Hepatitis B prevalence and incidence in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børresen, Malene Landbo; Andersson, Mikael; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Greenland remains a highly endemic area for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This is in sharp contrast to other modern societies, such as Denmark. To address this discrepancy, we investigated the natural history of HBV infection in Greenland by estimating the age-specific incidence of HBV...... infection, the proportion of chronic carriers, and the rates of hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance. In total, 8,879 Greenlanders (16% of the population) from population-based surveys conducted in 1987 and 1998 were followed through March 2010. Data on HBV status were supplemented by HBV test results...... from all available HBV registries in Greenland to determine changes in HBV status over time. Incidence rates of HBV infection and hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance were estimated after taking into account interval censoring. The incidence of HBV infection in 5-14-year-old subjects was less than...

  3. Association of oral lichen planus with hepatitis C virus, surface antigen of hepatitis B virus, and diabetes: A clinical and biochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavani Donempudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral lichen planus is an inflammatory mucocutaneous disease commonly encountered in the dental clinic. The etiology of oral lichen planus is still unknown. The probable factors associated with oral lichen planus include anxiety, trauma, malnutrition, infection, and autoimmunity. Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the serum levels of fasting and postprandial blood sugar levels, surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg, and hepatitis C virus (HCV autoantibodies in oral lichen planus patients and controls, and to assess the association of oral lichen planus with diabetes, HCV, and HBsAg. Study Design: The study included a total of 25 oral lichen planus patients. Twenty-five individuals who did not have the above clinical conditions were also included in the study and comprised the control group. Both the study and control groups consisted of both sexes in the age group of 20–70 years. Patients were clinically diagnosed as oral lichen planus after obtaining a detailed history and was later confirmed by histopathologic examination. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from both the oral lichen planus patients and controls. Biochemical analysis of blood glucose levels, i.e., fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels, HBsAg, hepatitis C autoantibodies were done by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Blood glucose levels, i.e., fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels, were found to be statistically increased in oral lichen planus patients when compared with controls. There was no significant change in HCV autoantibodies and HBsAg. The results of the present study also showed a significant association of oral lichen planus with diabetes. However, there was no significant association of oral lichen planus with HCV and HBsAg in patients when compared with controls. Conclusion: There was a direct relation of oral lichen planus with diabetes whereas there was no significant association with HCV

  4. Know HBV: What Every Asian and Pacific Islander Should Know About Hepatitis B and Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your family to get tested for HBV because hepatitis B is one of the KNOW greatest health threats ... Ask your doctor for these blood tests: HBV Hepatitis B sur face antigen (HBs Ag) : Tells if you ...

  5. Pregnant woman with fulminant hepatic failure caused by hepatitis B virus infection:A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-Bo Yang; Xiao-Mao Li; Zhong-Jie Shi; Lin Ma

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To report the experience in successfully treating pregnant women with severe hepatitis.METHODS: Comprehensive medical treatments were performed under strict monitoring.RESULTS: Pregnant woman with severe hepatitis was successfully rescued.CONCLUSION: Vital measures taken in the treatment of pregnant women with severe hepatitis include termination of the pregnancy at a proper time and control of various complications, such as disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), hepatorenal syndrome, hepatic encephalopathy and infection.

  6. Prevalence of Serologic Hepatitis B Markers in Blood Donors From Puebla, Mexico: The Association of Relatively High Levels of Anti-Core Antibodies With the Detection of Surface Antigen and Genomic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Jurado, Francisca; Hilda Rosas-Murrieta, Nora; Guzman-Flores, Belinda; Perez Zempoaltecalt, Cintia; Patricia Sanchez Torres, Ana; Ramirez Rosete, Leticia; Bernal-Soto, Maribel; Marquez-Dominguez, Luis; Melendez-Mena, Daniel; Angel Mendoza Torres, Miguel; Teresa Lopez Delgado, Maria; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Vallejo-Ruiz, Veronica; Santos-Lopez, Gerardo

    2016-06-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes chronic hepatitis, hepatic cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Surface antigen (HBsAg) detection is a definitive test that can confirm HBV infection, while the presence of antibodies against the core protein (anti-HBc) suggests either a previous or ongoing infection or occult hepatitis B infection (OBI). The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of anti-HBc and HBsAg in blood donors. Further, the study aimed to estimate the anti-HBc level at which HBV DNA is detected in putative OBI cases, as well as to search for mutations in the "a" determinant associated with the non-detection of HBsAg in serum. We conducted a cross-sectional study from 2003-2009. The study included 120,552 blood donors from the state of Puebla, Mexico. Different commercial systems based on microparticles (enzymatic (MEIA) or chemiluminescent (CMIA)) were used to determine the HBsAg and anti-HBc levels. For the detection of HBV DNA, a nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) was used and the genotypes were determined using Sanger sequencing. Of the 120,552 blood donors, 1437 (1.19%, 95% CI: 1.12 - 1.26) were reactive to anti-HBc, while 82 (0.066%, 95% CI: 0.053 - 0.079) were reactive to HBsAg. Some 156 plasma samples collected in 2009 from anti-HBc-positive/HBsAg-negative blood donors were submitted for HBV DNA detection in a search for probable OBI. Viral DNA was detected in 27/156 (17.3%, 95% CI: 11.5 - 23.1). Our results show an association between HBV DNA or HBsAg and anti-HBc S/CO levels ≥ 4.0. All DNA samples were identified as genotype H and some "a" determinant mutations were identified, although none corresponded to mutations previously reported to hinder the detection of HBsAg by commercial immunoassays. We observed that as the anti-HBc levels increase, there is a higher prevalence of the viral protein HBsAg in blood donors. Samples testing positive for HBV-DNA were seen to exhibit a ten-fold higher presence of anti

  7. Prevalence of Serologic Hepatitis B Markers in Blood Donors From Puebla, Mexico: The Association of Relatively High Levels of Anti-Core Antibodies With the Detection of Surface Antigen and Genomic DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosa-Jurado

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The hepatitis B virus (HBV causes chronic hepatitis, hepatic cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Surface antigen (HBsAg detection is a definitive test that can confirm HBV infection, while the presence of antibodies against the core protein (anti-HBc suggests either a previous or ongoing infection or occult hepatitis B infection (OBI. Objectives The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of anti-HBc and HBsAg in blood donors. Further, the study aimed to estimate the anti-HBc level at which HBV DNA is detected in putative OBI cases, as well as to search for mutations in the “a” determinant associated with the non-detection of HBsAg in serum. Patients and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study from 2003–2009. The study included 120,552 blood donors from the state of Puebla, Mexico. Different commercial systems based on microparticles (enzymatic (MEIA or chemiluminescent (CMIA were used to determine the HBsAg and anti-HBc levels. For the detection of HBV DNA, a nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR was used and the genotypes were determined using Sanger sequencing. Results Of the 120,552 blood donors, 1437 (1.19%, 95% CI: 1.12 - 1.26 were reactive to anti-HBc, while 82 (0.066%, 95% CI: 0.053 - 0.079 were reactive to HBsAg. Some 156 plasma samples collected in 2009 from anti-HBc-positive/HBsAg-negative blood donors were submitted for HBV DNA detection in a search for probable OBI. Viral DNA was detected in 27/156 (17.3%, 95% CI: 11.5 - 23.1. Our results show an association between HBV DNA or HBsAg and anti-HBc S/CO levels ≥ 4.0. All DNA samples were identified as genotype H and some “a” determinant mutations were identified, although none corresponded to mutations previously reported to hinder the detection of HBsAg by commercial immunoassays. Conclusions We observed that as the anti-HBc levels increase, there is a higher prevalence of the viral protein HBsAg in blood donors. Samples testing

  8. Inhibition of maternal antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen on antibody response to hepatitis B vaccine in infants%母源性抗乙型肝炎病毒表面抗原抗体对婴儿乙型肝炎疫苗接种的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡娅莉; 武巧珍; 耿全林; 陈宏; 王志群; 周镇先; 李瑛; 周乙华

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether maternal antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs)in infants may interfere with the antibody response to hepatitis B vaccine. Methods Infants from singleton pregnant mothers,who delivered at full term at the Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School from October 2006 to January 2007,were divided into two groups based on their mothers'status of anti-HBs(43 positive and 29 negative).All infants were vaccinated with hepatitis B vaccine at birth and one month thereafter.Serum anti-HBs were quantitatively determined for the mothers before delivery and for infants in cord blood at delivery and in serum at the age of 1 and 3.5 months. Results Anti-HBs of all 43 newborns in the positive group were positive in cord blood with the coefficiency of 0.98 to the maternal serum anti-HBs level(t=39.05,P1000 mIU/ml,3 did not produce active antibodies against two doses of hepatitis B vaccination. Conclusions Passively acquired maternal anti-HBs in infants can inhibit the active antibody response to hepatitis B vaccine,and the extent of this effect is associated with maternal anti-HBs level.%目的 了解母源性抗乙型肝炎病毒表面抗原抗体(anti-hepatitis B surface antigen antibody,抗-HBs抗体)对婴儿乙型肝炎疫苗接种后抗体应答的影响.方法 2006年10月至2007年1月在南京大学医学院附属鼓楼医院产前检查并住院分娩的单胎足月妊娠妇女中,选择抗-HBs抗体阳性孕妇43例(阳性组)和阴性孕妇29例(阴性组),其足月儿出生时和出生后1个月分别接种乙型肝炎疫苗.定量检测孕妇分娩前、脐动脉血及婴儿1月龄和3.5月龄的抗-HBs抗体水平.结果 阳性组43例新生儿脐血抗-HBs抗体也为阳性,与母血清抗体水平的相关系数r=0.98(t=39.05,P1000 mIU/ml的5例婴儿中,3例在接种2次疫苗后没有产生主动抗体应答.结论 母源性抗-HBs抗体可抑制乙型肝炎疫苗前2次接种后的抗体应答.

  9. Chronic hepatitis B infection in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    There are no standard guidelines to follow when apatient with chronic hepatitis B infection becomespregnant or desires pregnancy. Topics to considerinclude which patients to treat, when to start treatment,what treatment to use and when to stop treatment.Without any prophylaxis or antiviral therapy, a hepatitisB surface antigen and E antigen positive mother has upto a 90% likelihood of vertical transmission of hepatitisB virus (HBV) to child. Standard of care in the UnitedStates to prevent perinatal transmission consists ofadministration of hepatitis B immune globulin andHBV vaccination to the infant. The two strongest riskfactors of mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HBVinfection despite immunoprophylaxis are high maternalHBV viral load and high activity of viral replication.The goal is to prevent transmission of HBV at birthby decreasing viral load and/or decreasing activity ofthe virus. Although it is still somewhat controversial,most evidence shows that starting antivirals in thethird trimester is effective in decreasing MTCT withoutaffecting fetal development. There is a growing body ofliterature supporting the safety and efficacy of antiviraltherapies to reduce MTCT of hepatitis B. There areno formal recommendations regarding which agent tochoose. Tenofovir, lamivudine and telbivudine have allbeen proven efficacious in decreasing viral load at birthwithout known birth defects, but final decision of whichantiviral medication to use will have to be determinedby physician and patient. The antivirals may bediscontinued immediately if patient is breastfeeding, orwithin first four weeks if infant is being formula fed.

  10. Coexistence of hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-HBs in Chinese chronic hepatitis B virus patients relating to genotype C and mutations in the S and P gene reverse transcriptase region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiwei; Hu, Tingting; Wang, Xinyu; Chen, Yuming; Huang, Minying; Yuan, Chao; Guan, Ming

    2012-04-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence of the coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HBs and to analyze the clinical and virological features of infection, including amino acid (aa) patterns of the S gene and reverse transcriptase (RT) region in Chinese chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. Fifty-four (2.90%) CHB patients who were positive for both HBsAg and anti-HBs were tested, and sequences were obtained from 52 of them as well as 48 patients from a control group. S gene and RT region sequences were amplified and sequenced using in-house protocols. There was no significant difference between patients with and without anti-HBs with regard to age, gender, alanine aminotransferase level, and the proportion positive for HBeAg and HBcAb. The occurrence of genotype C (P = 0.001) and anti-HBeAb positivity (P = 0.027) was significantly higher in HBsAg+/anti-HBs+ individuals. In the S gene, the number of mutated residues in the HBsAg+/anti-HBs+ group was markedly higher than in control patients (1.88 versus 1.02 substitutions per 100 amino acids, P = 0.022). The amino acid exchange occurred mostly within the N-terminal region (2.15 versus 0.87 substitutions per 100 amino acids, P = 0.023) and the "a" determinant (3.61 versus 1.56 substitutions per 100 amino acids, P = 0.049) in the two groups. In the RT region, the mean number of substitution per 100 aa showed a tendency to be significantly higher in HBsAg+/anti-HBs+ patients than in controls (2.34 versus 1.46, P = 0.040). This study showed a prevalence of coexistence of anti-HBs in HBsAg-positive patients and an increased frequency of genotype C and aa variability within both HBsAg and RT involving functionally important regions of those proteins.

  11. Chronic hepatitis B infection presenting with chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS): a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Weng, Ching-Fu; Chan, Ding-Cheng; Chen, Ya-Fang; Liu, Fei-Chih; Liou, Horng-Huei

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids is a brainstem disorder characterized by perivascular pathologic reaction with lymphocyte infiltration and leading to diplopia, facial palsy, dysarthria, and gait ataxia. It was thought to be an autoimmune disorder without distinct pathogenesis. Chronic hepatitis B virus infection has been proposed in correlation with autoimmune diseases, including central nervous system demyelinating di...

  12. Awareness, knowledge and self-reported test rates regarding Hepatitis B in Turkish-Dutch: A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.J.J. van der Veen (Ytje); H.A.C.M. Voeten (Hélène); O. de Zwart (Onno); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Hepatitis B virus infection is an important health problem in the Turkish community in the Netherlands. To prevent transmission and progression of the disease in this community, increased screening is necessary. This study aimed to determine 1) the levels of awareness and

  13. Awareness, knowledge and self-reported test rates regarding Hepatitis B in Turkish-Dutch: A survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.J.J. van der Veen (Ytje); H.A.C.M. Voeten (Hélène); O. de Zwart (Onno); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Hepatitis B virus infection is an important health problem in the Turkish community in the Netherlands. To prevent transmission and progression of the disease in this community, increased screening is necessary. This study aimed to determine 1) the levels of awareness and kno

  14. Hepatitis B from diagnosis towards prophylactic single domain antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roosmalen, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Diagnosis of the hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is important for treatment and prevention of further spread of the virus. Today, detection of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) is the method of choice for the screening and initial diagnosis of HBV. Genetic diversity and discovery of HBV variants wit

  15. Hepatitis B from diagnosis towards prophylactic single domain antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roosmalen, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Diagnosis of the hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is important for treatment and prevention of further spread of the virus. Today, detection of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) is the method of choice for the screening and initial diagnosis of HBV. Genetic diversity and discovery of HBV variants

  16. Novel approaches towards conquering hepatitis B virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Yi Wu; Hong-Song Chen

    2007-01-01

    Currently approved treatments for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection include the immunomodulatory agent, IFN-a, and nucleos(t)ide analogues. Their efficacy is limited by their side effects, as well as the induction of viral mutations that render them less potent. It is thus necessary to develop drugs that target additional viral antigens. Chemicals and biomaterials by unique methods of preventing HBV replication are currently being developed, including novel nucleosides and newly synthesized compounds such as capsid assembling and mRNA transcription inhibitors. Molecular therapies that target different stages of the HBV life cycle will aid current methods to manage chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection. The use of immunomodulators and gene therapy are also under consideration. This report summarizes the most recent treatment possibilities for CHB infection. Emerging therapies and their potential mechanisms, efficacy, and pitfalls are discussed.

  17. Induced immunity against hepatitis B virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with itsconsequent development of HBV chronic liver diseaseand hepatocellular carcinoma is a global mandatorygoal. Fortunately, safe and effective HBV vaccines arecurrently available. Universal hepatitis B surface antigenHBV vaccination coverage is almost done. Growingknowledge based upon monitoring and surveillance of HBV vaccination programs has accumulated and thepolicy of booster vaccination has been evaluated. Thisreview article provides an overview of the natural historyof HBV infection, immune responses and the future ofHBV infection. It also summarizes the updated sources,types and uses of HBV vaccines, whether in the preclinicalphase or in the post-field vaccination.

  18. Increased intrahepatic quasispecies heterogeneity correlates with off-treatment sustained response to nucleos(t)ide analogues in e antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Gan, Q R; Zhang, D Q; Yao, L F; Lin, R S; Li, Q; Lin, M H; Yu, D M; Zhang, X X; Pan, C

    2016-02-01

    Finite treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) remains a great challenge for chronic hepatitis B in the clinic. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between intrahepatic quasispecies heterogeneity and the NAs off-treatment outcomes in a prospective cohort. Eighteen HBeAg-positive patients with chronic hepatitis B who achieved the cessation criteria underwent liver biopsy, and stopped treatment thereafter. Patients were followed up prospectively for 1 year. The reverse transcriptase (RT) gene of intrahepatic hepatitis B virus (HBV) was cloned and sequenced. Intrahepatic quasispecies heterogeneity and specific gene mutations were analysed using bioinformatic methods. Ten patients achieved sustained response, and eight patients developed viral relapse. The intrahepatic quasispecies Shannon entropy and nucleotide diversity within either RT or the surface (S) region of patients with sustained response were significantly higher (p quasispecies Shannon entropy at the nucleotide level predicted the sustained off-treatment response (area under receiver operating characteristics curve 0.925; 95% CI 0.807-1.000; p 0.003). More positive selection sites and N-glycosylation mutations within the S region were found in patients with sustained response than in the patients with viral relapse (p quasispecies heterogeneity at the end of treatment was correlated with off-treatment outcomes in HBeAg-positive patients with chronic hepatitis B. More immune escape mutations were found within the S region in patients with sustained response. The higher intrahepatic quasispecies heterogeneity indicated a more robust immune control over HBV, which in turn maintained a sustained response after withdrawal of NAs.

  19. Hepatitis B and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis A and Hepatitis C . Hepatitis B and HIV About 10% of people living with HIV in ... Notice Network blog.aids.gov • locator.aids.gov • HIV/AIDS Service Locator Locator Widgets • Instructions • API Find ...

  20. Physiological response of Pichia pastoris GS115 to methanol-induced high level production of the Hepatitis B surface antigen: catabolic adaptation, stress responses, and autophagic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanz Ana Leticia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pichia pastoris is an established eukaryotic host for the production of recombinant proteins. Most often, protein production is under the control of the strong methanol-inducible aox1 promoter. However, detailed information about the physiological alterations in P. pastoris accompanying the shift from growth on glycerol to methanol-induced protein production under industrial relevant conditions is missing. Here, we provide an analysis of the physiological response of P. pastoris GS115 to methanol-induced high-level production of the Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg. High product titers and the retention of the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER are supposedly of major impact on the host physiology. For a more detailed understanding of the cellular response to methanol-induced HBsAg production, the time-dependent changes in the yeast proteome and ultrastructural cell morphology were analyzed during the production process. Results The shift from growth on glycerol to growth and HBsAg production on methanol was accompanied by a drastic change in the yeast proteome. In particular, enzymes from the methanol dissimilation pathway started to dominate the proteome while enzymes from the methanol assimilation pathway, e.g. the transketolase DAS1, increased only moderately. The majority of methanol was metabolized via the energy generating dissimilatory pathway leading to a corresponding increase in mitochondrial size and numbers. The methanol-metabolism related generation of reactive oxygen species induced a pronounced oxidative stress response (e.g. strong increase of the peroxiredoxin PMP20. Moreover, the accumulation of HBsAg in the ER resulted in the induction of the unfolded protein response (e.g. strong increase of the ER-resident disulfide isomerase, PDI and the ER associated degradation (ERAD pathway (e.g. increase of two cytosolic chaperones and members of the AAA ATPase superfamily indicating that potential

  1. Hepatitis B seroprevalence in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, T R; da Fonseca, J C; Rivera, L; Fay, O H; Tapia, R; Santos, J I; Urdeneta, E; Clemens, S A

    1999-12-01

    The seroprevalence of hepatitis B was investigated in over 12,000 subjects in six countries of Latin America: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, and Venezuela. Each study population was stratified according to age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Antibodies against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) were measured in order to determine hepatitis B infection. The highest overall seroprevalence was found in the Dominican Republic (21.4%), followed by Brazil (7.9%), Venezuela (3.2%), Argentina (2.1%), Mexico (1.4%), and Chile (0.6%). In all the countries an increase in seroprevalence was found among persons 16 years old and older, suggesting sexual transmission as the major route of infection. In addition, comparatively high seroprevalence levels were seen at an early age in the Dominican Republic and Brazil, implicating a vertical route of transmission.

  2. Hepatitis B virus burden in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampino, Rosa; Boemio, Adriana; Sagnelli, Caterina; Alessio, Loredana; Adinolfi, Luigi Elio; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Coppola, Nicola

    2015-11-14

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has shown an intermediate or high endemicity level in low-income countries over the last five decades. In recent years, however, the incidence of acute hepatitis B and the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen chronic carriers have decreased in several countries because of the HBV universal vaccination programs started in the nineties. Some countries, however, are still unable to implement these programs, particularly in their hyperendemic rural areas. The diffusion of HBV infection is still wide in several low-income countries where the prevention, management and treatment of HBV infection are a heavy burden for the governments and healthcare authorities. Of note, the information on the HBV epidemiology is scanty in numerous eastern European and Latin-American countries. The studies on molecular epidemiology performed in some countries provide an important contribution for a more comprehensive knowledge of HBV epidemiology, and phylogenetic studies provide information on the impact of recent and older migratory flows.

  3. Liver transplantation in a patient with hepatitis B, C and D coinfection associated with hepatocellular carcinoma: a management strategy for a rare condition. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Carvalho Dantas

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT is the treatment of choice for end-stage liver disease. Cirrhosis due to hepatitis C infection is the leading indication for liver transplantation worldwide. However, patients who are given transplants because of viral liver diseases often present clinical coinfections, including hepatitis B together with hepatitis D. Currently, different strategies exist for patient management before and after liver transplantation, and these are based on different protocols developed by the specialized transplantation centers. CASE REPORT: We present a rare case of a 58-year-old man with chronic hepatitis B, C and D coinfection. The patient developed cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. His treatment comprised antiviral therapy for the three viruses and OLT. The patient's outcome was satisfactory. CONCLUSION: OLT, in association with antiviral therapy using entecavir, which was administered before and after transplantation, was effective for sustained clearance of the hepatitis B and D viruses. A recurrence of hepatitis C infection after transplantation responded successfully to standard treatment comprising peginterferon alfa-2A and ribavirin.

  4. Preventing hepatitis B or C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000401.htm Preventing hepatitis B or C To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections cause irritation and swelling ...

  5. Prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency viruses, and evaluation of risk factors for transmission: Report of a population screening in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U C Okonkwo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV and HIV are common blood-borne infections unevenly distributed across regions in Nigeria. Few population-based prevalence studies have been done in Nigeria. Objective. To determine the prevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV and risk factors for infection with these viruses in a Nigerian population. Methods. Hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-HCV and HIV were assayed in 1 498 healthy adult participants. A structured questionnaire was used to assess risk factors for viral acquisition. Bivariate analysis was used to compare differences in sociodemographic characteristics. Significant risk factors were identified by stepwise logistic regression. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results. The prevalences of HBV, HCV and HIV were 8.8%, 10.0% and 12.9%, respectively, with urban/rural disparity. HBV/HCV positivity was higher among males than females. The reverse was true for HIV. Age was significantly associated with being HBV-, HCV- or HIV-positive. Communal use of a toothbrush was significantly associated with HBV positivity in the final model (odds ratio 2.46, 95% confidence interval 1.45 - 4.18. Conclusions. The prevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV infection is high in Nigeria, with urban/rural disparity. HCV may be more of a public health concern than HBV in some communities. Population-based studies are required to provide vital data to inform optimal national control strategies.

  6. A comparison of entecavir and lamivudine for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Chang; R.G. Gish; R.A. de Man (Robert); A. Gadano; J. Sollano (José); Y-C. Chao (You Chen); A.S. Lok (Anna); K. Han; Z. Goodman (Zachary); J. Zhu (Jin); A. Cross (Anne); D. DeHertogh (Deborah); R. Wilber (Richard); R. Colonno (Richard); D. Apelian (David)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Entecavir is a potent and selective guanosine analogue with significant activity against hepatitis B virus (HBV). Methods: In this phase 3, double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 715 patients with hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B who had not

  7. Occult hepatitis B in HIV-HCV coinfected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piroth, Lionel; Lafon, Marie-Edith; Binquet, Christine; Bertillon, Pascale; Gervais, Anne; Lootvoet, Enguerrand; Lang, Jean-Marie; De Jaureguiberry, Jean Pierre; Chene, Geneviève; Leport, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of occult hepatitis B infection in HIV infected patients is controversial, varying from less than 1% to 62% in different studies. Blood samples of 111 HIV-infected patients, HCV-positive, HBs antigen negative, followed in the APROCO-ANRS EP11 cohort, were used to detect HBV DNA by using 2 different validated assays (Cobas Amplicor HBV Monitor Test and INSERM U271 qualitative ultra-sensitive PCR), completed when positive by HBV real-time PCR. HBV DNA was found in 6 (5.4%, 95% CI 1.2%-9.6%) patients by at least 1 of these assays, but none tested positive in all 3 assays. All 6 patients had anti-HBc without anti-HBs antibodies; 5 were not on lamivudine. Their median CD4 and CD8 counts were significantly lower and their HIV viral load higher than in the other 105 patients. In conclusion, the prevalence of occult hepatitis B may vary significantly according to the molecular assay used, even though these assays are validated with high specificity and quite high sensitivity. Occult hepatitis B may be encountered in HIV-HCV coinfected patients without anti-HBV treatment, with anti-HBc but without anti-HBs antibodies, and relatively low immunity, suggesting a potential risk of further reactivation, as already sporadically reported.

  8. 乙型肝炎病毒核心抗原在慢性乙型肝炎病毒感染者肝细胞内的分布及临床意义%The distribution and it's clinical significance of hepatitis B core antigen in hepatocytes of chronic hepatitis B virus infected patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽涓; 陈国民; 王志毅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the distribution and clinical significance of hepatitis B core antigen( HBcAg) in the hepatocytes of chronic hepatitis B virus infected patients. Methods Paraffin sections were made from 41 liver biopsy samples obtained from chronic hepatitis B virus infected patients. The immuno-fluorescence confocal technique was utilized to analyze the expression level and localization of HBcAg in hepatocytes. The data were analyzed by using Kruskal Wallis test and chisquare test. Results HBcAg expression were detected in 36 (87. 8%) patients, among whom 23 cases had moderate abnormal liver function, 10 with mild abnormal liver function and 3 with normal liver function. Among the cases with moderate abnormal liver function, 6 cases showed the simple membrane-type HBcAg expression, 17 cases showed mixed cytosolic-type and membrane-type HBcAg expression without the nuclear-type expression. Twelve cases with mild abnormal liver function only showed simple cytosolic-type HBcAg expression without membrane-type or nuclear-type expression. In the three patients with normal liver function, HBcAg was expressed in cytoplasm and nuclear but not on membrane. The correlation between HBcAg expression pattern and liver function was statistically significant (χ2 =10. 60, P<0.01). Conclusion HBcAg expression is directly correlated with liver injury in chronic hepatitis B virus infected patients, which indicates that membrane expressed HBcAg is the target antigen during the immuno-attack of liver.%目的 探讨HBcAg在慢性HBV感染者肝细胞内的分布情况及其临床意义.方法 对41例慢性HBV感染者进行肝组织穿刺,用免疫荧光组织化学技术在激光共聚焦显微镜下观察肝细胞内HBcAg的分布情况.计量资料采用Kruskal Wallis检验,计数资料采用卡方检验.结果 41例慢性HBV感染者中,36例肝细胞内HBcAg阳性表达,阳性率为87.8%,其中23例肝功能中度异常,10例肝功能轻度异常,3例肝功能正常.HBc

  9. Use of radioimmune assay in investigating reagents to be used in the immunocytochemical localization of hepatitis B surface antigen in immune complexes in the kidney of patients with membranous nephropathy and Australia antigenaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe-Coote, S. (South African Medical Research Council, Tygerberg (South Africa). Inst. for Electron Microscopy)

    1983-09-01

    Radioimmune assay (RIA) was used to investigate the effect of fixatives on antigenicity of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and the effect of pronase on the elution of antibody (Ab) from the HBsAg-Ab complex. The effect of pronase on Ab elution was also tested on sections of kidney from a patient with the immune complex disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Immunoglobulin G (IgG) was located in pronase treated and untreated sections using the indirect immunoperoxidase technique. Glutareldehyde was shown to be the fixative of choice for studies involving HBsAg. All fixatives were shown to have less effect on antigenicity at 4/sup 0/C than at room temperature. Osmium tetroxide reduced antigenicity to one-third, even at 4/sup 0/C. RIA and SLE kidney section studies showed that Ab was eluted from immune complexes by pronase. Pre-fixation of the antigen (Ag) by glutaraldehyde appears to have no effect on the final elution, although fixation after pronase treatment seemed to enhance the elution effects. The availability of an RIA kit with HBsAg- and Ab-coated beads was of great assistance in evaluating reagents to be used in immunoperoxidase studies of HBsAg in immune complexes of patients with membranous nephropathy and Australia antigenaemia.

  10. Misleading hepatitis B testing in the setting of intravenous immunoglobulin [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/25r

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle M Ilboudo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG is commonly used for a wide range of diagnoses, by multiple pediatric subspecialists. We report two cases of hepatitis B screening results post IVIG infusion, where positive anti-Hepatitis B core antigen serology tests indicated possible occult hepatitis infection, leading to a delay in care. However, serial antibody testing showed results consistent with the passive transfer of antibodies.

  11. 慢性乙型肝炎患者血清表面抗原与抗体同时阳性结果分析%Analysis of coexistence of hepatitis B surface antigen and anti - HBs antibodies in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈天宝; 范公忍; 李娟; 胡学玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To study the relationship between concurrence mode of hepatitis B surface antigen and anti - HBs antibodies in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection and HBV DNA. Methods :Serological diagnosis for HBV infection was detected by VITROS Eci/ECiQ immunodiagnostic systems and HBV DNA viral load was quantified by using the commercially a-vailable real -time fluorescence quantitative kit ( PG Biotech). Results:Among the 5717 patients monitored at our hospital, 248 (4.34% ) have been identified as carrying both HBsAg and anti - HBs antibodies. In which, the majority appeared with HBV DNA at the same time. Conclusion: Coexistence of HBsAg and anti - HBs is not rare. HBV DNA concentration is an important parameter to diagnose and treat patients with simultaneous positive for HBsAg and anti - HBs antibodies.%目的:探讨乙型肝炎患者HBsAg和抗HBs共存模式及与HBV DNA的关系.方法:采用增强化学发光法检测血清乙肝标志物,并采用荧光定量PCR法检测HBV DNA.结果:5717例慢性乙肝患者检测出HBsAg和抗HBs双阳性248例,占4.34%,其中多数与HBV DNA同时出现.结论:HBsAg和抗HBs同时阳性并不少见,慢性乙肝患者出现抗HBs,不完全代表病毒复制终止,需结合HBV DNA定量综合分析.

  12. Characterization of Occult Hepatitis B Infection Among Injecting Drug Users in Tehran, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asli, Maryam; Kandelouei, Tahmineh; Rahimyan, Koroush; Davoodbeglou, Foad; Vaezjalali, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major health problem worldwide. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) and its associated risk factors, together with the molecular characterization of the virus in injecting drug users of Tehran. Patients and Methods The study consisted of 229 injecting drug users. Serum samples were collected and tested for the presence of hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). HBV B virus DNA was extracted from the serum samples, and a fragment of the S gene was amplified using the nested polymerase chain reaction. The genotype, subgenotypes, subtype, and S gene mutation of HBV were determined by direct sequencing. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the neighbor-joining method. Results Sixty-four (28%) participants were HBcAb positive, 59 cases were HBcAb positive and HBsAg negative, and 5 cases were HBsAg positive. Hepatitis B DNA was found in three HBsAg-positive cases. Thirteen of 59 (22%) individuals were hepatitis B DNA positive. The phylogenetic tree of hepatitis B DNA showed the existence of genotype D. The only significant correlation was between sharing a syringe and OBI. Conclusions In comparison with the rate of HBcAb positivity reported in other Iranian studies, the rate was higher in the present study. There were a few variations, genotypes, and subtypes among the infected injecting drug users. Further investigations are needed to unravel the molecular characterization of OBI. PMID:27226802

  13. Characterization of Occult Hepatitis B Infection Among Injecting Drug Users in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a major health problem worldwide. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of occult hepatitis B infection (OBI and its associated risk factors, together with the molecular characterization of the virus in injecting drug users of Tehran. Patients and Methods The study consisted of 229 injecting drug users. Serum samples were collected and tested for the presence of hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. HBV B virus DNA was extracted from the serum samples, and a fragment of the S gene was amplified using the nested polymerase chain reaction. The genotype, subgenotypes, subtype, and S gene mutation of HBV were determined by direct sequencing. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the neighbor-joining method. Results Sixty-four (28% participants were HBcAb positive, 59 cases were HBcAb positive and HBsAg negative, and 5 cases were HBsAg positive. Hepatitis B DNA was found in three HBsAg-positive cases. Thirteen of 59 (22% individuals were hepatitis B DNA positive. The phylogenetic tree of hepatitis B DNA showed the existence of genotype D. The only significant correlation was between sharing a syringe and OBI. Conclusions In comparison with the rate of HBcAb positivity reported in other Iranian studies, the rate was higher in the present study. There were a few variations, genotypes, and subtypes among the infected injecting drug users. Further investigations are needed to unravel the molecular characterization of OBI.

  14. Clinical significance of monitoring hepatitis B virus core-related antigens%乙型肝炎病毒核心相关抗原的监测及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成; 慕永平; 杨宗国; 陈晓蓉

    2012-01-01

    Antiviral nucleot( s) ide analogs are the common therapy for patients with chronic hepatitis B ( CHB) infection. HBV DNA in peripheral blood is a sufficient and convenient indicator of treatment response and resistance; however, intrahepatic HBV DNA and covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA are superior indicators of treatment failure at earlier stages. Unfortunately, monitoring of intrahepatic nucleic acids, including HBV DNA, cccDNA and RNA, is complicated and expensive. Since serum levels of hepatitis B virus core -related antigen ( HBcrAg) correlate well with intrahepatic levels of HBV cccDNA it may represent an accurate and convenient indicator of treatment response and resistance in CHB patients. In this review, we discuss the recent research efforts to develop strategies for HBcrAg monitoring and to define the underlying mechanisms of this clinical indicator system. Besides its promising clinical value, large - scale dynamic measures of HBcrAg in CHB patients may provide useful insights into the risk and causative factors of resistance to antiviral nucleot(s) analoge therapy.%监测乙型肝炎病毒核心相关抗原(HBcrAg),能有效预测核苷(酸)类药物抗病毒治疗后产生的病毒学反弹及耐药风险,具有重要的临床实用价值.

  15. Hepatitis B-Related Concerns and Anxieties Among People With Chronic Hepatitis B in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajarizadeh, Behzad; Richmond, Jacqui; Ngo, Naomi; Lucke, Jayne; Wallace, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Background The psychological wellbeing of people with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) may be negatively affected due to the chronic and transmissible nature of the disease, and possible serious complications (e.g. cirrhosis and liver cancer). There are limited data investigating concerns and anxieties among people living with CHB. Objectives This study examined feelings about having hepatitis B among people with CHB, including hepatitis B-related concerns and anxieties. Patients and Methods Using convenience sampling, people with CHB attending four public liver clinics and one general practice in three Australian jurisdictions between April and September 2013 completed a self-administered questionnaire about their feelings about having hepatitis B. Results Ninety-three people completed the survey. Mean age was 45 years, 57% were men, and 93% were born overseas (75% from Asia). Seventy-six percent of participants reported having hepatitis B-related concerns and anxieties. The most common concerns were of developing liver cancer (57%), and infecting other people (53%). Thirty-five percent of participants were unwilling to talk to anyone about their hepatitis B while 25% changed how they lived as a result of having hepatitis B. Lower educational level was associated with feeling scared of hepatitis B (adjusted Odds Ratio [OR]: 4.04; 95%CI: 1.09, 14.90; P = 0.04), and an unwillingness to talk to anyone about hepatitis B (adjusted OR: 4.41; 95%CI: 1.09, 17.83; P = 0.04). Very good English proficiency was associated with a higher likelihood of participants changing how they lived (adjusted OR: 12.66; 95%CI: 2.21, 72.42; P < 0.01), and seeing life differently as a result of having hepatitis B (adjusted OR: 21.10; 95%CI: 3.70, 120.19; P < 0.01). Health professionals were the key person for 34% of participants in helping them cope with having hepatitis B, while 18% reported that no one supported them. Conclusions Hepatitis B-related concerns and anxieties are prevalent among

  16. Low hepatitis B vaccine response in children with Down syndrome from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisihara, R; De Bem, R S; Negreiros, P H R; Utiyama, S R R; Oliveira, N P; Amarante, H

    2014-07-01

    It has been reported that vaccination against hepatitis B is less effective among people with Down syndrome than in the general population. We aimed to evaluate the rate of seroconversion to hepatitis B vaccine in children with Down syndrome from Brazil. A total of 120 people with Down syndrome were included. All of them received the vaccine at intervals of 0, 30 and 180 days and serum samples were tested for the presence of antibodies to the hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) 30 days after the last dose. In the studied group, 58.3% (70/120) were male and 41.7% (50/120) female, with the median age of 5 years (range 2-15 years). Fifty-eight of 120 (48.3%) developed anti-HBs after vaccination. No association was found between gender and/or age and vaccine response. The low rate of seroconversion in response to hepatitis B vaccine suggests that all patients with Down syndrome immunized against hepatitis B should be followed and monitored by clinicians. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Pediatric hepatitis B treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Ayano; Fujisawa, Tomoo

    2017-01-01

    Although the introduction of hepatitis B vaccine has been contributing to the reduction in the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers worldwide, the treatment of children with chronic HBV infection is a challenge to be addressed. HBeAg seroconversion, which induces low replication of HBV, is widely accepted as the first goal of antiviral treatment in children with chronic hepatitis B. However, spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion is highly expected in children with chronic HBV infection. Therefore, the identification of children who need antiviral treatment to induce HBeAg seroconversion is essential in the management of chronic HBV infection. Guidelines and experts’ opinion show how to identify children who should be treated and how to treat them. If decompensated cirrhosis is absent, interferon-alpha is the first-line antiviral treatment. Nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs), such as lamivudine, adefovir, entecavir and tenofovir, are also available for the treatment of children, although the approval age differs among them. If decompensated cirrhosis is present, NAs are the first-line antivirals. When the emergence of drug-resistant HBV variants is taken into consideration, entecavir (approved for age 2 years or older) and tenofovir (age 12 years or older), which have high genetic barriers, will play a central role in the treatment of HBV infection. However, the optimal duration of NA treatment and adverse events of long-term NA treatment remain unclear in children. In resource-constrained countries and regions, the financial burden of visiting hospitals, receiving routine blood examination and purchasing antiviral drugs is heavy. Moreover, there is no clear evidence that the induction of HBeAg seroconversion by antiviral treatment prevents the progression of liver disease to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in children with chronic HBV infection. It is thus imperative to clarify the clinical impact of antiviral treatment in children with HBV infection.

  18. Soluble expression and purifiation of hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg subgenotype B3 in Escherichia coli using thioredoxin fusion tag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmah Waty

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To express HBcAg protein (hepatitis B virus subgenotype B3 in Escherichia coli in soluble form. Methods: HBcAg sequence of hepatitis B virus subgenotype B3 was cloned into plasmid pET32a and introduced to E. coli BL21 (DE3. The E. coli was grown in Luria-Bertani (LB medium supplemented with ampicillin with agitation. Protein expression was induced by adding isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG at concentrations of 0.1 mmol/L, 0.3 mmol/L, and 0.5 mmol/L at room temperature (28 °C. The bacteria were dissolved in lysis buffer and lysed by freeze-thawing method then sonication. The fusion protein [thioredoxin A-(His6tag-HBcAg] was purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography. The protein expression was analyzed by SDS-PAGE, dot blot, and western blot. Results: This research showed that DNA sequence of HBcAg could be propagated in pET32a and soluble protein was successfully expressed in E. coli. Induction with 0.3 mmol/L IPTG and 4-hour incubation was the best condition to express the HBcAg protein. SDS-PAGE and dot blot analysis showed that HBcAg protein could be expressed in E. coli. Western blot analysis showed that molecular weight of HBcAg fusion protein was about 38.5 kDa. Conclusions: This study confirmed that HBcAg protein could be expressed in soluble form in E. coli.

  19. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis following Vaccination against Hepatitis B in a Child: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-liang Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, which has been associated with several vaccines such as rabies, diphtheria-tetanus-polio, smallpox, measles, mumps, rubella, Japanese B encephalitis, pertussis, influenza, and the Hog vaccine. Here, we presented a case of 12-year-old child who suffered from ADEM three weeks after hepatitis B vaccination. He was admitted to our hospital with symptoms of weakness of limbs, high fever, and alteration of consciousness. Some abnormalities were also found in CSF. Treatment with high-dose corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin had significant effect, with marked improvement of the clinical symptoms and the results of CSF. The findings of MRI also detected some abnormal lesions located in both brain and spinal cord. The clinical features, the findings of CSF and MRI, and therapeutic effect may contribute to such diagnosis of ADEM.

  20. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis following Vaccination against Hepatitis B in a Child: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jun-liang; Wang, Shuang-kun; Guo, Xiao-juan

    2016-01-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, which has been associated with several vaccines such as rabies, diphtheria-tetanus-polio, smallpox, measles, mumps, rubella, Japanese B encephalitis, pertussis, influenza, and the Hog vaccine. Here, we presented a case of 12-year-old child who suffered from ADEM three weeks after hepatitis B vaccination. He was admitted to our hospital with symptoms of weakness of limbs, high fever, and alteration of consciousness. Some abnormalities were also found in CSF. Treatment with high-dose corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin had significant effect, with marked improvement of the clinical symptoms and the results of CSF. The findings of MRI also detected some abnormal lesions located in both brain and spinal cord. The clinical features, the findings of CSF and MRI, and therapeutic effect may contribute to such diagnosis of ADEM. PMID:27478662

  1. Pathological femoral fractures due to osteomalacia associated with adefovir dipivoxil treatment for hepatitis B: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Motoyuki

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a case of a 62-year-old man who underwent total hip arthroplasty for treatment of pathologic femoral neck fracture associated with adefovir dipivoxil-induced osteomalacia. He had a 13-month history of bone pain involving his shoulders, hips, and knee. He received adefovir dipivoxil for treatment of lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus infection for 5 years before the occurrence of femoral neck fracture. Orthopedic surgeons should be aware of osteomalacia and pathological hip fracture caused by drug-induced renal dysfunction, which results in Fanconi’s syndrome. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1600344696739249

  2. Hepatitis B genotypes: Relation to clinical outcome in patients with chronic hepatitis B in Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ayman A Abdo; Badr M Al-Jarallah; Faisal M Sanai; Ahmad S Hersi; Khalid Al-Swat; Nahla A Azzam; Manal Al-Dukhayil; Amira Al-Maarik; Faleh Z Al-Faleh

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To identify the most common hepatitis B virus (HBV)genotype in Saudi Arabia, and correlate the prevailing genotypes with the clinical outcome of patients.METHODS: Patients were consecutively recruited from the hepatology clinics of two tertiary care referral centers. Patients were categorized into 4 different groups:group 1, patients with hepatitis B and normal liver enzymes; group 2, patients with hepatitis B and abnormal liver enzymes but without cirrhosis; group 3, patients with hepatitis B and liver cirrhosis; group 4, patients with hepatitis B and hepatocellular carcinoma. All patients had a positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Genotyping of HBV was performed by nested PCR-mediated amplification of the target sequence and hybridization with sequence-specific oligonucleotides.RESULTS: Seventy patients were enrolled in this study.They were predominantly male (72.9%) in their midforty's (mean age 47 years). Forty-nine (70%) patients were hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg) negative.The majority of patients (64%) acquired HBV through unknown risk factors. Hepatitis B genotyping revealed that 57 patients (81.4%) were genotype D, 1 patient (1.4%) had genotype A, 1 patient (1.4%) had genotype C, and 4 patients (5.7%) had genotype E, while 7 patients (10%) had mixed genotype (4 patients ADG, 1 patient DE, 1 patient DF, and 1 patient ADFG). Based on univariate analysis of genotype D patients, significant predictors of advanced liver disease were age, gender,aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, albumin,bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase (all P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis decreased hemoglobin (r = -0.05;95% CI: -0.08 to -0.03; P = 0.001) and albumin levels (r = -0.004; 95% CI: -0.007 to -0.001; P = 0.002) were highly significant predictors of advanced liver disease.In patients with HBV genotype D, HBeAg negativity was found to increase across advancing stages of liver disease (P = 0.024).CONCLUSION: This study highlights that the vast

  3. Efficacy and safety of entecavir versus tenofovir treatment in chronic hepatitis B patients: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriprayoon, Tassanee; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ungtrakul, Teerapat; Chun-On, Pattra; Soonklang, Kamonwan; Pongpun, Wanvisa; Laohapand, Charlie; Dechma, Jiraporn; Pothijaroen, Charinthip; Auewarakul, Chirayu; Tanwandee, Tawesak

    2017-03-01

    Entecavir (ETV) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) are considered among the most potent antiviral agents for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B infection. We aimed to compare treatment efficacy and safety of ETV and TDF in nucleoside-naïve chronic hepatitis B patients. Inclusion criteria were compensated chronic hepatitis B patients who were either hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive or HBeAg-negative. Exclusion criteria were co-infection with hepatitis C virus and/or HIV, concurrent malignancy, and decompensated cirrhosis. Virological, biochemical, and serological end-points at week 96 and 144 were compared. Of 400 patients, 200 patients received ETV and 200 received TDF. There were no significant differences between the two groups in baseline characteristics including age (41.6 ± 11.5 vs. 41.2 ± 11.6, mean baseline hepatitis B virus DNA (5.91 ± 1.79 vs. 5.94 ± 1.68 log10 IU/mL), mean baseline alanine aminotransferase (68.1 ± 64.1 vs. 76.8 ± 79.8 U/L), and cirrhosis (15.5% vs. 14.5%). At week 144 of treatment, 91 and 94% of the ETV and TDF groups, respectively, achieved undetectable hepatitis B virus DNA. In HBeAg-positive patients, HBeAg seroconversion could be achieved in 27.4% and 33.7% at week 144 for ETV and TDF groups, respectively. Quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen dropped significantly over 144 weeks of treatment period but only 1.0 to 1.5% experienced hepatitis B surface antigen loss. Safety profiles were consistent with previous reports of monotherapy. Both ETV and TDF showed potent antiviral activity against hepatitis B. Either ETV or TDF can be recommended as a treatment of choice for patients with chronic hepatitis B. Both drugs were safe and well tolerated. © 2016 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  4. Hepatitis B and A virus antibodies in alcoholic steatosis and cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Aldershvile, J; Henriksen, J

    1982-01-01

    Sera from 74 alcoholics with cirrhosis and 63 alcoholics with steatosis were tested for antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen, to hepatitis B core antigen, and to hepatitis A virus by radioimmunoassay or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. No significant difference between the two groups...... of alcoholics could be found concerning the prevalence of these antibodies. The total group of patients had antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen or hepatitis B core antigen, or both, significantly (p less than 0.001) more often (26%) than sex- and age-matched controls (4%). No significant difference...... suggest that hepatitis B virus does not play a major role in the progression of alcoholic liver disease, but longitudinal studies are needed to solve this problem. The reason for the increased prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B virus in these patients is unknown....

  5. Association between Hepatitis B Virus Chronic Infection and Mutations of Surface Antigen Gene%乙型肝炎病毒慢性感染与其表面抗原基因突变的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫华; 宋建新

    2013-01-01

    目的 基于一个完整的乙型肝炎病毒(HBV)感染自然史的4个时期(免疫耐受期、免疫清除期、不活动期和HBeAg阴性肝炎阶段),研究HBV表面抗原各抗原表位的免疫逃逸突变分布.方法 收集280例患者的临床资料及血清标本,按照HBV自然史的不同时期分为4组,提取DNA并荧光定量,通过巢式PCR扩增HBV表面基因序列,以PCR产物作为模板进行DNA测序.分析比较4组乙肝表面抗原中辅助性T细胞(Th)表位、细胞毒性T淋巴细胞(CTL)表位及B细胞抗原表位的突变差异.结果 Th抗原表位突变中,4组间比较具有差异的是17-31、37-51、67-81等区域,CTL抗原表位突变中具有差异的是14-22、41-49等区域,在B细胞抗原表位区域发现了Q101K、P120S、T126S、Q129H、M133L、M133I、和M133T等7个乙肝表面抗原免疫逃逸突变.结论在HBV感染自然史中,表面抗原突变的累积发生在免疫清除期,突变的产生有利于HBV逃避免疫系统的攻击.%Objective To investigate the distribution of the immune escape mutations of hepatitis B virus surface antigen across the natural history of hepatitis B virus infection. Methods A total of 280 patients were divided into four groups according to the natural history of hepatitis B virus infection. DNA was extracted ,and the gene sequences of hepatitis B virus surface autigen were amplified by using nested PCR. The PCR product served as a template for DNA sequencing. The differences of mutations in epitopes of helper T cells (Th) ,cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL ) and B cells were analyzed. Results Among the four groups ,there were significant differences in mutations of epitopes of Th at regions of 17-31 ,37-51 ,67-81 ,and in mutations of epitopes of CTL at regions of 14-22 and 41-49 among the four groups. Immune escape mutations of hepatitis B virus surface an -tigen were found in epitopes of B cells in all four groups , namely Q101K, P120S , T126S , Q129H , M133L,M133I and M133T

  6. Detection of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen using the Abbott ARCHITECT anti-HBc assay: analysis of borderline reactive sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollier, Laurence; Laffont, Catherine; Kechkekian, Aurore; Doglio, Alain; Giordanengo, Valérie

    2008-12-01

    Routine use of the automated chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay Abbott ARCHITECT anti-HBc for diagnosis of hepatitis B is limited in case of borderline reactive sera with low signal close to the cut-off index. In order to determine the significance of anti-HBc detection when borderline reactivity occurs using the ARCHITECT anti-HBc assay, a comparative study was designed. 3540 serum samples collected over a 2-month period in the hospital of Nice were examined for markers of HBV infection (HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc). One hundred seven samples with sufficient volume and with borderline reactivity by the ARCHITECT assay were tested by two other anti-HBc assays, a microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA, AxSYM Core, Abbott Laboratories, IL, USA) and an enzyme linked fluorescent assay (ELFA, VIDAS Anti-HBc Total II, bioMérieux, Lyon, France). Only 46 samples were confirmed by the AxSYM and the VIDAS assays. Additional serological information linked to patient history showed that the remaining samples (61) were false positives (11), had low titer of anti-HBc antibodies (13), or were inconclusive (37). This comparative study highlighted the existence of a grey zone around the cut-off index. Confirmative results through a different immunoassay are needed to confirm the diagnosis of HBV on borderline reactive sera using the ARCHITECT anti-HBc assay.

  7. The effects of booster vaccination of hepatitis B vaccine on anti-HBV surface antigen negative children 11-15 years after primary vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jun; Ren, Jingjing; Shen, Lingzhi; Chen, Yongdi; Liang, Xiaofeng; Cui, Fuqiang; Li, Qian; Jiang, Zhenggang; Wang, Fuzhen

    2011-10-01

    The twin aims of this study were to investigate the changes in anti-HBs IgG levels after booster vaccinations and to compare the effects of different vaccine doses in children aged 11-15 years who were both negative for HBsAg and had an Anti-HBs vaccination. Children who were born between 1993 and 1998 and who had completed their Hepatitis B vaccination program in infancy were randomly recruited to the study. The participants were divided into three groups according to their anti-HBs IgG levels: group I had a level vaccination program comprised three (20μg) doses of HepB (CHO) vaccine administered at zero, one and six months after they are join this program: anti-HBs levels were measured one month after the first and third vaccinations. Among 448 HBsAg-negative infants, anti-HBs seroconversion rates (defined as an anti-HBs >= 10 mIU/mL) after the first and third vaccinations were 85.5% and 98.6% respectively - these observed differences were statistically significant (χ2 [1dof] = 50.11, panti-HBsanti-HBs titer levels decay to 10mIU/ml in 11-15 years of age children completed HepB Basic immunization, which need for booster immunization. The effect is better for those children with a relatively higher antibody titer before booster, and the effect of three doses booster is best.

  8. Hepatitis B in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guglielmo Borgia; Maria Aurora Carleo; Giovanni Battista Gaeta; Ivan Gentile

    2012-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection affects about 350 million individuals worldwide.Management of HBV infection in pregnancy is difficult because of several peculiar and somewhat controversial aspects.The aim of the present review is to provide a tool that may help physicians to correctly manage HBV infection in pregnancy.This review focuses on (1) the effect of pregnancy on HBV infection and of HBV infection on pregnancy; (2) the potential viral transmission from mother to newborn despite at-birth prophylaxis with immunoglobulin and vaccine; (3) possible prevention of mother-to-child transmission through antiviral drugs,the type of antiviral drug to use considering their efficacy and potential teratogenic effect,and the timing of their administration and discontinuation; and (4) the evidence for the use of elective caesarean section vs vaginal delivery and the possibility of breastfeeding.

  9. A novel chimeric Hepatitis B virus S/preS1 antigen produced in mammalian and plant cells elicits stronger humoral and cellular immune response than the standard vaccine-constituent, S protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrica, Mihaela-Olivia; Lazar, Catalin; Paruch, Lisa; Skomedal, Hanne; Steen, Hege; Haugslien, Sissel; Tucureanu, Catalin; Caras, Iuliana; Onu, Adrian; Ciulean, Sonya; Branzan, Alexandru; Clarke, Jihong Liu; Stavaru, Crina; Branza-Nichita, Norica

    2017-08-01

    Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection leads to severe liver pathogenesis associated with significant morbidity and mortality. As no curable medication is yet available, vaccination remains the most cost-effective approach to limit HBV spreading and control the infection. Although safe and efficient, the standard vaccine based on production of the small (S) envelope protein in yeast fails to elicit an effective immune response in about 10% of vaccinated individuals, which are at risk of infection. One strategy to address this issue is the development of more immunogenic antigens. Here we describe a novel HBV antigen obtained by combining relevant immunogenic determinants of S and large (L) envelope proteins. Our approach was based on the insertion of residues 21-47 of the preS1 domain of the L protein (nomenclature according to genotype D), involved in virus attachment to hepatocytes, within the external antigenic loop of S. The resulting S/preS1(21-47) chimera was successfully produced in HEK293T and Nicotiana benthamiana plants, as a more economical recombinant protein production platform. Comparative biochemical, functional and electron microscopy analysis indicated assembly of the novel antigen into subviral particles in mammalian and plant cells. Importantly, these particles preserve both S- and preS1-specific epitopes and elicit significantly stronger humoral and cellular immune responses than the S protein, in both expression systems used. Our data promote this antigen as a promising vaccine candidate to overcome poor responsiveness to the conventional, S protein-based, HBV vaccine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [The clinical analysis of fulminant Wilson's disease in patients with hepatitis B virus infection: a report of 13 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, H H; Xu, M

    2016-08-01

    To analyze the clinical features and prognosis of fulminant Wilson's disease (FWD) in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Twenty-seven patients were enrolled in Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital from 2005 to 2015, including 13 FWD patients with HBV infection and 14 FWD patients without HBV infection. Clinical efficacy and survival rate were evaluated. Baseline biochemical data in two groups were comparable(P>0.05), including total bilirubin, prothrombin activity, serum albumin, alpha fetal protein, alanine transaminase, ceruloplasmin and 24 hours urine copper .Treatment in FWD group with HBV infection was ineffective, including 9(9/13) deaths and 4(4/13) patients receiveing liver transplants. However, 7(7/14)cases in the other group did not response to the treatment, including 6(6/14)deaths and 1(1/14)patient receiving liver transplant. The prognosis in the two groups is significantly different(P=0.006), which is much worse in FWD patients with HBV infection.

  11. Immunoreactive hepatic stellate cells in biopsy material in children with chronic hepatitis B. The first report in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łotowska, Joanna M; Lebensztejn, Dariusz M

    2015-09-01

    The research objective was to identify and quantify the immunohistochemically (IHC) stained hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in children with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), including staging (S), location in the hepatic lobule, and correlation with hepatocyte count. Retrospective morphological analysis was based on liver biopsies obtained from 70 CHB children before antiviral treatment. To determine fibrosis stage, the Batts and Ludwig scoring system was applied. Immunohistochemical examinations used monoclonal antibodies against - SMA. IHC observations in CHB children revealed a significant positive correlation between the mean number of SMA immunopositive HSCs within the hepatic lobule (r = 0.518; p biopsy specimens with intensive fibrosis, most HSCs had an elongated shape and demonstrated evidently strong immunoexpression of cytoskeletal protein - SMA. The mean counts of HSCs/100 hepatocytes (in high power field) in 4 study groups, i.e. with S-0, S-1, S-2, S-3, were 5.00; 5.98; 9.80; 12.19, respectively. Interestingly, in most groups the highest count of immunoreactive HSCs/100 hepatocytes was in the intermediate zone, indicating its high metabolic activity in liver fibrogenesis. Immunohistochemical and statistical investigations of HSCs in children with CHB showed a close positive correlation of cell count with fibrosis intensity, which may have prognostic implications in this pathology.

  12. Transplacentally acquired antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen in full term infants%足月新生儿母源性抗-HBs及其亚型的特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武巧珍; 胡娅莉; 周乙华; 王志群; 陈建琴; 叶晓东; 蒋红

    2008-01-01

    Objective To analyze the correlation of the concentration of antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) between normal full term pregnant women and their newborns.Methods Sixty-three paired serum samples from infants and their anti-HBs positive mothers,who delivered in the Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing Medical University School from Dec.2006 to Feb.2007,were quantitatively tested for anti-HBs by AxSYM AUSAB immunoassay.Subclasses of anti-HBs IgG were analyzed.The neutralizing activity of maternal anti-HBs in infants was assessed by surrogate assay. Results All infants born to anti-HBs positive mothers were also seropositive.Anti-HBs 1evels in infants were correlated with the maternal concentration(rs=0.976,P<0.01),and majority of the infants had higher concentrations than their mothers(195.4 mIU/ml vs 141.6 mIU/ml,P<0.01).The mean half-life of maternal anti-HBs in infants was estimated to be 41 days.Anti-HBs IgGl subclass was predominantly in infants,which was in agreement with that in their mothers.Transplacentally transferred anti-HBs in infants efficiently bound the hepatitis B surface antigen derived from hepatitis B patients. Conclusions Anti-HBs IgG carl efficiently transfer through the placenta.Infants born to anti-HBs positive mothers may be immune to hepatitis B virus in the early life of several months.%目的 分析了解足月新生儿母源性乙型肝炎表面抗体(抗-HBs)及其亚型的特性.方法 2006年12月至2007年02月在南京大学附属鼓楼医院住院分娩的单胎足月孕妇及其新生儿为研究对象,AxSYM全自动免疫分析仪定量检测63例抗-HBs阳性的单胎足月孕妇及其新生儿脐血婴儿和1月龄时的血清抗-HBs浓度,用固相酶联免疫法检测孕妇和脐血中抗-HBs 4种IgG亚型的含量,及其中和乙型肝炎患者血清中HBsAg的能力.结果 63例抗-HBs阳性孕妇分娩的新生儿脐血抗-HBs均为阳性,几何平均浓度为195.4 mIU/ml,

  13. Hepatitis B virus screening in contacts of blood donors with antibodies against core protein (anti-HBc, but without surface antigen (HBsAg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildenete Monteiro Fortes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available To increase blood safety Brazil introduced screening for anti-HBc among blood donors in 1993. There was a decrease in the hepatitis B virus (HBV transmission, but this measure identified a great number of HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc-positive donors. Surveillance policy determines that contacts of HBV carriers should be screened to HBV markers, but there is no recommendation about how to guide contacts of HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc-positive donors. Aiming to evaluate whether the contacts of this group are at greater risk for HBV infection, a cross-sectional study was performed to compare prevalence of HBV infection between contacts of HBsAg-positive blood donors (group I and contacts of HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc-positive donors (group II. Contacts were submitted to a questionnaire and blood tests for HBV markers. In group I (n = 143, 53 (37.1% were anti-HBc-positive and 11 (7.7% were HBsAg-positive. In group II (n = 111, there were 9 and 0.9%, respectively. HBV exposure was associated with group I, sexual activity, blood transfusion, being one of the donor's parents, and living for more than ten years with the donor. Regarding the families as sample units, it was more common to find at least one member with HBV markers (p < 0.05 among the families of group I compared to group II. Contacts of HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc-positive individuals presented a much lower risk of having already been exposed to HBV and there is no need to screen them for HBV in low to moderate prevalence populations.

  14. Update on occult hepatitis B virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makvandi, Manoochehr

    2016-10-21

    The event of mutations in the surface antigen gene of hepatitis B virus (HBV) results in undetectable hepatitis B surface antigen with positive/negative anti-hepatitis B core (anti-HBc) antibody status in serum and this phenomenon is named occult hepatitis B infection (OBI). The presence of anti-HBc antibody in serum is an important key for OBI tracking, although about 20% of OBI cases are negative for anti-HBc antibody. The diagnosis of OBI is mainly based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR assays. However, real-time PCR is a more reliable method than PCR. OBI is a great issue for the public health problem and a challenge for the clinical entity worldwide. The persistence of OBI may lead to the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. With regard to OBI complications, the screening of HBV DNA by the highly sensitive molecular means should be implemented for: (1) patients with a previous history of chronic or acute HBV infection; (2) patients co-infected with hepatitis C virus/human immunodeficiency virus; (3) patients undergoing chemotherapy or anti-CD20 therapy; (4) recipients of organ transplant; (5) blood donors; (6) organ transplant donors; (7) thalassemia and hemophilia patients; (8) health care workers; (9) patients with liver related disease (cryptogenic); (10) hemodialysis patients; (11) patients undergoing lamivudine or interferon therapy; and (12) children in time of HBV vaccination especially in highly endemic areas of HBV. Active HBV vaccination should be implemented for the close relatives of patients who are negative for OBI markers. Thus, the goal of this review is to evaluate the rate of OBI with a focus on status of high risk groups in different regions of the world.

  15. Update on occult hepatitis B virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makvandi, Manoochehr

    2016-01-01

    The event of mutations in the surface antigen gene of hepatitis B virus (HBV) results in undetectable hepatitis B surface antigen with positive/negative anti-hepatitis B core (anti-HBc) antibody status in serum and this phenomenon is named occult hepatitis B infection (OBI). The presence of anti-HBc antibody in serum is an important key for OBI tracking, although about 20% of OBI cases are negative for anti-HBc antibody. The diagnosis of OBI is mainly based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR assays. However, real-time PCR is a more reliable method than PCR. OBI is a great issue for the public health problem and a challenge for the clinical entity worldwide. The persistence of OBI may lead to the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. With regard to OBI complications, the screening of HBV DNA by the highly sensitive molecular means should be implemented for: (1) patients with a previous history of chronic or acute HBV infection; (2) patients co-infected with hepatitis C virus/human immunodeficiency virus; (3) patients undergoing chemotherapy or anti-CD20 therapy; (4) recipients of organ transplant; (5) blood donors; (6) organ transplant donors; (7) thalassemia and hemophilia patients; (8) health care workers; (9) patients with liver related disease (cryptogenic); (10) hemodialysis patients; (11) patients undergoing lamivudine or interferon therapy; and (12) children in time of HBV vaccination especially in highly endemic areas of HBV. Active HBV vaccination should be implemented for the close relatives of patients who are negative for OBI markers. Thus, the goal of this review is to evaluate the rate of OBI with a focus on status of high risk groups in different regions of the world. PMID:27818588

  16. Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and hepatitis C infections during pregnancy? • How is hepatitis B virus infection spread? • What is acute hepatitis B virus infection? • What is chronic hepatitis B virus infection? • Can ...

  17. Hepatitis B virus morphogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) particle consists of an envelope containing three related surface proteins and probably lipid and an icosahedral nucleocapsid of approximately 30 nm diameter enclosing the viral DNA genome and DNA polymerase. The capsid is formed in the cytosol of the infected cell during packaging of an RNA pregenome replication complex by multiple copies of a 21-kDa C protein. The capsid gains the ability to bud during synthesis of the viral DNA genome by reverse transcription of the pregenome in the lumen of the particle. The three envelope proteins S,M, and L shape a complex transmembrane fold at the endoplasmic reticulum, and form disulfide-linked homoand heterodimers. The transmembrane topology of a fraction of the large envelope protein L changes posttranslationally, therefore, the N terminal domain of L (preS) finally appears on both sides of the membrane.During budding at an intracellular membrane, a short linear domain in the cytosolic preS region interacts with binding sites on the capsid surface. The virions are subsequently secreted into the blood. In addition, the surface proteins can bud in the absence of capsids and form subviral lipoprotein particles of 20 nm diameter which are also secreted.

  18. Hepatitis B virus replication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Hepadnaviruses, including human hepatitis B virus (HBV), replicate through reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate, the pregenomic RNA (pgRNA). Despite this kinship to retroviruses, there are fundamental differences beyond the fact that hepadnavirions contain DNA instead of RNA. Most peculiar is the initiation of reverse transcription: it occurs by protein-priming, is strictly committed to using an RNA hairpin on the pgRNA,ε, as template, and depends on cellular chaperones;moreover, proper replication can apparently occur only in the specialized environment of intact nucleocapsids.This complexity has hampered an in-depth mechanistic understanding. The recent successful reconstitution in the test tube of active replication initiation complexes from purified components, for duck HBV (DHBV),now allows for the analysis of the biochemistry of hepadnaviral replication at the molecular level. Here we review the current state of knowledge at all steps of the hepadnaviral genome replication cycle, with emphasis on new insights that turned up by the use of such cellfree systems. At this time, they can, unfortunately,not be complemented by three-dimensional structural information on the involved components. However, at least for the s RNA element such information is emerging,raising expectations that combining biophysics with biochemistry and genetics will soon provide a powerful integrated approach for solving the many outstanding questions. The ultimate, though most challenging goal,will be to visualize the hepadnaviral reverse transcriptase in the act of synthesizing DNA, which will also have strong implications for drug development.

  19. Does Nigeria need the birth dose of the hepatitis B vaccine?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2013-11-26

    Nov 26, 2013 ... Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a worldwide public health problem.1 About a third ... hepatitis B virus and most infections are reportedly ac- quired in childhood ..... antiHBs antibody in two cohorts of vaccinated individuals.

  20. 78 FR 67175 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request: Incident HIV/Hepatitis B Virus Infections in South...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    .../ Hepatitis B Virus Infections in South African Blood Donors: Behavioral Risk Factors, Genotypes and.../Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections in South African blood donors: Behavioral risk factors, genotypes and... antigen detection tests) to screen blood donors for HIV and Hepatitis-B Virus (HBV), among...

  1. Non-reproducible results in genetic association studies in chronic hepatitis B due to the inadequate controls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yi-hua

    2010-01-01

    @@ Infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is ubiquitous although the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) varies considerably worldwide. Persistent HBV infection may lead to severe sequelae such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, clarification of the mechanism of susceptibility to persistent HBV infection would be valuable for the prevention and treatment of chronic hepatitis B.

  2. Internist diagnosis and management of chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Brian J; Block, Joan; Haber, Barbara; London, Thomas; McHugh, James A; Perrillo, Robert; Neubauer, Richard

    2012-11-01

    Chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus can lead to hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis in up to 25% of infected individuals. As many as 2 million individuals in the US may have chronic hepatitis B infection, most of whom immigrated to the US from hepatitis B-endemic regions of the world. A 2010 report from the Institute of Medicine noted that two thirds of patients with hepatitis B are unaware of their infection, and most health care providers do not screen for hepatitis B or know how to manage hepatitis B-positive patients. In 2010, the Hepatitis B Foundation convened a group of primary care providers to consider the existing evidenced-based recommendations and strategies for implementation of hepatitis B screening into routine practice. The group designed an easy-to-use algorithm for screening, initial evaluation, ongoing management, and referral to a subspecialist when appropriate. Internal medicine specialists, including primary care providers and subspecialists, need to understand the steps they can take to address this often under-recognized disorder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Applicability of the Chronic Hepatitis B Patient Report Outcome Scale with Chinese Characteristics%慢性乙型肝炎中医特色PRO量表的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛凤; 蒋健

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We. would develop the Chronic Hepatitis B Patient Report Outcome Scale with Chinese Characteristics, and test the reliahility, validity and responsibility of the scale. Methods : We investigated 326 patients with chronic hepatitis B. After using several statistical methods,28 items were composed of the formal scale. Then the formal scale was tested about reliability, validity and responsibility. Results ,(. 1 )The Chronic Hepatitis B PRO Scale with Chinese Characteristics was developed including physical, psychological and social fields, and a total of 28 items. ( 2 ) It was proved that the PRO scale was reliable, effective, and sensitive by the reliability, validity and responsibility test. Conclusions : The PRO Scale of Chronic Hepatitis B with Chinese Characteristics has good reliability, validity and responsibility, it can be a good reflection of chronic hepatitis B patients physical, psychological and social fitness, it can be used to evaluate the clinical efficacy of chronic hepatitis B patients.%目的:研制具有中医特色的慢性乙型肝炎患者自评量表(Patient report outcome,PRO量表).方法:采用流行病学方法对326例慢乙肝患者进行调查,收集数据,通过一系列统计分析研制慢性乙型肝炎中医特色PRO量表,并对其进行科学性考核.结果:研制出具有较好信度、效度和反应度的慢性乙型肝炎中医特色PRO量表.结论:慢性乙型肝炎中医特色PRO量表能较好反映慢性乙肝患者的生理、心理和社会适应度,可以用来辅助评价慢乙肝患者的临床疗效.

  4. A Case of Hepatitis B Reactivation due to the Hepatitis B Virus Escape Mutant in a Patient undergoing Chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunchen Wu; Hui Shi; Yun Wang; Mengji Lu; Yang Xu; Xinwen Chen

    2012-01-01

    A 62-year-old man had chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and was diagnosed with liver cirrhosis.At the time of diagnosis the patient's virologic markers were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg),antibody to hepatitis B e antigen (anti-HBe) and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc),while antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) and HBV DNA were negative.Later the patient received chemotherapy for malignancy.However,this was interrupted due to elevated liver enzymes.At the same time HBV DNA became positive.Lamivudine (LMV) therapy was administered immediately.However,the levels of serum aminotransferase and total bilirubin (TB) were still rising.Finally the patient died of fulminant hepatic failure.A sequence revealed HBV genotype C (HBsAg subtype adw) with immune escape mutations,F8L,S34L,F41S,G44V,F93C,V96G,L110I,C149Y and F161Y.The high morbidity and mortality of this complication is one of the major obstacles to completing the standard treatment for malignancy in HBV carriers.Therefore,the relative risk of antiviral prophylactic failure should be further assessed and the optimal strategy for antiviral prophylaxis in HBsAg-positive patients with oncologic and hematologic malignancies undergoing chemotherapy should be revised.

  5. Severe Acute Hepatitis B Treated with Entecavir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Tosti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection constitutes a serious global health problem. 
    Nowadays there are divergent data regarding the use of antiviral drugs to treat acute hepatitis B. 
    We present here a case of a 62-year-old man affected by severe acute hepatitis B with progressive worsening of clinical and hepatic function. 
    The patient was treated with entecavir without critical side effects. 
    We observed rapid clinical and laboratory improvements and the disappearance of surface antigen (HBsAg. 
    The treatment with entecavir was protracted until 17th week when the antibody antiHBs (anti HBs appeared. 
    Entecavir should be carefully considered for the treatment of severe acute hepatitis B cases.

  6. Occult hepatitis B virus infection among injecting drug users in the Central-West Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Alves Dias de Matos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV infection was investigated in 149 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg negative injecting drug users (IDUs in the Central-West Region of Brazil. Of these individuals, 19 were positive for HBV DNA, resulting in an occult HBV infection prevalence of 12.7% (19/149; six of these 19 individuals had anti-HBV core and/or anti-HBV surface antibodies and 13 were negative for HBV markers. All IDUs with occult hepatitis B reported sexual and/or parenteral risk behaviours. All HBV DNA-positive samples were successfully genotyped. Genotype D was the most common (17/19, followed by genotype A (2/19. These findings reveal a high prevalence of occult HBV infection and the predominance of genotype D among IDUs in Brazil's Central-West Region.

  7. Hepatitis B virus surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C virus rapid tests underestimate hepatitis prevalence among HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Jespersen, S; Medina, C

    2014-01-01

    . RESULTS: Two rapid tests were used in Guinea-Bissau: HBsAg Strip Ref 2034 (VEDA.LAB, Alençon, France; sensitivity 62.3%; specificity 99.2%) and HEPA-SCAN (Bhat Bio-Tech, Bangalore, India; sensitivity 57.1%; specificity 99.7%). In the two tests the ability to obtain the correct outcome depended...... on the antigen and antibody concentrations, respectively. Sex, age, CD4 cell count and antiretroviral therapy status did not differ between false negative and true positive samples in either of the tests. The study is limited by a low number of anti-HCV positive samples. CONCLUSIONS: New diagnostic rapid tests...

  8. Prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Luisa Gutiérrez-García; Conrado M Fernandez-Rodriguez; Jose Luis Lledo-Navarro; Ingrid Buhigas-Garcia

    2011-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) is characterized by the persistence of HBV DNA in the liver tissue in individuals negative for the HBV surface antigen. The prevalence of OBI is quite variable depending on the level of endemic disease in different parts of the world,the different assays utilized in the studies, and the different populations studied. Many studies have been carried out on OBI prevalence in different areas of the world and categories of individuals. The studies show that OBI prevalence seems to be higher among subjects at high risk for HBV infection and with liver disease than among individuals at low risk of infection and without liver disease.

  9. The Feasible Study of Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen Carriers Initiative Inform the Hepatitis B Virus Infection to the Spouse%乙型肝炎病毒表面抗原携带者主动告知配偶的可行性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙爱武; 王锋; 王富珍; 张爽; 涂秋风; 邵晓萍; 郑徽; 孙校金; 龚晓红

    2013-01-01

    Objective The feasible study of hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers initiative inform the HBV infection to the spouse was conducted and to provide a reference for the elimination of discrimination against HBV.Method 159 HBsAg carriers aged 20-45 years and their spouses were selected from the national viral hepatitis epidemiological survey in 2006 and the questionnaire survey was carried out.Results Among 159 HBsAg carriers,93.7% of HBsAg carriers could initiative inform their spouses and 92.6% of HBsAg carriers could inform their spouses as soon as they were detected as HBsAg positive.45.91% of HBsAg carriers expressed the belief that their spouses could understand and 43.40% said that they would not lead to emotional breakdown.When HBsAg carriers took the initiative to inform the spouse,35.57% of the spouses encouraged the HBsAg carriers to take active treatment,15.44% of the spouses could actively query data and seek scientific prevention,36.24% of the spouses could timely get HepB and take the safety sexual behaviors,but 57.05% of the spouse does not matter,and not to take any protective measures.The proportion for the HBsAg carriers taking the initiative to inform the spouse after marriage (60.38%) was significantly higher than that before marriage (29.56%).Learned from the spouses of HBsAg carriers,if HBsAg carriers before marriage inform truth to them,62.89% of the spouses could understand the HBsAg carriers and take effective protective measures,and 22.64% also could encourage them to take active treatment,and would not lead to emotional breakdown.Conclusion The study results showed that it was feasibility and necessary that HBsAg carriers took the initiative to inform the HBV infection to the spouse,and it was benefit that the spouses of HBsAg carriers could take the measures to prevent HBV infection and reduce the of HBV transmission probability between husband and wife.And it suggested that we should gradually

  10. Genotyping of occult hepatitis B virus infection in Egyptian hemodialysis patients without hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmail, Mona A; Mahdi, Wafaa K M; Khairy, Rasha M; Abdalla, Nilly H

    2016-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B viral infection is the presence of hepatitis B viral nucleic acids in the serum and/or liver in the absence of hepatitis B surface antigen. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus infection among hepatitis C virus-negative hemodialysis patients and to identify their genotypes. of 144 patients on maintenance hemodialysis, 50 hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C virus nucleic acid-negative patients were selected according to strict inclusion criteria to avoid the effect of confounding variables. The following investigations were done: serum AST and ALT; HBsAg; HBcAb; HCV-Ab; HCV-RNA; and HBV-DNA. Positive hepatitis B viral nucleic acid was confirmed in 12/144 (8.3%) hemodialysis patients and 12/50 (24%) in our study group (occult infection). Mean hemodialysis periods for negative patients and occult hepatitis B virus patients were 27.3±18.8 and 38.4±8.14 months, respectively, and this difference was significant (p-value=0.02). Mean alanine transaminase levels were 20.27±5.5IU/L and 25.3±9.6 in negative patients and occult infection patients, respectively. This difference was non-significant. Aspartate transaminase levels were 21.4±10.2IU/L and 27.3±4.6IU/L, respectively, in negative patients and infected patients; this difference was significant (p-value=0.03). Half (6/12) of the positive samples belonged to genotype 'B', 33.3% (4/12) to 'C', and 16.6% (2/12) to genotype 'D'. OBI is likely among hemodialysis patients even without HCV coinfection (24%). Genotype D cannot be the only genotype distributed in Upper Egypt, as the current study reported relatively new results that 50% of the patients with occult B carry genotype B, 33.3% carry genotype C and only 16.6% carry genotype D. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Expression of Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg from genotypes A, D and F and influence of amino acid variations related or not to genotypes on HBsAg detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia M. Araujo

    Full Text Available The impact of hepatitis B virus (HBV genotypes on the sensitivity of surface antigen (HBsAg detection assays has been poorly investigated. Here, plasmids carrying consensus or variant coding sequences for HBV surface proteins from genotypes A, D and F, were constructed. HBsAg levels were evaluated in medium and extracts of transfected CHO cells by a commercial polyclonal-based assay. We show that HBsAg detection values of consensus forms from genotypes D and F were, respectively, 37% and 30% lower than those obtained by genotype A. However, the presence of two single variations, T143M in genotype A, and T125M in genotype D, produced a decrease of 44% and an increase of 34%, respectively, on HBsAg mean values in comparison with their consensus forms. In conclusion, HBsAg detection levels varied among HBV genotypes. However, unique amino acid substitutions not linked to genotypes, such as T125M and T143M described here, should have more implications in HBV immunological diagnostics than the set of variations characteristic of each HBV genotype.

  12. Combination of Human Leukocyte Antigen and Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Genetic Background Influences the Onset Age of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Male Patients with Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Pan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate whether killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR and human leukocyte antigen (HLA genetic background could influence the onset age of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV infection, one hundred and seventy-one males with HBV-related HCC were enrolled. The presence of 12 loci of KIR was detected individually. HLA-A, -B, and -C loci were genotyped with high resolution by a routine sequence-based typing method. The effect of each KIR locus, HLA ligand, and HLA-KIR combination was examined individually by Kaplan-Meier (KM analysis. Multivariate Cox hazard regression model was also applied. We identified C1C1-KIR2DS2/2DL2 as an independent risk factor for earlier onset age of HCC (median onset age was 44 for C1C1-KIR2DS2/2DL2 positive patients compared to 50 for negative patients, P=0.04 for KM analysis; HR = 1.70, P=0.004 for multivariate Cox model. We conclude that KIR and HLA genetic background can influence the onset age of HCC in male patients with HBV infection. This study may be useful to improve the current HCC surveillance program in HBV-infected patients. Our findings also suggest an important role of natural killer cells (or other KIR-expressing cells in the progress of HBV-related HCC development.

  13. Expression of Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg from genotypes A, D and F and influence of amino acid variations related or not to genotypes on HBsAg detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia M. Araujo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The impact of hepatitis B virus (HBV genotypes on the sensitivity of surface antigen (HBsAg detection assays has been poorly investigated. Here, plasmids carrying consensus or variant coding sequences for HBV surface proteins from genotypes A, D and F, were constructed. HBsAg levels were evaluated in medium and extracts of transfected CHO cells by a commercial polyclonal-based assay. We show that HBsAg detection values of consensus forms from genotypes D and F were, respectively, 37% and 30% lower than those obtained by genotype A. However, the presence of two single variations, T143M in genotype A, and T125M in genotype D, produced a decrease of 44% and an increase of 34%, respectively, on HBsAg mean values in comparison with their consensus forms. In conclusion, HBsAg detection levels varied among HBV genotypes. However, unique amino acid substitutions not linked to genotypes, such as T125M and T143M described here, should have more implications in HBV immunological diagnostics than the set of variations characteristic of each HBV genotype.

  14. Improved humoral and cellular immune responses against the gp120 V3 loop of HIV-1 following genetic immunization with a chimeric DNA vaccine encoding the V3 inserted into the hepatitis B surface antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, A; Nielsen, H V; Bryder, K

    1998-01-01

    with the HIV MN gp160 envelope plasmid induced a slow and low titred anti-MN V3 antibody response at 12 weeks post-inoculation (p.i.) and a late appearing (7 weeks), weak and variable CTL response. In contrast, DNA vaccination with the HBsAg-encoding plasmid induced a rapid and high titred anti-HBsAg antibody...... response and a uniform strong anti-HBs CTL response already 1 week p.i. in all mice. DNA vaccination with the chimeric MN V3/HBsAg plasmid elicited humoral responses against both viruses within 3-6 weeks which peaked at 6-12 weeks and remained stable for at least 25 weeks. In addition, specific CTL......-2d-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope. In an attempt to improve the immunogenicity of V3 in DNA vaccines, a plasmid expressing MN V3 as a fusion protein with the highly immunogenic middle (pre-S2 + S) surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg) was constructed. Epidermal inoculation...

  15. Evaluation of serum hepatitis B core-related antigen in prediction of the pathological status of liver tissue in patients with chronic hepatitis B%血清乙型肝炎核心相关抗原预测慢性乙型肝炎肝组织病理状态的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张占卿; 陆伟; 翁齐铖; 张智勇; 沈芳; 王雁冰; 冯艳玲

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨和评价血清乙型肝炎核心相关抗原(HBcrAg)预测慢性乙型肝炎(CHB)肝组织炎症活动度和纤维化程度的效能。方法 CHB 患者211例,其中 HBeAg 阳性和阴性患者分别为125例和86例。血清 HBcrAg 采用化学发光酶免疫法检测。数据处理和统计分析采用 SPSS 16.0软件。结果 HBeAg 阳性患者,血清 HBcrAg 与肝组织病理学分级和分期均呈显著负相关(rs =-0.305,P =0.001和 rs =-0.370,P =0.000),在不同病理学分级和分期之间的差异均有统计学意义(rs =16.756,P =0.000和 rs =25.003,P =0.000)。HBeAg 阴性患者,血清 HBcrAg 与病理学分级和分期均呈显著正相关(rs =0.476,P =0.000和 rs =0.556,P =0.000),在不同病理学分级和分期之间的差异均有统计学意义(rs =22.529,P =0.000和 rs =26.416,P =0.000)。HBeAg 阳性患者,血清 HBcrAg 预测病理学分级≥G3和分期≥S3的 ROC曲线下面积分别为0.722和0.739(P =0.000和 P =0.000);以血清 HBcrAg≤4.81×104 kU/mL 和≤8.13×104 kU/mL为标准,其预测病理学分级≥G3和分期≥S3的灵敏度、特异度、准确度分别为0.706、0.714、0.712和0.821、0.698、0.736。HBeAg 阴性患者,血清 HBcrAg 预测病理学分级≥G2和分期≥S2的 ROC 曲线下面积分别为0.807和0.799(P =0.000和 P =0.000);以血清 HBcrAg≥40.18 kU/mL 和≥10.64 kU/mL 为标准,其预测病理学分级≥G2和分期≥S2的灵敏度、特异度、准确度分别为0.821、0.724、0.756和0.775、0.696、0.733。结论血清 HBcrAg 能有效地预测 HBeAg 阳性患者的肝组织严重炎症活动度和严重纤维化程度以及 HBeAg 阴性患者的肝组织显著炎症活动度和显著纤维化程度。%Objective To appraise the efficacy of serum hepatitis B core-related antigen

  16. Hepatitis B escape mutants in Scottish blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larralde, Osmany; Dow, Brian; Jarvis, Lisa; Davidson, Fiona; Petrik, Juraj

    2013-06-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains as the viral infection with the highest risk of transmission by transfusion. This risk is associated with window period donations, occult HBV infection (OBI) and the emergence of escape mutants, which render blood donations false negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) serological testing. A retrospective study was conducted to gain insights into the molecular epidemiology of HBV escape mutants in Scottish blood donors. The criterion for selection was HBV positivity either by serology or nucleic acid testing (NAT). HBsAg detection was compared across several commercial immunoassays. The full length S gene from plasma samples was PCR amplified, cloned and expressed in HepG2 cells. Eight samples showed HBsAg discordant results, while 5 OBI samples were found. Four escape mutants, containing missense mutations in the S gene, are described here. These mutations impaired HBsAg detection both from HBV infected plasma samples and from recombinant proteins derived from its infected donors. Phylogenetic analysis showed that most of the mutants were clustered in the genotype D and were closely related to strains from Asia and the Middle East. We report here a proline substitution, outside the major hydrophilic region, that impaired HBsAg detection in vivo and in vitro, warning about the risk for the emergence of vaccine escape mutants with mutations outside the major neutralisation site.

  17. Hepatitis B Leading to Megaloblastic Anemia and Catastrophic Peripheral Thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, Muhammad; Sarfraz, Tariq; Khan, Raja Ghayas; Rafe, Abdul; Rasool, Ghulam; Ahmed, Kamran Nazir

    2016-12-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) typically causes chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. It is associated with a variety of extrahepatic complications. We herein, present a rare extrahepatic complication of HBV infection. A 32-year man presented with melena, bleeding from gums and fever. Peripheral blood examination revealed anemia, macrocytosis and severe thrombocytopenia. His hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was positive but deoxyribonucleic acid (HBV DNA) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was negative. Other hepatitis, human immune deficiency virus (HIV), dengue, and autoimmune serology were negative. Bone marrow examination revealed megaloblastic erythropoiesis. There was mild to moderate reduction of megakaryocytes in bone marrow, which was not compatible with severe peripheral thrombocytopenia. His response to cyanocobalamin and folic acid was remarkable for myeloid cell lines and moderate for erythroid cell lines, but poor to platelet counts. Platelet counts gradually improved to safe limits with eltrombopag, likely reflecting autoimmune pathogenesis for thrombocytopenia. This case report highlights multiple targets of HBV infection with associated multiple pathogenetic mechanisms.

  18. Evaluation of modified ELISA method to detect Hepatitis B surface antigen in saliva specimens%ELISA 检测唾液中乙肝表面抗原方法的优化与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张进

    2012-01-01

      目的优化用于检测唾液中乙肝表面抗原的 ELISA 法,并对其进行评价.方法对 ELISA 的不同条件:样品类型、加样体积和孵育温度及时间进行优化,筛选最佳条件;并采用三种不同的临界值计算方法,判断最佳临界值.结果采用优化后方法,47例血清阳性对应的唾液样品中,44例检测结果为阳性;68例血清阴性对应的唾液样品中,63例检测结果为阴性.血清和唾液样品检测结果的一致性比较高,κ指数为0.87.且该方法的特异度和敏感度分别达到92.6%和93.6%.结论优化后的 ELISA 方法在唾液样品的乙肝表面抗原检测中具有潜在的应用价值.%  Objective To evaluated a modified ELISA method for detecting the Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in saliva samples. Meyhods Optimized the different conditions, including sample type, sample volume and incubation condition, to screen the best condition. Three different methods to calculate cut-off value was evaluated to screen the most acceptable. Results HBsAg was detected in 44 saliva samples out of 47 paired positive serum specimens and not detected in 63 saliva samples out of 68 matched negative serum samples by the optimized ELISA assay. There was excelent agreement between the results for the serum and saliva specimens and the kappa value was 0.87 for saliva specimens. Using an optimized protocol, the sensitivities and specificities were 93.6% and 92.6%, respectively. Conclusion Our data showed a significant promise for the use of the modified commercial ELISA in saliva sample for Hepatitis B virus infection surveilance.

  19. Clinical features and viral quasispecies characteristics associated with infection by the hepatitis B virus G145R immune escape mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yuan; Wang, Ming-Jie; Yang, Zhi-Tao; Yu, De-Min; Han, Yue; Huang, Dao; Zhang, Dong-Hua; Zhang, Xin-Xin

    2017-03-22

    Coexistence of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) is an uncommon phenomenon, and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Amino-acid (aa) substitution from glycine to arginine at aa 145 (G145R), in the major hydrophilic region, has been reported in patients with HBsAg and anti-HBs coexistence. However, there is limited knowledge about the clinical features and viral quasispecies characteristics associated with G145R mutant hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We herein describe the dynamic changes in the serological and virological markers in a case of hepatitis B with coexisting HBsAg and anti-HBs, caused by a G145R immune escape mutant (genotype C). Entecavir was administered during the 4th week after admission. Alanine aminotransferase peaked in the 16th week, while both the HBsAg and HBeAg declined rapidly. HBsAg clearance and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)/hepatitis B e antibody (anti-HBe) seroconversion were achieved in the 36th week, and then entecavir was withdrawn. A follow-up of 96 weeks showed that HBV DNA remained undetectable and that anti-HBs was maintained above 100 mIU/mL. The quasispecies characteristics of the G145R mutant HBV were investigated via ultra-deep sequencing. The complexity and genetic distance of the S and RT regions were much higher in the 8th week than at baseline or in the 4th week. Moreover, the frequencies of mutations (L173P, Q181R and A184V) in cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitopes increased before entecavir treatment. These findings extend understanding of the evolution of HBV under host immune pressure and of the clinical outcomes of affected patients.

  20. Hepatitis B Virus-Related Glomerulonephritis: Not a Predominant Cause of Proteinuria in Korean Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Ju Yoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. Hepatitis B virus (HBV can form immune complexes which may result in various types of glomerulonephritis (GN. However, proteinuria can occur because of other kidney diseases besides HBV-related GN (HBV-GN. The aim of this study is to elucidate the causes of proteinuria and report on the clinical outcomes of HBV-GN. Methods. We reviewed the medical records of patients positive for serum hepatitis B surface antigen who underwent renal biopsies due to proteinuria at a tertiary medical center in Korea. Results. A total of 55 patients were included. HBV-GN was diagnosed in 20 (36.4% of the patients by confirming the presence of immune complexes (12 of 13 membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, 7 of 8 membranous glomerulonephritis, and 1 of 13 immunoglobulin A nephropathy. Twenty-one patients had other types of GN. A total of 13 (65% HBV-GN patients were treated with antiviral agents for a median of 11 months. However, the degrees of proteinuria were not significantly reduced in the antiviral intervention group when compared to the control group. Conclusions. Proteinuria can be caused by various glomerular diseases and HBV-GN accounts for one-third of total GN cases. Well-designed prospective study is needed to assess whether antiviral therapy against HBV infection may improve the prognosis of HBV-GN.

  1. A pediatric case of hepatitis B virus subgenotype A2 in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Ishigami, Masatoshi; Ishizu, Yoji; Kuzuya, Teiji; Honda, Takashi; Itoh, Akihiro; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Nakano, Isao; Ito, Yoshinori; Kimura, Hiroshi; Katano, Yoshiaki; Goto, Hidemi

    2013-10-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been classified into 10 major genotypes, and HBV genotypes C and B are found in the majority of Japanese patients. However, the prevalence of genotype A has been increasing in patients with chronic or acute hepatitis. Here we report a pediatric case of HBV subgenotype A2. A 2-year-old girl was referred to our hospital for liver damage caused by HBV infection. During the pregnancy, her father had developed acute sporadic hepatitis B. The child was born without any complications. She did not receive HBV vaccination at birth because her mother was negative for HBs antigen at the pre-delivery screening; however, her mother developed acute hepatitis B 2 months after delivery. At that time, HBs antigen was detected in the current patient. Phylogenetic full-length sequence analysis revealed HBV subgenotype A2. HBV sequencing was not performed for her parents; therefore, the intrafamilial transmission routes in these cases are unclear, although the authors speculate that, for the current patient, mother-to-child transmission may have occurred. This report illustrates the pitfalls of the selective vaccination strategy in Japan for preventing HBV infection. Universal vaccination to prevent HBV infection might be useful in Japan.

  2. Lichen planus secondary to hepatitis B vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Akhilesh

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The association of lichen planus (LP with liver diseases is now well established. Recent reports suggest that the hepatitis viruses may play a central role in this association. Lichen planus following hepatitis B vaccination is much more unusual. A 19-year-old previously healthy male developed itchy violaceous papules and plaques over the upper extremities eight to ten days after the first injection of hepatitis B vaccine. He developed similar lesions over the upper trunk, neck and lower leg after the second and third injections. A skin biopsy showed a lichenoid tissue reaction. Direct immunofluorescence (DIF showed multiple colloid bodies and a strong continuous ragged basement membrane zone (BMZ band with fibrinogen. HbsAg by ELISA and anti-HCV antibodies were negative. The patient was treated with oral steroids and the lesions improved. LP is a pruritic inflammatory dermatosis of unknown origin. An increased prevalence of liver disease in patient with LP has been reported. Since the first case reported by Rebora in 1990, about 15 cases of LP occurring after hepatitis B vaccination have been reported in the literature irrespective of the type of vaccine used.

  3. Antibody and immune memory persistence post infant hepatitis B vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudu SA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Shuaibu A Hudu,1,2 Yasmin A Malik,3 Mohd Taib Niazlin,1 Nabil S Harmal,1,4 Ariza Adnan,5 Ahmed S Alshrari,1 Zamberi Sekawi1 1Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Pathology and Medical Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Sokoto State, Nigeria; 3Department of Clinical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Selangor, Malaysia; 4Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana'a University, Sana'a, Yemen; 5Cluster of Laboratory Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the level of hepatitis B immunity among undergraduate students 23 years after commencement of the nationwide hepatitis B childhood immunization program in Malaysia. Methods: A total of 402 serum samples obtained from volunteer undergraduate students were screened for the presence of hepatitis B surface antibodies using qualitative ELISA. Results: Results showed that 62.7% of volunteers had protective anti-hepatitis B surface antigens (≥10 IU/L, of whom 67.9% received three doses of the vaccine. The estimated post-vaccination immunity was found to be at least 20 years, indicating persistent immunity against hepatitis B and a significant association (P < 0.05 with duration of vaccination. Anamnestic response 1 month post-hepatitis B booster was 94.0% and highly significant (P < 0.01. Isolated anti-hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc prevalence was found to be 5.0%, all having had a positive anamnestic response. Conclusion: Immunity after primary vaccination with hepatitis B recombinant vaccine persists for at least 20 years post-vaccination, with significant association with the number of vaccinations. Furthermore, the presence of anamnestic response to

  4. Evaluation on Immunogenicity and Immune Efficacy of Different Kinds of Hepatitis B Vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁争论; 李河民; 张华远

    2003-01-01

    Hepatitis B vaccine, as the first high-effective recombinant commercial vaccine, was successfully developed inthe early 1980s. Since then, different opinions have occurred on the quality of vaccines with rapid developmentof target gene selecting, antigen expression system, andquality evaluation. Different antigens of hepatitis B vaccines are derived from different expression system, andthere are also some differences on manufacture procedureor glycosylated degree of antigen.

  5. Prevention of perinatal hepatitis B virus infection : implications for mother and child : policy for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M. Grosheide (Pia Maria)

    1993-01-01

    textabstracthepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) to their newborn infants is an important cause for the development of hepatitis B infections and for the maintenance of the hepatitis B virus reservoir in the world (l-3). Immunization of infants born to HBsAg-positive women has been shown to almost co

  6. Prevention of perinatal hepatitis B virus infection : implications for mother and child : policy for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M. Grosheide (Pia Maria)

    1993-01-01

    textabstracthepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) to their newborn infants is an important cause for the development of hepatitis B infections and for the maintenance of the hepatitis B virus reservoir in the world (l-3). Immunization of infants born to HBsAg-positive women has been shown to almost co

  7. Lamivudine and alpha interferon combination treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis B infection: a randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.W. Schalm (Solko); J. Heathcote; J. Cianciara; G. Farrell; M.E. Sherman (Mark); B. Willems; A. Dhillon; A. Moorat; J. Barber; D.F. Gray

    2000-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND, AIM, AND METHODS: Alpha interferon is the generally approved therapy for HBe antigen positive patients with chronic hepatitis B, but its efficacy is limited. Lamivudine is a new oral nucleoside analogue which potently inhibits hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA

  8. Lamivudine and alpha interferon combination treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis B infection: a randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.W. Schalm (Solko); J. Heathcote; J. Cianciara; G. Farrell; M.E. Sherman (Mark); B. Willems; A. Dhillon; A. Moorat; J. Barber; D.F. Gray

    2000-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND, AIM, AND METHODS: Alpha interferon is the generally approved therapy for HBe antigen positive patients with chronic hepatitis B, but its efficacy is limited. Lamivudine is a new oral nucleoside analogue which potently inhibits hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA rep

  9. 乙型肝炎病毒表面抗原阳性母亲的儿童接种乙型肝炎疫苗后的低/无应答者再免疫血清学效果评价%Study on Serelogic Efficacy of Re-immunization for Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Positive Mother's Children with Non-and-Iow-response after Three Doses of Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌罗亚; 陈永弟; 姚军; 范建强; 严传富; 张鑫培

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价乙型肝炎(乙肝)病毒表面抗原[ Hepatitis B Virus(HBV)Surface Antigen,HBsAg]阳性母亲的儿童接种乙肝疫苗(Hepatitis B Vaccine,HepB)后的低/无应答者,采用重组HepB(中国仓鼠卵巢细胞)(HepB Made by Recombinant Deoxyribonucleic Acid Techniques in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell,HepB-CHO)再免疫的血清学效果.方法 选择2008~2009年出生的HBsAg阳性母亲的新生儿249例,出生时按0、1、6个月免疫程序接种10微克(μg)重组HepB(汉逊酵母),免疫后6~12个月检测抗乙肝病毒表面抗原抗体(Antibody to HBsAg,Anti-HBs)、抗乙肝病毒核心抗原抗体(Antibody to HBV Core Antigen,Anti-HBc).HBsAg、Anti-HBs均阴性者接种一剂20μg重组HepB-CHO,免疫后1个月再检测Anti-HBs.结果 基础免疫后儿童HBsAg阳性率0.40%;Anti-HBc阳性[Anti-HBc≥1毫国际单位/毫升(mIU/ml)]率12.05%:Anti-HBs阳性(Anti-HBs≥100mIU/ml)率71A9%,Anti-HBs几何平均浓度(Geometric Mean Concentration,GMC)为(543.29±2.96)mIU/ml.再免疫一剂20μg重组HepB-CHO后,Anti-HBs阳性率为95.44%;免疫前Anti-HBs无/低应答者,免疫后Anti-HBs阳转率为82.54%,Anti-HBs GMC为(501.45±3.94)mIU/ml.无/低应答者的阳转率分别为60.00%、86.79%,差异无统计学意义(P<0.05);无/低应答者Anti-HBs GMC分别为(140.75±2.41)mIU/ml、(637.28±3.74)mIU/ml.结论 对HBsAg阳性母亲的儿童接种HepB后的低/无应答者,采用20μg重组HepB-CHO实施再免疫,血清学效果良好.%Objective To analyze the efficacy of re-immunization with domestic 20μg hepatitis B vaccine made by recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid technique in Chinese hamster ovary cell(CHO)on the antibody hepatitis B virus ( HBV ) surface antigen (Anti-HBs)non-respons or low respons children % mother HBV surface antigen (HBsAg ) positive, in order to provide evidence for establishing immunization strategies. Methods We selected 249 newboms born between 2008-2009 whose mothers HBsAg were positive. The

  10. Occult hepatitis B virus infection in Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The emerging evidence of the potentially clinicalimportance of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection(OBI) increases the interest in this topic. OBI mayimpact in several clinical contexts, which include thepossible transmission of the infection, the contributionto liver disease progression, the development ofhepatocellular carcinoma, and the risk of reactivation.There are several articles that have published on OBI inEgyptian populations. A review of MEDLINE databasewas undertaken for relevant articles to clarify theepidemiology of OBI in Egypt. HBV genotype D is theonly detectable genotype among Egyptian OBI patients.Higher rates of OBI reported among Egyptian chronicHCV, hemodialysis, children with malignant disorders, andcryptogenic liver disease patients. There is an evidenceof OBI reactivation after treatment with chemotherapy.The available data suggested that screening for OBI mustbe a routine practice in these groups of patients. Furtherstudies needed for better understand of the epidemiologyof OBI among Egyptian young generations after the eraof hepatitis B vaccination.

  11. the Study of Hepatitis B Virus Reactivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation after chemotherapy or immunosuppressive therapy is a cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality. Not all chronic hepatitis B patients will lead to HBV reactivation. The incidence is 0.3%-30.2%according to the reports. The mechanism of HBV reactivation is still unclear, but it is believed that the viral load is increasing due to the suppression of immune response. No uniform diagnostic criteria are available. HBV reactivation can be confirmed by an increase of serum HBV DNA level. Recently, awareness of reactivation of occult HBV has been improved, especially in HBV endemic area. Preemptive antiviral therapy was the best approach to prevent the HBV reactivation. HBV reactivation can lead to acute hepatitis, severe hepatitis and acute liver failure. Therefore, it is worthy of great attention and further study. Antiviral therapy is safe and effective to prevent HBV reactivation.

  12. Hepatitis B virus reactivation in a patient undergoing steroid-free chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daisuke Shimizu; Masafumi Taniwaki; Takeshi Okanoue; Kenichi Nomura; Yosuke Matsumoto; Kyoji Ueda; Kanji Yamaguchi; Masahito Minami; Yoshito Itoh; Shigeo Horiike; Masuji Morita

    2004-01-01

    A 62-year-old Japanese man who was positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HBe antibody, underwent chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Mutations were detected in the precore region (nt1896) of HBV.Because steroid-containing regimen may cause reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis may progress to be fulminant after its withdrawal, we administered CHO (CPA,DOX and VCR) therapy and the patient obtained complete response. However, he developed acute exacerbation of hepatitis due to HBV reactivation. Recovery was achieved with lamivudine (100 mg/d) and plasma exchange. The present case suggests that acute exacerbation of hepatitis can occur with steroid-free regimen. Because the efficacy of the prophylactic use of lamivudine has been reported and the steroid enhances curability of malignant lymphoma,the steroid containing regimen with prophylaxis of lamivudine should be evaluated further.

  13. Hepatitis B virus enhancer Ⅰ in chronic carriers resistant to interferon treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jing-yu; H. W. Han

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the structural and preliminary functional characterization of the hepatitis B virus(HBV) enhancer Ⅰ in patients with chronic hepatitis B treated with interferon (IFN). METHODS The characteristics of the HBV enhancer Ⅰ in 12chronic carrier who were treated with alpha interferon was detected by the methods of molecular biology including PCR, cloning of PCR products, sequencing and cell culture.RESULTS Four of 6 patients cleared viral DNA; all 6 in this group also seroconverted from e antigen to antibody. Prior to therapy, the HBV enhancer Ⅰ region demonstrated many point mutations in all 6 patients who became nonresponders, compared to patients who responded to interferon. The mutated sequences, many of which were within regions of transcription factor binding, were significantly more active than the corresponding wild type sequences in reporter gene assays. CONCLUSION These results imply that the mutations found in nonresponders appear to render the virus less sensitive to interferon.

  14. Subfulminant hepatitis B after infliximab in Crohn's disease:Need for HBV-screening?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gunda Millonig; Michaela Kern; Othmar Ludwiczek; Karin Nachbaur; Wolfgang Vogel

    2006-01-01

    Infections are a major adverse effect during the treatment with anti-TNF-α. While exclusion of any bacterial infection and screening for tuberculosis are mandatory before initiating a therapy with anti-TNFα-antibodies, there are no guidelines whether to screen for or how to deal with chronic viral infections such as hepatitis B. In this case report, we have described a patient with Crohn's disease who developed subfulminant hepatitis B after the fourth infusion of infliximab due to an unrecognized HBs-antigen carrier state. He recovered completely after lamivudine therapy was started, but this severe adverse event could have been prevented if screening for HBV and pre-emptive therapy with lamivudine would have been started prior to infliximab.We therefore strongly argue in favor of extended screening recommendations for infectious diseases including viral infections before considering a therapy with infliximab.

  15. Hepatitis B prevalence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N; Hay, G; Cowan, S

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Denmark is not clear. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic HBV infection in Denmark. The capture–recapture method was used to estimate the total population diagnosed with chronic HBV infection......, and the capture–recapture estimate of the total population diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B was 7,112 (95% confidence interval (CI): 6,953–10,747). Only 17% of the identified patients attended recommended clinical care according to national guidelines. Including undiagnosed patients, the current population...

  16. Hepatitis B prevalence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N; Hay, G; Cowan, S;

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Denmark is not clear. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic HBV infection in Denmark. The capture–recapture method was used to estimate the total population diagnosed with chronic HBV infection......, and the capture–recapture estimate of the total population diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B was 7,112 (95% confidence interval (CI): 6,953–10,747). Only 17% of the identified patients attended recommended clinical care according to national guidelines. Including undiagnosed patients, the current population...

  17. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis A and hepatitis B virus in Luxembourg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossong, J; Putz, L; Patiny, S; Schneider, F

    2006-08-01

    A prospective seroepidemiological survey was carried out in Luxembourg in 2000-2001 to determine the antibody status of the Luxembourg population against hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). One of the objectives of this survey was to assess the impact of the hepatitis B vaccination programme, which started in May 1996 and included a catch-up campaign for all adolescents aged 12-15 years. Venous blood from 2679 individuals was screened for the presence of antibodies to HAV antigen and antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) using an enzyme immunoassay. Samples positive for anti-HBs were tested for antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) using a chemiluminiscent microparticle immunoassay to distinguish between individuals with past exposure to vaccine or natural infection. The estimated age-standardized anti-HAV seroprevalence was 42.0% [95% confidence interval (CI) 39.8-44.1] in the population >4 years of age. Seroprevalence was age-dependent and highest in adult immigrants from Portugal and the former Yugoslavia. The age-standardized prevalence of anti-HBs and anti-HBc was estimated at 19.7% (95% CI 18.1-21.3) and 3.16% (95% CI 2.2-4.1) respectively. Anti-HBs seroprevalence exceeding 50% was found in the cohorts targeted by the routine hepatitis B vaccination programme, which started in 1996. Our study illustrates that most young people in Luxembourg are susceptible to HAV infection and that the hepatitis B vaccination programme is having a substantial impact on population immunity in children and teenagers.

  18. Genotype A2/adw2 Strain of Hepatitis B Virus in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Sayan, Murat; Akhan, Sila Cetin; Bozdayi, Mitha

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Previous studies have demonstrated the dominance of genotype D subtype ayw in patients with hepatitis B virus infection in Turkey. The aim of the present study is to report, for the first time, genotype A2 subtype adw2 of hepatitis B virus in a patient who is an inactive hepatitis B carrier in Turkey. Materials and Methods Hepatitis B virus DNA isolated from the serum sample was amplified by polymerase chain reaction. The polymerase gene segment of the hepatitis B virus wa...

  19. Co-delivery of polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid and flagellin by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) MPs synergistically enhances immune response elicited by intranasally delivered hepatitis B surface antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaojing; He, Jintian; Zhang, Ruxia; Wu, Guanghao; Xiong, Fangfang; Zhao, Baohua

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the synergistic effect between toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 ligand polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (pI:C) and TLR5 ligand flagellin (FLN) on immune responses induced by nasally delivered hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg). Mannan and chitosan oligosaccharide-modified, pH-responsive poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (MC-PLGA) microparticles (MPs) containing HBsAg, FLN, pI:C or both ligands were prepared with a double-emulsion method. In vitro uptake experiments show that cellular uptake of MC-PLGA MPs by macrophages was through energy-dependent, receptor-mediated endocytosis mechanism. After uptake of MPs by macrophages, MC-PLGA MPs existed both in the endo-some and in the cytoplasm. FLN and pI:C in solution or MP formulation could synergize to activate macrophages and induce higher pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, interferon-γ and anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 compared to single TLR ligand (P<0.05). In vivo immunogenicity studies indicated that co-delivery of FLN and pI:C within MC-PLGA MPs synergistically induced higher serum anti-HBsAg IgG levels and Th1 cytokine levels compared with MC-PLGA MPs encapsulated single TLR ligand plus MPs encapsulated HBsAg (P<0.05). These results suggest that synergic TLR3 and TLR5 stimulation might be a promising novel tool for nasally delivered HBsAg. PMID:28924346

  20. DNA immunization with fusion genes encoding different regions of hepatitis C virus E2 fused to the gene for hepatitis B surface antigen elicits immune responses to both HCV and HBV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Jin; Jian-Ying Yang; Jing Liu; Yu-Ying Kong; Yuan Wang; Guang-Di Li

    2002-01-01

    AIM: Both Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus(HCV) are major causative agents of transfusion-associatedand community-acquired hepatitis worldwide. Developmentof a HCV vaccine as well as more effective HBV vaccines isan urgent task. DNA immunization provides a promisingapproach to elicit protective humoral and cellular immuneresponses against viral infection. The aim of this study is toachieve immune responses against both HCV and HBV by DNAimmunization with fusion constructs comprising various HCVE2 gene fragments fused to HBsAg gane of HBV.METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were immunized with plasmid DNAexpressing five fragments of HCV E2 fused to the gene forHBsAg respectively. After one primary and one boostingimmunizations, antibodies against HCV E2 and HBsAg weretested and subtyped in ELISA. Splenic cytokine expressionof IFN-γ and IL-10 was analyzed using an RT-PCR assay.Post-immune mouse antisera also were tested for theirability to capture HCV viruses in the serum of a hepatitis Cpatient in vitro.RESUTLTS: After immunization, antibodies against bothHBsAg and HCV E2 were detected in mouse sera, withIgG2a being the dominant immunoglobulin sub-class. High-level expression of INF-γ was deuetected in cultured splenic cells.Mouse antisera against three of the five fusion constructs wereable to capture HCV viruses in an in vitro assay.CONCLUSION: The results indicate that these fusionconstructs could efficiently elicit humoral and Th1 dominantcellular immune responses against both HBV S and HCV E2antigens in DNA-immunized mice. They thus could serve ascandidates for a bivalent vaccine against HBV and HCVinfection. In addition, the capacity of mouse antisera againstthree of the five fusion constnucts to capture HCV virusses invitro suggested that neutralizing epitopes may be present inother regions of E2 besides the hypervariable region 1.

  1. Circulating CD56dim natural killer cells and CD56+ T cells that produce interferon-γ or interleukin-10 are expanded in asymptomatic, E antigen-negative patients with persistent hepatitis B virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, M J; Mac Nicholas, R; Grealy, R; Taylor, M; Otegbayo, J A; O'Dea, S; Mulcahy, F; Ryan, T; Norris, S; Doherty, D G

    2015-03-01

    Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) can result in spontaneous resolution or chronic infection, which can remain asymptomatic or can progress to cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma. The host immune response is thought to be a major determinant of the outcome of HBV infection and virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) can mediate immunity against the virus and cause liver pathology. Antigen-nonspecific innate lymphocytes may also contribute to HBV infection and liver disease, therefore, we examined the frequencies, phenotypes, cytolytic activities and cytokine profiles of circulating natural killer (NK) cells, CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and CD56(+) T cells in 102 asymptomatic HBV-infected patients and compared them with those in 66 uninfected control subjects. NK cells expressing low levels of CD56 (CD56(dim)) and CD56(+) T cells were significantly expanded in the circulation of HBV-infected patients compared with control subjects. CD1d expression and iNKT cell frequencies were similar in both groups. Despite these expansions, we did not detect augmented natural or cytokine-induced cytotoxicity in the HBV-infected subjects. All lymphocyte populations studied produced interferon-γ (IFN-γ) significantly more frequently when taken from HBV-infected patients compared with when taken from healthy controls. Additionally, NK cells from the patients more frequently produced interleukin-10. As our HBV-infected cohort consisted of asymptomatic patients with low viral loads, we propose that CD56(dim) NK cells and CD56(+) T cells control HBV infection by noncytolytic mechanisms. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Current and future directions for treating hepatitis B virusinfection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) persistently infects approximately350 million people, and approximately 600000 liverrelateddeaths are observed per year worldwide.HBV infection is also one of the major risk factors forhepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The persistence ofserum hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and high levelof serum HBV DNA are thought to reflect a high HBVreplication status in hepatocytes, causing cirrhosis,HCC and liver-related deaths. It has been reported thatantiviral therapy, such as peginterferon and nucleos(t)ideanalogues (NUCs), could suppress liver-relateddeath by inhibiting the HBV DNA levels and inducingseroconversion from HBeAg to antibody to HBe antigen.Currently, peginterferon is widely used, but there arealso several disadvantages in the use of peginterferon,such as various adverse events, the administrationroute and duration. It is difficult to predict the effectsof treatment and interferon is contraindicated for thepatients with advanced fibrosis of the liver and cirrhosis.With respect to NUCs, entecavir and tenofovir disoproxilfumarate are current the first-choice drugs. NUCs canbe administered orally, and their anti-viral effects arestronger than that of peginterferon. However, becausecessation of NUC administration leads to high levels ofviral replication and causes severe hepatitis, they mustbe administered for a long time. On the other hand,the use of both interferon and NUCs cannot eliminatecovalently closed circular DNA of HBV. In this review, weevaluate the natural course of chronic HBV infection andthen provide an outline of these representative drugs,such as peginterferon, entecavir and tenofovir disoproxilfumarate.

  3. The extrahepatic manifestations of hepatitis B virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Saeeda; Alamgir, Mohiuddin

    2008-07-01

    Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) leads to a number of hepatic complications, from acute to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, is a well-established fact. Upcoming clinical research, over the years, associates numerous extrahepatic manifestations during the acute and chronic episodes of hepatitis B with significant morbidity and mortality. A causal relationship between HBV and serious autoimmune disorders has also been observed among certain susceptible vaccine recipients in a defined temporal period following immunization. The cause of these extrahepatic manifestations is generally believed to be immune mediated. The most commonly described include skin rash, arthritis, arthralgia, glomerulonephritis, polyarteritis nodosa, and papular acrodermatitis etc. The serum-sickness like "arthritis-dermatitis" prodrome has also been observed in approximately one-third of patients acquiring HBV infections. Skin manifestations of HBV infection typically present as palpable purpura reported to be caused by chronic HBV, although this association remains controversial. To consider the relationship between HBV and other clinically significant disorders as well as serious autoimmune disorders among certain vaccine recipients is the topic of this review. Variable factors that influence extrahepatic manifestation are discussed, including possible synergy between hepatitis B virus and the immune system.

  4. Management of chronic hepatitis B in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Rong Han; Chuan-Lu Xu; Wei Zhao; Yong-Feng Yang

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy associated with chronic hepatitis B (CHB)is a common and important problem with unique challenges.Pregnant women infected with CHB are different from the general population,and their special problems need to be considered:such as the effect of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection on the mother and fetus,the effect of pregnancy on replication of the HBV,whether mothers should take HBV antiviral therapy during pregnancy,the effect of these treatments on the mother and fetus,how to carry out immunization of neonates,whether it can induce hepatitis activity after delivery and other serious issues.At present,there are about 350 million individuals with HBV infection worldwide,of which 50% were infected during the perinatal or neonatal period,especially in HBV-endemic countries.Currently,the rate of HBV infection in the child-bearing age group is still at a high level,and the infection rate is as high as 8.16%.Effective prevention of mother-to-child transmission is an important means of reducing the global burden of chronic HBV infection.Even after adopting the combined immunization measures,there are still 5%-10% of babies born with HBV infection in hepatitis B e antigen positive pregnant women.As HBV perinatal transmission is the main cause of chronic HBV infection,we must consider how to prevent this transmission to reduce the burden of HBV infection.In this population of chronic HBV infected women of childbearing age,specific detection,intervention and follow-up measures are particularly worthy of attention and discussion.

  5. Hepatitis B and skin: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and its complications have become a global health problem. The spectrum of HBV infection ranges from asymptomatic carrier state to chronic hepatitis. It is usually preceded by constitutional symptoms. It has a wide range of dermatological manifestations. This review includes the pathogenesis along with the pathophysiology with their clinical significance and overview of the treatment.

  6. A Recombinant Multiepitope Protein for Hepatitis B Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilen Queiroz de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B is a liver inflammation caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV and can be diagnosed in clinical stage by hepatitis B core antibody from IgM class (anti-HBcIgM. Hepatitis B core antibody from IgG class (Anti-HBcIgG appears quickly after IgM, reaching high titers in chronic hepatitis, and remains even after cure. Since hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc is the first antibody identified and sometimes the only marker detected during the course of infection, it can be used both to indicate HBV acute infection (anti-HBc-IgM and to identify individuals who have come into contact with the virus (anti-HBc-IgG. In this work we propose a recombinant hepatitis B core multiepitope antigen (rMEHB to be used for diagnosis of hepatitis B. For this purpose, a synthetic gene coding for rMEHB was designed and cloned into vector pET21a with a 6xHis tag at the C-terminal. Time course induction in E. coli showed an induced protein with an apparent molecular mass of ~21 kDa. Protein purification was performed by a single step with affinity chromatography Ni-NTA. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated rMEHB as a thermal stable protein at pH 7.0 and 8.0. In these conditions rMEHB was successfully used to perform an enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA with positive and negative sera.

  7. Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis B with Interferon: Long Term Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Villeneuve

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of treatment of chronic hepatitis B with interferon is to induce a transition from the replicative phase of the disease to a nonreplicative state, with loss of hepatitis B virus (HBV-DNA, seroconversion from hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg-positive to anti-HBe antibody-positive, and normalization of liver enzymes. The authors’ experience in 22 patients with chronic hepatitis B treated with recombinant human interferon alpha-2b (5 MU/m2 subcutaneously three times/week for 16 weeks is reported. Before treatment all patients had been positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and HBeAg for at least six months, had abnormal serum aminotransferases, had no evidence of hepatitis D or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and had compensated liver disease. Eleven of 22 patients (50% responded to treatment with loss of HBeAg and appearance of anti-HBe antibodies, and normalization of serum aminotransferases within six months of interferon cessation. Patients were followed for 3.4±1.2 years after treatment. Ten of 11 responders remained negative for HBeAg and HBV-DNA; one patient relapsed and responded to a second course of interferon with loss of HBeAg and HBV-DNA. Seven of the 11 nonresponders underwent spontaneous (n=5 or retreatment-induced (n=2 seroconversion from HBeAg to anti-HBe and loss of HBV-DNA during follow-up. The other four nonresponders remained positive for HBeAg and HBV-DNA; three of the four progressed to decompensated liver disease. It is concluded that interferon is an effective treatment of chronic hepatitis B in 50% of patients with features similar to those used as selection criteria in the present study. These criteria probably also identify patients who have a high likelihood of spontaneous HBeAg to anti-HBe seroconversion, and it is possible that the benefit of interferon is its acceleration of this seroconversion.

  8. Plasmonic Hepatitis B Biosensor for the Analysis of Clinical Saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    A biosensor for the detection of hepatitis B antibodies in clinical saliva was developed. Compared to conventional analysis of blood serum, it offers the advantage of noninvasive collection of samples. Detection of biomarkers in saliva imposes two major challenges associated with the low analyte concentration and increased surface fouling. The detection of minute amounts of hepatitis B antibodies was performed by plasmonically amplified fluorescence sandwich immunoassay. To have access to specific detection, we prevented the nonspecific adsorption of biomolecules present in saliva by brushes of poly[(N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide)-co-(carboxybetaine methacrylamide)] grafted from the gold sensor surface and post modified with hepatitis B surface antigen. Obtained results were validated against the response measured with ELISA at a certified laboratory using serum from the same patients. PMID:28192973

  9. Hepatitis B virus infection in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Gorman, C S

    2012-02-01

    Recent increases in Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection prompted us to characterize HBV-infected children in Ireland and to audit management, by reviewing prospectively gathered data. Of 46 children (29 [63%] male), median age at presentation was 8.1 years (range 0.6-17.6), monitoring duration was 22.5 months (range 1-101), 23\\/46 (50%) were European (including 9 [19.6%] Irish), 15 (32.6%) African and 9 (19.6%) Asian. Acquisition was vertical (25\\/46 [54.3%]), horizontal (5\\/46 [10.9%]), unknown (16\\/46 [34.8%]). HBV-DNA was >100,000,000 cpm in 20\\/32 (62.5%) with chronic infection. Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) was detected in 32\\/44 (72.7%). We estimate that universal neonatal vaccination (UNV-HBV) could have prevented 22% of cases, and could limit further horizontal HBV spread. This supports the recent introduction of UNV-HBV.

  10. Hepatitis B virus infection in immigrant populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most common cause ofhepatitis worldwide, with nearly 350 million peoplechronically infected and 600000 deaths per year dueto acute liver failure occurring during acute hepatitisor, more frequently, in HBV-related liver cirrhosis orhepatocellular carcinoma. Ongoing immigration fromcountries with a high HBV endemicity to those with a lowHBV endemicity warrants particular attention to preventthe spread of HBV infection to the native population.This review article analyzes the epidemiology andvirological and clinical characteristics of HBV infectionin immigrant populations and in their host countries,and suggests prophylactic measures to prevent thespread of this infection. Among the immigrants fromdifferent geographical areas, those from South East Asiaand sub-Saharan Africa show the highest prevalencesof hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers, inaccordance with the high endemicity of the countriesof origin. The molecular characteristics of HBV infectionin immigrants reflect those of the geographical areasof origin HBV genotype A and D predominate inimmigrants from Eastern Europe, B and C in those fromAsia and genotype E in those from Africa. The literaturedata on the clinical course and treatment of HBsAgpositiveimmigrants are scanty. The management ofHBV infection in immigrant populations is difficult andrequires expert personnel and dedicated structures fortheir assistance. The social services, voluntary operatorsand cultural mediators are essential to achieve optimizedpsychological and clinical intervention.

  11. Molecular Mechanisms to Control Post-Transplantation Hepatitis B Recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinobu Takaki

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B often progresses to decompensated liver cirrhosis requiring orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT. Although newer nucleos(tide analogues result in >90% viral and hepatitis activity control, severely decompensated patients still need OLT because of drug-resistant virus, acute exacerbation, or hepatocellular carcinoma. Acute hepatitis B is also an indication for OLT, because it can progress to fatal acute liver failure. After OLT, the hepatitis B recurrence rate is >80% without prevention, while >90% of transplant recipients are clinically controlled with combined hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG and nucleos(tide analogue treatment. However, long-term HBIG administration is associated with several unresolved issues, including limited availability and extremely high cost; therefore, several treatment protocols with low-dose HBIG, combined with nucleos(tide analogues, have been investigated. Another approach is to induce self-producing anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV antibodies using an HBV envelope (HBs antigen vaccine. Patients who are not HBV carriers, such as those with acutely infected liver failure, are good candidates for vaccination. For chronic HBV carrier liver cirrhosis patients, a successful vaccine response can only be achieved in selected patients, such as those treated with experimentally reduced immunosuppression protocols. The present protocol for post-OLT HBV control and the future prospects of newer treatment strategies are reviewed.

  12. Hepatitis B vaccination in HIV-infected subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiovanni, Marco; Casana, Maddalena

    2008-11-01

    Subjects at risk of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are also at high risk of acute and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. HIV is associated with higher HBV viraemia and with the risk of HBV reactivation, chronic active HBV infection, cirrhosis and death. Therefore, hepatitis B vaccination is recommended for all HIV-infected subjects lacking prior immunity. However, the immune response to hepatitis B vaccine is frequently suboptimal in this population. High CD4+ cell counts and low HIV viraemia are well known factors associated with a better rate of response. Moreover, higher hepatitis B vaccine doses and/or prolongation of the vaccination schedule, as implemented for patients with immune deficiencies other than HIV, may be considered. New vaccination cycles should be considered if post-vaccination titers of antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen are < 10 mIU/mL (< 10 UI/L). The immunization of all young and middle-aged adults appears to be the most useful strategy to protect all patient-populations at high risk of sexually transmitted diseases.

  13. Occult hepatitis B among Iranian hepatitis C patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad shavakhi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B is defined as presence of HBV DNA in tissue or serum without hepatitis B surface antigen. The aim of this study is to determine frequency of occult hepatitis B among hepatitis C patients in Tehran and compare the route of transmission and liver enzymes between positive and negative HBV DNA patients.
    • METHODS: In a cross sectional study, serum of 103 hepatitis C cases (79.6% men and 20.4% women were analyzed for s, x and core genes via a nested polymerase chain reaction technique.
    • RESULTS: HBV DNA was detectable in serum of 20 patients (19.4%. No significant difference in age, sex and route of transmission were seen in HBV DNA positive and negative patients. In HBV DNA positive and negative groups, mean of AST was 73, 47 (p < 0.05 and mean of ALT was 76 and 36 respectively (p < 0.05.
    • CONCLUSION: Occult hepatitis B was observed in a considerable number of hepatitis C patients in Tehran. It was associated with elevation in liver enzyme but was not related to route of transmission.
    • KEY WORD: Occult hepatitis B, hepatitis C, cirrhosis.

  14. Role of Gluten Intake at the Time of Hepatitis B Virus Vaccination in the Immune Response of Celiac Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingone, F.; Capone, P.; Tortora, R.; Rispo, A.; Morisco, F.; Caporaso, N.; Imperatore, N.; De Stefano, G.; Iovino, P.

    2013-01-01

    Some reports have demonstrated an inadequate response to hepatitis B vaccination in patients affected by celiac disease. The aim of our study was to evaluate hepatitis B vaccination response in relation to gluten exposure status in patients with celiac disease. To measure the gluten exposure status at the time of vaccination, we considered three groups: group A (exposed to gluten), including patients vaccinated as 12-year-old adolescents (the celiac disease diagnosis was established after vaccination); group B (not exposed to gluten), including patients vaccinated as 12-year-old adolescents on a gluten-free diet at the time of vaccination; and group C (infants), including patients vaccinated at birth. The response of celiac patients to hepatitis B vaccination was compared to that of healthy subjects, i.e., those in the control group (group D). This study included 163 celiac patients (group A, 57 patients; group B, 46 patients; and group C, 60 patients) and 48 controls (group D). An inadequate response to hepatitis B immunization was present in 43.9% of patients in group A, 34.8% of patients in group B, 58.3% of patients in group C, and 8.3% of patients in group D (group A versus group D, P < 0.001; group B versus group D, P = 0.002; group C versus group D, P = 0.001) (no significant difference for group A versus group B and group A versus group C was evident). Our data suggest that gluten exposure does not influence the response to hepatitis B immunization and that the human leukocyte antigen probably plays the main immunological role in poor responses to hepatitis B-vaccinated celiac patients. PMID:23446217

  15. ELISA检测唾液中乙型肝炎表面抗原方法的优化与评价%Evaluation of modified ELISA method to detect Hepatitis B surface antigen in saliva specimens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张进

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨优化用于检测唾液中乙型肝炎表面抗原的 ELISA法,并对其进行评价。方法对 ELISA的不同条件:样品类型、加样体积和孵育温度及时间进行优化,筛选最佳条件;并采用3种不同的临界值计算方法,判断最佳临界值。结果不做任何处理的唾液样品可直接用于检测(P=0.100),50μL唾液样品与100、150μL加样体积检测结果比较差异无统计学意义(P=0.070)。采用25℃孵育18 h的优化方法检测的结果和对应血清的检测结果相关性最好,优化后唾液检测乙型肝炎表面抗原方法的特异性和敏感性分别达92.6%和93.6%。结论优化后的 ELISA方法在唾液样品的乙型肝炎表面抗原检测中具有潜在的应用价值。%Objective To evaluated a modified ELISA method for detecting the Hepatitis B surface antigen(HBsAg)in saliva samples.Methods Optimized the different conditions,including sample type,sample volume and incubation condition,to screen the best condition.Three different methods to calculate cut-off value was evaluated to screen the most acceptable.Results The non-processed saliva sample can be used directly for detection(P=0.100).Test results of different sample volume was no significant difference(P=0.070).HBsAg was detected in 44 saliva samples out of 47 paired positive serum specimens and not detected in 63 saliva samples out of 68 matched negative serum samples by the optimized ELISA assay.There was excellent agreement between the results for the serum and saliva specimens and the kappa value was 0.87 for saliva specimens.Using an optimized protocol,the sensitivities and specificities were 93.6% and 92.6%,respectively.Conclusion Our data showed a significant promise for the use of the modified commercial ELISA in saliva sample for Hepatitis B virus infection surveillance.

  16. One Family's Struggles with Hepatitis B

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... GETVAXED print ads go to GETVAXED.ORG cme Immunizations Hepatitis B One family's struggles with hepatitis B ... not possible without a visit to your doctor. Immunizations stop disease from spreading. Check with your family ...

  17. Prevalence and Molecular Analysis of Occult Hepatitis B Virus Infection Isolated in a Sample of Cryptogenic Cirrhosis Patients in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Akhavan Anvari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of this study are to investigate the prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus infection among patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis and to analyze the relationship between surface protein variability and occult hepatitis B virus infection, which may be related to the pathogenesis of occult hepatitis B virus infection in cryptogenic cirrhosis. Occult hepatitis B virus infection is a well-recognized clinical entity characterized by the detection of hepatitis B virus DNA in serum and/or liver in the absence of detectable hepatitis B virus surface antigen, with or without any serological markers of a past infection. Methods: Sera from patients with cryptogenic chronic liver disease were tested for hepatitis B virus DNA using both real-time and nested PCR. In the detected hepatitis B virus DNA samples, the surface gene was analyzed for mutations. Results: Hepatitis B virus DNA was detected in 38% of patients, all of whom had a viral load below 10,000 copies/mL. All hepatitis B virus belonged to genotype D. There were no significant associations between occult hepatitis B virus infection status and age, gender, ALT/AST levels, viral load or serologic markers of previous hepatitis B virus infection. There were 14 mutations found in 5 patients; 6 were in the major hydrophilic region, of which 4 were Y134F assigning for the "a" determinant region. All patients who acquired Y134F contained S207R (within HLA-A2-restricted CTL epitope as a combination. Conclusion: Hepatitis B virus surface antigen variants may arise as a result of natural selection to evade the immune surveillance of the infected host, and subsequently may go undetected by conventional hepatitis B virus surface antigen screening tests. Etiological diagnosis of cryptogenic cirrhosis is significantly underestimated with current serology testing methods alone.

  18. Characterization of binding capability of human breast milk to hepatitis B surface antigen%母乳与乙型肝炎表面抗原的结合特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘景丽; 冯静; 林晓倩; 胡娅莉; 周乙华

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨母乳能否与乙型肝炎表面抗原(hepatitis B surface antigen,HBsAg)结合以及结合特性. 方法 采集5例HBsAg和乙型肝炎表面抗体(hepatitis B surface antibody,抗HBs)均阴性产妇产后1~2个月的母乳.分别用母乳全乳、乳脂和乳蛋白与酵母表达的高纯度HBsAg孵育,以牛奶和羊奶作为对照,酶联免疫吸附(enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,ELISA)法检测各成分与HBsAg的结合能力;化学发光微粒子免疫分析法检测各种乳汁对HBsAg与抗HBs结合的抑制率;温度敏感试验[包括煮沸1 min、巴氏消毒(65℃、30 min)及不加热处理]检测母乳中与HBsAg结合成分的热稳定性.采用单因素方差分析和SNK法进行统计学分析. 结果 本研究选择0.1 μg/ml的HBsAg为适当工作浓度进行试验.5例母乳均能明显与HBsAg结合(A450,1.306±0.300),而牛奶及羊奶与HBsAg的结合能力不明显(分别为2.157±0.150和2.232±0.093),差异有统计学意义(F=34.303,P<0.01).定量试验显示,母乳抑制HBsAg与抗HBs结合的抑制率为(74.26±17.26)%,高于PBS的(0.00±5.50)%,差异有统计学意义(F=57.806,P<0.01).乳脂、脱脂乳及全乳均能与HBsAg结合(A450,分别为0.877±0.486、0.513±0.069和0.376±0.146,F=44.475,P<0.01).经煮沸1 min或巴氏消毒处理后,母乳全乳与HBsAg的结合能力均无明显变化;而脱脂乳结合能力有所降低(F=16.598,P<0.01);母乳全乳和脱脂乳均能明显抑制HBsAg与抗-HBs的结合(F值分别为278.341和269.408,P值均<0.01). 结论 母乳具有与HBsAg结合的特性,其活性成分主要存在于乳蛋白,并具有热稳定性.母乳蛋白具有与HBV结合的能力.%Objective To investigate whether human breast milk may bind to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and its characteristics.Methods Breast milk samples from five women with negative HBsAg and hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) at one to two months post delivery were fractioned into cream and skimmed

  19. Studies on Hepatitis B vaccination in neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. del Canho (Riwka)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractFrom 1982-1989, 705 infants born to HBsAg positive mothers entered the Dutch neonatal hepatitis B vaccination program and received passive-active hepatitis B immunization, according to 6 schedules, varying in time of onset vaccination, dose of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBlg) and type

  20. Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J; McIntosh, H; Lin, Haili

    2001-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B is a serious health problem worldwide. Chinese medicinal herbs are widely used for treatment of chronic hepatitis B in China and many clinical trials have been conducted. This systematic review is to assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicinal herbs for chronic hepatitis...... B....

  1. Studies on Hepatitis B vaccination in neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. del Canho (Riwka)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractFrom 1982-1989, 705 infants born to HBsAg positive mothers entered the Dutch neonatal hepatitis B vaccination program and received passive-active hepatitis B immunization, according to 6 schedules, varying in time of onset vaccination, dose of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBlg) and type a

  2. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus among immunocompromised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of hepatitis B virus among immunocompromised individuals attending Nnamdi ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Hepatitis B is an infectious inflammatory illness of the liver caused by the hepatitis B ... Rwanda (3); Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1); South Africa (96); South Sudan (1); Sudan (3) ...

  3. Noninvasive scoring system for significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mei-Zhu; Ye, Linglong; Jin, Li-Xin; Ren, Yan-Dan; Yu, Xiao-Fang; Liu, Xiao-Bin; Zhang, Ru-Mian; Fang, Kuangnan; Pan, Jin-Shui

    2017-03-01

    Although a liver stiffness measurement-based model can precisely predict significant intrahepatic inflammation, transient elastography is not commonly available in a primary care center. Additionally, high body mass index and bilirubinemia have notable effects on the accuracy of transient elastography. The present study aimed to create a noninvasive scoring system for the prediction of intrahepatic inflammatory activity related to chronic hepatitis B, without the aid of transient elastography. A total of 396 patients with chronic hepatitis B were enrolled in the present study. Liver biopsies were performed, liver histology was scored using the Scheuer scoring system, and serum markers and liver function were investigated. Inflammatory activity scoring models were constructed for both hepatitis B envelope antigen (+) and hepatitis B envelope antigen (‑) patients. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and area under the curve were 86.00%, 84.80%, 62.32%, 95.39%, and 0.9219, respectively, in the hepatitis B envelope antigen (+) group and 91.89%, 89.86%, 70.83%, 97.64%, and 0.9691, respectively, in the hepatitis B envelope antigen (‑) group. Significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B can be predicted with satisfactory accuracy by using our logistic regression-based scoring system.

  4. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in out-patient alcoholics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Gluud, B; Aldershvile, J

    1984-01-01

    Sera from 192 out-patient alcoholics attending a clinic for the treatment of alcoholism were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and for antibodies to HBsAg and to hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg). Three sera (1.5%) were positive for HBsAg. Of the remaining 189 alcoholics, 29 (15%) were...... positive for one or both antibodies. This prevalence is not significantly different from that found in 137 hospitalized HBsAg-negative patients with alcoholic liver disease (35/137 [26%] were positive for one or both antibodies). However, the prevalence of hepatitis B antibodies in out-patient alcoholics...

  5. Hepatitis B immunisation in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B or with unknown exposure status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathew, Joseph L; El Dib, Regina; Mathew, Preethy J

    2008-01-01

    The benefits and harms of hepatitis B vaccination in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B infection or with unknown exposure status have not been established.......The benefits and harms of hepatitis B vaccination in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B infection or with unknown exposure status have not been established....

  6. Tuberculosis, hepatitis C and hepatitis B co-infections in patients with HIV in the Great Tehran Prison, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Farhoudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a study to evaluate tuberculosis (TB, hepatitis C and hepatitis B co-infections in male patients with HIV in the Great Tehran Prison from October 2013 to May 2014. Among 85 HIV positive patients, five persons (5.9% had TB. Also, 56 new HIV-infected patients were checked for hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C virus antibody. There were three hepatitis B surface antigen (5.4% and 50 hepatitis C virus antibody (89.3% results. This study suggests that it is necessary to investigate TB, hepatitis C and hepatitis B in HIV positive prisoners in Iran.

  7. Detection of the covalently closed circular DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of hepatitis B patients and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱圣涛

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the correlation between covalently closed circular DNA(ccc DNA)in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells(PBMC)of hepatitis B virus(HBV)-infected patients and serum HBV DNA,hepatitis B surface antigen(HBsA g),hepatitis B e antigen(HBe Ag)and liver histology of hepatitis B patients,and to explore the clinical significance of HBV ccc DNA detection in PBMC.Methods One hundred and eight patients with chronic HBV infection were involved in this

  8. Managing chronic hepatitis B: A qualitative study exploring the perspectives of people living with chronic hepatitis B in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jack; McNally, Stephen; Richmond, Jacqui; Hajarizadeh, Behzad; Pitts, Marian

    2011-03-03

    The implementation of a comprehensive public health response to hepatitis B in Australia is urgently required to reduce the increasing burden of hepatitis B infection on the health system and the community. A significant gap in the public health response to hepatitis B is an understanding of how people with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) respond to CHB. A qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions was conducted. Interviews were held with 20 people with CHB from three states of Australia. In addition, four focus group discussions were held with a total of 40 community and health workers from culturally and linguistically diverse communities in four Australian states.People with CHB reported no formal or informal pre or post test discussion with little information about hepatitis B provided at the point of diagnosis. Knowledge deficits about hepatitis B were found among most participants. Few resources are available for people with CHB or their families to assist them in understanding the infection and promoting their health and well-being. A lack of confidence in the professional knowledge of service providers was noted throughout interviews. People with CHB need culturally and linguistically appropriate education and information, particularly at the point of diagnosis. Primary health care professionals need the knowledge, skills and motivation to provide appropriate information to people with CHB, to ensure they have the capacity to better manage their infection.

  9. Clinical Research of Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay for The Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen False Positive%酶联免疫法检测HBsAg假阳性临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海军

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究分析酶联免疫法(ELISA)检测乙肝病毒表面抗原(HBsAg)的假阳性情况.方法:对酶联免疫法检测HBsAg结果为阳性的1500例血清标本用金标法验证,并用化学发光仪微粒子捕捉免疫发光法(MEIA)定量检测HBsAg的含量,以确认酶联免疫法检测结果的假阳性.结果:1500例酶联免疫法检测HBsAg阳性的血清标本,其中1479例为真阳性,真阳性率为98.6%(1479/1500);21例为假阳性,假阳性率为1.4%(21/1500).结论:酶联免疫法检测HBsAg有一定的假阳性,临床检测时应高度注意,避免错报误诊.%Objective: To study enzyme linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA ) in detecting hepatitis B virus surface antigen ( HBsAg ) of the false positive cases. Method: ELISA for detection of HBsAg results for 1500 cases with positive serum samples using the colloidal gold method validation, and using chemical luminous instrument microparticle enzyme lmmunoassay ( MEIA ) for quantitative detection of HBsAg content, to confirm the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of false positive results. Result: 1500 cases of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of HBsAg positive serum samples, including 1479 cases of true positive, true positive rate was 98. 6% ( 1479/1500 ); 21 were false positive, false positive rate was 1. 4% ( 21/1500 ). Conclusion: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of HBsAg have false positive, clinical test should be highly attention, avoid the error diagnosis.

  10. Analysis of liver damage and reactivation of hepatitis B virus in hepatitis B surface antigen positive patients after extremely severe burn injury%乙型肝炎表面抗原阳性特重度烧伤患者肝功能损害及乙型肝炎病毒再激活情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞徽宁; 赖文; 郑少逸; 刘族安; 黄志锋; 孙传伟; 马亮华; 李汉华; 陈华德

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the development of liver damage and reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) during the treatment of extremely severe burn injury in HBsAg positive patients,in order to provide reference for prevention and treatment of liver damage in patients with HBV infection after extremely severe burn.Methods Medical records of 54 HBsAg positive patients after extremely severe burn injury admitted from January 2004 to December 2014 were retrospectively analyzed.Development of liver damage and HBV reactivation of these patients during the treatment were analyzed according to the classification of their gender,results of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and HBV DNA examinations on admission,and development of sepsis in the process of treatment.Data were processed with chi-square test.Results (1) The incidence of liver damage in the process of treatment of these patients was 85.2% (46/54).Among all the patients,the proportion of liver damage was 35/38 in male,which was significantly higher than that in female (11/16,x 2 =4.867,P < 0.05).Liver damage was found in all of 26 patients who were H BeAg positive on admission,34 patients who were HBV DNA positive on admission,and 36 patients who developed sepsis in the process of treatment;the proportions were significantly higher than those in patients who were HBeAg negative on admission (20/28),patients who were HBV DNA negative on admission (12/20),and patients who did not develop sepsis in the process of treatment (10/18),with x 2 values respectively 11.801,18.384,and 20.574,P values below 0.01.(2) The incidence of HBV reactivation in these patients was 29.6% (16/54).Among all the patients,the proportion of HBV reactivation was 13/38 in male and 3/16 in female,with no statistically significant difference between them (x 2 =0.656,P > 0.05).The proportions of HBV reactivation in patients who were HBeAg positive on admission,patients who were HBV DNA positive on admission,and patients who developed sepsis in

  11. Innate immune recognition of hepatitis B virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Yan; Liu; Xiao-Yong; Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus(HBV) is a hepatotropic DNA virus and its infection results in acute or chronic hepatitis. It is reported that the host innate immune system contributes to viral control and liver pathology, while whether and how HBV can trigger the components of innate immunity remains controversial. In recent years, the data accumulated from HBV-infected patients, cellular and animal models have challenged the concept of a stealth virus for HBV infection. This editorial focuses on the current findings about the innate immune recognition to HBV. Such evaluation could help us to understand HBV immunopathogenesis and develop novel immune therapeutic strategies to combat HBV infection.

  12. Successful treatment of chronic hepatitis B and D with pegylated-interferon plus entecavir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guei-Ying Chen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Interferon-based regimen has been used to treat hepatitis D virus (HDV super-infection on top of hepatitis B virus (HBV carriers; however, viral relapse is frequent after stopping therapy. Recently, quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen (qHBsAg was introduced to help the management of chronic hepatitis B (CHB. Little is known about its role in the treatment of HBV and HDV dual infection. Herein, we reported a 45-year-old male HBV carrier with HDV co-infection who received combination therapy of pegylated-interferon α-2a plus entecavir. The qHBsAg level was adopted as the treatment guidance and a consolidation therapy of 12 months was continued after HBsAg loss. The patient achieved HBsAg seroconversion with HDV RNA undetectable after 35 months of combination therapy and sustained therapeutic response 12 months post-therapy. Therefore, personalized response-guided therapy by using qHBsAg may be an option for the treatment for HBV and HDV dual infection.

  13. Hepatitis B vaccination status among healthcare workers in a tertiary care hospital in Tripoli, Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziglam, Hisham; El-Hattab, Mabrouk; Shingheer, Noura; Zorgani, Abdulaziz; Elahmer, Omar

    2013-08-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) among healthcare workers (HCWs) in hospitals in developing countries is high. However, the vaccination status of these workers and its relationship with occupational factors are not well documented. The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of HCWs to HBV infection in the representative Tripoli Central Hospital in Libya and prepare a practical guideline to protect HCWs from occupational exposure. In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire survey was administered to 2705 healthcare workers of a university hospital in Tripoli. The questionnaire included vaccination status. Compliance with preventive practices against HBV infection was also assessed. The overall vaccination coverage (anti-HBs) was 78.1%. Furthermore, 82.6% of HCWs had received at least one dose of vaccine, but only 72% reported that they were fully vaccinated. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen was 1.1%. The mean prevalence of hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) was 17.3%. HCWs at hospitals are frequently exposed to blood-borne infections. Vaccines should be more readily available for Libyan HCWs, and current vaccination programs should be enforced. Copyright © 2013 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. ABO-Incompatible Living Donor Liver Transplantation from Hepatitis B Core Antibody Positive Donor to Hepatitis C Liver Cirrhosis Recipient: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Umemura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we describe an extremely rare experience of a patient with liver cirrhosis from hepatitis C virus (LC-HCV who underwent an ABO-incompatible living donor liver transplantation (ABO-I-LDLT using a hepatitis B core antibody (HBc-Ab positive donor’s liver graft. A 47-year-old Japanese woman with end stage LC-HCV, as a recipient, was preoperatively administered rituximab, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroids without plasma exchange. A routine ABO-I-LDLT procedure was applied using her daughter’s HBc-Ab positive liver graft. Prophylaxis of the hepatitis B virus (HBV infection using hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG and entecavir had been properly administered. Three months after the ABO-I-LDLT, HCV hepatitis relapsed. To date, this patient has been under antiviral therapy and prophylaxis of HBV infection using HBIG, while entecavir has been continued. The cognitions and techniques with regard to ABO-I-LDLT, prophylaxis of HBV cross infection, various patterns of immunosuppression, and antiviral therapy for HCV relapse are indispensable in managing a transplant recipient. According to the prophylaxis of HBV cross infection under ABO-I-LDLT, it may be very important to keep the HBs-Ab titer higher than usual for HBV naïve recipients, because severe systemic immunosuppression can cause de novo hepatitis.

  15. Co occurrence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Autoimmune Hepatitis with Marked Hepatitis B Virus Replication Following Treatment of Autoimmune Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyagi I

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children have different natural history of Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. They commonly develop asymptomatic chronic carrier state which is less frequently seen in adults. We describe a rare case of acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF in the course of concurrent autoimmune hepatitis (AIH and HBV infection and replication of HBV following the treatment for autoimmune hepatitis. Case Report: A 15 year old male child presented with jaundice and altered sensorium. Physical examination showed hepatosplenomegaly. The liver function tests were markedly altered. Serology was positive for anti liver kidney microsomal antibody (LKM, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and immunoglobulin M (IgM anti hepatitis B core antigen (HBc Ag. Liver biopsy showed chronic hepatitis with features of acute exacerbation. Patient was started on treatment with azathioprine and prednisolone for AIH following which clinical and biochmemical improvement was noted. After two years of continued treatment a repeat biopsy performed showed fairly reduced histological activity, but marked replication of the HBV (immunohistochemistry for HBsAg and anti HBcAg showed diffuse cytoplasmic and nuclear positivity respectively. These findings suggest viral replication although the patient was clinically stable. At six months follow-up after the second biopsy and cessation of azathioprine and prednisolone, there were raised liver enzymes and viral load, hence the patient was started on antiviral drug Entecavir to which there was good response and the patient is presently doing well. Conclusion: We describethe rare co occurrence of HBV infection and AIH with marked HBV replication following the treatment for AIH

  16. Hepatitis B virus taxonomy and hepatitis B virus genotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a member of the hepadnavirus family. Hepadnaviruses can be found in both mammals (orthohepadnaviruses) and birds (avihepadnaviruses).The genetic variability of HBV is very high. There are eight genotypes of HBV and three clades of HBV isolates from apes that appear to be additional genotypes of HBV. Most genotypes are now divided into subgenotypes with distinct virological and epidemiological properties. In addition, recombination among HBV genotypes increases the variability of HBV. This review summarises current knowledge of the epidemiology of genetic variability in hepadnaviruses and, due to rapid progress in the field,updates several recent reviews on HBV genotypes and subgenotypes.

  17. Lombok Hepatitis B Model Immunization Project: toward universal infant hepatitis B immunization in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, T A; Gertig, D M; Otto, B F; Gust, I D; Sutanto, A; Soewarso, T I; Kandun, N; Marschner, I C; Maynard, J E

    1995-02-01

    The Lombok Hepatitis B (HB) Model Immunization Project was the first mass infant HB immunization project in Indonesia. Key aspects were the procurement of low-cost HB vaccine, integration into routine infant immunization services, and delivery of the first dose in the home within 1 week of birth. The project achieved > 90% coverage with 3 doses of vaccine. The prevalence of HB surface antigen was 1.4% in infants who received 3 doses (with the first dose within 7 days of birth) and 3.0% in those who received the first dose > 7 days after birth, compared with a baseline prevalence of 6.2% (P < .001 in each case). Most vaccine failures occurred in children born to HBe antigen-positive mothers. Antibody prevalence and titers did not correlate with protection. HB vaccine can be successfully integrated into the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI), strengthening the EPI and significantly reducing chronic HB infection.

  18. IL28B Polymorphism Correlates with Active Hepatitis in Patients with HBeAg-Negative Chronic Hepatitis B

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AIMS: The clinical relevance of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near the IL28B gene is controversial in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This study aimed to investigate the role of viral and host factors, including IL28B genotypes, in the natural course of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). METHODS: The study enrolled consecutive 115 treatment-naive CHB patients. HBV viral loads, genotypes, precore and basal core promotor mutations, serum hepatitis B surface antigen ...

  19. Management of mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus: Propositions and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Panpan; Chen, Ruochan; Huang, Yan; Zhou, Rong-Rong; Fan, Xue-Gong

    2016-04-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection due to mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) during perinatal period remains an important global health problem. Despite standard passive-active immunoprophylaxis with hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and hepatitis B vaccine in neonates, up to 9% of newborns still acquire HBV infection, especially these from hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positive mothers. Management of HBV infection in pregnancy still need to draw careful attention because of some controversial aspects, including the failure of passive-active immunoprophylaxis in a fraction of newborns, the effect and necessity of periodical hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) injection to the mothers, the safety of antiviral prophylaxis with nucleoside/nucleotide analogs, the benefit of different delivery ways, and the safety of breastfeeding. In this review, we highlight these unsettled issues of preventive strategies in perinatal period, and we further aim to provide an optimal approach to the management of preventing MTCT of HBV infection.

  20. Occult Hepatitis B in Patients Co-Infected With Hepatitis C and Human Immunodeficiency Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majzoobi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Diagnosis of the occult hepatitis B virus (HBV infection in patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV is important due to the fact that the HBV infection may have a clinical impact on liver disease in coinfected HIV/HCV patients. Isolated hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb positive HBV infection has been reported in HIV patients. The aim of this study was to determine the occult hepatitis B in patients co-infected with HCV-HIV. Methods In a cross-sectional study, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and HBcAb tests were performed for all HIV-HCV co-infected patients, referred to the HIV Clinic of Hamadan. HBsAb was requested for HBsAg negative-HBcAb positive individuals and in the case of negative HBsAb, HBV-DNA PCR was performed. Finally the collected data was analyzed with SPSS. Results Of 103 HIV-HCV coinfected patients, both HBsAg and HBcAb were positive in 7 patients (6.8%, negative in 44 (42.7% patients and 52 (50.5% of all patients were HBsAg negative and HBcAb positive, which positivity of HBsAg had statistical correlation with positivity of HBcAb. In the last group HBsAb and HBV-DNA PCR were done, which resulted in the titer of antibody to be positive in 4 patients (7.7% and the PCR to be negative in all (100% patients. Conclusions The significant number of coinfected HIV-HCV patients only had HBcAb positive test without detectable HBV-DNA. Further studies for detection of HBV-DNA in both serum and liver biopsy specimens may help clarify the impact of HBV infection in coinfected HIV/HCV patients.

  1. Retrospective evaluation of the risk of hepatitis B virus reactivation after transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhart, B T; Honaker, M R; Shokouh-Amiri, M H; Riely, C A; Vera, S R; Taylor, S L; Al-jedai, A H; Gaber, A O

    2003-09-01

    Numerous case reports describe patients with previously documented immunity developing active hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection after transplantation. However, the risk of reactivation of HBV under long-term immunosuppression in hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb)-positive, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative transplant recipients has not been clearly described. Herein, we present a long-term follow-up for 49 HBcAb-positive, HBsAg-negative recipients (27 liver, 18 kidney, 4 pancreas) transplanted between June 1996 and April 2001. Among these, 37 recipients (76%) were HBsAb positive at transplantation. Immunosuppression consisted of various antibody induction regimens in 20 (41%) of the recipients with either tacrolimus (33 [67%])- or cyclosporine (16 [33%])-based maintenance immunosuppression. The incidence and duration of HBV prophylaxis was not significant. No patient received hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) before or after transplantation. Additionally, only two patients received lamivudine, which was started post transplant without clinical indication. The mean length of follow-up was 3.1+/-1.4 years. At the last follow-up, overall patient and graft survival were 98% and 96%, respectively. Patient survival was 96% in liver, 100% in kidney, and 100% in pancreas transplant recipients. The graft survival for each organ type was 93% in liver, 100% in kidney, and 75% in pancreas transplant recipients at the end of follow-up. There was no incidence of HBV reactivation defined as recurrence of HBsAg and/or HBV DNA positivity. These data suggest that the risk of reactivation of HBV in HBcAb-positive, HBsAg-negative transplant recipients under immunosuppression is negligible, regardless of immunosuppressive regimen, lamivudine prophylaxis, or HBsAb status. These patients should have access to transplantation as they enjoy excellent patient and graft survival rates.

  2. Suspected de novo Hepatitis B in a Patient Receiving Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Therapy for the Treatment of Crohn's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Ishida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 45-year-old female patient who developed acute hepatic disorder during anti-tumor necrosis factor α therapy for the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD. She was diagnosed as colonic CD and placed on infliximab (IFX. She was negative for hepatitis B surface antigen at the initiation of IFX therapy, but developed acute hepatitis after the 30th administration of IFX 4 years and 1 month after the first administration. She was suspected to have had occult hepatitis B virus infection before IFX therapy, and de novo hepatitis B was considered the most likely diagnosis. Hepatitis subsided after discontinuation of anti-tumor necrosis factor α therapy and initiation of treatment with entecavir. She started to receive adalimumab to prevent relapse of CD. She has continued maintenance therapy with entecavir and adalimumab and has since been asymptomatic. As de novo hepatitis B may be fatal, virological testing for hepatitis B is essential for patients who are being considered for treatment that may weaken the immune system.

  3. Immunoprophylaxis of hepatitis B virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi N

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis-B infection is a global health problem. The spectrum of the disease is highly variable ranging from mild disease to chronic liver diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma. There are approximately 350 million chronic Hepatitis-B surface antigen (HBsAg carriers in the world. Till date there is no effective therapy against this disease. Hence, prevention of the disease through vaccination is the only means to control the disease. Passive immunization is recommended for certain accidental exposures. Hepatitis-B immunoglobulin (HBIG contains high titers of anti-HBs prepared from pooled plasma. HBIG has been shown to be highly effective in preventing post exposure transmission. HBIG induces immunity for a short period only hence, it is recommended to have a course of active immunization following passive immunization. Active immunization is achieved using vaccination. Two generations of vaccines, 1st generation plasma derived and 2nd generation recombinant DNA vaccines are available. Both these vaccines have been used extensively in all age groups all over the world. The studies have shown that HB vaccines are clinically well tolerated, safe and highly immunogenic. Normally 3 doses of HB vaccines are recommended in 0, 1, 2 and 12 or 0, 1, 6 months schedule. The dosages and schedules may vary in certain special groups, such as infants and neonates, chronic renal failure patients on hemodialysis. Advisory committee on immunization practices (ACIP has given several guidelines regarding HB vaccination. Universal immunization of all infants and integration of HB Vaccine in the expanded program of immunization has been recommended by World Health Organization. Universal infant immunization is cost effective. Universal immunization of infants is the only strategy that will lead to the control and eradication of HBV infection in all regions of the world. Several countries have adopted this policy. But in India we have several problems in

  4. HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth C Kapembwa; GOLDMAN, Jason D.; Shabir Lakhi; Yolan Banda; Kasonde Bowa; Vermund, Sten H.; Joseph Mulenga; David Chama; Chi, Benjamin H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives : Epidemiologic data of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfection are needed in sub-Saharan Africa to guide health policy for hepatitis screening and optimized antiretroviral therapy (ART). Materials and Methods: We screened 323 HIV-infected, ART-eligible adults for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis C antibody (HCV Ab) at a tertiary hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. We collected basic demographic, medical, and laboratory data to determine predictors for coinfection. Results: Of...

  5. Diagnostic strategy for occult hepatitis B virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sara Ocana; Maria Luisa Casas; Ingrid Buhigas; Jose Luis Lledo

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the European Association for the study of the liver (EASL) defined occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI) as the "presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in the liver (with detectable or undetectable HBV DNA in the serum) of individuals testing hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) negative by currently available assays". Several aspects of occult HBV infection are still poorly understood, including the definition itself and a standardized approach for laboratory-based detection, which is the purpose of this review. The clinical significance of OBI has not yet been established; however, in terms of public health, the clinical importance arises from the risk of HBV transmission. Consequently, it is important to detect high-risk groups for occult HBV infection to prevent transmission. The main issue is, perhaps, to identify the target population for screening OBI. Viremia is very low or undetectable in occult HBV infection, even when the most sensitive methods are used, and the detection of the viral DNA reservoir in hepatocytes would provide the best evaluation of occult HBV prevalence in a defined set of patients. However, this diagnostic approach is obviously unsuitable: blood detection of occult hepatitis B requires assays of the highest sensitivity and specificity with a lower limit of detection < 10 IU/mL for HBV DNA and < 0.1 ng/mL for HBsAg.

  6. HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C Kapembwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Epidemiologic data of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfection are needed in sub-Saharan Africa to guide health policy for hepatitis screening and optimized antiretroviral therapy (ART. Materials and Methods: We screened 323 HIV-infected, ART-eligible adults for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and hepatitis C antibody (HCV Ab at a tertiary hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. We collected basic demographic, medical, and laboratory data to determine predictors for coinfection. Results: Of 323 enrolled patients, 32 (9.9%; 95% CI=6.7-13.2% were HBsAg positive, while 4 (1.2%; 95% CI=0.03-2.4% were HCV Ab positive. Patients with hepatitis B coinfection were more likely to be 200 IU/L was uncommon and did not differ between the two groups (3.4% vs. 2.3%; P=0.5. We were unable to determine predictors of hepatitis C infection due to the low prevalence of disease. Conclusions: HIV and hepatitis B coinfection was common among patients initiating ART at this tertiary care facility. Routine screening for hepatitis B should be considered for HIV-infected persons in southern Africa.

  7. Addressing barriers to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis B and C in the face of persisting fiscal constraints in Europe: report from a high level conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatheodoridis, G; Thomas, H C; Golna, C; Bernardi, M; Carballo, M; Cornberg, M; Dalekos, G; Degertekin, B; Dourakis, S; Flisiak, R; Goldberg, D; Gore, C; Goulis, I; Hadziyannis, S; Kalamitsis, G; Kanavos, P; Kautz, A; Koskinas, I; Leite, B R; Malliori, M; Manolakopoulos, S; Matičič, M; Papaevangelou, V; Pirona, A; Prati, D; Raptopoulou-Gigi, M; Reic, T; Robaeys, G; Schatz, E; Souliotis, K; Tountas, Y; Wiktor, S; Wilson, D; Yfantopoulos, J; Hatzakis, A

    2016-02-01

    In the WHO-EURO region, around 28 million people are currently living with chronic viral hepatitis, and 120,000 people die every year because of it. Lack of awareness and understanding combined with the social stigma and discrimination exacerbate barriers related to access to prevention, diagnosis and treatment services for those most in need. In addition, the persisting economic crisis has impacted on public health spending, thus posing challenges on the sustainable investment in promotion, primary and secondary prevention, diagnosis and treatment of viral hepatitis across European countries. The Hepatitis B and C Public Policy Association in cooperation with the Hellenic Center for Disease Prevention and Control together with 10 partner organizations discussed at the Athens High Level Meeting held in June 2014 recent policy developments, persisting and emerging challenges related to the prevention and management of viral hepatitis and the need for a de minimis framework of urgent priorities for action, reflected in a Call to Action (Appendix S1). The discussion confirmed that persisting barriers do not allow the full realisation of the public health potential of diagnosing and preventing hepatitis B and C, treating hepatitis B and curing hepatitis C. Such barriers are related to (a) lack of evidence-based knowledge of hepatitis B and C, (b) limited access to prevention, diagnosis and treatment services with poor patient pathways, (c) declining resources and (d) the presence of social stigma and discrimination. The discussion also confirmed the emerging importance of fiscal constraints on the ability of policymakers to adequately address viral hepatitis challenges, particularly through increasing coverage of newer therapies. In Europe, it is critical that public policy bodies urgently agree on a conceptual framework for addressing the existing and emerging barriers to managing viral hepatitis. Such a framework would ensure all health systems share a common

  8. Quasispecies of Hepatitis B Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun; Cheng; Min; Quan; Min; Li; Shun-ai; Liu; Qi; Wang

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus(HBV) circulates in blood and replicates in the presence of quasispecies. During HBV replication, HBV DNA polymerase lacks fidelity and proofreading function partly because its exonuclease activity is either absent or deficient. Therefore, HBV genome is mutated with unusually high frequency. And these mutations can affect more than one open reading frame due to overlapping genes. Otherwise, natural substitutions, deletions or insertions involving the Cp/ENⅡ locus in the X gene can significantly alter the extent of viral replication activity. Particular selection pressures such as host immune system and antiviral therapy readily select out escape mutants from this pre-existing quasispecies pool. Antiviral drug resistance in chronic hepatitis B(CHB) can be caused by the viral mutation frequency, the intrinsic mutability of the antiviral target site, the selective pressure exerted by the drug, the magnitude and rate of virus replication, the overall replication fitness of the mutant, the genetic barrier of the compound and the availability of replication space. Potent inhibition of HBV replication could be able to prevent the development of drug resistance because mutagenesis is replication dependent. Viral load may decline to a point where the continued production of quasispecies with the potential to resist new drug treatments no longer occurs, if viral replication can be suppressed for a sufficient length of time.

  9. An investigation of an outbreak of viral hepatitis B in Modasa town, Gujarat, India

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    Disha A Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most outbreaks of viral hepatitis in India are caused by hepatitis E. Recently in the year 2009, Modasa town of Sabarkantha district in Gujarat witnessed the outbreak of hepatitis B. Purpose: An attempt was made to study the outbreak clinically and serologically, to estimate the seropositivity of hepatitis B Virus among the cases and their contacts and to know the seroprevalence of hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg and IgM antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (IgM HBcAb out of all the Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg positive ones. Materials and Methods: Eight hundred and fifty-six (856 cases and 1145 contacts were evaluated for hepatitis B markers namely HBsAg, HBeAg and IgM HBcAb by enzyme-linked immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA test. Results: This outbreak of viral hepatitis B in Modasa, Gujarat was most likely due to unsafe injection practices. Evidence in support of this was collected by Government authorities. Most of the patients and approximately 40% of the surveyed population gave history of injections in last 1.5-6 months. Total 664/856 (77.57% cases and 20/1145 (1.75% contacts were found to be positive for HBsAg. 53.41% of the positive cases and 52.93% of the positive contacts were HBeAg-positive and thus in a highly infectious stage. Conclusions: Inadequately sterilized needles and syringes are an important cause of transmission of hepatitis B in India. Our data reflects the high positivity rate of a hepatitis B outbreak due to such unethical practices. There is a need to strengthen the routine surveillance system, and to organise a health education campaign targeting all health care workers including private practitioners, especially those working in rural areas, as well as the public at large, to take all possible measures to prevent this often fatal infection.

  10. An Investigation of an Outbreak of Viral Hepatitis B in Modasa Town, Gujarat, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Disha A; Gupta, Praveg A; Kinariwala, Deepa M; Shah, Hetal S; Trivedi, Grishma R; Vegad, Mahendra M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Most outbreaks of viral hepatitis in India are caused by hepatitis E. Recently in the year 2009, Modasa town of Sabarkantha district in Gujarat witnessed the outbreak of hepatitis B. Purpose: An attempt was made to study the outbreak clinically and serologically, to estimate the seropositivity of hepatitis B Virus among the cases and their contacts and to know the seroprevalence of hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg) and IgM antibody against hepatitis B core antigen (IgM HBcAb) out of all the Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) positive ones. Materials and Methods: Eight hundred and fifty-six (856) cases and 1145 contacts were evaluated for hepatitis B markers namely HBsAg, HBeAg and IgM HBcAb by enzyme-linked immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) test. Results: This outbreak of viral hepatitis B in Modasa, Gujarat was most likely due to unsafe injection practices. Evidence in support of this was collected by Government authorities. Most of the patients and approximately 40% of the surveyed population gave history of injections in last 1.5–6 months. Total 664/856 (77.57%) cases and 20/1145 (1.75%) contacts were found to be positive for HBsAg. 53.41% of the positive cases and 52.93% of the positive contacts were HBeAg-positive and thus in a highly infectious stage. Conclusions: Inadequately sterilized needles and syringes are an important cause of transmission of hepatitis B in India. Our data reflects the high positivity rate of a hepatitis B outbreak due to such unethical practices. There is a need to strengthen the routine surveillance system, and to organise a health education campaign targeting all health care workers including private practitioners, especially those working in rural areas, as well as the public at large, to take all possible measures to prevent this often fatal infection. PMID:22529628

  11. Determination of hepatitis B phenotype using biochemical and serological markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bisceglie, A M; Lombardero, M; Teckman, J; Roberts, L; Janssen, H L A; Belle, S H; Hoofnagle, J H

    2016-12-05

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity of categorization of chronic hepatitis B viral infection into stages or phases based upon measures of disease activity and viral load, assuming these phenotypes will be useful for prognostication and determining the need for antiviral therapy. We assessed the phenotype of hepatitis B of 1,390 adult participants enrolled in the Hepatitis B Research Network Cohort Study, using a computer algorithm. Only 4% were immune tolerant, while 35% had chronic hepatitis B (18% e antigen positive and 17% e antigen negative) while 23% were inactive carriers. Strikingly, 38% of participants did not fit clearly into any one of these groups and were considered indeterminant. The largest subset of indeterminants had elevated serum aminotransferases with low levels of HBV DNA (less than 10,000 iu/mL). Subsequent determination of hepatitis B phenotype on the next available laboratory tests showed that 64% remained indeterminant. These findings call into question the validity of conventional staging of hepatitis B, in large part because of the substantial proportion of patients who do not fit readily into one of the usual stages or phases. Further studies are needed of the indeterminant category of chronic hepatitis B viral infection, including assessments of whether patients in this group are perhaps in transition to another phase or if they are a distinct phenotype with a need to assess liver disease severity and need for antiviral therapy. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01263587).

  12. Safety and Efficacy of Hepatitis B Vaccination in Cirrhosis of Liver

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    D. Ajith Roni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Patients with chronic liver disease (CLD are more likely to have severe morbidity and fatality rate due to superimposed acute or chronic hepatitis B (HBV infection. The literature has shown that hepatitis B vaccines are safe and effective in patients with CLD, but the data in cirrhosis liver is lacking. We assessed the safety and immunogenicity of HBV vaccine in patients with cirrhosis liver. Methods. CTP classes A and B CLD patients negative for hepatitis B surface antigen and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen were included. All patients received three doses of hepatitis B vaccine 20 mcg intramuscularly at 0, 30, and 60 days. Anti-HBs antibody was measured after 120 days. Results. 52 patients with mean age years were studied. Response rates in CTP classes A and B were 88% and 33.3%. We observed that the alcoholic chronic liver disease had less antibody response (44% than other causes of chronic liver disease such as cryptogenic 69% and HCV 75%. Conclusions. Patients with cirrhosis liver will have low antibody hepatitis B titers compared to general population. As the age and liver disease progress, the response rate for hepatitis B vaccination will still remain to be weaker.

  13. Hepatitis B surface antigen detection using pooled sera: A cost-benefit analysis Detección de HBsAg usando mezcla de sueros: Estudio coste-beneficio

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    E. Fernández

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to examine the feasibility and to perform a cost benefit analysis of a 5-sample pooling strategy using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA for the screening of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg. Material and methods: to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the pooling method, each of the 40 positive sera (from weak to intensely HBsAg-positive and 250 negative sera were tested in a pool with 4 HBsAg-negative sera. The limit of detection for HBsAg/ad and HBsAg/ay was evaluated using sera from a panel of purified subtypes. A study under real conditions was conducted using pools from 340 pregnant women. Results: the sensitivity and specificity of this technique were 100%. The correlation coefficient among the sample/cutoff ratios of 40 samples studied in single and in pooled conditions was 0.792 (p Objetivos: examinar la fiabilidad y realizar un estudio coste beneficio de una estrategia de mezcla de 5 muestras usando un enzimainmunoanálisis (EIA para el cribado del HBsAg. Material y métodos: para evaluar la sensibilidad y especificidad del método de mezcla de sueros se determinaron 40 sueros HBsAg positivos (de débil a intensamente positivos y 250 sueros HBsAg negativos en mezcla con 4 sueros HBsAg negativos. El límite de detección para el HBsAg/ad y HBsAg/ay se evaluó usando suero de un panel de subtipos purificados. Se llevó a cabo un estudio en condiciones reales usando mezcla de sueros de 314 mujeres gestantes. Resultados: la sensibilidad y especificidad de esta técnica fue del 100%. El coeficiente de correlación entre los ratios muestra / punto de corte de las 40 muestras estudiadas en determinación simple y en mezcla fue 0,792 (p < 0,005. El método de mezcla de sueros detectó niveles más bajos de HBsAg/ad y HBsAg/ay (0,20 ng/mL y 0,12 ng/mL que el método simple (0,34 ng/mL y 0,29 ng/mL, respectivamente. Un análisis coste-beneficio mostró que el método de mezcla puede ahorrar de un 30 a un 75% de el coste de la

  14. 我国孕妇乙肝表面抗原阳性率的Meta分析%Meta-analysis on the positive rate of hepatitis B surface antigen among pregnant women in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石果; 张顺祥

    2013-01-01

    Objective To systematically evaluate the national positive rate of hepatitis B surface antigen (HB-sAg) among pregnant women in China by meta-analysis. Methods Publications regarding the positive rate of HBsAg among pregnant women between 2002 and 2012 were extracted from China National Knowledge Infra-structure (CNK1). Chinese science & technology journal database (VIP) , Wanfang database and PubMed, The Mcta positive rate was estimated using generic inverse variance model and the random effect model provid-ed by MetaAnalyst software. Results Thirty-five papers were retrieved with a total sample size of 224 029. The weighted positive rate was 7. 91 % (95% Cl: 7. 78%-8. 03%) estimated by generic inverse variance model and 7. 60% (95% CI: 6. 50%-8. 70%) by the random effect model provided by MetaAnalyst software. Be-cause of the heterogeneity of included studies, the result acquired by MetaAnalyst software was more accurate. Conclusions The result of the meta-analysis is almost consistent with the result of national epidemiological survey, indicating that Meta analysis is reliable, which provides key parameter for making strategies to prevent maternal-infantile transmission.%目的 采用Meta分析系统评价我国孕妇2002 2012年乙肝表面抗原(HBsAg)阳性率情况.方法 系统检索中国期刊全文数据库(CNKI)、维普中文科技期刊全文数据库和万方数据资源系统及PubMed中2002年1月至2012年1月发表的有关中国孕妇HBsAg阳性率的研究报道,分别用广义倒方差模型及MetaAnalyst3.13软件提供的随机效应模型估计孕妇HBsAg合并阳性率.结果 共纳入文献35篇,总样本量224029例,经广义倒方差模型加权合并后的阳性率为7.91% (95%CI:7.78%~8.03%),MetaAnalyst合并后的阳性率7.6% (95%CI:6.5%~8.7%),因纳入研究结果具有异质性,采用MetaAnalyst提供的随机效应模型获得的结果更为合适,即我国孕妇HBsAg阳性率加权合并值为7.60%,95

  15. Evaluation of the frequency of precore/core mutation in patients with chronic hepatitis B, Kerman, Southeast of Iran

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    Fariba Soleimani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the frequency of precore/core mutation in patients with chronic hepatitis B using PCR-restricted fragment length polymorphisms method. Methods: Sera were obtained from 69 patients with chronic hepatitis B including 30 women (43.5% and 39 men (56.5%. All patients were tested for the serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, the presence of hepatitis Be antigen and hepatitis B surface antigen by electrochemiluminescence and hepatitis B virus DNA load. Precore/core mutation was examined for the presence of a characteristic point mutation at nucleotides A1896G in precore and A1762T and G1764A in core region using nested PCR and restricted fragment length polymorphisms methods. Results: From total 69 cases with chronic hepatitis B infection, 12 (17.3% patients had precore mutation and 10 (14.4% patients had core mutation. From 69 patients, 53 (76.8% were negative for hepatitis Be antigen and 61 (88.4% were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen by electrochemiluminescence method. All samples were positive for hepatitis B virus DNA by RT-PCR. Conclusions: This study suggests that extra molecular methods should be apply for diagnosis and monitoring of mutation in chronic hepatitis B patients synchronic or serological method.

  16. Influence of occult hepatitis B virus infection in chronic hepatitis C outcomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Conrado M Fernandez-Rodriguez; Maria Luisa Gutierrez; José Luis Lledó; Maria Luisa Casas

    2011-01-01

    Persistence of hepatitis B virus-DNA in the sera, peripheral blood mononuclear cells or in the liver of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative patients with or without serological markers of previous exposure (antibodies to HBsAg and/or to HB-core antigen) defines the entity called occult hepatitis B infection (OBI). Co-infection with hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses is frequent in highly endemic areas. While this co-infection increases the risk of liver disease progression, development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and also increases the rate of therapeutic failure to interferon-based treatments than either virus alone, a potentially negative effect of OBI on clinical outcomes and of therapeutic response to current antiviral regimes of patients with chronic hepatitis C remains inconclusive.

  17. Human Leukocyte Antigen-E Alleles are Associated with Hepatitis C Virus, Torque Teno Virus, and Toxoplasma Co-infections but are not Associated with Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis D Virus, and GB Virus C Co-infections in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Dharmawan, Ruben; Raharjo, Irvan; Hudiyono

    2016-01-01

    Context: Data regarding the distribution of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-E alleles and their association with blood-borne pathogen infections/co-infections are limited for many populations, including Indonesia. Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze the association between HLA-E allelic variants and infection with blood-borne pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV), torque teno virus (TTV), GB virus C (GBV-C), and Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in Indonesian Javanese human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. Settings and Design: A total of 320 anti-HIV-positive blood samples were analyzed for HBV, HCV, HDV, TTV, GBV-C, and T. gondii infection status and its association with HLA-E allelic variants. Materials and Methods: Nucleic acid was extracted from plasma samples and used for the molecular detection of HBV DNA, HCV RNA, HDV RNA, TTV DNA, and GBV-C RNA, whereas hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-HCV, immunoglobulin M and G (IgM and IgG) anti-T. gondii were detected through serological testing. The blood samples were genotyped for HLA-E loci using a sequence-specific primer-polymerase chain reaction. Statistical Analysis Used: Either the Chi-square or Fisher's exact test was performed to analyze the frequency of HLA-E alleles and blood-borne pathogen infections in the population. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to measure the association between the antibodies found and the participants’ possible risk behaviors. A logistic regression analysis was used to assess the associations. Results: HLA-E*101/0101 was associated with HCV/TTV co-infection (adjusted OR [aOR]: 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.156-10.734; P = 0.027) and IgM/IgG anti-Toxo positivity (aOR: 27.0; 95% CI: 3.626-200.472; P = 0.001). HLA-E*103/0103 was associated with TTV co-infection (aOR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.509-4.796; P = 0.001). Conclusions: HLA-E alleles in Indonesian Javanese HIV patients were found to be associated with HCV, TTV, and

  18. Human leukocyte antigen-e alleles are associated with hepatitis c virus, torque teno virus, and toxoplasma co-infections but are not associated with hepatitis b virus, hepatitis d virus, and GB virus c co-infections in human immunodeficiency virus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afiono Agung Prasetyo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Data regarding the distribution of Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA-E alleles and their association with blood-borne pathogen infections/co-infections are limited for many populations, including Indonesia. Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze the association between HLA-E allelic variants and infection with blood-borne pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, hepatitis D virus (HDV, torque teno virus (TTV, GB virus C (GBV-C, and Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii in Indonesian Javanese human immunodeficiency virus (HIV patients. Settings and Design: A total of 320 anti-HIV-positive blood samples were analyzed for HBV, HCV, HDV, TTV, GBV-C, and T. gondii infection status and its association with HLA-E allelic variants. Materials and Methods: Nucleic acid was extracted from plasma samples and used for the molecular detection of HBV DNA, HCV RNA, HDV RNA, TTV DNA, and GBV-C RNA, whereas hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-HCV, immunoglobulin M and G (IgM and IgG anti-T. gondii were detected through serological testing. The blood samples were genotyped for HLA-E loci using a sequence-specific primer-polymerase chain reaction. Statistical Analysis Used: Either the Chi-square or Fisher′s exact test was performed to analyze the frequency of HLA-E alleles and blood-borne pathogen infections in the population. Odds ratios (ORs were calculated to measure the association between the antibodies found and the participants′ possible risk behaviors. A logistic regression analysis was used to assess the associations. Results: HLA-EFNx010101/0101 was associated with HCV/TTV co-infection (adjusted OR [aOR]: 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.156-10.734; P = 0.027 and IgM/IgG anti-Toxo positivity (aOR: 27.0; 95% CI: 3.626-200.472; P = 0.001. HLA-EFNx010103/0103 was associated with TTV co-infection (aOR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.509-4.796; P = 0.001. Conclusions: HLA-E alleles in Indonesian Javanese HIV patients were found to be associated

  19. [Increased epidemic incidence of hepatitis B in a district hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, A; Mönch, E

    1978-01-15

    It is reported on an epidemic of hepatitis B of 29 patients in a district hospital. Due to diagnostic errors in importation and a more frequent appearance of diseases of hepatitis B in the surgical department and the 2nd medical department, in which above all diabetics are treated, took place. The average age of the patients was 55 years. In all patients the clinical course was to be regarded as severe. 4 of 29 patients died. In all patients the hepatitis B disease showed a pronounced jaundice with high transaminases, particularly the SGOT and LAP were clearly increased. Also the duration of the presence was longer than in hepatitis A as well as the transition into chronic hepatitis was more frequent. By diagnostic information of the physicians and the other medical staff as well as improved measures of desinfection the epidemic could be restricted.

  20. Management of acute hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Mitchell L

    2010-02-01

    Acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a common cause of acute icteric hepatitis in adults. The vast majority of these patients resolve this acute infection and develop long-lasting immunity. In contrast, the vast majority of patients who develop chronic HBV have minimal symptoms and do not develop jaundice after becoming infected with HBV. These patients will frequently remain undiagnosed for years or decades. Approximately 1% of persons with acute HBV develop acute liver failure. Preventing acute HBV with vaccination is the best treatment. Although universal vaccination is now administered to newborns in many countries, the majority of adults have not been vaccinated and remain at risk. Because the majority of patients with acute HBV resolve this infection spontaneously, treatment with an oral anti-HBV agent is not necessary. However, the use of an oral anti-HBV agent is not unreasonable to use in a patient who is developing acute liver failure from severe acute HBV.

  1. Compartmentalization of hepatitis B virus: Looking beyond the liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sibnarayan; Datta

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus(HBV) is classically considered to be hepatotropic, but accumulating evidences strongly support its extra-hepatotropic nature too. HBV nucleicacids and proteins have long been reported in a variety of extra-hepatic tissues. Of these, HBV has been studied in details in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells(PBMCs), due to its accessibility. From these studies, it is now well established that PBMCs are permissive to HBV infection, replication, transcription and production of infective virions. Furthermore, molecular evolutionary studies have provided definite evidences towards evolution of HBV genome in PBMCs, which is independent of evolution occurring in the liver, leading to the emergence and selection of compartment specific escape variants or drug resistant strains. These variants/resistant strains of HBV remain restricted within the PBMCs and are rarely detected in the serum/plasma. In addition, HBV infected PBMCs have been reported to be directly transmitted through intrauterine modes, and this infection does not correlate significantly with serum HBV surface antigen or HBV DNA markers. This editorial briefly reviews the current knowledge on this topic, emphasizes and delineates the gaps that are required to be filled to properly understand the biological and clinical relevance of extrahepatic tropism of HBV.

  2. Impact of the Joint Statement by the American Academy of Pediatrics/US Public Health Service on thimerosal in vaccines on hospital infant hepatitis B vaccination practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurie, M B; Saari, T N; Davis, J P

    2001-04-01

    To determine the impact of the American Academy of Pediatrics/US Public Health Service (AAP/USPHS) joint statement on thimerosal in vaccines on hospital infant hepatitis B vaccination policies in Wisconsin. The nurse managers of hospital newborn nurseries (n = 110) were surveyed by mail. Nonresponders were resurveyed. Twelve hospitals no longer provided obstetric services. Of the remaining 98 hospitals, 84 (86%) responded to the initial mailing and 14 (14%) responded to the second mailing. The number of hospitals that offered hepatitis B vaccine to infants before July 1999 was compared with that in March 2000. The number of hospitals that had policies in place to vaccinate infants whose mothers' hepatitis B surface antigen status (HBsAg) was positive or unknown during the thimerosal alert (July 1999 through November 1999) was compared with that in March 2000. Before July 1999, 81% of the hospitals representing 84% of reported Wisconsin births routinely offered hepatitis B vaccine to all infants. By March 2000, 50% of hospitals, representing 43% of births, had resumed routine infant hepatitis B vaccination. Physician decision to use a combination Haemophilus influenzae type b hepatitis B vaccine was the most frequently given reason for not reinstituting infant hepatitis B vaccination. During the thimerosal alert, 23% of hospitals did not have policies to vaccinate infants whose mothers were HBsAg-positive and 51% did not have policies to vaccinate infants whose mothers' HBsAg status was unknown. By March 2000, 6% of hospitals still did not have policies to vaccinate infants whose mothers were HBsAg-positive and 24% did not have policies to vaccinate infants whose mothers' HBsAg status was unknown. The AAP/USPHS joint statement on thimerosal in vaccines has resulted in a 38% decrease in the number of hospitals routinely offering infants hepatitis B vaccine. Although thimerosal-free hepatitis B vaccine is now available, some hospitals still do not have appropriate

  3. Management of chronic hepatitis B in an HIV-positive patient with 3TC-resistant hepatitis B virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristig, Maria; Drechsler, Henning; Crippin, Jeffrey; Lisker-Melman, Mauricio; Tebas, Pablo

    2003-09-01

    Chronic viral hepatitis has emerged as one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among HIV-positive patients. These individuals are at risk for aggressive chronic active hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, and eventually, death. Currently available therapies for hepatitis B are limited and include interferon-alpha, lamivudine (3TC), and adefovir. Tenofovir (TDF), a recently approved drug for the treatment of HIV, is also active against hepatitis B. We report the case of a HIV-positive patient with liver cirrhosis secondary to chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) with evidence of resistance to 3TC. The patient was initially accepted as a liver transplant candidate. However, when TDF was added to his treatment, a remarkable virologic and histopathologic improvement was achieved. The patient was subsequently removed from the liver transplant program and has not suffered from any further hepatic complications.

  4. Management of hepatitis B in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Feng-min; ZHUANG Hui

    2009-01-01

    @@ Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health problem. According to the data of World Health Organization (WHO), 2 billion people worldwide have been infected with HBV, and among them 350-400 million are chronic HBV carriers. Hepatitis B causes about 1 million deaths of HBV related liver failure, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma annually.

  5. Immunisering van pasgeborenes teen hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. W. Prozesky

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available Endemiese hepatitis B is ’n emstige gesondheidsprobleem in KaNgwane, tuiste van Suid-Afrika se Swazi’s. Besmetting met die hepatitis B-virus (HBV is so algemeen in hierdie gemeenskap en vind alreeds so vroeg in die lewe plaas dat inenting van pasgeborenes regverdigbaar en wenslik is.

  6. Futuro de las vacunas contra hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de la Hoz Restrepo

    2004-03-01

    . Elimination of new chronic hepatitis B virus infection: Results of the Alaska immunisation program. J Infect Dis 2000;181: 413-418

    3. ZUCKERMAN JN, ZUCKERMAN AJ, SYMINGTON I, DU W,WILLIAMS A, DICKSON B, YOUNG MD. Evaluation of a new hepatitis B triple antigen vaccine in inadequate responders to current vaccine. Hepatology 2001; 34: 798-802.

  7. Immunological mechanisms of hepatitis B virus persistence in newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trehanpati, Nirupma; Hissar, Syed; Shrivastav, Shikha; Sarin, Shiv K

    2013-11-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection affects millions of people worldwide and about a half million people die every year. India represents the second largest pool of chronic HBV infection worldwide with an estimated 40 million infected people. The prevalence of chronic HBV infection in pregnant women is shown to be 0.82 per cent with the risk of mother-to-child vertical transmission. Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positivity indicates replicative form of HBV which may play a role in immunotolerance in utero by crossing the placenta. In case of HBeAg positivity and high vir