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Sample records for reported greater psychological

  1. American Psychological Association annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Presents the 2009 American Psychological Association annual report. It highlights a very important year for APA and psychology by summarizing activities within each directorate. It describes strides made toward the goal of infusing psychology into the health care marketplace and of bringing psychology-and the unique skills of psychologists-to the attention of the public. This report aims to give insight into the contributions psychologists make to our communities and our country. 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations and the Society of Counseling Psychology: Greater Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Michael Y.; Forrest, Linda; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the Major Contribution on the Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations (Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, National Latina/o Psychological Association, Society of Indian Psychologists, and American Psychological Association Division 45) and their connections to…

  3. Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations and the Society of Counseling Psychology: Greater Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Michael Y.; Forrest, Linda; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the Major Contribution on the Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations (Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, National Latina/o Psychological Association, Society of Indian Psychologists, and American Psychological Association Division 45) and their connections to…

  4. Conservatives report, but liberals display, greater happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Sean P; Hovasapian, Arpine; Graham, Jesse; Motyl, Matt; Ditto, Peter H

    2015-03-13

    Research suggesting that political conservatives are happier than political liberals has relied exclusively on self-report measures of subjective well-being. We show that this finding is fully mediated by conservatives' self-enhancing style of self-report (study 1; N = 1433) and then describe three studies drawing from "big data" sources to assess liberal-conservative differences in happiness-related behavior (studies 2 to 4; N = 4936). Relative to conservatives, liberals more frequently used positive emotional language in their speech and smiled more intensely and genuinely in photographs. Our results were consistent across large samples of online survey takers, U.S. politicians, Twitter users, and LinkedIn users. Our findings illustrate the nuanced relationship between political ideology, self-enhancement, and happiness and illuminate the contradictory ways that happiness differences can manifest across behavior and self-reports.

  5. Promoting greater Federal energy productivity [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Mark; Dudich, Luther

    2003-03-05

    This document is a close-out report describing the work done under this DOE grant to improve Federal Energy Productivity. Over the four years covered in this document, the Alliance To Save Energy conducted liaison with the private sector through our Federal Energy Productivity Task Force. In this time, the Alliance held several successful workshops on the uses of metering in Federal facilities and other meetings. We also conducted significant research on energy efficiency, financing, facilitated studies of potential energy savings in energy intensive agencies, and undertook other tasks outlined in this report.

  6. Psychiatric/ psychological forensic report writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gerald

    Approaches to forensic report writing in psychiatry, psychology, and related mental health disciplines have moved from an organization, content, and stylistic framework to considering ethical and other codes, evidentiary standards, and practice considerations. The first part of the article surveys different approaches to forensic report writing, including that of forensic mental health assessment and psychiatric ethics. The second part deals especially with psychological ethical approaches. The American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct (2002) provide one set of principles on which to base forensic report writing. The U.S. Federal Rules of Evidence (2014) and related state rules provide another basis. The American Psychological Association's Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology (2013) provide a third source. Some work has expanded the principles in ethics codes; and, in the third part of this article, these additions are applied to forensic report writing. Other work that could help with the question of forensic report writing concerns the 4 Ds in psychological injury assessments (e.g., conduct oneself with Dignity, avoid the adversary Divide, get the needed reliable Data, Determine interpretations and conclusions judiciously). One overarching ethical principle that is especially applicable in forensic report writing is to be comprehensive, scientific, and impartial. As applied to forensic report writing, the overall principle that applies is that the work process and product should reflect integrity in its ethics, law, and science. Four principles that derive from this meta-principle concern: Competency and Communication; Procedure and Protection; Dignity and Distance; and Data Collection and Determination. The standards or rules associated with each of these principles are reviewed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Teaching Psychological Report Writing: Content and Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Judith; Costaris, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the process of teaching graduate students in school psychology to write psychological reports that teachers and parents find readable and that guide intervention. The consensus from studies across four decades of research is that effective psychological reports connect to the client's context; have clear…

  8. Is change bad? Personality change is associated with poorer psychological health and greater metabolic syndrome in midlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Lauren J.; Biesanz, Jeremy C.; Miller, Gregory E.; Chen, Edith; Lachman, Margie E.; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Personality change is emerging as an important predictor of health and well-being. Extending previous research, we examined whether two types of personality change, directional and absolute, are associated with both subjective and objective indicators of health. Method Utilizing the longitudinal Midlife in the United States Survey (MIDUS) data, we examined whether both types of change over 10 years were associated with psychological well-being, self-reported global health, and the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and diagnosis. Results Socially undesirable personality change (e.g., becoming less conscientious and more neurotic) and absolute personality change were independently associated with worse perceived health and well-being at Time 2. Notably, absolute personality change, regardless of the direction, was also associated with having a greater number of MetS components and a greater probability of diagnosis at Time 2. Conclusions In sum, too much personality change may be bad for one’s health: socially undesirable and absolute personality change were both associated with worse psychological health and worse metabolic profiles over 10 years. These findings suggest that personality change may contribute to psychological and physical health, and provide initial insight into potential intermediate links between personality change and distal outcomes such as mortality. PMID:22924900

  9. American Psychological Association: Annual Report, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the 2008 annual reports from the various directorates and offices of the American Psychological Association (APA). In 2008, APA continued to work on initiatives, programs, and products that lend value to the member's psychology career, support the future of their discipline, and serve the public. APA's goal is to strengthen…

  10. Psychological Adjustment: Are adopted adolescents at greater risk for negative outcomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Tozzi Reppold

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades several authors have indicated that being an adopted child resulted in a higher risk of psychological maladjustment. The objective of this research was to investigate the changes in perception of parental styles in adopted and no-adopted adolescents Brazilians. The sample comprised 524 adolescents (68 were adopted and 456 were raised by their biological parents. The instruments used were a demographic questionnaire and theResponsiveness Scales and Parental Demands. The findings indicated that adoptive parents are significantly more indulgent than biological parents. In comparison, the adolescents described their biological parents as more negligent. The findings corroborated the transcultural effects of parental styles on the psychological adjustment and confirmed the hypothesis that the parental socialization strategies moderate the development of adoptedadolescent.

  11. Immature psychological defense mechanisms are associated with greater personal importance of junk food, alcohol, and television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rui Miguel; Brody, Stuart

    2013-10-30

    Immature psychological defense mechanisms are psychological processes that play an important role in suppressing emotional awareness and contribute to psychopathology. In addition, unhealthy food, television viewing, and alcohol consumption can be among the means to escape self-awareness. In contrast, engaging in, and responding fully to specifically penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) is associated with indices of better emotional regulation, including less use of immature defense mechanisms. There was a lack of research on the association of immature defense mechanisms with personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. In an online survey, 334 primarily Scottish women completed the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40), and rated the personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. Immature defense mechanisms correlated with importance of junk food, alcohol, and television. Importance of PVI correlated with mature defenses, and less use of some component immature defenses. Importance of alcohol correlated with importance of junk food, television, and noncoital sex. Importance of junk food was correlated with importance of television and noncoital sex. The findings are discussed in terms of persons with poorer self-regulatory abilities having more interest in junk food, television, and alcohol, and less interest in PVI.

  12. Functional and psychological outcomes following burn injury: reduced income and hidden emotions are predictors of greater distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Jeanne; James, Frances; McNeill, Rob; Brown, Paul; Cameron, Linda; Mills, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether functional and psychosocial outcomes after burn injury in New Zealand are consistent with the international literature. Fifty participants with burns >10% TBSA and a mean of 5.1 years since burn completed a survey that included questionnaires and open-ended questions. The rates of psychosocial distress for this sample were consistent with international reports. Psychological distress was predicted by negative change in income and by reports that the individual has hidden thoughts and emotions from others. Respondents also described positive changes in their life as a result of the burn injury that were independent of negative outcomes. Participants indicated good long-term functional improvement but ongoing psychological distress. Important indicators for poor outcome may be loss of income and reluctance to discuss emotions.

  13. 2015 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Presents the 2015 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association. In his introduction, President Barry Anton describes how 2015 was among APA's most challenging. Although 2015 ushered in an era of greater transparency within the association and enhanced communications to members and the public, it also required painful self-reflection stemming from the revelations of an independent review by an outside law firm. The review examined the question of whether APA played any role related to the Bush administration's use of abusive interrogation techniques during the war on terror. Anton's introduction also discusses (1) the APA convention, (2) representing APA at a White House meeting with health care providers and insurance companies, (3) APA's effort to increase the number of APA-accredited internships, (4) international activities, and (5) the global summit on psychology and integrated care. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. 2009 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This annual report of the American Psychological Association (APA) describes the association's activities and accomplishments in 2009. It describes strides made toward the goal of infusing psychology into the health care marketplace and of bringing psychology--and the unique skills of psychologists--to the attention of the public. This report aims…

  15. 2009 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This annual report of the American Psychological Association (APA) describes the association's activities and accomplishments in 2009. It describes strides made toward the goal of infusing psychology into the health care marketplace and of bringing psychology--and the unique skills of psychologists--to the attention of the public. This report aims…

  16. 2010 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2010 annual report of the American Psychological Association (APA). It provides the highlights of the association's and individual directorate's activities to APA members. APA continued its efforts to advance psychological practice and ensure the public's access to high-quality psychological services, apply psychological…

  17. 2010 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2010 annual report of the American Psychological Association (APA). It provides the highlights of the association's and individual directorate's activities to APA members. APA continued its efforts to advance psychological practice and ensure the public's access to high-quality psychological services, apply psychological…

  18. Reporting Standards for Research in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    In anticipation of the impending revision of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, APA’s Publications and Communications Board formed the Working Group on Journal Article Reporting Standards (JARS) and charged it to provide the board with background and recommendations on information that should be included in manuscripts submitted to APA journals that report (a) new data collections and (b) meta-analyses. The JARS Group reviewed efforts in related fields to develop standards and sought input from other knowledgeable groups. The resulting recommendations contain (a) standards for all journal articles, (b) more specific standards for reports of studies with experimental manipulations or evaluations of interventions using research designs involving random or nonrandom assignment, and (c) standards for articles reporting meta-analyses. The JARS Group anticipated that standards for reporting other research designs (e.g., observational studies, longitudinal studies) would emerge over time. This report also (a) examines societal developments that have encouraged researchers to provide more details when reporting their studies, (b) notes important differences between requirements, standards, and recommendations for reporting, and (c) examines benefits and obstacles to the development and implementation of reporting standards. PMID:19086746

  19. Pedagogical, Psychological, and Literary Applications of Self-Report Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlak, Richard E.; Kerber, Kenneth W.

    To determine whether self-report psychological inventories could be used to better understand characters in literature, a psychology instructor and an English instructor arranged their courses so that they both focused on interpersonal relationships. The psychology course emphasized research on attraction, romantic love, and interpersonal…

  20. 2005 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This annual report of the American Psychological Association (APA) describes the association's activities and accomplishments in 2005. The examples provided in this report are a small sampling of all that APA is doing to advance the discipline of psychology in an ever-changing world.

  1. The (mis)reporting of statistical results in psychology journals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Wicherts, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the prevalence, nature (direction), and causes of reporting errors in psychology, we checked the consistency of reported test statistics, degrees of freedom, and p values in a random sample of high- and low-impact psychology journals. In a second study, we established the generalit

  2. Arthroscopic Tuberoplasty for a Malunited Greater Tuberosity Fracture: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Maire-Clare; Charalambous, Charalambos P

    2015-01-01

    Superior migration and malunion of a fractured greater tuberosity can lead to mechanical subacromial impingement with resultant ongoing pain and limitation of abduction. We describe such a case successfully treated with arthroscopic excision of the protruding portion of the greater tuberosity, with marked improvement in pain and range of movement. The greater tuberosity was exposed by elevating the supraspinatus tendon, which was reattached at the end of the procedure. This case, along with outcomes of similar techniques previously reported in literature suggest that arthroscopic excision of a superiorly malunited greater tuberosity is associated with good symptomatic outcome and preservation of rotator cuff function.

  3. Why do Greater one-horned rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis) die? - An evaluation of necropsy reports

    OpenAIRE

    Wyss, F; Wenker, C; Robert, N.; Clauss, Marcus; von Houwald, F

    2012-01-01

    Many case reports about different diseases in greater one-horned rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis) have been published, but an overview of the prevalence of diseases and an evaluation of causes of death is lacking. Necropsy reports of 106 greater one-horned rhinoceroses from 38 zoos worldwide were evaluated. Half of them were from adult animals, a third from perinatal deaths/stillbirths and the rest from juveniles and sub adults. Cardiac problems (cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, heart infarct)...

  4. The (mis)reporting of statistical results in psychology journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Marjan; Wicherts, Jelte M

    2011-09-01

    In order to study the prevalence, nature (direction), and causes of reporting errors in psychology, we checked the consistency of reported test statistics, degrees of freedom, and p values in a random sample of high- and low-impact psychology journals. In a second study, we established the generality of reporting errors in a random sample of recent psychological articles. Our results, on the basis of 281 articles, indicate that around 18% of statistical results in the psychological literature are incorrectly reported. Inconsistencies were more common in low-impact journals than in high-impact journals. Moreover, around 15% of the articles contained at least one statistical conclusion that proved, upon recalculation, to be incorrect; that is, recalculation rendered the previously significant result insignificant, or vice versa. These errors were often in line with researchers' expectations. We classified the most common errors and contacted authors to shed light on the origins of the errors.

  5. Report from the American Psychological Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodstein, L D

    1989-01-01

    This article focuses on some of the difficult circumstances that the American Psychological Association (APA) and the mental health community are facing during the 1980s. While a great deal has been learned about mental health issues of older persons and research has demonstrated that they can benefit by appropriate services, the majority of elders needing mental health services are still not receiving them. Service, research and policy issues of concern to APA are discussed and several positive APA activities are noted.

  6. Metastasis of greater wing of sphenoid bone in bronchogenic carcinoma: a unusual case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prashant K; Mital, Mukta; Dwivedi, Amit; Gupta, Kumkum

    2011-01-01

    Orbital metastasis in systemic cancer is known to occur and occurs in up to 7% of all systemic cancers. Orbital features typically present after the diagnosis of the primary tumor. In about 20% of cases, there is no known primary cancer at the time of presentation with orbital metastatic disease. Here we report a case of a 60-year-old male smoker, in whom proptosis, due to metastasis in greater wing of left sphenoid bone secondary to bronchogenic carcinoma, was the initial symptom. We could not find in literature metastasis to greater wing of sphenoid bone due to small cell carcinoma of lung.

  7. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor arising from the greater omentum: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokunaga Masakazu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs are rare soft tissue tumors that arise from a peripheral nerve or exhibit nerve sheath differentiation. Most of these tumors arise on the trunk, extremities, or head and neck regions; they are very rarely located in the abdominal cavity. The patient was a 71-year-old man who was referred to our hospital for a mass and pain in the right lower abdomen. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a large (9 × 9 cm, well-circumscribed, lobulated, heterogeneously enhanced mass in the pelvis. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large mass in the greater omentum, and the tumor was completely excised. Histopathological analysis revealed that the tumor was composed of spindle cells with high mitotic activity. On staining the tumor, positive results were obtained for S-100 but negative results were obtained for c-kit, cluster of differentiation (CD34, α-smooth muscle actin, and desmin. These findings strongly supported a diagnosis of MPNST primarily arising from the greater omentum. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an MPNST arising from the greater omentum. In this report, we have described the case of a patient with an MPNST arising from the greater omentum and have discussed the clinical characteristics and management of MPNSTs.

  8. A Modified Content Analysis of Existing School Psychology Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallin, Barry; Schellenberg, Miriam E.; Smith, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Discrepancies between our university's training program's report-writing guidelines and common practice in Manitoba could not be resolved by reference to the literature. To inform the discussion, we collected a sample of local real world school psychology reports and undertook a modified content analysis to operationally define and measure…

  9. Psychological Distress and Pain Reporting in Australian Coal Miners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy N. Carlisle

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: The study findings support the existence of widespread musculoskeletal pain among the coal-mining workforce, and this pain is associated with increased psychological distress. Operators (truck drivers and workers reporting poor sleep quality during work periods are most likely to report increased distress, which highlights the importance of supporting the mining workforce for sustained productivity.

  10. A Modified Content Analysis of Existing School Psychology Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallin, Barry; Schellenberg, Miriam E.; Smith, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Discrepancies between our university's training program's report-writing guidelines and common practice in Manitoba could not be resolved by reference to the literature. To inform the discussion, we collected a sample of local real world school psychology reports and undertook a modified content analysis to operationally define and measure…

  11. Variations in band reporting rate and implications for kill rate in Greater Snow Geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Souchay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We assessed spatial and temporal variation in reporting probability of banded Greater Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica shot by hunters in eastern North America and evaluated potential residual biases in kill rate estimation. Adult Greater Snow Geese were marked with reward (value: US$10, $20, $30, $50, and $100 and standard bands ($0, control in the Canadian Arctic from 2003 to 2005. We used a spatially explicit multinomial model based on 200 direct recoveries from 4256 banded geese to estimate reporting rate and harvest rate. We found that reporting rate for standard bands varied over time whereas harvest rate was higher in Canada than in the U.S. The reporting probability increased from 0.40 ± 0.11 in the first year of the study to 0.82 ± 0.14 and 0.84 ± 0.13 the second and third years, respectively. Overall, these reporting rates are higher than two previous estimates for this population, which leads to lower estimates of kill rate. However, the large annual differences in reporting rates found in this study lead to uncertainty in the estimation of kill rate. We suggest that the increase in reporting rate in the last two year of the study may be due to the dissemination of information among hunters regarding the presence of reward bands on birds, resulting in increased reporting rate for all bands. This raises issues about the need to adequately inform the public in such large-scale studies to avoid undesirable temporal trends over the course of the study.

  12. Developing a Reporting Guideline for Social and Psychological Intervention Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Sean; Montgomery, Paul; Hopewell, Sally; Macdonald, Geraldine; Moher, David; Mayo-Wilson, Evan

    2013-11-01

    Social and psychological interventions are often complex. Understanding randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of these complex interventions requires a detailed description of the interventions tested and the methods used to evaluate them; however, RCT reports often omit, or inadequately report, this information. Incomplete and inaccurate reporting hinders the optimal use of research, wastes resources, and fails to meet ethical obligations to research participants and consumers. In this article, we explain how reporting guidelines have improved the quality of reports in medicine and describe the ongoing development of a new reporting guideline for RCTs: Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials-SPI (an extension for social and psychological interventions). We invite readers to participate in the project by visiting our website, in order to help us reach the best-informed consensus on these guidelines (http://tinyurl.com/CONSORT-study).

  13. A bibliography of articles of interest to teachers of psychology appearing in psychological reports 1955-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Charles I; Curb, Lisa A; Barber, Kelsey R

    2011-02-01

    Abibliography is presented of articles related to various aspects of the teaching of psychology that have appeared in Psychological Reports from 1955-2010. The 605 articles are classified into 21 sections including those devoted to history, psychology of the scientist, teaching tips, textbook evaluation, and evaluation of students and professors.

  14. Hepatitis from Greater celandine (Chelidonium majus L.): review of literature and report of a new case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Paola A; Cassetti, Federica; Giugliano, Gianni; Falce, Maria T; Mazzanti, Gabriela; Menniti-Ippolito, Francesca; Raschetti, Roberto; Santuccio, Carmela

    2009-07-15

    Folk medicine is a rich source of useful therapeutic tools. Nevertheless, use of medicinal plants can have unwanted, negative effects. By means of the description of an adverse reaction to a herbal remedy, we highlight the need for better efficacy-toxicity studies on these products. To report a case of possible Chelidonium majus L. (Greater celandine)-induced hepatitis and evaluate the past published cases. We outlined the main features of hepatitis associated with use of Chelidonium majus by providing a review of cases reported and analysing in detail a new one. Several cases of acute hepatitis related to Greater celandine consumption were found in the literature. The assessment for causality using Naranjo probability scale showed a probable relationship between the liver injury and the consumption of Chelidonium majus in the case we described. Our case, along with the other ones reported in the literature, increases the concern about the safety of oral use of Chelidonium majus. Plants used in traditional medicine are not necessarily harmless. Customers and prescribers should be aware of this, especially when a herbal drug is used with therapeutic purposes in absence of reliable studies of clinical efficacy and benefit-risk assessment.

  15. Childhood osteosarcoma of greater wing of sphenoid: case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meel, Rachna; Thulkar, Sanjay; Sharma, Mehar Chand; Jagadesan, Pandjatcharan; Mohanti, Bidhu Kalyan; Sharma, Suresh Chandra; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2012-03-01

    Primary osteosarcoma of skull base is extremely rare. We present a case of primary osteosarcoma arising in greater wing of sphenoid in a child. Our patient had an incomplete excision after which he received adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. There was good response to adjuvant chemoradiotherapy and the patient is disease free at a follow-up of 18 months. Treatment of skull base osteosarcomas is difficult, as complete excision is often not possible. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of sphenoid wing osteosarcoma in childhood to be reported in literature.

  16. College students who have an eveningness preference report lower self-control and greater procrastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digdon, Nancy L; Howell, Andrew J

    2008-11-01

    Previous research suggests a possible link between eveningness and general difficulties with self-regulation (e.g., evening types are more likely than other chronotypes to have irregular sleep schedules and social rhythms and use substances). Our study investigated the relationship between eveningness and self-regulation by using two standardized measures of self-regulation: the Self-Control Scale and the Procrastination Scale. We predicted that an eveningness preference would be associated with poorer self-control and greater procrastination than would an intermediate or morningness preference. Participants were 308 psychology students (mean age=19.92 yrs) at a small Canadian college. Students completed the self-regulation questionnaires and Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) online. The mean MEQ score was 46.69 (SD=8.20), which is intermediate between morningness and eveningness. MEQ scores ranged from definite morningness to definite eveningness, but the dispersion of scores was skewed toward more eveningness. Pearson and partial correlations (controlling for age) were used to assess the relationship between MEQ score and the Self-Control Scale (global score and 5 subscale scores) and Procrastination Scale (global score). All correlations were significant. The magnitude of the effects was medium for all measures except one of the Self-Control subscales, which was small. A multiple regression analysis to predict MEQ score using the Self-Control Scale (global score), Procrastination Scale, and age as predictors indicated the Self-Control Scale was a significant predictor (accounting for 20% of the variance). A multiple regression analysis to predict MEQ scores using the five subscales of the Self-Control Scale and age as predictors showed the subscales for reliability and work ethic were significant predictors (accounting for 33% of the variance). Our study showed a relationship between eveningness and low self-control, but it did not address whether the

  17. Teacher Ratings of Three School Psychology Report Recommendation Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallin, Barry; Beimcik, Jaga; Hopfner, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Educators are primary consumers of information provided in school psychology reports. There is disagreement in the literature as to whether teachers prefer briefer recommendations as compared to more detailed and specific recommendations. Specific recommendations can been seen as prescriptive and leading to higher requirements for accountability…

  18. Grassroot Support for Reforming Reporting Standards in Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LeBel, E.P.; Borsboom, D.; Giner-Sorolla, R.; Hasselman, F.; Peters, K.R.; Ratliff, K.A.; Tucker Smith, C.

    2013-01-01

    There is currently an unprecedented level of doubt regarding the reliability of research findings in psychology. Many recommendations have been made to improve the current situation. In this article, we report results from PsychDisclosure.org, a novel open-science initiative that provides a platform

  19. Teacher Ratings of Three School Psychology Report Recommendation Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallin, Barry; Beimcik, Jaga; Hopfner, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Educators are primary consumers of information provided in school psychology reports. There is disagreement in the literature as to whether teachers prefer briefer recommendations as compared to more detailed and specific recommendations. Specific recommendations can been seen as prescriptive and leading to higher requirements for accountability…

  20. Self-Report Measure of Psychological Abuse of Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Kendon J.; Iris, Madelyn; Ridings, John W.; Langley, Kate; Anetzberger, Georgia J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested key psychometric properties of the Older Adult Psychological Abuse Measure (OAPAM), one self-report scale of the Older Adult Mistreatment Assessment (OAMA). Design and Methods: Items and theory were developed in a prior concept mapping study. Subsequently, the measures were administered to 226 substantiated clients by 22…

  1. Young adult cannabis users report greater propensity for risk-taking only in non-monetary domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Jodi M; Calderon, Vanessa; Curran, Max T; Evins, A Eden

    2015-02-01

    Though substance use is often associated with elevated risk-taking in real-world scenarios, many risk-taking tasks in experimental psychology using financial gambles fail to find significant differences between individuals with substance use disorders and healthy controls. We assessed whether participants using marijuana would show a greater propensity for risk-taking in distinct domains including, but not limited to, financial risk-taking. In the current study, we assessed risk-taking in young adult (age 18-25) regular marijuana users and in non-using control participants using a domain-specific risk-taking self-report scale (DOSPERT) encompassing five domains of risk-taking (social, financial, recreational, health/safety, and ethical). We also measured behavioral risk-taking using a laboratory monetary risk-taking task. Marijuana users and controls reported significant differences on the social, health/safety, and ethical risk-taking scales, but no differences in the propensity to take recreational or financial risks. Complementing the self-report finding, there were no differences between marijuana users and controls in their performance on the laboratory risk-taking task. These findings suggest that financial risk-taking may be less sensitive than other domains of risk-taking in assessing differences in risky behavior between those who use marijuana and those who do not. In order to more consistently determine whether increased risk-taking is a factor in substance use, it may be necessary to use both monetary risk-taking tasks and complementary assessments of non-monetary-based risk-taking measures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Suspected Greater Celandine hepatotoxicity: liver-specific causality evaluation of published case reports from Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Glass, Xaver; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2012-03-01

    In 21 published case reports, the use of the herb Greater Celandine (GC) (Chelidonium majus L.) has been causally related to liver injury, but a variety of confounding variables were evident that might have offset causality. This study reanalyses causality levels in these cases with a liver-specific causality evaluation method. All 21 cases were submitted to the liver-specific, standardized, structured, quantitative and updated scale of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences. This scale considers, among other items, latency period, course of alanine aminotransferase after treatment discontinuation, risk factors, comedication and alternative causes. Using this method for assessment, causality for GC was highly probable in two and probable in six cases, with lower causality grading in the remaining 13 cases. In these patients, causality for GC was possible in 10 cases and excluded in three cases. On the basis of the eight cases with highly probable and probable causality gradings, GC hepatotoxicity represents an idiosyncratic reaction of the metabolic type, whereas immunologic or obligatory hepatotoxic features are lacking. In some cases, alternative diagnoses and poor data quality were confounding variables that reduced causality levels. Confounding variables reduced causality levels for GC in reported cases of liver injury, but there is still striking evidence for herb-induced liver injury by GC with high causality gradings. GC hepatotoxicity is caused by an idiosyncratic reaction of the metabolic form, but there is uncertainty with respect to its culprit(s).

  3. 2012 Annual report of the American Psychological Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Provides the 2012 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association. In 2012, APA celebrated its 120th anniversary. It has grown from its original 31 members to the largest association of psychologists in the United States and a worldwide leader within the discipline. This edition of the report introduces each directorate and office within APA and talks about their goals and objectives. the president of APA, Dr. Norman Anderson, also gives a brief report which updates you on the activities of the association during its 120th anniversary as the professional home for psychologists and an advocate for the discipline. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Greater Confinement Disposal Test at the Nevada Test Site, Final Technology Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickman, P. T.

    1989-01-01

    The Greater Confinement Disposal Test (GCDT) was conducted at the Nevada Test Site to demonstrate an alternative method for management of high-specific-activity (HSA) low-level waste (LLW). The GCDT was initially conceived as a method for managing small volumes of highly concentrated tritium wastes, which, due to their environmental mobiilty, are considered unsuitable for routine shallow land disposal. Later, the scope of the GCDT was increased to address a variety of other "problem" HSA wastes including isotope sources and thermal generating wastes. The basic design for the GCDT evolved from a series of studies and assessments. Operational design objectives were to (1) emplace the wastes at a depth sufficient to minimize or eliminate routine environmental transport mechanisms and instrusion scenarios and (2) provide sufficient protection for operations personnel in the handling of HSA sources. To achieve both objectives, a large diameter borehole was selected. The GCDT consisted of a borehole 3 meters (10 feet) in diameter and 36 meters (120 feet) deep, surrounded by nine monitoring holes at varying radii. The GCDT was instrumented for the measurement of temperature, moisture, and soil-gas content. Over one million curies of HSA LLW were emplaced in GCDT. This report reviews the development of the GCDT project and presents analyses of data collected.

  5. Adrenal Rest Tumor from the Greater Omentum Mimicking Exophytic Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC): A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyung Jo; Kim, Seong Hoon; Shin, Hyun Woong [Daegu Fatima Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Bok [Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Hyun Chul; Son, Mi Young; Kim, Tae Bong [Daegu Veterans Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Adrenal rest tumors are aberrant adrenocortical tissue which has been most commonly described in abdominal and pelvic sites. To our knowledge, there has been no previous description of an adrenal rest tumor of the greater omentum. We present a case of a pathologically confirmed adrenal rest tumor of the greater omentum in a 76-year- old man

  6. A psychological profile of a serial killer: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, T D; Leenaars, Antoon A; Chadha, R K; Manju, Mehta; Lalwani, Sanjeev; Sood, Mamta; Lester, David; Raina, Anupuma; Behera, C

    2012-01-01

    Serial killers have always fascinated society. A serial killer is typically defined as a perpetrator who murders three or more people over a period of time. Most reported cases of serial killers come from the United States and Canada. In India, there are few reported cases. We present, to the best of our knowledge, the first Indian case in the literature. The present case is of a 28-year-old man, Surinder Koli. The Department of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delphi handled the forensic study. We present a most unique psychological investigation into the mind of a serial killer.

  7. Nesting ecology of greater white-fronted geese on the Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge: 1988 progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the nesting ecology of greater white-fronted geese on the Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge. Aerial surveys to document spring phenology and...

  8. Daily reports and pooled time series analysis: pediatric psychology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliday, Elizabeth; Moore, Kevin J; Lande, Marc B

    2002-01-01

    To apply daily reports and pooled time series analysis (PTSA) to issues in pediatric psychology research. We discuss specific applications for this procedure in analyzing repeated observations for a small sample, including medication effects, caregiving role strain, pain reports, and treatment effects. In the PTSA example presented, 20 daily behavior reports were provided by parents of 10 children with steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) during high-dose steroid administration and tapering. The full model, including child age, medication dosage, and between-subjects effects, significantly predicted children's aggressive behavior and anxious/depressed behavior. Steroid dosage significantly predicted aggressive, but not anxious/depressed, behavior. Daily reports analyzed using PTSA provided insight into serious behavioral side effects of steroid medications used to treat SSNS. We discuss the role of pediatric psychologists in addressing medication side effects and other time-related effects detectable using this methodology.

  9. Brief report: reporting practices of methodological information in four journals of pediatric and child psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raad, Jennifer M; Bellinger, Skylar; McCormick, Erica; Roberts, Michael C; Steele, Ric G

    2008-08-01

    To replicate Sifers, Puddy, Warren, and Roberts (2002) examining reporting rates of demographic, methodological, and ethical information in articles published during 1997, and to compare these rates to those found in articles published during 2005, in order to determine whether and how reporting practices of these variables have changed over time. We examined reporting demographic, methodological, and ethical information in articles in four journals: Journal of Pediatric Psychology, Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, and Child Development. Reporting rates during 2005 were compared to articles published during 1997. These four journals improved on many of the 23 variables compared to Sifers et al. including increases in the reporting of ethnicity, attrition, child assent procedures, socioeconomic status, reliability, and reward/incentive offered to participants. Improvements in descriptive information have implications for interpretation, replication, and generalizability of research findings.

  10. Handbook of Psychodiagnostic Testing: Analysis of Personality in the Psychological Report. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerman, Henry; Burry, Anthony

    This handbook offers psychology students, as well as professional psychologists, a central resource for the construction and organization of psychological test reports. It aims to help the reader conceptualize the theory of psychological report development by examining the integration of the concepts and data of personality analysis and the logic…

  11. Relationship between patient-reported symptoms, limitations in daily activities, and psychological impact in varicose veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Rajiv; Lal, Brajesh Kumar; Daugherty, Claire

    2017-03-01

    diameter but were significantly worse for those with severe disease stage, especially C5 or C6. Among m-VEINES-QOL/Sym work-related function items, 47% of patients reported difficulty at work and 31% reported cutting down at work. On nonwork function items, standing for prolonged periods was most affected; 53% were limited a little and 22% were limited a lot. Concern about appearance and choice of clothing predominated among psychological impact items, with 74% and 65%, respectively, affected all or most of the time. The m-VEINES-QOL/Sym functional limitation and psychological impact scores varied by neither GSV diameter nor CEAP C class, but they varied directly with VVSymQ (symptom) score quartiles. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that VVSymQ symptom scores continued to be associated with m-VEINES-QOL/Sym psychological impact scores, even after adjustment for m-VEINES-QOL/Sym functional limitation scores. Substantial patient-reported functional limitation and psychological impact of VVs were observed. Limitations on work, standing for prolonged periods, concern about appearance, and clothing choice were most affected. Patient-reported VVSymQ (symptom) score, an objective patient-reported measure of symptom severity in VVs, was the key predictor of patient-reported m-VEINES-QOL/Sym functional limitations. Symptoms and functional limitations led to greater psychological impact. Physicians should routinely ascertain symptoms and functional limitations to enhance quality of care and to document medical necessity. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Does psychological distress influence reporting of demands and control at work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldenstrom, K; Lundberg, I; Waldenstrom, M; Harenstam, A; MOA, R

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To investigate whether self reporting of psychological demands and control at work is as valid for psychologically distressed subjects as for subjects with psychological wellbeing. Method: Self reported demands and control (according to the model of Karasek) were compared to expert assessments through direct observations of each subject's work conditions concerning time pressure, hindrances, qualification for work tasks, and possibility of having influence. The comparison was made between respondents reporting and not reporting psychological distress as measured by the general health questionnaire with 12 questions (GHQ-12). The sample consisted of 203 men and women in 85 occupations. Result: No systematic differences between self reported and externally assessed working conditions for respondents reporting different levels of psychological distress were found. Conclusion: Over-reporting of work demands or under-reporting of work control is unlikely at the levels of psychological distress studied. PMID:14573721

  13. Computer utilization and clinical judgment in psychological assessment reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberger, Elizabeth O

    2006-01-01

    The process of assessment report writing is a complex one, involving both the statistical evaluation of data and clinical methods of data interpretation to appropriately answer referral questions. Today, a computer often analyzes data generated in a psychological assessment, at least in part. In this article, the author focuses on the interaction between the decision-making processes of human clinicians and the test interpretations that are computer-based. The benefits and problems with computers in assessment are highlighted and are presented alongside the research on the validity of automated assessment, as well as research comparing clinicians and computers in the decision-making process. The author concludes that clinical judgment and computer-based test interpretation each have weaknesses. However, by using certain strategies to reduce clinicians' susceptibility to errors in decision making and to ensure that only valid computer-based test interpretations are used, clinicians can optimize the accuracy of conclusions that they draw in their assessment report.

  14. Personality, psychological stress, and self-reported influenza symptomatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croon Marcel A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological stress and negative mood have been related to increased vulnerability to influenza-like illness (ILI. This prospective study re-evaluated the predictive value of perceived stress for self-reported ILI. We additionally explored the role of the negative affectivity and social inhibition traits. Methods In this study, 5,404 respondents from the general population were assessed in terms of perceived stress, personality, and control variables (vaccination, vitamin use, exercise, etc.. ILI were registered weekly using self-report measures during a follow-up period of four weeks. Results Multivariable logistic regression analysis on ILI was performed to test the predictive power of stress and personality. In this model, negative affectivity (OR = 1.05, p = 0.009, social inhibition (OR = 0.97, p = 0.011, and perceived stress (OR = 1.03, p = 0.048 predicted ILI reporting. Having a history of asthma (OR = 2.33, p = Conclusion Elderly and socially inhibited persons tend to report less ILI as compared to their younger and less socially inhibited counterparts. In contrast, asthma, trait negative affectivity, and perceived stress were associated with higher self-report of ILI. Our results demonstrate the importance of including trait markers in future studies examining the relation between stress and self-report symptom measures.

  15. Case report 358: Desmoid tumor of the greater wing of the right sphenoid bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crisi, G.; Calo, M.; Mauri, C.

    1986-03-01

    In summary, a case has been presented of a 26-year-old man who on admission showed a mild right proptosis and swelling of the right temple. Roentgenograms of the skull demonstrated loss of the right innominate line. CT studies after contrast demonstrated a sharply-demarcated, destructive area of the right greater sphenoid wing with an enhancing, spindle-shaped, soft tissue mass observed around the bony defect. Increased uptake was demonstrated on a radionuclide scan. The lesion was surgically removed and proved to be a desmoid. (orig./SHA).

  16. How report cards on physicians, physician groups, and hospitals can have greater impact on consumer choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaiko, Anna D; Eastman, Diana; Rosenthal, Meredith B

    2012-03-01

    Public report cards with quality and cost information on physicians, physician groups, and hospital providers have proliferated in recent years. However, many of these report cards are difficult for consumers to interpret and have had little impact on the provider choices consumers are making. To gain a more focused understanding of why these reports cards have not been more successful and what improvements could be made, we interviewed experts and surveyed registrants at the March 2011 AHRQ National Summit on Public Reporting for Consumers in Health Care. We found broad agreement that public reporting has been disconnected from consumer decisions about providers because of weaknesses in report card content, design, and accessibility. Policy makers have an opportunity to change the landscape of public reporting by taking advantage of advances in measurement, data collection, and information technology to deliver a more consumer-centered report card. Overcoming the constraint of limited public funding, and achieving the acceptance of providers, is critical to realizing future success.

  17. Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Strategy report and institutional plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, R.C.; Tyacke, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    This document contains two parts. Part I, Greater-Than-Class-C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Strategy, addresses the requirements, responsibilities, and strategy to transport and receive these wastes. The strategy covers (a) transportation packaging, which includes shipping casks and waste containers; (b) transportation operations relating to the five facilities involved in transportation, i.e., waste originator, interim storage, dedicated storage, treatment, and disposal; (c) system safety and risk analysis; (d) routes; (e) emergency preparedness and response; and (o safeguards and security. A summary of strategic actions is provided at the conclusion of Part 1. Part II, Institutional Plan for Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Packaging and Transportation, addresses the assumptions, requirements, and institutional plan elements and actions. As documented in the Strategy and Institutional Plan, the most challenging issues facing the GTCC LLW Program shipping campaign are institutional issues closely related to the strategy. How the Program addresses those issues and demonstrates to the states, local governments, and private citizens that the shipments can and will be made safely will strongly affect the success or failure of the campaign.

  18. Capillary haemangioma of the greater omentum in a 5-month-old female infant: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chateil, J.F. [Hopital Pellegrin, 33 - Bordeaux (France). Service de Neuro-Radiologie; Unite de Radiopediatrie, Hopital Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France); Saragne-Feuga, C.; Brun, M.; Diard, F. [Hopital Pellegrin, 33 - Bordeaux (France). Service de Neuro-Radiologie; Perel, Y. [Service de Pediatrie A, Hopital Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France); Neuenschwander, S. [Service de Radiologie, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Vergnes, P. [Service de Chirurgie Pediatrique, Hopital Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France)

    2000-12-01

    Capillary haemangiomas are frequent benign tumours in infancy. The authors report a case of capillary haemangioma of the greater omentum, discovered in a child of 5 months of age and studied with US, CT and MRI. The localization of such a lesion in the greater omentum is exceptional. Abdominal US revealed a heterogeneous, multinodular intraperitoneal mass. Doppler study demonstrated hypervascularity of the lesion. CT localized the mass to the greater omentum. The mass was hypodense on the unenhanced scan and enhanced massively after injection. The infant suffered a reaction to contrast medium during the CT. MRI demonstrated a mass which was hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. Laparotomy confirmed the location of the mass within the greater omentum and allowed resection of the tumour. (orig.)

  19. Herbal hepatotoxicity by Greater Celandine (Chelidonium majus): causality assessment of 22 spontaneous reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Glass, Xaver; Schulze, Johannes

    2011-12-01

    Toxic liver injury due to the herb Greater Celandine (GC) (Chelidonium majus L.) has been assumed in patients originating from various European countries and created concern. Based on regulatory and liver unspecific ad hoc causality assessments in 22 spontaneous cases of Germany, causality levels for GC were considered probable in 16 and possible in 6 cases. We now analyzed the data of these 22 cases regarding their causality levels employing the liver specific, standardized, structured and quantitative assessment method of the updated scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences). Causality for GC was found highly probable (n=2), probable (n=6), possible (n=10), unlikely (n=1), and excluded (n=3). Thus, causality could be upgraded in 2 cases to a highly probable causality level, but had to be down graded to excluded, unlikely, or possible causality levels in 3, 1, or 9 cases, respectively. GC hepatotoxicity shows a hepatocellular pattern of liver injury with female gender predominance. On average, age of the patients was 56.4 years, treatment 36.4 days, and latency period until first symptoms and jaundice 29.8 and 35.6 days, respectively. This analysis therefore provides further evidence for the existence of GC hepatotoxicity as a distinct form of herb induced liver injury, but due to poor data quality the causal association between GC use and liver injury is less strong than hitherto assumed. We propose replacement of the regulatory organ unspecific by a liver specific causality assessment method in cases of herb induced liver injury as well as stricter pharmacovigilance strategies towards improvements of data quality. Toxicological studies are now warranted to elucidate the mechanism(s) of human GC hepatotoxicity that represents a European issue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Greater Green River Basin production improvement project, Phase 1: Site characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Krystinik, L.F.; Mead, R.H.; Poe, S.C.

    1996-05-01

    Several tight, naturally-fractured, gas-productive formations in the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) in Wyoming have been exploited using conventional vertical well technology. Typically, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed in completing these wells to increase gas production rates to economic levels. However, with the maturation of horizontal drilling technology hydraulic fracture treatments may not be the most effective method for improving gas production from these tight reservoirs. Two of the most prolific tight gas reservoirs in the Green River Basin, the Frontier and the Mesaverde, are candidates for the application of horizontal well completion technology. The objective of the proposed project is to apply the DOE`s technical concept to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift. Previous industry attempts to produce in commercial quantities from the Second Frontier Formation have been hampered by lack of understanding of both the in-situ natural fracture system and lack of adequate stimulation treatments. The proposed technical approach involves drilling a vertical characterization well to the Second Frontier Formation at a depth of approximately 16,000 ft. from a site located about 18 miles northwest of Rock Springs, Wyoming. Logging, coring, and well testing information from the vertical well will be used to design a hydraulic fracturing treatment and to assess the resulting production performance. Data from the vertical drilling phase will be used to design a 2,500 to 3,000-ft lateral wellbore which will be kicked off from the vertical hole and extend into the blanket marine sandstone bench of the Second Frontier Formation. The trajectory of this wellbore will be designed to intersect the maximum number of natural fractures to maximize production rates. Production testing of the resulting completion will provide an assessment of reserve potential related to horizontal lateral completions.

  1. Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  2. Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  3. Self-reported posttraumatic growth predicts greater subsequent posttraumatic stress amidst war and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalta, Alyson K; Gerhart, James; Hall, Brian J; Rajan, Kumar B; Vechiu, Catalina; Canetti, Daphna; Hobfoll, Stevan E

    2017-03-01

    This study tested three alternative explanations for research indicating a positive, but heterogeneous relationship between self-reported posttraumatic growth (PTG) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PSS): (a) the third-variable hypothesis that the relationship between PTG and PSS is a spurious one driven by positive relationships with resource loss, (b) the growth over time hypothesis that the relationship between PTG and PSS is initially a positive one, but becomes negative over time, and (c) the moderator hypothesis that resource loss moderates the relationship between PTG and PSS such that PTG is associated with lower levels of PSS as loss increases. A nationally representative sample (N = 1622) of Israelis was assessed at three time points during a period of ongoing violence. PTG, resource loss, and the interaction between PTG and loss were examined as lagged predictors of PSS to test the proposed hypotheses. Results were inconsistent with all three hypotheses, showing that PTG positively predicted subsequent PSS when accounting for main and interactive effects of loss. Our results suggest that self-reported PTG is a meaningful but counterintuitive predictor of poorer mental health following trauma.

  4. Trypanosoma evansi in dromedary camel: with a case report of zoonosis in greater Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridy, Fouad M; El-Metwally, Mohamed Tolba; Khalil, Hazem H M; Morsy, Tosson A

    2011-04-01

    Trypanosoma evansi (Steel, 1885) Balbiani, is the cause of trypanosomiasis (Surra) which multiples in the blood and body fluids. The incubation period varies from 7-15 days. The mortality rate was up to 20% and fatality rate may reach up to 100% in untreated camels. Three hundred randomly selected camels were 200 males 4-6 years old and 100 females 10-15 years. They were examined clinically and diagnosed by Giemsa stained blood smear, anti- trypanosomiasis-antibodies by ELISA and urine Thymol turbidity test for natural infection with T. evani (Surra). The results showed that camels were naturally infected with T. evansi as indicated by stained blood film examination and/or ELISA. Infection in males was 6.0% (stained blood smears), 8.0% (ELISA) and 5.0% (urine thymol turbidity test). In females the infection rate was 9.0%, 24.0% and 12% respectively. By correlation with suggestive clinical manifestations, ELISA proved to be more sensitive and specific (13.3%) than stained blood films (10.0%) and urine Thymol turbidity test (7.3%). Regarding humans, one out of 30 was positive as indicated by ELISA and stained blood smear but was negative by urine thymol turbidity test. The human case was successfully treated as indicated clinically, parasitologically and serologically. This is the first reported Egyptian human case of trypanosomiasis evansi, a neglected zoonosis.

  5. Reporting Quality of Social and Psychological Intervention Trials: A Systematic Review of Reporting Guidelines and Trial Publications

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Sean P.; Evan Mayo-Wilson; Melendez-Torres, G. J.; Paul Montgomery

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous reviews show that reporting guidelines have improved the quality of trial reports in medicine, yet existing guidelines may not be fully suited for social and psychological intervention trials. OBJECTIVE/DESIGN: We conducted a two-part study that reviewed (1) reporting guidelines for and (2) the reporting quality of social and psychological intervention trials. DATA SOURCES: (1) To identify reporting guidelines, we systematically searched multiple electronic databases and ...

  6. Psychological correlates of self-reported and objectively measured physical activity among Chinese children—psychological correlates of PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aimed to explore the associations among psychological correlates and physical activity (PA) in Chinese children and to further examine whether these associations varied by different PA measures. PA self-efficacy, motivation, and preference were reported in 449 8–13-year-old Chinese childr...

  7. The effect of a career choice guidance on self-reported psychological problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnen, E S

    2014-01-01

    Late adolescents with career choice problems often have psychological problems as well. The starting point of this study was the question of career choice counselors whether potential clients with career choice problems and psychological problems could be accepted in career choice intervention, or whether it was better to advise them to seek help for their psychological problems. We investigated whether a successful career choice intervention reduced psychological problems, and whether this program was equally effective in participants with low and with high levels of psychological problems. Participants were 45 Dutch students (age 17-24) with career choice problems. They had above average levels of self-reported psychological problems before the start of the intervention. These problems decreased significantly following the intervention. With regard to vocational commitment development, the intervention was equally effective for participants with low or average and with (very) high levels of psychological problems before the start of the intervention.

  8. Psychological strategies to reduce energy consumption: project summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, L J; Seligman, C; Darley, J M

    1979-06-30

    This report reviews the research conducted in connection with a project to apply psychological theory and procedures to the problems of encouraging residential energy conservation. A major part of the project involved surveys of residents' energy-related attitudes. The best (and only consistent) attitudinal predictor of residents' actual energy consumption was their attitude about thermal comfort. A number of other attitudes that could conceivably have been related to consumption, such as attitudes about the reality of the crisis, were not found to be related to consumption. Another major focus of the project was on the effectiveness of feedback (that is, giving residents information about their energy use) as an aid to residents' conservation efforts. A series of experiments demonstrated that frequent, credible energy-consumption feedback, coupled with encouragement to adopt a reasonable but difficult energy-conservation goal, could facilitate conservation. However, these studies also demonstrated that residents could not be given just any kind of information about their energy use as feedback and that even proper feedback would not lead to conservation in all households. Conditions that are crucial for the success of feedback as a conservation aid are discussed. Other studies conducted by the project looked at the effect on energy consumption of (1) a device to reduce air-conditioning waste by signalling when it is cool outside, (2) an automatic multi-setback thermostat, and (3) utility companies' average payment plans. A survey of residents' knowledge of their energy use also was conducted. 23 references.

  9. The Relationship between Psychological Dysfunction and Sexuality within a Marital Context. Report on a Literature Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonnesson, Lena Nilsson

    A literature study was conducted to highlight the relationship between psychological dysfunction and sexuality within a marital context. The research reviewed suggests that women report more psychological symptoms, in particular depression, than do men. The husband's personality and functioning appeared to determine the level of marital…

  10. Toward Improved Statistical Reporting in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Fiona; Cumming, Geoff; Thomason, Neil; Pannuzzo, Dominique; Smith, Julian; Fyffe, Penny; Edmonds, Holly; Harrington, Claire; Schmitt, Rachel

    2005-01-01

    Philip Kendall's (1997) editorial encouraged authors in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (JCCP) to report effect sizes and clinical significance. The present authors assessed the influence of that editorial--and other American Psychological Association initiatives to improve statistical practices--by examining 239 JCCP articles…

  11. Toward Improved Statistical Reporting in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Fiona; Cumming, Geoff; Thomason, Neil; Pannuzzo, Dominique; Smith, Julian; Fyffe, Penny; Edmonds, Holly; Harrington, Claire; Schmitt, Rachel

    2005-01-01

    Philip Kendall's (1997) editorial encouraged authors in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (JCCP) to report effect sizes and clinical significance. The present authors assessed the influence of that editorial--and other American Psychological Association initiatives to improve statistical practices--by examining 239 JCCP articles…

  12. Reporting quality of social and psychological intervention trials: a systematic review of reporting guidelines and trial publications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P Grant

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous reviews show that reporting guidelines have improved the quality of trial reports in medicine, yet existing guidelines may not be fully suited for social and psychological intervention trials. OBJECTIVE/DESIGN: We conducted a two-part study that reviewed (1 reporting guidelines for and (2 the reporting quality of social and psychological intervention trials. DATA SOURCES: (1 To identify reporting guidelines, we systematically searched multiple electronic databases and reporting guideline registries. (2 To identify trials, we hand-searched 40 journals with the 10 highest impact factors in clinical psychology, criminology, education, and social work. ELIGIBILITY: (1 Reporting guidelines consisted of articles introducing a checklist of reporting standards relevant to social and psychological intervention trials. (2 Trials reported randomised experiments of complex interventions with psychological, social, or health outcomes. RESULTS: (1 We identified 19 reporting guidelines that yielded 147 reporting standards relevant to social and psychological interventions. Social and behavioural science guidelines included 89 standards not found in CONSORT guidelines. However, CONSORT guidelines used more recommended techniques for development and dissemination compared to other guidelines. (2 Our review of trials (n = 239 revealed that many standards were poorly reported, such as identification as a randomised trial in titles (20% reported the information and abstracts (55%; information about blinding (15%, sequence generation (23%, and allocation concealment (17%; and details about actual delivery of experimental (43% and control interventions (34%, participant uptake (25%, and service environment (28%. Only 11 of 40 journals referenced reporting guidelines in "Instructions to Authors." CONCLUSION: Existing reporting guidelines have important limitations in content, development, and/or dissemination. Important details are routinely

  13. Social and institutional evaluation report for Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T.L.; Lewis, B.E.; Turner, K.H.; Rozelle, M.A. [Dames and Moore, Denver, CO (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report identifies and characterizes social and institutional issues that would be relevant to the siting, licensing, construction, closure, and postclosure of a Greater-Than-Class-C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) disposal facility. A historical perspective of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and LLW disposal programs is provided as an overview of radioactive waste disposal and to support the recommendations and conclusions in the report. A characterization of each issue is provided to establish the basis for further evaluations. Where applicable, the regulatory requirements of 10 CFR 60 and 61 are incorporated in the issue characterizations. The issues are used to compare surface, intermediate depth, and deep geologic disposal alternatives. The evaluation establishes that social and institutional issues do not significantly discriminate among the disposal alternatives. Recommendations are provided for methods by which the issues could be considered throughout the lifecycle of a GTCC LLW disposal program.

  14. Academic Boot Camp for the Writing of Psychology Research Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skues, Jason L.; Wise, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we describe the implementation of, and responses to, a structured writing workshop in the form of an academic boot camp. Participants were 42 undergraduate psychology students from a medium-sized Australian university who were completing their major assignment for the semester. A majority of the students expressed satisfaction with the…

  15. Academic Boot Camp for the Writing of Psychology Research Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skues, Jason L.; Wise, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we describe the implementation of, and responses to, a structured writing workshop in the form of an academic boot camp. Participants were 42 undergraduate psychology students from a medium-sized Australian university who were completing their major assignment for the semester. A majority of the students expressed satisfaction with the…

  16. Waste Management Facilities Cost Information report for Greater-Than-Class C and DOE equivalent special case waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

    1993-07-01

    This Waste Management Facility Cost Information (WMFCI) report for Greater-Than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW) and DOE equivalent special case waste contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities needed for management of GTCC LLW and DOE equivalent waste. The report contains information on 16 facilities (referred to as cost modules). These facilities are treatment facility front-end and back-end support functions (administration support, and receiving, preparation, and shipping cost modules); seven treatment concepts (incineration, metal melting, shredding/compaction, solidification, vitrification, metal sizing and decontamination, and wet/air oxidation cost modules); two storage concepts (enclosed vault and silo); disposal facility front-end functions (disposal receiving and inspection cost module); and four disposal concepts (shallow-land, engineered shallow-land, intermediate depth, and deep geological cost modules). Data in this report allow the user to develop PLCC estimates for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also included in this report.

  17. Adults with Greater Weight Satisfaction Report More Positive Health Behaviors and Have Better Health Status Regardless of BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E. Blake

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prior studies suggest that weight satisfaction may preclude changes in behavior that lead to healthier weight among individuals who are overweight or obese. Objective. To gain a better understanding of complex relationships between weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, and health outcomes. Design. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS. Participants. Large mixed-gender cohort of primarily white, middle-to-upper socioeconomic status (SES adults with baseline examination between 1987 and 2002 (n=19,003. Main Outcome Variables. Weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, chronic health conditions, and clinical health indicators. Statistical Analyses Performed. Chi-square test, t-tests, and linear and multivariate logistic regression. Results. Compared to men, women were more likely to be dieting (32% women; 18% men and had higher weight dissatisfaction. Men and women with greater weight dissatisfaction reported more dieting, yo-yo dieting, and snacking and consuming fewer meals, being less active, and having to eat either more or less than desired to maintain weight regardless of weight status. Those who were overweight or obese and dissatisfied with their weight had the poorest health. Conclusion. Greater satisfaction with one’s weight was associated with positive health behaviors and health outcomes in both men and women and across weight status groups.

  18. Greater Caribbean Energy and Environment Future. Ad hoc working group report, Key Biscayne, Florida, October 26-28, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorhaug, A. (ed.)

    1980-01-01

    This report of Workshop I (presented in outline form) by the Greater Caribbean Energy and Environment Foundation begin an intensive focus on the energy problems of the Caribbean. The process by which environmental assessments by tropical experts can be successfully integrated into energy decisions is by: (1) international loan institutions requiring or strongly recommending excellent assessments; (2) engineering awareness of total effects of energy projects; (3) governmental environmental consciousness-raising with regard to natural resource value and potential inadvertent and unnecessary resource losses during energy development; and (4) media participation. Section headings in the outline are: preamble; introduction; research tasks: today and twenty years hence; needed research, demonstration and information dissemination projects to get knowledge about Caribbean energy-environment used; summary; recommendations; generalized conclusions; and background literature. (JGB)

  19. New reports, phylogenetic analysis, and a key to Lactarius Pers. in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem informed by molecular data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward G. Barge

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE, located in the Central Rocky Mountains of western North America, is one of the largest nearly intact temperate-zone ecosystems on Earth. Here, Lactarius is an important component of ectomycorrhizal communities in many habitat types, from low elevation riparian areas to high elevation conifer forests and alpine tundra. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of ITS and RPB2 gene sequences along with detailed morphological examination confirm at least 20 Lactarius species, as well as three varieties, and one unresolved species group in the GYE. Eight taxa are reported from the GYE for the first time, and nearly every major ectomycorrhizal host plant in the GYE appears to have at least one Lactarius species associated with it. Broad intercontinental distributions are suggested for alpine Salix and Betula associates, and for certain subalpine Picea and aspen (Populus spp. associates. Some species appear to be restricted to western North America with Pinus, Pseudotsuga or Abies. The distribution and/or host affinities of others is not clear due in part to ambiguous host assignment, taxonomic problems or the relative rarity with which they have been reported.

  20. Psychological complaints reported by sexually abused children during criminal investigations: Istanbul example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğangün, Burak; Gönültaş, Burak M; Uzun-Oğuz, Esin; Oral, Gökhan; Öztürk, Meral

    2016-06-01

    The present study aims at describing the psychological complaints reported, as a part of the criminal investigation process, by the victims of sexual abuse as a part of the criminal investigation process, without attempting at reaching a medical diagnosis; and it discusses the relation of these reports with variables such as victim's gender, age and relation to the offender, type and duration of abuse, and parental marital status of the victim. Data is obtained from the statements of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) victims under the age of 15, as taken by Istanbul Juvenile Justice Department between the years 2009 and 2012. The sample consists of 175 cases with a total of 202 victim statements. Through the use of content analysis, the main and sub-categories of themes of the statements were determined. By means of the evaluation of the psychological condition of victims, we evaluated them in two categories: psychological complaints including self-harm and risk taking behaviors and psychological complaints with no self-harm and risk taking behaviors. The statistical analyses yield significant relations between the psychological complaints and children's parental marital status. Analysis of initial statements of sexual abuse victims is important as it may greatly contribute to professionals diagnosing and treating psychological complaints of these victims. It is essential that victims of sexual abuse should receive immediate psychological support starting with the criminal investigation process.

  1. Psychological Features of Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy: Report of Four Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Jenab

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Takotsubo or stress-induced cardiomyopathy is a cardiomyopathy in which the patient has a sudden onset, reversible left ventricular systolic dysfunction without any significant coronary artery disease. Four women, who were at a mean age of 64 years and suffered from chest pain exacerbated by emotional stress, were admitted as cases of acute coronary syndrome and were completely evaluated through precise history taking, physical examination, and ECG. Coronary angiography or coronary multidetector computed tomography was used to exclude significant coronary artery disease. In these patients with confirmed Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, in addition to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association (DSM-IV criteria, a 71-item form of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-Mini-Mult-was employed for psychological assessment. The main common elevated scale was hypochondriasis. Individuals with high scores on this scale are obsessed with themselves, especially in regard to their body, and often use their disease symptoms in order to manipulate others. They are mainly passive aggressive, critical, and demanding, which stems from their lack of effective verbal abilities as a means of communication, specifically when it comes to anger or hostility expression. To the best of our knowledge, there is no available study evaluating patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy using the Mini-Mult questionnaire for psychological assessment.

  2. Psychological Features of Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy: Report of Four Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenab, Yaser; Hashemi, Seyedeh Roghaieh; Ghaffari-Marandi, Neda; Zafarghandi, Hoda; Shahmansouri, Nazila

    2017-01-01

    Takotsubo or stress-induced cardiomyopathy is a cardiomyopathy in which the patient has a sudden onset, reversible left ventricular systolic dysfunction without any significant coronary artery disease. Four women, who were at a mean age of 64 years and suffered from chest pain exacerbated by emotional stress, were admitted as cases of acute coronary syndrome and were completely evaluated through precise history taking, physical examination, and ECG. Coronary angiography or coronary multidetector computed tomography was used to exclude significant coronary artery disease. In these patients with confirmed Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, in addition to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association (DSM-IV) criteria, a 71-item form of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-Mini-Mult-was employed for psychological assessment. The main common elevated scale was hypochondriasis. Individuals with high scores on this scale are obsessed with themselves, especially in regard to their body, and often use their disease symptoms in order to manipulate others. They are mainly passive aggressive, critical, and demanding, which stems from their lack of effective verbal abilities as a means of communication, specifically when it comes to anger or hostility expression. To the best of our knowledge, there is no available study evaluating patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy using the Mini-Mult questionnaire for psychological assessment. PMID:28828027

  3. The Relationship among Self-Report and Measured Report of Psychological Abuse, and Depression for a Sample of Women Involved in Intimate Relationships with Male Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Virginia; Warner, Kelly; Trahan, Courtenay; Miscavage, Karen

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between level of depression and level of psychological abuse in women. In addition, the relationship between the use of self-report and measured report of psychological abuse within an intimate relationship was assessed. One hundred women were surveyed using the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory…

  4. The Relationship among Self-Report and Measured Report of Psychological Abuse, and Depression for a Sample of Women Involved in Intimate Relationships with Male Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Virginia; Warner, Kelly; Trahan, Courtenay; Miscavage, Karen

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between level of depression and level of psychological abuse in women. In addition, the relationship between the use of self-report and measured report of psychological abuse within an intimate relationship was assessed. One hundred women were surveyed using the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory…

  5. Ecology of Greater Sage-Grouse in the Bi-State Planning Area Final Report, September 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Michael L.; Overton, Cory T.; Farinha, Melissa A.; Torregrosa, Alicia; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Miller, Michael R.; Sedinger, James S.; Kolada, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Conservation efforts for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), hereafter sage-grouse, are underway across the range of this species. Over 70 local working groups have been established and are implementing on-the-ground sage-grouse oriented conservation projects. Early on in this process, the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) recognized the need to join in these efforts and received funding from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) under the Candidate Species Conservation Program to help develop a species conservation plan for sage-grouse in the Mono County area. This conservation plan covers portions of Alpine, Mono, and Inyo counties in California and Douglas, Esmeralda, Lyon, and Mineral counties in Nevada. A concurrent effort underway through the Nevada Governor's Sage-grouse Conservation Team established Local Area Working Groups across Nevada and eastern California. The Mono County populations of sage-grouse were encompassed by the Bi-State Local Planning Area, which was comprised of six population management units (PMUs). The state agencies from California (CDFG) and Nevada (Nevada Department of Wildlife; NDOW) responsible for the management of sage-grouse agreed to utilize the process that had begun with the Nevada Governor's Team in order to develop local plans for conservation planning and implementation. Resources from the USFWS were applied to several objectives in support of the development of the Bi-State Local Area Sage-grouse Conservation Plan through a grant to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Objectives included: (1) participate in the development of the Bi-State Conservation Plan, (2) compile and synthesize existing sage-grouse data, (3) document seasonal movements of sage-grouse, (4) identify habitats critical to sage-grouse, (5) determine survival rates and identify causal factors of mortality, (6) determine nest success and brood success of sage-grouse, and (7) identify sage-grouse lek sites. Progress reports

  6. Towards a greater understanding of the illicit tobacco trade in Europe: a review of the PMI funded 'Project Star' report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Rowell, Andy; Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; Joossens, Luk; Sims, Michelle

    2014-05-01

    Following a legal agreement with the European Union (EU), Philip Morris International (PMI) commissions a yearly report ('Project Star', PS) on the European illicit cigarette trade from KPMG, the global accountancy firm. Review of PS 2010 report. Comparison with data from independent sources including a 2010 pan-European survey (N=18,056). Within PS, data covering all 27 EU countries are entered into a model. While the model itself seems appropriate, concerns are identified with the methodologies underlying the data inputs and thus their quality: there is little transparency over methodologies; interview data underestimate legal non-domestic product partly by failing to account for legal cross-border sales; illicit cigarette estimates rely on tobacco industry empty pack surveys which may overestimate illicit; and there is an over-reliance on data supplied by PMI with inadequate external validation. Thus, PMI sales data are validated using PMI smoking prevalence estimates, yet PMI is unable to provide sales (shipment) data for the Greek islands and its prevalence estimates differ grossly from independent data. Consequently, comparisons with independent data suggest PS will tend to overestimate illicit cigarette levels particularly where cross-border shopping is frequent (Austria, Finland, France) and in Western compared with Eastern European countries. The model also provides data on the nature of the illicit cigarette market independent of seizure data suggesting that almost a quarter of the illicit cigarette market in 2010 comprised PMI's own brands compared with just 5% counterfeited PMI brands; a finding hidden in PMI's public representation of the data. PS overestimates illicit cigarette levels in some European countries and suggests PMI's supply chain control is inadequate. Its publication serves the interests of PMI over those of the EU and its member states. PS requires greater transparency, external scrutiny and use of independent data. Published by the BMJ

  7. Self-reported psychological development in cosmetic breast surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-San-Gregorio, María Ángeles; Martín-Rodríguez, Agustín; Arias-Moreno, María Jesús; Rincón-Fernández, María Esther; Ortega-Martínez, José Ignacio

    2016-12-01

    Cosmetic breast surgery is the only therapeutic alternative for psychological and physical complications associated with micromasty, breast ptosis, and macromasty. We analyzed the effects of 2 variables, time, and type of cosmetic breast surgery, on anxiety symptomatology and quality of life.Following a mixed 3 × 4 design, 3 groups of women with breast augmentation (n = 63), mastopexy (n = 42), and breast reduction (n = 30) were selected and evaluated using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey at 4 different times, the preoperative stage, and at 1, 6, and 12 months postoperative. Pearson's chi square, Welch's U, Games-Howell tests, mixed analysis of variance, and Cohen's d and w for effect size were calculated.Results relating to anxiety (state and trait) showed that the time factor was significant (P surgery and time factors were found to have interactive effects on vitality (P = 0.044) and role-emotional (P = 0.023) dimensions. Compared to the other 2 groups, women who had undergone mastopexy felt worse (vitality) at 1 month since surgery than in the other stages, and better at 6 months since surgery (role-emotional). In the rest of the dimensions, and focusing on the most relevant effect sizes, the type of surgery made a difference in the physical functioning (P = 0.005) and role-physical (P = 0.020) dimensions, where women who had had breast reduction felt worse than those who had had augmentation. Time also resulted in differences in the physical functioning (P surgery than during the rest of the stages, as well as in the social functioning dimension (P cosmetic breast surgery recover their physical and psychological well-being.

  8. Outlier Removal and the Relation with Reporting Errors and Quality of Psychological Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Marjan; Wicherts, Jelte M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The removal of outliers to acquire a significant result is a questionable research practice that appears to be commonly used in psychology. In this study, we investigated whether the removal of outliers in psychology papers is related to weaker evidence (against the null hypothesis of no effect), a higher prevalence of reporting errors, and smaller sample sizes in these papers compared to papers in the same journals that did not report the exclusion of outliers from the analyses. Methods and Findings We retrieved a total of 2667 statistical results of null hypothesis significance tests from 153 articles in main psychology journals, and compared results from articles in which outliers were removed (N = 92) with results from articles that reported no exclusion of outliers (N = 61). We preregistered our hypotheses and methods and analyzed the data at the level of articles. Results show no significant difference between the two types of articles in median p value, sample sizes, or prevalence of all reporting errors, large reporting errors, and reporting errors that concerned the statistical significance. However, we did find a discrepancy between the reported degrees of freedom of t tests and the reported sample size in 41% of articles that did not report removal of any data values. This suggests common failure to report data exclusions (or missingness) in psychological articles. Conclusions We failed to find that the removal of outliers from the analysis in psychological articles was related to weaker evidence (against the null hypothesis of no effect), sample size, or the prevalence of errors. However, our control sample might be contaminated due to nondisclosure of excluded values in articles that did not report exclusion of outliers. Results therefore highlight the importance of more transparent reporting of statistical analyses. PMID:25072606

  9. The prevalence of statistical reporting errors in psychology (1985-2013)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuijten, M.B.; Hartgerink, C.H.J.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.; Epskamp, S.; Wicherts, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study documents reporting errors in a sample of over 250,000 p-values reported in eight major psychology journals from 1985 until 2013, using the new R package “statcheck.” statcheck retrieved null-hypothesis significance testing (NHST) results from over half of the articles from this period. I

  10. Educational Psychology Services and Their Futures: Some Responses to the DfEE Working Group Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Rob; Gersch, Irvine; Fox, Glenys; Lown, Jackie; Morris, Sue

    2001-01-01

    This article examines a recent British government report on the role of educational psychology services in better promoting the development and learning of all students. It notes positive aspects of the report, especially its description of what educational psychologists can do to make a difference, but also describes problems of impact and…

  11. Status of iberomerican journals of psychology at the 2010 Journal Citation Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Quevedo-Blasco

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to show the current landscape of the visibility and popularity of scientific journals in psychology published in Latin American countries, according to a recent Journal Citation Reports (JCR 2010. This is a descriptive study using analysis of documents. We analyzed a total of 18 journals, of which 61.11 % (11 are Spanish, 33.33 % (6 are Latin American and 5.55 % (1 Portuguese, 50 % are indexed in the category of “Psychology, Multidisciplinary “ and the Latin American magazine with the Impact Factor (IF 2010 Universitas Psychologica is higher (1,283, followed by Psicología: Reflexão e Crítica (1,124. Contradictorily. Latin American journal that has obtained the highest indexed IF fits the category of “Psychology, Clinical” and it is about International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology (1,842.

  12. A Call for Considering Color Vision Deficiency When Creating Graphics for Psychology Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frane, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Although color vision deficiency (CVD) is fairly common, it is often not adequately considered when data is presented in color graphics. This study found that CVD tends to be mentioned neither in the author guidelines of psychology journals nor in the standard publication manuals of the field (e.g., the publication manuals of the American Psychological Association and the American Medical Association). To illustrate the relevance of this problem, a panel of scholars with CVD was used to evaluate the color figures in three respected psychological science journals. Results suggested that a substantial proportion of those figures were needlessly confusing for viewers with CVD and could have been easily improved through simple adjustments. Based on prior literature and on feedback from the panelists, recommendations are made for improving the accessibility of graphics in psychology reports.

  13. Progress report 1988: predator control to enhance production of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon has declined from 181 pairs in 1986 when predator control began to 137...

  14. Progress report 1989: predator control to enhance the production of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon has declined from 236 pairs in 1971 to 181 pairs in 1986 when predator...

  15. Progress report 1987: predator control to enhance the production of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon has declined from 236 pairs in 1971 to 181 pairs in 1986. Nesting...

  16. Progress Report 1986 : Predator Control to Enhance the Production of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon has declined from 236 pairs in 1971 to 181 pairs in 1986. Nesting...

  17. Progress report 1991: predator control to enhance the production of greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon had declined from 236 pairs in 1971 to 181 pairs in 1986 when predator...

  18. Progress Report 1990: predator control to enhance the production of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon had declined from 236 pairs in 1971 to 181 pairs in 1986 when predator...

  19. Expressive writing promotes self-reported physical, social and psychological health among Chinese undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhihan; Tang, Xiaoqing; Duan, Wenjie; Zhang, Yonghong

    2015-03-01

    The present study examines the efficacy of expressive writing among Chinese undergraduates. The sample comprised of 74 undergraduates enrolled in a 9-week intervention (35 in experimental class vs. 39 in control class). The writing exercises were well-embedded in an elective course for the two classes. The 46-item simplified Chinese Self-Rated Health Measurement Scale, which assesses psychological, physical and social health, was adopted to measure the outcome of this study. Baseline (second week) and post-test (ninth week) scores were obtained during the classes. After the intervention on the eighth week, the self-reported psychological, social and physical health of the experimental class improved. Psychological health obtained the maximum degree of improvement, followed by social and physical health. Furthermore, female participants gained more psychological improvement than males. These results demonstrated that the expressive writing approach could improve the physical, social and psychological health of Chinese undergraduates, and the method can be applied in university psychological consulting settings in Mainland China.

  20. Psychological entitlement: interpersonal consequences and validation of a self-report measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, W Keith; Bonacci, Angelica M; Shelton, Jeremy; Exline, Julie J; Bushman, Brad J

    2004-08-01

    Nine studies were conducted with the goal of developing a self-report measure of psychological entitlement and assessing its interpersonal consequences. The Psychological Entitlement Scale (PES) was found to be reliable and valid (Study 1, 2), not associated with social desirability (Study 2), stable across time (Study 3), and correlated negatively with two of the Big Five factors: agreeableness and emotional stability (Study 4). The validity of the PES was confirmed in studies that assessed willingness to take candy designated for children (Study 5) and reported deservingness of pay in a hypothetical employment setting (Study 6). Finally, the PES was linked to important interpersonal consequences including competitive choices in a commons dilemma (Study 7), selfish approaches to romantic relationships (Study 8), and aggression following ego threat (Study 9). Psychological entitlement has a pervasive and largely unconstructive impact on social behavior.

  1. Social capital, political trust and self-reported psychological health: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Martin; Mohseni, Mohabbat

    2009-02-01

    This study investigates the association between political trust (an aspect of institutional trust) in the Riksdag (the national parliament in Sweden) and self-reported psychological health, taking generalized (horizontal) trust in other people into account. The 2004 public health survey in Skåne in Southern Sweden is a cross-sectional postal questionnaire study that was answered by 27,757 respondents aged 18-80 yielding a 59% response rate. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the associations between political trust and self-reported psychological health adjusting for possible confounders (age, country of origin, education, economic stress and generalized trust in other people i.e. horizontal trust). We found that 13.0% of the men and 18.9% of the women reported poor psychological health. A total of 17.3% and 11.6% of the male and female respondents, respectively, reported that they had no trust at all in the national parliament, and another 38.2% and 36.2%, respectively, reported that their political trust was not particularly high. Respondents in younger age groups, born abroad, with high education, high levels of economic stress, low horizontal trust and low political trust had significantly higher levels of self-reported poor psychological health. There was a significant association between low political trust and low horizontal trust. After adjustments for age, country of origin, education and economic stress, the inclusion of horizontal trust reduced the odds ratios of self-reported poor psychological health in the "no political trust at all" category compared to the "very high political trust" category from 1.6 to 1.4 among men and from 1.7 to 1.4 among women. It is concluded that low political trust in the Riksdag seems to be significantly and positively associated with poor mental health.

  2. Case Report: Anteromedial temporosphenoidal encephalocele with a clinically silent lateral bony defect in the greater wing of the sphenoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Anoop

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Anteromedial temporosphenoidal encephalocele is the least common type of temporal encephalocele. It commonly presents with spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea in adults. This article presents the CT cisternography and MRI findings of one such case, which also had an associated clinically silent defect in the greater wing of the sphenoid on the same side.

  3. SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGY: REPORT ON AN EXPERIMENT IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

    OpenAIRE

    Vebber, Fernanda Cañete

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to present an experience report about the work of scholar psychologists in Elementary School, emphasizing the development of a teaching project. This project intended to improve the interpersonal relationship between students in a fourth grade class. Through group work, method proposed by the new pedagogy of Jean Piaget (1998), and problematizing education of Paulo Freire (1997), systematic meetings were held with students to reflect on ethical values , ...

  4. Brief Report: Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies and Psychological Adjustment in Adolescents with a Chronic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnefski, Nadia; Koopman, Hendrik; Kraaij, Vivian; ten Cate, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Objective of the study was to examine how cognitive emotion regulation strategies were related to psychological maladjustment in adolescents with a chronic disease. The sample consisted of adolescents with a diagnosis of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA). A self-report questionnaire was used to assess Internalizing problems and Quality of Life.…

  5. Reporting Standards for Research in Psychology: Why Do We Need Them? What Might They Be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In anticipation of the impending revision of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, APA's Publications and Communications Board formed the Working Group on Journal Article Reporting Standards (JARS) and charged it to provide the board with background and recommendations on information that should be included in…

  6. Self-report disability in an international primary care study of psychological illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VonKorff, M; Ustun, TB; Ormel, J; Kaplan, [No Value; Simon, GE

    We assessed the replicability of reliability and validity of a brief self-report disability scale, adapted from the Medical Outcomes Survey (short form), in a 15-center, cross-national, multilingual study of psychological illness among primary care patients (n = 5438). Across all 15 centers in the

  7. PsychDisclosure.org: Grassroot Support for Reforming Reporting Standards in Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LeBel, E.P.; Borsboom, D.; Giner-Sorolla, R.; Hasselman, F.; Peters, K.R.; Ratliff, K.A.; Smith, C.T.

    2013-01-01

    There is currently an unprecedented level of doubt regarding the reliability of research findings in psychology. Many recommendations have been made to improve the current situation. This article reports results from PsychDisclosure.org, a novel open-science initiative that provides a platform for

  8. Reporting Standards for Research in Psychology: Why Do We Need Them? What Might They Be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In anticipation of the impending revision of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, APA's Publications and Communications Board formed the Working Group on Journal Article Reporting Standards (JARS) and charged it to provide the board with background and recommendations on information that should be included in…

  9. Social Cognition, Executive Functions and Self-Report of Psychological Distress in Huntington's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ida Unmack; Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik; Gade, Anders; Vogel, Asmus

    2016-12-28

    Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by motor symptoms, psychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment in, inter alia, executive functions and social cognition. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between subjective feeling of psychological distress using a self-report questionnaire and performances on tests of executive functions and social cognition in a large consecutive cohort of HD patients. 50 manifest HD patients were tested in social cognition and executive functions and each answered a self-report questionnaire about current status of perceived psychological distress (the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R)). Correlation analyses of test performance and SCL-90-R scores were made as well as stepwise linear regression analyses with the SCL-90-R GSI score and test performances as dependent variables. We found that less psychological distress was significantly associated with worse performances on social cognitive tests (mean absolute correlation .34) and that there were no significant correlations between perceived psychological distress and performance on tests of executive functions. The correlations between perceived psychological distress and performance on social cognitive tests remained significant after controlling for age, Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale-99 total motor score and performance on tests of executive functions. Based on previous findings that insight and apathy are closely connected and may be mediated by overlapping neuroanatomical networks involving the prefrontal cortex and frontostriatal circuits, we speculate that apathy/and or impaired insight may offer an explanation for the correlation between self-report of psychological distress and performance on social cognitive tests in this study.

  10. Status of iberomerican journals of psychology at the 2010 Journal Citation Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Raúl Quevedo-Blasco; Wilson lópez-lópez

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to show the current landscape of the visibility and popularity of scientific journals in psychology published in Latin American countries, according to a recent Journal Citation Reports (JCR) 2010. This is a descriptive study using analysis of documents. We analyzed a total of 18 journals, of which 61.11 % (11) are Spanish, 33.33 % (6) are Latin American and 5.55 % (1) Portuguese, 50 % are indexed in the category of “Psychology, Multidisciplinary “ and the Latin Ameri...

  11. Status of iberomerican journals of psychology at the 2010 Journal Citation Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Quevedo-Blasco, Raúl; University of Granada; López López, Wilson; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to show the current landscape of the visibility and popularity of scientific journals in psychology published in Latin American countries, according to a recent Journal Citation Reports (JCR) 2010. This is a descriptive study using analysis of documents. We analyzed a total of 18 journals, of which 61.11 % (11) are Spanish, 33.33 % (6) are Latin American and 5.55 % (1) Portuguese, 50 % are indexed in the category of “Psychology, Multidisciplinary “ and the Latin Ameri...

  12. Social desirability response bias and self-report of psychological distress in pediatric chronic pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Deirdre E; Claar, Robyn Lewis; Scharff, Lisa

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate associations between social desirability response bias and self-report of pain, disability, and psychological distress (depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms) in a sample of children presenting to a multidisciplinary pediatric chronic pain clinic. A retrospective review was conducted on 414 consecutive clinic patients, ages 12-17 years, with chronic pain complaints of at least 3 months' duration. As part of a clinical battery, children completed self-report psychological questionnaires including the Children's Depression Inventory, Children's Somatization Inventory, and Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale including the Lie Scale, an indicator of social desirability influence. Children also provided self report of pain intensity, pain duration and functional disability. Clinician ratings of anxiety and depressive symptoms also were collected. Results show that children scoring high on the measure of social desirability reported fewer symptoms of depression and anxiety compared to children scoring low on the social desirability index. No differences arose between these groups on reports of somatic symptoms, pain duration, or pain-related disability. These findings suggest that social desirability response bias may have implications for the self-report of psychological distress among pediatric chronic pain patients. The limits of self-report of symptoms should be considered in the clinical and research contexts.

  13. Reporting Results from Structural Equation Modeling Analyses in Archives of Scientific Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Rick H; Isherwood, Jennifer C

    2013-02-01

    Psychological research typically involves the analysis of data (e.g., questionnaire responses, records of behavior) using statistical methods. The description of how those methods are used and the results they produce is a key component of scholarly publications. Despite their importance, these descriptions are not always complete and clear. In order to ensure the completeness and clarity of these descriptions, the Archives of Scientific Psychology requires that authors of manuscripts to be considered for publication adhere to a set of publication standards. Although the current standards cover most of the statistical methods commonly used in psychological research, they do not cover them all. In this manuscript, we propose adjustments to the current standards and the addition of additional standards for a statistical method not adequately covered in the current standards-structural equation modeling (SEM). Adherence to the standards we propose would ensure that scholarly publications that report results of data analyzed using SEM are complete and clear.

  14. Reporting Standards for Research in Psychology: Why Do We Need Them? What Might They Be?

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    In anticipation of the impending revision of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, APA’s Publications and Communications Board formed the Working Group on Journal Article Reporting Standards (JARS) and charged it to provide the board with background and recommendations on information that should be included in manuscripts submitted to APA journals that report (a) new data collections and (b) meta-analyses. The JARS Group reviewed efforts in related fields to develo...

  15. Negative affectivity: how serious a threat to self-report studies of psychological distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, R T; Barnett, R C

    1998-01-01

    Serious questions have been raised about the common practice of relying on self-report measures to assess the relation between subjective role experiences on the one hand and both mental and physical health symptoms on the other. Such self-report measures may reflect a common underlying dimension of negative affectivity (NA), thereby leading to spurious results. In this article, we present findings from analyses in which we estimate, using a hierarchical linear model, the relation between subjective experiences in job and marital roles and self-reports of symptoms of psychological distress after controlling for NA in a sample of 300 full-time employed men and women in married couples. Results demonstrate (a) that NA can account for a great deal of the variation in self-reported psychological distress, as much as half in the case of the men in the sample; (b) that estimates of the relations between a self-reported predictor of social-role quality (e.g., marital-role quality, job-role quality) may be biased by failure to include NA as a predictor of self-reported psychological distress; (c) that the degree of bias in these estimates is dependent on the nature of the predictor, and (d) that the role of NA as a confounder does not appear to be dependent on gender.

  16. Complicated sternal dehiscence treated with the strasbourg thoracic osteosyntheses system (STRATOS and the transposition of greater omentum: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casablanca Giuseppe

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sternal dehiscence is a serious complication after cardiac surgery. Sternal refixation, performed by simple rewiring or techniqual modification of rewiring as described by Robicsek, can fail, overall when the bone quality is poor or the sternum is completely destroyed. The sternal closure systems, consisting of plates, screws or rib clips and titanium bars, have been recently introduced to treat the complicated sternal dehiscence. We describe for the first time the use of the Strasbourg Thoracic Osteosyntheses System (STRATOS and the greater omentum, to treat a complicated sternal dehiscence, causing chest pain and respiratory failure.

  17. Educational Psychology in Scotland: Making a Difference. An Aspect Report on the Findings of Inspections of Local Authority Educational Psychology Services 2006-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report provides, for the first time, an overview based on inspections of all 32 local authority educational psychology services. The picture it presents is broadly a very positive one although it also points to areas in which there is certainly scope for further improvement. The report shows that services are making a positive difference to…

  18. Psychological problems in Iranian adolescents: application of the self report form of strengths and difficulties questionnaire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mohammadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the epidemiology of psychological problems in adolescents in five provinces of Tehran, Khorasan Razavi, Isfahan, East Azerbaijan and Fars in Iran.In the present cross-sectional and descriptive - analytical study, 5171 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were selected through multistage cluster sampling method from Tehran, Isfahan, Fars, Khorasan Razavi and East Azarbaijan provinces. The self-report form of Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ was used to obtain the demographic data of each adolescent. Descriptive analysis and 95% confidence interval were used to investigate the relationship between scores of the SDQ questionnaire and demographic factors.Based on the results, the highest prevalence of psychological problems in the five provinces was related to conduct problems (24%, and the lowest prevalence was related to social problems (5.76%. Also, comparison of 95% confidence interval of prevalence of psychological problems between the two genders suggested a significant difference only in emotional problems of the self-report version of the SDQ between the two genders. The result revealed no significant difference in the psychological problems of the self-report version of the SDQ between the two age's groups and between the middle and high school graduates (p≤0.05. Among the 5 provinces, Fars allocated the highest rates of conduct problems (28.4, hyperactivity problems (21.5% and overall criterion problems (17.3%; Esfahan had the highest rates of emotional problems (9.1% and problems with peers (8.1%; and Khorasan Razavi had the highest rates of social problems (7.6%.In this study, the highest prevalence of psychological problems in the five provinces was related to conduct problems, and the lowest prevalence was related to social problems. It was determined that girls have more emotional problems than boys. Also, no significant difference was found in the psychological problems of 12

  19. The Relationship between Reports of Psychological Capital and Reports of Job Satisfaction among Administrative Personnel at a Private Institution of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, James A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this single-site case study was to investigate the relationship between administrative personnel's reports of psychological capital (Luthans, Youssef, & Avolio, 2007) and their reports of job satisfaction (Hackman & Oldham, 1980). Specifically, two surveys, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (Luthans, Youssef, &…

  20. Characteristics Associated with Psychological, Physical, Sexual Abuse, Caregiver Neglect and Financial Exploitation in U.S. Chinese Older Adults: Findings from the Population-Based Cohort Study in the Greater Chicago Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqi Dong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the socio-demographic and health related characteristics of elder mistreatment (EM in a community-dwelling older Chinese population. Methods: Guided by a community-based participatory research approach, the PINE study conducted in-person interviews with 3,159 U.S. Chinese older adults aged 60 years and older in the Greater Chicago area from 2011–2013. Participants answered questions regarding psychological, physical and sexual mistreatment, caregiver neglect, and financial exploitation. Definitional approaches for EM subtypes were constructed from least restrictive to most restrictive. Results: The sociodemographic and health-related characteristics associated with EM differed by type of mistreatment and by the operational definition used. Living with fewer people, having been born in countries other than China, poorer health status, and lower quality of life were significantly correlated with physical mistreatment. Only higher education was positively and significantly associated with sexual mistreatment and only poorer health status was consistently correlated with psychological mistreatment among all definitions. Male gender, higher educational levels, higher income, fewer children, and having been in the U.S. for fewer years were significantly correlated with financial exploitation. As for caregiver neglect, older age, having more children, having been in the U.S. for more years, poorer health status, lower quality of life, and worsening health over the past year were consistently correlated with caregiver neglect with different definitions. Conclusions: Prevention and intervention programs on EM should be geared towards specific types of mistreatment. Studies on EM should conduct a thorough analysis to justify the operational definition used.

  1. EnergyWorks Final Report: A Better Buildings Neighborhood Program in the Five-County Greater Philadelphia Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajewski, Katherine [City of Philadelphia

    2014-03-05

    This report covers the grant performance period of July 1, 2010-September 30, 2013 and discusses of the program design, outcomes and best practices as they relate to the following six areas: 1. Institutional Design and Business Model; 2. Program Design and Customer Experience; 3. Driving Demand; 4. Workforce Development; 5. Financing and Incentives; 6. Data and Evaluation.

  2. Do older people with visual impairment and living alone in a rural developing country report greater difficulty in managing stairs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairi, Noran N; Bulgiba, Awang; Peramalah, Devi; Mudla, Izzuna

    2013-01-01

    Managing stairs is a challenging activity of daily living (ADL) for older people. This study aims to examine the association between visual impairment and difficulty in managing stairs among older people living alone and those living with others. A population-based cross sectional study was conducted in rural Malaysia from 2007 till 2008. Seven hundred and sixty five older people aged 60 years and over underwent eye examination for visual impairment. Visual acuity criteria were used to define visual impairment. Presenting visual acuity was assessed using a standard metric Snellen Chart of E type. Difficulty in managing stairs was measured according to a question drawn from the Barthel Index which asks "do you need help in climbing stairs". Overall, the prevalence of difficulty in managing stairs among older people in our population was 135 (18.3%, 95% CI 15.7-21.2). After adjusting for important confounders the odds ratio (OR) for visual impairment and difficulty in managing stairs among older people living alone was 5.04 (95% CI 2.27, 10.62). Among older people living with others, the adjusted OR for visual impairment and difficulty in managing stairs was 3.10 (95% CI 1.52, 6.80). In a sample of older people aged 60 years and over, those living alone with visual impairment had greater difficulty in managing stairs than those living with others. Identification of these groups of older people is useful for targeting interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Natural Recharge to the Unconfined Aquifer System on the Hanford Site from the Greater Cold Creek Watershed: Progress Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waichler, Scott R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2004-09-14

    Movement of contaminants in groundwater at the Hanford Site is heavily dependent on recharge to the unconfined aquifer. As the effects of past artificial discharges dissipate, the water table is expected to return to more natural conditions, and natural recharge will become the driving force when evaluating future groundwater flow conditions and related contaminant transport. Previous work on the relationship of natural recharge to groundwater movement at the Hanford Site has focused on direct recharge from infiltrating rainfall and snowmelt within the area represented by the Sitewide Groundwater Model (SGM) domain. However, part of the groundwater recharge at Hanford is provided by flow from Greater Cold Creek watershed (GCC), a large drainage area on the western boundary of the Hanford Site that includes Cold Creek Valley, Dry Creek Valley, and the Hanford side of Rattlesnake Mountain. This study was undertaken to estimate the recharge from GCC, which is believed to enter the unconfined aquifer as both infiltrating streamflow and shallow subsurface flow. To estimate recharge, the Distributed Hydrology-Soil-Vegetation Model (DHSVM) was used to simulate a detailed water balance of GCC from 1956 to 2001 at a spatial resolution of 200~m and a temporal resolution of one hour. For estimating natural recharge to Hanford from watersheds along its western and southwestern boundaries, the most important aspects that need to be considered are 1)~distribution and relative magnitude of precipitation and evapotranspiration over the watershed, 2)~streamflow generation at upper elevations and infiltration at lower elevations during rare runoff events, and 3)~permeability of the basalt bedrock surface underlying the soil mantle.

  4. Transparency of Outcome Reporting and Trial Registration of Randomized Controlled Trials Published in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleine Azar

    Full Text Available Confidence that randomized controlled trial (RCT results accurately reflect intervention effectiveness depends on proper trial conduct and the accuracy and completeness of published trial reports. The Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (JCCP is the primary trials journal amongst American Psychological Association (APA journals. The objectives of this study were to review RCTs recently published in JCCP to evaluate (1 adequacy of primary outcome analysis definitions; (2 registration status; and, (3 among registered trials, adequacy of outcome registrations. Additionally, we compared results from JCCP to findings from a recent study of top psychosomatic and behavioral medicine journals.Eligible RCTs were published in JCCP in 2013-2014. For each RCT, two investigators independently extracted data on (1 adequacy of outcome analysis definitions in the published report, (2 whether the RCT was registered prior to enrolling patients, and (3 adequacy of outcome registration.Of 70 RCTs reviewed, 12 (17.1% adequately defined primary or secondary outcome analyses, whereas 58 (82.3% had multiple primary outcome analyses without statistical adjustment or undefined outcome analyses. There were 39 (55.7% registered trials. Only two trials registered prior to patient enrollment with a single primary outcome variable and time point of assessment. However, in one of the two trials, registered and published outcomes were discrepant. No studies were adequately registered as per Standard Protocol Items: Recommendation for Interventional Trials guidelines. Compared to psychosomatic and behavioral medicine journals, the proportion of published trials with adequate outcome analysis declarations was significantly lower in JCCP (17.1% versus 32.9%; p = 0.029. The proportion of registered trials in JCCP (55.7% was comparable to behavioral medicine journals (52.6%; p = 0.709.The quality of published outcome analysis definitions and trial registrations in JCCP is

  5. Transparency of Outcome Reporting and Trial Registration of Randomized Controlled Trials Published in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Marleine; Riehm, Kira E; McKay, Dean; Thombs, Brett D

    2015-01-01

    Confidence that randomized controlled trial (RCT) results accurately reflect intervention effectiveness depends on proper trial conduct and the accuracy and completeness of published trial reports. The Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (JCCP) is the primary trials journal amongst American Psychological Association (APA) journals. The objectives of this study were to review RCTs recently published in JCCP to evaluate (1) adequacy of primary outcome analysis definitions; (2) registration status; and, (3) among registered trials, adequacy of outcome registrations. Additionally, we compared results from JCCP to findings from a recent study of top psychosomatic and behavioral medicine journals. Eligible RCTs were published in JCCP in 2013-2014. For each RCT, two investigators independently extracted data on (1) adequacy of outcome analysis definitions in the published report, (2) whether the RCT was registered prior to enrolling patients, and (3) adequacy of outcome registration. Of 70 RCTs reviewed, 12 (17.1%) adequately defined primary or secondary outcome analyses, whereas 58 (82.3%) had multiple primary outcome analyses without statistical adjustment or undefined outcome analyses. There were 39 (55.7%) registered trials. Only two trials registered prior to patient enrollment with a single primary outcome variable and time point of assessment. However, in one of the two trials, registered and published outcomes were discrepant. No studies were adequately registered as per Standard Protocol Items: Recommendation for Interventional Trials guidelines. Compared to psychosomatic and behavioral medicine journals, the proportion of published trials with adequate outcome analysis declarations was significantly lower in JCCP (17.1% versus 32.9%; p = 0.029). The proportion of registered trials in JCCP (55.7%) was comparable to behavioral medicine journals (52.6%; p = 0.709). The quality of published outcome analysis definitions and trial registrations in JCCP is

  6. Treatment of psychological factors in a child with difficult asthma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, Ran D; Sachdeva, Shagun

    2011-07-01

    Difficult asthma is defined as the persistence of asthma symptoms, abnormal pulmonary function showing airway obstruction, and continued requirement for short-acting bronchodilator therapy, despite adequate treatment with inhaled corticosteroids. It calls for a thorough evaluation of the patient to look into alternate and complicating diagnoses. The authors report a case of a 9-year-old patient with difficult asthma who failed to respond to conventional therapy. Although it was recognized that he had a number of potential medical complicating factors including allergies, chronic sinusitis, and gastroesophageal reflux, a psychological intervention using hypnosis ultimately appeared to help alleviate his symptoms completely. Thus, psychological evaluation and intervention should be considered early in the course of management of a patient with difficult asthma, because it may help avoid time-consuming and expensive investigations of potential complicating factors, and it may yield rapid improvement in the patient's clinical condition.

  7. Social capital, the miniaturisation of community and self-reported global and psychological health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Martin

    2004-08-01

    Social capital is often operationalised as social participation in the activities of the formal and informal networks of civil society and/or as generalised trust. Social participation and trust are two aspects of social capital that mutually affect each other, according to the literature. In recent years there has been an increased attention to the fact that generalised trust decreases for every new birth cohort that reaches adulthood in the USA, while social participation may take new forms such as ideologically much narrower single-issue movements that do not enhance trust. The phenomenon has been called "the miniaturisation of community". The effects of similar patterns in Sweden on self-reported health and self-reported psychological health are analysed. The odds ratios of bad self-reported global health are highest in the low-social capital category (low-social participation/low trust), but the miniaturisation of community and low-social participation/high-trust categories also have significantly higher odds ratios than the high-social capital category (high-social participation/high trust). The odds ratios of bad self-reported psychological health are significantly higher in both the low-social capital category and the miniaturisation of community category compared to the high-social capital category, while the low-social participation/high-trust category does not differ from the high-social capital reference group.

  8. Board certification in psychology: insights from medicine and hospital psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robiner, William N; Dixon, Kim E; Miner, Jacob L; Hong, Barry A

    2012-03-01

    For physicians board certification is an accepted tradition that research suggests improves services and outcomes. In contrast, relatively few psychologists pursue board certification suggesting ambivalence or limited contingencies reinforcing it. The authors report on medical school and hospital-based psychologists' attitudes toward board certification and current certification status. About one-fifth (21.7%) of the sample were certified by the American Board of Professional Psychology, a greater proportion than psychologists generally: Highest rates were seen in neuropsychology (7.5%), clinical psychology (6.4%), clinical child and adolescent psychology (3.2%) and clinical health psychology (2.8%). Few (certification. Half recognized benefits to the profession for psychologists pursuing board certification, yet 70% opposed requiring it for their hospital-based practice. Forces seeking to promote healthcare quality ultimately may increase expectations for board certification. If consumers, employers, hospitals and managed care organizations demand board certification for health professionals, greater numbers of psychologists would likely seek it.

  9. Reporting standards for research in psychology: why do we need them? What might they be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    In anticipation of the impending revision of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, APA's Publications and Communications Board formed the Working Group on Journal Article Reporting Standards (JARS) and charged it to provide the board with background and recommendations on information that should be included in manuscripts submitted to APA journals that report (a) new data collections and (b) meta-analyses. The JARS Group reviewed efforts in related fields to develop standards and sought input from other knowledgeable groups. The resulting recommendations contain (a) standards for all journal articles, (b) more specific standards for reports of studies with experimental manipulations or evaluations of interventions using research designs involving random or nonrandom assignment, and (c) standards for articles reporting meta-analyses. The JARS Group anticipated that standards for reporting other research designs (e.g., observational studies, longitudinal studies) would emerge over time. This report also (a) examines societal developments that have encouraged researchers to provide more details when reporting their studies, (b) notes important differences between requirements, standards, and recommendations for reporting, and (c) examines benefits and obstacles to the development and implementation of reporting standards.

  10. Yoga Meditation Practitioners Exhibit Greater Gray Matter Volume and Fewer Reported Cognitive Failures: Results of a Preliminary Voxel-Based Morphometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Froeliger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hatha yoga techniques, including physical postures (asanas, breathing exercises (pranayama, and meditation, involve the practice of mindfulness. In turn, yoga meditation practices may induce the state of mindfulness, which, when evoked recurrently through repeated practice, may accrue into trait or dispositional mindfulness. Putatively, these changes may be mediated by experience-dependent neuroplastic changes. Though prior studies have identified differences in gray matter volume (GMV between long-term mindfulness practitioners and controls, no studies to date have reported on whether yoga meditation is associated with GMV differences. The present study investigated GMV differences between yoga meditation practitioners (YMP and a matched control group (CG. The YMP group exhibited greater GM volume in frontal, limbic, temporal, occipital, and cerebellar regions; whereas the CG had no greater regional greater GMV. In addition, the YMP group reported significantly fewer cognitive failures on the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ, the magnitude of which was positively correlated with GMV in numerous regions identified in the primary analysis. Lastly, GMV was positively correlated with the duration of yoga practice. Results from this preliminary study suggest that hatha yoga practice may be associated with the promotion of neuroplastic changes in executive brain systems, which may confer therapeutic benefits that accrue with repeated practice.

  11. Convergence of self-report scales and Rorschach indexes of psychological distress: the moderating role of self-disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berant, Ety; Newborn, Michal; Orgler, Smadar

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we addressed the weak associations found in research between self-report measures and the Rorschach test (Exner, 1978, 1991), from the perspective of Bornstein's (2002) "process dissociation framework." Specifically, in the study, we focused on the associations between self-report measures of psychological distress and their corresponding Rorschach indexes while inspecting the moderating role of self-disclosure. A total of 59, nonpatient Israeli adults participated in a 2-session study. In the first session, they completed self-report scales measuring self-disclosure and psychological distress (suicidality, depression, and loneliness). In the second session, the Rorschach test was administered and coded. The participants were divided into high and low self-disclosure groups. A convergence between self-report and Rorschach measures of psychological distress was found only among high self-disclosers. In the discussion, we address the theoretical and clinical implications of these findings.

  12. Investigation of psychology hygiene conditions of diabetics%糖尿病患者的心理卫生状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰常林; 王强

    2002-01-01

    Because of long term course and lots of complications,diabetics have greater pressure both physically and psychologically.There were less reports about psychological features and problems which may be exist.So this study investigate 52 patients with diabetes and in order to understand psychological health level and subsequent psychological problems.

  13. A Brief History of the Development of Abnormal Psychology: A Training Guide. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, William R.

    Presented for practitioners is a history of the development of abnormal psychology. Areas covered include the following: Early medical concepts, ideas carried over from literature, early treatment of the mentally ill, development of the psychological viewpoint, Freud's psychoanalytic theory, Jung's analytic theory, the individual psychology of…

  14. Culturally Responsive School Psychology Practice: A Study of Practitioners' Self-Reported Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Ronda S.; Keller-Margulis, Milena A.; Burridge, Andrea Backscheider

    2017-01-01

    The American Psychological Association (APA) recognizes cultural competence as a defining feature of psychological practice, education, training, and research (Sue et al. "American Psychologist," 49, 792-796, 1999). The purpose of this study was to investigate the self-appraised cultural competence of school psychology practitioners…

  15. Brief report: Association between psychological sense of school membership and mental health among early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaete, Jorge; Rojas-Barahona, Cristian A; Olivares, Esterbina; Araya, Ricardo

    2016-07-01

    Mental health problems among adolescents are prevalent and are associated with important difficulties for a normal development during this period and later in life. Understanding better the risk factors associated with mental health problems may help to design and implement more effective preventive interventions. Several personal and family risk factors have been identified in their relationship to mental health; however, much less is known about the influence of school-related factors. One of these school factors is school belonging or the psychological sense of school membership. This is a well-known protective factor to develop good academic commitment, but it has been scarcely studied in its relationship to mental health. We explored this association in a sample of early adolescents and found that students who reported having a high level of school membership had lower mental health problems, even after controlling for several personal and family factors.

  16. First report of a mixed infection of Trichinella nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in a leopard (Panthera pardus from the Greater Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis J. La Grange

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available At least three Trichinella species, namely Trichinella nelsoni, Trichinella britovi and Trichinella zimbabwensis, and one genotype (Trichinella T8, have been isolated from sylvatic carnivores on the African continent. With the exception of T. britovi, the other species are known to circulate in wildlife of the Kruger National Park (KNP, South Africa, and KNP neighbouring game reserves (collectively known as the greater KNP area. Lions (Panthera leo and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta appear to be the most important reservoirs of T. nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in the KNP and surrounding areas. Interspecies predation between lions and hyenas has been implicated as a primary mode of maintaining the life cycles of these two Trichinella species. This is the first report of a mixed natural infection of T. nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in a leopard (Panthera pardus from South Africa. Trichinella muscle larvae were identified to species level by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Probable sources of infection, based on the known dietary preference and prey species’ range of leopards, are also discussed. The described occurrence of Trichinella species in a leopard from the greater KNP area raises the question of possible sources of infection for this predator species.

  17. First report of a mixed infection of Trichinella nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in a leopard (Panthera pardus) from the Greater Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Grange, Louis J; Reininghaus, Björn; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2014-11-20

    At least three Trichinella species, namely Trichinella nelsoni, Trichinella britovi and Trichinella zimbabwensis, and one genotype (Trichinella T8), have been isolated from sylvatic carnivores on the African continent. With the exception of T. britovi, the other species are known to circulate in wildlife of the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, and KNP neighbouring game reserves (collectively known as the greater KNP area). Lions (Panthera leo) and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) appear to be the most important reservoirs of T. nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in the KNP and surrounding areas. Interspecies predation between lions and hyenas has been implicated as a primary mode of maintaining the life cycles of these two Trichinella species. This is the first report of a mixed natural infection of T. nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in a leopard (Panthera pardus) from South Africa. Trichinella muscle larvae were identified to species level by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Probable sources of infection, based on the known dietary preference and prey species' range of leopards, are also discussed. The described occurrence of Trichinella species in a leopard from the greater KNP area raises the question of possible sources of infection for this predator species.

  18. [Implementation of a psychological support program for children with cancer in Poland. Preliminary report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardakiewicz, M; Kowalczyk, J; Antonowicz, M; Budzińska-Skowronska, U; Boguslawska-Jaworska, J; Mazurowa, M; Mazur, A; Rokicka-Milewska, R; Bukowska-Posadzy, A; Kołecki, P; Maroczkaniec, E; Slazak, D; Sońta-Jakimczyk, D; Szweda, E; Armata, J; Budziński, W; Balcerska, A

    2000-01-01

    Intensive chemotherapy programme in children with cancer may result in psychological mal adjustment. Treatment facilities as well as psychological support are of great importance to minimize these side effects. In 1998 the programme of psychological support was introduced in 7 Polish paediatric haematology / oncology centres. Psychological adjustment of patients treated in each centre was examined 5 yrs after the termination of therapy. At the same time children with new diagnosis of cancer were monitored psychologically along with the psychological support programme. Psychological status of each patient was examined with the following tests: Cattell's questionnaires (CPQ, HSPQ), Manifest Anxiety Scale, Spielberger's inventories (STAI, STAIC), Wechsler Intelligence Scale. The programme of psychological support was based on guidelines of SIOP Psychosocial Committee and included such elements as informing about diagnosis and treatment, explaining any doubt, maintaining an open communication, educational care in the periods of treatment, encouraging to activity even during periods of discomfort. The analysis showed that most of the participating centres could only provide some elements of the support programme. The main problem was to convince medical staff to inform children on diagnosis and treatment plans. Preliminary results of the study indicate that full psychological support for children with cancer and their families from the beginning of therapy can result in improvement in psychological adjustment. During the ensuing period, patients and their parents appreciate the possibilities to contact a psychologist.

  19. The Preparation of Psychological Service Providers to the Deaf. A Report of the Spartanburg Conference on the Functions, Competencies and Training of Psychological Service Providers to the Deaf. Monograph No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Edna S., Ed.

    Reported are findings of the Spartanburg Conference, a multidisciplinary meeting designed to set up guidelines for training psychological service providers to the deaf. Considered in Chapter I are studies relating to the historical background of psychological practice with the deaf. The organization of the conference is explained in Chapter II in…

  20. The Effect of a Career Choice Guidance on Self-reported Psychological Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Saskia eKunnen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether a successful career choice intervention reduces psychological problems, and whether this program was equally effective in participants with low and with high levels of psychological problems. Participants were 45 Dutch students (age 17-24 with career choice problems. They had above average levels of psychological problems before the start of the intervention. These problems decreased significantly following the intervention. With regard to vocational commitment development, the intervention was equally effective for participants with low or average and with (very high levels of psychological problems before the start of the intervention.

  1. Degrees of freedom in planning, running, analyzing, and reporting psychological studies : A checklist to avoid p-hacking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Veldkamp, C.L.S.; Augusteijn, H.E.M.; Bakker, M.; van Aert, R.C.M.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    The designing, collecting, analyzing, and reporting of psychological studies entail many choices that are often arbitrary. The opportunistic use of these so-called researcher degrees of freedom aimed at obtaining statistically significant results is problematic because it enhances the chances of fal

  2. Evidence for associations among somatoform dissociation, psychological dissociation, and reported trauma in patients with chronic pelvic pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijenhuis, ERS; van Dyck, R; ter Kuile, MM; Mourits, MJE; Spinhoven, P; van der Hart, O

    This study investigates somatoform as well as psychological dissociation, somatization and reported trauma among patients with chronic pelvic pain (CPP). Women with CPP (n = 52) who were newly referred to a gynecology department, or whose pain had resisted treatment, completed standardized

  3. Evidence for associations among somatoform dissociation, psychological dissociation, and reported trauma in patients with chronic pelvic pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijenhuis, ERS; van Dyck, R; ter Kuile, MM; Mourits, MJE; Spinhoven, P; van der Hart, O

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates somatoform as well as psychological dissociation, somatization and reported trauma among patients with chronic pelvic pain (CPP). Women with CPP (n = 52) who were newly referred to a gynecology department, or whose pain had resisted treatment, completed standardized self-repo

  4. The Prices of Secrecy: The Social, Intellectual, and Psychological Costs of Current Assessment Practice. A Report to the Ford Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Judah L., Ed.; Viator, Katherine A., Ed.

    Problems in accountability assessment are examined from a unique perspective by considering the prices paid as a result of the use of secret tests (tests comprised of items drawn from non-publicly available item banks). This report is a compilation of the following articles: (1) "The Social, Intellectual, and Psychological Prices of…

  5. Self-reported leisure-time physical activity during pregnancy and relationship to psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, D; Rippen, N; Dritsa, M; Ring, A

    2003-06-01

    The psychological benefits of physical exercise have been reported in numerous populations. While studies have found elevated stress and depressed mood during pregnancy and no adverse birth effects associated with low to moderate intensity exercise, few have examined exercise in relation to psychosocial outcomes during pregnancy. The present study examined leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) patterns during pregnancy and its association to psychological well-being. In each trimester of pregnancy 180 women self-reported on frequency, form and duration of LTPA through structured interviews. Beginning in the third month of pregnancy, data was collected monthly on depressed mood (Lubin depression adjective checklist), state-anxiety, pregnancy-specific stress (pregnancy experiences questionnaire) and Hassles Scale. Independent samples t-tests comparing exercisers and non-exercisers in each trimester showed exercisers reported significantly less depressed mood, daily hassles, state-anxiety and pregnancy-specific stress in the first and second trimester. Women who exercised in the third trimester reported less state-anxiety in that trimester compared to non-exercisers. The results indicate a consistent association between enhanced psychological well-being, as measured by a variety of psychosocial inventories, and LTPA participation particularly during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. In healthy pregnant women, even low-intensity regular exercise may be a potentially effective low-cost method of enhancing psychological well-being.

  6. Do Grades Shape Students' School Engagement? The Psychological Consequences of Report Card Grades at the Beginning of Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorthuis, Astrid M. G.; Juvonen, Jaana; Thomaes, Sander; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; de Castro, Bram Orobio; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2015-01-01

    Receiving report card grades is psychologically salient to most students and can elicit a range of affective reactions. A 3-wave longitudinal study examined how grades shape students' (N = 375; M age at Wave 1 = 12.6 years) school engagement through the affective reactions they elicit. Emotional and behavioral engagement were measured at the start…

  7. Mediterranean diet adherence and self-reported psychological functioning in an Australian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E; Bryan, Janet; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Murphy, Karen J

    2013-11-01

    Given the reported health benefits of a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) and delay in cognitive decline, we aimed to determine the level of adherence to a MedDiet using an 11-point scale and examine relationships with cognitive function and psychological well-being. Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken on data from 1183 Australian adults, aged 40-65. Food frequency questionnaires were used to calculate mean intakes of foods included in a MedDiet and foods typically consumed in an Australian diet. Outcome measures included self-reported cognitive failures, memory, anxiety, stress, self-esteem, general health and physical function. The majority of Australians (71.7%) had a medium adherence to a MedDiet pattern. Overall MedDiet adherence was not related to cognitive function. However, intakes of plant foods associated with a MedDiet were positively associated with physical function and general health, and negatively associated with trait anxiety, depression and perceived stress. A substantial proportion of the diet in this Australian sample came from foods not typically consumed in a MedDiet. This is a major limitation when attempting to compare MedDiet adherence in different populations. Global standardisation of serving sizes and food groups are required for adequate comparison. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of a career choice guidance on self-reported psychological problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnen, E. S.

    2014-01-01

    Late adolescents with career choice problems often have psychological problems as well. The starting point of this study was the question of career choice counselors whether potential clients with career choice problems and psychological problems could be accepted in career choice intervention, or w

  9. The effect of a career choice guidance on self-reported psychological problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnen, E. S.

    2014-01-01

    Late adolescents with career choice problems often have psychological problems as well. The starting point of this study was the question of career choice counselors whether potential clients with career choice problems and psychological problems could be accepted in career choice intervention, or w

  10. Psychological Assessment through Performance-Based Techniques and Self-Reports: A Case Study of a Sexually Abused Girl at Preschool Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalily, Muhammad Tahir; Hallahan, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the implicit psychological and behavioral consequences of sexual abuse in an adolescent girl who suffered child sexual abuse at preschool age in this case report. We report the manifestations of this abuse on her personality and psychological functioning using a structured clinical interview and a comprehensive psychological…

  11. Psychological Assessment through Performance-Based Techniques and Self-Reports: A Case Study of a Sexually Abused Girl at Preschool Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalily, Muhammad Tahir; Hallahan, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the implicit psychological and behavioral consequences of sexual abuse in an adolescent girl who suffered child sexual abuse at preschool age in this case report. We report the manifestations of this abuse on her personality and psychological functioning using a structured clinical interview and a comprehensive psychological…

  12. Towards a greater understanding of the illicit tobacco trade in Europe: a review of the PMI funded ‘Project Star’ report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Rowell, Andy; Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; Joossens, Luk; Sims, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Following a legal agreement with the European Union (EU), Philip Morris International (PMI) commissions a yearly report (‘Project Star’, PS) on the European illicit cigarette trade from KPMG, the global accountancy firm. Methods Review of PS 2010 report. Comparison with data from independent sources including a 2010 pan-European survey (N=18 056). Findings Within PS, data covering all 27 EU countries are entered into a model. While the model itself seems appropriate, concerns are identified with the methodologies underlying the data inputs and thus their quality: there is little transparency over methodologies; interview data underestimate legal non-domestic product partly by failing to account for legal cross-border sales; illicit cigarette estimates rely on tobacco industry empty pack surveys which may overestimate illicit; and there is an over-reliance on data supplied by PMI with inadequate external validation. Thus, PMI sales data are validated using PMI smoking prevalence estimates, yet PMI is unable to provide sales (shipment) data for the Greek islands and its prevalence estimates differ grossly from independent data. Consequently, comparisons with independent data suggest PS will tend to overestimate illicit cigarette levels particularly where cross-border shopping is frequent (Austria, Finland, France) and in Western compared with Eastern European countries. The model also provides data on the nature of the illicit cigarette market independent of seizure data suggesting that almost a quarter of the illicit cigarette market in 2010 comprised PMI's own brands compared with just 5% counterfeited PMI brands; a finding hidden in PMI's public representation of the data. Conclusions PS overestimates illicit cigarette levels in some European countries and suggests PMI's supply chain control is inadequate. Its publication serves the interests of PMI over those of the EU and its member states. PS requires greater transparency, external scrutiny and

  13. A comparison of three different scoring methods for self-report measures of psychological aggression in a sample of college females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Cornelius, Tara L; Stuart, Gregory L

    2012-01-01

    Psychological aggression in females' dating relationships has received increased empirical attention in recent years. However, researchers' have used numerous measures of psychological aggression and various scoring methods with these measures, making it difficult to compare across studies on psychological aggression. In addition, research has yet to examine whether different scoring methods for psychological aggression measures may affect the psychometric properties of these instruments. This study examined three self-report measures of psychological aggression within a sample of female college students (N = 108), including their psychometric properties when scored using frequency, sum, and variety scores. Results showed that the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2) had variable internal consistency depending on the scoring method used and good validity; the Multidimensional Measure of Emotional Abuse (MMEA) and the Follingstad Psychological Aggression Scale (FPAS) both had good internal consistency and validity across scoring methods. Implications of these findings for the assessment of psychological aggression and future research are discussed.

  14. An Initial Exploration of the Association between Psychological Distress and Sedentary Behaviour in First Year Undergraduates. A Practice Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmaine Graham

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available University students are reported to have a higher prevalence of psychological distress than the general population. Consequently, research surrounding factors that may contribute to poor mental health of students is imperative in order to identify interventions for this at-risk population. Previous research has determined that sedentary behaviour is associated with physical health, with an emerging focus on the association between sedentary behaviour and mental health. As the role of student consists of primarily sedentary behaviours such as reading, writing and computer use, the relationship between these activities and student mental wellbeing is particularly relevant. The presentation reported on the findings of study conducted on a sample of first year undergraduates and their reported levels of psychological distress and use of time. The findings highlight the diverse and demanding lifestyles of today’s student and the need for further research into student mental well-being.

  15. Psychological Theories of Acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon

    2017-01-01

    The proliferation of cultural transition and intercultural contact has highlighted the importance of psychological theories of acculturation. Acculturation, understood as contact between diverse cultural streams, has become prevalent worldwide due to technological, economical, and educational...... advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories...... of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...

  16. Relations among adults' remembrances of parental acceptance-rejection in childhood, self-reported psychological adjustment, and adult psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akün, Ebru

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study was to examine relationships among recollections of maternal and paternal acceptance-rejection in childhood and the level of psychological adjustment among adults diagnosed with schizophrenia, social anxiety, and nonclinical control. The study focused primarily on adults with schizophrenia and social anxiety in comparison to nonclinical adults. Fifty-three adults diagnosed with schizophrenia, 51 adults with self-reported social anxiety, and 147 nonclinical controls between the ages of 18 and 62 participated in the study. Data were collected using adult versions of the Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire for mothers and for fathers, Personality Assessment Questionnaire, Brief Symptom Inventory, Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, and the Demographic Information Form. Findings of analyses showed that participants in the schizophrenia and social anxiety groups remembered having experienced significantly more maternal rejection in childhood than did the nonclinical group. Patient with schizophrenia also reported more recollections of paternal rejection than the nonclinical group. Both clinical groups self-reported more psychological maladjustment than did the nonclinical group. Regression analysis indicated that even though the overall psychological adjustment of adults diagnosed with schizophrenia was predicted by both maternal and paternal acceptance-rejection, psychological adjustment of adults in the social anxiety group was predicted only by maternal (but not paternal) acceptance-rejection. This study provides evidence about the long-lasting associations between adults' recollections of parental acceptance-rejection in childhood and their psychological adjustment in two mental disorders, in which genetic and environmental factors have a different weight. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Association of psychological distress and work psychosocial factors with self-reported musculoskeletal pain among secondary school teachers in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamri, E. N.; Moy, F. M.; Hoe, V. C. W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal pain is common among teachers. Work-related psychosocial factors are found to be associated with the development of musculoskeletal pain, however psychological distress may also play an important role. Objectives To assess the prevalence of self-reported low back pain (LBP), and neck and/or shoulder pain (NSP) among secondary school teachers; and to evaluate the association of LBP and NSP with psychological distress and work-related psychosocial factors. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted among teachers in the state of Penang, Malaysia. The participants were recruited via a two stage sampling method. Information on demographic, psychological distress, work-related psychosocial factors, and musculoskeletal pain (LBP and NSP) in the past 12 months was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Poisson regression was used to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) for the associations between psychological distress and work-related psychosocial factors with LBP and NSP. Results The prevalence of self-reported LBP and NSP among 1482 teachers in the past 12 months was 48.0% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 45.2%, 50.9%) and 60.1% (95% CI 57.4%, 62.9%) respectively. From the multivariate analysis, self-reported LBP was associated with teachers who reported severe to extremely severe depression (PR: 1.71, 95% CI 1.25, 2.32), severe to extremely severe anxiety (1.46, 95% CI 1.22, 1.75), high psychological job demand (1.29, 95% CI 1.06, 1.57), low skill discretion (1.28, 95% CI 1.13, 1.47) and poorer mental health (0.98, 95% CI 0.97, 0.99). Self-reported NSP was associated with mild to moderate anxiety (1.18, 95% CI 1.06, 1.33), severe to extremely severe anxiety (1.25, 95% CI 1.09, 1.43), low supervisory support (1.13, 95% CI 1.03, 1.25) and poorer mental health (0.98, 95% CI 0.97, 0.99). Conclusions Self-reported LBP and NSP were common among secondary school teachers. Interventions targeting psychological distress and work

  18. Social Cognition, Executive Functions and Self-Report of Psychological Distress in Huntington's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ida Unmack; Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Nielsen, Jørgen Erik

    2016-01-01

    of perceived psychological distress (the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R)). Correlation analyses of test performance and SCL-90-R scores were made as well as stepwise linear regression analyses with the SCL-90-R GSI score and test performances as dependent variables. RESULTS: We found that less...... psychological distress was significantly associated with worse performances on social cognitive tests (mean absolute correlation .34) and that there were no significant correlations between perceived psychological distress and performance on tests of executive functions. The correlations between perceived...... psychological distress and performance on social cognitive tests remained significant after controlling for age, Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale-99 total motor score and performance on tests of executive functions. CONCLUSIONS: Based on previous findings that insight and apathy are closely connected...

  19. Degrees of freedom in planning, running, analyzing, and reporting psychological studiesA checklist to avoid p - hacking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelte M Wicherts

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The designing, collecting, analyzing, and reporting of psychological studies entail many choices that are often arbitrary. The opportunistic use of these so-called researcher degrees of freedom aimed at obtaining statistically significant results is problematic because it enhances the chances of false positive results and may inflate effect size estimates. In this review article, we present an extensive list of 34 degrees of freedom that researchers have in formulating hypotheses, and in designing, running, analyzing, and reporting of psychological research. The list can be used in research methods education, and as a checklist to assess the quality of preregistrations and to determine the potential for bias due to (arbitrary choices in unregistered studies.

  20. Degrees of Freedom in Planning, Running, Analyzing, and Reporting Psychological Studies: A Checklist to Avoid p-Hacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicherts, Jelte M; Veldkamp, Coosje L S; Augusteijn, Hilde E M; Bakker, Marjan; van Aert, Robbie C M; van Assen, Marcel A L M

    2016-01-01

    The designing, collecting, analyzing, and reporting of psychological studies entail many choices that are often arbitrary. The opportunistic use of these so-called researcher degrees of freedom aimed at obtaining statistically significant results is problematic because it enhances the chances of false positive results and may inflate effect size estimates. In this review article, we present an extensive list of 34 degrees of freedom that researchers have in formulating hypotheses, and in designing, running, analyzing, and reporting of psychological research. The list can be used in research methods education, and as a checklist to assess the quality of preregistrations and to determine the potential for bias due to (arbitrary) choices in unregistered studies.

  1. The Reporting Quality of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in Industrial and Organizational Psychology: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Schalken

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The goal of this systematic review was to examine the reporting quality of the method section of quantitative systematic reviews and meta-analyses from 2009 to 2016 in the field of industrial and organizational psychology with the help of the Meta-Analysis Reporting Standards (MARS, and to update previous research, such as the study of Aytug et al. (2012 and Dieckmann et al. (2009.Methods: A systematic search for quantitative systematic reviews and meta-analyses was conducted in the top 10 journals in the field of industrial and organizational psychology between January 2009 and April 2016. Data were extracted on study characteristics and items of the method section of MARS. A cross-classified multilevel model was analyzed, to test whether publication year and journal impact factor (JIF were associated with the reporting quality scores of articles.Results: Compliance with MARS in the method section was generally inadequate in the random sample of 120 articles. Variation existed in the reporting of items. There were no significant effects of publication year and journal impact factor (JIF on the reporting quality scores of articles.Conclusions: The reporting quality in the method section of systematic reviews and meta-analyses was still insufficient, therefore we recommend researchers to improve the reporting in their articles by using reporting standards like MARS.

  2. Cilnidipine lowered psychological stress-induced increase in blood pressure in a hypertensive man: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuji Sadatoshi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In some hypertensive patients, psychological stress makes blood pressure difficult to control and causes physical symptoms such as headache or dizziness. We report the case of a hypertensive man whose psychological stress-induced increase in blood pressure was attenuated by cilnidipine. Case Presentation The patient (a 72-year-old man had hypertension and was on antihypertensive therapy. When mentally concentrating, he experienced occipital headaches and dizziness, and despite thorough testing, no abnormality was found. He was subsequently referred to our department. The mirror drawing test (MDT, a psychological stress test, increased blood pressure by about 40 mmHg, and the patient described occipital headache. Plasma noradrenaline level also increased from 212 to 548 pg/ml. We therefore switched the patient from nifedipine, an L-type calcium (Ca channel blocker, to cilnidipine, an L-type/N-type Ca channel blocker with suppressive effects on sympathetic activity. Cilnipidine attenuated MDT-induced an increase in blood pressure and plasma noradrenaline level and prevented the development of headache during testing. Conclusion These findings suggest that cilnidipine is a useful antihypertensive agent for hypertensive patients in whom psychological stress causes marked fluctuations in blood pressure.

  3. Degrees of Freedom in Planning, Running, Analyzing, and Reporting Psychological Studies: A Checklist to Avoid p-Hacking

    OpenAIRE

    Wicherts, Jelte M; Veldkamp, Coosje L. S.; Augusteijn, Hilde E. M.; Marjan Bakker; van Aert, Robbie C.M.; Marcel A.L.M. van Assen

    2016-01-01

    The designing, collecting, analyzing, and reporting of psychological studies entail many choices that are often arbitrary. The opportunistic use of these so-called researcher degrees of freedom aimed at obtaining statistically significant results is problematic because it enhances the chances of false positive results and may inflate effect size estimates. In this review article, we present an extensive list of 34 degrees of freedom that researchers have in formulating hypotheses, and in desi...

  4. An overview of South African psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Saths; Nicholas, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    This overview of psychology in South Africa presents a concise and historical account of its science and practice, from its early origins in the late nineteenth century to the present, and traces seminal influences on the discipline. It is a review of how psychology in South Africa developed over more than a century to become one of the most popular subjects in universities and an established and recognized profession, whose members play a variety of roles in the South African polity and larger society. The impact that apartheid racism had on key aspects of psychology's development is traversed, and the influences that previous ruling party politics had on professional psychological organizations are delineated. The unification of psychology under the Psychological Society of South Africa, a few months before the advent of democracy in South Africa, is explicated. The protection of the title of psychologist in law and certain other changes in the legislative environment, enabling a greater role for psychologists, are reported. The primary research sites for psychology and its funding and the main university psychology programs are described, as are the requirements for registration and licensure. The genesis and the importance of the work of internationally acclaimed South African psychologists, such as J. Wolpe and A. A. Lazarus, are contextualized. With the increased participation of progressive black psychologists in leadership and research in the past two decades, a transformed psychology has the potential to play a significant role in addressing human issues confronting South Africa.

  5. [Psychology in the Spanish scientific domain through categories cocitation of Journal Citation Report 1990-2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Martínez, Ana Teresa; Guerrero Bote, Vicente P; Vargas Quesada, Benjamín; Moya Anegón, Félix

    2008-08-01

    This work aims to reveal some aspects of the scientific domain of Psychology, in the context of the internationally visible Spanish science in the databases of the Citation Index of The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), which is represented by a map. We used the methodology of cocitation of thematic categories (JCR-Thompson Scientific), with which we obtained a representation of the scientific activity. The resulting map allowed us to focus on the area of Psychology, whose representation acts as database for the analysis of this discipline in the scientific field with international visibility. This study offers an empirical view of the underlying structure of Spanish Psychology. This is important because most scientists have an intuitive idea of this structure, but this may or may not be real. This way, we present a global vision of the entire discipline that favours its objective analysis as a function of scientists' behaviour as it affects their patterns of communication through the established formal channels.

  6. Lodging Update: Greater Boston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Roginsky

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pinnacle Advisory Group provides an update of lodging industry performance in New England and Boston for the first half of 2012. While the New England region outpaced the nation, the specific story varies from state to state. Only Massachusetts and Vermont achieved REVPAR performance better than the national average. A review of the Greater Boston lodging market reveals that a healthy local economy and strong convention calendar, combined with a number of one-time events and limited new supply, boosted the local market in 2012. The outlook for 2013 in Greater Boston remains positive, with expectations of a 4.7% growth in REVPAR.

  7. The post-orgasmic prolactin increase following intercourse is greater than following masturbation and suggests greater satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Krüger, Tillmann H C

    2006-03-01

    Research indicates that prolactin increases following orgasm are involved in a feedback loop that serves to decrease arousal through inhibitory central dopaminergic and probably peripheral processes. The magnitude of post-orgasmic prolactin increase is thus a neurohormonal index of sexual satiety. Using data from three studies of men and women engaging in masturbation or penile-vaginal intercourse to orgasm in the laboratory, we report that for both sexes (adjusted for prolactin changes in a non-sexual control condition), the magnitude of prolactin increase following intercourse is 400% greater than that following masturbation. The results are interpreted as an indication of intercourse being more physiologically satisfying than masturbation, and discussed in light of prior research reporting greater physiological and psychological benefits associated with coitus than with any other sexual activities.

  8. Physiotherapists report improved understanding of and attitude toward the cognitive, psychological and social dimensions of chronic low back pain after Cognitive Functional Therapy training: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synnott, Aoife; O'Keeffe, Mary; Bunzli, Samantha; Dankaerts, Wim; O'Sullivan, Peter; Robinson, Katie; O'Sullivan, Kieran

    2016-10-01

    What are physiotherapists' perspectives on managing the cognitive, psychological and social dimensions of chronic low back pain after intensive biopsychosocial training? Qualitative study design using semi-structured interviews to explore physiotherapists' perceptions of their identification and treatment of the biopsychosocial dimensions of chronic low back pain after intensive Cognitive Functional Therapy (CFT) training. Thirteen qualified physiotherapists from four countries who had received specific CFT training. The training involved supervised implementation of CFT in clinical practice with patients. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. An interpretive descriptive analysis was performed using a qualitative software package. Four main themes emerged from the data: self-reported changes in understanding and attitudes; self-reported changes in professional practice; altered scope of practice; and increased confidence and satisfaction. Participants described increased understanding of the nature of pain, the role of patient beliefs, and a new appreciation of the therapeutic alliance. Changes in practice included use of new assessments, changes in communication, and adoption of a functional approach. Since undertaking CFT training, participants described a greater awareness of their role and scope of practice as clinicians in identifying and addressing these factors. Physiotherapists expressed confidence in their capacity and skill set to manage the biopsychosocial dimensions of chronic low back pain after CFT training, and identified a clear role for including these skills within the physiotherapy profession. Despite this, further clinical trials are needed to justify the time and cost of training, so that intensive CFT training may be made more readily accessible to clinicians, which to date has not been the case. [Synnott A, O'Keeffe M, Bunzli S, Dankaerts W, O'Sullivan P, Robinson K, O'Sullivan K (2016) Physiotherapists report improved

  9. Pilot Study of Flow and Meaningfulness as Psychological Learning Concepts in Patient Education: A Short Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicic, Sara; Nørby, Karina; Bruun Johansen, Clea

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of this pilot study was to explore patient experiences of meaningfulness and flow related to group based patient education in type 2 diabetes. Meaningfulness and flow are underexposed as psychological learning concepts in patient education, and the ambition...... of this study was to investigate the applicability of these concepts of positive psychological theory in a patient education setting. Methods: This pilot study combines participating observation of group based patient education and 8 qualitative interviews with 4 patients with type 2 diabetes. Meaning...

  10. Pilot Study of Flow and Meaningfulness as Psychological Learning Concepts in Patient Education: A Short Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicic, Sara; Nørby, Karina; Bruun Johansen, Clea;

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of this pilot study was to explore patient experiences of meaningfulness and flow related to group based patient education in type 2 diabetes. Meaningfulness and flow are underexposed as psychological learning concepts in patient education, and the ambition...... of this study was to investigate the applicability of these concepts of positive psychological theory in a patient education setting. Methods: This pilot study combines participating observation of group based patient education and 8 qualitative interviews with 4 patients with type 2 diabetes. Meaning...

  11. Psychological assessment through performance-based techniques and self-reports: a case study of a sexually abused girl at preschool age.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khalily, Muhammad Tahir

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the implicit psychological and behavioral consequences of sexual abuse in an adolescent girl who suffered child sexual abuse at preschool age in this case report. We report the manifestations of this abuse on her personality and psychological functioning using a structured clinical interview and a comprehensive psychological battery including the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Standard Progressive Matrices, Rorschach Ink Blots, and the Schema Mode Inventory. These investigations were useful in formulating both a diagnosis and a management plan. The girl fulfilled diagnostic criteria for a major depressive episode and borderline personality disorder. This combination of psychological testing may be useful in establishing an accurate multiaxial diagnosis and for understanding the behavioral and psychological sequelae of child sexual abuse in similar cases. The study further suggests that schema-focused therapy is a useful therapeutic tool for individuals who have suffered child sexual abuse at an early age and who have borderline personality disorder.

  12. Is implementing screening for distress an efficient means to recruit patients to a psychological intervention trial?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Scheppingen, Corinne; Schroevers, Maya J.; Pool, Grieteke; Smink, Ans; Mul, Veronique E.; Coyne, James C.; Sanderman, Robbert

    2014-01-01

    ObjectivesPsychological interventions show greater efficacy when evaluated with distressed patients. We report on the feasibility of implementing screening for recruiting distressed cancer patients to a randomized controlled trial of problem-solving therapy (PST), characteristics associated with enr

  13. Is implementing screening for distress an efficient means to recruit patients to a psychological intervention trial?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Scheppingen, Corinne; Schroevers, Maya J.; Pool, Grieteke; Smink, Ans; Mul, Veronique E.; Coyne, James C.; Sanderman, Robbert

    2014-01-01

    ObjectivesPsychological interventions show greater efficacy when evaluated with distressed patients. We report on the feasibility of implementing screening for recruiting distressed cancer patients to a randomized controlled trial of problem-solving therapy (PST), characteristics associated with enr

  14. Adherence to ARV medication in Romanian young adults: self-reported behaviour and psychological barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dima, A.L.; Schweitzer, A.M.; Diaconita, R.; Remor, E.; Wanless, R.

    2013-01-01

    Adherence to antiretroviral (ARV) treatment during adolescence and young adulthood is a significant clinical issue for the current management of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Romania. Understanding patients' own perceptions of their adherence behaviours and related psychological barriers is instrumental

  15. The report of posttraumatic growth in Malaysian cancer patients : relationships with psychological distress and coping strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroevers, Maya J.; Teo, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The challenge of a cancer diagnosis may eventually lead to the experience of positive psychological changes, also referred to as posttraumatic growth. As most research on posttraumatic growth in cancer patients has been conducted in Western countries, little is known about the experience

  16. The report of posttraumatic growth in Malaysian cancer patients : relationships with psychological distress and coping strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroevers, Maya J.; Teo, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The challenge of a cancer diagnosis may eventually lead to the experience of positive psychological changes, also referred to as posttraumatic growth. As most research on posttraumatic growth in cancer patients has been conducted in Western countries, little is known about the experience

  17. What Comes before Report Writing? Attending to Clinical Reasoning and Thinking Errors in School Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Gabrielle; Schroeder, Meadow

    2015-01-01

    Psychoeducational assessment involves collecting, organizing, and interpreting a large amount of data from various sources. Drawing upon psychological and medical literature, we review two main approaches to clinical reasoning (deductive and inductive) and how they synergistically guide diagnostic decision-making. In addition, we discuss how the…

  18. The Concept of Energy in Psychological Theory. Cognitive Science Program, Technical Report No. 86-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary Klevjord

    This paper describes a basic framework for integration of computational and energetic concepts in psychological theory. The framework is adapted from a general effort to understand the neural systems underlying cognition. The element of the cognitive system that provides the best basis for attempting to relate energetic and computational ideas is…

  19. What Comes before Report Writing? Attending to Clinical Reasoning and Thinking Errors in School Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Gabrielle; Schroeder, Meadow

    2015-01-01

    Psychoeducational assessment involves collecting, organizing, and interpreting a large amount of data from various sources. Drawing upon psychological and medical literature, we review two main approaches to clinical reasoning (deductive and inductive) and how they synergistically guide diagnostic decision-making. In addition, we discuss how the…

  20. HOPE: Helmet Optimization in Europe. Final report of Working Group 2: Traffic psychology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shinar, D. Bogerd, C.P. Chliaoutakis, J. Cavallo, V. Crundall, D. Dias, J. Haworth, N. Holt, N. Houtenbos, M. Kuklane, K. Lajunen, T. Morandi, A. Oron-Gilad, T. Orsi, C. Papadakaki, M. Parkkari, K. Rus, D. Saplioglu, M. Tzamalouka, G. Valero-Mora, P. Walker, I. Wardlow, M. & Weber, T.

    2015-01-01

    The HOPES workgroup of Traffic Psychology is concerned with the social, behavioral, and perceptual aspects that are associated with use and non-use of bicycle helmets, in their various forms and under various cycling conditions. The objectives of WG2 are to (1) share current knowledge among the peop

  1. A Survey of Computer Use Reported in "Teaching of Psychology": 1974-1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beins, Bernard C.

    1989-01-01

    Surveys computer use and the changing role of teachers in the development of computer applications by looking at manuscripts published in "Teaching of Psychology" from 1974 to 1988. Notes that although more teachers are developing software, many teachers do not have the time required for such development. (KO)

  2. HOPE: Helmet Optimization in Europe. Final report of Working Group 2: Traffic psychology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shinar, D. Bogerd, C.P. Chliaoutakis, J. Cavallo, V. Crundall, D. Dias, J. Haworth, N. Holt, N. Houtenbos, M. Kuklane, K. Lajunen, T. Morandi, A. Oron-Gilad, T. Orsi, C. Papadakaki, M. Parkkari, K. Rus, D. Saplioglu, M. Tzamalouka, G. Valero-Mora, P. Walker, I. Wardlow, M. & Weber, T.

    2015-01-01

    The HOPES workgroup of Traffic Psychology is concerned with the social, behavioral, and perceptual aspects that are associated with use and non-use of bicycle helmets, in their various forms and under various cycling conditions. The objectives of WG2 are to (1) share current knowledge among the peop

  3. ["Psychologic marital unfitness" in cyclothymia? A case report on the topic of the annullment procedure in canon law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, A; Hilken, S

    1993-09-01

    According to the Canon Law (CIC) of the catholic church a marriage can be annulled because of psychological inability under certain conditions. We present the case report of a married woman, who fell ill with cyclothymia after her first childbirth. Her marriage was annulled under canon 1095 (n.3 CIC) because of psychological inability to fulfill martial obligations. The authors believe that this represents a clear cut case of discrimination against patients with mental disorders: on the one hand the catholic church claims that every martial bond is principally indissoluble; on the other hand they do not eschew invalidating a marriage due to an affective psychosis. This poses special problems which are also discussed.

  4. Psychological distress with direct-to-consumer genetic testing: a case report of an unexpected BRCA positive test result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohany, Lindsay; Gustafson, Shanna; Ducaine, Whitney; Zakalik, Dana

    2012-06-01

    We report a case of a client who discovered she had a BRCA mutation following direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing in the absence of genetic counseling. After testing she presented for genetic counseling with anxiety, distress, and a deficit of knowledge about what the DTC genetic testing revealed. Genetic counseling helped alleviate distress while empowering the client to apply the results of testing to improve medical management. Despite recent studies demonstrating no negative psychological impact of DTC genetic testing on the consumer, this case illustrates that significant psychological distress and confusion can occur as a result of DTC genetic testing for highly penetrant single gene disorders. Pre- and post-test genetic counseling in conjunction with DTC genetic testing may alleviate consumers' distress and empower clients to proactively utilize their result information.

  5. [Greater trochanteric pain syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollwitzer, H; Opitz, G; Gerdesmeyer, L; Hauschild, M

    2014-01-01

    Greater trochanteric pain is one of the common complaints in orthopedics. Frequent diagnoses include myofascial pain, trochanteric bursitis, tendinosis and rupture of the gluteus medius and minimus tendon, and external snapping hip. Furthermore, nerve entrapment like the piriformis syndrome must be considered in the differential diagnosis. This article summarizes essential diagnostic and therapeutic steps in greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Careful clinical evaluation, complemented with specific imaging studies and diagnostic infiltrations allows determination of the underlying pathology in most cases. Thereafter, specific nonsurgical treatment is indicated, with success rates of more than 90 %. Resistant cases and tendon ruptures may require surgical intervention, which can provide significant pain relief and functional improvement in most cases.

  6. Guidelines for cognitive behavioral training within doctoral psychology programs in the United States: report of the Inter-organizational Task Force on Cognitive and Behavioral Psychology Doctoral Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepac, Robert K; Ronan, George F; Andrasik, Frank; Arnold, Kevin D; Belar, Cynthia D; Berry, Sharon L; Christofff, Karen A; Craighead, Linda W; Dougher, Michael J; Dowd, E Thomas; Herbert, James D; McFarr, Lynn M; Rizvi, Shireen L; Sauer, Eric M; Strauman, Timothy J

    2012-12-01

    The Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies initiated an interorganizational task force to develop guidelines for integrated education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology at the doctoral level in the United States. Fifteen task force members representing 16 professional associations participated in a year-long series of conferences, and developed a consensus on optimal doctoral education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology. The recommendations assume solid foundational training that is typical within applied psychology areas such as clinical and counseling psychology programs located in the United States. This article details the background, assumptions, and resulting recommendations specific to doctoral education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology, including competencies expected in the areas of ethics, research, and practice.

  7. Historizing epistemology in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Gordana

    2010-12-01

    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically.

  8. Psychological intervention reduces self-reported performance anxiety in high school music students

    OpenAIRE

    Braden, Alice M.; Margaret Sarah Osborne; Wilson, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Music performance anxiety (MPA) can be distressing for many young people studying music, and may negatively impact upon their ability to cope with the demands and stressors of music education. It can also lead young people to give up music or to develop unhealthy coping habits in their adult music careers. Minimal research has examined the effectiveness of psychological programs to address MPA in young musicians. Sixty-two adolescents were pseudo-randomised to a cognitive behavioural (CB) gro...

  9. Psychological intervention reduces self-reported performance anxiety in high school music students

    OpenAIRE

    Braden, Alice M.; Margaret Sarah Osborne; Sarah J Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Music performance anxiety (MPA) can be distressing for many young people studying music, and may negatively impact upon their ability to cope with the demands and stressors of music education. It can also lead young people to give up music or to develop unhealthy coping habits in their adult music careers. Minimal research has examined the effectiveness of psychological programs to address MPA in young musicians. Sixty-two adolescents were pseudo-randomised to a cognitive behavioural (CB) gro...

  10. Cross-sectional study of self-reported ADHD symptoms and psychological comorbidity among college students in Chandigarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishani Jhambh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Existence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in adults is scantily researched in India. There is dearth of information on prevalence of ADHD in college students worldwide. Further, fewer studies in the past have evaluated the impact of ADHD on the psychological well-being of college students. Aims: To study the prevalence of ADHD among college students and psychological problems related to ADHD. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects and Methods: A total of 237 students were recruited from various medical, engineering, and commerce and arts colleges of Chandigarh, India. They were administered the Adult ADHD Self Report Scale v1.1(ASRS and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS to diagnose adult ADHD. To assess comorbidities; General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ; Zung Depression Rating Scale (ZDRS; Rosenberg′s Self-Esteem Scale (RSES;and questions on emotional stability, social problems, and substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis were administered on all participants. Results: A total of 13 students (5.48% fulfilled the criteria for adult ADHD. These students experienced significantly higher emotional instability and low self-esteem than those without ADHD (N = 224. The occurrence of psychological problems, depression, social problems, and substance abuse was comparable in students with and without ADHD. Conclusions: ADHD is prevalent among the college students studying in the most competitive institutes as well. Students with ADHD experience higher emotional instability and poor self-esteem than others. It has little effect on their psychological well-being and social adjustment. Prompt detection and management of ADHD in college students may help them deal with these problems effectively.

  11. An Annotated Bibliography of DoD-Funded Reports Concerning Psychological Stress: 1950-1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    difficult course successfully in limited time. Since not too much is known regarding the specific effects of psychological stress on various types of human...individual and team performance. Performance was studied longitudinally, over a ten-day period, to explore the onset and course of impact of isolation and...Metabolic hvperac tiv it ’ suggest inig nlon spoc iCic stress,5 On I ’v during (2) was there ain incWrea se in 1-OP ICS ex~cret ion, andi of fcc ts duinig

  12. The Wilhelm Wundt Center and the first graduate program for the history and philosophy of psychology in Brazil: A brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Saulo de Freitas; Caropreso, Fátima Siqueira; Simanke, Richard Theisen; Castañon, Gustavo Arja

    2013-08-01

    The expansion of Brazilian universities since 2009 has promoted a general growth and incentive of scientific activities throughout the country, not only in the so-called hard sciences, but also in the human sciences. In this brief report, we announce the creation of two new institutional spaces dedicated to the history and philosophy of psychology at the Federal University of Juiz de Fora (UFJF) in Brazil: the Wilhelm Wundt Center for the History and Philosophy of Psychology (NUHFIP) and the Graduate Program in History and Philosophy of Psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. From the American Psychological Association to the American Psychology Association--An Organization for Psychologists or for the Discipline? 2007 Annual Report of the APA Policy and Planning Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Each year, the American Psychological Association's Policy and Planning Board takes the pulse of the Association and the discipline as a whole and writes a report that represents the Board's best appraisal of a fundamental policy. Our main objective, however, is not simply to assess the current situation but to look forward on behalf of the…

  14. Contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM): A systematic review of patient reported factors and psychological predictors influencing choice and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Brittany; Butow, Phyllis; Jansen, Jesse; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Porter, David

    2016-08-01

    Conduct a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies exploring patient reported factors and psychological variables influencing the decision to have contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM), and satisfaction with CPM, in women with early stage breast cancer. Studies were identified via databases: Medline, CINAHL, Embase and PsycINFO. Data were extracted by one author and crosschecked by two additional authors for accuracy. The quality of included articles was assessed using standardised criteria by three authors. Of the 1346 unique citations identified, 17 were studies that met the inclusion criteria. Studies included were primarily cross-sectional and retrospective. No study utilised a theoretical framework to guide research and few studies considered psychological predictors of CPM. Fear of breast cancer was the most commonly cited reason for CPM, followed by cosmetic reasons such as desire for symmetry. Overall, women appeared satisfied with CPM, however, adverse/diminished body image, poor cosmetic result, complications, diminished sense of sexuality, emotional issues and perceived lack of education regarding alternative surveillance/CPM efficacy were cited as reasons for dissatisfaction. Current literature has begun to identify patient-reported reasons for CPM; however, the relative importance of different factors and how these factors relate to the process underlying the decision to have CPM are unknown. Of women who considered CPM, limited information is available regarding differences between those who proceed with or ultimately decline CPM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Public acceptance of management actions and judgments of responsibility for the wolves of the southern Greater Yellowstone Area: Report to Grand Teton National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathan G.; Johnson, S. Shea; Shelby, Lori B.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Wolves of Grand Teton National Park and the Greater Yellowstone Area Gray wolves (Canis lupus) appeared in Grand Teton National Park (GRTE) in October of 1998, two years after being reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Since that time, five packs have been within the GRTE borders - Gros Ventre Pack, Nez Perce Pack, Yellowstone Delta Pack, Teton Pack, and Green River Pack (Table 1). Wolves in the Greater Yellowstone Area are increasing and spreading out geographically (USFWS and others, 2004). This dispersion was demonstrated recently by the death of a 2-year-old female wolf from the Swan Lake pack on I-70 in Colorado (June 7, 2004; http://mountain-prairie.USFWS.gov/pressrel /04-43.htm). The organization of wolf packs in the GYA is dynamic and highly structured. In 2003, for example, a wolf from the Teton Pack joined with the Green River Pack, and several young wolves left the Teton Pack and moved south (USFWS and others, 2004). Pack size (averaging five to ten members) is dependent on hunting efficiency, which depends on prey size, type, and density. Each pack defends home ranges of several hundred square miles. The social structure of the pack is based on a breeding pair (an alpha male and female). Other wolves in the pack can be categorized as betas (males and/or females second in rank to the alphas), subordinates, pups, and occasional omegas (outcasts). Because generally only the alpha pair breeds, subordinate wolves of reproductive age must disperse from their packs and form new associations in order to breed. (http://www.nps.gov/grte/wolf/biolo.htm). The reintroduced wolves are classified by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) as "nonessential experimental" under section 10(j) of the Endangered Species Act. The recovery criteria for the GYA wolves were met in 2002 for removing the wolves from the Endangered Species List (30 or more breeding pairs). Currently, the USFWS manages wolf populations in the GYA until delisting occurs

  16. Self-reported suicidal behavior and attitudes toward suicide and suicide prevention among psychology students in Ghana, Uganda, and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelmeland, Heidi; Akotia, Charity S; Owens, Vicki; Knizek, Birthe L; Nordvik, Hilmar; Schroeder, Rose; Kinyanda, Eugene

    2008-01-01

    Self-reported suicidal behavior and attitudes toward suicide in psychology students are reported and compared in Ghana, Uganda, and Norway. Small differences only were found in own suicidal behavior. However, experience of suicidal behavior in the surroundings was more common in Uganda than in Ghana and Norway. Although differences were found between the three countries in attitudes toward suicide, which emphasizes the need for culture-sensitive research and prevention, many of the differences were not as big as expected. The most pronounced difference was that the Norwegian students were more reluctant to take a stand on these questions compared to their African counterparts. Some differences were also found between the two African countries. The implications of the results for suicide prevention in Africa are discussed.

  17. Emotional scenes elicit more pronounced self-reported emotional experience and greater EPN and LPP modulation when compared to emotional faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Nathaniel; Knight, Justin; Dishman, Rod; Sabatinelli, Dean; Johnson, Douglas C; Clementz, Brett

    2014-06-01

    Emotional faces and scenes carry a wealth of overlapping and distinct perceptual information. Despite widespread use in the investigation of emotional perception, expressive face and evocative scene stimuli are rarely assessed in the same experiment. Here, we evaluated self-reports of arousal and pleasantness, as well as early and late event-related potentials (e.g., N170, early posterior negativity [EPN], late positive potential [LPP]) as subjects viewed neutral and emotional faces and scenes, including contents representing anger, fear, and joy. Results demonstrate that emotional scenes were rated as more evocative than emotional faces, as only scenes produced elevated self-reports of arousal. In addition, viewing scenes resulted in more extreme ratings of pleasantness (and unpleasantness) than did faces. EEG results indicate that both expressive faces and emotional scenes evoke enhanced negativity in the N170 component, while the EPN and LPP components show significantly enhanced modulation only by scene, relative to face stimuli. These data suggest that viewing emotional scenes results in a more pronounced emotional experience that is associated with reliable modulation of visual event-related potentials that are implicated in emotional circuits in the brain.

  18. Psychological distress and patient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenley, J R; Young, T B; Schoenherr, R A

    1982-04-01

    Psychologically distressed patients and clients of health care and social service organizations are found to report somewhat more dissatisfaction with services than do the nondistressed. Four explanations for this relationship are examined: 1) the psychologically distressed are generally dissatisfied; 2) service providers react negatively to the psychologically distressed; 3) psychologically distressed patients are dissatisfied when service providers do not respond to their psychological needs; and 4) patients who deny their psychological distress tend to be dissatisfied. The results show that the psychologically distressed report more dissatisfaction because of the very high levels of dissatisfaction found among patients who deny having personal problems.

  19. Guidelines for Cognitive Behavioral Training within Doctoral Psychology Programs in the United States: Report of the Inter-Organizational Task Force on Cognitive and Behavioral Psychology Doctoral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepac, Robert K.; Ronan, George F.; Andrasik, Frank; Arnold, Kevin D.; Belar, Cynthia D.; Berry, Sharon L.; Christofff, Karen A.; Craighead, Linda W.; Dougher, Michael J.; Dowd, E. Thomas; Herbert, James D.; McFarr, Lynn M.; Rizvi, Shireen L.; Sauer, Eric M.; Strauman, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    The Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies initiated an interorganizational task force to develop guidelines for integrated education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology at the doctoral level in the United States. Fifteen task force members representing 16 professional associations participated in a yearlong series of…

  20. Guidelines for Cognitive Behavioral Training within Doctoral Psychology Programs in the United States: Report of the Inter-Organizational Task Force on Cognitive and Behavioral Psychology Doctoral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepac, Robert K.; Ronan, George F.; Andrasik, Frank; Arnold, Kevin D.; Belar, Cynthia D.; Berry, Sharon L.; Christofff, Karen A.; Craighead, Linda W.; Dougher, Michael J.; Dowd, E. Thomas; Herbert, James D.; McFarr, Lynn M.; Rizvi, Shireen L.; Sauer, Eric M.; Strauman, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    The Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies initiated an interorganizational task force to develop guidelines for integrated education and training in cognitive and behavioral psychology at the doctoral level in the United States. Fifteen task force members representing 16 professional associations participated in a yearlong series of…

  1. Resilience and Psychological Distress in Psychology and Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Stephen; Licinio, Julio

    2017-04-01

    The authors investigated levels of resilience and psychological distress in medical and psychology students, factors that may affect these levels, the relationship between resilience and psychological distress, and student opinion on causes of stress and possible interventions. A voluntary anonymous online survey was distributed to University of Adelaide medical and psychology students. Medical and psychology students (n = 560; response rate = 24.7%) had similar mean resilience and psychological distress scores, and 47.9% of medical students and 55.1% of psychology students were psychologically distressed. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of distress (p resilience-based interventions, greater financial support, clearer learning objectives and more continuous assessment as potential means to reduce the effects of stress. Higher levels of resilience were associated with lower levels of psychological distress. Further studies are required to determine the efficacy of resilience-based interventions in these groups.

  2. Psychological intervention reduces self-reported performance anxiety in high school music students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braden, Alice M; Osborne, Margaret S; Wilson, Sarah J

    2015-01-01

    Music performance anxiety (MPA) can be distressing for many young people studying music, and may negatively impact upon their ability to cope with the demands and stressors of music education. It can also lead young people to give up music or to develop unhealthy coping habits in their adult music careers. Minimal research has examined the effectiveness of psychological programs to address MPA in young musicians. Sixty-two adolescents were pseudo-randomized to a cognitive behavioral (CB) group-delivered intervention or a waitlist condition. The intervention consisted of psychoeducation, cognitive restructuring and relaxation techniques, identification of strengths, goal-setting, imagery and visualization techniques to support three solo performances in front of judges. Significant reductions in self-rated MPA were found in both groups following the intervention and compared to their baseline MPA. This reduction was maintained at 2-months follow-up. There appeared to be inconsistent effects of the intervention upon judge-rated MPA, however the presence of floor effects precluded meaningful reductions in MPA. There appeared to be no effect of the intervention upon judge-rated performance quality. This study highlights the potential for group-based CB programs to be delivered within school music curricula to help young musicians develop skills to overcome the often debilitating effects of MPA.

  3. Psychological intervention reduces self-reported performance anxiety in high school music students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice M Braden

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Music performance anxiety (MPA can be distressing for many young people studying music, and may negatively impact upon their ability to cope with the demands and stressors of music education. It can also lead young people to give up music or to develop unhealthy coping habits in their adult music careers. Minimal research has examined the effectiveness of psychological programs to address MPA in young musicians. Sixty-two adolescents were pseudo-randomised to a cognitive behavioural (CB group-delivered intervention or a waitlist condition. The intervention consisted of psychoeducation, cognitive restructuring and relaxation techniques, identification of strengths, goal-setting, imagery and visualisation techniques to support three solo performances in front of judges. Significant reductions in self-rated MPA were found in both groups following the intervention and compared to their baseline MPA. This reduction was maintained at two-months follow-up. There appeared to be inconsistent effects of the intervention upon judge-rated MPA, however the presence of floor effects precluded meaningful reductions in MPA. There appeared to be no effect of the intervention upon judge-rated performance quality. This study highlights the potential for group-based CB programs to be delivered within school music curricula to help young musicians develop skills to overcome the often debilitating effects of MPA.

  4. [Productivity of doctoral programs in Psychology with Quality Mention in journal articles included in Journal Citation Reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musi-Lechuga, Bertha; Olivas-Ávila, José; Castro, Angel

    2011-08-01

    The main objective of the present study was to classify doctoral programs with Quality Mention in Psychology based on their scientific productivity. For this purpose, articles in the Web of Science published by professors teaching in these doctoral programs were analyzed. In addition, we analyzed scientific journals in which these professors tend to publish more papers and the evolution in the number of papers published until 2009. Results showed that the most productive doctoral program was the Neurosciences program at the University of Oviedo. This program showed a ratio of 40 articles--published in journals included in Journal Citation Reports--by each professor. In contrast, other programs did not reach a ratio of 10 articles per professor. Regarding journals, results showed that 9 out of the 20 most popular journals are Hispanic and a gradual increase in the number of published papers was also observed. Lastly, results and implications for quality assessment are discussed.

  5. Psychological Needs as a Predictor of Cyber Bullying: A Preliminary Report on College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilmac, Bulent

    2009-01-01

    Recent surveys show that cyber bullying is a pervasive problem in North America. Many news stories have reported cyber bullying incidents around the world. Reports on the prevalence of cyber bullying and victimization as a result of cyber bullying increase yearly. Although we know what cyber bullying is it is important that we learn more about the…

  6. Investigation of social cognitive career theory for minority recruitment in school psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra, Joel O; Gubi, Aaron A; Cappaert, Kevin J

    2016-06-01

    School psychology trainers have historically struggled to adequately increase the number of professionals from diverse backgrounds. An increase in diverse providers is important in meeting the needs of a burgeoning racial/ethnic minority student population. Previous research suggests that minority undergraduate psychology students have less knowledge and exposure to school psychology than for counseling and clinical psychology, and that students with greater exposure or knowledge of school psychology reported significantly greater choice intentions for school psychology. The purpose of this study is to test the applicability of the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) in explaining minority undergraduate psychology students' choice intentions for school psychology. This study is an analysis of existing data and is based on a national sample of 283 minority undergraduate psychology students. All instruments used in this study were found to have internal consistency ranging from .83 to .91. Students' learning experiences, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and choice intentions for school psychology were evaluated by way of a mediator analysis. Results from a path analysis suggest that outcome expectations mediated the relationship between exposure and choice intentions for school psychology. Implications for minority recruitment practices are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Adverse psychological outcomes in long-term survivors of hematopoietic cell transplantation: a report from the Bone Marrow Transplant Survivor Study (BMTSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Can-Lan; Francisco, Liton; Baker, K Scott; Weisdorf, Daniel J; Forman, Stephen J; Bhatia, Smita

    2011-10-27

    Little information exists regarding long-term psychological health of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) survivors. Using resources offered by the Bone Marrow Transplant Survivor Study (BMTSS), we evaluated adverse psychological outcomes in 1065 long-term HCT survivors and a healthy comparison group composed of siblings. Psychological health status was evaluated using the Brief Symptom Inventory-18. Twenty-two percent of the HCT survivors reported adverse psychological outcomes, compared with 8% of the siblings. Exposure to prednisone was associated with psychological distress across all domains (anxiety, depression, and somatic distress). Fifteen percent of the HCT survivors reported somatic distress, representing an almost 3-fold higher risk comparing to siblings. Among survivors, in addition to low annual household income and self-reported poor health, having severe/life-threatening conditions and presence of active chronic GVHD were associated with a 2-fold increased risk for somatic distress. Seven percent of the HCT survivors expressed suicidal ideation; patients with higher scores on depression subscale were most vulnerable. This study demonstrates that somatic distress is the biggest challenge faced by survivors long after HCT. These results identify vulnerable subpopulations and provide patients, families, and healthcare providers with necessary information to plan for post-HCT needs many years after HCT.

  8. Williams Syndrome: The extent of agreement between parent and self report of psychological difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Freeman

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: People with Williams syndrome (WS have been reported by their carers to have problems with attention, anxiety and social relationships. People with WS have been shown to report their anxieties. This study extends our knowledge of how people with WS see themselves in terms of behaviour and social relationships. Methods: A survey using self and parent report forms of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results: Both parents and individuals with WS (N = 31 reported difficulties in emotional disorder and hyperactivity symptoms and strengths in prosocial behaviours such as altruism and empathy. They disagreed about peer problems. Conclusions: People with WS understand some but not all of their difficulties. In particular they fail to recognize their social difficulties which may lead them to be vulnerable to exploitation.

  9. Attrition in Developmental Psychology: A Review of Modern Missing Data Reporting and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Jody S.; Deboeck, Pascal R.; Howard, Waylon

    2017-01-01

    Inherent in applied developmental sciences is the threat to validity and generalizability due to missing data as a result of participant drop-out. The current paper provides an overview of how attrition should be reported, which tests can examine the potential of bias due to attrition (e.g., t-tests, logistic regression, Little's MCAR test,…

  10. Repressive Adaptive Style and Self-Reported Psychological Functioning in Adolescent Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Sarah J.; Gerstle, Melissa; Montague, Erica Q.

    2008-01-01

    Low levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and psychosocial distress have been reported in pediatric cancer survivors. One explanation is the relatively high prevalence of the repressive adaptive style (low distress, high restraint) in this population. We investigated the relationship between this…

  11. Attrition in Developmental Psychology: A Review of Modern Missing Data Reporting and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Jody S.; Deboeck, Pascal R.; Howard, Waylon

    2017-01-01

    Inherent in applied developmental sciences is the threat to validity and generalizability due to missing data as a result of participant drop-out. The current paper provides an overview of how attrition should be reported, which tests can examine the potential of bias due to attrition (e.g., t-tests, logistic regression, Little's MCAR test,…

  12. Preliminary report on social psychological factors in long duration space flights: Review and directions for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, A. A.

    1978-01-01

    Group dynamics, sociological and psychological factors are examined. Crew composition and compatibility are studied. Group dynamics analysis includes: leadership; cohesiveness; conformity; and conflict.

  13. How Do GPA, Psychological Adjustment and Coping Styles Contribute to the Reported Use of Substance as a Means of Coping with Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Robbie J.; Jo, Hanik; Murray, Darrick A.; Tovar, Maria A.; Johnson, Mykel L.

    In a study of African-American (n=119) urban high school students, coping with life stressors was positively and negatively associated with the use of substances. This study focused on how grade point average (GPA), psychological adjustment, and coping styles contribute to the reported use of substances as a way of dealing with stress. The results…

  14. Nonlinear dynamics in psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Guastello

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a survey of the applications of nonlinear dynamical systems theory to substantive problems encountered in the full scope of psychological science. Applications are organized into three topical areas – cognitive science, social and organizational psychology, and personality and clinical psychology. Both theoretical and empirical studies are considered with an emphasis on works that capture the broadest scope of issues that are of substantive interest to psychological theory. A budding literature on the implications of NDS principles in professional practice is reported also.

  15. Anthropomorphism in Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakan, David

    This article presents an address on anthropomorphism in psychology. Anthropomorphism assures that human beings are given human characteristics when participating in psychological research. This is significant because the research community does not often report results of studies in the language of feelings, thoughts, or desires, which has led to…

  16. Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health & Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sign up Search: Defense Centers of Excellence For Psychological Health & Traumatic Brain Injury U.S. Department of Defense ... Reports Program Evaluation DoD/VA PH & TBI Registry Psychological Health About Psychological Health Psychological Health Resources About ...

  17. Conscientiousness predicts greater recovery from negative emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Kristin N Javaras; Schaefer, Stacey M.; van Reekum, Carien M.; Lapate, Regina C.; Greischar, Lawrence L.; Bachuber, David R.; Love, Gale; Ryff, Carol D.; Richard J Davidson

    2012-01-01

    Greater levels of conscientiousness have been associated with lower levels of negative affect. We focus on one mechanism through which conscientiousness may decrease\\ud negative affect: effective emotion regulation, as reflected by greater recovery from negative stimuli. In 273 adults who were 35 - 85 years old, we collected self-report measures of personality including conscientiousness and its self-control facet, followed\\ud on average 2 years later by psychophysiological measures of emotio...

  18. Conservation Psychology: A Gap in Current Australian Undergraduate Psychology Education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elissa Pearson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Human actions have contributed to numerous environmental challenges, including climate change and a significant loss of the world’s biodiversity. As the scientific study of human thought and behaviour, psychology has much to offer in better understanding these issues, as well as fostering greater sustainability in human actions. Yet, despite this recognition, and increasing calls from leaders in psychology education to produce graduates capable of applying their disciplinary knowledge to such real-world issues to solve worldwide behaviourally-based problems; this may not be adequately addressed in current psychology training. The present study assessed the content of all APAC (Australian Psychology Accreditation Council approved psychology programs within Australia to determine the proportion which offered a psychology-focused course (unit specifically in conservation or sustainability. Based on the data advertised through each university website, it appears that only one of 39 programs currently offers such a course, with one other university implementing a conservation psychology course in 2013. Thus 95% of current APAC-accredited programs in Australia do not have a strong focus on training psychology graduates to contribute to addressing these important issues. The need for greater integration of conservation psychology content into undergraduate psychology education in Australia and beyond is discussed.

  19. Relationship between psychological factors and performance-based and self-reported disability in chronic low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphorst Preuper, H.R.; Reneman, M.F.; Boonstra, Antje; Dijkstra, P.U.; Versteegen, G.J.; Geertzen, J.H.; Brouwer, S.

    2008-01-01

    Cross sectional study, performed in an outpatient university based pain rehabilitation setting. To analyze the relationship between psychological factors (psychosocial distress, depression, self efficacy, self-esteem, fear of movement, pain cognitions and coping reactions) and performance-based and

  20. A possible contributor to the higher degree of girls reporting psychological symptoms compared with boys in grade nine?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gådin, Katja Gillander; Hammarström, Anne

    2005-01-01

    .... The aim of this study was to analyse whether psychosocial factors at school were associated with a high degree of psychological symptoms among boys and girls in grade nine, with a special focus on sexual harassment...

  1. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  2. Psychological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IBS Pain IBS Global Treatments IBS Diet Low FODMAP Diet Complimentary or Alt Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments ... IBS Pain IBS Global Treatments IBS Diet Low FODMAP Diet Complimentary or Alt Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments ...

  3. Cross-sectional study of self-reported ADHD symptoms and psychological comorbidity among college students in Chandigarh, India

    OpenAIRE

    Ishani Jhambh; Priti Arun; Jasmin Garg

    2014-01-01

    Background: Existence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults is scantily researched in India. There is dearth of information on prevalence of ADHD in college students worldwide. Further, fewer studies in the past have evaluated the impact of ADHD on the psychological well-being of college students. Aims: To study the prevalence of ADHD among college students and psychological problems related to ADHD. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects and Methods: A total of 237 st...

  4. Globalization, culture and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melluish, Steve

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies.

  5. Health psychology: status and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancarte, A L; Murphy, K J; Reilley, R R

    1991-08-01

    This study investigated the present status and suggested trends in health psychology as reported by American Psychological Association Division 38 (Health Psychology) members. A 25-item mail-in survey was developed to obtain these data from a randomly selected sample of 300. Information includes a demographic description of the respondents, their selection of influential books, journals, and individuals, and their opinions regarding the current status and desirable future trends in the field of health psychology.

  6. Discursive Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.

    2015-01-01

    Discursive psychology was established in the United Kingdom by the end of the 1980s, mainly in response to the dominant cognitivist approach in social psychology. While it borrowed notions from poststructuralism and sociology of science, it is most akin to conversation analysis. Discursive psycholog

  7. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  8. Psychological resilience predicts decreases in pain catastrophizing through positive emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Anthony D; Zautra, Alex J; Reid, M Carrington

    2010-09-01

    The study used a daily process design to examine the role of psychological resilience and positive emotions in the day-to-day experience of pain catastrophizing. A sample of 95 men and women with chronic pain completed initial assessments of neuroticism, psychological resilience, and demographic data, and then completed short diaries regarding pain intensity, pain catastrophizing, and positive and negative emotions every day for 14 consecutive days. Multilevel modeling analyses indicated that independent of level of neuroticism, negative emotions, pain intensity, income, and age, high-resilient individuals reported greater positive emotions and exhibited lower day-to-day pain catastrophizing compared with low-resilient individuals. Mediation analyses revealed that psychologically resilient individuals rebound from daily pain catastrophizing through experiences of positive emotion. Implications for research on psychological resilience, pain catastrophizing, and positive emotions are discussed.

  9. Acute psychological stress as a precipitant of acute coronary syndromes in patients with undiagnosed ischemic heart disease: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Melanie L

    2009-01-01

    Acute psychological stress causes a number of physiologic responses that can trigger acute coronary syndromes in individuals with silent coronary artery disease. The mechanisms behind this phenomena have been the subject of much speculation. The following is a case report and brief review of the literature. A PubMed search was undertaken using the key words stress and myocardial infarction, stress and ischemia, mental stress and coronary artery disease, psychological stress and acute coronary syndrome, and mental stress and plaque destabilization. Articles were restricted to the English language and those dating through December 2007. Acute coronary syndrome is thought to be the end result of a complex mechanism involving platelet activation and endothelial dysfunction. Several studies have shown that acute mental stress leads to enhanced platelet activation and endothelial dysfunction. The mechanism behind this involves both the autonomic nervous system and the neuroendocrine response. Acute psychological stress may lead to acute coronary syndromes in patients with previously silent disease. Physicians should inquire about cardiac symptoms in patients with cardiac risk factors who are experiencing psychological distress. Further research will hopefully lead to an improved understanding of the mechanism behind this process to improve therapeutic interventions.

  10. Physical capacity and psychological mood in association with self-reported work ability in vibration-exposed patients with hand symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Edlund Maria; Gerhardsson Lars; Hagberg Mats

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate whether self-reports of work ability correlated to the results of quantitative tests measuring physical capacity and a questionnaire assessing psychological mood in vibration-exposed patients with hand symptoms. Methods The participants comprised 47 patients (36 men and eleven women) with exposure to hand vibration and vascular and/or neurological symptoms in the hands. They performed several quantitative tests (manual dexterity, ha...

  11. The direction of effects between perceived parental behavioral control and psychological control and adolescents' self-reported GAD and SAD symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Wijsbroek, Saskia A. M.; Hale III, William W.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This study examined the direction of effects and age and sex differences between adolescents? perceptions of parental behavioral and psychological control and adolescents? self-reports of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) symptoms. The study focused on 1,313 Dutch adolescents (early-to-middle cohort n = 923, 70.3%; middle-to-late cohort n = 390, 29.7%) from the general population. A multi-group, structural equation model was employed ...

  12. Assessing Student Interest and Familiarity with Professional Psychology Specialty Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark-Wroblewski, Kimberly; Wiggins, Tina L.; Ryan, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined undergraduate psychology students' (N = 83) self-reported interest in and familiarity with five specialty areas in professional psychology: counseling psychology, clinical psychology, school psychology, forensic psychology, and criminal profiling. Results suggest that although students are quite interested in careers…

  13. Conscientiousness predicts greater recovery from negative emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaras, Kristin N; Schaefer, Stacey M; van Reekum, Carien M; Lapate, Regina C; Greischar, Lawrence L; Bachhuber, David R; Love, Gayle Dienberg; Ryff, Carol D; Davidson, Richard J

    2012-10-01

    Greater levels of conscientiousness have been associated with lower levels of negative affect. We focus on one mechanism through which conscientiousness may decrease negative affect: effective emotion regulation, as reflected by greater recovery from negative stimuli. In 273 adults who were 35-85 years old, we collected self-report measures of personality including conscientiousness and its self-control facet, followed on average 2 years later by psychophysiological measures of emotional reactivity and recovery. Among middle-aged adults (35-65 years old), the measures of conscientiousness and self-control predicted greater recovery from, but not reactivity to, negative emotional stimuli. The effect of conscientiousness and self-control on recovery was not driven by other personality variables or by greater task adherence on the part of high conscientiousness individuals. In addition, the effect was specific to negative emotional stimuli and did not hold for neutral or positive emotional stimuli.

  14. Psychological intervention of murophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asrie Yihun

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Although phobia is more commonly observed during adolescence as compared to adulthood, its specific type of murophobia is uncommon. Especially in a country like Ethiopia, where awareness, orientation to mental health and its psychological treatment is undergoing its infancy on account of several reasons, the neurotic disorders are rarely reported to mental health clinicians. The present study is a case report of a 16-year old adolescent female with murophobia. The case was not registered in any general medical clinic and was sent to our department for further psychological assessment and intervention. The client was comprehensively examined through clinical interview, behavioural analysis and treated by cognitive-behaviour technique of psychological intervention and without the inclusion of psychiatric treatment. Details of the psychological assessment and intervention have been presented in this case report.

  15. Brief report: Doctoral training origins of authors publishing in Journal of Pediatric Psychology: historical trends 1976-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinger, Skylar A; Roberts, Michael C

    2011-01-01

    To identify historical trends in the field of pediatric psychology by examining the training origins of authors publishing in Journal of Pediatric Psychology since its formation in 1976. The researchers sampled four publication years (1976, 1986, 1996, and 2006) and recorded the authors of each published article. They obtained each author's doctoral training institution using information provided in the article, the American Psychological Association Membership Directory, or the ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Database and counted authorship totals for each institution in each year. Four institutions (Case Western Reserve University, University of Iowa, University of Kansas, and Purdue University) produced authorship entries in 3 of the 4 years sampled. The number of articles being published, the number of authors per article and the number of institutions consistently increased. The current study provided a historical perspective on graduate training and scholarly productivity in the field of pediatric psychology. Future research should investigate interesting trends revealed, such as how core groups of pediatric psychology scholars have contributed to the notable growth in institutions, specific programs within institutions, and authors published over the last 30 years.

  16. Psychological parameters of psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouris, A; Platsidaki, E; Kouskoukis, C; Christodoulou, C

    2017-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory scaling dermatosis. The marked visible appearance of the lesions have a negative impact on body image that leads to decreased self-esteem, hence seriously compromising the patient's quality of life. The clinical picture critically affects the social well-being of the patient since the disease is commonly misunderstood and feared by the social environment as being contagious. The patient feels stigmatized and this further intensifies their lack of self-confidence and self-esteem. Feelings of shame and guilt increase the tendency toward suicidal ideation. The poor quality of life of psoriatic patients has been associated with excessive alcohol consumption, increased smoking and greater use of tranquilizers, sedatives and antidepressants. As far as mental impairment is concerned, a correlation has been found between psychological stress and the clinical severity of symptoms: the more mentally affected the patient, the more severe the dermatologic lesions. Similarly, stressful life events constitute a major risk for the occurrence and recurrence, exacerbating the severity and duration of the symptoms. Depression and anxiety can worsen the disease or cause resistance to treatment or patient's indifference, which in turn can lead to expensive and prolonged treatment. Not least, the disease itself contributes to anxiety, depression and psychological stress, thus creating a "vicious circle" that is difficult to manage. Given that women seem to invest more in their personal appearance than men, it is hardly surprising that female psoriatic patients report higher levels of depression. Similarly, the risk of mental disorders is also higher in younger patients for whom body image plays an equally significant role. The severity of the disease, side effects of therapy and mental disorders are among the causes that have been attributed to sexual dysfunction reported by some psoriatic patients. At the social level, stigma, social rejection

  17. Prevalence of Self-Reported Work-Related Injuries and Their Association with Psychological Symptoms in General Working Population of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Pei-Hua; Cheng, Yawen

    2016-05-02

    Objectives This study investigated the prevalence of self-reported work-related injuries across occupational groups and examined their association with the risk of psychological symptoms in general working population of Taiwan. Methods Data from a national survey conducted in 2013 of a representative sample of general working people of Taiwan was analyzed, consisting of 12,528 male and 8396 female workers aged 25~65 years. Information about work-related injuries including work-related disease occurred over the previous 12 months prior to the survey was obtained by a standardized questionnaire. The presence of psychological symptoms was assessed by the Brief Symptom Rating Scale (BSRS). Also obtained were participants' socio-demographic characteristics, working hours, job control, psychological job demands, physical job demands and job insecurity. Results Over a year, 14.91 % of male and 11.53 % of female working people had experienced work-related injuries. Workers with lower educational level, manual workers, the self-employed as well as employers of small enterprise were at higher risks for work-related injuries. Findings from multivariate logistic regression analyses with adjustment of gender, age, working hours and psychosocial work conditions showed that employees with experiences of work-related injuries over the past year were at a substantially higher risk for psychological symptoms (OR = 2.42) as compared to employees who had no experiences of work-related injuries. Conclusion A sizable proportion of workers are affected by work-related injuries and these workers are at higher risk for psychological symptoms. The psychosocial consequences of work-related injuries deserve further investigation and interventions.

  18. Racism experiences and psychological functioning in African American college freshmen: is racial socialization a buffer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Mia Smith; Burton, E Thomaseo; Best, Candace

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has documented the negative effects of racism on the psychological health of African Americans. However, consideration of racial socialization as a potential buffer against racism experiences has received limited attention. The present study investigated whether two types of parental racial socialization messages reduced the impact of racism on psychological functioning in a sample of 247 African American college freshmen (M=18.30). Results indicated that students who reported more racism experiences also had poorer levels of psychological functioning as indicated by higher levels of psychological stress and psychological distress. Parental messages emphasizing the use of African American cultural resources to cope with racism reduced the impact of racism on psychological stress only. Cultural pride messages predicted less psychological distress while messages emphasizing the use of cultural resources predicted greater psychological distress. However, neither message type moderated the relationship between racism experiences and psychological distress. These results suggest that racial socialization messages have complex relations to psychological functioning in African American college students.

  19. Psychological Empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Flohrer, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Instilling psychological empowerment in employees is one of the most important tasks of modern leadership. Building on quantitative research and the development of a new psychometric scale related to project management this thesis shows: First, individuals' characteristics and their work team environment influence perceptions of access to information and resources – two important antecedents of psychological empowerment. Second, while a project briefing strengthens the link of the psychologic...

  20. Carcinogenicity and teratogenicity vs. psychogenicity: Psychological characteristics associated with self-reported Agent Orange exposure among Vietnam combat veterans who seek treatment for substance abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinowitz, R.; Roberts, W.R.; Dolan, M.P.; Patterson, E.T.; Charles, H.L.; Atkins, H.G.; Penk, W.E. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, Dallas (USA))

    1989-09-01

    This study asked, What are the psychological characteristics of Vietnam combat veterans who claim Agent Orange exposure when compared with combat-experienced cohorts who do not report such contamination The question was researched among 153 heroin addicts, polydrug abusers, and chronic alcoholics who were seeking treatment: 58 reported moderate to high defoliant exposure while in combat; 95 reported minimal to no exposure while in Vietnam. The null hypothesis was accepted for measures of childhood and present family social climate, premilitary backgrounds, reasons for seeking treatment, patterns and types of illicit drug and alcohol use, interpersonal problems, intellectual functioning, and short-term memory. The null hypothesis was rejected for personality differences, however, those who self-reported high Agent Orange exposure scored significantly higher on MMPI scales F, Hypochondriasis, Depression, Paranoia, Psychasthenia, Schizophrenia, Mania, and Social interoversion. The results suggest that clinicians carefully assess attributional processing of those who report traumatic experience.

  1. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  2. Reestablishing Clinical Psychology's Subjective Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsberger, Peter Hume

    2007-01-01

    Comments on the report by the APA Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice (see record 2006-05893-001) entitled Evidence-based practice in psychology. The Task Force is to be commended for their report valuing evidence from "clinical expertise" on a par with "research data" (p. 272) in guiding psychological practices. The current author…

  3. Reestablishing Clinical Psychology's Subjective Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsberger, Peter Hume

    2007-01-01

    Comments on the report by the APA Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice (see record 2006-05893-001) entitled Evidence-based practice in psychology. The Task Force is to be commended for their report valuing evidence from "clinical expertise" on a par with "research data" (p. 272) in guiding psychological practices. The current author…

  4. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  5. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.

  6. Psychological experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, Martijn; Emmanuel, Steven M.; McDonald, William; Stewart, Jon

    2015-01-01

    For Kierkegaard the ‘psychological experiment’ is a literary strategy. It enables him to dramatize an existential conflict in an experimental mode. Kierkegaard’s aim is to study the source of movement that animates the existing individual (this is the psychological part). However, he is not interest

  7. Physical capacity and psychological mood in association with self-reported work ability in vibration-exposed patients with hand symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edlund Maria

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate whether self-reports of work ability correlated to the results of quantitative tests measuring physical capacity and a questionnaire assessing psychological mood in vibration-exposed patients with hand symptoms. Methods The participants comprised 47 patients (36 men and eleven women with exposure to hand vibration and vascular and/or neurological symptoms in the hands. They performed several quantitative tests (manual dexterity, hand grip strength, finger strength and completed the Work Ability Index (WAI and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS questionnaires. Results Correlation analysis revealed statistically significant associations between the WAI results, the HADS indices, hand grip and finger strength, and manual dexterity measured using the Purdue Pegboard®. Multiple regression analysis revealed age and HADS indices as the strongest predictors of work ability. Conclusions The patient’s age and psychological mood may be stronger predictors of work ability compared with results from tests measuring physical capacity of the hands in vibration-exposed patients with hand symptoms. When using the WAI as an instrument for assessing work ability in these patients, health care providers need to be more aware of the impact of the psychological mood.

  8. Distress levels and self-reported treatment rates for medicine, law, psychology and mechanical engineering tertiary students: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Catherine M; Peterson, Ray F; Wilson, Ian G; Newbury, Jonathan W; Tonkin, Anne L; Turnbull, Deborah

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this research was to assess tertiary student distress levels with regards to (i) comparisons with normative population data, and (ii) the effects of discipline, year level, and student characteristics. Self-reported treatment rates and level of concern regarding perceived distress were also collected. Students from all six years of an undergraduate medical course were compared with samples from Psychology, Law and Mechanical Engineering courses at the University of Adelaide, Australia. Students participated in one of three studies that were either web-based or paper-based. All studies included Kessler's Measure of Psychological Distress (K10), and questions pertaining to treatment for any mental health problems and concern regarding distress experienced. Of the 955 tertiary students who completed the K10, 48% were psychologically distressed (a K10 score > or = 22) which equated to a rate 4.4 times that of age-matched peers. The non-health disciplines were significantly more distressed than the health disciplines. Distress levels were statistically equivalent across all six years of the medical degree. Of tertiary students, 11% had been treated for a mental health problem. Levels of concern correlated with the K10 score. The results from this research suggest that high distress levels among the tertiary student body may be a phenomenon more widely spread than first thought. Low treatment rates suggest that traditional models of support may be inadequate or not appropriate for tertiary cohorts.

  9. Practice parameters for the psychological and behavioral treatment of insomnia: an update. An american academy of sleep medicine report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, Timothy; Kramer, Milton; Alessi, Cathy; Friedman, Leah; Boehlecke, Brian; Brown, Terry; Coleman, Jack; Kapur, Vishesh; Lee-Chiong, Teofilo; Owens, Judith; Pancer, Jeffrey; Swick, Todd

    2006-11-01

    Insomnia is highly prevalent, has associated daytime consequences which impair job performance and quality of life, and is associated with increased risk of comorbidities including depression. These practice parameters provide recommendations regarding behavioral and psychological treatment approaches, which are often effective in primary and secondary insomnia. These recommendations replace or modify those published in the 1999 practice parameter paper produced by the American Sleep Disorders Association. A Task Force of content experts was appointed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine to perform a comprehensive review of the scientific literature since 1999 and to grade the evidence regarding non-pharmacological treatments of insomnia. Recommendations were developed based on this review using evidence-based methods. These recommendations were developed by the Standards of Practice Committee and reviewed and approved by the Board of Directors of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Psychological and behavioral interventions are effective in the treatment of both chronic primary insomnia (Standard) and secondary insomnia (Guideline). Stimulus control therapy, relaxation training, and cognitive behavior therapy are individually effective therapies in the treatment of chronic insomnia (Standard) and sleep restriction therapy, multicomponent therapy (without cognitive therapy), biofeedback and paradoxical intention are individually effective therapies in the treatment of chronic insomnia (Guideline). There was insufficient evidence to recommend sleep hygiene education, imagery training and cognitive therapy as single therapies or when added to other specific approaches. Psychological and behavioral interventions are effective in the treatment of insomnia in older adults and in the treatment of insomnia among chronic hypnotic users (Standard).

  10. Citizen participation, perceived control, and psychological empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, M A; Rappaport, J

    1988-10-01

    The research integrates the citizen participation literature with research on perceived control in an effort to further our understanding of psychological empowerment. Eleven indices of empowerment representing personality, cognitive, and motivational measures were identified to represent the construct. Three studies examined the relationship between empowerment and participation. The first study examined differences among groups identified by a laboratory manipulation as willing to participate in personally relevant or community relevant situations. Study II examined differences for groups defined by actual involvement in community activities and organizations. Study III replicated Study II with a different population. In each study, individuals reporting a greater amount of participation scored higher on indices of empowerment. Psychological empowerment could be described as the connection between a sense of personal competence, a desire for, and a willingness to take action in the public domain. Discriminant function analyses resulted in one significant dimension, identified as pyschological empowerment, that was positively correlated with leadership and negatively correlated with alienation.

  11. Psychological, academic, and work functioning in college students with childhood-onset asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Melissa Y; Mullins, Larry L; Van Pelt, Jill C

    2007-03-01

    This study investigated differences in psychological, academic, and work functioning between college students with and without asthma and identified predictors of functioning. Both participants with asthma (n = 121) and age-and gender-matched healthy control subjects (n = 121) completed measures of psychological distress, provided information on missed school and work days, and consented to have their grade point averages released from the registrar. College students with asthma also completed measures of illness uncertainty and illness intrusiveness. Participants with asthma reported greater anxiety, general psychological distress, and more missed school and work days compared to healthy control subjects. Within the asthma group, both illness uncertainty and illness intrusiveness independently predicted anxious and depressive symptoms and general psychological distress; illness intrusiveness also predicted missed school days. Although enrollment in college implies resilient functioning, college students with asthma remain at risk for problems with psychological and academic functioning.

  12. The Influence of Causal Explanations and Diagnostic Labeling on Psychology Students' Beliefs About Treatments, Prognosis, Dangerousness and Unpredictability in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliano, Lorenza; Read, John; Rinaldi, Angela; Costanzo, Regina; De Leo, Renata; Schioppa, Giustina; Petrillo, Miriam

    2016-04-01

    This study explored views of 566 Italian psychology students about schizophrenia. The most frequently cited causes were psychological traumas (68 %) and heredity (54 %). Thirty-three percent of students firmly believed that people with the condition could recover. Reporting heredity among the causes, and identifying schizophrenia were both associated with prognostic pessimism, greater confidence in pharmacological treatments and lower confidence in psychological treatments. Schizophrenia labeling was also associated with higher perception of unpredictability and dangerousness. Compared to first year students, fourth/fifth year students more frequently reported heredity among the causes, and were more pessimistic about schizophrenia recovery. Stigma topics should be included in future psychologists' education.

  13. Correlação entre resultado do exame vestibular e queixas psicológicas autorrelatadas de pacientes com sintomas vestibulares Correlation between vestibular test results and self-reported psychological complaints of patients with vestibular symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léia Gonçalves Gurgel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fatores cognitivos e emocionais podem afetar o equilíbrio, portanto, condições psiquiátricas são comuns em pacientes otoneurológicos. O tratamento dado ao sujeito vertiginoso pode ser mais influenciado pelo sofrimento e comportamento da doença do que pela gravidade da patologia orgânica. OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve como objetivo verificar a associação entre os resultados do exame vestibular e queixa psicológica autorrelatada, em indivíduos atendidos no ano de 2009, no serviço de audiologia de um hospital em Porto Alegre. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo, descritivo-exploratório, consultando-se a base de dados dos softwares VecWin® e VecWin® 2 da marca Neurograff®. Foram investigados os resultados do exame vestibular, as queixas referentes aos sintomas psicológicos relatados espontaneamente e idade, sexo e queixa de vertigem e/ou tontura. O trabalho foi realizado em três etapas: agrupamento, exclusão/inclusão e quantificação. CONCLUSÃO: A faixa etária da amostra, o sexo e a presença ou ausência de vertigem e/ou tontura não foram variáveis de influência sobre o resultado do exame vestibular. Houve associação significativa entre a presença de queixa psicológica autorrelatada e o resultado normal do exame vestibular. Assim, é fundamental que os profissionais deem atenção às questões psicológicas relatadas pelo indivíduo na ocasião da anamnese vestibular.Cognitive and emotional factors may affect balance; psychiatric conditions are a common component in patient dizziness. The treatment of patients with vertigo may be affected to a greater degree by the suffering due to this disease than by the severity of organic changes. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate associations between vestibular test results and self-reported psychological complaints in patients evaluated during 2009 in an audiology unit at a hospital in Porto Alegre. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, descriptive

  14. Running to well-being: A comparative study on the impact of exercise on the physical and mental health of law and psychology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skead, Natalie K; Rogers, Shane L

    Research indicates that, in comparison to other university students, law students are at greater risk of experiencing high levels of psychological distress. There is also a large body of literature supporting a general negative association between exercise and stress, anxiety and depression. However, we are not aware of any studies exploring the impact of exercise on the mental health of law students specifically. This article reports evidence of a negative association between exercise and psychological distress in 206 law and psychology students. Compared to psychology students, the law students not only reported greater psychological distress, but, in addition, there was a stronger association between their levels of distress and their levels of exercise. Based on the results of this study, we suggest a simple yet effective way law schools might support the mental health of their students.

  15. The Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles and Level of Service Inventory-Revised: Screening Version as predictors of official and self-reported disciplinary infractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D; Schlauch, Charles

    2008-10-01

    A total of 159 male inmates screened with the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) and Level of Service Inventory-Revised: Screening Version (LSI-R:SV) were followed for a period of 24 months for evidence of disciplinary infractions (incident reports). Eighty-three of these inmates also furnished a self-report of disciplinary infractions occurring during the 24-month follow-up. The PICTS General Criminal Thinking (GCT) score and LSI-R:SV total score correlated with and accurately identified the presence of an officially recorded disciplinary infraction, an officially recorded severe disciplinary infraction, and a self-reported disciplinary infraction but only age and the GCT score achieved incremental validity when age, GCT, and LSI-R:SV were included as predictors in the same probit regression or loglinear survival equation.

  16. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide.

  17. Idiopathic, Serial Coronary Vessels Dissection in a Young Woman with Psychological Stress: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Arrivi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD is a very rare disease, associated with high mortality rate, whose etiology and pathogenesis are poorly understood. Its sporadic nature and the varied angiographic extent make firm recommendations regarding revascularization impossible. The case described is that of a young, otherwise healthy woman, without a known underlying condition which may lead to SCAD, but with a history of intense psychological stress. We managed the patient with a conservative approach based on watchful waiting, medical therapy, and plain old balloon angioplasty (POBA with low inflation atmospheres.

  18. Coverage of Industrial/Organizational Psychology in Introductory Psychology Textbooks: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Douglas C.; Geberth, Karen L.; Joseph, Todd A.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the extent to which industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology is covered within introductory psychology textbooks (n=54). Determined whether I/O psychology was in a section, appendix, or chapter; and also compiled the number of pages that contained I/O psychology. Reports that only one-fourth of the textbooks had an overview. (CMK)

  19. Greater trochanter apophysitis in the adolescent athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Simon W; Safran, Marc R

    2015-05-01

    Lower limb traction apophysitis is common in young athletes, occurring at sites such as the tibial tubercle (Osgood-Schlatter disease) and distal patella (Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease). Around the hip, iliac apophysitis is well recognized, but no cases of greater trochanter apophysitis have previously been reported. We describe the case of a 15-year-old male basketball player with a 2-month history of the right hip pain and significant functional limitation. X-rays revealed widening of the greater trochanter apophysis with subchondral sclerosis, consistent with a diagnosis of traction apophysitis. The patient was treated with a period of relative rest and anti-inflammatory medication. He gradually returned to full athletic activity, including basketball, without recurrence of pain or limitation. We describe the first reported case of traction apophysitis of the greater trochanter. The unique muscular anatomy of this apophysis with balanced forces explains the rarity of this condition. If encountered, rest and activity modification is the recommended treatment.

  20. Parental Physical and Psychological Aggression: Psychological Symptoms in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Perrin, Cindy L.; Perrin, Robin D.; Kocur, Jodie L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between various levels of parent-child physical violence and psychological symptoms reported by college students, while controlling for demographic variables, severity and frequency of violence, and co-occurrence of parental psychological aggression. Method: Participants…

  1. Greater Trochanter Tuberculosis : MRI Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    My Youssef Alaoui Lamrani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis has been reported in almost all bones of body. The great trochanter tuberculosis (GTT installation is insidious and clinical symptoms are often vague with moderate painful swelling and stiffness. GTT is about 0,2 to 2% of all osteo-articular tuberculosis, occurring most commonly by hematogenous seeding secondary to primary focus elsewhere, more commonly in the lungs. Isolated GTT is unusual and thus its awareness is slow and diagnosis is often delayed.

  2. A brief report on rape myth acceptance: differences between police officers, law students, and psychology students in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray

    2015-01-01

    A common perception is that police officers hold very negative attitudes about rape victims. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to establish whether police officers do accept stereotypical rape myths at a higher level compared to members of other populations. There were 3 comparison samples, composed of police officers, law students, and psychology students, that completed the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance scale. Male and female police officers accepted "she lied" myths at a higher level than the student samples. Student samples were found to accept 2 types of rape myths ("she asked for it" and "he didn't meant to") at a higher level compared to police officers. No significant differences were found in the other 4 subfactors. Therefore, the pattern of results suggests that police officers do not adhere to stereotypical myths about rape victims more than do other populations.

  3. Understanding the psychology of seeking support to increase Health Science student engagement in academic support services. A Practice Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Francis Hoyne

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing student engagement within higher education academic support services is a constant challenge. Whilst engagement with support is positively associated with successful retention, and non-engagement connected to attrition, the most vulnerable students are often the least likely to engage. Our data has shown that Health Science students are reluctant to engage with academic support services despite being made aware of their academic deficiencies. The “psychology of seeking support” was used as a lens to identify some of the multifaceted issues around student engagement. The School of Health Sciences made attendance at support courses compulsory for those students who were below the benchmark score in a post entrance literacy test. Since the policy change was implemented, there has been a 50% reduction in the fail rate of “at risk” students in a core literacy unit. These findings are encouraging and will help reduce student attrition in the long term.

  4. The relationship between self-reported childhood adversities, adulthood psychopathology and psychological stress markers in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidenfaden, Dea; Knorr, Ulla; Soendergaard, Mia Greisen

    2017-01-01

    fulfilling ICD-10 criteria for schizophrenia and 39 healthy control persons filled out the comprehensive Childhood Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS). Data were analyzed after a data-driven dichotomization into two groups of either high or low CATS score in patients and controls, respectively. The psychopathology......Background: Childhood adversity is a well-established risk factor for the development of schizophrenia. In particular, there is evidence that childhood adversity increases the occurrence of positive symptoms, possibly through glucocorticoid influences on dopaminergic neurotransmission. Aims......: To compare levels of childhood trauma in schizophrenia patients vs. healthy control persons, and to study the association between childhood adversity and the symptomatology of adulthood schizophrenia, as well as subjective and biological markers of psychological stress.  Methods: Thirty-seven patients...

  5. [Psychological trauma and crisis intervention in children after earthquake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yong-Hua

    2013-06-01

    As a momentous disaster, earthquake would bring severe psychological trauma to children, with an adverse effect not only on the physiological functions, but also on their behaviors, emotions, and cognition, and the short-term and long-term consequences are much greater in children than in adults. The children of different ages have different psychological reactions, so psychological intervention varies with children's age. Psychological intervention is still important long afterwards to prevent permanent psychological trauma in children.

  6. Psychological IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Stine Willum

    2015-01-01

    During ethnographic fieldwork at a fertility clinic in Denmark, I became intrigued by emotions. In particular, I found an incidence labelled ‘psychological IVF’ theoretically provocative as it challenged my views on materializations, which I was preparing to study. This paper centres on the story...... of psychological IVF, and I use this narrative to consider emotions and materialization methodologically. I also ask how emotions at fertility clinics can be conceptualized to enable analysis of their materialization, change, and effects. In order to do so, I develop the term ‘emotional choreography......’. This theoretical work has three aims. First, it seeks to illustrate how the story of psychological IVF offers a rich range of materializations of emotions. Secondly, this work proposes a feminist materialist conceptualization of emotions that is both non-representational and posthuman. This conceptualization draws...

  7. EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Patil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Education Psychology is one of the most rapidly advancing disciplines which is concerned with the description, explanation and control of the educational processes arising from the interaction between the teacher and learner in the context of a specified or unspecified subject. The concept of educational psycology is changing as a result of the general impact of the disciplines such as sociology, anthropology,economics, political science and so on. The subject matter of educational psychology is also reflecting a diversity of structures and emphases in its connection.

  8. Self-reported comfort treating severe mental illnesses among pre-doctoral graduate students in clinical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Benjamin; Romeo, Katy Harper; Olbert, Charles M; Penn, David L

    2014-12-01

    One possible explanation for the dearth of psychologists working in severe mental illness (SMI) areas is a lack of training opportunities. Recent studies have shown that while training opportunities have increased, there remain fewer resources available for SMI training compared to other disorders. Examines whether students express discomfort working with this population and whether they are satisfied with their level of training in SMI. One-hundred sixty-nine students currently enrolled in doctoral programs in clinical psychology in the United States and Canada were surveyed for their comfort treating and satisfaction with training related to a number of disorders. RESULTS indicate that students are significantly less comfortable treating and finding a referral for a patient with schizophrenia as well as dissatisfied with their current training in SMI and desirous of more training. Regression analyses showed that dissatisfaction with training predicted a desire for more training; however, discomfort in treating people with SMI did not predict a desire for more training in this sample. This pattern generally held across disorders. Our results suggest general discomfort among students surveyed in treating SMI compared to other disorders.

  9. Advancing family psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiese, Barbara H

    2016-02-01

    To realize the broad and complex nature of the field of family psychology, I have slightly revised the mission statement of the Journal of Family Psychology (JFP) to capture contemporary scholarship in family psychology and to advance systems perspectives in this top-tier scientific journal. Over the next 6 years, I hope that authors will consider JFP as an outlet for their best work in the following areas: (1) JFP addresses societal challenges faced by families today; (2) JFP publishes important studies on what makes couple and family relationships work; (3) JFP is a leader in publishing reports that use cutting-edge sophisticated approaches to research design and data analysis; and (4) JFP imparts knowledge about effective therapy and prevention programs relevant to couples and families. The journal is also expanding its publication rate to eight issues per year.

  10. Positive Psychology versus the Medical Model?: Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Stephen; Linley, P. Alex

    2006-01-01

    Comments on "Positive psychology progress: Empirical validation of interventions" by Seligman, Steen, Park, and Peterson (see record 2005-08033-003). Seligman and colleagues provided a progress report on positive psychology, reviewing the impressive developments over the past five years. We wholeheartedly support the positive psychology movement…

  11. A cross-sectional study of self-reported back and neck pain among English schoolchildren and associated physical and psychological risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sam; Buckle, Peter; Stubbs, David

    2007-11-01

    This study set out to identify the associations between ergonomics and other factors with back and neck pain among schoolchildren. Self-reported questionnaires were used to record health outcomes and potential risk factors in state schools. Six hundred and seventy-nine schoolchildren from Surrey in the United Kingdom aged 11-14 years took part. Twenty-seven percent of children reported having neck pain, 18% reported having upper back pain, and 22% reported having low back pain. A forward stepwise logistic regression was performed with pain categories the dependent variables. Neck pain was significantly associated with school furniture features, emotional and conduct problems, family history of low back pain and previous treatment for musculoskeletal disorders. Upper back pain was associated with school bag weight (3.4-4.45 kg), school furniture features, emotional problems and previous treatment for musculoskeletal disorders. Low back pain was associated with school furniture features, emotional problems, family history and previous injury or accident. It is important to recognise the influence of physical, psychological and family factors in children's pain.

  12. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  13. Psychology Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Ken; Tew, Mark D.; Williams, John E.

    2001-01-01

    A goal of the PsychExperiments project was to reduce the financial burden on psychology departments for hardware/software used in their laboratories. In its third year, the PsychExperiments site now hosts 39 experiments. Over 200 classrooms worldwide have signed up as official site users and there have been nearly 10,000 data sessions conducted.…

  14. Psychology Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderssen, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    Describes the design of the University of Texas Austin's Seay Psychology and Child Development & Family Relationships building. With modern technique and materials, the Seay building adds to the established architectural language of the campus, offering a richly tactile structure and adjoining outdoor space embracing the tenets of successful…

  15. Psychology Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Ken; Tew, Mark D.; Williams, John E.

    2001-01-01

    A goal of the PsychExperiments project was to reduce the financial burden on psychology departments for hardware/software used in their laboratories. In its third year, the PsychExperiments site now hosts 39 experiments. Over 200 classrooms worldwide have signed up as official site users and there have been nearly 10,000 data sessions conducted.…

  16. Psychology in the public service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbardo, Philip G

    2002-01-01

    Philip G. Zimbardo outlines the challenges and opportunities he faces as the American Psychological Association's (APA's) 110th president. This article expands on remarks made in his introduction to Patrick H. DeLeon's presidential address at the APA's 2001 annual convention in San Francisco, California. Appearing now, mid-term in his presidency, that vision is a working blueprint of his activities and what he hopes to accomplish in his remaining tenure: enhancing psychologists' pride in psychology; developing more productive relationships with all media as gatekeepers to the public; publishing the standard high school psychology textbook; developing a compendium of all psychological research that illustrates how psychologists have made a significant difference in improving various aspects of the quality of life of individuals, groups, communities, and the United States; and encouraging greater unity of purpose and respect among psychologists across their many diverse domains and specialties.

  17. Commercial Integrated Heat Pump with Thermal Storage --Demonstrate Greater than 50% Average Annual Energy Savings, Compared with Baseline Heat Pump and Water Heater (Go/No-Go) FY16 4th Quarter Milestone Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abu-Heiba, Ahmad [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    For this study, we authored a new air source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) model in EnergyPlus, and conducted building energy simulations to demonstrate greater than 50% average energy savings, in comparison to a baseline heat pump with electric water heater, over 10 US cities, based on the EnergyPlus quick-service restaurant template building. We also assessed water heating energy saving potentials using ASIHP versus gas heating, and pointed out climate zones where AS-IHPs are promising.

  18. Food Choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, Sarah J; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D

    2015-10-01

    In this Special Issue, entitled "Food choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective", three broad themes have been identified: (1) social and environmental influences on food choice; (2) psychological influences on eating behaviour; and (3) eating behaviour profiling.The studies that addressed the social and environmental influences indicated that further research would do well to promote positive food choices rather than reduce negative food choices; promote the reading and interpretation of food labels and find ways to effectively market healthy food choices through accessibility, availability and presentation. The studies on psychological influences found that intentions, perceived behavioural control, and confidence were predictors of healthy eating. Given the importance of psychological factors, such as perceived behavioural control and self-efficacy, healthy eating interventions should reduce barriers to healthy eating and foster perceptions of confidence to consume a healthy diet. The final theme focused on the clustering of individuals according to eating behaviour. Some "types" of individuals reported more frequent consumption of fast foods, ready meals or convenience meals or greater levels of disinhibitiona nd less control over food cravings. Intervention designs which make use of multi-level strategies as advocated by the Ecological Model of Behaviour change that proposes multi-level (combining psychological, social and environmental) strategies are likely to be more effective in reaching and engaging individuals susceptible to unhealthy eating habits than interventions operating on a single level.

  19. Food Choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Hardcastle

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this Special Issue, entitled “Food choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective”, three broad themes have been identified: (1 social and environmental influences on food choice; (2 psychological influences on eating behaviour; and (3 eating behaviour profiling. The studies that addressed the social and environmental influences indicated that further research would do well to promote positive food choices rather than reduce negative food choices; promote the reading and interpretation of food labels and find ways to effectively market healthy food choices through accessibility, availability and presentation. The studies on psychological influences found that intentions, perceived behavioural control, and confidence were predictors of healthy eating. Given the importance of psychological factors, such as perceived behavioural control and self-efficacy, healthy eating interventions should reduce barriers to healthy eating and foster perceptions of confidence to consume a healthy diet. The final theme focused on the clustering of individuals according to eating behaviour. Some “types” of individuals reported more frequent consumption of fast foods, ready meals or convenience meals or greater levels of disinhibition and less control over food cravings. Intervention designs which make use of multi-level strategies as advocated by the Ecological Model of Behaviour change that proposes multi-level (combining psychological, social and environmental strategies are likely to be more effective in reaching and engaging individuals susceptible to unhealthy eating habits than interventions operating on a single level.

  20. Negative Effects of Psychological Treatments: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Negative Effects Questionnaire for Monitoring and Reporting Adverse and Unwanted Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozental, Alexander; Kottorp, Anders; Boettcher, Johanna; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2016-01-01

    Research conducted during the last decades has provided increasing evidence for the use of psychological treatments for a number of psychiatric disorders and somatic complaints. However, by focusing only on the positive outcomes, less attention has been given to the potential of negative effects. Despite indications of deterioration and other adverse and unwanted events during treatment, little is known about their occurrence and characteristics. Hence, in order to facilitate research of negative effects, a new instrument for monitoring and reporting their incidence and impact was developed using a consensus among researchers, self-reports by patients, and a literature review: the Negative Effects Questionnaire. Participants were recruited via a smartphone-delivered self-help treatment for social anxiety disorder and through the media (N = 653). An exploratory factor analysis was performed, resulting in a six-factor solution with 32 items, accounting for 57.64% of the variance. The derived factors were: symptoms, quality, dependency, stigma, hopelessness, and failure. Items related to unpleasant memories, stress, and anxiety were experienced by more than one-third of the participants. Further, increased or novel symptoms, as well as lack of quality in the treatment and therapeutic relationship rendered the highest self-reported negative impact. In addition, the findings were discussed in relation to prior research and other similar instruments of adverse and unwanted events, giving credence to the items that are included. The instrument is presently available in eleven different languages and can be freely downloaded and used from www.neqscale.com.

  1. Cultural psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Steven J; Ruby, Matthew B

    2010-03-01

    Humans are a cultural species, constantly navigating a complex web of culturally bound practices, norms, and worldviews. This article provides a brief overview of the relatively young field of cultural psychology, which investigates the many ways psychology and culture interweave with one another. Highlighting the cultural nature of the human species, it draws upon research on cultural evolution, enculturation, and developmental processes. This review further summarizes a number of cultural differences in how people perceive the self, and the behavioral consequences that follow from these differences, in the domains of internal and external attribution styles, motivations for self-enhancement, approach/avoidance, primary and secondary control, as well as motivations for distinctiveness and conformity. Additionally, the review discusses research on the intersection of culture and emotion, as well as cultural differences in cognition, perception, and reasoning. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Genetics and educational psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, Robert; Walker, Sheila O

    2003-03-01

    Molecular genetics, one of the most energetic and exciting areas of science, is slowly but surely coming to educational psychology. We review recent molecular genetic research on learning disabilities as a sign of things to come in educational psychology. We also consider some misconceptions about genetics that have slowed the acceptance of genetics in educational psychology. Diverse samples of children with learning disabilities have been studied, primarily in the UK and the USA. Linkage analysis can detect genes that have large effects on learning disabilities. Association analysis can detect genes of much smaller effect size, which is important because common disorders such as learning disabilities are likely to be influenced by many genes as well as by many environmental factors. For reading disability, replicated linkages have been identified on chromosomes 6, 15 and 18. A gene responsible for a rare type of language impairment has recently been identified. For common language impairment, linkages on chromosomes 16 and 19 have recently been reported. More than 200 genetic disorders, most extremely rare, include mental retardation among their symptoms, and chromosomal abnormalities are a major cause of mental retardation. Although finding specific genes associated with learning disabilities is unlikely to have much of a direct application for teachers in the classroom, such findings will have far-reaching implications for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of learning disabilities and for research in educational psychology. Educational psychology has been slower to accept evidence for the importance of genetics than other areas of psychology in part because of misconceptions about what it means to say that genetics is important for common complex disorders such as learning disabilities.

  3. Premenstrual syndrome: a psychological overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riven, L

    1983-10-01

    This paper reviews the premenstrual syndrome (PMS) from a historical and psychological perspective. The physician must recognize that the premenstruum-the four days before the onset of the menses-is a `high risk' phase for women. They may demonstrate somatic and psychological complaints such as irritability, aggression, tension, anxiety, depression, lethargy, insomnia, poor coordination and concentration. Psychological disturbances can range from self-deprecation and the feeling that `everything is too much' to pronounced feelings of oppression and depression. Psychiatric patients may become even more disturbed at this time. Recent reviews on PMS have studied its etiology and its possible connection to hormone imbalance, but to date there is no complete explanation for the syndrome's psychological symptoms. The most promising treatments for the psychological symptoms of PMS are pyridoxine (although there are conflicting reports about it), antidepressants, benzodiazepines if anxiety and tension dominate, and ongoing psychotherapy for severe cases.

  4. Examining African self-consciousness and Black racial identity as predictors of Black men's psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Martin R; Mahalik, James R

    2005-02-01

    This study investigated African self-consciousness and Black racial identity as predictors of psychological distress and self-esteem for Black men. One hundred thirty Black men from a college and community sample completed the African Self-Consciousness Scale, the Racial Identity Attitude Scale-B, the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised, and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Canonical correlation analysis found 2 significant roots with the 1st root indicating that Black men whose attitudes reflected Preencounter and Immersion racial identity attitudes and who do not resist against anti-African/Black forces reported greater psychological distress and less esteem. Results from the 2nd root suggested that Black men whose attitudes reflect greater Internalization racial identity attitudes, greater resistance to anti-African/Black forces, and less identification with Blacks reported greater self-esteem.

  5. Psychological Adjustment among Israeli Adolescent Immigrants: A Report on Life Satisfaction, Self-Concept, and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Chana; Tatar, Moshe

    2001-01-01

    Examined self-concept, self-esteem, and life satisfaction among 119 immigrants to Israel from the former Soviet Union and 135 Israeli classmates. Immigrant adolescents reported less satisfaction with their lives and less congruence between their self-concept and the ways in which they were perceived by others. (SLD)

  6. Introduction to Psychology and Leadership. Enrichment III; Group Dynamics and the Chain of Command. Enrichment Modules 8, 9, 10, 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westinghouse Learning Corp., Annapolis, MD.

    Designed to help bring students to greater understanding of concepts of the introduction to psychology and leadership course (see the final reports which summarize the course development project, EM 010 418, EM 010 419, and EM 010 484), this Structural Communications unit is coordinated with the instructional unit in the core course on group…

  7. Incorporating Evolutionary Theory into the Teaching of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter

    1996-01-01

    Argues for a greater and more explicit use of evolutionary theory in psychology courses. Provides examples of ways that this strategy can help students think critically about classic psychological theories, understand the importance of narrower domain-specific theories, and comprehend the rationales behind cross-species comparison in psychology.…

  8. Psychological and neuroendocrine reactivity to ostracism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolinski, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This study used the ostracism detection theory to investigate how ostracism impacts individuals in two ways: (1) immediate poststressor needs, mood, ruminative thoughts, and desire to affiliate, and (2) short-term affective and cortisol reactivity. A total of 58 college students were randomly assigned to the inclusion or ostracism conditions of Cyberball, a virtual ball-tossing game. Immediately following the experimental manipulation, ostracized participants reported more thwarted psychological need states, more negative mood, and fewer positive ruminative thoughts, relative to their included counterparts. Ostracized participants reported a greater interest in affiliating with others in online or in-person settings. In the short-term, ostracized males reported more hostility than included males, although the scores were within expected norms for most males. There was no relation between Cyberball condition and gender across time for depression, anxiety, or positive affect. Approximately 20 min after the onset of the stressor, women in the luteal phase and women taking oral contraceptives in the ostracized group displayed higher cortisol than their counterparts in the included group. Relative to baseline, however, cortisol did not reliably increase after the onset of the stressor. Ostracized females taking oral contraceptives showed the greatest decline in cortisol, compared to included oral contraceptive users. Overall, results suggest that most of the negative effects of ostracism are immediate and limited to psychological, not neuroendocrine, responses.

  9. An Online Assessment of Personality, Psychological, and Sexuality Trait Variables Associated with Self-Reported Hypersexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Michael T; Cantor, James M; Lykins, Amy D

    2017-04-01

    "Hypersexual" behavior represents a perceived inability to control one's sexual behavior. To investigate hypersexual behavior, an international sample of 510 self-identified heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual men and women completed an anonymous online self-report questionnaire battery. In addition to age and sex (male), hypersexual behavior was related to higher scores on measures of sexual excitation, sexual inhibition due to the threat of performance failure, trait impulsivity, and both depressed mood and anxiety. In contrast, hypersexual behavior was related to lower scores on sexual inhibition due to the threat of performance consequences. Higher neuroticism and extraversion, as well as lower agreeableness and conscientiousness, also predicted hypersexual behavior. Interestingly, interactions among the variables assessed did not significantly predict hypersexual behavior, suggesting the possible existence of multiple and predominantly independent taxa for various persons reporting hypersexual behavior. Core personality features may also be present in persons with hypersexual behavior. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed.

  10. Psychology of religion: perspectives from cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious

  11. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  12. Weight Misperception, Self-Reported Physical Fitness, Dieting and Some Psychological Variables as Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Ruiz-Prieto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the current study were to explore possible gender differences in weight misperception, self-reported physical fitness, and dieting, and to analyze the relationship between these variables and others, such as self-esteem, body appreciation, general mental health, and eating- and body image-related variables among adolescents. In addition, the specific risk for eating disorders was examined, as well as the possible clusters with respect to the risk status. The sample comprised 655 students, 313 females and 342 males, aged 16.22 ± 4.58. Different scales of perceived overweight, self-reported physical fitness and dieting together with the Body Mass Index (BMI were considered along with instruments such as the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28, Self-Esteem Scale (SES, Body Appreciation Scale (BAS and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2. Since some gender differences were found with respect to these adolescent groups, it is necessary to design prevention programs that not only focus on traditional factors such as BMI or body image, but also on elements like weight perception, self-reported fitness and nutritional education.

  13. Report of the activities carried out by the Psychological Support Group in the Goiania radiological accident in Brazil; Relatorio de atividades desenvolvidas pelo Nucleo de Apoio Psicologico da Rua 57

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-01-01

    The report analyzes the characteristics and attitudes of the population directly involved in the Goiania radiological accident. The inhabitants of the affected area were interviewed in their residence. Factual information about the accidents were given and specific psychological support were received whenever necessary 11 tabs.

  14. Post-irradiation angiosarcoma of the greater omentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westenberg, A.H.; Wiggers, T.; Henzen-Logmans, S.C.; Verweij, J.; Meerwaldt, J.A.; Geel, A.N. van (Dr Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands))

    1989-04-01

    A case of angiosarcoma of the greater omentum is reported. This angiosarcoma developed 8 years after irradiation for cervical carcinoma and presented with an intra-abdominal hemorrhage. The authors describe her clinical course, treatment and follow-up. Although several other locations of irradiation-induced sarcomas have been published, this is the first report in literature of a postirradiation angiosarcoma in the greater omentum. (author).

  15. Post-irradiation angiosarcoma of the greater omentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westenberg, A H; Wiggers, T; Henzen-Logmans, S C; Verweij, J; Meerwaldt, J A; van Geel, A N

    1989-04-01

    A case of angiosarcoma of the greater omentum is reported. This angiosarcoma developed 8 years after irradiation for cervical carcinoma and presented with an intra-abdominal hemorrhage. We describe her clinical course, treatment and follow-up. Although several other locations of irradiation-induced sarcomas have been published, this is the first report in literature of a postirradiation angiosarcoma in the greater omentum.

  16. Monitoring and research on the Bi-State Distinct Population Segment of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Pine Nut Mountains, California and Nevada—Study progress report, 2011–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Andrle, Katie M.; Ziegler, Pilar T.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2016-09-29

    The Bi-State distinct population segment (DPS) of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) that occurs along the Nevada–California border was proposed for listing as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) in October 2013. However, in April 2015, the FWS determined that the Bi-State DPS no longer required protection under the ESA and withdrew the proposed rule to list the Bi-State DPS (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2015). The Bi-State DPS occupies portions of Alpine, Mono, and Inyo Counties in California, and Douglas, Esmeralda, Lyon, Carson City, and Mineral Counties in Nevada. Unique threats facing this population include geographic isolation, expansion of single-leaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma), anthropogenic activities, and recent changes in predator communities. Estimating population vital rates, identifying seasonal habitat, quantifying threats, and identifying movement patterns are important first steps in developing effective sage-grouse management and conservation plans. During 2011–15, we radio- and Global Positioning System (GPS)-marked (2012–14 only) 44, 47, 17, 9, and 3 sage-grouse, respectively, for a total of 120, in the Pine Nut Mountains Population Management Unit (PMU). No change in lek attendance was detected at Mill Canyon (maximum=18 males) between 2011 and 2012; however, 1 male was observed in 2014 and no males were observed in 2013 and 2015. Males were observed near Bald Mountain in 2013, making it the first year this lek was observed to be active during the study period. Males were observed at a new site in the Buckskin Range in 2014 during trapping efforts and again observed during surveys in 2015. Findings indicate that pinyon-juniper is avoided by sage-grouse during every life stage. Nesting females selected increased sagebrush cover, sagebrush height, and understory horizontal cover, and brood-rearing females selected similar areas

  17. Are self-reports valid for schizophrenia patients with poor insight? Relationship of unawareness of illness to psychological self-report instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Morris; Fiszdon, Joanna; Richardson, Randall; Lysaker, Paul; Bryson, Gary

    2007-05-30

    This investigation aimed to determine whether impaired insight influences the validity of self-report test scores in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. 274 outpatients enrolled in work rehabilitation completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory (BORRTI), and NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Self-report scores were compared to clinician's ratings on comparable personality and symptom dimensions on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Work Behavior Inventory (WBI), and the Quality of Life Scale (QLS). The influence of insight was determined using the Scale for Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD). In the first analysis, clinician SUMD ratings of patient insight were associated with self-report accuracy. In a second analysis, patients were categorized into good and poor insight groups based on SUMD ratings and compared on self-report and clinician report variables. Results suggest that poor insight patients accurately report less Neuroticism and Agreeableness, and more Psychoticism than good insight patients, but individuals with poor insight wish to present themselves as more extraverted than they actually are, and they are likely to be more certain of their perceptions than they should be. It appears that self-report measures may be valid for most personality and symptom domains.

  18. Psychological impacts from expectation of worsening conditions and obstacles to life planning are affected by glycemic control, self-reported symptoms, and drug therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Motoyuki; Hara, Yoriko; Ishihara, Yoko

    2016-05-01

    It is important to reduce psychological stresses for glycemic control in diabetes. We investigated the factors affecting psychological impact, which was involved in the disease conditions in 378 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Patients' self-assessed symptoms and four subscales of psychological impacts on diabetes - impact from diabetes (S1), anxiety from having a chronic disease (S2), expectation of worsening conditions (S3) and obstacles to life planning (S4) - were analyzed. Significant odds ratios (ORs) were found for sex and age in S1, age and glycemic control in S2, glycemic control in S3, disease duration and glycemic control in S4, and number of symptoms in S1-S4. Scores of S1 and S2 in women were lower than those in men, and decreased age-dependently. Significant ORs for the number of symptoms in S3 and S4 were greater than in S1 and S2. ORs increased markedly for patients under oral hypoglycemic agent therapy in S4 and insulin therapy in S1-S4 when compared with ORs for lifestyle therapy alone. The psychological impact of type 2 diabetes involved a priori factors dependent on sex and aging in the subscales of current anxieties and impact, and a posteriori factors, such as disease duration, glycemic control and treatment methods, in the subscales of expectation of worsening conditions and obstacles to life planning.

  19. Grant Monitoring: Department of Education Could Improve Its Processes with Greater Focus on Assessing Risks, Acquiring Financial Skills, and Sharing Information. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-10-57

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Cornelia M.

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Education (Education) awards about $45 billion in grants each year to school districts, states, and other entities. In addition, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided an additional $97 billion in grant funding. In a series of reports from 2002 to 2009, Education's Inspector General cited a number of grantees…

  20. Current Institutional Trends in Research Productivity in Counseling Psychology Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diegelman, Nathan M.; Uffelman, Rachel A.; Wagner, Kimberly S.; Diegelman, Sally A.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated institutional publication activity in counseling psychology journals for the 10-year period from 1993 to 2002. Four journals reported by counseling psychology training directors as prime publication outlets for the field of counseling psychology were used: "Journal of Counseling Psychology," "The Counseling Psychologist,"…

  1. Publication Criteria and Recommended Areas of Improvement within School Psychology Journals as Reported by Editors, Journal Board Members, and Manuscript Authors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Craig A.; Floyd, Randy G.; Fuhrmann, Melanie J.; Martinez, Rebecca S.

    2011-01-01

    Two online surveys were completed by editors, associate editors, editorial board members, and members or fellows of the Division 16 of the American Psychological Association. These surveys targeted (a) the criteria for a manuscript to be published in school psychology journals, and (b) the components of the peer-review process that should be…

  2. Psychology, philosophy and nuclear science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, M.; Byrne, A. [Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia)

    2011-06-15

    At first glance, one might wonder what psychology has got to do with nuclear science. On closer inspection, it is clear that nuclear science and technology have historically attracted controversy, and still today public and political opposition cloud its future, perhaps even more so with recent tragic events in Japan. A key focus for psychology has been an attempt to explicate public opposition to nuclear power, and this has been largely carried out by examining attitudes and risk perception. But it is easy to demonstrate that this has not been enough. There are also other important psychological issues that warrant greater attention than has been given. In this paper, I will first give an overview of the 'discipline' of psychology, including some inherent philosophical problems, before outlining specific psychological issues of relevance to nuclear science. I will then discuss whether these issues have been adequately addressed to date, before finally suggesting ways in which psychology might better respond to the questions nuclear science and technology raise. (author)

  3. Adult psychological functioning of individuals born with craniofacial anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, D B; Bartlett, S P; Whitaker, L A; Paige, K T; Pertschuk, M J; Wadden, T A

    1999-02-01

    This study represents an initial investigation into the adult psychological functioning of individuals born with craniofacial disfigurement. A total of 24 men and women born with a craniofacial anomaly completed paper and pencil measures of body image dissatisfaction, self-esteem, quality of life, and experiences of discrimination. An age- and gender-matched control group of 24 non-facially disfigured adults also completed the measures. As expected, craniofacially disfigured adults reported greater dissatisfaction with their facial appearance than did the control group. Craniofacially disfigured adults also reported significantly lower levels of self-esteem and quality of life. Dissatisfaction with facial appearance, self-esteem, and quality of life were related to self-ratings of physical attractiveness. More than one-third of craniofacially disfigured adults (38 percent) reported experiences of discrimination in employment or social settings. Among disfigured adults, psychological functioning was not related to number of surgeries, although the degree of residual facial deformity was related to increased dissatisfaction with facial appearance and greater experiences of discrimination. Results suggest that adults who were born with craniofacial disfigurement, as compared with non-facially disfigured adults, experience greater dissatisfaction with facial appearance and lower self-esteem and quality of life; however, these experiences do not seem to be universal.

  4. A systematic review of the psychological factors associated with returning to sport following injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardern, Clare L; Taylor, Nicholas F; Feller, Julian A; Webster, Kate E

    2013-11-01

    Psychological factors have been shown to be associated with the recovery and rehabilitation period following sports injury, but less is known about the psychological response associated with returning to sport after injury. The aim of this review was to identify psychological factors associated with returning to sport following sports injury evaluated with the self-determination theory framework. Systematic review. Electronic databases were searched from the earliest possible entry to March 2012. Quantitative studies were reviewed that included athletes who had sustained an athletic injury, reported the return to sport rate and measured at least one psychological variable. The risk of bias in each study was appraised with a quality checklist. Eleven studies that evaluated 983 athletes and 15 psychological factors were included for review. The three central elements of self-determination theory-autonomy, competence and relatedness were found to be related to returning to sport following injury. Positive psychological responses including motivation, confidence and low fear were associated with a greater likelihood of returning to the preinjury level of participation and returning to sport more quickly. Fear was a prominent emotional response at the time of returning to sport despite the fact that overall emotions became more positive as recovery and rehabilitation progressed. There is preliminary evidence that positive psychological responses are associated with a higher rate of returning to sport following athletic injury, and should be taken into account by clinicians during rehabilitation.

  5. Maternal Psychological Control and Its Association with Mother and Child Perceptions of Adolescent Adjustment: More Evidence on the Strength of Shared Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Olivia M; Laursen, Brett; Guimond, Fanny A; Hartl, Amy C; Denner, Jill

    2016-10-01

    Mothers and adolescents hold distinct albeit correlated views of their relationship and of one another. The present study focuses on disentangling these independent views. Concurrent associations between maternal psychological control and children's adjustment are examined at two time points in order to identify the degree to which associations reflect (a) views that are shared by mothers and adolescents, and (b) views that are unique to mothers and adolescents. A total of 123 (56 % female) U.S. Latino/a adolescents (M = 10.4 years old at the outset) and their mothers reported on maternal psychological control, children's conduct problems, and children's anxiety, twice within a 5-month period. Data were collected at the close of primary school when the adolescents were in grade 5 and again at the beginning of middle school, when they were in grade 6. Results from conventional correlations indicated that mother- and adolescent-reports yielded similar associations between maternal psychological control and adolescent adjustment. Common fate model analyses partitioned results into variance shared across mother and adolescent reports and variance unique to mother and adolescent reports. Results differed for anxiety and conduct problems. Shared views indicated that greater maternal psychological control was associated with heightened child conduct problems; there were no associations unique to either reporter. In contrast, unique reporter views indicated that greater maternal psychological control was associated with child anxiety; there were no associations involving shared views. Although mother- and adolescent-reports agree that maternal psychological control is correlated with children's adjustment, there is considerable divergence in results when associations are partitioned according to shared and unique reporter views. Associations between maternal psychological control and children's anxiety are more apt to be inflated by same-reporter variance bias than are

  6. An Evaluation of Industrial/Organizational Psychology Teaching Modules for Use in Introductory Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Douglas C.; Bachiochi, Peter D.; Luna, Ana C.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluates four modules, created by the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, for educating students about industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology. Reports that students' knowledge about I/O increased, and their interest in taking an I/O psychology course also increased. (CMK)

  7. Negative Effects of Psychological Treatments: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Negative Effects Questionnaire for Monitoring and Reporting Adverse and Unwanted Events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rozental

    Full Text Available Research conducted during the last decades has provided increasing evidence for the use of psychological treatments for a number of psychiatric disorders and somatic complaints. However, by focusing only on the positive outcomes, less attention has been given to the potential of negative effects. Despite indications of deterioration and other adverse and unwanted events during treatment, little is known about their occurrence and characteristics. Hence, in order to facilitate research of negative effects, a new instrument for monitoring and reporting their incidence and impact was developed using a consensus among researchers, self-reports by patients, and a literature review: the Negative Effects Questionnaire. Participants were recruited via a smartphone-delivered self-help treatment for social anxiety disorder and through the media (N = 653. An exploratory factor analysis was performed, resulting in a six-factor solution with 32 items, accounting for 57.64% of the variance. The derived factors were: symptoms, quality, dependency, stigma, hopelessness, and failure. Items related to unpleasant memories, stress, and anxiety were experienced by more than one-third of the participants. Further, increased or novel symptoms, as well as lack of quality in the treatment and therapeutic relationship rendered the highest self-reported negative impact. In addition, the findings were discussed in relation to prior research and other similar instruments of adverse and unwanted events, giving credence to the items that are included. The instrument is presently available in eleven different languages and can be freely downloaded and used from www.neqscale.com.

  8. Polycultural psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael W; Chiu, Chi-yue; Liu, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    We review limitations of the traditional paradigm for cultural research and propose an alternative framework, polyculturalism. Polyculturalism assumes that individuals' relationships to cultures are not categorical but rather are partial and plural; it also assumes that cultural traditions are not independent, sui generis lineages but rather are interacting systems. Individuals take influences from multiple cultures and thereby become conduits through which cultures can affect each other. Past literatures on the influence of multiple cultural identities and cultural knowledge legacies can be better understood within a polyculturalist rubric. Likewise, the concept elucidates how cultures are changed by contact with other cultures, enabling richer psychological theories of intercultural influence. Different scientific paradigms about culture imply different ideologies and policies; polyculturalism's implied policy of interculturalism provides a valuable complement to the traditional policy frames of multiculturalism and colorblindness.

  9. Psychological Assessment Training in Clinical Psychology Doctoral Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihura, Joni L; Roy, Manali; Graceffo, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    We surveyed American Psychological Association-accredited clinical psychology doctoral programs' (n = 83) training in psychological assessment-specifically, their coverage of various assessment topics and tests in courses and practica, and whether the training was optional or required. We report results overall and separately per training model (clinical science, scientist-practitioner, and practitioner-focused). Overall, our results suggest that psychological assessment training is as active, or even more active, than in previous years. Areas of increased emphasis include clinical interviewing and psychometrics; multimethod, outcomes, health, and collaborative or therapeutic assessment; and different types of cognitive and self-report personality tests. All or almost all practice-focused programs offered training with the Thematic Apperception Test and Rorschach compared to about half of the scientist-practitioner programs and a third of the clinical science programs. Although almost all programs reported teaching multimethod assessment, what constitutes different methods of assessing psychopathology should be clarified in future studies because many programs appear to rely on one method-self-report (especially clinical science programs). Although doctoral programs covered many assessment topics and tests in didactic courses, there appears to be a shortage of program-run opportunities for students to obtain applied assessment training. Finally, we encourage doctoral programs to be familiar with (a) internships' assessment expectations and opportunities, (b) the professional guidelines for assessment training, and (c) the American Psychological Association's requirements for preinternship assessment competencies.

  10. Greater Celandine hepatotoxicity: a clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Frenzel, Christian; Glass, Xaver; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Herbal hepatotoxicity is a rare and poorly described disease because reported cases are mostly scattered and lack an appropriate causality assessment. We now describe in detail the clinical picture of herbal hepatotoxicity by extracts of Greater Celandine (GC), syn. Chelidonium majus L. from the Papaveraceae family, which contain more than 20 ingredients including various biologically active isoquinoline alkaloids. For this purpose, we analyzed and reviewed published cases of 16 patients from various European countries. In all patients, herbal hepatotoxicity was of probable and highly probable causality for GC, using the original and updated scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences). GC associated hepatotoxicity usually has an acute clinical course exhibiting a hepatocellular pattern of injury and is correlated to an idiosyncratic reaction with its metabolic subtype. Jaundice combined with high values of serum aminotransferases was present in virtually all cases with favourable outcome despite severe clinical course. In conclusion, GC hepatotoxicity is a typical herbal hepatotoxicity with a sound causality track for GC, but there is uncertainty regarding the respective causative compound(s). The present detailed review of GC hepatotoxicity may serve as an example for clinical causality assessments of future cases of liver injury due to other herbs.

  11. Psychological and physical co-morbidity among urban South African women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Mendenhall

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: There is substantial evidence for the links between poverty and both physical and mental health; but limited research on the relationship of physical and mental health problems exists in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the prevalence and co-morbidity of psychological distress among women with common physical diseases in a socio-economically disadvantaged urban area of South Africa. METHODS: Women enrolled in the Birth to twenty (Bt20 cohort study were evaluated for this paper. Bt20 was founded in 1990 and has followed more than 3,000 children and their caregivers since birth; this study evaluates the health of the caregivers (average age 44 of these children. Psychological distress was evaluated by administering the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 and we evaluated the presence of physical disease by self-report. RESULTS: Forty percent of the sample presented with psychological distress using the GHQ scoring method. More than half of the women who reported a history of a physical disease, including diabetes, heart attack, asthma, arthritis, osteoporosis, epilepsy, and tuberculosis, reported psychological disorder. Presence of one physical disease was not associated with increased rates of psychological distress. However, women who reported two diseases had increased rates of psychological symptoms, and this upward trend continued with each additional physical disease reported (measured to five. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate high prevalence rates of co-morbid psychological distress among women with physical disease. This argues for the need of greater mental health support for women living with physical diseases.

  12. The Dialectic Psychology perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveros M., Ricardo; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    The present paper exposes the dialectic psychology perspectives in the twentieth first century Peru. We ponder about the dialectics psychology denomination, connecting them to other denominations used in the materialist psychology trend. We analyze the relations between dialectics psychology and social neuroscience, delimiting both the psychological sciences field and the neuroscience field. We develop issues from the emancipator project of dialectics psychology, precising personal developmen...

  13. Evolutionary developmental psychology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Ashley C; Bjorklund, David F

    2010-01-01

    The field of evolutionary developmental psychology can potentially broaden the horizons of mainstream evolutionary psychology by combining the principles of Darwinian evolution by natural selection...

  14. Audiological, psychological and cognitive characteristics of tinnitus sufferers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorain Alam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Tinnitus is widespread amongst clients attending hearing clinics and has been associated with a range of physical and emotional disorders. This study was undertaken with the assumption that tinnitus has a negative impact on psychological well-being as well as on mental concentration of the person. Materials and Methods: Three groups were selected, comprising 10 participants each. Two groups consisted of subjects with tinnitus complaints. The first group had no hearing loss (Tinnitus group (TIG, the second group had mild hearing loss (PTA >25, <40 dBHL (Tinnitus group with hearing impairment (TWHIG, and the third group had no tinnitus or hearing loss (Normal control group (NCG. After an audiological assessment, the following questionnaires were administered: 1 nature of tinnitus questionnaire, 2 tinnitus reaction questionnaire, 3 the symptom checklist (SCL-90-R, and 4 cognitive failure questionnaire (CFQ. Out of these, four were administered to all tinnitus groups while only the last two were administered on NCG. The results of these tests were compared using a t- test. Results: Participants with tinnitus reported significantly more psychological distress symptoms and everyday cognitive failures than the control group. Conclusion: Our assumption about the potential negative impact of tinnitus on psychological well-being as well as on mental concentration is supported by our study results. Implication: The present study indicates that there is a greater need for providing counseling as well as psychological intervention to reduce stress and assistance in coping with the cognitive failures for persons with tinnitus.

  15. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  16. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  17. Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome in general Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Brinks (Tineke)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis focuses on patients with greater trochanteric pain syndrome. These patients suffer from local pain at the lateral side of the hip. The syndrome is characterized by chronic intermittent or continuous pain at and around the greater trochanter, sometimes radiating to the lateral

  18. Psychological characteristics of Swedish mandatory enlisted soldiers volunteering and not volunteering for international missions: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydstedt, Leif W; Osterberg, Johan

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess personality traits, psychological fitness, and hardiness among conscript soldiers volunteering for international missions (n = 146), by comparing them with conscripts from the same year class and unit who did not apply for international missions (n = 275). The sample consisted of all mandatory enlisted soldiers assigned to a supply and maintenance regiment. There were no demographic differences between the groups. The volunteers reported greater stress tolerance, concern for others, extraversion, and self-confidence than the non-volunteers. There were no differences between the groups in orderliness, temper instability, or independence. Volunteers repeatedly reported greater psychological fitness for military missions and greater hardiness over the period of military service compared to the non-volunteers.

  19. Leisure-time activities and psychological distress in a suburban community in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoshima, Masato; Kaneko, Yoshihiro; Motohashi, Yutaka

    2016-12-01

    There is a wide range of leisure-time activities and previous research indicates that some of these are associated with lower psychological distress. The aim of this study was to assess whether leisure-time activities were associated with psychological distress. A population-based questionnaire survey was conducted in 2009 in a suburban area of northern Japan using complete enumeration. Of 16,996 residents aged 30-79 years who received the questionnaire, 14,261 (83.9%) responded and 9908 (58.3%) responses were eligible for analysis. The relationship between psychological distress and physical, artistic, outdoor, and volunteer leisure-time activities was assessed separately and simultaneously by sex. The percentage of reported psychological distress was 2.8% for men and 3.9% for women. Each category of leisure-time activity was related to psychological distress separately. The simultaneous analyses revealed that engaging in regular outdoor leisure activity was associated with less psychological distress in both men (odds ratio [OR] = 0.38; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.23, 0.63, p activity was associated with less psychological distress in women (OR = 0.09; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.68, p = 0.019). Volunteer work and art activities were not associated with psychological distress in either men or women. Greater engagement in outdoor leisure activity and physical activity was significantly associated with a lower likelihood of psychological distress. The results from the present study indicate that engaging in leisure-time activities, especially in outdoor leisure and physical activities, may be an effective means of promoting public health.

  20. Self-mastery among Chinese Older Adults in the Greater Chicago Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqi Dong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-mastery is an important psychological resource to cope with stressful situations. However, we have limited understanding of self-mastery among minority aging populations. Objective: This study aims to examine the presence and levels of self-mastery among U.S. Chinese older adults. Methods: Data were drawn from the PINE study, a population-based survey of U.S. Chinese older adults in the Greater Chicago area. Guided by a community-based participatory research approach, a total of 3,159 Chinese older adults aged 60 and above were surveyed. A Chinese version of the Self-Mastery Scale was used to assess self-mastery. Results: Out of the 7-item Chinese Self-Mastery Scale, approximately 42.8% to 87.5% of Chinese older adults experienced some degree of self-mastery in their lives. Older adults with no formal education and the oldest-old aged 85 and over had the lowest level of self-mastery in our study. A higher mastery level was associated with being married, having fewer children, better self-reported health status, better quality of life, and positive health changes. Conclusion: Although self-mastery is commonly experienced among the Chinese aging population in the Greater Chicago area, specific subgroups are still vulnerable. Future longitudinal studies are needed to improve the understanding of risk factors and outcomes associated with self-mastery among Chinese older adults.

  1. Psychological Defense Styles, Childhood Adversities and Psychopathology in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, R.; Egle, U. T.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The present study explores the link between reported sexual and/or physical abuse and psychological defense styles, as well as the association of both with psychological distress in adulthood. In two patient samples that differ in psychological distress and somatization, we examine whether the adversities reported and immature defense…

  2. Greater happiness for a greater number: is that possible and desirable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractGREATER HAPPINESS FOR A GREATER NUMBER: IS THAT POSSIBLE AND DESIRABLE? Utilitarian philosophy holds that public policy should aim at greater happiness for a greater number of people. This moral tenet meets many objections, on pragmatic grounds it is denounced as unfeasible and on ideolo

  3. Greater happiness for a greater number: is that possible and desirable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractGREATER HAPPINESS FOR A GREATER NUMBER: IS THAT POSSIBLE AND DESIRABLE? Utilitarian philosophy holds that public policy should aim at greater happiness for a greater number of people. This moral tenet meets many objections, on pragmatic grounds it is denounced as unfeasible and on

  4. [Psychological aspects of abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attali, L

    2016-12-01

    To propose recommendations for women's counseling in abortion request and the psychological experience of orthogenic teams. Bibliographic search in the Medline database, PubMed, Cochrane Database Library, EM Premium bases, ENT Unistra and Cairn from 1990 to 2016. During the pre-abortion consultations, it is recommended to respect the choice of the woman on to see or not the ultrasound images (gradeC) and determine with her the time it needs to perform abortion (professional agreement). Women's satisfaction seems greater when they have the possibility to choose the abortion method (grade B). It is therefore important that both methods are available to all gestational ages (professional agreement). There is no relationship between an increase in psychiatric disorders and induced abortion (NP2). Meetings for professionals are useful and should, to the extent possible, be established (professional agreement). Improving psychological support for women involve listening them and respect their choice. This also involves thinking as a team. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Psychology of psychology? A theoretization of psychological science through historical and socio-anthropological analysis of Psychology as institution

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Žužek-Kres

    2008-01-01

    The article presents a "new" history of psychology, which is also termed as "psychology of psychology". In some academic communities this unconventional history of psychology represents today an accepted approach to epistemological questions about psychological concepts and it enables an insight into social contextualization of Psychology as an institution. The conclusion presents a referential and institutional context where this psychology of psychology is realized.

  6. Psychological stress and testicular function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkap, Loa; Jensen, Tina Kold; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the associations between self-reported psychological stress, semen quality, and serum reproductive hormones among young Danish men. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University hospital-based research center. PARTICIPANT(S): Danish men (median age 19 years) from the gene......OBJECTIVE: To study the associations between self-reported psychological stress, semen quality, and serum reproductive hormones among young Danish men. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University hospital-based research center. PARTICIPANT(S): Danish men (median age 19 years) from...

  7. A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Family, Friends, and School Experiences on the Psychological Adjustment of Ethnic Minority, Low-SES Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Niobe; Robinson, Melissa G.

    2003-01-01

    Examined the influence over time of demographic variables and perceived family and friend support and school climate on changes in psychological adjustment among Black, Latino, and Asian American adolescents from low-income families. Found a greater increase in self-esteem in students reporting more positive perceptions of school climate and,…

  8. Country Report on China's Participation in Greater Mekong Subregion Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    1.Executive SummaryThe Mekong River,which originates from the Danggula Mountain Range on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China and runs 4,880 km southward through six countries,namely,China,Myartmar,Laos,Thailand,Cambodia and Viet Nam,is an important transnational river in Asia and even the world.The section in China is called the Lancang River.Since the 1990s,the international cooperation in the Lancang-Mekong subregiun has received wide attention from the international community.Related countries and intemational organizations have carried out extensive cooperation,which has produced good results and forcefully facilitated economic and social development of the subregion.

  9. Introduction to Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lesley

    Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an…

  10. Introduction to Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lesley

    Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an…

  11. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  12. Report about Vocational Students' Psychological Comprehensive Evaluation Analysis%高职院校学生心理测评综合分析报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高春鸿

    2011-01-01

    Attaching importance to the psychological state of health of students in higher vocational colleges is the premise of doing well higher vocational students' psychological health education. To know about students' psychological health, we use SCL-90 to conduct random cluster sampling for freshmen, and compare and analyze the 342 valid samples.%关注高职院校大学生的心理健康状况,是做好高职学生心理健康教育的前提.为了解我校区三年制高职学生的心理健康状况,我们运用SCL-90对大一学生进行随机整群抽样,并对342个有效样本进行了比较分析.

  13. On carrots and curiosity: eating fruit and vegetables is associated with greater flourishing in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Tamlin S; Brookie, Kate L; Richardson, Aimee C; Polak, Maria A

    2015-05-01

    that FV consumption may be related to a broader range of well-being states that signal human flourishing in early adulthood. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? There is growing evidence that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables (FV) is related to greater happiness, life satisfaction, and positive affect. These associations are not entirely explained by demographic or health variables including socio-economic status, exercise, smoking, and body mass index (BMI). Recent experimental and daily diary research suggests that FV consumption may be a causal factor in promoting states of positive well-being. Research has examined the links between FV consumption and hedonic well-being - whether people feel good (vs. bad) and satisfied-but has not addressed links between FV consumption and eudaemonic well-being- whether people feel engaged and experience their lives as meaningful and purposeful. What does this study add? It provides the first evidence that eating FV is related to greater eudaemonic well-being in a naturalistic setting. Eating FV was also related to greater self-reported curiosity and creativity. FV consumption may underlie a broad range of experiences that signal flourishing. Future randomised controlled trials of FV should include measures of eudaemonic well-being as outcome variables. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Impact of Psychoeducational Content Delivered Online to a Positive Psychology Aware Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeck, Carly; Schueller, Stephen M; Parks, Acacia C

    Happiness-increasing interventions demonstrate significant variation in outcomes, suggesting that the people who use them might be as important as the interventions themselves to determine efficacy. In light of this, instructive interventions might not be necessary to increase happiness given a population with knowledge of happiness-increasing strategies. We recruited 270 participants with knowledge of positive psychology to receive six weeks of online psychoeducation. We explored participants' use of the website, reported use of happiness strategies, and changes in well-being. Those who spent more time on the website reported smaller changes in well-being than those who spent less time on the website. Conversely, those who reported employing more happiness strategies reported greater increases in well-being than those who used fewer strategies. This shows that for those already familiar with positive psychology, information, rather than instruction, might increase well-being. This has implications for studies evaluating the efficacy of happiness-increasing interventions more broadly.

  15. The effects of nutrition labeling on consumer food choice: a psychological experiment and computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfer, Peter; Shultz, Thomas R

    2014-12-01

    The widespread availability of calorie-dense food is believed to be a contributing cause of an epidemic of obesity and associated diseases throughout the world. One possible countermeasure is to empower consumers to make healthier food choices with useful nutrition labeling. An important part of this endeavor is to determine the usability of existing and proposed labeling schemes. Here, we report an experiment on how four different labeling schemes affect the speed and nutritional value of food choices. We then apply decision field theory, a leading computational model of human decision making, to simulate the experimental results. The psychology experiment shows that quantitative, single-attribute labeling schemes have greater usability than multiattribute and binary ones, and that they remain effective under moderate time pressure. The computational model simulates these psychological results and provides explanatory insights into them. This work shows how experimental psychology and computational modeling can contribute to the evaluation and improvement of nutrition-labeling schemes.

  16. Informe pericial psicológico en tribunales de familia: análisis de su estructura, metodología y contenido (Expert psychological reports in family courts: Evaluating their structure, methodology, and content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Rodríguez-Domínguez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In Spain, contested divorces involving children are frequent and entail an increased demand for expert psychological reports. This article describes the structure, methodology, and content of psychological reports provided to family courts by private expert psychologists and the family court’s expert psychosocial team. The aim was to analyse the formal structure of the reports, their demographic and professional characteristics, methodology, assessment content, guarantees and limitations of the results, professional evaluation of the informant’s statements during interviews, recommendations, and psychometric tests used. The reports from the private expert psychologists and those from the expert psychosocial teams were compared and contrasted. A template constructed by the authors was used to analyse 111 family court records of contested divorces. The results showed significant differences between the two types of report in their structure, methodology, assessment content, and psychometric tests. Highly qualified women provided the majority of the expert opinions. The reports were well-structured and included recommendations on the type of custody and custody regime for the non-custodial parent, the evaluation of parental competence, and the relationship of the children with their families.

  17. Psychological Types of Academically Gifted Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Tracy L.; Neumeister, Kristie L. Speirs; Cassady, Jerrell C.

    2007-01-01

    This study provides descriptive information about the psychological types of a sample of 931 gifted adolescents who attended a public residential academy. Psychological types are assessed with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The MBTI reports on four pairs of personality types: Extraversion/Introversion (E/I), Sensing/Intuition (S/N),…

  18. Samuel Butler's "Erewhon" as Social Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Don R.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the use of Samuel Butler's utopian novel, "Erewhon," in a social psychology class to demonstrate the universality of social psychological insights and to provide a literary dimension to the course. Reports that student evaluations indicated that "Erewhon" was successful in increasing the liberal arts value of the…

  19. Rogue Males: Sex Differences in Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Paul; Sanders, Lalage

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports a preliminary study into the commitment and academic confidence of male students in undergraduate psychology, prompted by our own observations of the performance of male students and the literature on sex differences in education. Method: Using an analytical survey, level 1 psychology students at a new university…

  20. Psychological Types of Academically Gifted Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Tracy L.; Neumeister, Kristie L. Speirs; Cassady, Jerrell C.

    2007-01-01

    This study provides descriptive information about the psychological types of a sample of 931 gifted adolescents who attended a public residential academy. Psychological types are assessed with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The MBTI reports on four pairs of personality types: Extraversion/Introversion (E/I), Sensing/Intuition (S/N),…

  1. Hailstones across the Greater Sydney Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Rasuly

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the recent climatology of hail occurrence in the Greater Metropolitan Severe Thunderstorm Warning Area (GMSTWA of New South Wales, Australia, which is a sprawling suburban area, with a population of nearly 4.7 million and one of Australia's largest metropolis. The main objective is to highlight the recent temporal-spatial fluctuations of hailstone frequencies and magnitudes for each of recognized and vastly inhabited Local Government Areas (LGAs. The relevant hail event data from 1989 to 2013 were initially derived from the severe storm archive of Australian Bureau of Meteorology. A climatologically oriented GIS technique was applied in the examining and mapping procedure of all hail events and hail days reported throughout the study area. By applying a specific criterion, all severe hails (defined as 2 cm or more in diameter were cautiously selected and then imported into the ArcGIS software for relevant analysis. Appropriate data layers were stored in a unique database to allow logical integration of the data directly into some geoprocessing functions, mainly for querying, analyzing and mapping purposes in a model-builder setting. The database includes 357 hailstones with sizes 2–11 cm and occurred in 169 hail days across the region during the past 25 years. The models have established that hailstones are neither temporally nor spatially uniform in magnitude throughout the study area. Temporal analysis indicated that most of hail events occurred predominately in the afternoons with peak time of 1–5 p.m. EST. They were particularly common in spring and summer, and reached maximum frequency in November and December. There was an average of 14.3 events each year, but a significant decreasing trend in terms of hail frequency and associated magnitude in the recent years has been identified. In turn, spatial models also established three main distribution patterns over the study area, which include the Sydney Metropolitan

  2. Psychological health in adults with morquio syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nadia; Cagle, S

    2015-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type IV (MPSIV), also known as Morquio syndrome, is a progressive genetic condition which predominantly affects skeletal development. Research thus far has focused on physical manifestations, with little attention to psychological characteristics. As a first step in determining the natural occurrence of psychological symptoms in this population, we administered Achenbach measures of psychological functioning (ASEBA ASR and OASR), quality of life (SF-36), and pain severity (BPI) questionnaires to 20 adults with Morquio syndrome. 11/20 subjects (55%) scored within the symptomatic range on at least one or more ASEBA problem scales. These subjects also had higher pain severity scores (p = 0.051) and pain interference scores (p = 0.03) on the BPI. However, subjects with psychological symptoms did not differ significantly on QOL measures from those without psychological symptoms. Overall, subjects scored below the US mean only in physical health QOL (p Morquio syndrome, including regular assessment for psychological symptoms in addition to the quality of life measures typically used, as the latter may miss important information. Greater attention to psychological symptoms may help maximize overall health in adults with Morquio syndrome. Comparison with psychological studies on other lysosomal storage diseases suggests these results may be disease specific, rather than the result of living with chronic pain or having an LSD in general.

  3. Do psychological variables affect early surgical recovery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael N Mavros

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have examined the effect of psychological variables on surgical recovery, but no definite conclusion has been reached yet. We sought to examine whether psychological factors influence early surgical recovery. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in PubMed, Scopus and PsycINFO databases to identify studies examining the association of preoperative psychological variables or interventions with objectively measured, early surgical outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 16 eligible studies, 15 of which reported a significant association between at least one psychological variable or intervention and an early postoperative outcome. However, most studies also reported psychological factors not influencing surgical recovery and there was significant heterogeneity across the studies. Overall, trait and state anxiety, state anger, active coping, subclinical depression, and intramarital hostility appeared to complicate recovery, while dispositional optimism, religiousness, anger control, low pain expectations, and external locus of control seemed to promote healing. Psychological interventions (guided relaxation, couple support visit, and psychiatric interview also appeared to favor recovery. Psychological factors unrelated to surgical outcomes included loneliness, perceived social support, anger expression, and trait anger. CONCLUSION: Although the heterogeneity of the available evidence precludes any safe conclusions, psychological variables appear to be associated with early surgical recovery; this association could bear important implications for clinical practice. Large clinical trials and further analyses are needed to precisely evaluate the contribution of psychology in surgical recovery.

  4. Early functional, esthetic, and psychological rehabilitation of preschool child with nonsyndromic oligodontia and anodontia in mixed dentition stage through conservative systematic approach: A case report with 5-year follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathee, Manu; Malik, Poonam; Dua, Madhuri; Yadav, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Missing teeth are a common developmental abnormality in humans. It may manifest as absence of varying numbers of primary and/or secondary teeth. Early treatment and follow-up are the key to successful rehabilitation of young patients with congenitally missing teeth. It is critical that oral rehabilitation is started early to maintain and correct the oral functions. Mucosa borne removable prostheses are the commonly selected treatment options for the young patients who present with oligodontia or anodontia. This clinical report describes esthetic, functional, and psychological rehabilitation of a young boy with severe oligodontia in maxillary arch and anodontia in mandibular arch. The individualized conservative graded approach in prosthetic rehabilitation with removable acrylic prosthesis helped to achieve esthetics, functionality, and psychological benefits. PMID:27307674

  5. Statistical Methods in Psychology Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willkinson, Leland

    1999-01-01

    Proposes guidelines for revising the American Psychological Association (APA) publication manual or other APA materials to clarify the application of statistics in research reports. The guidelines are intended to induce authors and editors to recognize the thoughtless application of statistical methods. Contains 54 references. (SLD)

  6. Statistical Methods in Psychology Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willkinson, Leland

    1999-01-01

    Proposes guidelines for revising the American Psychological Association (APA) publication manual or other APA materials to clarify the application of statistics in research reports. The guidelines are intended to induce authors and editors to recognize the thoughtless application of statistical methods. Contains 54 references. (SLD)

  7. Greater Somalia, the never-ending dream?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an historical analysis of the concept of Greater Somalia, the nationalist project that advocates the political union of all Somali-speaking people, including those inhabiting areas in current Djibouti, Ethiopia and Kenya. The Somali territorial unification project of “lost ter...

  8. Greater trochanteric fracture with occult intertrochanteric extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Michael; O'Brien, Seth D; Bui-Mansfield, Liem T; Alderete, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Proximal femoral fractures are frequently encountered in the emergency department (ED). Prompt diagnosis is paramount as delay will exacerbate the already poor outcomes associated with these injuries. In cases where radiography is negative but clinical suspicion remains high, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the study of choice as it has the capability to depict fractures which are occult on other imaging modalities. Awareness of a particular subset of proximal femoral fractures, namely greater trochanteric fractures, is vital for both radiologists and clinicians since it has been well documented that they invariably have an intertrochanteric component which may require surgical management. The detection of intertrochanteric or cervical extension of greater trochanteric fractures has been described utilizing MRI but is underestimated with both computed tomography (CT) and bone scan. Therefore, if MRI is unavailable or contraindicated, the diagnosis of an isolated greater trochanteric fracture should be met with caution. The importance of avoiding this potential pitfall is demonstrated in the following case of an elderly woman with hip pain and CT demonstrating an isolated greater trochanteric fracture who subsequently returned to the ED with a displaced intertrochanteric fracture.

  9. Individualized assessment and phenomenological psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, C T

    1979-04-01

    Although there is growing openness to tailoring of assessment procedures and reports to the particular client, these efforts typically have been sporadic and incomplete. This article reviews a systematic approach to individualized assessment, one whose practices are referred to as collaborative, contextual, and interventional. Clinical examples of these practices are presented in terms of their grounding in phenomenological psychology. Prior to that, themes such as intentionality, situatedness, dialectics, structuralism, and hermeneutics are introduced briefly. Phenomenological psychology as such is not seen here as necessary for all individualized practices, but it is seen as a critical touchpoint for development of theory and further practices.

  10. E-Psychology: Consumers' Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanova, Malina; Vasileva, Lidia; Rasheva, Maximka; Bojinova, Rumiana

    Securing psychological supervision, consultations and help during long lasting flights is vital condition for success. That's why, knowing in details consumers (clients) attitude toward virtual psychology services is essential. Knowledge gained during nowadays studies on Earth will definitely help in the preparation for the future. The presentation focuses on results of a longitudinal survey assessing clients' attitudes toward e-psychology service. The first part of the survey was performed in spring 2006, while the second - in 2008. The study is part of an ongoing project OHN 1514/2005, funded by National Science Fund, Bulgaria. Project's strategic goal is to develop and offer a virtual high quality psychological service to people from remotes areas that have no contact with licensed psychologist. The project enables experts to communicate directly with clients and perform remote consultations, supervision, etc. The objective of this presentation is to report changes and trends in clients' attitude towards innovative virtual psychology care. Both parts of the survey involved men and women between 19 and 70 year, who defend various opinions on the application of virtual technologies for healthcare. The sample is stratifies for age, gender, education level.

  11. Internships in School Psychology: Selection and Accreditation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keilin, W. Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Doctoral students in school psychology often report unique issues and challenges when seeking a doctoral internship. The number and range of accredited internship positions available to School Psychology (SP) students in the Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers (APPIC) Match is quite limited, and they often obtain…

  12. A Tale of Two Minds: Psychology and Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, George S.

    2010-01-01

    The American Psychological Association recently released its Presidential Task Force report on Psychology and Global Climate Change. Its principles and proposals would inaugurate a long and productive program of psychological research on climate change. But is it too little, too late? Climatologists have been growing progressively gloomier over…

  13. Internships in School Psychology: Selection and Accreditation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keilin, W. Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Doctoral students in school psychology often report unique issues and challenges when seeking a doctoral internship. The number and range of accredited internship positions available to School Psychology (SP) students in the Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers (APPIC) Match is quite limited, and they often obtain…

  14. Sexual Abuse Victimization and Psychological Distress among Adolescent Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Debra L.; Kingree, J. B.

    2001-01-01

    This study focused on sexual abuse victimization and psychological distress among 272 adolescent offenders. Female respondents reported more sexual abuse victimization and psychological distress than did their male counterparts. Furthermore, church attendance moderated the association between sexual abuse victimization and psychological distress…

  15. Stressful life events and current psychological distress are associated with self-reported hypertension but not with true hypertension: results from a cross-sectional population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuchs Flávio D

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evidence linking stress to hypertension has been scarcely documented in population-based studies. Methods Participants were selected through a multi-stage probability sampling and interviewed at home, being submitted to measures of demographics, anthropometrics, blood pressure (BP, and risk factors for hypertension. Hypertension was defined as BP ≥ 140/90 mm Hg or use of BP-lowering drugs or as self-reported hypertension. Stressful life events were investigated through an inventory of nine major life events occurring in the year preceding the interview. Psychological distress was evaluated through a facial scale of expression of emotion in the last month. Results In the total, 1,484 adult individuals were investigated. Prevalence of hypertension was lower in individuals who reported any stressful life event in comparison with individuals who did not reported an event (34.3 versus 44.2%, P Conclusion Recent stressful life events and current psychological distress are not associated with hypertension. Associations between stress events and distress with self-reported hypertension are not intermediated by effects of stress on blood pressure, and may be ascribed to negative feeling about disease and not to the disease itself.

  16. Greater happiness for a greater number: Is that possible? If so, how?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractINTRODUCTION Positive psychology is the scientific study of optimal human functioning (Sheldon et. all. 2000). Happiness is not the same as optimal functioning but is a closely related phenomenon. Happiness is a major manifestation of optimal functioning, since we are hard-wired to feel

  17. An Analysis Report of a Case with Psychological Problem Caused by Adaptation Stress%因适应压力引发心理问题个案分析报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴满华

    2015-01-01

    This paper is an analysis report of a case with psychological problem due to adaptation stress.Student Li,after leav-ing her original familiar environment for an unfamiliar university,facing the new circle and academic pressure,has caused great inner conflict,and got the syndromes of anxiety,depression and other negative symptoms.This paper,in practice,analyzes and discusses the psychological distress of student Li through psychological counseling theory and technology,in hope to set an example for others.%本文是一例因适应压力引发心理问题的个案报告,学生李某离开原来熟悉的环境来到陌生大学,面对不熟悉的人群和学业压力,导致内心冲突,并出现了焦虑、抑郁等消极症状。本文从实际案例出发,运用有关心理辅导理论和技术,对个案的心理困扰进行分析和辅导,探讨解决高校大学生心理困扰的途径和方法。

  18. Undergraduate Training and Skills for Careers outside Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carducci, Bernardo J.

    Many potential psychology majors are electing to pursue degrees in other disciplines that appear to have greater market value in the current employment environment. Providing psychology majors with the skills and knowledge necessary to compete successfully with business majors for entry-level employment opportunities in a variety of business…

  19. Taking the Pulse of Undergraduate Health Psychology: A Nationwide Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, Amy Badura; Kesitilwe, Kutlo; Ware, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a random national survey of 100 doctoral, 100 comprehensive, and 100 baccalaureate institutions to determine the current state of the undergraduate health psychology course. We found clear evidence of a maturing course with much greater commonality in name (health psychology), theoretical foundation (the biopsychosocial model), and…

  20. Personal Construct Psychology Model of School Counselling Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truneckova, Deborah; Viney, Linda L.

    2012-01-01

    With increasing focus on the mental health of young people by schools, greater attention is directed to the responsiveness and effectiveness of models of psychological practice in schools. A model will be presented with a coherent theoretical structure within which the school counsellor can understand the diverse psychological symptoms and…

  1. Psychology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide information about Japan and its psychology in advance of the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP), to be held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2016. The article begins with the introduction of the Japanese Psychological Association (JPA), the hosting organization of the ICP 2016, and the Japanese Union of Psychological Associations consisting of 51 associations/societies, of which the JPA is a member. This is followed by a brief description of a history of psychology of Japan, with emphasis on the variation in our approach to psychology in three different periods, that is, the pre- and post-Pacific War periods, and the post-1960 period. Next, the international contributions of Japanese psychology/psychologists are discussed from the point of view of their visibility. Education and training in psychology in Japanese universities is discussed with a final positive remark about the long-awaited enactment of the Accredited Psychologist Law in September, 2015.

  2. IFE PsychologIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Parenting Styles on Psychological Well-Being and School Adjustment of ... Aviation Psychological Practice in the Nigerian Air Force: Challenges and ... Psychosocial Predictors of Quality of Life among Caregivers of Chronically Ill ...

  3. Personality theory, abnormal psychology, and psychological measurement. A psychological behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1993-01-01

    Behaviorism, because it has not had a theory of personality, has been separated from the rest of psychology, unable in large part to draw from or contribute to it. Traditional psychology has not had a theory of personality that says what personality is, how it comes about, or how it functions. An antagonism has resulted that weakens rather than complements each tradition. Psychological behaviorism presents a new type of theory of personality. Derived from experimentation, it is constructed from basic theories of emotion, language, and sensory-motor behavior. It says personality is composed of learned basic behavioral repertoires (BBRs) that affect behavior. Personality measurement instruments are analyzed in terms of the BBRs, beginning the behaviorization of this field and calling for much additional research. These multilevel developments are then basic in psychological behaviorism's theory of abnormal behavior and of clinical treatment. The approach opens many new avenues of empirical and theoretical work.

  4. Brief mindfulness meditation training alters psychological and neuroendocrine responses to social evaluative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, J David; Pacilio, Laura E; Lindsay, Emily K; Brown, Kirk Warren

    2014-06-01

    To test whether a brief mindfulness meditation training intervention buffers self-reported psychological and neuroendocrine responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in young adult volunteers. A second objective evaluates whether pre-existing levels of dispositional mindfulness moderate the effects of brief mindfulness meditation training on stress reactivity. Sixty-six (N=66) participants were randomly assigned to either a brief 3-day (25-min per day) mindfulness meditation training or an analytic cognitive training control program. All participants completed a standardized laboratory social-evaluative stress challenge task (the TSST) following the third mindfulness meditation or cognitive training session. Measures of psychological (stress perceptions) and biological (salivary cortisol, blood pressure) stress reactivity were collected during the social evaluative stress-challenge session. Brief mindfulness meditation training reduced self-reported psychological stress reactivity but increased salivary cortisol reactivity to the TSST, relative to the cognitive training comparison program. Participants who were low in pre-existing levels of dispositional mindfulness and then received mindfulness meditation training had the greatest cortisol reactivity to the TSST. No significant main or interactive effects were observed for systolic or diastolic blood pressure reactivity to the TSST. The present study provides an initial indication that brief mindfulness meditation training buffers self-reported psychological stress reactivity, but also increases cortisol reactivity to social evaluative stress. This pattern may indicate that initially brief mindfulness meditation training fosters greater active coping efforts, resulting in reduced psychological stress appraisals and greater cortisol reactivity during social evaluative stressors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Environmental planning and management in Greater Johannesburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Schirnding, Y E

    1996-03-01

    This article describes the actions among urban environmental, management, and development planners in Greater Johannesburg, South Africa. Initiatives, such as the Healthy Cities Project and Model Communities, are being integrated into an environmental management and development approach that attains the goals of Agenda 21. Greater Johannesburg has housing shortages and homelessness. Priority needs include the areas of housing, water, electricity, public transportation, and sanitation. Clean water and air are inequitably distributed. Other key environmental problems include illegal dumping, inadequate waste disposal, poor environmental hygiene in overcrowded inner city areas, lack of open spaces, flooding, and water scarcities. The newly formed metropolitan authority offers opportunities to improve coordination and integration of environmental problems. Stakeholders from government at all levels, politicians, nongovernmental organizations, and the business sector formed an intersectoral, interdepartmental environment management committee in 1995. Stakeholders will integrate Agenda 21 within broader urban development plans and processes. The executive committee and the full council approved a set of guiding principles on environmental policy and an administrative framework for management. Four workshops were held to ensure a participatory consultation process in 1995. The WHO Collaborating Center for Urban Health will be used to facilitate the work of the Greater Johannesburg Metropolitan Council. Changes are being made in the way local governments work.

  6. Psychology of Religion

    OpenAIRE

    Ulu, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter of book that entitled Science, Religion and Society: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture, and Controversy has been given important informations about psychology of religion’s historical development as well as pioneer figures’ contributions. In this text some evaluations has been made by categorizing studies in field of psychology of religion. Finally some informations are provided about current status of the psychology of religion and position of the psychology of religion ...

  7. Logotherapy and positive psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar R. Oro

    2015-01-01

    Psychology omitted to approach, during almost a century, the positive aspects from persons, like creativity, humor, optimism, hope, forgiveness, life meaning, and happiness. These themes are approached by Positive Psychology, with Seligman like the principal exponent. Psychology was dedicated to explore the negative aspects from human beings improving human health. Nevertheless, this pathogenic model could not prevent mental disease. Concepts of Positive Psychology have a solid antecedent in ...

  8. The Challenges for Us Psychologized Moderns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill G. Morawski

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In a reparative history Dana Simmons boldly faces self feelings of imposture and guilt and engages them to consider how science studies can move beyond critical appraisals to undertake the greater, more important task of reassembling the self and studies of the self. For readers who are aware of their psychologized self-conceptions, her history promises opportunities for re-appraisal and re-assemblage. This commentary appreciates Simmons’ illumination of the race, class, and gender constituents of the psychologies of achievement which, among their products, have yielded the very idea of Impostor Syndrome. Further development of the kind of reparative histories advocated by Simmons demands attention to the enormity of our psychologized modernity and the complexities of reflexive psychology.

  9. ABOUT PSYCHOLOGICAL VARIABLES IN APPLICATION SCORING MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Rogers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the contribution of psychological variables and scales suggested by Economic Psychology in predicting individuals’ default. Therefore, a sample of 555 individuals completed a self-completion questionnaire, which was composed of psychological variables and scales. By adopting the methodology of the logistic regression, the following psychological and behavioral characteristics were found associated with the group of individuals in default: a negative dimensions related to money (suffering, inequality and conflict; b high scores on the self-efficacy scale, probably indicating a greater degree of optimism and over-confidence; c buyers classified as compulsive; d individuals who consider it necessary to give gifts to children and friends on special dates, even though many people consider this a luxury; e problems of self-control identified by individuals who drink an average of more than four glasses of alcoholic beverage a day.

  10. Psychology in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts…

  11. Psychology in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  12. Psychology and Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David

    1987-01-01

    Psychology and literature focus on human behavior. There are several points where the interests of psychologists and literary scholars converge. This convergence is evident in the use of literature to test psychological theories and to understand human behavior in historical times, in the psychological analyses of literature, and in psychological…

  13. Humanistic Psychology: How Realistic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebel, Linda

    1982-01-01

    Overviews themes relating to humanistic psychology. Discusses the tendency of theorists to unconsciously externalize their own psyches. Examines the historical context of humanistic psychology. Discusses humanistic psychology's contribution to understanding the less healthy person. Provides instances of unrealistic thinking by humanistic…

  14. Intro through Internet Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Sandra K.; Kelliher, Thomas P.

    Psychology and computer science were clustered into a course in "Internet Psychology" with the goal of enabling students to use electronic networks responsibly and creatively and to understand the principles of psychology as they operate in the electronic context. Fourteen students from a variety of majors registered for the class.…

  15. The Political Psychology of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    express for the EU and fellow Europeans, and the passion with which supporters of the EU argue for greater integration and enlargement are today central to understanding European integration. Being mindful of Europe - reflecting on the ways in which psychology and politics are deeply implicated in under...

  16. ETS Research on Cognitive, Personality, and Social Psychology: I. Research Report. ETS RR-13-01. ETS R&D Scientific and Policy Contributions Series. ETS SPC-13-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Lawrence J.

    2013-01-01

    This is an account of a portion of the research on cognitive, personality, and social psychology at ETS since the organization's inception. The topics in cognitive psychology are the structure of abilities; in personality psychology, response styles and social and emotional intelligence; and in social psychology, prosocial behavior and stereotype…

  17. Psychology journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualberto Buela-Casal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El concepto de publicación internacional es uno de los criterios más utilizado para evaluar la productividad de los investigadores y de las instituciones científicas. Sin embargo, también es uno de los más polémicos, dado que hasta la actualidad no se había definido ni establecido un Índice de Internacionalidad. Este estudio descriptivo analiza las revistas españolas de Psicología incluidas en la base de datos IN-RECS según su nivel de internacionalidad. Cada revista fue evaluada teniendo en cuenta los once criterios de internacionalidad (idioma de publicación, factor de impacto -en este caso el Índice de Impacto según IN-RECS-, países de procedencia de los miembros del los comités editoriales, nombres de la revista, inclusión en el Journal Citation Reports, países de procedencia de los autores, normas de publicación, acceso por internet, acceso por internet gratuito, inclusión en bases de datos y pertenencia a las instituciones “internacionales”. Se sumaron las puntuaciones en todos los criterios y los totales fueron ordenados de mayor a menor dando como resultado el Índice de Internacionalidad de las Revistas Españolas de Psicología. Entre los resultados cabe resaltar que de las cinco primeras revistas del ranking de internacionalidad cuatro son revistas indexadas en la Web of Science.

  18. Witnessing interparental psychological aggression in childhood: implications for daily conflict in adult intimate relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Janet Krone; Bolger, Niall; Shrout, Patrick E

    2002-12-01

    We examined the consequences of witnessing interparental psychological aggression in childhood for daily conflict processes in adult intimate relationships. Both partners in 73 heterosexual couples provided daily diary reports of relationship conflict over a 28-day period. Partners' reports of witnessing mother-to-father and father-to-mother psychological aggression were used to predict exposure to daily relationship conflicts and reactivity to those conflicts (as reflected in end-of-day anger). Results showed no evidence of exposure effects: Witnessing interparental psychological aggression was unrelated to the number of conflict days reported by either partner. Reactivity effects emerged for males only, with father's aggression predicting increased reactivity and mother's aggression predicting the opposite. However, we found evidence of direct or unmediated effects of interparental conflict on daily anger for both males and females. Mirroring the reactivity pattern, the same-sex parent's psychological aggression predicted greater daily anger, whereas the opposite-sex parent's aggression predicted less daily anger. These effects emerged independently of Big Five measures of personality; moreover, Big Five measures did not predict outcomes independently of interparental aggression.

  19. Greater omentum in reconstruction of refractory wounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈余明; 沈祖尧

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of greater omentum in reconstruction of refractory wounds. Methods: From August 1988 to May 2001, 20 patients with refractory wound underwent pedicle or microvascular free transfer of the greater omentum. Indications of surgery were electrical injury of the wrist and hand in 9 patients, electrical injury of the scalp and cranial bones in 3, avulsion injury of the scalp in 2, radiation-related ulcer of the chest wall in 2, ulcer and osteomyelitis following resection of the sternum sarcoma in 1, electrical injury of the abdomen in 1, bone and soft tissue defects following compound fracture of the leg in 1, and extensive scar and ulcer of the leg and footdrop following trauma in 1. Severe infection and extensive tissue necrosis were present prior to surgical operation in 12 patients. Eleven patients were treated with pedicled omental flaps, and 9 patients with free omental flaps. The size of the omental flaps ranged from 20 cm×12 cm to 38 cm×23 cm. Results: All the omental flaps survived. Healing at the first intention of the wounds was achieved in 17 cases. The on-top skin grafts resulted in partial necrosis of lipid liquefaction developed in the omentum and healed with dressing change in 2 cases. A sinus tract of osteomyelitis occurred in one case and healed after delayed excision of the necrosed bone. Follow-up study of all cases from 3 to 24 months showed no recurrent wounds and post-operative abdominal complication. Recovery with acceptable appearance and restoration of function was satisfactory. Conclusions: Greater omentum provides a well-vascularized tissue with lymphatic ducts for wound coverage. It has strong resistance against infection. It is very malleable and can be molded easily. Therefore it is an ideal tissue in filling cavities and repairing defects, especially in covering large and irregular defects that can not be treated with skin or muscle flaps.

  20. Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanser, Steven E.; Manier, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    The condition of the sagebrush ecosystem has been declining in the Western United States, and greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a sagebrush-obligate species, has experienced concurrent decreases in distribution and population numbers. This has prompted substantial research and management over the past two decades to improve the understanding of sage-grouse and its habitats and to address the observed decreases in distribution and population numbers. The amount of research and management has increased as the year 2015 approaches, which is when the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is expected to make a final decision about whether or not to protect the species under the Endangered Species Act. In 2012, the Sage-Grouse Executive Oversight Committee (EOC) of the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA) requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) lead the development of a Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy (hereafter Research Strategy). This request was motivated by a practical need to systematically connect existing research and conservation plans with persisting or emerging information needs. Managers and researchers also wanted to reduce redundancy and help focus limited funds on the highest priority research and management issues. The USGS undertook the development of this Research Strategy, which addresses information and science relating to the greater sage-grouse and its habitat across portions of 11 Western States. This Research Strategy provides an outline of important research topics to ensure that science information gaps are identified and documented in a comprehensive manner. Further, by identifying priority topics and critical information needed for planning, research, and resource management, it provides a structure to help coordinate members of an expansive research and management community in their efforts to conduct priority research.

  1. Interspecific hybridization between greater kudu and nyala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Desiré L; Tordiffe, Adrian; Luther, Ilse; Duran, Assumpta; van Wyk, Anna M; Brettschneider, Helene; Oosthuizen, Almero; Modiba, Catherine; Kotzé, Antoinette

    2014-06-01

    Hybridization of wildlife species, even in the absence of introgression, is of concern due to wasted reproductive effort and a reduction in productivity. In this study we detail an accidental mating between a female nyala (Tragelaphus angasii) and a male greater kudu (T. strepsiceros). The hybrid was phenotypically nyala and was identified as such based on mitochondrial DNA. Further genetic analysis based on nine microsatellite markers, chromosome number and chromosome morphology however, confirmed its status as an F1 hybrid. Results obtained from a reproductive potential assessment indicated that this animal does not have the potential to breed successfully and can be considered as sterile.

  2. The association of perceived abuse and discrimination after September 11, 2001, with psychological distress, level of happiness, and health status among Arab Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I; Heisler, Michele

    2010-02-01

    We assessed the prevalence of perceived abuse and discrimination among Arab American adults after September 11, 2001, and associations between abuse or discrimination and psychological distress, level of happiness, and health status. We gathered data from a face-to-face survey administered in 2003 to a representative, population-based sample of Arab American adults residing in the greater Detroit area. Overall, 25% of the respondents reported post-September 11 personal or familial abuse, and 15% reported that they personally had a bad experience related to their ethnicity, with higher rates among Muslims than Christians. After adjustment for socioeconomic and demographic factors, perceived post-September 11 abuse was associated with higher levels of psychological distress, lower levels of happiness, and worse health status. Personal bad experiences related to ethnicity were associated with increased psychological distress and reduced happiness. Perceptions of not being respected within US society and greater reported effects of September 11 with respect to personal security and safety were associated with higher levels of psychological distress. Perceived post-September 11 abuse and discrimination were associated with increased psychological distress, reduced levels of happiness, and worse health status in our sample. Community-based, culturally sensitive partnerships should be established to assess and meet the health needs of Arab Americans.

  3. Cigarette Smoking as a Coping Strategy: Negative Implications for Subsequent Psychological Distress Among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youths*

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Hunter, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    Objective The heightened risk of cigarette smoking found among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths may be because smoking serves as a coping strategy used to adapt to the greater stress experienced by LGB youths. The current report examines whether smoking moderates the relation between stress and subsequent psychological distress, and whether alternative coping resources (i.e., social support) moderate the relation between smoking and subsequent distress. Method An ethnically diverse sam...

  4. Greater trochanteric stippling in trisomy 7p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, Justin R. [Starship Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Auckland (New Zealand); Teele, Rita L. [Starship Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Auckland (New Zealand); Aftimos, Salim [Auckland City Hospital, Northern Regional Genetic Services, Auckland, Private Bag 92024 (New Zealand)

    2006-08-15

    Trisomy 7p is a rare condition involving partial or complete duplication of the short arm of chromosome 7. Radiological features include large fontanelles, widened sutures, dolicocephaly and asymmetrical skull. We report a new radiological finding of punctate calcifications in the region of femoral trochanters. This finding has not previously been reported with chromosome 7p duplication. (orig.)

  5. Cross-Cultural Psychological Assessment: Issues and Procedures for the Psychological Appraisal of Refugee Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, James N.

    This report addresses some of the problems and issues involved in psychological assessment of refugee clients in mental health programs and surveys the assessment procedures in current use. Part I discusses the problems and issues involved in the psychological assessment of ethnic minority and refugee clients, summarizes some of the background…

  6. A race riot's effect on psychological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenley, J R; Gillespie, D P; Lindenthal, J J

    1975-09-01

    Certain individually stressful events have been observed to increase the psychological distress of persons affected; reduced psychological distress following other events has been attributed to collective processes, including increased group cohesion. These possibilities are investigated by contrasting reported symptom levels of 938 adults interviewed before, during, and after a racial riot. White suburbanites interviewed after the riot and urban black women interviewed during the riot report significantly fewer psychological symptoms. Hypotheses of seasonal symptom changes, sampling biases, and the absence of symptom changes among relatively unimpaired respondents are rejected, suggesting that reductions in symptom level are associated with the riot. Serious methodological problems are raised by our finding that such events may significantly affect not only rates but also patterns of reported psychological symptoms obtained through epidemiological studies.

  7. Who is to Blame on July 22, 2011? Psychological and Sociological Blame Frames in the Reporting of Anders Breivik in the Dutch Speaking Broadsheet Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mertens Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On July 22, 2011 Anders Breivik murdered a large amount of people in Norway. In this study we investigate a sample of articles that were published about Breivik and his deeds in the Flemish and Dutch press. We will investigate these articles looking for the so-called “attribution of responsibility frame.” The murders from Breivik could be explained psychologically (“he is insane” as well as sociologically (far-right political parties are responsible because of having spread hate speech. We present a typology of subtypes of frames. We will furthermore investigate how many times these types of frames occur in different media outlets.

  8. Specific attitudes which predict psychology students' intentions to seek help for psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Susan J; Caputi, Peter; Wilson, Coralie J

    2014-03-01

    Although many postgraduate psychology programs address students' mental health, there are compelling indications that earlier, undergraduate, interventions may be optimal. We investigated specific attitudes that predict students' intentions to seek treatment for psychological distress to inform targeted interventions. Psychology students (N = 289; mean age = 19.75 years) were surveyed about attitudes and intentions to seek treatment for stress, anxiety, or depression. Less than one quarter of students reported that they would be likely to seek treatment should they develop psychological distress. Attitudes that predicted help-seeking intentions related to recognition of symptoms and the benefits of professional help, and openness to treatment for emotional problems. The current study identified specific attitudes which predict help-seeking intentions in psychology students. These attitudes could be strengthened in undergraduate educational interventions promoting well-being and appropriate treatment uptake among psychology students. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Greater patient confidence yields greater functional outcomes after primary total shoulder arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styron, Joseph F; Higuera, Carlos A; Strnad, Greg; Iannotti, Joseph P

    2015-08-01

    Patient satisfaction is increasingly being tied to reimbursement rates, and patient satisfaction is often associated with improving functionality and decreasing disability postoperatively. This study sought to determine if a total shoulder arthroplasty patient's preoperative confidence in his or her ability to attain the level of activity desired would influence postoperative functional scores. Patients undergoing a primary total shoulder arthroplasty at a single institution were asked to complete a preoperative questionnaire with multiple items including baseline symptom severity measures and their confidence in reaching their level of desired functionality postoperatively (scored 0-10). Patients then completed an identical postoperative questionnaire at their follow-up visits. Associations between the patient's confidence in attaining treatment goals and functional outcomes was established by multiple linear regression models that were adjusted for gender, age, body mass index, baseline 12-Item Short Form Health Survey mental component scores, college education, smoking status, baseline functional scores, and length of follow-up. Patients had a high level of confidence that their outcome would match their expectations, with an average score of 7.8 (range, 0-10; 28.4% reported a full 10/10 confidence). For every 1-point increase in confidence, patients experienced an average increase in their function score of 2.7 points (P = .039) and improvement in their pain score of 2.0 (P = .033) according to the Penn Shoulder Score. There was no significant association with the patient's 12-Item Short Form Health Survey score postoperatively. Patients with greater preoperative confidence actually have significantly better postoperative functional outcomes than their less confident peers even with adjustment for other known risk factors. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fulfilling Desire: Evidence for negative feedback between men’s testosterone, sociosexual psychology, and sexual partner number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puts, David A.; Pope, Lauramarie E.; Hill, Alexander K.; Cárdenas, Rodrigo A.; Welling, Lisa L. M.; Wheatley, John R.; Breedlove, S. Marc

    2015-01-01

    Across human societies and many nonhuman animals, males have greater interest in uncommitted sex (more unrestricted sociosexuality) than do females. Testosterone shows positive associations with male-typical sociosexual behavior in nonhuman animals. Yet, it remains unclear whether the human sex difference in sociosexual psychology (attitudes and desires) is mediated by testosterone, whether any relationships between testosterone and sociosexuality differ between men and women, and what the nature of these possible relationships might be. In studies to resolve these questions, we examined relationships between salivary testosterone concentrations and sociosexual psychology and behavior in men and women. We measured testosterone in all men in our sample, but only in those women taking oral contraception (OC-using women) in order to reduce the influence of ovulatory cycle variation in ovarian hormone production. We found that OC-using women did not differ from normally-ovulating women in sociosexual psychology or behavior, but that circulating testosterone mediated the sex difference in human sociosexuality and predicted sociosexual psychology in men but not OC-using women. Moreover, when sociosexual psychology was controlled, men’s sociosexual behavior (number of sexual partners) was negatively related to testosterone, suggesting that testosterone drives sociosexual psychology in men and is inhibited when those desires are fulfilled. This more complex relationship between androgen and male sexuality may reconcile some conflicting prior reports. PMID:25644313

  11. Psicologia Clínica e aprendizagem significativa: relatando uma pesquisa fenomenológica colaborativa Clinical psychology and meaningful learning: report on a participative phenomenological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Martins de Macêdo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é resultado de uma experiência de um grupo de estudo em pesquisa fenomenológica em psicologia. O grupo foi formado em abril de 1998 e encerrado em março de 1999, sob a orientação da autora. Em encontros semanais ou quinzenais de duas a três horas eram discutidos textos sobre fenomenologia e a influência desta no saber e na pesquisa em psicologia, com destaque para a área clínica. A pesquisa serviu para possibilitar aos membros aprenderem o método fenomenológico pela vivência do próprio método, além de ter viabilizado um estudo clínico do processo de aprendizagem significativa vivenciado pelos participantes.This article is the result of a study-group experience on phenomenological research upon psychology. Such group was formed in April 1998, and ended in March 1999, being under the author’s guidance during that time. During weekly and bi-weekly meetings of two or three hours time, texts about phenomenology and its influence upon knowledge and in psychology research have been discussed, emphasizing the clinical area. The research served as an opportunity to the group members learn about the phenomenological method through real life experiences, as well as to develop a clinical study on the meaningful learning process.

  12. 英语考试焦虑心理咨询案例报告%Case Report on the Psychological Consultation of English Examination Anxiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟鹤飞

    2014-01-01

    Not only will excessive English examination anxiety influence a student's achievement and learning activities but also do harm to her or his physical and mental health. According to the psychological problem characteristics of the student, the psy-chological consultant gradually eliminated the student's unrea-sonable cognitive model by Rational-emotive Therapy, Con-frontation Therapy and English Test Counseling to establish his reasonable cognitive model. The student's symptom was improved considerably and good consultation result was gained.%过度的英语考试焦虑不仅影响了学生的学习成绩和学习活动,也对学生的身心健康不利。心理咨询师根据求助者的心理问题的特征,采用合理情绪疗法、面质技术和英语考试辅导循序渐进地消除其错误认知模式,建立其合理认知模式。求助者症状得到明显改善,取得了良好的咨询效果。

  13. Psychological adjustment of obese youth presenting for weight management treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Meg H; Saelens, Brian E; Roehrig, Helmut; Kirk, Shelley; Daniels, Stephen R

    2004-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of psychological maladjustment in clinic-based treatment-seeking obese children and adolescents (BMI > or = 95th percentile) and the degree to which maternal, demographic, and youth factors correlate to the youths' psychological adjustment. Anthropometrics, demographics (race, sex, insurance status), measures of youth psychological adjustment (self- and mother-report; Behavior Assessment System for Children), and maternal self-report of psychological distress (Symptom Checklist 90-Revised) were collected from 121 obese children and adolescents (55% white, 45% black) and their mothers. Approximately one-third of youths self-reported some psychological maladjustment, but two-thirds of youth were described by their mothers as experiencing some degree of psychological maladjustment. Adjustment difficulties were specific to social functioning, low self-esteem, and internalizing symptoms. Forty-one percent of mothers of child participants and 56% of mothers of adolescent participants reported clinically significant psychological distress. Youth self-report and mother-report of youths' psychological difficulties were often most strongly associated with mothers' level of psychological distress and/or family socioeconomic status rather than to youth characteristics (e.g., percent overweight, race). Psychological maladjustment levels among obese youth and their mothers were higher in this clinic-based sample than in treatment research-based samples. Present correlate findings extended to obese adolescents and reaffirm a potent association between youth self-report of their own psychological adjustment and their mother's level of psychological distress. Demographic characteristics and youth weight status were not consistent correlates of youths' psychological functioning. Findings have implications for the translation of empirically supported pediatric obesity interventions to clinic-based treatment samples.

  14. Mainstreaming culture in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M

    2012-11-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks.

  15. The Healthy Aging Brain Care (HABC Monitor: validation of the Patient Self-Report Version of the clinical tool designed to measure and monitor cognitive, functional, and psychological health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monahan PO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Patrick O Monahan,1 Catherine A Alder,2–4 Babar A Khan,1–3 Timothy Stump,1 Malaz A Boustani1–4 1Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2Indiana University Center for Aging Research, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 3Regenstrief Institute Inc., Indianapolis, IN, USA; 4Eskenazi Health, Indianapolis, IN, USA Background: Primary care providers need an inexpensive, simple, user-friendly, easily standardized, sensitive to change, and widely available multidomain instrument to measure the cognitive, functional, and psychological symptoms of patients suffering from multiple chronic conditions. We previously validated the Caregiver Report Version of the Healthy Aging Brain Care Monitor (HABC Monitor for measuring and monitoring the severity of symptoms through caregiver reports. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Patient Self-Report Version of the HABC Monitor (Self-Report HABC Monitor.Design: Cross-sectional study.Setting: Primary care clinics affiliated with a safety net urban health care system in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.Subjects: A total of 291 subjects aged ≥65 years with a mean age of 72.7 (standard deviation 6.2 years, 76% female, and 56% African Americans.Analysis: Psychometric validity and reliability of the Self-Report HABC Monitor.Results: Among 291 patients analyzed, the Self-Report HABC Monitor demonstrated excellent fit for the confirmatory factor analysis model (root mean square error of approximation =0.030, comparative fit index =0.974, weighted root mean square residual =0.837 and good internal consistency (0.78–0.92. Adequate convergent–divergent validity (differences between the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status test-based cognitive function impairment versus nonimpairment groups was demonstrated only when patients were removed from analysis if they had both cognitive function test impairment and suspiciously perfect self-report HABC Monitor cognitive floor

  16. Adolescent Desire for Cosmetic Surgery: Associations with Bullying and Psychological Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kirsty; Guy, Alexa; Dale, Jeremy; Wolke, Dieter

    2017-05-01

    Adolescent bullying may be a key driver of interest in cosmetic surgery. This study examined the extent of such interest and whether any effect was sex-specific, and examined psychological functioning as a potential mechanism through which bullying involvement may lead to a wish for cosmetic surgery. A two-stage design was used. In the first stage, 2782 adolescents (aged 11 to 16 years) were screened for bullying involvement using self-reports and peer nominations. In the second stage, 752 adolescents who were bullies, victims, bully-victims, or uninvolved in bullying reported their desire for cosmetic surgery. Psychological functioning was constructed as a composite of self-esteem and emotional problems (assessed at stage 1) and body-esteem scores (assessed at stage 2). Adolescents involved in bullying in any role were significantly more interested in cosmetic surgery than uninvolved adolescents. Desire for cosmetic surgery was greatest in adolescents who were bullied (victims and bully-victims) and girls. Desire for cosmetic surgery was highest in girls, but sex did not interact with bullying role. Being victimized by peers resulted in poor psychological functioning, which increased desire for cosmetic surgery. In contrast, desire for cosmetic surgery in bullies was not related to psychological functioning, which was in the normal range. Bullying victimization is related to poor psychological functioning, and both are related to a greater desire for cosmetic surgery in adolescents. Cosmetic surgeons should screen candidates for psychological vulnerability and may want to include a short screening questionnaire for a history of peer victimization.

  17. Identity of psychology, identity and psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Nastran Ule

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with epistemic issues of modern psychology with the starting hypothesis being that scientific psychology must satisfy three main interests: scientific, practical and emancipatory interest. Particularly important is the emancipatory interest, which is based on the social reflection of scientific work and conclusions. Psychological knowledge involves not only neutral descriptions of facts, but also implicit rules, expectations regarding values or norms, and criticism of undesirable behavior. The traditional psychological model attempts to satisfy the scientific interest and partly practical interest, while avoiding emancipatory interest. But I believe modern socio-historical models of psychology to be significant precisely owing to the inclusion of emancipatory interest. The difference between these two models of psychology is most obvious in their perception of identity i.e. individuality. Conventional perceptions follow the logic of "possessive individualism" in which the individual is seen as an autonomous bearer and owner of his/her psychological states and processes. The conventional model of identity supports the modernist concept of the individual as being focused on his/her self or personal identity. Socio-historical models, on the other hand, see the individual as a being embedded in social relations and social interactions, and one who builds and expresses his/her individuality through the reflection on social interactions, discursive practices, and response to the hierarchy of power and social mechanisms of control. According to this model, identity evolves through a series of social constructions which are embodied in the individual and represent him/her in society. Identity thus becomes a notion that combines individuality and social context, subjectivation and objectivation of the individual, and historical and biographical time.

  18. Internationalizing undergraduate psychology education: Trends, techniques, and technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takooshian, Harold; Gielen, Uwe P; Plous, Scott; Rich, Grant J; Velayo, Richard S

    2016-01-01

    How can we best internationalize undergraduate psychology education in the United States and elsewhere? This question is more timely than ever, for at least 2 reasons: Within the United States, educators and students seek greater contact with psychology programs abroad, and outside the United States, psychology is growing apace, with educators and students in other nations often looking to U.S. curricula and practices as models. In this article, we outline international developments in undergraduate psychology education both in the United States and abroad, and analyze the dramatic rise of online courses and Internet-based technologies from an instructional and international point of view. Building on the recommendations of the 2005 APA Working Group on Internationalizing the Undergraduate Psychology Curriculum, we then advance 14 recommendations on internationalizing undergraduate psychology education--for students, faculty, and institutions.

  19. Ethnographic Fieldwork in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene

    2014-01-01

    It is argued in the present article that ethnographic fieldwork can serve useful methodological ends within psychology and open the discipline to the cultural landscape of psychological phenomena in everyday life in social practices. Furthermore, a positive case is made for the soundness...... of ethnographic fieldwork. That is, rather than disputing the claim that qualitative methods can serve scientific ends, it is argued that ethnographic fieldwork is suitable for studying the constitution of psychological phenomena in social practices across time....

  20. Psychological Test Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessmann H.-W.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical overview of current aspects about the validity problems of psychological tests. The article demonstrates the importance of the development of psychological tests and the scientific studies of their validity, describes the different types of validity and the possible ways of measurement and determination of the validity coefficients. The paper is recommended for researchers, whose work is dedicated to the development, modification or adaptation of the psychological test.

  1. Psychological violence against children

    OpenAIRE

    Jurkovič, Sabina

    2012-01-01

    The topic of my thesis is a study of how parents and primary school teachers perceive and identify psychological abuse of children. Psychological abuse is an especially sensitive area because children do not perceive interpersonal relations and activities in their environment in the same way as adults. Children also do not possess the physical or psychological power required to withstand or defend themselves against different forms of violence, abuse and harassment. Children who are the victi...

  2. Public Image of Counseling Psychology: What Introductory Psychology Textbooks Say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, David N.; Vrochopoulos, Sam; Burton, Jennifer

    1997-01-01

    Examines the adequacy of descriptions of counseling psychology and its professionals in introductory psychology textbooks compared to the descriptions of other applied areas of psychology. Results indicate that counseling psychology is less represented than industrial or organizational and clinical psychology and more represented than school…

  3. Positive Psychology: Considerations and Implications for Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollen, Debra; Ethington, Lanaya L.; Ridley, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    Why has the specialty of counseling psychology been overlooked in the larger conversation about positive psychology? Is it reasonable that counseling psychology claims positive psychology as its own? What are some of the problems in defining "positive psychology," and how does the lack of consensus around operationalization thwart discourse on…

  4. The cultural psychology endeavor to make culture central to psychology: Comment on Hall et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorakova, Antonie

    2016-12-01

    When Hall, Yip, and Zárate (2016) suggested that cultural psychology focused on reporting differences between groups, they described comparative research conducted in other fields, including cross-cultural psychology. Cultural psychology is a different discipline with methodological approaches reflecting its dissimilar goal, which is to highlight the cultural grounding of human psychological characteristics, and ultimately make culture central to psychology in general. When multicultural psychology considers, according to Hall et al., the mechanisms of culture's influence on behavior, it treats culture the same way as cross-cultural psychology does. In contrast, cultural psychology goes beyond treating culture as an external variable when it proposes that culture and psyche are mutually constitutive. True psychology of the human experience must encompass world populations through research of the ways in which (a) historically grounded sociocultural contexts enable the distinct meaning systems that people construct, and (b) these systems simultaneously guide the human formation of the environments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Educational Psychology in Portugal: Results of the 2013 International School Psychology Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Vitor Alexandre; Marchante, Marta; Raimundo, Raquel; Jimerson, Shane

    2016-01-01

    This study provides valuable information regarding the characteristics, training, roles, activities, preferences, research interests and challenges reported by 803 Portuguese educational psychologists. The study includes responses to the International School Psychology Survey (ISPS) from educational psychologists across various regions of…

  6. Educational Psychology in Portugal: Results of the 2013 International School Psychology Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Vitor Alexandre; Marchante, Marta; Raimundo, Raquel; Jimerson, Shane

    2016-01-01

    This study provides valuable information regarding the characteristics, training, roles, activities, preferences, research interests and challenges reported by 803 Portuguese educational psychologists. The study includes responses to the International School Psychology Survey (ISPS) from educational psychologists across various regions of…

  7. Center for Deployment Psychology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Deployment Psychology was developed to promote the education of psychologists and other behavioral health specialists about issues pertaining to the...

  8. Psychological Component of Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  9. Irritable bowel syndrome and its psychological management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikesh Tripathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS is a chronic and disabling gastrointestinal problem that affects psychosocial functioning as well as the quality of life. This case study reports the utility of cognitive behavior therapy as a psychological intervention procedure in a chronic case of IBS. The use of psychological intervention was found to result in a reduction of anxiety; amelioration of the symptoms associated with IBS and improved functioning.

  10. PSYCHOLOGICAL PARADIGMS USED IN TEACHING ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin CRISTEA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, teaching as a subject of instruction, will be examined in terms of some actual psychological paradigms of communication: structural-expressive, formal-transactional, relational-systemic, and phenomenal-praxis. Reporting these paradigms, thispaper highlights the importance of psychological processes involved in teaching process. Related to various paradigms described, the author demonstrates the importance of addressing teaching from a high level participation in the elaboration of a mutual action.

  11. F-35 Sustainment: Need for Affordable Strategy, Greater Attention to Risks, and Improved Cost Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    F - 35 SUSTAINMENT Need for Affordable Strategy, Greater Attention to Risks, and Improved Cost Estimates Report...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE F - 35 Sustainment: Need for Affordable Strategy, Greater...House of Representatives September 2014 F - 35 SUSTAINMENT Need for Affordable Strategy, Greater Attention to Risks, and Improved Cost Estimates Why

  12. Grassroots Action Research and the Greater Good

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainey Isobel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    This study examines the action research topics and topic preferences of two groups of grassroots teachers: active researchers, and potential researchers. The analysis of the topics appears to indicate that, over the past decade, action research at the teaching of English at the grassroots level to speakers of other languages has been principally understood in terms of professional development with respect to teachers’ methodologies and learners’ learning behaviours. A nascent concern for a more ample approach to professional development and issues conducive to the greater good of the profession can, it is mooted, flourish only with the collaboration of all relevant stakeholders.

    En este estudio se examinan los temas de investigación acción y los temas preferidos por dos grupos de profesores de base: uno de investigadores activos y otro de investigadores potenciales. El análisis sugiere que, durante la última década, la investigación acción en el aula de inglés para hablantes de otras lenguas se ha entendido principalmente en términos del desarrollo profesional con respecto a las metodologías de los profesores y las conductas estudiantiles de aprendizaje. Se considera que un incipiente interés por un enfoque más amplio y por asuntos conducentes al beneficio general de la profesión, solamente puede florecer con la colaboración de todos los actores más importantes.

  13. Patterns of childhood trauma and psychological distress among injecting heroin users in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Childhood trauma has been reported as a possible cause of future substance abuse in some countries. This study reports the prevalence of childhood trauma and examines its association with psychological distress among injecting drug users from mainland China. METHODOLOGY: The study was conducted in three government-operated drug rehabilitation facilities in Shanghai, China in 2007. The Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form (ETISR-SF was used to evaluate 4 types (general, emotional, physical and sexual and severity of childhood trauma, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R to evaluate psychological distress. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Among 341 injecting drug users who completed the study, about 80% reported one or more types of childhood trauma, specifically 53% general trauma, 56% physical abuse, 36% emotional abuse and 26% sexual abuse. Compared to female injecting drug users, males reported significantly higher scores of general trauma and physical abuse, but lower sexual abuse scores. Hierarchical linear regression analyses showed that greater physical and emotional abuse in childhood predict greater current psychopathological distress among these injecting drug users in China. CONCLUSIONS: The results reveal a high prevalence of childhood trauma among injecting drug users in China, and it is comparable to other similar studies in Western countries. It is important to consider the role of childhood trauma in the prevention and treatment of substance abuse.

  14. Integrating Humor and Positive Psychology Approaches to Psychological Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Brittany Maiolino

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated how individual differences and personality constructs taken from the positive psychology and humor domains of psychology may play an important role in psychological well-being. Participants completed measures assessing trait gratitude, savoring, and humor styles; along with several positive and negative indicators of psychological well-being (e.g., life satisfaction, positive affect, depression, and anxiety. We first examined the degree of empirical and conceptual overlap among the personality constructs from these two domains. Here, we found that higher levels of gratitude and savoring were associated with higher levels of self-enhancing and affiliative humor, whereas higher levels of aggressive and self-defeating humor were primarily associated with lower levels of gratitude. Subsequent regression analyses indicated that the positive psychology construct of gratitude was predictive of several different indices of positive and negative well-being, whereas savoring was most predictive of greater positive affect. In addition, these regression analyses also revealed that the humor styles of self-enhancing and self-defeating humor provided a significant increase in the prediction of several positive and negative indices of well-being, above and beyond the effects attributable to the positive psychology constructs alone. These findings were then discussed in terms of developing a broader and more integrated theoretical approach to the understanding of psychological well-being.

  15. Potentials for Heat Savings in Greater Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen; Karlsson, Kenneth

    1998-01-01

    are suggested. Two scenarios for future heat savings are established, deviating in the rates of renovation, demolition, and construction of buildings, as well as in the thermal insulation standards, ventilation systems ,and in the daily behaviour. The results are that compared to the base year 1995, heat......This report describes methodologies for analysing heat saving potentials. The background for the lack of activities in that field is suggested. Various elements of heat savings are described, including changes in daily behaviour and life styles. Definition of various levels of potentials...

  16. Appeal for legislation on greater safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2011-10-01

    An Essex-headquartered company which claims to manufacture the world's leading "brand" of glass vision panel, is calling for legislation to regulate the quality and design of such products. With no statutory governance currently in place, it is concerned that a rash of badly-designed, poorer quality variants, that it says have emerged in recent years, pose a significant self-harm and ligature risk to mentally unwell patients in hospitals, and a potential danger to staff when components like internal fittings and the glass itself, especially should the latter be too thin and thus easy to break, are used as "weapons". HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie reports.

  17. Holding the body in mind: Interoceptive awareness, dispositional mindfulness and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Adam W; Mehling, Wolf E; Garland, Eric L

    2017-08-01

    Objective Recent dialogue between Western and Eastern traditions has stimulated novel explorations of the relationship between mind and body. Many of these cross-cultural, mind-body dialogues have proven productive in identifying more adaptive forms of embodiment. Prior studies suggest that dispositional mindfulness (DM) and interoceptive awareness (IA) are associated but distinct, key constructs in mind-body approaches that are conceptualized in a variety of ways with imprecisely characterized relationship. The current study is a secondary data analysis that explores the relationship between scores on measures of IA and DM, examining multivariate networks of association between these constructs and addressing their relationship with scores on a measure of psychological well-being. Participants (n=478) were American adults completing measures of interoceptive awareness (as measured by the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness; MAIA), dispositional mindfulness (as measured by the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire; FFMQ), and psychological well-being (as measure by the Scales of Psychological Well-Being; SPWB) online. The average participant age was 36.44 (S.D.=12.17), and 57% were female. Correlational results from his study indicated that the IA scales and DM facets form two associative clusters. Canonical correlation analysis supported this finding, revealing that two primary networks of association exist between IA and DM, a Regulatory Awareness cluster and an Acceptance in Action cluster. Finally, hierarchical linear regression demonstrated that the self-report measures of IA and DM shared considerable variance, but also explained unique portions of the variance in psychological well-being. This psychometric investigation demonstrates that IA and DM are tightly interwoven, partly overlapping constructs. Indeed, greater DM is strongly linked with greater IA. Additionally, both IA and DM appear to be independently associated with enhanced

  18. Good science, bad science: Questioning research practices in psychological research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this dissertation we have questioned the current research practices in psychological science and thereby contributed to the current discussion about the credibility of psychological research. We specially focused on the problems with the reporting of statistical results and showed that reporting

  19. Psychological burden of food allergy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin Teufel; Tilo Biedermann; Nora Rapps; Constanze Hausteiner; Peter Henningsen; Paul Enck; Stephan Zipfel

    2007-01-01

    One fifth of the population report adverse reactions to food. Reasons for these symptoms are heterogeneous,varying from food allergy, food intolerance, irritable bowel syndrome to somatoform or other mental disorders. Literature reveals a large discrepancy between truly diagnosed food allergy and reports of food allergy symptoms by care seekers. In most studies currently available the characterization of patient groups is incomplete, because they did not distinguish between immunologic reactions and other kinds of food reactions.In analysing these adverse reactions, a thorough physical and psychological diagnostic approach is important. In our qualitative review, we present those diagnostic measures that are evidenced-based as well as clinically useful, and discuss the various psychological dimensions of adverse reactions to food. It is important to acknowledge the complex interplay between body and mind: Adults and children suffering from food allergy show impaired quality of life and a higher level of stress and anxiety. Pavlovian conditioning of adverse reactions plays an important role in maintaining symptoms. The role of personality, mood, or anxiety in food reactions is debatable. Somatoform disorders ought to be identified early to avoid lengthy and frustrating investigations. A future task will be to improve diagnostic algorithms, to describe psychological aspects in clearly characterised patient subgroups, and to develop strategies for an optimized management of the various types of adverse reactions to food.

  20. Inferior glenohumeral joint dislocation with greater tuberosity avulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohd Faizan; Latif Zafar Jilani; Mazhar Abbas; Yasir Salam Siddiqui; Aamir Bin Sabir; M.K.A.Sherwani; Saifullah Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Inferior glenohumeral dislocation is the least common type of glenohumeral dislocations.It may be associated with fractures of the adjacent bones and neurovascular compromise.It should be treated immediately by close reduction.The associated neuropraxia usually recovers with time.Traction-counter traction method is commonly used for reduction followed by immobilization of the shoulder for three weeks.Here,we report a case of inferior glenohumeral joint dislocation with greater tuberosity fracture with transient neurovascular compromise and present a brief review of the literature.

  1. Simulation and psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieckmann, Peter; Krage, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Psychology is relevant for improving the use of simulation in anesthesiology, as it allows us to describe, explain and optimize the interactions of learners and instructors as well as the design of simulation scenarios and debriefings. Much psychological expertise is not used for simulation...

  2. The Psychology of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, A.; Balasubramanian, P.; Nirmala, R. Sweety

    2007-01-01

    Psychology plays a significant role in the life of each and every human being. Starting from childhood, if psychology of learning is utilized positively it would play a vital role in the building up of a bright career of a child. The explosion of information technology has been exercising far reaching influence on the area of educational…

  3. The psychology of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swencionis, Charles; Rendell, Sarah Litman

    2012-10-01

    G. Stanley Hall, the first person to earn a Ph.D. in psychology in the United States, did research on eating behaviors in the nineteenth century (Lepore in The New Yorker, 2011). Research on psychological aspects of obesity accelerated in the 1950s and there has been a great deal done at this point. We review areas of considerable activity and relevance.

  4. Virtual Reality in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of using virtual environments (VEs) in psychology arise from the fact that movements in virtual space, and accompanying perceptual changes, are treated by the brain in much the same way as those in equivalent real space. The research benefits of using VEs, in areas of psychology such as spatial learning and cognition, include…

  5. Genetics and Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    One of the major changes in developmental psychology during the past 50 years has been the acceptance of the important role of nature (genetics) as well as nurture (environment). Past research consisting of twin and adoption studies has shown that genetic influence is substantial for most domains of developmental psychology. Present research…

  6. Psychology and History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsterburg, Hugo

    1994-01-01

    This essay considers the discipline of psychology as distinct from history, defining it as a science within philosophy dedicated to the study of the causal structure of the human mind. Although Hugo Munsterburg was considered an important figure in applied psychology, this essay represents an earlier epistemology. (SLD)

  7. Psychologism and Instructional Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Bekir S.; Wiley, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Little of the work in critical and hermeneutical psychology has been linked to instructional technology (IT). This article provides a discussion in order to fill the gap in this direction. The article presents a brief genealogy of American IT in relation to the influence of psychology. It also provides a critical and hermeneutical framework for…

  8. Psychology for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Nash

    2008-01-01

    In "Psychology in its place" (2008) John Radford explores and attempts to initiate a debate on what is or should be the place and role of psychology in Higher Education, primarily as a main subject for a first degree. In this paper, the author raises the stakes, and argues that Higher Education should provide a certain form of practical psychology…

  9. Child Psychology Experiences Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walla Walla Coll., WA.

    Recognizing the need for trained teachers to enter the classroom with confidence and professional capacity, Walla Walla College introduced a Child Psychology Experience program. Personnel from several departments contribute to this program. In connection with the child psychology courses, the project features a laboratory/demonstration center…

  10. Alchemical crossings in Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helton Marculino de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to discuss the contributions of Alchemy to the field of Psychology, especially for Analytical Psychology as a proposal of an Alchemical Psychology, whose representatives highlighted here are Carl Gustav Jung and James Hillman. It is understood that the knowledge of Alchemy have been applied in various areas such as metallurgy, chemistry, philosophy, and it has a possible application in the field of Psychology. In this sense, it is observed that if to Jung the concepts of Alchemy interlace connections with the knowledge proposed by Analytical Psychology, on the other hand Hillman adopts this knowledge to develop a strategy for use in the field of psychotherapy, proposing to think alchemically. Thus, for this second author in the exercise of Psychology, the meetings with the patient go beyond the application of theories, constituting as a “do-soul” in the office. This is, more than translating symbols, it is proposed to “stay with the image”, with an attention from both the patient and the psychologist for that the words expressed in this dialogue does not become “wordthings” or be reduced to a unique meaning that tends to discard the image. It is hoped, through this work, to promote knowledge of the professionals about the Analytical Psychology and Alchemy Psychology in their connections with Alchemy and its reverberations in the field of psychotherapy in these approaches.

  11. Genetics and Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    One of the major changes in developmental psychology during the past 50 years has been the acceptance of the important role of nature (genetics) as well as nurture (environment). Past research consisting of twin and adoption studies has shown that genetic influence is substantial for most domains of developmental psychology. Present research…

  12. Psychological Treatments for Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gredysa, Dana M.; Altman, Myra; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2012-01-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) is the most prevalent eating disorder in adults, and individuals with BED report greater general and specific psychopathology than non-eating disordered individuals. The current paper reviews research on psychological treatments for BED, including the rationale and empirical support for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), behavioral weight loss (BWL), and other treatments warranting further study. Research supports the effectiveness of CBT and IPT for the treatment of BED, particularly for those with higher eating disorder and general psychopathology. Guided self-help CBT has shown efficacy for BED without additional pathology. DBT has shown some promise as a treatment for BED, but requires further study to determine its long-term efficacy. Predictors and moderators of treatment response, such as weight and shape concerns, are highlighted and a stepped-care model proposed. Future directions include expanding the adoption of efficacious treatments in clinical practice, testing adapted treatments in diverse samples (e.g., minorities and youth), improving treatment outcomes for nonresponders, and developing efficient and cost-effective stepped-care models. PMID:22707016

  13. Theorising context in psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to address the issue of what context is and how it can be incorporated in psychological theory by using the case study of creativity research. It starts from a basic definition of context as the spatiotemporal continuum that, together with psychological phenomena, constitutes...... a totality and should be considered a single, integrated whole. As such, contexts are neither subjective, existing only in perception, nor are they a set of variables external to the person, but participate directly in the processes under study in psychology. We can therefore distinguish between “flat......” theorising, one-dimensional and overconcerned with intra-psychological factors, and “3-D” models trying to articulate the psychological, the spatial (sociomaterial), and the temporal. These categories are illustrated by different theoretical approaches to creativity. It is argued here that a cultural...

  14. Historiography of Czech psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskovcová, Simona; Hoskovec, Jirí; Plháková, Alena; Sebek, Michael; Svancara, Josef; Voboril, Dalibor

    2010-08-01

    The paper is aimed at presenting the development of the Czech historiography of psychology, which was strongly influenced by the political changes in Central and Eastern Europe. The authors deal with the historiography of psychology at the three universities offering an undergraduate program in psychology, located in Prague, Brno, and Olomouc, and at the Institute of Psychology of the Czech Academy of Sciences. Recent research, teaching, textbooks, and journal articles published in Czech and in foreign languages are showcased. The historiography of Czech psychotherapy is mentioned as a special thematic development. Contemporary problems and perspectives in the field of the history of psychology in the Czech Republic are discussed, sources of information are given.

  15. Evacuation models and disaster psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.C.M. Vorst

    2010-01-01

    In evacuation models of buildings, neighborhoods, areas, cities and countries important psychological parameters are not frequently used. In this paper the relevance of some important variables from disaster psychology will be discussed. Modeling psychological variables will enhance prediction of hu

  16. Four Social Psychological Lenses for Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittoun, Tania; Perret-Clermont, Anne-Nelly

    2009-01-01

    How can the advances of social and developmental psychology be integrated? This conceptual paper proposes to examine four basic theoretical models of social situations through which learning and development have been observed in the post-piagetian tradition: the psychosocial triangle, the frame, models of transfer and transitions, and models…

  17. Four Social Psychological Lenses for Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittoun, Tania; Perret-Clermont, Anne-Nelly

    2009-01-01

    How can the advances of social and developmental psychology be integrated? This conceptual paper proposes to examine four basic theoretical models of social situations through which learning and development have been observed in the post-piagetian tradition: the psychosocial triangle, the frame, models of transfer and transitions, and models…

  18. Construct Validation in Counseling Psychology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, William T.; Warbasse, Rosalia E.; Chu, Erica Y.

    2006-01-01

    Counseling psychology researchers devote little attention to theory-based measurement validation, as evidenced by cursory mention of validity issues in the method and discussion sections of published research reports. Especially, many researchers appear unaware of the limitations of correlations between pairs of self-report measures as evidence of…

  19. Community Teaching Practice for Greater Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siao-cing Guo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experience has been considered a vital part of teacher education. Universities have to search for ways for student teachers to gain experience in an authentic teaching environment. Several successful models incorporating service learning have been reported across fields (Brooks & Schramm, 2007; Nandan, 2010; Salas, Safaradan, & Ugarte, 2008, but there is still insufficient research found that combined English teacher preparation and service learning (Hsieh, 2002. Consequently, this researcher incorporated service learning into an English methodology course in Taiwan to engage students in higher learning experiences that take them beyond traditional teacher training. This paper describes a four-stage process of community service teaching, presenting its benefits and challenges. This study which incorporated quantitative and qualitative methodologies proved that teaching practices in collaboration with community libraries created three-way benefits: advancing the quality of college education and bringing valuable learning opportunities to the student teachers as well as the children who participated; and creating memorable experiences for the students and the communities that participated. Keywords: service learning, teacher preparation, university partnership, higher education

  20. Political Psychology of European Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social construction, psychoanalysis, and critical political psychology. Within each strand a number of examples of scholarship at the interface of political psychology and European integration are examined. The...

  1. Breast cancer in men: a need for psychological intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, John D; Metoyer, Kenneth P; Bhayani, Neil

    2008-06-01

    Male breast cancer is a serious issue that needs to be addressed more fully by the medical and public community. However, due to a lack of awareness and limited research on the topic, there is a general absence of knowledge concerning the psychological implications of this disease in men as well as a need for greater understanding of the medical diagnosis and treatment of male breast carcinoma. Similarly, there still remains a considerable gender difference between the awareness of female breast cancer and male breast cancer. Although breast cancer in men makes up only 1% of all breast cancers reported in the United States, it is increasing in incidence. There are approximately 2000 new cases and approximately 450 deaths due to male breast cancer each year. Breast cancer diagnosis and treatment in men is very similar to that described in women; however, it has been shown that men are being diagnosed at a later stage of the disease than women.

  2. Positive impact of competence skills and psychological wellness in protecting inner-city adolescents from alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jennifer A; Griffin, Kenneth W; Botvin, Gilbert J

    2002-06-01

    Research has shown that competence enhancement prevention programs for substance use are effective in reducing alcohol use and other problem behaviors. However, less is known about the mechanisms by which high competence helps youth avoid negative outcomes. This study explored whether greater competence is associated with increased levels of psychological wellness that in turn deters subsequent alcohol use. Specifically, 1,459 students attending 22 middle and junior high schools in New York City completed surveys that included measures of competence (decision making, self-efficacy), psychological wellness, and alcohol use. Students completed surveys at baseline, 1-year follow-up, and 2-year follow-up. Data collectors administered the questionnaire following a standardized protocol during a regular 40-min class period. On the basis of a longitudinal structural equation model, adolescents who were highly competent reported greater psychological wellness, which was then associated with less drinking. These findings highlight the potential of alcohol prevention programs designed to enhance competence and psychological wellness.

  3. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia during worry forecasts stress-related increases in psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin, Jean-Philippe; Deschênes, Sonya S; Dugas, Michel J

    2014-09-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) has been conceptualized as an index of emotion regulation abilities. Although resting RSA has been associated with both concurrent and prospective affective responses to stress, the impact of RSA reactivity on emotional responses to stress is inconsistent across studies. The type of emotional stimuli used to elicit these phasic RSA responses may influence the adaptive value of RSA reactivity. We propose that RSA reactivity to a personally relevant worry-based stressor might forecast future affective responses to stress. To evaluate whether resting RSA and RSA reactivity to worry inductions predict stress-related increases in psychological distress, an academic stress model was used to prospectively examine changes in psychological distress from the well-defined low- and high-stress periods. During the low-stress period, 76 participants completed self-report mood measures and had their RSA assessed during a resting baseline, free worry period and worry catastrophizing interview. Participants completed another mood assessment during the high-stress period. Results indicated that baseline psychological distress predicted larger decreases in RSA during the worry inductions. Lower resting RSA and greater RSA suppression to the worry inductions at baseline prospectively predicted larger increases in psychological distress from the low- to high-stress period, even after accounting for the impact of baseline distress on RSA. These results provide further evidence that RSA may represent a unique index of emotion regulation abilities in times of stress.

  4. The psychological contract: is the UK National Health Service a model employer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielden, Sandra; Whiting, Fiona

    2007-05-01

    The UK National Health Service (NHS) is facing recruitment challenges that mean it will need to become an 'employer of choice' if it is to continue to attract high-quality employees. This paper reports the findings from a study focusing on allied health professional staff (n = 67), aimed at establishing the expectations of the NHS inherent in their current psychological contract and to consider whether the government's drive to make the NHS a model employer meets those expectations. The findings show that the most important aspects of the psychological contract were relational and based on the investment made in the employment relationship by both parties. The employment relationship was one of high involvement but also one where transactional contract items, such as pay, were still of some importance. Although the degree of employee satisfaction with the relational content of the psychological contract was relatively positive, there was, nevertheless, a mismatch between levels of importance placed on such aspects of the contract and levels of satisfaction, with employees increasingly placing greater emphasis on those items the NHS is having the greatest difficulty providing. Despite this apparent disparity between employee expectation and the fulfilment of those expectations, the overall health of the psychological contract was still high.

  5. The Psychology of Replication and Replication in Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory

    2012-11-01

    Like other scientists, psychologists believe experimental replication to be the final arbiter for determining the validity of an empirical finding. Reports in psychology journals often attempt to prove the validity of a hypothesis or theory with multiple experiments that replicate a finding. Unfortunately, these efforts are sometimes misguided because in a field like experimental psychology, ever more successful replication does not necessarily ensure the validity of an empirical finding. When psychological experiments are analyzed with statistics, the rules of probability dictate that random samples should sometimes be selected that do not reject the null hypothesis, even if an effect is real. As a result, it is possible for a set of experiments to have too many successful replications. When there are too many successful replications for a given set of experiments, a skeptical scientist should be suspicious that null or negative findings have been suppressed, the experiments were run improperly, or the experiments were analyzed improperly. This article describes the implications of this observation and demonstrates how to test for too much successful replication by using a set of experiments from a recent research paper.

  6. Headache among medical and psychology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri-de-Barros, João Eliezer; Alencar, Mauricio José de; Berchielli, Luis Felipe; Castelhano Junior, Luis Carlos

    2011-06-01

    Headaches occur frequently and thus are a key component of sociocentric medical education. To study headaches among students of medicine and psychology in a single university. This was a questionnaire-based survey of a cohort of students of medicine and psychology. The overall lifetime prevalence of headache was 98% and over the last year, 91%. Tensional headache accounted for 59% and migraine 22% in medicine; and 48.5% and 32% respectively in psychology. Forty-five percent reported that headaches had a variable sporadic impact on their productivity. The self-medication rate was 77%. Thirty-six percent reported worsening since admission to the university. The prevalence of headaches was very high. Tension-type headaches predominated in males and migraine in females. Tension-type was more frequent among medical students than among psychology students; migraine was more frequent in psychology (more females) than in medicine. Both kinds of students reported that headaches caused low interference with daily activities. The students reported that their symptoms had worsened since admission to the university.

  7. Suicide Communication on Social Media and Its Psychological Mechanisms: An Examination of Chinese Microblog Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qijin; Kwok, Chi Leung; Zhu, Tingshao; Guan, Li; Yip, Paul S F

    2015-09-11

    This study aims to examine the characteristics of people who talk about suicide on Chinese microblogs (referred to as Weibo suicide communication (WSC)), and the psychological antecedents of such behaviors. An online survey was conducted on Weibo users. Differences in psychological and social demographic characteristics between those who exhibited WSC and those who did not were examined. Three theoretical models were proposed to explain the psychological mechanisms of WSC and their fitness was examined by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). 12.03% of our respondents exhibited WSC in the past 12 months. The WSC group was significantly younger and less educated, preferred using blogs and online forums for expressing themselves, and reported significantly greater suicide ideation, negative affectivity, and vulnerable personality compared to non-WSC users. SEM examinations found that Weibo users with higher negative affectivity or/and suicidal ideation, who were also using blogs and forums more, exhibited a significantly higher possibility of WSC. Weibo users who are at greater suicide risk are more likely to talk about suicide on Weibo. WSC is a sign of negative affectivity or suicide ideation, and should be responded to with emotional support and suicide prevention services.

  8. Suicide Communication on Social Media and Its Psychological Mechanisms: An Examination of Chinese Microblog Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qijin; Kwok, Chi Leung; Zhu, Tingshao; Guan, Li; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aims to examine the characteristics of people who talk about suicide on Chinese microblogs (referred to as Weibo suicide communication (WSC)), and the psychological antecedents of such behaviors. Methods: An online survey was conducted on Weibo users. Differences in psychological and social demographic characteristics between those who exhibited WSC and those who did not were examined. Three theoretical models were proposed to explain the psychological mechanisms of WSC and their fitness was examined by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Results: 12.03% of our respondents exhibited WSC in the past 12 months. The WSC group was significantly younger and less educated, preferred using blogs and online forums for expressing themselves, and reported significantly greater suicide ideation, negative affectivity, and vulnerable personality compared to non-WSC users. SEM examinations found that Weibo users with higher negative affectivity or/and suicidal ideation, who were also using blogs and forums more, exhibited a significantly higher possibility of WSC. Conclusion: Weibo users who are at greater suicide risk are more likely to talk about suicide on Weibo. WSC is a sign of negative affectivity or suicide ideation, and should be responded to with emotional support and suicide prevention services. PMID:26378566

  9. Psychological woundedness and its evaluation in applications for clinical psychology training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Gavin; Partington, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative study investigating clinical psychology programme selectors' perceptions of psychological 'woundedness' in the autobiographical narratives of applicants for clinical psychology training. Woundedness was here defined in terms of the ongoing or residual psychological impact of adverse experiences and psychic conflicts. Ten selectors were presented with a sample of applicants' written autobiographical narratives, differentiated by the conspicuous presence or absence of psychological woundedness. The selectors, who were not informed of the specific aims of the study, ranked applicant protocols and were interviewed individually about their impressions of the protocols and the criteria that they used to rank them. Most selectors were positively biased toward 'wounded' narratives and suspicious of those in which woundedness was manifestly absent. Although generally disposed to favour wounded applicants, how woundedness was presented, rather than the mere presence of it, was a discriminating feature in selectors' appraisal of wounded narratives. Selectors were concerned that unresolved woundedness may compromise applicants' professional boundaries, impair self-reflective capacity and lead to damaging countertransference enactments. The relative extent to which applicant woundedness appeared to be resolved was significant in selectors' assessment of applicants' clinical training potential. A distinction is thus proposed between obstructive and facilitative woundedness in clinical psychology applicants. A sample of clinical psychology programme selectors identified psychological woundedness as a significant feature in applicant autobiographies. Selectors favoured applicant autobiographies showing evidence of woundedness. The distinction between obstructive and facilitative woundedness is important in how the selector sample evaluated woundedness. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Discursive social psychology now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Ian

    2012-09-01

    This paper reviews the progress of discourse-analytic approaches in social psychology from the late 1980s to the present day, with a particular focus on the way conceptual and methodological contributions from within the Discourse and Rhetoric Group at Loughborough University have negotiated a positive role for innovative studies of language in the discipline of psychology. Social psychology has become a key site for the accumulation of a series of empirical studies that have seen the flourishing of a distinctive form of 'discursive social psychology' that has succeeded in moving from the margins of the discipline to a more accepted position. The paper traces this trajectory of discourse analysis from the limits to the centre of social psychology attending to five features that now characterise its contribution to psychology; an emphasis on everyday conversation, a concern with interpersonal interaction, explication of formal sequences; an insistence on empirical claims; and fidelity to the ethos of its host discipline. The paper concludes with some comments on the wider context of this new approach inside psychology today.

  11. Discursive and scientific psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Derek

    2012-09-01

    I begin with the origins of Loughborough University's Discourse and Rhetoric Group (DARG), and in particular discursive psychology (DP). Rather than attempting to summarize DP, versions of which are plentiful, the article attempts to clarify various relationships and tensions between DP and other kinds of social psychology, particularly experimental. Common sense psychology is defined as DP's topic rather than rival; the aim is to study how people deploy everyday psychological notions and manage psychological business within talk and text, and what they accomplish by such deployments, rather than trying, as experimental psychology is often characterized as doing, to replace it all with something purportedly better. Claims for DP being particularly interpretative rather than scientific are rejected, by appeal to an 'interpretative gap' between phenomena, data, analysis, and conclusions that all research must manage, that gap being often much larger in quantitative and experimental work. The importance of pursuing causal explanations of psychological phenomena is questioned, and the importance asserted, of discovering, through rigorous empirical and conceptual analysis, the normative bases of human conduct and accountability.

  12. Psychological impact of thrombosis in the young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiandaca, Diletta; Bucciarelli, Paolo; Martinelli, Ida; Tantardini, Francesca; Clemente, Carmen; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio

    2006-01-01

    Thrombosis is rare in the young, but can cause severe psychological distress that influences the quality of life and the coping capacities of these patients. This study was meant to increase the understanding of self-perception, social and family functioning and ways of coping with the disease in young patients after an episode of thrombosis. Seven questionnaires spanning social and family functioning and ways of coping with disease were completed by 50 patients self-esteem, showed higher impairment in social activities and in familial relationships, and used more frequently coping strategies. Most patients used all coping strategies, preferring the more active ones, but more patients than controls used the passive ones, particularly "avoidance" and "religiosity". A correlation was found between the frequency of use of passive or negative coping strategies and some of the psychological, social and familial dimensions that scored more negatively. Greater psychological impairment and differences in coping styles were found in women compared with men and in individuals or = 34 years. Young individuals with thrombosis develop psychological changes that influence their behaviour, quality of life and coping. This is particularly evident in women and in young patients. Physicians dealing with thrombosis should be aware of this situation and offer psychological support.

  13. Different patterns of sexual identity development over time: implications for the psychological adjustment of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Hunter, Joyce

    2011-01-01

    Despite research documenting variability in the sexual identity development of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths, it remains unclear whether different developmental patterns have implications for the psychological adjustment of LGB youths. This report longitudinally examines whether different patterns of LGB identity formation and integration are associated with indicators of psychological adjustment among an ethnically diverse sample of 156 LGB youths (ages 14-21) in New York City. Although differences in the timing of identity formation were not associated with psychological adjustment, greater identity integration was related to less depressive and anxious symptoms, fewer conduct problems, and higher self-esteem both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Individual changes in identity integration over time were associated with all four aspects of psychological adjustment, even after controlling for rival hypotheses concerning family and friend support, gay-related stress, negative social relationships, and other covariates. These findings suggest that difficulties in developing an integrated LGB identity may have negative implications for the psychological adjustment of LGB youths and that efforts to reduce distress among LGB youths should address the youths' identity integration.

  14. Antecedents of perceived coach interpersonal behaviors: the coaching environment and coach psychological well- and ill-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbings, Juliette; Taylor, Ian M; Spray, Christopher M; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2012-08-01

    Embedded in the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) framework, we obtained self-report data from 418 paid and voluntary coaches from a variety of sports and competitive levels with the aim of exploring potential antecedents of coaches' perceived autonomy supportive and controlling behaviors. Controlling for socially desirable responses, structural equation modeling revealed that greater job security and opportunities for professional development, and lower work-life conflict were associated with psychological need satisfaction, which, in turn, was related to an adaptive process of psychological well-being and perceived autonomy support toward athletes. In contrast, higher work-life conflict and fewer opportunities for development were associated with a distinct maladaptive process of thwarted psychological needs, psychological ill-being, and perceived controlling interpersonal behavior. The results highlight how the coaching context may impact upon coaches' psychological health and their interpersonal behavior toward athletes. Moreover, evidence is provided for the independence of adaptive and maladaptive processes within the self-determination theory paradigm.

  15. Sexual dysfunction and chronic pain: the role of psychological variables and impact on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Kellie S H; Roberts, Lindy J; Swalm, Delphin M

    2005-12-01

    We report two studies examining the prevalence of sexual dysfunction, and the role of psychological variables, including quality of life, on sexual activity in patients at the commencement of an outpatient cognitive-behavioural pain management programme. In Study 1, 151 patients with non-cancer pain, predominantly of musculoskeletal origin, completed a range of standardised measures, including the Pain Disability Index, Beck Depression Inventory and Coping Strategies Questionnaire. Sexual dysfunction was common, and using stepwise multiple regression analysis was found to be more frequently reported by those with greater disability and depression, shorter pain duration, and infrequent use of coping self-statements. Study 2 was a pilot investigation of the impact of sexual dysfunction on quality of life (as measured by the WHOQOL-100) in a similar sample (n=41). Although sexual dysfunction was again commonly reported, subjects perceived it had less importance in quality of life than did other factors. The combined results support the previously proposed notion of adaptation to the impact of chronic illness on sexual function. In conclusion, sexual dysfunction is common in this population and is predicted by psychological factors and pain duration. However, other issues impact more significantly on quality of life. Therapeutic approaches to sexual dysfunction in these patients might best be focused on improving psychological factors, particularly depression and coping skills.

  16. Does empathy have a cost? Diverging psychological and physiological effects within families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manczak, Erika M; DeLongis, Anita; Chen, Edith

    2016-03-01

    Parental empathy is associated with a host of beneficial psychosocial outcomes for children. However, less is known about the effects of being empathic for parents. The current study tested the hypothesis that, although parental empathy may be beneficial to children both psychologically and physiologically, it may take a physiological toll on parents. The current study examined psychological and physiological correlates of parental empathy in 247 parent-adolescent dyads. During a baseline laboratory visit, parents and adolescents provide blood samples from which markers of systemic inflammation, including interleukin 1-ra, interleukin 6, and C-reactive protein, were assayed. Parents completed self-report questionnaires of empathy, well-being, and self-esteem, and also reported on their child's emotion regulation. Following the laboratory visit, adolescents completed 2 weeks of daily diary reporting on their emotion regulation abilities. In adolescents, parental empathy was significantly associated with both better emotion regulation and with less systemic inflammation. For parents, being empathic was associated with greater self-esteem and purpose in life, but also with higher systemic inflammation. These findings reinforce the importance of simultaneously considering both psychological and physical health-related effects of psychosocial traits and suggests that empathy may have diverging effects across providers and recipients of empathy. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. The psychological imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Tateo

    Full Text Available Abstract: The commentary presents an epistemological reflection about Dialogical Self theory. First, the theoretical issues of DS about the relationship between individuality, alterity and society are discussed, elaborating on the articles of this special issue. Then, it is presented the argument of psychologist's ontological fallacy, that is the attitude to moving from the study of processes to the study of psychological entities. Finally a development toward new research directions is proposed, focusing on the study of higher psychological functions and processes, taking into account complex symbolic products of human activity and developing psychological imagination.

  18. SPORT AND EXERCISE PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Lane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport

  19. PSYCHOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anida Fazlagić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV, postpartum depression may include any nonpsychotic depressive disorder during the first four weeks of postpartum, according to research criteria during the first year after birth. The exact cause of postpartum depression is not yet known, and most researchers believe that postpartum depression is a bio-psycho-social problem. So far, the biological aspect of the disease is explained by changing the levels of estrogen and progesterone during pregnancy, and by decrease of hormone levels after birth. Psychological correlates are often associated with low selfesteem, pessimism as a personality trait, bad strategies of coping with stress, mood swings and emotional reactions. The social aspect of the disease is associated with the existential conditions of pregnant woman, support of partners and education level. This paper will include issues like hereditary causes and possible psychological factors of postpartum depression prevention. Nowadays, it is estimated that on average 15% of women, regardless of the pregnancy outcome, are suffering from postpartum depression. However, this information includes only those women who were diagnosed with postpartum depression and who themselves reported about it. Almost every woman receives basic care during pregnancy to prevent complications in the physiological level. This paper has shown possible psychological factors of postpartum depression prevention, the impact of optimism, self-esteem and coping skills.

  20. A socio-psychological investigation into limitations and incentives concerning reporting a clinically suspect situation aimed at improving early detection of classical swine fever outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbers, A R W; Gorgievski-Duijvesteijn, M J; van der Velden, P G; Loeffen, W L A; Zarafshani, K

    2010-04-21

    The aim of this study was to identify limitations and incentives in reporting clinically suspect situations, possibly caused by classical swine fever (CSF), to veterinary authorities with the ultimate aim to facilitate early detection of CSF outbreaks. Focus group sessions were held with policy makers from the veterinary authorities, and representatives of veterinary practitioners and pig farmer unions. Personal interviews with a small group of pig farmers and practitioners were held to check limitations raised and solutions proposed during the focus group sessions. An electronic questionnaire was mailed to pig farmers and practitioners to investigate perceptions and attitudes with respect to clinically suspect situations possibly caused by CSF. After triangulating the responses of veterinary authorities, veterinary practitioners and farmers, six themes emerged across all groups: (1) lack of knowledge on the early signs of CSF; (2) guilt, shame and prejudice; (3) negative opinion on control measures; (4) dissatisfaction with post-reporting procedures; (5) lack of trust in government bodies; (6) uncertainty and lack of transparency of reporting procedures. The following solutions to facilitate early detection of CSF were put forward: (a) development of a clinical decision-support system for vets and farmers, in order to get faster diagnosis and detection of CSF; (b) possibility to submit blood samples directly to the reference laboratory to exclude CSF in a clinical situation with non-specific clinical signs, without isolation of the farm and free of charge for the individual farmer; (c) decrease social and economic consequences of reporting CSF, for example by improving the public opinion on first reports; (d) better schooling of veterinary officers to deal with emotions and insecurity of farmers in the process after reporting; (e) better communication of rules and regulations, where to report, what will happen next; (f) up-to-date website with information and

  1. Oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is related to psychological resources

    OpenAIRE

    Saphire-Bernstein, Shimon; Way, Baldwin M.; Kim, Heejung S.; Sherman, David K.; Taylor, Shelley E.

    2011-01-01

    Psychological resources—optimism, mastery, and self-esteem—buffer the deleterious effects of stress and are predictors of neurophysiological and psychological health-related outcomes. These resources have been shown to be highly heritable, yet the genetic basis for this heritability remains unknown. Here, we report a link between the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) SNP rs53576 and psychological resources, such that carriers of the “A” allele have lower levels of optimism, mastery, and self-esteem, r...

  2. Psychological Distress in Iranian International Students at an Australian University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahidi, Shizar; Blignault, Ilse; Hayen, Andrew; Razee, Husna

    2017-05-03

    This study investigated psychological distress in Iranian international students at UNSW Australia, and explored the psychosocial factors associated with high levels of distress. A total of 180 Iranian international students pursuing undergraduate and postgraduate degrees during 2012/2013 completed an email questionnaire containing socio-demographic items and five standardized and validated scales. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyse the predictors of psychological distress. Compared to domestic and international students at two other Australian universities, a significantly smaller proportion of Iranian international students scored as distressed on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). Greater levels of psychological distress were associated with being female, poorer physical health, less social support, less religious involvement and spirituality, and negative attitudes towards seeking professional psychological help. Findings from this growing group of international students can help inform culturally competent mental health promotion and service provision in their host countries.

  3. Democracy and Cultural Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a theme touched upon in Robert Innis’s article on cultural psych- ology and philosophy, namely how we, within cultural psychology, seem to be undecided about how best to provide value on a societal level. It is discussed how psychology has provided us with several valuable...... tools for examining and understanding our own exist- ence, despite the fact that it is also a field that has seemed to be in one crisis after another since its inception. It is argued that cultural psychology is an intellectual tech- nology that allows us to peek under the hood of society, which...... is of utmost importance in today’s society, where democratic ideals are under severe pressure. Corporations, industries, and privileged individuals exercise increased control over political processes, having created obscure systems by which they operate. It is concluded that cultural psychology needs to find...

  4. Poverty and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poluektova, Olga V.; Efremova, Maria V.; Breugelmans, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the association between dimensions of poverty (income, subjective socioeconomic status, deprivation, and socioeconomic status in childhood) and individual psychological characteristics. In this study, our goal was to determine: 1) the differences in individual psycholo

  5. Discursive psychology and feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherall, Ann

    2012-09-01

    This appraisal highlights the productive engagement between feminism and discursive psychology (DP). It discusses some of the confluence and tensions between DP and feminism. The two share critical perspectives on science and psychology, a concern with prejudice, and have ideas in common about the constructed nature of social categories, such as gender. One difficulty arises from the relativism associated with the post-structural theoretical underpinnings of DP, which can be understood as politically paralyzing. Another problem comes from an endorsement of a conversation analytic mentality, where identity categories such as gender can only be legitimately used in an analysis when participants' orient to their relevance. The high-profile debates and literature in DP shows it has made a notable contribution to social psychology and its influence can also be found in other areas. A particular influence of DP highlighted in the present appraisal is on gender and language research. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  6. IFE PsychologIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It also addresses the future of psychology in Africa and the world over. ... simultaneous item bias test and logistic discriminant function analysis for detecting ... Types of examination malpractice as perceived by teachers of secondary schools in ...

  7. Operational Psychology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Al

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history of long duration spaceflight, and the changes in the International Space Station crew and the effect that this has had on the psychology of astronaut selection and training.

  8. Democracy and Cultural Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Moltrup Ernø

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a theme touched upon in Robert Innis’s article on cultural psych- ology and philosophy, namely how we, within cultural psychology, seem to be undecided about how best to provide value on a societal level. It is discussed how psychology has provided us with several valuable...... tools for examining and understanding our own exist- ence, despite the fact that it is also a field that has seemed to be in one crisis after another since its inception. It is argued that cultural psychology is an intellectual tech- nology that allows us to peek under the hood of society, which...... is of utmost importance in today’s society, where democratic ideals are under severe pressure. Corporations, industries, and privileged individuals exercise increased control over political processes, having created obscure systems by which they operate. It is concluded that cultural psychology needs to find...

  9. Virtual Reality in Psychology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nigel Foreman

    2009-01-01

    The benefits of using virtual environments (VEs) in psychology arise from the fact that movements in virtual space, and accompanying perceptual changes, are treated by the brain in much the same way as those in equivalent real space...

  10. Social Psychology as History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergen, Kenneth J.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of theory and research in social psychology reveals that while methods of research are scientific in character, theories of social behavior are primarily reflections of contemporary history. (Author)

  11. Goals and Psychological Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    -induced reference points make substandard performance psychologically painful and motivate the individual to stick to his goals. How strong the commitment to goals is depends on the type of psychological account. We provide conditions when it is optimal to evaluate goals in narrow accounts. The key intuition......We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory...... of endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating goals the individual creates expectations that induce reference points for task outcomes. These goal...

  12. Deconstructivism and psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metka Mencin Čeplak

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In last ten, fifteen years, variety of disciplines literary throng the conceptualizations of identity. This plurality of discourses blurs the boundaries between disciplines and at the same time deepens them. The deconstruction positions in psychology, referring to Althusser's concept of interpellation, Lacanian psychoanalysis and Foucault's theorization of discourse and power relations do not try to define the boundaries and connections between the disciplines. However, in the analyses of the birth of psychological knowledge and their consequences the deconstruction position points out that psychological knowledge fatally reduces the factors constructing identity and subjectivity by limiting itself on individual and interpersonal. This article discusses two consequences of this reduction: this reduction leads to the conclusion that social differentiation is the effect of the individual differences in capacities and personal characteristics and at the same time this reduction impedes psychological knowledge in the analyses of its own role in the power relations.

  13. Internet research in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, Samuel D; Mason, Winter

    2015-01-03

    Today the Internet plays a role in the lives of nearly 40% of the world's population, and it is becoming increasingly entwined in daily life. This growing presence is transforming psychological science in terms of the topics studied and the methods used. We provide an overview of the literature, considering three broad domains of research: translational (implementing traditional methods online; e.g., surveys), phenomenological (topics spawned or mediated by the Internet; e.g., cyberbullying), and novel (new ways to study existing topics; e.g., rumors). We discuss issues (e.g., sampling, ethics) that arise when doing research online and point to emerging opportunities (e.g., smartphone sensing). Psychological research on the Internet comes with new challenges, but the opportunities far outweigh the costs. By integrating the Internet, psychological research has the ability to reach large, diverse samples and collect data on actual behaviors, which will ultimately increase the impact of psychological research on society.

  14. Poverty and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poluektova, Olga V.; Efremova, Maria V.; Breugelmans, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the association between dimensions of poverty (income, subjective socioeconomic status, deprivation, and socioeconomic status in childhood) and individual psychological characteristics. In this study, our goal was to determine: 1) the differences in individual

  15. Poverty and psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poluektova, Olga V.; Efremova, Maria V.; Breugelmans, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the association between dimensions of poverty (income, subjective socioeconomic status, deprivation, and socioeconomic status in childhood) and individual psychological characteristics. In this study, our goal was to determine: 1) the differences in individual psycholo

  16. Psychological.pm6

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    Department of Psychology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa ..... inactivity and the avoidance of physical exercise in .... Mood and anxiety ... individuals with chronic pain: the moderating role of pain duration. Pain 2004 ...

  17. Psychological constraints on egalitarianism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Debates over egalitarianism for the most part are not concerned with constraints on achieving an egalitarian society, beyond discussions of the deficiencies of egalitarian theory itself. This paper looks beyond objections to egalitarianism as such and investigates the relevant psychological...... processes motivating people to resist various aspects of egalitarianism. I argue for two theses, one normative and one descriptive. The normative thesis holds that egalitarians must take psychological constraints into account when constructing egalitarian ideals. I draw from non-ideal theories in political...... philosophy, which aim to construct moral goals with current social and political constraints in mind, to argue that human psychology must be part of a non-ideal theory of egalitarianism. The descriptive thesis holds that the most fundamental psychological challenge to egalitarian ideals comes from what...

  18. Ecological psychology and social psychology: continuing discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Eric P

    2012-06-01

    What form would an ideal merger of ecological and social psychology take? Is that ideal attainable? Many researchers and theorists are working to answer these questions. Charles (2009, 2011a) offered insights from E. B. Holt, one of James J. Gibson's mentors, who argued that minds-mental kinds, processes, states, etc.-are observable aspects of the environment. Phrasing that in Ecological terms, the minds of other organisms are specified in the structure of ambient energy extended over time and space; they are directly perceivable by a properly attuned organism. Ecological Psychology enhances Holt's story, by brining to the table a sophisticated theory of direct perception; Holt enhances the Ecological story by brining to the table a sophisticated theory about the nature of minds. The two combine to form the long-sought ideal merger. Thus, I claimed, Ecological Psychology will either rediscover its roots, or go through the trouble of re-creating them. This paper further develops those ideas, by presenting a simpler version of the argument, suggesting easy ways of dismissing that argument, and addressing the concerns expressed by Castro and Lafuente (2011).

  19. Psychological influences on the timing of orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, A W; Kiyak, H A

    1998-01-01

    Debates about the "ideal" timing of orthodontic treatment have focused on issues of biologic development and readiness. In this article we examine psychologic issues that should be considered in the decision to initiate orthodontics in the younger child or to wait until adolescence or later. Psychologic development during the preadolescent and adolescent stages may influence the child's motive for, understanding of, and adherence to treatment regimens. Results of a study of some personality characteristics, motives, and aesthetic values of young phase I patients are presented. Questionnaires were completed by 75 children (mean age 10.85 years, 52.1% female, 84% white) and their parents. Children's perceived reasons for treatment were consistent with their parents' reports (chi 2 = 76.08, p crowded teeth (56%) and overbite (17.3%). Although body image and self-concept scores were within the normal range, both children and their parents expected the most improvement in self-image and oral function, with greater expectations by parents on self-image (p crowded teeth (p < .02), overbite (p < .02), and diastema (p < .01) more negatively than did ethnic minorities. These results suggest that younger children are good candidates for Phase I orthodontics, have high self-esteem and body-image, and expect orthodontics to improve their lives. White children who have been referred for Phase I orthodontics appear to have a narrower range of aesthetic acceptability than minority children.

  20. Psychological Distress Mediates the Association between Food Insecurity and Suboptimal Sleep Quality in Latinos with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Millán, Angela; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Damio, Grace; Chhabra, Jyoti; Osborn, Chandra Y; Wagner, Julie

    2016-10-01

    Evidence increasingly indicates that poor sleep quality is a major public health concern. Household food insecurity (HFI) disproportionately affects Latinos and is a novel risk factor for poor sleep quality. Psychological distress may be a potential mechanism through which HFI affects sleep quality. Sleep, food insecurity, and distress are linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus. We examined the relations between HFI, psychological distress, and sleep quality and tested whether psychological distress mediates the relation between HFI and sleep in people with diabetes mellitus. Latinos with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 121) who completed baseline assessments for the CALMS-D (Community Health Workers Assisting Latinos Manage Stress and Diabetes) stress management intervention trial completed the US Household Food Security Survey, and measures of depressive symptoms [Personal Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-8)], anxiety symptoms [Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS)-short], diabetes distress [Problem Areas in Diabetes Questionnaire (PAID-5)], and sleep quality [Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)]. Psychological distress was operationalized with the PHQ-8, PROMIS-short, and PAID-5 scales. We used unadjusted and adjusted indirect effect tests with bias-corrected bootstrapped 95% CIs on 10,000 samples to test both relations between variables and potential mediation. Mean age was 61 y, 74% were women, and 67% were food insecure. Experiencing HFI was associated with both greater psychological distress and worse sleep quality (P diabetes mellitus distress (adjusted R(2): 0.60, 95% CI: 0.11, 1.32) each mediated the relation between HFI and worse sleep quality with and without adjustment for age, education, income, marital status, and employment status. Household food insecurity is a common and potent household stressor that is associated with suboptimal sleep quality through psychological distress. Efforts to improve food security and

  1. Eating, Psychology of

    OpenAIRE

    Dovey, T

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article was to provide the reader with a brief guide to the psychology of eating. Biological, developmental, cognitive, social, eating disorders and obesity were all discussed and their relative contribution to the psychology of eating was described. This paper has also described how eating behaviourists have conceptualised hunger and fullness in order to understand human motivations to feed. It is hoped that interested readers will continue beyond this article to gain a...

  2. Psychological Test Validity

    OpenAIRE

    Gessmann H.-W.; Sheronov E.A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical overview of current aspects about the validity problems of psychological tests. The article demonstrates the importance of the development of psychological tests and the scientific studies of their validity, describes the different types of validity and the possible ways of measurement and determination of the validity coefficients. The paper is recommended for researchers, whose work is dedicated to the development, modification or adaptation of the psycholo...

  3. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology (SNP)

    OpenAIRE

    Mouras, Harold; Faucherre, Adèle

    2011-01-01

    It is an exciting challenge for us to launch a new interdisciplinary journal, Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology. We believe the journal will appeal to a wide audience across several scientific specialties. In recent decades, considerable technical and theoretical advances have shed new light on psychological and neural processes. For example, in the area of neuroimaging techniques, it is now possible to explore the role of the brain in a wide variety of behaviours and paradigms (mo...

  4. The Individual Differences Tradition in Counseling Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawis, Rene V.

    1992-01-01

    Traces historical development from individual differences psychology through psychological testing, vocational counseling, and student personnel work, to counseling psychology. Describes individual differences tradition in counseling psychology research and practice. Discusses how individual differences psychology has influenced counseling…

  5. Integrative psychology: the return to the subject of psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlov, Vladimir V.

    2009-01-01

    The article analyzes the basic paradigms of psychology and put forward the thesis of the expansion of the subject area of psychology in the course of historical development, and describes the main features of integrative psychology. Highlighted in the article the new paradigm of psychology (transpersonal, communicative, integrative), make it possible to trace a vector of development of modern psychology as a multidimensional communicative environment that has intention to make a perusal of ps...

  6. Recherches Sur La Psychologie de L'enfant de Milieu Defavorise. Rapport- synthese. (Research Relating to the Psychology of the Child in Disadvantaged Environments. Summary Report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caouette, Charles E.; Bourbeau, Gerald

    Thirteen doctoral dissertations and five masters theses are summarized in this report of research on the disadvantaged child. Contained in each individual summary are the detailed descriptions of the experimental task, the results obtained and the analysis of these results. The eighteen individual theses are concerned with topics such as:…

  7. A socio-psychological investigation into limitations and incentives concerning reporting a clinically suspect situation aimed at improving early detection of classical swine fever outbreaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, A.R.W.; Gorgievski-Duijvesteijn, M.J.; Velden, P.G.; Loeffen, W.L.A.; Zarafshani, K.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify limitations and incentives in reporting clinically suspect situations, possibly caused by classical swine fever (CSF), to veterinary authorities with the ultimate aim to facilitate early detection of CSF outbreaks. Focus group sessions were held with policy make

  8. Greater Happiness for a Greater Number: Did the Promise of Enlightenment Come True?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenhoven, Ruut

    2017-01-01

    In the eighteenth century 'Enlightened' thinkers challenged the belief that happiness exists only in Heaven. They claimed that happiness is possible in earthly life and foresaw that greater happiness would be achieved using reason. Did this promise of greater happiness come true? Several scholars doubt that we have become any happier and some claim that happiness has declined. These critical claims are tested using the time trend data available in the World Database of Happiness, which cover the period 1950-2010 and involve 1531 data points in 67 nations yielding 199 time-series ranging for 10 to more than 40 years. The analysis reveals that happiness has risen in most nations. The average yearly rise in the 67 nations was +0.012 on scale 0-10, which equals a rise of one full point every 83 years. At this rate happiness must have improved by more than two points over the past two centuries and, together with increasing longevity, this denotes an unprecedented rise in happy life years.

  9. Political Psychology of European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    The chapter engages in a survey of what political psychology and European integration have to say to each other in the understanding of the European Union. The chapter draws on five strands of political psychology as part of this engagement – conventional psychology, social psychology, social...

  10. Giving Psychology Away Is Expensive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsuch, Richard L.; Wallace, William L.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents comments on "Does Psychology make a significant difference in our lives?" by P. Zimbardo. We deeply appreciate the documentation and inspiration provided by Zimbardo on how psychology is reaching out to the public by "giving psychology away" (p. 340). We totally agree that psychology has much, much more to offer that could be…

  11. Introducing Positive Psychology to SLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Mercer, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding subfield in psychology that has important implications for the field of second language acquisition (SLA). This paper introduces positive psychology to the study of language by describing its key tenets. The potential contributions of positive psychology are contextualized with reference to prior work,…

  12. Introduction to Psychology. Fourth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalat, James W.

    Chapters in this textbook for college students in introductory psychology courses are: (1) What is Psychology?; (2) Scientific Methods in Psychology; (3) Biological Psychology; (4) Sensation and Perception; (5) Altered States; (6) Learning; (7) Memory; (8) Cognition and Language; (9) Intelligence and Its Measurement; (10) Development; (11)…

  13. Solitary fibrous tumor of the greater omentum mimicking an ovarian tumor in a young woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Rodriguez Tarrega

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of solitary fibrous tumor (SFT of greater omentum in a young woman. SFT arising from the greater omentum can mimic a gynecologic neoplasm. SFTs are generally benign but some of them are malignant and have uncertain prognosis. An adequate follow-up is essential in these patients.

  14. The psychological costs of social support imbalance: Variation across relationship context and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Diana; Gruenewald, Tara

    2017-02-01

    Psychological well-being benefits of receiving social support are well-established. Growing evidence also suggests parallel benefits of giving support. However, much less attention has been given to understanding the psychological correlates of imbalance in giving and receiving social support. We examined associations between social support (given, received, and imbalance) and psychological well-being in multiple relationship types (friends, family, and spouse). Greater levels of both receiving and giving social support were independently associated with more favorable psychological well-being, while imbalance in the ratio of support given and received was associated with poorer psychological well-being. Findings varied between relationship types and across age.

  15. Maximizing engagement in the American Psychological Association and its affiliated professional associations: 2012 annual report of the Policy and Planning Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    APA Bylaws Article XI.7 requires that the Policy and Planning Board report annually by publication to the membership and review the structure and function of the Association as a whole every fifth year. This report offers a framework for how to strategically and systematically provide a range of high-value engagement opportunities across membership cohorts and activities. The first section provides a selected overview of literature related to engagement and offers some general considerations for incorporating research into evaluating and refining member engagement activities. Next, survey findings on why individuals join membership organizations are reviewed. Finally, 10 engagement domains as a framework for designing, evaluating, and monitoring the impact of engagement initiatives and activities are presented.

  16. Does High Tobacco Consumption Cause Psychological Distress?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, Lise S; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Petersen, Christina B

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that smoking influences mental health negatively. This study investigated whether high tobacco consumption is causally related to psychological distress in a Mendelian randomization design, using a variant in the nicotine acetylcholine receptor gene CHRNA3......-known to influence individual tobacco consumption-as instrumental variable for tobacco consumption. METHODS: Data from 90 108 participants in the Copenhagen General Population Study was used. Exposures included self-reported cigarettes/day and pack years and the CHRNA3 rs1051730 genotype as instrumental...... variable for tobacco consumption. Three dimensions of psychological distress were studied: Stress, fatigue, and hopelessness. Analyses with the CHRNA3 genotype were stratified by smoking status. RESULTS: Self-reported amount of smoking was associated with all three dimensions of psychological distress...

  17. Association of psychological, cognitive, and functional variables with self-reported executive functioning in a sample of nondemented community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Erica P; Kapoor, Ashu; Fogel, Joshua; Elbulok-Charcape, Milushka M; Roth, Robert M; Katz, Mindy J; Lipton, Richard B; Rabin, Laura A

    2016-06-09

    Subjective executive functioning (EF) measures provide valuable information about real-world difficulties, although it is unclear what variables actually associate with subjective EF scores. We investigated subjective EF in 245 nondemented, community-dwelling older adults (aged 70 and above) from the Einstein Aging Study. Partial correlational analyses controlling for age were performed between the nine Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult version (BRIEF-A) clinical scales and objective EF tests, self-reported mood and personality, and informant-reported activities of daily living. The significance level was set at p depressive symptom scores. The only objective neuropsychological test that significantly correlated with increased EF difficulties (on four BRIEF-A scales) was a measure of practical judgment. Overall, results indicate that interpretation of subjective EF scores must account for self-report of mood and personality. Moreover, the BRIEF-A only minimally taps objective EF as measured by performance-based measures. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

  18. ["I do not worry about ...!" How the Berkeley Puppet Interview may reveal self-report of psychological symptoms of 4 to 8 years old children exposed to parental cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Gabriele; Dieball, Stefanie; Falk, Carina; Weis, Sascha; Brähler, Elmar; Romer, Georg; Bergelt, Corinna; Keller, Monika; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Weschenfelder-Stachwitz, Heike; Resch, Franz; von Klitzing, Kai; Ernst, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    The Berkeley Puppet Interview (BPI) enables us to investigate psychological symptoms of children aged four to eight years under a multi-informant perspective by the means of self and parent report measures. 45 families with one parent suffering from cancer have been examined with regard to internalizing and externalizing symptoms of the children. Results have been compared to two different age-appropriate samples (Swiss preschool study of Basel and German KiGGS study). A small, highly selective sample of twelve children aged four to eight years could have been examined both from the self and parent perspective. Our results show, that four to eight year old children of cancer patients do not differ from other children of the same age in the way they express emotional symptoms in the BPI, but they are judged more emotionally burdened than other children by their parents (SDQ). Self and parent report do not significantly correlate. It seems as if parents in families struck by a cancer disease see their children's emotional symptoms more pronounced than the children themselves do express in the puppet interview. Implications for clinical and research practice will be discussed.

  19. Linking Sleep to Hypertension: Greater Risk for Blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Evidence suggests that insufficient sleep duration is associated with an increased likelihood for hypertension. Both short (8 hour sleep durations as well as hypertension are more prevalent among blacks than among whites. This study examined associations between sleep duration and hypertension, considering differential effects of race and ethnicity among black and white Americans. Methods. Data came from a cross-sectional household interview with 25,352 Americans (age range: 18–85 years. Results. Both white and black short sleepers had a greater likelihood of reporting hypertension than those who reported sleeping 6 to 8 hours. Unadjusted logistic regression analysis exploring the race/ethnicity interactions between insufficient sleep and hypertension indicated that black short (8 hours sleepers were more likely to report hypertension than their white counterparts (OR = 1.34 and 1.37, resp.; P<0.01. Significant interactions of insufficient sleep with race/ethnicity were observed even after adjusting to effects of age, sex, income, education, body mass index, alcohol use, smoking, emotional distress, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke. Conclusion. Results suggest that the race/ethnicity interaction is a significant mediator in the relationship between insufficient sleep and likelihood of having a diagnosis of hypertension.

  20. Psychological and psychomotor skills associated with prowess at ten-pin bowling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P R; Schlinker, P J; Over, R

    1996-06-01

    Psychological and psychomotor skills associated with prowess at ten-pin bowling were identified through factor analysis of ratings provided by 172 bowlers (87 males, 85 females) across a range of current averages (a measure based on recent performance in competition). Skilled bowlers (current average of 170 pins or more) differed significantly from less skilled bowlers (current average of less than 135 pins) on seven component skills. They demonstrated greater mental toughness, a higher degree of planning and evaluation, greater consistency, more interest in improvement, less use of luck attributions, more confidence in equipment and technique, and greater competitiveness. Since men and women of the same overall standard (current average) have similar component skill profiles, ten-pin bowling is a gender-neutral sport. Older bowlers (45-79 years) matched by current average with younger bowlers (16-30 years) differed significantly on only one component, level of commitment. We discuss several contexts for use of the three self-report assessment scales (measures of psychological skills, psychomotor skills and involvement in bowling) developed in this study.