WorldWideScience

Sample records for reported greater prevalence

  1. Conservatives report, but liberals display, greater happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Sean P; Hovasapian, Arpine; Graham, Jesse; Motyl, Matt; Ditto, Peter H

    2015-03-13

    Research suggesting that political conservatives are happier than political liberals has relied exclusively on self-report measures of subjective well-being. We show that this finding is fully mediated by conservatives' self-enhancing style of self-report (study 1; N = 1433) and then describe three studies drawing from "big data" sources to assess liberal-conservative differences in happiness-related behavior (studies 2 to 4; N = 4936). Relative to conservatives, liberals more frequently used positive emotional language in their speech and smiled more intensely and genuinely in photographs. Our results were consistent across large samples of online survey takers, U.S. politicians, Twitter users, and LinkedIn users. Our findings illustrate the nuanced relationship between political ideology, self-enhancement, and happiness and illuminate the contradictory ways that happiness differences can manifest across behavior and self-reports.

  2. Promoting greater Federal energy productivity [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Mark; Dudich, Luther

    2003-03-05

    This document is a close-out report describing the work done under this DOE grant to improve Federal Energy Productivity. Over the four years covered in this document, the Alliance To Save Energy conducted liaison with the private sector through our Federal Energy Productivity Task Force. In this time, the Alliance held several successful workshops on the uses of metering in Federal facilities and other meetings. We also conducted significant research on energy efficiency, financing, facilitated studies of potential energy savings in energy intensive agencies, and undertook other tasks outlined in this report.

  3. Why do Greater one-horned rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis) die? - An evaluation of necropsy reports

    OpenAIRE

    Wyss, F; Wenker, C; Robert, N.; Clauss, Marcus; von Houwald, F

    2012-01-01

    Many case reports about different diseases in greater one-horned rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis) have been published, but an overview of the prevalence of diseases and an evaluation of causes of death is lacking. Necropsy reports of 106 greater one-horned rhinoceroses from 38 zoos worldwide were evaluated. Half of them were from adult animals, a third from perinatal deaths/stillbirths and the rest from juveniles and sub adults. Cardiac problems (cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, heart infarct)...

  4. Prevalence of colibacillosis in chickens in greater Mymensingh district of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, Md. Abdul; Islam, Md. Ariful; Khatun, Mst. Minara

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted for determination of the prevalence of colibacillosis in chicken in poultry farms in Mymensingh and Tangail districts. Isolation, identification, and antibiogram profile of Escherichia coli were also performed. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 chickens manifested clinical signs of colibacillosis were collected from five different poultry farms during natural outbreaks. Results: In broiler, the prevalence of colibacillosis was 0.84%, and in layer, prevalence was 0.80%. The prevalence of colibacillosis was 1.0% and 0.5% in 25-30 days old and 31-35 days old broiler, respectively. In case of layer birds, the prevalence was 0.6% in 40-45 days old bird and 1% in 46-50 days old bird. Identity of the E. coli isolate of chicken was confirmed by sugar fermentation, biochemical tests, and polymerase chain reaction assay. Antibiogram profile of E. coli isolate of chicken revealed that it was multidrug resistant (resistant against two antibiotics, such as ampicillin and cefalexin). Conclusion: Data of this study suggest that colibacillosis is prevalent in the study areas which underscore the need of implementation of prevention and control measure against this disease. PMID:28246445

  5. Prevalence of colibacillosis in chickens in greater Mymensingh district of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abdul Matin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted for determination of the prevalence of colibacillosis in chicken in poultry farms in Mymensingh and Tangail districts. Isolation, identification, and antibiogram profile of Escherichia coli were also performed. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 chickens manifested clinical signs of colibacillosis were collected from five different poultry farms during natural outbreaks. Results: In broiler, the prevalence of colibacillosis was 0.84%, and in layer, prevalence was 0.80%. The prevalence of colibacillosis was 1.0% and 0.5% in 25-30 days old and 31-35 days old broiler, respectively. In case of layer birds, the prevalence was 0.6% in 40-45 days old bird and 1% in 46-50 days old bird. Identity of the E. coli isolate of chicken was confirmed by sugar fermentation, biochemical tests, and polymerase chain reaction assay. Antibiogram profile of E. coli isolate of chicken revealed that it was multidrug resistant (resistant against two antibiotics, such as ampicillin and cefalexin. Conclusion: Data of this study suggest that colibacillosis is prevalent in the study areas which underscore the need of implementation of prevention and control measure against this disease.

  6. Prevalence and Associations of Steep Cornea/Keratoconus in Greater Beijing. The Beijing Eye Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Ya Xing; Guo, Yin; You, Qi Sheng; Jonas, Jost B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prevalence and associated factors of steep cornea/keratoconus in the adult Chinese population. Methods The population-based Beijing Eye Study 2011 included 3468 individuals with a mean age of 64.6±9.8 years (range: 50–93 years). A detailed ophthalmic examination was performed including optical low-coherence reflectometry. Steep cornea/keratoconus were defined as an anterior corneal refractive power exceeding 48 diopters. Results Mean refractive power of the cornea was 43.16±1.45 diopters (range: 36.51 to 48.46 diopters; flattest meridian) and 43.98±1.52 diopters (range: 37.00 to 52.88 diopters; steepest meridian). A steep cornea/keratoconus defined as corneal refractive power of ≥48 diopters and ≥49 diopters was detected in 27 subjects (prevalence rate: 0.9±0.2%) and 6 (0.2± 0.1%) subjects, respectively. Presence of steep cornea/keratoconus was associated with shorter axial length (Pkeratoconus defined as corneal refractive power of 48+ diopters has a prevalence of 0.9±0.2% among Chinese aged 50 years and above. Its prevalence was significantly associated with the ocular parameters of shorter axial length, smaller interpupillary distance, higher cylindrical and myopic refractive error and lower best corrected visual acuity, however, with none of the systemic parameters tested. PMID:22792169

  7. The Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Is Not Greater Among Individuals With Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, Laura Rindom; Engsbro, Anne Line; Stensvold, Christen Rune

    2015-01-01

    dollars/y), no animals in the household, and drinking bottled water. CONCLUSIONS: D fragilis and Blastocystis were detected in a greater proportion of fecal samples from the asymptomatic background population in Denmark than from subjects with IBS symptoms. These findings indicate that these parasites...

  8. The Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Chinese older Adults in the Greater Chicago Area—Findings from the PINE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqi Dong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Musculoskeletal disorders affect many older adults and are a major public health concern due to rising prevalence. However, there is a paucity of research regarding the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in minority older adults, especially in older Chinese adults in the U.S. This study aims to provide an overall estimate on the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among Chinese older adults in the U.S. and examine the correlations between sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported health measures, and musculoskeletal symptoms. Data was collected through the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago (PINE study. This community-based participatory research study surveyed a total of 3,159 Chinese older adults aged 60 and above. Review of Systems (ROS was used to assess individual perceptions of musculoskeletal symptoms. We found 67% of participants experience musculoskeletal symptoms. Muscle or joint pain (55.3% and back pain (34.5% were the most prevalent types of symptoms. Being female (r = 0.18, having lower education (r = 0.15, living fewer years in the community (r = 0.05, having a lower overall health status (r = 0.22, and having a lower quality of life (r = 0.08 were all significantly correlated with reporting musculoskeletal symptoms. Our findings show that musculoskeletal symptoms are a common health concern among Chinese older adults, and that certain subsets of the population, related to sociodemographic factors, are more likely to experience these symptoms. Future longitudinal studies should be conducted to determine causality as well as changes in musculoskeletal symptoms burden.

  9. Arthroscopic Tuberoplasty for a Malunited Greater Tuberosity Fracture: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Maire-Clare; Charalambous, Charalambos P

    2015-01-01

    Superior migration and malunion of a fractured greater tuberosity can lead to mechanical subacromial impingement with resultant ongoing pain and limitation of abduction. We describe such a case successfully treated with arthroscopic excision of the protruding portion of the greater tuberosity, with marked improvement in pain and range of movement. The greater tuberosity was exposed by elevating the supraspinatus tendon, which was reattached at the end of the procedure. This case, along with outcomes of similar techniques previously reported in literature suggest that arthroscopic excision of a superiorly malunited greater tuberosity is associated with good symptomatic outcome and preservation of rotator cuff function.

  10. Metastasis of greater wing of sphenoid bone in bronchogenic carcinoma: a unusual case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prashant K; Mital, Mukta; Dwivedi, Amit; Gupta, Kumkum

    2011-01-01

    Orbital metastasis in systemic cancer is known to occur and occurs in up to 7% of all systemic cancers. Orbital features typically present after the diagnosis of the primary tumor. In about 20% of cases, there is no known primary cancer at the time of presentation with orbital metastatic disease. Here we report a case of a 60-year-old male smoker, in whom proptosis, due to metastasis in greater wing of left sphenoid bone secondary to bronchogenic carcinoma, was the initial symptom. We could not find in literature metastasis to greater wing of sphenoid bone due to small cell carcinoma of lung.

  11. Modelling obesity outcomes : reducing obesity risk in adulthood may have greater impact than reducing obesity prevalence in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lhachimi, S. K.; Nusselder, W. J.; Lobstein, T. J.; Smit, H. A.; Baili, P.; Bennett, K.; Kulik, M. C.; Jackson-Leach, R.; Boshuizen, H. C.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    A common policy response to the rise in obesity prevalence is to undertake interventions in childhood, but it is an open question whether this is more effective than reducing the risk of becoming obese during adulthood. In this paper, we model the effect on health outcomes of (i) reducing the preval

  12. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor arising from the greater omentum: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokunaga Masakazu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs are rare soft tissue tumors that arise from a peripheral nerve or exhibit nerve sheath differentiation. Most of these tumors arise on the trunk, extremities, or head and neck regions; they are very rarely located in the abdominal cavity. The patient was a 71-year-old man who was referred to our hospital for a mass and pain in the right lower abdomen. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a large (9 × 9 cm, well-circumscribed, lobulated, heterogeneously enhanced mass in the pelvis. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large mass in the greater omentum, and the tumor was completely excised. Histopathological analysis revealed that the tumor was composed of spindle cells with high mitotic activity. On staining the tumor, positive results were obtained for S-100 but negative results were obtained for c-kit, cluster of differentiation (CD34, α-smooth muscle actin, and desmin. These findings strongly supported a diagnosis of MPNST primarily arising from the greater omentum. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an MPNST arising from the greater omentum. In this report, we have described the case of a patient with an MPNST arising from the greater omentum and have discussed the clinical characteristics and management of MPNSTs.

  13. Variations in band reporting rate and implications for kill rate in Greater Snow Geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Souchay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We assessed spatial and temporal variation in reporting probability of banded Greater Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica shot by hunters in eastern North America and evaluated potential residual biases in kill rate estimation. Adult Greater Snow Geese were marked with reward (value: US$10, $20, $30, $50, and $100 and standard bands ($0, control in the Canadian Arctic from 2003 to 2005. We used a spatially explicit multinomial model based on 200 direct recoveries from 4256 banded geese to estimate reporting rate and harvest rate. We found that reporting rate for standard bands varied over time whereas harvest rate was higher in Canada than in the U.S. The reporting probability increased from 0.40 ± 0.11 in the first year of the study to 0.82 ± 0.14 and 0.84 ± 0.13 the second and third years, respectively. Overall, these reporting rates are higher than two previous estimates for this population, which leads to lower estimates of kill rate. However, the large annual differences in reporting rates found in this study lead to uncertainty in the estimation of kill rate. We suggest that the increase in reporting rate in the last two year of the study may be due to the dissemination of information among hunters regarding the presence of reward bands on birds, resulting in increased reporting rate for all bands. This raises issues about the need to adequately inform the public in such large-scale studies to avoid undesirable temporal trends over the course of the study.

  14. Hepatitis from Greater celandine (Chelidonium majus L.): review of literature and report of a new case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Paola A; Cassetti, Federica; Giugliano, Gianni; Falce, Maria T; Mazzanti, Gabriela; Menniti-Ippolito, Francesca; Raschetti, Roberto; Santuccio, Carmela

    2009-07-15

    Folk medicine is a rich source of useful therapeutic tools. Nevertheless, use of medicinal plants can have unwanted, negative effects. By means of the description of an adverse reaction to a herbal remedy, we highlight the need for better efficacy-toxicity studies on these products. To report a case of possible Chelidonium majus L. (Greater celandine)-induced hepatitis and evaluate the past published cases. We outlined the main features of hepatitis associated with use of Chelidonium majus by providing a review of cases reported and analysing in detail a new one. Several cases of acute hepatitis related to Greater celandine consumption were found in the literature. The assessment for causality using Naranjo probability scale showed a probable relationship between the liver injury and the consumption of Chelidonium majus in the case we described. Our case, along with the other ones reported in the literature, increases the concern about the safety of oral use of Chelidonium majus. Plants used in traditional medicine are not necessarily harmless. Customers and prescribers should be aware of this, especially when a herbal drug is used with therapeutic purposes in absence of reliable studies of clinical efficacy and benefit-risk assessment.

  15. Childhood osteosarcoma of greater wing of sphenoid: case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meel, Rachna; Thulkar, Sanjay; Sharma, Mehar Chand; Jagadesan, Pandjatcharan; Mohanti, Bidhu Kalyan; Sharma, Suresh Chandra; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2012-03-01

    Primary osteosarcoma of skull base is extremely rare. We present a case of primary osteosarcoma arising in greater wing of sphenoid in a child. Our patient had an incomplete excision after which he received adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. There was good response to adjuvant chemoradiotherapy and the patient is disease free at a follow-up of 18 months. Treatment of skull base osteosarcomas is difficult, as complete excision is often not possible. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of sphenoid wing osteosarcoma in childhood to be reported in literature.

  16. Towards a greater understanding of the illicit tobacco trade in Europe: a review of the PMI funded 'Project Star' report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Rowell, Andy; Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; Joossens, Luk; Sims, Michelle

    2014-05-01

    Following a legal agreement with the European Union (EU), Philip Morris International (PMI) commissions a yearly report ('Project Star', PS) on the European illicit cigarette trade from KPMG, the global accountancy firm. Review of PS 2010 report. Comparison with data from independent sources including a 2010 pan-European survey (N=18,056). Within PS, data covering all 27 EU countries are entered into a model. While the model itself seems appropriate, concerns are identified with the methodologies underlying the data inputs and thus their quality: there is little transparency over methodologies; interview data underestimate legal non-domestic product partly by failing to account for legal cross-border sales; illicit cigarette estimates rely on tobacco industry empty pack surveys which may overestimate illicit; and there is an over-reliance on data supplied by PMI with inadequate external validation. Thus, PMI sales data are validated using PMI smoking prevalence estimates, yet PMI is unable to provide sales (shipment) data for the Greek islands and its prevalence estimates differ grossly from independent data. Consequently, comparisons with independent data suggest PS will tend to overestimate illicit cigarette levels particularly where cross-border shopping is frequent (Austria, Finland, France) and in Western compared with Eastern European countries. The model also provides data on the nature of the illicit cigarette market independent of seizure data suggesting that almost a quarter of the illicit cigarette market in 2010 comprised PMI's own brands compared with just 5% counterfeited PMI brands; a finding hidden in PMI's public representation of the data. PS overestimates illicit cigarette levels in some European countries and suggests PMI's supply chain control is inadequate. Its publication serves the interests of PMI over those of the EU and its member states. PS requires greater transparency, external scrutiny and use of independent data. Published by the BMJ

  17. Is greater acculturation associated with an increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among Latinos in South Florida?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Aileen; Kenya, Sonjia; Ilangovan, Kumar; Li, Hua; Koru-Sengul, Tulay; Alonzo, Yisel; Carrasquillo, Olveen

    2015-05-01

    To examine the association of acculturation with various cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs) among Latinos with diabetes in South Florida. In a cross-sectional analysis of data collected from 300 Latinos with poorly controlled diabetes we measured acculturation using the Marin Short Acculturation Scale. We examined correlations between acculturation and the following 7 CRFs: hemoglobin A1C, low-density lipoprotein, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, smoking status, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable intake. Cubans made up 38% of our population; no other Latino subgroup represented over 17% of the sample. Of the 8 outcomes examined, only smoking was associated with increased acculturation; 12% of Latinos in the 2 lowest acculturation groups were current smokers versus 25% in the highest acculturation group (P=0.02). Furthermore, Cuban Americans from our sample had over double the prevalence of smoking compared with non-Cubans in both the lowest and highest acculturation groups. With the exception of smoking, our data does not support a link between increased acculturation and higher prevalence of CRFs in Latinos with diabetes. Smoking prevention and cessation programs targeting Latinos and particularly among Cubans are needed.

  18. Prevalence of self reported musculoskeletal diseases is high

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.S.J. Picavet (Susan); J.M.W. Hazes (Mieke)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To present the prevalence of self reported musculoskeletal diseases, the coexistence of these diseases, the test-retest reliability with six months in between, and the association with musculoskeletal pain symptoms. METHODS: Twelve layman descriptions of com

  19. Suspected Greater Celandine hepatotoxicity: liver-specific causality evaluation of published case reports from Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Glass, Xaver; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2012-03-01

    In 21 published case reports, the use of the herb Greater Celandine (GC) (Chelidonium majus L.) has been causally related to liver injury, but a variety of confounding variables were evident that might have offset causality. This study reanalyses causality levels in these cases with a liver-specific causality evaluation method. All 21 cases were submitted to the liver-specific, standardized, structured, quantitative and updated scale of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences. This scale considers, among other items, latency period, course of alanine aminotransferase after treatment discontinuation, risk factors, comedication and alternative causes. Using this method for assessment, causality for GC was highly probable in two and probable in six cases, with lower causality grading in the remaining 13 cases. In these patients, causality for GC was possible in 10 cases and excluded in three cases. On the basis of the eight cases with highly probable and probable causality gradings, GC hepatotoxicity represents an idiosyncratic reaction of the metabolic type, whereas immunologic or obligatory hepatotoxic features are lacking. In some cases, alternative diagnoses and poor data quality were confounding variables that reduced causality levels. Confounding variables reduced causality levels for GC in reported cases of liver injury, but there is still striking evidence for herb-induced liver injury by GC with high causality gradings. GC hepatotoxicity is caused by an idiosyncratic reaction of the metabolic form, but there is uncertainty with respect to its culprit(s).

  20. Greater Confinement Disposal Test at the Nevada Test Site, Final Technology Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickman, P. T.

    1989-01-01

    The Greater Confinement Disposal Test (GCDT) was conducted at the Nevada Test Site to demonstrate an alternative method for management of high-specific-activity (HSA) low-level waste (LLW). The GCDT was initially conceived as a method for managing small volumes of highly concentrated tritium wastes, which, due to their environmental mobiilty, are considered unsuitable for routine shallow land disposal. Later, the scope of the GCDT was increased to address a variety of other "problem" HSA wastes including isotope sources and thermal generating wastes. The basic design for the GCDT evolved from a series of studies and assessments. Operational design objectives were to (1) emplace the wastes at a depth sufficient to minimize or eliminate routine environmental transport mechanisms and instrusion scenarios and (2) provide sufficient protection for operations personnel in the handling of HSA sources. To achieve both objectives, a large diameter borehole was selected. The GCDT consisted of a borehole 3 meters (10 feet) in diameter and 36 meters (120 feet) deep, surrounded by nine monitoring holes at varying radii. The GCDT was instrumented for the measurement of temperature, moisture, and soil-gas content. Over one million curies of HSA LLW were emplaced in GCDT. This report reviews the development of the GCDT project and presents analyses of data collected.

  1. Citation bias in reported smoking prevalence in people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Simon; Ragg, Mark; McGeechan, Kevin

    2009-03-01

    A meta-analysis of 42 studies on tobacco smoking among schizophrenia subjects found an average smoking prevalence of 62% (range=14-88%). Statements are common, however, in the research literature and the media that between 80% and 90% of people with schizophrenia smoke. The purpose of the present paper was therefore to determine if citation bias exists in the over-citation and reportage of studies finding high rates of smoking prevalence in schizophrenia subjects. Two hypotheses were tested: (i) that studies on the prevalence of smoking in people with schizophrenia reporting high smoking rates would be cited more often than studies reporting lower rates; and (ii) that statements about smoking rates among schizophrenic people on the Internet would report very high rates more often than more realistic, less dramatic rates. A 10% increase in reported prevalence of smoking was associated with a 61% (95% confidence interval (CI)=30-98%) increase in citation rate. Journal impact factor (IF) was significantly associated with citation rate (p=0.001) but the country in which a study was carried out did not have an effect (p=0.90). After adjusting for IF, a 10% increase in prevalence of smoking was associated with a 28% increase (95%CI=1-62%) in citation rate. This bias is mirrored on the Internet, where statements abound about uncommonly highly rates of smoking by people with schizophrenia. Studies reporting very high prevalence of smoking among people with schizophrenia are cited more often than those studies reporting a low prevalence, a result consistent with citation bias. This citation bias probably contributes to the misinformation available on the Internet, and may have adverse policy and clinical implications.

  2. Adrenal Rest Tumor from the Greater Omentum Mimicking Exophytic Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC): A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyung Jo; Kim, Seong Hoon; Shin, Hyun Woong [Daegu Fatima Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Bok [Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Hyun Chul; Son, Mi Young; Kim, Tae Bong [Daegu Veterans Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Adrenal rest tumors are aberrant adrenocortical tissue which has been most commonly described in abdominal and pelvic sites. To our knowledge, there has been no previous description of an adrenal rest tumor of the greater omentum. We present a case of a pathologically confirmed adrenal rest tumor of the greater omentum in a 76-year- old man

  3. Nesting ecology of greater white-fronted geese on the Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge: 1988 progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the nesting ecology of greater white-fronted geese on the Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge. Aerial surveys to document spring phenology and...

  4. Prevalence of estimated GFR reporting among US clinical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accetta, Nancy A; Gladstone, Elisa H; DiSogra, Charles; Wright, Elizabeth C; Briggs, Michael; Narva, Andrew S

    2008-10-01

    Routine laboratory reporting of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) may help clinicians detect kidney disease. The current national prevalence of eGFR reporting in clinical laboratories is unknown; thus, the extent of the situation of laboratories not routinely reporting eGFR with serum creatinine results is not quantified. Observational analysis. National Kidney Disease Education Program survey of clinical laboratories conducted in 2006 to 2007 by mail, web, and telephone follow-up. A national random sample, 6,350 clinical laboratories, drawn from the Federal Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments database and stratified by 6 major laboratory types/groupings. Laboratory reports serum creatinine results. Reporting eGFR values with serum creatinine results. Percentage of laboratories reporting eGFR along with reporting serum creatinine values, reporting protocol, eGFR formula used, and style of reporting cutoff values. Of laboratories reporting serum creatinine values, 38.4% report eGFR (physician offices, 25.8%; hospitals, 43.6%; independents, 38.9%; community clinics, 47.2%; health fair/insurance/public health, 45.5%; and others, 43.2%). Physician office laboratories have a reporting prevalence lower than other laboratory types (P laboratories reporting eGFR, 66.7% do so routinely with all adult serum creatinine determinations; 71.6% use the 4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation; and 45.3% use the ">60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)" reporting convention. Independent laboratories are least likely to routinely report eGFR (50.6%; P laboratories across all strata are more likely to report eGFR (P laboratories, federal database did not have names of laboratory directors/managers (intended respondents), assumed accuracy of federal database for sample purposes. Routine eGFR reporting with serum creatinine values is not yet universal, and laboratories vary in their reporting practices.

  5. Case report 358: Desmoid tumor of the greater wing of the right sphenoid bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crisi, G.; Calo, M.; Mauri, C.

    1986-03-01

    In summary, a case has been presented of a 26-year-old man who on admission showed a mild right proptosis and swelling of the right temple. Roentgenograms of the skull demonstrated loss of the right innominate line. CT studies after contrast demonstrated a sharply-demarcated, destructive area of the right greater sphenoid wing with an enhancing, spindle-shaped, soft tissue mass observed around the bony defect. Increased uptake was demonstrated on a radionuclide scan. The lesion was surgically removed and proved to be a desmoid. (orig./SHA).

  6. How report cards on physicians, physician groups, and hospitals can have greater impact on consumer choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaiko, Anna D; Eastman, Diana; Rosenthal, Meredith B

    2012-03-01

    Public report cards with quality and cost information on physicians, physician groups, and hospital providers have proliferated in recent years. However, many of these report cards are difficult for consumers to interpret and have had little impact on the provider choices consumers are making. To gain a more focused understanding of why these reports cards have not been more successful and what improvements could be made, we interviewed experts and surveyed registrants at the March 2011 AHRQ National Summit on Public Reporting for Consumers in Health Care. We found broad agreement that public reporting has been disconnected from consumer decisions about providers because of weaknesses in report card content, design, and accessibility. Policy makers have an opportunity to change the landscape of public reporting by taking advantage of advances in measurement, data collection, and information technology to deliver a more consumer-centered report card. Overcoming the constraint of limited public funding, and achieving the acceptance of providers, is critical to realizing future success.

  7. Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Strategy report and institutional plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, R.C.; Tyacke, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    This document contains two parts. Part I, Greater-Than-Class-C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Strategy, addresses the requirements, responsibilities, and strategy to transport and receive these wastes. The strategy covers (a) transportation packaging, which includes shipping casks and waste containers; (b) transportation operations relating to the five facilities involved in transportation, i.e., waste originator, interim storage, dedicated storage, treatment, and disposal; (c) system safety and risk analysis; (d) routes; (e) emergency preparedness and response; and (o safeguards and security. A summary of strategic actions is provided at the conclusion of Part 1. Part II, Institutional Plan for Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Packaging and Transportation, addresses the assumptions, requirements, and institutional plan elements and actions. As documented in the Strategy and Institutional Plan, the most challenging issues facing the GTCC LLW Program shipping campaign are institutional issues closely related to the strategy. How the Program addresses those issues and demonstrates to the states, local governments, and private citizens that the shipments can and will be made safely will strongly affect the success or failure of the campaign.

  8. Capillary haemangioma of the greater omentum in a 5-month-old female infant: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chateil, J.F. [Hopital Pellegrin, 33 - Bordeaux (France). Service de Neuro-Radiologie; Unite de Radiopediatrie, Hopital Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France); Saragne-Feuga, C.; Brun, M.; Diard, F. [Hopital Pellegrin, 33 - Bordeaux (France). Service de Neuro-Radiologie; Perel, Y. [Service de Pediatrie A, Hopital Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France); Neuenschwander, S. [Service de Radiologie, Institut Curie, Paris (France); Vergnes, P. [Service de Chirurgie Pediatrique, Hopital Pellegrin, Bordeaux (France)

    2000-12-01

    Capillary haemangiomas are frequent benign tumours in infancy. The authors report a case of capillary haemangioma of the greater omentum, discovered in a child of 5 months of age and studied with US, CT and MRI. The localization of such a lesion in the greater omentum is exceptional. Abdominal US revealed a heterogeneous, multinodular intraperitoneal mass. Doppler study demonstrated hypervascularity of the lesion. CT localized the mass to the greater omentum. The mass was hypodense on the unenhanced scan and enhanced massively after injection. The infant suffered a reaction to contrast medium during the CT. MRI demonstrated a mass which was hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. Laparotomy confirmed the location of the mass within the greater omentum and allowed resection of the tumour. (orig.)

  9. High prevalence of reported tremor in Klinefelter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Tanya L; Gonzalez-Alegre, Pedro

    2009-06-01

    Several uncontrolled reports in the literature dating from decades ago suggest a link between Klinefelter syndrome (KS) and essential tremor (ET). Aiming to determine whether this association truly exists, we designed a controlled survey to ascertain the prevalence of reported tremor in KS. We identified subjects with KS through our hospital database and recruited controls among men who were accompanying patients to our Neurology Clinic. The presence of tremor and other variables were recorded employing a previously validated questionnaire. Whereas our control population was slightly older and more frequently reported a family history of tremor, the frequency of reported tremor was significantly higher in subjects with KS than controls with onset at a younger age. In addition, a high proportion of subjects with KS indicated gait imbalance. In summary, our study supports the previously reported association of an ET-like syndrome and KS.

  10. Herbal hepatotoxicity by Greater Celandine (Chelidonium majus): causality assessment of 22 spontaneous reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Glass, Xaver; Schulze, Johannes

    2011-12-01

    Toxic liver injury due to the herb Greater Celandine (GC) (Chelidonium majus L.) has been assumed in patients originating from various European countries and created concern. Based on regulatory and liver unspecific ad hoc causality assessments in 22 spontaneous cases of Germany, causality levels for GC were considered probable in 16 and possible in 6 cases. We now analyzed the data of these 22 cases regarding their causality levels employing the liver specific, standardized, structured and quantitative assessment method of the updated scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences). Causality for GC was found highly probable (n=2), probable (n=6), possible (n=10), unlikely (n=1), and excluded (n=3). Thus, causality could be upgraded in 2 cases to a highly probable causality level, but had to be down graded to excluded, unlikely, or possible causality levels in 3, 1, or 9 cases, respectively. GC hepatotoxicity shows a hepatocellular pattern of liver injury with female gender predominance. On average, age of the patients was 56.4 years, treatment 36.4 days, and latency period until first symptoms and jaundice 29.8 and 35.6 days, respectively. This analysis therefore provides further evidence for the existence of GC hepatotoxicity as a distinct form of herb induced liver injury, but due to poor data quality the causal association between GC use and liver injury is less strong than hitherto assumed. We propose replacement of the regulatory organ unspecific by a liver specific causality assessment method in cases of herb induced liver injury as well as stricter pharmacovigilance strategies towards improvements of data quality. Toxicological studies are now warranted to elucidate the mechanism(s) of human GC hepatotoxicity that represents a European issue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. College students who have an eveningness preference report lower self-control and greater procrastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digdon, Nancy L; Howell, Andrew J

    2008-11-01

    Previous research suggests a possible link between eveningness and general difficulties with self-regulation (e.g., evening types are more likely than other chronotypes to have irregular sleep schedules and social rhythms and use substances). Our study investigated the relationship between eveningness and self-regulation by using two standardized measures of self-regulation: the Self-Control Scale and the Procrastination Scale. We predicted that an eveningness preference would be associated with poorer self-control and greater procrastination than would an intermediate or morningness preference. Participants were 308 psychology students (mean age=19.92 yrs) at a small Canadian college. Students completed the self-regulation questionnaires and Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) online. The mean MEQ score was 46.69 (SD=8.20), which is intermediate between morningness and eveningness. MEQ scores ranged from definite morningness to definite eveningness, but the dispersion of scores was skewed toward more eveningness. Pearson and partial correlations (controlling for age) were used to assess the relationship between MEQ score and the Self-Control Scale (global score and 5 subscale scores) and Procrastination Scale (global score). All correlations were significant. The magnitude of the effects was medium for all measures except one of the Self-Control subscales, which was small. A multiple regression analysis to predict MEQ score using the Self-Control Scale (global score), Procrastination Scale, and age as predictors indicated the Self-Control Scale was a significant predictor (accounting for 20% of the variance). A multiple regression analysis to predict MEQ scores using the five subscales of the Self-Control Scale and age as predictors showed the subscales for reliability and work ethic were significant predictors (accounting for 33% of the variance). Our study showed a relationship between eveningness and low self-control, but it did not address whether the

  12. Greater Green River Basin production improvement project, Phase 1: Site characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Krystinik, L.F.; Mead, R.H.; Poe, S.C.

    1996-05-01

    Several tight, naturally-fractured, gas-productive formations in the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) in Wyoming have been exploited using conventional vertical well technology. Typically, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed in completing these wells to increase gas production rates to economic levels. However, with the maturation of horizontal drilling technology hydraulic fracture treatments may not be the most effective method for improving gas production from these tight reservoirs. Two of the most prolific tight gas reservoirs in the Green River Basin, the Frontier and the Mesaverde, are candidates for the application of horizontal well completion technology. The objective of the proposed project is to apply the DOE`s technical concept to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift. Previous industry attempts to produce in commercial quantities from the Second Frontier Formation have been hampered by lack of understanding of both the in-situ natural fracture system and lack of adequate stimulation treatments. The proposed technical approach involves drilling a vertical characterization well to the Second Frontier Formation at a depth of approximately 16,000 ft. from a site located about 18 miles northwest of Rock Springs, Wyoming. Logging, coring, and well testing information from the vertical well will be used to design a hydraulic fracturing treatment and to assess the resulting production performance. Data from the vertical drilling phase will be used to design a 2,500 to 3,000-ft lateral wellbore which will be kicked off from the vertical hole and extend into the blanket marine sandstone bench of the Second Frontier Formation. The trajectory of this wellbore will be designed to intersect the maximum number of natural fractures to maximize production rates. Production testing of the resulting completion will provide an assessment of reserve potential related to horizontal lateral completions.

  13. Self-reported posttraumatic growth predicts greater subsequent posttraumatic stress amidst war and terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalta, Alyson K; Gerhart, James; Hall, Brian J; Rajan, Kumar B; Vechiu, Catalina; Canetti, Daphna; Hobfoll, Stevan E

    2017-03-01

    This study tested three alternative explanations for research indicating a positive, but heterogeneous relationship between self-reported posttraumatic growth (PTG) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PSS): (a) the third-variable hypothesis that the relationship between PTG and PSS is a spurious one driven by positive relationships with resource loss, (b) the growth over time hypothesis that the relationship between PTG and PSS is initially a positive one, but becomes negative over time, and (c) the moderator hypothesis that resource loss moderates the relationship between PTG and PSS such that PTG is associated with lower levels of PSS as loss increases. A nationally representative sample (N = 1622) of Israelis was assessed at three time points during a period of ongoing violence. PTG, resource loss, and the interaction between PTG and loss were examined as lagged predictors of PSS to test the proposed hypotheses. Results were inconsistent with all three hypotheses, showing that PTG positively predicted subsequent PSS when accounting for main and interactive effects of loss. Our results suggest that self-reported PTG is a meaningful but counterintuitive predictor of poorer mental health following trauma.

  14. Trypanosoma evansi in dromedary camel: with a case report of zoonosis in greater Cairo, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridy, Fouad M; El-Metwally, Mohamed Tolba; Khalil, Hazem H M; Morsy, Tosson A

    2011-04-01

    Trypanosoma evansi (Steel, 1885) Balbiani, is the cause of trypanosomiasis (Surra) which multiples in the blood and body fluids. The incubation period varies from 7-15 days. The mortality rate was up to 20% and fatality rate may reach up to 100% in untreated camels. Three hundred randomly selected camels were 200 males 4-6 years old and 100 females 10-15 years. They were examined clinically and diagnosed by Giemsa stained blood smear, anti- trypanosomiasis-antibodies by ELISA and urine Thymol turbidity test for natural infection with T. evani (Surra). The results showed that camels were naturally infected with T. evansi as indicated by stained blood film examination and/or ELISA. Infection in males was 6.0% (stained blood smears), 8.0% (ELISA) and 5.0% (urine thymol turbidity test). In females the infection rate was 9.0%, 24.0% and 12% respectively. By correlation with suggestive clinical manifestations, ELISA proved to be more sensitive and specific (13.3%) than stained blood films (10.0%) and urine Thymol turbidity test (7.3%). Regarding humans, one out of 30 was positive as indicated by ELISA and stained blood smear but was negative by urine thymol turbidity test. The human case was successfully treated as indicated clinically, parasitologically and serologically. This is the first reported Egyptian human case of trypanosomiasis evansi, a neglected zoonosis.

  15. Greater Prevalence of Proposed ICD-11 Alcohol and Cannabis Dependence Compared to ICD-10, DSM-IV, and DSM-5 in Treated Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tammy; Cornelius, Jack; Clark, Duncan; Martin, Christopher

    2017-09-01

    Proposed International Classification of Diseases, 11th edition (ICD-11), criteria for substance use disorder (SUD) radically simplify the algorithm used to diagnose substance dependence. Major differences in case identification across DSM and ICD impact determinations of treatment need and conceptualizations of substance dependence. This study compared the draft algorithm for ICD-11 SUD against DSM-IV, DSM-5, and ICD-10, for alcohol and cannabis. Adolescents (n = 339, ages 14 to 18) admitted to intensive outpatient addictions treatment completed, as part of a research study, a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM SUDs adapted for use with adolescents and which has been used to assess DSM and ICD SUD diagnoses. Analyses examined prevalence across classification systems, diagnostic concordance, and sources of diagnostic disagreement. Prevalence of any past-year proposed ICD-11 alcohol or cannabis use disorder was significantly lower compared to DSM-IV and DSM-5 (ps DSM-5, and ICD-10 (ps DSM-5 SUD diagnoses showed only moderate concordance. For both alcohol and cannabis, youth typically met criteria for an ICD-11 dependence diagnosis by reporting tolerance and much time spent using or recovering from the substance, rather than symptoms indicating impaired control over use. The proposed ICD-11 dependence algorithm appears to "overdiagnose" dependence on alcohol and cannabis relative to DSM-IV and ICD-10 dependence, and DSM-5 moderate/severe use disorder, generating potential "false-positive" cases of dependence. Among youth who met criteria for proposed ICD-11 dependence, few reported impaired control over substance use, highlighting ongoing issues in the conceptualization and diagnosis of SUD. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  16. Self-reported prevalence, pain intensity and risk factors of low back pain in adolescent rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Leo; Perich, Debra; Burnett, Angus; Campbell, Amity; O'Sullivan, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the lifetime and point prevalence of low back pain, the related pain intensity and the rowing-related aggravating factors for low back pain in adolescent rowers who participated in school-level competitions. The secondary objective was to determine whether between-gender differences existed in these data. Retrospective cross-sectional survey 130 adolescent male and 235 adolescent female rowers aged between 14 and 16 years were recruited in this study. Participants completed a questionnaire to determine their lifetime and point prevalence of low back pain, their pain intensity and rowing-related factors that aggravated their low back pain. A high lifetime and point prevalence of low back pain were found in both adolescent male (93.8% and 64.6%, respectively) and female (77.9% and 52.8%, respectively) rowers. A significant between-gender difference was reported for both statistics (ppain intensity via a visual analog scale was found for males (4.1/10) when compared to females (5.0/10). Similar rowing-related aggravating factors were reported by males and females although fewer males reported that lifting the rowing shell aggravated their low back pain. A high lifetime and point prevalence of low back pain was reported by the adolescent rowers recruited in this study. While a greater proportion of adolescent male rowers reported low back pain, they reported a lower intensity of pain when compared to their female counterparts. Coaches, clinicians and rowers should be made aware of these findings such that future research and development can focus on promoting pain management strategies in this sport. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. High prevalence of self-reported photophobia in adult ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise eBijlenga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many adult outpatients with ADHD report an oversensitivity to light. We explored the link between ADHD and photophobia in an online survey (N=494. Self-reported photophobia was prevalent in 69% of respondents with, and in 28% of respondents without, ADHD (symptoms. The ADHD (symptoms group wore sunglasses longer during daytime in all seasons. Photophobia may be related to the functioning of the eyes, which mediate dopamine and melatonin production systems in the eye. In the brain, dopamine and melatonin are involved in both ADHD and circadian rhythm disturbances. Possibly, the regulation of the dopamine and melatonin systems in the eyes and in the brain are related. Despite the study’s limitations, the results are encouraging for further study on the pathophysiology of ADHD, eye functioning, and circadian rhythm disturbances.

  18. Do older people with visual impairment and living alone in a rural developing country report greater difficulty in managing stairs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairi, Noran N; Bulgiba, Awang; Peramalah, Devi; Mudla, Izzuna

    2013-01-01

    Managing stairs is a challenging activity of daily living (ADL) for older people. This study aims to examine the association between visual impairment and difficulty in managing stairs among older people living alone and those living with others. A population-based cross sectional study was conducted in rural Malaysia from 2007 till 2008. Seven hundred and sixty five older people aged 60 years and over underwent eye examination for visual impairment. Visual acuity criteria were used to define visual impairment. Presenting visual acuity was assessed using a standard metric Snellen Chart of E type. Difficulty in managing stairs was measured according to a question drawn from the Barthel Index which asks "do you need help in climbing stairs". Overall, the prevalence of difficulty in managing stairs among older people in our population was 135 (18.3%, 95% CI 15.7-21.2). After adjusting for important confounders the odds ratio (OR) for visual impairment and difficulty in managing stairs among older people living alone was 5.04 (95% CI 2.27, 10.62). Among older people living with others, the adjusted OR for visual impairment and difficulty in managing stairs was 3.10 (95% CI 1.52, 6.80). In a sample of older people aged 60 years and over, those living alone with visual impairment had greater difficulty in managing stairs than those living with others. Identification of these groups of older people is useful for targeting interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Social and institutional evaluation report for Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T.L.; Lewis, B.E.; Turner, K.H.; Rozelle, M.A. [Dames and Moore, Denver, CO (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report identifies and characterizes social and institutional issues that would be relevant to the siting, licensing, construction, closure, and postclosure of a Greater-Than-Class-C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) disposal facility. A historical perspective of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and LLW disposal programs is provided as an overview of radioactive waste disposal and to support the recommendations and conclusions in the report. A characterization of each issue is provided to establish the basis for further evaluations. Where applicable, the regulatory requirements of 10 CFR 60 and 61 are incorporated in the issue characterizations. The issues are used to compare surface, intermediate depth, and deep geologic disposal alternatives. The evaluation establishes that social and institutional issues do not significantly discriminate among the disposal alternatives. Recommendations are provided for methods by which the issues could be considered throughout the lifecycle of a GTCC LLW disposal program.

  20. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed E. Mansour

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of spontaneous bacterial pleuritis in the studied group of patients with hepatic hydrothorax was 14.3%. Patients with advanced liver disease, low pleural fluid protein, or SBP are at risk for spontaneous bacterial pleuritis.

  1. Waste Management Facilities Cost Information report for Greater-Than-Class C and DOE equivalent special case waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

    1993-07-01

    This Waste Management Facility Cost Information (WMFCI) report for Greater-Than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW) and DOE equivalent special case waste contains preconceptual designs and planning level life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities needed for management of GTCC LLW and DOE equivalent waste. The report contains information on 16 facilities (referred to as cost modules). These facilities are treatment facility front-end and back-end support functions (administration support, and receiving, preparation, and shipping cost modules); seven treatment concepts (incineration, metal melting, shredding/compaction, solidification, vitrification, metal sizing and decontamination, and wet/air oxidation cost modules); two storage concepts (enclosed vault and silo); disposal facility front-end functions (disposal receiving and inspection cost module); and four disposal concepts (shallow-land, engineered shallow-land, intermediate depth, and deep geological cost modules). Data in this report allow the user to develop PLCC estimates for various waste management options. A procedure to guide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also included in this report.

  2. Towards a greater understanding of the illicit tobacco trade in Europe: a review of the PMI funded ‘Project Star’ report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Anna B; Rowell, Andy; Gallus, Silvano; Lugo, Alessandra; Joossens, Luk; Sims, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Following a legal agreement with the European Union (EU), Philip Morris International (PMI) commissions a yearly report (‘Project Star’, PS) on the European illicit cigarette trade from KPMG, the global accountancy firm. Methods Review of PS 2010 report. Comparison with data from independent sources including a 2010 pan-European survey (N=18 056). Findings Within PS, data covering all 27 EU countries are entered into a model. While the model itself seems appropriate, concerns are identified with the methodologies underlying the data inputs and thus their quality: there is little transparency over methodologies; interview data underestimate legal non-domestic product partly by failing to account for legal cross-border sales; illicit cigarette estimates rely on tobacco industry empty pack surveys which may overestimate illicit; and there is an over-reliance on data supplied by PMI with inadequate external validation. Thus, PMI sales data are validated using PMI smoking prevalence estimates, yet PMI is unable to provide sales (shipment) data for the Greek islands and its prevalence estimates differ grossly from independent data. Consequently, comparisons with independent data suggest PS will tend to overestimate illicit cigarette levels particularly where cross-border shopping is frequent (Austria, Finland, France) and in Western compared with Eastern European countries. The model also provides data on the nature of the illicit cigarette market independent of seizure data suggesting that almost a quarter of the illicit cigarette market in 2010 comprised PMI's own brands compared with just 5% counterfeited PMI brands; a finding hidden in PMI's public representation of the data. Conclusions PS overestimates illicit cigarette levels in some European countries and suggests PMI's supply chain control is inadequate. Its publication serves the interests of PMI over those of the EU and its member states. PS requires greater transparency, external scrutiny and

  3. Adults with Greater Weight Satisfaction Report More Positive Health Behaviors and Have Better Health Status Regardless of BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E. Blake

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prior studies suggest that weight satisfaction may preclude changes in behavior that lead to healthier weight among individuals who are overweight or obese. Objective. To gain a better understanding of complex relationships between weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, and health outcomes. Design. Cross-sectional analysis of data from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS. Participants. Large mixed-gender cohort of primarily white, middle-to-upper socioeconomic status (SES adults with baseline examination between 1987 and 2002 (n=19,003. Main Outcome Variables. Weight satisfaction, weight-related health behaviors, chronic health conditions, and clinical health indicators. Statistical Analyses Performed. Chi-square test, t-tests, and linear and multivariate logistic regression. Results. Compared to men, women were more likely to be dieting (32% women; 18% men and had higher weight dissatisfaction. Men and women with greater weight dissatisfaction reported more dieting, yo-yo dieting, and snacking and consuming fewer meals, being less active, and having to eat either more or less than desired to maintain weight regardless of weight status. Those who were overweight or obese and dissatisfied with their weight had the poorest health. Conclusion. Greater satisfaction with one’s weight was associated with positive health behaviors and health outcomes in both men and women and across weight status groups.

  4. Greater Caribbean Energy and Environment Future. Ad hoc working group report, Key Biscayne, Florida, October 26-28, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorhaug, A. (ed.)

    1980-01-01

    This report of Workshop I (presented in outline form) by the Greater Caribbean Energy and Environment Foundation begin an intensive focus on the energy problems of the Caribbean. The process by which environmental assessments by tropical experts can be successfully integrated into energy decisions is by: (1) international loan institutions requiring or strongly recommending excellent assessments; (2) engineering awareness of total effects of energy projects; (3) governmental environmental consciousness-raising with regard to natural resource value and potential inadvertent and unnecessary resource losses during energy development; and (4) media participation. Section headings in the outline are: preamble; introduction; research tasks: today and twenty years hence; needed research, demonstration and information dissemination projects to get knowledge about Caribbean energy-environment used; summary; recommendations; generalized conclusions; and background literature. (JGB)

  5. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  6. Child Depression: Prevalence and Comparison between Self-Reports and Teacher Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaureguizar, Joana; Bernaras, Elena; Garaigordobil, Maite

    2017-02-22

    Depression is one of the most worrying diseases nowadays. The study had three main purposes: 1) to identify the prevalence of depressive symptomatology in 7-10 year olds, exploring differences according to gender and age; 2) to analyze the consistency between self-reports and teacher reports; and 3) to explore the relationship between depression and academic performance. Regarding the methodology, the sample comprised 420 students aged between 7 and 10 years from the Basque Country (53.3% boys, 46.7% girls). With a descriptive, comparative and correlational design, 4 assessment instruments were used. Results from the self-reports showed a depression rate fluctuating between 4.6% and 4.8% (clinically significant), and between 4.3% and 5% (moderate depression). However, prevalence rates from teacher reports varied between 0.2% and 3.6% (clinically significant) and between 4.6% and 7.7% (moderate depression). The consistency rate between self-reports and teacher reports was small. Differences according to gender varied depending on the instruments used and depression was higher in boys (BASC, d = .23; SPECI d = .36). Symptomatology did not increase with age. Depression correlated negatively with academic performance (self-reported depression: CDS-T r = -.12, SPECI r = -.17; depression reported by teachers: CDS-T r = -.24, SPECI r = -.50). The importance of training teachers to better identify child depression is discussed, as well as the relevance of developing prevention programs.

  7. New reports, phylogenetic analysis, and a key to Lactarius Pers. in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem informed by molecular data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward G. Barge

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE, located in the Central Rocky Mountains of western North America, is one of the largest nearly intact temperate-zone ecosystems on Earth. Here, Lactarius is an important component of ectomycorrhizal communities in many habitat types, from low elevation riparian areas to high elevation conifer forests and alpine tundra. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of ITS and RPB2 gene sequences along with detailed morphological examination confirm at least 20 Lactarius species, as well as three varieties, and one unresolved species group in the GYE. Eight taxa are reported from the GYE for the first time, and nearly every major ectomycorrhizal host plant in the GYE appears to have at least one Lactarius species associated with it. Broad intercontinental distributions are suggested for alpine Salix and Betula associates, and for certain subalpine Picea and aspen (Populus spp. associates. Some species appear to be restricted to western North America with Pinus, Pseudotsuga or Abies. The distribution and/or host affinities of others is not clear due in part to ambiguous host assignment, taxonomic problems or the relative rarity with which they have been reported.

  8. Young adult cannabis users report greater propensity for risk-taking only in non-monetary domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Jodi M; Calderon, Vanessa; Curran, Max T; Evins, A Eden

    2015-02-01

    Though substance use is often associated with elevated risk-taking in real-world scenarios, many risk-taking tasks in experimental psychology using financial gambles fail to find significant differences between individuals with substance use disorders and healthy controls. We assessed whether participants using marijuana would show a greater propensity for risk-taking in distinct domains including, but not limited to, financial risk-taking. In the current study, we assessed risk-taking in young adult (age 18-25) regular marijuana users and in non-using control participants using a domain-specific risk-taking self-report scale (DOSPERT) encompassing five domains of risk-taking (social, financial, recreational, health/safety, and ethical). We also measured behavioral risk-taking using a laboratory monetary risk-taking task. Marijuana users and controls reported significant differences on the social, health/safety, and ethical risk-taking scales, but no differences in the propensity to take recreational or financial risks. Complementing the self-report finding, there were no differences between marijuana users and controls in their performance on the laboratory risk-taking task. These findings suggest that financial risk-taking may be less sensitive than other domains of risk-taking in assessing differences in risky behavior between those who use marijuana and those who do not. In order to more consistently determine whether increased risk-taking is a factor in substance use, it may be necessary to use both monetary risk-taking tasks and complementary assessments of non-monetary-based risk-taking measures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Greater Prevalence of Proposed DSM-5 Nicotine Use Disorder Compared to DSM-IV Nicotine Dependence in Treated Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tammy; Martin, Christopher S.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Cornelius, Jack R.; Clark, Duncan B.

    2011-01-01

    Aims Compared to DSM-IV nicotine dependence, proposed DSM-5 Nicotine Use Disorder (NUD) would lower the threshold from 3 to 2 symptoms, and increase the number of criteria used for diagnosis from 7 to 11. The impact of the proposed changes on nicotine disorder prevalence, and the concurrent validity of diagnostic criteria were examined. Design Cross-sectional survey to compare DSM-IV and proposed DSM-5 algorithms. Setting and Participants Adolescent (N=179) and young adult (N=292) past year cigarette users recruited from addictions treatment. Measurements Semi-structured clinical interview to evaluate DSM-IV nicotine dependence, and 10 of the 11 proposed DSM-5 NUD criteria; 30-day Time Line Follow-Back; and Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Findings Prevalence of proposed DSM-5 NUD (2-symptom threshold) was much higher (adolescents: 69%, young adults: 86%) than DSM-IV nicotine dependence (33% and 60%, respectively), although prevalence of DSM-5 severe NUD (4-symptom threshold) was similar to DSM-IV nicotine dependence. Concurrent validity analyses in both samples indicated consistent support for DSM-5 severe NUD diagnosis (4-symptoms) but not for the moderate NUD (2-symptoms) diagnosis, which had modest relations with only FTND score. IRT analyses indicated strong support for the new Craving item, but not for the proposed Interpersonal Problems and Hazardous Use items. Conclusions The proposed DSM-5 Nicotine Use Disorder criteria have substantial limitations when applied to adolescents and young adults, and appear to have low concurrent validity. PMID:22092543

  10. Ecology of Greater Sage-Grouse in the Bi-State Planning Area Final Report, September 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Michael L.; Overton, Cory T.; Farinha, Melissa A.; Torregrosa, Alicia; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Miller, Michael R.; Sedinger, James S.; Kolada, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Conservation efforts for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), hereafter sage-grouse, are underway across the range of this species. Over 70 local working groups have been established and are implementing on-the-ground sage-grouse oriented conservation projects. Early on in this process, the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) recognized the need to join in these efforts and received funding from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) under the Candidate Species Conservation Program to help develop a species conservation plan for sage-grouse in the Mono County area. This conservation plan covers portions of Alpine, Mono, and Inyo counties in California and Douglas, Esmeralda, Lyon, and Mineral counties in Nevada. A concurrent effort underway through the Nevada Governor's Sage-grouse Conservation Team established Local Area Working Groups across Nevada and eastern California. The Mono County populations of sage-grouse were encompassed by the Bi-State Local Planning Area, which was comprised of six population management units (PMUs). The state agencies from California (CDFG) and Nevada (Nevada Department of Wildlife; NDOW) responsible for the management of sage-grouse agreed to utilize the process that had begun with the Nevada Governor's Team in order to develop local plans for conservation planning and implementation. Resources from the USFWS were applied to several objectives in support of the development of the Bi-State Local Area Sage-grouse Conservation Plan through a grant to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Objectives included: (1) participate in the development of the Bi-State Conservation Plan, (2) compile and synthesize existing sage-grouse data, (3) document seasonal movements of sage-grouse, (4) identify habitats critical to sage-grouse, (5) determine survival rates and identify causal factors of mortality, (6) determine nest success and brood success of sage-grouse, and (7) identify sage-grouse lek sites. Progress reports

  11. A first insight into high prevalence of undiagnosed smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in Northern Ethiopian prisons: implications for greater investment and quality control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fantahun Biadglegne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB transmission in prisons poses significant risks to inmates as well as the general population. Currently, there are no data on smear-negative pulmonary TB cases in prisons and by extension no data on the impact such cases have on TB incidence. This study was designed to obtain initial data on the prevalence of smear-negative cases of TB in prisons as well as preliminary risk factor analysis for such TB cases. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted in November 2013 at eight main prisons located in the state of Amhara, Ethiopia. Interviews using a structured and pretested questionnaire were done first to identify symptomatic prisoners. Three consecutive sputum samples were collected and examined using acid fast bacilli (AFB microscopy at the point of care. All smear-negative sputum samples were taken for culture and Xpert testing. Descriptive and multivariate analysis was done using SPSS version 16. RESULTS: Overall the prevalence of smear-negative pulmonary TB cases in the study prisons was 8% (16/200. Using multivariate analysis, a contact history to TB patients in prison, educational level, cough and night sweating were found to be predictors of TB positivity among smear-negative pulmonary TB cases (p ≤ 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: In the studied prisons, high prevalence of undiagnosed TB cases using AFB microscopy was documented, which is an important public health concern that urgently needs to be addressed. Furthermore, patients with night sweating, non-productive cough, a contact history with TB patients and who are illiterate merit special attention, larger studies are warranted in the future to assess the associations more precisely. Further studies are also needed to examine TB transmission dynamics by patients with smear-negative pulmonary TB in a prison setting.

  12. Greater prevalence of seropositivity for anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody in unaffected first-degree relatives in multicase rheumatoid arthritis-affected families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Kyu; Bae, Jisuk; Lee, Hwajeong; Kim, Ji Hun; Park, Sung-Hoon; Choe, Jung-Yoon

    2013-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence and determinants of seropositivity for rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody, and anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin (anti-MCV) antibody in unaffected first-degree relatives (FDRs) of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. A total of 337 subjects (135 with RA and 202 FDRs) were enrolled in this case-control study. Serum RF, anti-CCP antibody, and anti-MCV antibody were assayed. Subjects in multicase families (≥ 2 affected FDRs within the same family) were identified. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors associated with RA-related autoantibodies. Seropositivity for RF, anti-CCP antibody, or anti-MCV antibody was detected in 14.4%, 5.0%, or 13.4% of unaffected FDRs, respectively. Anti-CCP antibody seropositivity was more prevalent in FDRs in multicase families (17.8%) than in those not in multicase families (1.3%, p autoantibodies were detected in the FDR group (between RF and anti-CCP antibody: r = 0.366, p < 0.0001; between RF and anti-MCV antibody: r = 0.343, p < 0.0001; and between anti-CCP antibody and anti-MCV antibody: r = 0.849, p < 0.0001). After adjustment for age and sex, anti-CCP antibody seropositivity in FDRs was significantly associated with being in a multicase family (odds ratio, 49.8; 95% confidence interval, 5.6 to 441.6). The association between anti-CCP antibody seropositivity in unaffected FDRs and being in a multicase family suggests that genetic and/or environmental factors may increase the risk for RA development in unaffected FDRs.

  13. Progress report 1988: predator control to enhance production of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon has declined from 181 pairs in 1986 when predator control began to 137...

  14. Progress report 1989: predator control to enhance the production of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon has declined from 236 pairs in 1971 to 181 pairs in 1986 when predator...

  15. Progress report 1987: predator control to enhance the production of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon has declined from 236 pairs in 1971 to 181 pairs in 1986. Nesting...

  16. Progress Report 1986 : Predator Control to Enhance the Production of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon has declined from 236 pairs in 1971 to 181 pairs in 1986. Nesting...

  17. Progress report 1991: predator control to enhance the production of greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon had declined from 236 pairs in 1971 to 181 pairs in 1986 when predator...

  18. Progress Report 1990: predator control to enhance the production of Greater Sandhill Cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The nesting population of greater sandhill cranes on Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon had declined from 236 pairs in 1971 to 181 pairs in 1986 when predator...

  19. Prevalence of antibodies to alphaviruses and flaviviruses in free-ranging game animals and nonhuman primates in the greater Congo basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kading, Rebekah C; Borland, Erin M; Cranfield, Mike; Powers, Ann M

    2013-07-01

    Vector-borne and zoonotic pathogens have comprised a significant proportion of the emerging infectious diseases in humans in recent decades. The role of many wildlife species as reservoirs for arthropod-borne viral pathogens is poorly understood. We investigated the exposure history of various African wildlife species from the Congo basin to mosquito-borne flaviviruses and alphaviruses by testing archived serum samples. Sera from 24 African forest buffalo (Syncerus caffer nanus), 34 African elephants (Loxodonta africana), 40 duikers (Cephalophus and Philantomba spp.), 25 mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), 32 mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei), five Grauer's gorillas (Gorilla beringei graueri), two L'Hoest's monkeys (Cercopithecus lhoesti), two golden monkeys (Cercopithecus kandti), and three chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) sampled between 1991 and 2009 were tested for antibodies against chikungunya virus (CHIKV), o'nyong-nyong virus (ONNV), West Nile virus (WNV), dengue 2 virus (DENV-2), and yellow fever virus (YFV) by plaque reduction neutralization test. Specific neutralizing antibodies against ONNV were found in African forest buffalo in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Gabon, duikers in the DRC, and mandrills in Gabon, providing novel evidence of enzootic circulation of ONNV in these countries. African forest buffalo in the DRC and Gabon also demonstrated evidence of exposure to CHIKV, WNV, and DENV-2, while mandrills in Gabon were antibody positive for CHIKV, DENV-2, WNV, and YFV. All of the elephants tested had a strong neutralizing antibody response to WNV. We also document results from a survey of gorillas for arboviruses, of which 4/32 (13%) had antibody to an alphavirus or flavivirus. Overall, our results demonstrate a high prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against multiple arboviruses in wildlife in equatorial Africa.

  20. Risk assessment and management of brucellosis in the southern greater Yellowstone area (II): Cost-benefit analysis of reducing elk brucellosis prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroff, Kari; Kauffman, Mandy; Peck, Dannele; Maichak, Eric; Scurlock, Brandon; Schumaker, Brant

    2016-11-01

    Recent cases of bovine brucellosis (Brucella abortus) in cattle (Bos taurus) and domestic bison (Bison bison) of the southern Greater Yellowstone Area (SGYA) have been traced back to free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus). Several management activities have been implemented to reduce brucellosis seroprevalence in elk, including test-and-slaughter, low-density feeding at elk winter feedgrounds, and elk vaccination. It is unclear which of these activities are most cost-effective at reducing the risk of elk transmitting brucellosis to cattle. In a companion paper, a stochastic risk model was used to translate a reduction in elk seroprevalence to a reduction in the risk of transmission to cattle. Here, we use those results to estimate the expected economic benefits and costs of reducing seroprevalence in elk using three different management activities: vaccination of elk with Brucella strain 19 (S19), low-density feeding of elk, and elk test-and-slaughter. Results indicate that the three elk management activities yield negative expected net benefits, ranging from -$2983 per year for low-density feeding to -$595,471 per year for test-and-slaughter. Society's risk preferences will determine whether strategies that generate small negative net benefit, such as low-density feeding, are worth implementing. However, activities with large negative net benefits, such as test-and-slaughter and S19 vaccination, are unlikely to be economically worthwhile. Given uncertainty about various model parameters, we identify some circumstances in which individual management activities might generate positive expected net benefit.

  1. Prevalência de hipertensão arterial e fatores associados em estudantes de Ensino Médio de escolas públicas da Região Metropolitana do Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil, 2006 Prevalence of high blood pressure and associated factors in students from public schools in Greater Metropolitan Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betânia da Mata Ribeiro Gomes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar a prevalência de hipertensão arterial sistêmica e fatores associados à saúde em adolescentes, por meio de estudo epidemiológico transversal de base populacional, realizado no período de abril a setembro de 2006, empregando amostragem estratificada segundo porte da escola e turnos. Utilizando-se o questionário Global School-based Student Health Survey, 1.878 estudantes de 29 escolas públicas da Região Metropolitana do Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil, foram investigados quanto a: idade; sexo; índice de massa corporal; consumo de frutas, verduras, álcool e tabaco; e pressão arterial, admitindo os parâmetros da Task Force Report on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescent, de 1996, para pressão arterial, do Centers for Disease Control and Prevention para estado nutricional. As prevalências de hipertensão arterial (medida apenas uma vez, sobrepeso e obesidade igualaram-se a 17,3%, 6,9% e 3,7%, respectivamente. Comportaram-se como fatores associados para hipertensão arterial: sexo masculino, obesidade, sobrepeso e falta de atividade física. Concluiu-se que o conhecimento dos fatores associados para hipertensão arterial em adolescentes poderá subsidiar campanhas de educação para a saúde.The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of systemic arterial hypertension (high blood pressure and associated health factors in adolescents, using a cross-sectional, population-based, epidemiological design from April to September 2006, within a stratified sample according to school size and shift. Using the Portuguese version of the Global School-Based Student Health Survey questionnaire, 1,878 students from 29 public schools in Greater Metropolitan Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, were analyzed for: age, gender, body mass index, fruit, vegetable, alcohol, and tobacco consumption, as well as blood pressure, adopting the 1996 Task Force Report on High Blood Pressure in Children and

  2. Case Report: Anteromedial temporosphenoidal encephalocele with a clinically silent lateral bony defect in the greater wing of the sphenoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Anoop

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Anteromedial temporosphenoidal encephalocele is the least common type of temporal encephalocele. It commonly presents with spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea in adults. This article presents the CT cisternography and MRI findings of one such case, which also had an associated clinically silent defect in the greater wing of the sphenoid on the same side.

  3. Self-Reported Cancer Prevalence among Hispanics in the US: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank J Penedo

    Full Text Available Cancer has surpassed heart disease as the leading cause of death among Hispanics in the U.S., yet data on cancer prevalence and risk factors in Hispanics in regard to ancestry remain scarce. This study sought to describe (a the prevalence of cancer among Hispanics from four major U.S. metropolitan areas, (b cancer prevalence across Hispanic ancestry, and (c identify correlates of self-reported cancer prevalence. Participants were 16,415 individuals from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL, who self-identified as Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Central or South American. All data were collected at a single time point during the HCHS/SOL baseline clinic visit. The overall self-reported prevalence rate of cancer for the population was 4%. The rates varied by Hispanic ancestry group, with individuals of Cuban and Puerto Rican ancestry reporting the highest cancer prevalence. For the entire population, older age (OR = 1.47, p < .001, 95% CI, 1.26-1.71 and having health insurance (OR = 1.93, p < .001, 95% CI, 1.42-2.62 were all significantly associated with greater prevalence, whereas male sex was associated with lower prevalence (OR = 0.56, p < .01, 95% CI, .40-.79. Associations between study covariates and cancer prevalence also varied by Hispanic ancestry. Findings underscore the importance of sociodemographic factors and health insurance in relation to cancer prevalence for Hispanics and highlight variations in cancer prevalence across Hispanic ancestry groups. Characterizing differences in cancer prevalence rates and their correlates is critical to the development and implementation of effective prevention strategies across distinct Hispanic ancestry groups.

  4. Self-Reported Cancer Prevalence among Hispanics in the US: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penedo, Frank J; Yanez, Betina; Castañeda, Sheila F; Gallo, Linda; Wortman, Katy; Gouskova, Natalia; Simon, Melissa; Arguelles, William; Llabre, Maria; Sanchez-Johnsen, Lisa; Brintz, Carrie; Gonzalez, Patricia; Van Horn, Linda; Rademaker, Alfred W; Ramirez, Amelie G

    2016-01-01

    Cancer has surpassed heart disease as the leading cause of death among Hispanics in the U.S., yet data on cancer prevalence and risk factors in Hispanics in regard to ancestry remain scarce. This study sought to describe (a) the prevalence of cancer among Hispanics from four major U.S. metropolitan areas, (b) cancer prevalence across Hispanic ancestry, and (c) identify correlates of self-reported cancer prevalence. Participants were 16,415 individuals from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL), who self-identified as Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Central or South American. All data were collected at a single time point during the HCHS/SOL baseline clinic visit. The overall self-reported prevalence rate of cancer for the population was 4%. The rates varied by Hispanic ancestry group, with individuals of Cuban and Puerto Rican ancestry reporting the highest cancer prevalence. For the entire population, older age (OR = 1.47, p < .001, 95% CI, 1.26-1.71) and having health insurance (OR = 1.93, p < .001, 95% CI, 1.42-2.62) were all significantly associated with greater prevalence, whereas male sex was associated with lower prevalence (OR = 0.56, p < .01, 95% CI, .40-.79). Associations between study covariates and cancer prevalence also varied by Hispanic ancestry. Findings underscore the importance of sociodemographic factors and health insurance in relation to cancer prevalence for Hispanics and highlight variations in cancer prevalence across Hispanic ancestry groups. Characterizing differences in cancer prevalence rates and their correlates is critical to the development and implementation of effective prevention strategies across distinct Hispanic ancestry groups.

  5. Self-reported prevalence of chronic non-communicable diseases and associated factors among older adults in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Phaswana-Mafuya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Little is known about the prevalence and predictors of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs of older adults in South Africa. This study aims to investigate the self-reported prevalences of major chronic NCDs and their predictors among older South Africans. Methods: We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional survey with a sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years or above in South Africa in 2008. The outcome variable was the self-reported presence of chronic NCDs suffered, namely, arthritis, stroke, angina, diabetes, chronic lung disease, asthma, depression, and hypertension. The exposure variables were sociodemographic characteristics: age, gender, education, wealth status, race, marital status, and residence. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine sociodemographic factors predictive of the presence of chronic NCDs. Results: The prevalence of chronic NCDs was 51.8%. The prevalence of multimorbidity (≥2 chronic conditions was 22.5%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that being female, being in age groups 60–79 and 70–79, being Coloured or Asian, having no schooling, having greater wealth, and residing in an urban area were associated with the presence of NCDs. Conclusion: The rising burden of chronic NCDs affecting older people places a heavy burden on the healthcare system as a result of increased demand and access to healthcare services. Concerted effort is needed to develop strategies for the prevention and management of NCDs, especially among economically disadvantaged individuals who need these services the most.

  6. Complicated sternal dehiscence treated with the strasbourg thoracic osteosyntheses system (STRATOS and the transposition of greater omentum: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casablanca Giuseppe

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sternal dehiscence is a serious complication after cardiac surgery. Sternal refixation, performed by simple rewiring or techniqual modification of rewiring as described by Robicsek, can fail, overall when the bone quality is poor or the sternum is completely destroyed. The sternal closure systems, consisting of plates, screws or rib clips and titanium bars, have been recently introduced to treat the complicated sternal dehiscence. We describe for the first time the use of the Strasbourg Thoracic Osteosyntheses System (STRATOS and the greater omentum, to treat a complicated sternal dehiscence, causing chest pain and respiratory failure.

  7. Preliminary report of hepatitis B virus genotype prevalence in Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed-Moayed Alavian; Hossein Keyvani; Mahdi Rezai; Neda Ashayeri; Homa Mohammad Sadeghi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes in Iranian hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers, chronic hepatitis B and cirrhotic patients.METIHODS: A total of 109 HBsAg-positive patients were included in this study. HBV genotypes were determined by using INNO-LiPA methodology which is based on the reverse hybridization principle.RESULTS: The distribution of patients with different stages of liver disease was as follows: 95 (86.4%) chronic hepatitis, 11 (10%) liver cirrhosis, and 3 (2.7%)inactive carrier. Of the chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis patients, 26.4% were HBeAg-positive while 70% were HBeAg-negative. Genotype D was the only detected type found in all patients. CONCLUSION: Classifying HBV into genotypes has to be cost-effective and clinically relevant. Our study indicates that HBV genotype D prevails in the Mediterranean area, Near and Middle East, and South Asia. Continued efforts for understanding HBV genotype through international co-operation will reveal further virological differences of the genotypes and their clinical relevance.

  8. EnergyWorks Final Report: A Better Buildings Neighborhood Program in the Five-County Greater Philadelphia Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gajewski, Katherine [City of Philadelphia

    2014-03-05

    This report covers the grant performance period of July 1, 2010-September 30, 2013 and discusses of the program design, outcomes and best practices as they relate to the following six areas: 1. Institutional Design and Business Model; 2. Program Design and Customer Experience; 3. Driving Demand; 4. Workforce Development; 5. Financing and Incentives; 6. Data and Evaluation.

  9. The role of partial recording protocols in reporting prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinkugbe, Aderonke; Iafolla, Timothy; Chattopadhyay, Amit; Garcia, Isabel; Adams, Amy; Kingman, Albert

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the role of partial recording protocols (PRPs) in reporting prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and assess whether prevalence/severity estimates derived from PRPs differ by race/ethnicity. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 1999-2004 were analyzed with Stata(®) v.11. Prevalence of dental fluorosis obtained from a full-mouth examination (28 teeth gold standard) was compared with estimates derived from four subsets of teeth (maxillary canine-to-canine; maxillary first-premolar-to-first-premolar; all-premolars; all-molars). Sensitivity, negative predictive value (NPV), absolute bias, and correction factors were calculated against gold standard estimate. Analysis was stratified according to race/ethnicity to assess differences in estimates derived from PRPs. All subsets underestimated prevalence albeit to varying degrees. Two subsets (all-premolars and all-molars) had prevalence and severity estimates closest to gold standard estimates. The all-molars subset (eight teeth) recorded the highest sensitivity (84.5%) and the lowest absolute bias (3.5%) of all subsets relative to gold standard. Subsets derived from esthetically relevant teeth produced the lowest fluorosis prevalence. For instance, the maxillary canine-to-canine subset underestimated prevalence by 9.5%; incorporating the maxillary first premolars in the span improved prevalence estimate by 31%. Among non-Hispanic Whites, the all-premolars subset produced estimates closest to gold standard while the all-molars subset produced estimates closest to the gold standard among non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics. While the majority of dental fluorosis in the United States is very mild, concerns regarding its growing prevalence underscore the need for careful monitoring. The use of PRPs offers an alternative method of assessment, with validity of reported prevalence and severity dependent on choice of subset. Published 2014. This article is a U

  10. Natural Recharge to the Unconfined Aquifer System on the Hanford Site from the Greater Cold Creek Watershed: Progress Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waichler, Scott R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2004-09-14

    Movement of contaminants in groundwater at the Hanford Site is heavily dependent on recharge to the unconfined aquifer. As the effects of past artificial discharges dissipate, the water table is expected to return to more natural conditions, and natural recharge will become the driving force when evaluating future groundwater flow conditions and related contaminant transport. Previous work on the relationship of natural recharge to groundwater movement at the Hanford Site has focused on direct recharge from infiltrating rainfall and snowmelt within the area represented by the Sitewide Groundwater Model (SGM) domain. However, part of the groundwater recharge at Hanford is provided by flow from Greater Cold Creek watershed (GCC), a large drainage area on the western boundary of the Hanford Site that includes Cold Creek Valley, Dry Creek Valley, and the Hanford side of Rattlesnake Mountain. This study was undertaken to estimate the recharge from GCC, which is believed to enter the unconfined aquifer as both infiltrating streamflow and shallow subsurface flow. To estimate recharge, the Distributed Hydrology-Soil-Vegetation Model (DHSVM) was used to simulate a detailed water balance of GCC from 1956 to 2001 at a spatial resolution of 200~m and a temporal resolution of one hour. For estimating natural recharge to Hanford from watersheds along its western and southwestern boundaries, the most important aspects that need to be considered are 1)~distribution and relative magnitude of precipitation and evapotranspiration over the watershed, 2)~streamflow generation at upper elevations and infiltration at lower elevations during rare runoff events, and 3)~permeability of the basalt bedrock surface underlying the soil mantle.

  11. Increased prevalence of self-reported psychotic illness predicted by crystal methamphetamine use: Evidence from a high-risk population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappin, Julia M; Roxburgh, Amanda; Kaye, Sharlene; Chalmers, Jenny; Sara, Grant; Dobbins, Timothy; Burns, Lucinda; Farrell, Michael

    2016-12-01

    The potential of methamphetamine, and high-potency crystal methamphetamine in particular, to precipitate psychotic symptoms and psychotic illness is the subject of much speculation internationally. Established psychotic illness is disabling for individuals and costly to society. The aim of this study was to investigate whether use of crystal methamphetamine was associated with greater prevalence of self-reported psychotic illness, compared to use of other forms of methamphetamine. The sample comprised participants interviewed as part of an annual cross-sectional survey of Australian people who inject drugs. Comparisons were made between groups according to the nature of their methamphetamine use: crystal methamphetamine or other forms of methamphetamine. Self-reported diagnoses of psychotic illness and other mental health problems were compared between groups. Predictors of self-reported psychotic illness were examined using multivariable logistic regression analyses. Self-reported psychotic illness was highly prevalent among users of crystal methamphetamine (12.0%), and significantly more so than among users of other forms of methamphetamine (3.9%) (OR=3.36; CI: 1.03-10.97). Significant predictors of self-reported psychosis in the cohort were: use of crystal methamphetamine; dependent use; lack of education beyond high school; and younger age. Highly increased prevalence of self-reported psychotic illness is associated with use of high-potency crystal methamphetamine in people who inject drugs, particularly where there is dependent use. There is an urgent need to develop effective interventions for dependent crystal methamphetamine use; and a need to monitor for symptoms of psychotic illness in drug-using populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of self-reported hypersensitivity symptoms following intake of alcoholic drinks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A.; Berg, N.D.; Gonzalez-Quintela, A.;

    2008-01-01

    symptoms from the upper and lower airways were significantly more prevalent in persons with AR and asthma (odds ratios between 3.0 and 8.1, P-value self-reported hypersensitivity symptoms following the intake...... of alcoholic drinks are common. These symptoms were markedly more prevalent in persons with AR and asthma. The underlying mechanisms and the clinical significance of these symptoms remain to be elucidated Udgivelsesdato: 2008/1...

  13. The Prevalence of Lying in America: Three Studies of Self-Reported Lies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serota, Kim B.; Levine, Timothy R.; Boster, Franklin J.

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the frequency and the distribution of reported lying in the adult population. A national survey asked 1,000 U.S. adults to report the number of lies told in a 24-hour period. Sixty percent of subjects report telling no lies at all, and almost half of all lies are told by only 5% of subjects; thus, prevalence varies widely and…

  14. Prevalence of self-reported allergic rhinitis in eleven major cities in china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luo; Han, Demin; Huang, Dan; Wu, Yangfeng; Dong, Zhen; Xu, Geng; Kong, Weijia; Bachert, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common disease and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. Data on the current prevalence of AR in China, one of the biggest countries in the world, with a population of around 1.3 billion citizens, are scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported AR in Chinese citizens. In a cross-sectional, population-based study, telephone interviews were conducted in 11 major cities in China after sampling target telephone numbers through the approach of random digital dialing. The questions for the telephone interviews were based on validated questionnaires. A total of 38,203 telephone interviews were conducted from September 2004 to May 2005. The response rate was 63.7%. After adjustment for age and gender, the self-reported prevalence of AR was lowest in Beijing (8.7%) and highest in Urumqi (24.1%). Among the subjects with self-reported AR, 25.6% were diagnosed with persistent AR and 74.4% suffered from intermittent AR. Less than half of the subjects with self-reported AR had presented at a health clinic. In 37.3% AR had previously been diagnosed by physicians, and 33.1% of subjects with self-reported AR had been treated. Comorbidities reported were asthma (9.2%), rhinosinusitis (13.3%) and atopic dermatitis (16.4%). This study demonstrates that the self-reported prevalence of AR in 11 cities across Mainland China has wide variations, ranging from 20%; 26% of the self-reported AR subjects were classified as suffering from persistent AR. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Reported Diabetes Mellitus Prevalence Rates in the Colombia Healthcare System from 2009 to 2012: Analysis by Regions Using Data of the Official Information Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barengo, Noël C; Tamayo, Diana Carolina

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the reported diabetes mellitus (DM) prevalence rates of the 20-79-year-old population in Colombia from 2009 to 2012 reported by the healthcare system. Information on number of patients treated for DM was obtained by the Integral Information System of Social Protection (SISPRO), the registry of the Ministry of Health and Social Protection, and the High Cost Account (CAC), an organization to trace high expenditure diseases. From both sources age-standardized reported DM prevalence rates per 100.000 inhabitants from 2009 to 2012 were calculated. Whereas the reported DM prevalence rates of SISPRO revealed an increase from 964/100.000 inhabitants (2009) to 1398/100.000 inhabitants in 2012 (mean annual increase 141/100.000; p value: 0.001), the respective rates in the CAC register were 1082/100.000 (2009) and 1593/100.000 in 2012 (mean annual increase 165/100.000; p value: 0.026). The number of provinces reporting not less than 19% of the highest national reported DM prevalence rates (1593/100.000) increased from two in 2009 to ten in 2012. Apparently, the registries and the information retrieving system have been improved during 2009 and 2012, resulting in a greater capacity to identify and report DM cases by the healthcare system.

  16. Reported Diabetes Mellitus Prevalence Rates in the Colombia Healthcare System from 2009 to 2012: Analysis by Regions Using Data of the Official Information Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barengo, Noël C.; Tamayo, Diana Carolina

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the reported diabetes mellitus (DM) prevalence rates of the 20–79-year-old population in Colombia from 2009 to 2012 reported by the healthcare system. Information on number of patients treated for DM was obtained by the Integral Information System of Social Protection (SISPRO), the registry of the Ministry of Health and Social Protection, and the High Cost Account (CAC), an organization to trace high expenditure diseases. From both sources age-standardized reported DM prevalence rates per 100.000 inhabitants from 2009 to 2012 were calculated. Whereas the reported DM prevalence rates of SISPRO revealed an increase from 964/100.000 inhabitants (2009) to 1398/100.000 inhabitants in 2012 (mean annual increase 141/100.000; p value: 0.001), the respective rates in the CAC register were 1082/100.000 (2009) and 1593/100.000 in 2012 (mean annual increase 165/100.000; p value: 0.026). The number of provinces reporting not less than 19% of the highest national reported DM prevalence rates (1593/100.000) increased from two in 2009 to ten in 2012. Apparently, the registries and the information retrieving system have been improved during 2009 and 2012, resulting in a greater capacity to identify and report DM cases by the healthcare system. PMID:26494999

  17. [Prevalence and Comorbidity of Self-Reported Diagnosis of Burnout Syndrome in the General Population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maske, Ulrike E; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Jacobi, Frank; Hapke, Ulfert

    2016-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and comorbid mental disorders of self-reported diagnosis of burnout syndrome in the general population of Germany. In the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (DEGS1) self-reported diagnosis of a burnout syndrome made by a physician or psychotherapist was assessed in a standardized interview (N = 7987). For N = 4483 mental disorders were determined with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Weighted lifetime and 12-month prevalences were calculated. Lifetime prevalence of diagnosed burnout syndrome was 4.2 % (women 5.2 %, men 3.3 %), 12-month prevalence was 1.5 % (women 1.9 %, men 1.1 %). Highest prevalences were found in 40 - 59 year olds, in people with middle and high socio economic status and in women with low and men with high social support. Among the 12-month cases, 70.9 % had at least one DSM-IV disorder. Associations were found for the diagnosis of burnout syndrome with somatoform, affective and anxiety disorders. The diagnosis of burnout syndrome is less frequently given and reported than expected. People with a burnout diagnosis often have a manifest mental disorder. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Prevalence of self-reported food hypersensitivity among school children in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, E.; Meulmeester, J.F.; Spee-Wekke, A. van der; Beuker, R.J.; Radder, J.J.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: To provide national figures on the prevalence of self-reported food hypersensitivity (S-FH), and the association with socio-demographic variables and some health indicators in schoolchildren in The Netherlands. Design: As part of the Child Health Monitoring System, data were collected

  19. Yoga Meditation Practitioners Exhibit Greater Gray Matter Volume and Fewer Reported Cognitive Failures: Results of a Preliminary Voxel-Based Morphometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Froeliger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hatha yoga techniques, including physical postures (asanas, breathing exercises (pranayama, and meditation, involve the practice of mindfulness. In turn, yoga meditation practices may induce the state of mindfulness, which, when evoked recurrently through repeated practice, may accrue into trait or dispositional mindfulness. Putatively, these changes may be mediated by experience-dependent neuroplastic changes. Though prior studies have identified differences in gray matter volume (GMV between long-term mindfulness practitioners and controls, no studies to date have reported on whether yoga meditation is associated with GMV differences. The present study investigated GMV differences between yoga meditation practitioners (YMP and a matched control group (CG. The YMP group exhibited greater GM volume in frontal, limbic, temporal, occipital, and cerebellar regions; whereas the CG had no greater regional greater GMV. In addition, the YMP group reported significantly fewer cognitive failures on the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ, the magnitude of which was positively correlated with GMV in numerous regions identified in the primary analysis. Lastly, GMV was positively correlated with the duration of yoga practice. Results from this preliminary study suggest that hatha yoga practice may be associated with the promotion of neuroplastic changes in executive brain systems, which may confer therapeutic benefits that accrue with repeated practice.

  20. Prevalence of neonatal hypothyroidism and phenylketonuria in Southern Thailand: A 10-year report

    OpenAIRE

    Yavamal Sutivijit; Arirat Banpavichit; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2011-01-01

    Background: Congenital hypothyroidism and phenylketonuria, the two major problems of several metabolic errors are presently the focus of attention, in Thailand. These two conditions are assigned as diseases to be controlled under the National Public Health Policies of Thailand. Materials and Methods: Here, the authors summarize and report the 10-year study on the prevalence of neonatal hypothyroidism and phenylketonuria in Southern Thailand. Results: This report is good representative data fr...

  1. Self-reported dysphagia and its correlates within a prevalent population of people with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Richard W; Dunn, Janet R; Gray, William K

    2011-03-01

    Many people with Parkinson's disease (PD) experience dysphagia; however, the prevalence of dysphagia in people with PD is unknown. We studied a prevalent population of PD cases. All of those who consented to participate were assessed for anxiety, depression, cognitive function, and quality of life using standard rating scales. Anyone who answered "yes" to either one of the two questions: Do you have difficulty swallowing food/liquid or tablets? and Do you cough after eating/drinking? was considered to have dysphagia. Question 7 of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) was also used to identify dysphagia. Of 106 prevalent PD cases, 75 (38 males) patients consented to examination and assessment. The prevalence of dysphagia was 32.0% (n=24; 11 males). Using the response to UPDRS Question 7 as an indicator of the impact of swallowing problems on the patient, there were significant correlations with cognitive function, anxiety, depression, quality of life, and UPDRS-reported gait disturbance, postural instability and problems with falling. There was no correlation with disease duration, age, or gender. Almost one third of the participants reported dysphagia. There was a strong correlation between dysphagia and gross motor skills; patients reporting such problems should be screened for swallowing problems. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

  2. Estimating the prevalence of chronic pain: validation of recall against longitudinal reporting (the HUNT pain study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmark, Tormod; Romundstad, Pål; Dale, Ola; Borchgrevink, Petter C; Kaasa, Stein

    2012-07-01

    Methods for classifying chronic pain in population studies are highly variable, and prevalence estimates ranges from 11% to 64%. Limited knowledge about the persistence of pain and the validity of recall questions defining chronic pain make findings difficult to interpret and compare. The primary aim of the current study was to characterize the persistence of pain in the general population and to validate recall measures against longitudinal reporting of pain. A random sample of 6419 participants from a population study (the HUNT 3 study in Norway) was invited to report pain on the SF-8 verbal pain rating scale every 3 months over a 12-month period and to report pain lasting more than 6 months at 12-month follow-up. Complete data were obtained from 3364 participants. Pain reporting was highly stable (intraclass correlation 0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.65 to 0.67), and the prevalence of chronic pain varied considerably according to level of severity and persistence: 31% reported mild pain or more, whereas 2% reported severe pain on 4 of 4 consecutive measurements. When defined as moderate pain or more on at least 3 of 4 consecutive measurements, the prevalence was 26%. Compared with the longitudinal classification, a cross-sectional measure of moderate pain or more during the last week on the SF-8 scale presented a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 84%, and a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 90% when combined with a 6-month recall question. Thus pain reporting in the general population is stable and cross-sectional measures may give valid prevalence estimates of chronic pain.

  3. Prevalence of Self-Reported Gluten Sensitivity and Adherence to a Gluten-Free Diet in Argentinian Adult Population

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Cabrera-Chávez; Dezar, Gimena V. A.; Anna P. Islas-Zamorano; Jesús G. Espinoza-Alderete; Vergara-Jiménez, Marcela J.; Dalia Magaña-Ordorica; Noé Ontiveros

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggest that the prevalence of wheat/gluten sensitivity and adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) are high in Latin population despite a poor diagnosis of celiac disease. However, these prevalence rates still remain unknown in most Latin American countries. Methods: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in Santa Fe, Argentina. Results: The estimated self-reported prevalence rates were (95% Confidence Interval [CI]): self-reported gluten sensitivity (SR-GS) ...

  4. Publication and other reporting biases in cognitive sciences: detection, prevalence, and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, John P A; Munafò, Marcus R; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Nosek, Brian A; David, Sean P

    2014-05-01

    Recent systematic reviews and empirical evaluations of the cognitive sciences literature suggest that publication and other reporting biases are prevalent across diverse domains of cognitive science. In this review, we summarize the various forms of publication and reporting biases and other questionable research practices, and overview the available methods for probing into their existence. We discuss the available empirical evidence for the presence of such biases across the neuroimaging, animal, other preclinical, psychological, clinical trials, and genetics literature in the cognitive sciences. We also highlight emerging solutions (from study design to data analyses and reporting) to prevent bias and improve the fidelity in the field of cognitive science research.

  5. Prevalence of self-reported symptoms and consequences related to inhalation of airborne chemicals in a Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan; Dirksen, Asger; Elberling, Jesper;

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and consequences of self-reported symptoms related to inhalation of airborne chemicals in a Danish general population.......To estimate the prevalence and consequences of self-reported symptoms related to inhalation of airborne chemicals in a Danish general population....

  6. Prevalence and Characterization of Self-Reported Gluten Sensitivity in The Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom van Gils

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A growing number of individuals reports symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food in the absence of celiac disease. Yet the actual prevalence is not well established. Methods: Between April 2015 and March 2016, unselected adults visiting marketplaces, dental practices and a university in The Netherlands were asked to complete a modified validated questionnaire for self-reported gluten sensitivity (srGS. Results: Among the 785 adults enquired, two had celiac disease. Forty-nine (6.2% reported symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food. These individuals were younger, predominantly female and lived more frequently in urban regions compared with the other respondents. Symptoms reported included bloating (74%, abdominal discomfort (49% and flatulence (47%. A total of 23 (47% srGS individuals reported having had tried a gluten-free or gluten-restricted diet. Abdominal discomfort related to fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol (FODMAP-containing food was more often reported in srGS individuals compared with the other respondents (73.5% vs. 21.7%, p < 0.001. Conclusion: Self-reported GS is common in The Netherlands, especially in younger individuals, females and urban regions, although the prevalence was lower than in a comparable recent UK study. It cannot be excluded that FODMAPs are in part responsible for these symptoms.

  7. Prevalence and Characterization of Self-Reported Gluten Sensitivity in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gils, Tom; Nijeboer, Petula; IJssennagger, Catharina E; Sanders, David S; Mulder, Chris J J; Bouma, Gerd

    2016-11-08

    A growing number of individuals reports symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food in the absence of celiac disease. Yet the actual prevalence is not well established. Between April 2015 and March 2016, unselected adults visiting marketplaces, dental practices and a university in The Netherlands were asked to complete a modified validated questionnaire for self-reported gluten sensitivity (srGS). Among the 785 adults enquired, two had celiac disease. Forty-nine (6.2%) reported symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food. These individuals were younger, predominantly female and lived more frequently in urban regions compared with the other respondents. Symptoms reported included bloating (74%), abdominal discomfort (49%) and flatulence (47%). A total of 23 (47%) srGS individuals reported having had tried a gluten-free or gluten-restricted diet. Abdominal discomfort related to fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol (FODMAP)-containing food was more often reported in srGS individuals compared with the other respondents (73.5% vs. 21.7%, p < 0.001). Self-reported GS is common in The Netherlands, especially in younger individuals, females and urban regions, although the prevalence was lower than in a comparable recent UK study. It cannot be excluded that FODMAPs are in part responsible for these symptoms.

  8. [Analysis of prevalence of self-reported hearing loss and associated factors: primary versus proxy informant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, André Luis Alves de; Leotti, Vanessa Bielefeldt; Goulart, Bárbara Niegia Garcia de

    2017-07-03

    The objective was to evaluate differences between prevalence rates for self-reported hearing loss and associated factors, obtained from responses by primary and proxy informants in a Population-Based Study on Human Communication Disorders (DCH-POP in Portuguese). This was a study on epidemiological methods using data from a cross-sectional household survey with a sample of 1,253 individuals from Southern Brazil. To verify differences between prevalence rates comparing primary informants and proxy informants, we used the chi-square or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and Mann-Whitney for continuous variables. The log-binomial model was adjusted for hearing loss as the dependent variable, considering three datasets: the entire sample, only primary informants, and only proxy informants, estimating association by prevalence ratios. In the final models, only the independent variables age and dizziness were associated with hearing loss, independently of the dataset that was used. Proxy informants generally underestimated the prevalence rates for the target outcomes, when compared to primary informants.

  9. First report of a mixed infection of Trichinella nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in a leopard (Panthera pardus from the Greater Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis J. La Grange

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available At least three Trichinella species, namely Trichinella nelsoni, Trichinella britovi and Trichinella zimbabwensis, and one genotype (Trichinella T8, have been isolated from sylvatic carnivores on the African continent. With the exception of T. britovi, the other species are known to circulate in wildlife of the Kruger National Park (KNP, South Africa, and KNP neighbouring game reserves (collectively known as the greater KNP area. Lions (Panthera leo and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta appear to be the most important reservoirs of T. nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in the KNP and surrounding areas. Interspecies predation between lions and hyenas has been implicated as a primary mode of maintaining the life cycles of these two Trichinella species. This is the first report of a mixed natural infection of T. nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in a leopard (Panthera pardus from South Africa. Trichinella muscle larvae were identified to species level by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Probable sources of infection, based on the known dietary preference and prey species’ range of leopards, are also discussed. The described occurrence of Trichinella species in a leopard from the greater KNP area raises the question of possible sources of infection for this predator species.

  10. First report of a mixed infection of Trichinella nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in a leopard (Panthera pardus) from the Greater Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Grange, Louis J; Reininghaus, Björn; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2014-11-20

    At least three Trichinella species, namely Trichinella nelsoni, Trichinella britovi and Trichinella zimbabwensis, and one genotype (Trichinella T8), have been isolated from sylvatic carnivores on the African continent. With the exception of T. britovi, the other species are known to circulate in wildlife of the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, and KNP neighbouring game reserves (collectively known as the greater KNP area). Lions (Panthera leo) and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) appear to be the most important reservoirs of T. nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in the KNP and surrounding areas. Interspecies predation between lions and hyenas has been implicated as a primary mode of maintaining the life cycles of these two Trichinella species. This is the first report of a mixed natural infection of T. nelsoni and Trichinella T8 in a leopard (Panthera pardus) from South Africa. Trichinella muscle larvae were identified to species level by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Probable sources of infection, based on the known dietary preference and prey species' range of leopards, are also discussed. The described occurrence of Trichinella species in a leopard from the greater KNP area raises the question of possible sources of infection for this predator species.

  11. Prevalence of overweight and self-reported chronic diseases among residents in Pulau Kundur, Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazri, S Mohd; Imran, M Kamarul; Ismail, I Mohd; Faris, A Ahmad

    2008-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the socio-demographic characteristics and prevalence of overweight/obesity and self-reported diabetes mellitus, hypertension and heart disease among the population in Pulau Kundur, Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. This study was conducted in September 2005. We randomly selected 120 of 240 households in Pulau Kundur, Kota Bharu, Kelantan. Fifteen interviewers were trained to use a structured questionnaire to interview 348 adult respondents age 18 years and older in the selected houses. The mean age was 40.7 years; 52.7% were females and 99.4% were Malay. Sixty-two point seven percent were married and 50.9% of them had Ujian Penilaian Sekolah Rendah (UPSR) or less education. The mean head of family income was RM 532.4. The mean body mass index was 25.3. The overall prevalence of overweight/obesity, known hypertension, diabetes mellitus and heart disease were 49.1, 12.6, 7.8 and 2.0% respectively. Adults in this village had a high prevalence of overweight and obesity and self-reported chronic diseases. Health education and lifestyle modification are needed for those adults.

  12. Prevalence and severity of self-reported asthma in young adults, 1976-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browatzki, A; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Lange, P

    2009-01-01

    index, especially >30 kg.m(-2), was associated with a lower percentage predicted FEV1 (pasthma and obesity on FEV1. The proportion of smokers declined from 60 to 38% (pasthma have continued......The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence and severity of asthma in young Danish adults over three decades. Males and females aged 20-35 yrs were sampled from the population of Copenhagen for the three surveys (1976-1978, 1991-1993 and 2001-2004). A total of 3,285 (46% male......) subjects answered a questionnaire, and had their height, weight, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity measured. The prevalence of self-reported asthma was 1.5, 4.7 and 6.9%, respectively, in the three surveys (pasthma was observed in both...

  13. Prevalence and patterns of self-reported animal-related injury among veterinarians in metropolitan Kampala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabuusu, Richard M; Keku, Emmanuel O; Kiyini, Robert; McCann, Theresa J

    2010-12-01

    To establish the prevalence, patterns and risk factors of animal-related injuries among veterinarians, self-administered questionnaires were given to 60 veterinarians practicing in metropolitan Kampala. The prevalence of animal-related injuries in metropolitan Kampala was 72% (95%CI, 57~84). Some veterinarians (34%) suffered multiple injuries with a mean and median of 2.1 and 2.0 injuries per veterinarian, respectively. Of a total of 70 self-reported animal related injuries, cattle accounted for 72%, cats for 25%, dogs for 23%, self inoculation for 15% and birds for 13%. Injuries associated with poultry did not require hospital treatment. The upper limb was the most the frequently (68%) injured anatomical body part of veterinarians, and vaccination of animals (25%) was the major activity associated with injury. Animal-related injuries are common among practicing veterinarians in metropolitan Kampala; however, they did not differ significantly based on the veterinarian's gender, experience or risk awareness.

  14. Prevalence of hearing loss and accuracy of self-report among factory workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie C McCullagh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise represents one of the most common occupational health hazards. A Healthy People 2020 objective aims to reduce hearing loss in the noise-exposed public. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare perceived and measured hearing, and to determine the prevalence of hearing loss among a group of factory workers. Data collected as part of an intervention study promoting hearing protector use among workers at an automotive factory in the Midwest were used. Plant employees (n=2691 provided information regarding their perceived hearing ability, work role, and other demographics. The relationships among audiograms, a single-item measure of perceived hearing ability, and demographic data were explored using chi-square, McNemar′s test, Mann-Whitney U-test, sensitivity, and specificity. The prevalence of hearing loss among noise-exposed factory workers was 42% (where hearing loss was defined as >25 dB loss at the OSHA-recommended frequencies of 2, 3, and 4 kHz in either ear. However, 76% of workers reported their hearing ability as excellent or good. The difference in perceived hearing ability was significant at each tested frequency between those with and without measured hearing loss. Self-reported hearing ability was poorly related to results of audiometry. Although this group of workers was employed in a regulated environment and served by a hearing conservation program, hearing loss was highly prevalent. These findings, together with national prevalence estimates, support the need for evaluation of hearing conservation programs and increased attention to the national goal of reducing adult hearing loss.

  15. Extermination strategies reported in the NYC Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2004: prevalence and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Nancy L; Kelvin, Elizabeth A

    2013-07-01

    It is likely that household extermination is a major source of pesticide exposure for urban residents. Little is known about the predictors of residential pest control strategies in urban areas, and greater knowledge of these may help identify who is at risk for higher pesticide exposure. Study data is from the 2004 NYC Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, a cross-sectional, population-based study using a three-stage sampling scheme. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of pesticide use overall, and of application strategy: (1) consumer-applied pesticides only, (2) use of a professional exterminator only, or (3) use of both. Consumer-applied extermination was more prevalent than professional or both professional and consumer (39.9% versus 27.8% and 15.9%, respectively, and non-exclusively). In multivariate models among those who used any extermination, consumer application was associated with age 60 years+, being black or Asian, and being widowed, divorced, or single. Lower income households were more likely to use both strategies, and less likely to use professional extermination only. Urban residents may benefit from targeted education on how and when to self-apply pesticides, and on best-practice pest control to avoid unnecessary pesticide exposure. Higher prevalence of consumer-applied and conjoint consumer and professionally applied extermination in low-income households may reflect both economic determinants of first recourse and higher neighborhood infestation levels.

  16. First field investigation report on the prevalence of trypanosomosis in camels in northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Swai,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitological evaluation of equine trypanosomosis in 193 camels (49 male and 144 female from 8 geographical localities of northern, Tanzania were carried out during the period of June-August 2010. The evaluation was carried out using Giemsa stained microscopy examination of blood smear. The overall detected prevalence of camel trypanosomosis was 8.2% with highest prevalence in Kilindi district (100% and with most of the positive slides showing 2+ and 3+. A higher infection was found in brought-in as compared to homebred camels (18.1% vs. 0.9%; P<0.05. When body score condition was considered, infection rate was 100, 6.8 and 3.5% in camels recorded to have poor, fair and good body score, respectively. It was concluded that camel trypanosomosis is prevalent in camel herds and administrative localities, source, and body condition score were identified as important risk factors for the distribution of camel trypanosomosis in the area under study. To our knowledge, this is the first report for the detection of trypanosome pathogen in camels in Tanzania.

  17. Prevalence of self-reported stroke and disability in the French adult population: a transversal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Schnitzler

    Full Text Available In France, the prevalence of stroke and the level of disability of stroke survivors are little known. The aim of this study was to evaluate functional limitations in adults at home and in institutions, with and without self-reported stroke. A survey named "the Disability Health survey" was carried out in people's homes (DHH and in institutions (DHI. Medical history and functional level (activities-of-daily-living, ADL and instrumented-activities-of-daily-living IADL were collected through interviews. The modified Rankin score (mRS and the level of dependence and disability were compared between participants with and without stroke. 33896 subjects responded. The overall prevalence of stroke was 1.6% (CI95% [1.4%-1.7%]. The mRS was over 2 for 34.4% of participants with stroke (28.7% of participants at home and 87.8% of participants in institutions versus respectively 3.9%, 3.1% and 71.6% without stroke. Difficulty washing was the most frequently reported ADL for those with stroke (30.6% versus 3% for those without stroke. Difficulty with ADL and IADL increased with age but the relative risk was higher below the age of 60 (17 to 25 than over 85 years (1.5 to 2.2, depending on the ADL. In the overall population, 22.6% of those confined to bed or chair reported a history of stroke. These results thus demonstrate a high national prevalence of stroke. Older people are highly dependent, irrespective of stroke history and the relative risk of dependence in young subjects with a history of stroke is high compared with those without.

  18. Patient-reported prevalence and symptomatic burden of uterine fibroids among women in the United States: findings from a cross-sectional survey analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuldeore MJ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mahesh J Fuldeore, Ahmed M Soliman Health Economics and Outcomes Research, AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, IL, US Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of women diagnosed with uterine fibroids and the associated symptom burden in the US.Patients and methods: Responses of women aged 18–54 years, who completed an online survey, were analyzed. Data were weighted based on age, education, race, geographic region, income, and propensity score to derive national estimates of the prevalence of women diagnosed with uterine fibroids and associated symptom burden. Weighted means and percentages were reported. Prevalence across age and ethnic groups was examined. Symptom burden among women with and without uterine fibroids was compared using weighted logistic regressions.Results: Of 59,411 respondents who met study inclusion criteria, 7.7% reported receiving a diagnosis of uterine fibroids. Of these, 5,670 women (1,402 in the uterine fibroid group and 4,268 in the control group were excluded from analysis because they had a hysterectomy. Among the non-hysterectomized study participants, 3,031 self-reported a diagnosis of uterine fibroids (prevalence: 5.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.5%–6.1%; prevalence increased as women aged and was greatest in the 50–54 age group (11.4%; 95% CI: 10.4%–12.4%. In addition, prevalence was greater in black vs white women (9.8%; 95% CI: 8.7%–11.0% vs 5.4%; 95% CI: 5.1%–5.7%. A greater percentage of women with uterine fibroids (vs those without experienced severe heavy menstrual bleeding (16.7% vs 7.7%, severe constipation/bloating/diarrhea (7.7% vs 4.7%, severe passage of clots (6.7% vs 2.4%, severe spotting/bleeding between periods (1.7% vs 1.0%, and severe pelvic pressure (1.6% vs 0.6%. Among uterine fibroid patients with these typical uterine fibroid-related symptoms, 56.4%, 32.3%, 26.4%, 25.8%, and 20.4% reported heavy menstrual bleeding, passage of clots, spotting/bleeding between periods, constipation

  19. Systematic review on the primary and secondary reporting of the prevalence of ghostwriting in the medical literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretton, Serina

    2014-01-01

    Background Ghostwriting of industry-sponsored articles is unethical and is perceived to be common practice. Objective To systematically review how evidence for the prevalence of ghostwriting is reported in the medical literature. Data sources MEDLINE via PubMed 1966+, EMBASE 1966+, The Cochrane Library 1988+, Medical Writing 1998+, The American Medical Writers Association (AMWA) Journal 1986+, Council of Science Editors Annual Meetings 2007+, and the Peer Review Congress 1994+ were searched electronically (23 May 2013) using the search terms ghostwrit*, ghostauthor*, ghost AND writ*, ghost AND author*. Eligibility criteria All publication types were considered; only publications reporting a numerical estimate of possible ghostwriting prevalence were included. Data extraction Two independent reviewers screened the publications; discrepancies were resolved by consensus. Data to be collected included a numerical estimate of the prevalence of possible ghostwriting (primary outcome measure), definitions of ghostwriting reported, source of the reported prevalence, publication type and year, study design and sample population. Results Of the 848 publications retrieved and screened for eligibility, 48 reported numerical estimates for the prevalence of possible ghostwriting. Sixteen primary publications reported findings from cross-sectional surveys or descriptive analyses of published articles; 32 secondary publications cited published or unpublished evidence. Estimates on the prevalence of possible ghostwriting in primary and secondary publications varied markedly. Primary estimates were not suitable for meta-analysis because of the various definitions of ghostwriting used, study designs and types of populations or samples. Secondary estimates were not always reported or cited correctly or appropriately. Conclusions Evidence for the prevalence of ghostwriting in the medical literature is limited and can be outdated, misleading or mistaken. Researchers should not inflate

  20. Prevalence, seriousness and reporting of work-related violence in the Danish elderly care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharipova, Muborak; Borg, Vilhelm; Hogh, Annie

    2008-12-01

    A survey study (paper and pencil) among staff of elderly care institutions in 36 Danish municipalities (n = 9949) was conducted in 2005 with a response rate of 78%. The majority of the participants of the study were women (96%). The paper presents the prevalence, perpetrators, seriousness (self-rated seriousness, injuries, sick leave and type of violence) of work-related physical violence towards care workers in the Danish elderly care and the frequency of reporting the incidents to the safety organization. The findings show that every fourth caregiver was exposed to violence in 2005. Care personnel working in nursing homes and integrated institutions had the highest prevalence of violence (40%) and were also most often (10%) exposed to violence. Clients were most often (>90% of cases) the perpetrators. The most frequent types of violence were hitting (63%) and scratching/pinching (63%). Being held (32%) or kicked (27%) was also mentioned as frequent types of violence; use of weapon, throwing or hitting with a hard objects were more seldom. Nearly 1/3 of the exposed respondents rated at least one incident as very serious. There were significant associations between self-rated seriousness and type of violence, injuries and sick leave. The incidents were, in particular when perpetrators were clients, often rated as not serious. Only 22% of the victims of violence reported the violent incidents to the safety organizations. Reports of violent incidents were significantly associated with frequency of exposure, type of violence, physical injury, sick leave and perpetrators. The more frequent and most serious cases were reported most often and cases where the perpetrators were clients were reported less often than when perpetrators were others. It has been suggested that underreporting of violence occurs because it is time consuming, lacks supervisory support, because it won't make any difference, because it is part of the job, and also because there is a tendency to

  1. Prevalence and Characterization of Self-Reported Gluten Sensitivity in The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gils, Tom; Nijeboer, Petula; IJssennagger, Catharina E.; Sanders, David S.; Mulder, Chris J. J.; Bouma, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Background: A growing number of individuals reports symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food in the absence of celiac disease. Yet the actual prevalence is not well established. Methods: Between April 2015 and March 2016, unselected adults visiting marketplaces, dental practices and a university in The Netherlands were asked to complete a modified validated questionnaire for self-reported gluten sensitivity (srGS). Results: Among the 785 adults enquired, two had celiac disease. Forty-nine (6.2%) reported symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food. These individuals were younger, predominantly female and lived more frequently in urban regions compared with the other respondents. Symptoms reported included bloating (74%), abdominal discomfort (49%) and flatulence (47%). A total of 23 (47%) srGS individuals reported having had tried a gluten-free or gluten-restricted diet. Abdominal discomfort related to fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol (FODMAP)-containing food was more often reported in srGS individuals compared with the other respondents (73.5% vs. 21.7%, p FODMAPs are in part responsible for these symptoms. PMID:27834802

  2. Effect of gender on hospital admissions for asthma and prevalence of self-reported asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Lange, P; Vestbo, J

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Women are more often admitted to hospital for asthma than men. A study was undertaken to determine whether this is caused by gender differences in the prevalence or severity of the disease. METHODS: Admissions to hospital for asthma in 13,540 subjects were followed from 1977 to 1993. ......% confidence interval 1.2 to 2.4). This increased risk was not due to misclassification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as asthma. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate gender-related differences in either the severity, perception, or management of asthma.......BACKGROUND: Women are more often admitted to hospital for asthma than men. A study was undertaken to determine whether this is caused by gender differences in the prevalence or severity of the disease. METHODS: Admissions to hospital for asthma in 13,540 subjects were followed from 1977 to 1993....... RESULTS: At baseline 315 subjects (2.3%) reported asthma, 2.2% of women and 2.5% of men. During follow up 160 subjects were admitted to hospital for asthma. After controlling for self-reported asthma and smoking, women had a higher risk of being admitted to hospital than men (relative risk 1.7, 95...

  3. The prevalence of self-reported deliberate self harm in Irish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arensman Ella

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deliberate self harm is major public health problem, in particular among young people. Although several studies have addressed the prevalence of deliberate self harm among young people in the community, little is known about the extent to which deliberate self harm comes to the attention of medical services, the self harm methods used and the underlying motives. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of deliberate self harm in adolescents and the methods, motives and help seeking behaviour associated with this behaviour. Methods A cross-sectional survey using an anonymous self-report questionnaire was administered in 39 schools in the Southern area of the Health Service Executive, Ireland. Of the 4,583 adolescents aged 15–17 years who were invited to participate in the survey, 3,881 adolescents took part (response: 85%. Results A lifetime history of DSH was reported by 9.1% (n = 333 of the adolescents. DSH was more common among females (13.9% than males (4.3%. Self cutting (66.0% and overdose (35.2% were the most common DSH methods. A minority of participants accessed medical services after engaging in DSH (15.3%. Conclusion DSH is a significant problem in Irish adolescents and the vast majority do not come to the attention of health services. Innovative solutions for prevention and intervention are required to tackle DSH in adolescents.

  4. The prevalence of self-reported deliberate self harm in Irish adolescents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morey, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deliberate self harm is major public health problem, in particular among young people. Although several studies have addressed the prevalence of deliberate self harm among young people in the community, little is known about the extent to which deliberate self harm comes to the attention of medical services, the self harm methods used and the underlying motives. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of deliberate self harm in adolescents and the methods, motives and help seeking behaviour associated with this behaviour. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey using an anonymous self-report questionnaire was administered in 39 schools in the Southern area of the Health Service Executive, Ireland. Of the 4,583 adolescents aged 15-17 years who were invited to participate in the survey, 3,881 adolescents took part (response: 85%). RESULTS: A lifetime history of DSH was reported by 9.1% (n = 333) of the adolescents. DSH was more common among females (13.9%) than males (4.3%). Self cutting (66.0%) and overdose (35.2%) were the most common DSH methods. A minority of participants accessed medical services after engaging in DSH (15.3%). CONCLUSION: DSH is a significant problem in Irish adolescents and the vast majority do not come to the attention of health services. Innovative solutions for prevention and intervention are required to tackle DSH in adolescents.

  5. Child abuse and the prevalence of suicide attempts among those reporting suicide ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael S; Dykxhoorn, Jennifer; Afifi, Tracie O; Colman, Ian

    2016-11-01

    Victims of child abuse may be at increased risk of acting on suicide ideation, although this has not been empirically tested. We estimated the risk of suicide attempts associated with child abuse among individuals who reported suicide ideation. Secondary analysis of data from the population-based Canadian Community Health Survey Mental Health (n = 828). This population-based survey included various structured questionnaires, including the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to assess mental illness and suicidal thoughts and behaviours. Approximately 80 % of those who attempted suicide had a history of child abuse. Poor mental health, financial difficulties, poor coping skills, and reporting a suicide plan were also associated with an increased prevalence of attempting suicide; adjusted for these factors, child abuse was associated with a 1.77-fold increased prevalence (95 % CI 0.93, 3.36) of suicide attempts. Most individuals who attempt suicide experience child abuse, and worse health and social functioning. Adopting a life-course perspective to understand trajectories of suicide risk factors may inform prevention and treatment.

  6. Dizziness reported by elderly patients in family practice: prevalence, incidence, and clinical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Weert Henk C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although dizziness in elderly patients is very common in family practice, most prevalence studies on dizziness are community-based and include a study population that is not representative of family practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and incidence of dizziness reported by elderly patients in family practice, to describe their final diagnoses as recorded by the family physician, and to compare the clinical characteristics of dizzy patients with those of non-dizzy patients. Methods Data were obtained from the Second Dutch National Survey of General Practice, a prospective registration study which took place over a 12-month period in 2001. We developed a search strategy consisting of 15 truncated search terms (based on Dutch synonyms for dizziness, and identified all patients aged 65 or older who visited their family physician because of dizziness (N = 3,990. We used the mid-time population as denominator to calculate the prevalence and incidence, and for group comparisons we used the Student's t and Chi-square test, and logistic regression analysis. Results The one-year prevalence of dizziness in family practice in patients aged 65 or older was 8.3%, it was higher in women than in men, and it increased with age. In patients aged 85 or older the prevalence was similar for men and women. The incidence of dizziness was 47.1 per 1000 person-years. For 39% of the dizzy patients the family physicians did not specify a diagnosis, and recorded a symptom diagnosis as the final diagnosis. Living alone, lower level of education, pre-existing cerebrovascular disease, and pre-existing hypertension were independently associated with dizziness. Conclusions Dizziness in family practice patients increases with age. It is more common in women than in men, but this gender difference disappears in the very old. Because a large proportion of dizzy elderly patients in family practice remains undiagnosed, it would be

  7. Prevalence of neonatal hypothyroidism and phenylketonuria in Southern Thailand: A 10-year report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavamal Sutivijit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital hypothyroidism and phenylketonuria, the two major problems of several metabolic errors are presently the focus of attention, in Thailand. These two conditions are assigned as diseases to be controlled under the National Public Health Policies of Thailand. Materials and Methods: Here, the authors summarize and report the 10-year study on the prevalence of neonatal hypothyroidism and phenylketonuria in Southern Thailand. Results: This report is good representative data from Thailand, a country in Southeast Asia. Another interesting point in this study is the concern of the recalling process. Conclusion: It can be seen that there are a considerable number of infants who did not receive the confirmation test due to loss of follow-up after calling for a recheck.

  8. Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported disability: a comparison between genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicíssimo, Mônica Faria; Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Andrade, Amanda Cristina de Souza; Andrade, Roseli Gomes de; Costa, Dário Alves da Silva; Xavier, César Coelho; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2017-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of disability and its association with sociodemographic and health characteristics stratified by sex. This is a cross-sectional study with a probabilistic sample including 4,048 residents aged ≥ 18 years in two health districts of Belo Horizonte (MG), Brazil, during the period from 2008 to 2009. The outcome variable "disability" was established based on self-reported problems in body functions or structures. Sociodemographic characteristics ("sex," "age," "skin color," "marital status," "years of schooling," and "family income") and health ("reported morbidity," "health self-assessment," "quality of life," and "life satisfaction") were the explanatory variables. We applied the multivariate decision tree analysis by using the Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector algorithm. The overall prevalence of disability corresponded to 10.4% and it was higher in females (11.9%; confidence interval - 95%CI 10.2 - 13.6) than in males (8.7%; 95%CI 6.8 - 10.5). In the multivariate analysis, "age" and "morbidity" in females, and "low educational level" and "poor health self-assessment" in males were the variables that best discriminated disability. Disability self-reporting was more frequent among women of working age (40 to 59 years-old) and with lower incomes, as well as in men with lower educational levels and incomes. With regard to health conditions, the highest disability percentages were seen among subjects of both genders that reported three or more diseases and worsened perception of health. Results reinforce the need for a distinct approach, since women of working age and men with lower educational level are more vulnerable to the occurrence of disability.

  9. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy in different age groups of georgian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomidze, N; Gotua, M

    2015-04-01

    Epidemiological studies in high income countries suggested that a big proportion of the population in Europe and America report adverse reactions to food. Self-reported prevalence of food allergy varied from 1.2% to 17% for milk, 0.2% to 7% for egg, 0% to 2% for peanuts and fish, 0% to 10% for shellfish, and 3% to 35% for any food. The aim of our study was to report the prevalence of self-reported food allergy in the different age groups of Georgian population and to reveal the most common self-reported food allergens. ISAAC phase III study methodology and questionnaires were used for data collection. Questions about food allergy were added to the survey and involved questions about self-reported food allergy. 6-7 years old 6140 children (response rate-94,5%) and 13-14 years old 5373 adolescents (response rate-86,9%) from two locations of Georgia, Tbilisi and Kutaisi were surveyed. 500 randomly assessed adults from Tbilisi aged 18 years and older were added later (response rate-97,6%). Findings revealed that self-reported food allergy among 6-7 years old age group and 13-14 years old age were almost the same (15,7% and 15,9% correspondingly) and slightly lower in adult population - 13,9%. Study revealed, that hen's egg was the commonest implicated food for 6-7 years age group, hazel nut - for 13-14 years old age group followed by hen's egg. Walnut and hazel nut were most reported foods for adult population. The findings also revealed that food allergy is one of the most important risk factor for symptoms associated with asthma (OR-3,05; 95%CI 2.50-3.74), rhinoconjunctivitis (OR-2,85; 95%CI 2.24-3.64) and eczema (OR-5,42; 95%CI 4.08-7.18) in childhood. The data has provided the first epidemiological information related to food allergy among children and adults in Georgia. Results should serve as baseline information for food allergy screening, diagnosis and treatment. Our findings can also inform the public health officials on the disease burden and may offer some

  10. Preliminary Report: Analysis of the baseline study on the prevalence of Salmonella in laying hen flocks of Gallus gallus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    This is a preliminary report on the analysis of the Community-wide baseline study to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella in laying hen flocks. It is being published pending the full analysis of the entire dataset from the baseline study. The report contains the elements necessary for the establ......This is a preliminary report on the analysis of the Community-wide baseline study to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella in laying hen flocks. It is being published pending the full analysis of the entire dataset from the baseline study. The report contains the elements necessary...

  11. Prevalence and correlates of self-reported state of teeth among schoolchildren in Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åstrøm Anne N

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health status in India is traditionally evaluated using clinical indices. There is growing interest to know how subjective measures relate to outcomes of oral health. The aims of the study were to assess the prevalence and correlates of self-reported state of teeth in 12-year-old schoolchildren in Kerala, India. Methods Cross-sectional survey data were used. The sample consisted of 838 12-year-old schoolchildren. Data was collected using clinical examination and questionnaire. The clinical oral health status was recorded using Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT and Oral Hygiene Index – Simplified (OHI-S. The questionnaire included questions on sociodemographics, self reports of behaviour, knowledge and oral problems and a single-item measuring self-reported state and satisfaction with appearance of teeth. The Kappa values for test-retest of the questionnaire ranged from 0.55 to 0.97. Results Twenty-three per cent of the schoolchildren reported the state of teeth as bad. Multivariate logistic regression showed significant associations between schoolchildren who reported to have bad teeth and poor school performance (Odds Ratio (OR = 2.5, having bad breath (OR = 2.4, food impaction (OR = 1.7 dental visits (OR = 1.6, being dissatisfied with appearance of teeth (OR = 4.2 and caries experience (OR = 1.7. The explained variance was highest when the variables dental visits, bleeding gums, bad breath, food impaction and satisfaction with appearance were introduced into the model (19%. Conclusion A quarter of 12-year-olds reported having bad teeth. The self-reported bad state of teeth was associated with poor school performance, having bad breath and food impaction, having visited a dentist, being dissatisfied with teeth appearance and having caries experience. Information from self-reports of children might help in planning effective strategies to promote oral health.

  12. EuroPrevall survey on prevalence and pattern of self-reported adverse reactions to food and food allergies among primary schoolchildren in Vilnius, Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaliūnas, Andrius; Surkienė, Genė; Dubakienė, Rūta; Stukas, Rimantas; Zagminas, Kęstutis; Saulytė, Jurgita; Burney, Peter G; Kummeling, Ischa; Mills, Clare

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the research was to assess the prevalence and pattern of self-reported adverse reactions to food and food allergies among primary schoolchildren in Vilnius. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Vilnius University was a partner in the EuroPrevall project. A total of 4333 schoolchildren from 13 primary schools participated in the study. Of all 4333 questionnaires distributed, 3084 were returned (response rate, 71.2%). This screening phase was followed by the second (clinical) part with an objective confirmative laboratory analysis of blood samples for the diagnosis of food allergy. For the research purposes, 186 blood samples for IgE were analyzed. RESULTS. Almost half of the children had an illness or a disorder caused by eating food. The prevalence of adverse reactions to food was found to be increasing with age from 6 to 10 years. Food allergy was diagnosed in 16.4% of children. Boys had food allergy more frequently than girls. Diarrhea or vomiting and a rash, urticarial rash, or itchy skin were the most commonly mentioned symptoms. Fruits, berries, and milk and dairy were found to be the most common foods to cause adverse reactions. The most relevant foods for children with IgE-mediated food allergy were cow's milk and hazelnuts. CONCLUSIONS. The prevalence of self-reported food hypersensitivity among primary schoolchildren was observed in almost half of the studied population. Fruits, berries, and milk and dairy were the most common foods to cause adverse reactions among primary schoolchildren in Lithuania. The determined differences in the prevalence of food hypersensitivity and IgE-mediated food allergy and associations with gender and age need further scientific analysis for the development of prognostic and diagnostic tools.

  13. Regional differences in self-reported screening, prevalence and management of cardiovascular risk factors in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Paccaud, Fred

    2012-03-28

    In Switzerland, health policies are decided at the local level, but little is known regarding their impact on the screening and management of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). We thus aimed at assessing geographical levels of CVRFs in Switzerland. Swiss Health Survey for 2007 (N = 17,879). Seven administrative regions were defined: West (Leman), West-Central (Mittelland), Zurich, South (Ticino), North-West, East and Central Switzerland. Obesity, smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes prevalence, treatment and screening within the last 12 months were assessed by interview. After multivariate adjustment for age, gender, educational level, marital status and Swiss citizenship, no significant differences were found between regions regarding prevalence of obesity or current smoking. Similarly, no differences were found regarding hypertension screening and prevalence. Two thirds of subjects who had been told they had high blood pressure were treated, the lowest treatment rates being found in East Switzerland: odds-ratio and [95% confidence interval] 0.65 [0.50-0.85]. Screening for hypercholesterolemia was more frequently reported in French (Leman) and Italian (Ticino) speaking regions. Four out of ten participants who had been told they had high cholesterol levels were treated and the lowest treatment rates were found in German-speaking regions. Screening for diabetes was higher in Ticino (1.24 [1.09 - 1.42]). Six out of ten participants who had been told they had diabetes were treated, the lowest treatment rates were found for German-speaking regions. In Switzerland, cardiovascular risk factor screening and management differ between regions and these differences cannot be accounted for by differences in populations' characteristics. Management of most cardiovascular risk factors could be improved.

  14. Regional differences in self-reported screening, prevalence and management of cardiovascular risk factors in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques-Vidal Pedro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Switzerland, health policies are decided at the local level, but little is known regarding their impact on the screening and management of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs. We thus aimed at assessing geographical levels of CVRFs in Switzerland. Methods Swiss Health Survey for 2007 (N = 17,879. Seven administrative regions were defined: West (Leman, West-Central (Mittelland, Zurich, South (Ticino, North-West, East and Central Switzerland. Obesity, smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes prevalence, treatment and screening within the last 12 months were assessed by interview. Results After multivariate adjustment for age, gender, educational level, marital status and Swiss citizenship, no significant differences were found between regions regarding prevalence of obesity or current smoking. Similarly, no differences were found regarding hypertension screening and prevalence. Two thirds of subjects who had been told they had high blood pressure were treated, the lowest treatment rates being found in East Switzerland: odds-ratio and [95% confidence interval] 0.65 [0.50-0.85]. Screening for hypercholesterolemia was more frequently reported in French (Leman and Italian (Ticino speaking regions. Four out of ten participants who had been told they had high cholesterol levels were treated and the lowest treatment rates were found in German-speaking regions. Screening for diabetes was higher in Ticino (1.24 [1.09 - 1.42]. Six out of ten participants who had been told they had diabetes were treated, the lowest treatment rates were found for German-speaking regions. Conclusions In Switzerland, cardiovascular risk factor screening and management differ between regions and these differences cannot be accounted for by differences in populations' characteristics. Management of most cardiovascular risk factors could be improved.

  15. Quality of life and symptom prevalence as reported by children with cancer in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Saad Huijer, Huda; Sagherian, Knar; Tamim, Hani

    2013-12-01

    To date, there are no studies on quality of life (QoL) and symptom prevalence reported by pediatric oncology patients in Lebanon. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the QoL, symptom prevalence and symptom management among a sample of pediatric oncology patients. The study design was cross-sectional. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) cancer module and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale were administered in Arabic using face-to-face interviews to a convenience sample of 85 pediatric cancer patients (7-18 years) at a tertiary hospital in Lebanon. The mean age of the study group was 12.5 years with leukemia being the most common cancer (43.5%). The lowest scores on the PedsQL subscales were in nausea (score = 64.82; SD = 25.76) and worry (score = 68.14; SD = 30.07), thus indicating more problems in these areas. A comparison based on age showed significant differences in pain and hurt, nausea, and worry. In children (7-12 years), lack of appetite, pain, and nausea were mostly prevalent whereas adolescents (13-18 years) experienced lack of energy, irritability, and pain. In both age groups, pain and nausea were the most frequently treated symptoms. Overall, the participants had good health-related QoL as indicated by most of the PedsQL subscales. Symptom management was found to be inadequate and in some cases ineffective. More attention should be given to the management of symptoms in general using pharmacological and non-pharmacological techniques. Of particular importance is the importance of providing psychological support to alleviate symptom burden and improve QoL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence and associated features of self-reported freezing of gait in Parkinson disease: The DEEP FOG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amboni, M; Stocchi, F; Abbruzzese, G; Morgante, L; Onofrj, M; Ruggieri, S; Tinazzi, M; Zappia, M; Attar, M; Colombo, D; Simoni, L; Ori, A; Barone, P; Antonini, A

    2015-06-01

    Freezing of Gait (FOG) is a common and disabling symptom in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). The relationship between FOG and dopaminergic medication is complex. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of self-reported FOG, its associated clinical features, and its relationship with wearing-off in a wide PD population. This is an observational multicenter study of 634 consecutive non-demented PD patients. Patients were identified either as freezers or non-freezers based on item-3 of the Freezing of Gait-Questionnaire. FOG was then classified as on, off and onoff freezing based on its relationship with wearing-off. Patients were assessed with Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, Hoehn and Yahr scale, 8-item Parkinson's disease Questionnaire, Mini-Mental State Examination. Data from 593 patients were analyzed, 325 (54.3%) were freezers of whom 200 (61.6%) experienced FOG only during off state (off-freezers), 6 (1.8%) only during on state and 119 (36.6%) either in on and off states or independently of dopaminergic response-related symptoms (onoff-freezers). Overall, freezers vs non-freezers had longer disease duration, more advanced disease and greater disability. Moreover, freezers more frequently reported wearing-off and experienced worse quality of life. Onoff-freezers vs off-freezers were older, more severely disabled, less likely to experience wearing-off, treated with lower levodopa equivalent daily dose and with poorer cognitive performance. Self-reported FOG is mainly recognizable in advanced PD and is associated with more disability and worse quality of life. Onoff-FOG may represent the result of under-treatment or rather interpretable as a distinct clinical entity.

  17. Retinal tears and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment after intravitreal injections: its prevalence and case reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabag, Revan Yildirim; Parlak, Melih; Cetin, Gölgem; Yaman, Aylin; Osman Saatci, A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report the prevalence of postoperative retinal tear or rhegmatogenous retinal detachment secondary to intravitreal injections. Methods Surgical and medical records of patients who received intravitreal injections at the practice of a single retina specialist from January 2004 to May 2013 and who were followed for at least 6 months were investigated retrospectively. Results During the study period, a total of 3,907 intravitreal injections were performed in 1,049 eyes of 784 patients (416 males [47%]). The mean number of injections per eye was 3.72 ± 3.43 (range, 1–22). The mean age of the participants was 67.03 ± 13.56 (range, 5–94 years). The mean follow-up time was 31.98 ± 22.86 months (range, 6–144 months). Retinal break or rhegmatogenous retinal detachment occurred in 3 injections of 3 eyes, yielding an overall prevalence of 0.077% per injection and 0.29% per eye. Conclusions Retinal tear and rhegmatogenous detachment are rare complications of intravitreal injection. Precautions should be taken especially in patients having predisposing conditions, such as high myopia, or any other vitreoretinal disorders. PMID:27330458

  18. Prevalence of and factors associated with self-reported high blood pressure in Brazilian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze factors associated with self-reported high blood pressure among adults in Brazilian state capitals. METHODS The study uses data from Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (Vigitel – Surveillance System of Risk and Protection Factors of Noncommunicable Diseases by Telephone Survey collected in 2013. Prevalence rates and their respective 95% confidence intervals by gender were estimated according to sociodemographic variables, lifestyle, reported noncommunicable diseases and self-rated health status. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to identify variables associated with self-reported high blood pressure with α < 0.05. RESULTS Prevalence of self-reported high blood pressure among adults living in Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District was 24.1%. The following variables were associated with self-reported high blood pressure: age group, taking 18-24 as reference (all age groups presented increased risk – from 25-34 years [OR = 2.6; 95%CI 2.0–3.4] up to 65 years or more [OR = 28.1; 95%CI 21.7–36.4]; low education level (9 to 11 years of study [OR = 0.8; 95%CI 0.7–0.9] and 12 years or more [OR = 0.6; 95%CI 0.6–0.7]; Black race or skin color (OR = 1.3; 95%CI 1.1–1.5; being a former smoker (OR = 1.2; 95%CI 1.1–1.3; obesity (OR = 2.7; 95%CI 2.4–3.0; diabetes (OR = 2.9; 95%CI 2.5–3.5%, and high cholesterol (OR = 1.9; 95%CI 1.8–2.2. CONCLUSIONS Approximately one quarter of the adult population living in Brazilian state capitals reported having high blood pressure. Information from Vigitel is useful to monitor high blood pressure and identity its associated factors, supporting public policies for health promotion, surveillance and care.

  19. Self-reported fever, treatment actions and malaria infection prevalence in the northern states of Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelgadir Tareg M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiology of fevers and their management in areas of low malaria transmission in Africa is not well understood. The characteristics of fever, its treatment and association with infection prevalence from a national household sample survey in the northern states of Sudan, an area that represents historically low parasite prevalence, are examined in this study. Methods In October-November 2009, a cluster sample cross-sectional household malaria indicator survey was undertaken in the 15 northern states of the Sudan. Data on household assets and individual level information on age, sex, whether the individual had a fever in the last 14 days and on the day of survey, actions taken to treat the fever including diagnostic services and drugs used and their sources were collected. Consenting household members were asked to provide a finger-prick blood sample and examined for malaria parasitaemia using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT. All proportions and odds ratios were weighted and adjusted for clustering. Results Of 26,471 respondents 19% (n = 5,299 reported a history of fever within the last two weeks prior to the survey and 8% had fever on the day of the survey. Only 39% (n = 2,035 of individuals with fever in last two weeks took any action, of which 43% (n = 875 were treated with anti-malarials. About 44% (n = 382 of malaria treatments were done using the nationally recommended first-line therapy artesunate+sulphadoxine-pryrimethamine (AS+SP and 13% (n = 122 with non-recommended chloroquine or SP. Importantly 33.9% (n = 296 of all malaria treatments included artemether monotherapy, which is internationally banned for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. About 53% of fevers had some form of parasitological diagnosis before treatment. On the day of survey, 21,988 individuals provided a finger-prick blood sample and only 1.8% were found positive for Plasmodium falciparum. Infection prevalence was higher among individuals who

  20. Italian cancer figures, report 2014: Prevalence and cure of cancer in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This Report intends to estimate the total number of people still alive in 2010 after cancer diagnosis in Italy, regardless of the time since diagnosis, and to project these estimates to 2015. This study is also aimed to estimate the number of already cured cancer patients, whose mortality rates have become undistinguishable from that of the general population of the same age and sex. The study took advantage of the information from the AIRTUM database, which included 29 Cancer Registries (covering 21 million people, 35% of the Italian population). A total of 1,624,533 cancer cases diagnosed between 1976 and 2009 contributed to the study. For each registry, the observed prevalence was calculated. Prevalence for lengths of time exceeding the maximum duration of the registration and of the complete prevalence were derived by applying an estimated correction factor, the completeness index. This index was estimated by means of statistical regression models using cancer incidence and survival data available in registries with 18 years of observation or more. For 50 types or combinations of neoplasms, complete prevalence was estimated at 1.1.2010 as an absolute number and as a proportion per 100,000 inhabitants by sex, age group, area of residence, and years since diagnosis. Projections of complete prevalence for 1.1.2015 were computed under the assumption of a linear trend of the complete prevalence observed until 2010. Validated mixture cure models were used to estimate: the cure fraction, that is the proportion of patients who, starting from the time of diagnosis, are expected to reach the same mortality rate of the general population; the conditional relative survival (CRS), that is the cumulative probability of surviving some additional years, given that patients already survived a certain number of years; the time to cure, that is the number of years necessary so that conditional survival in the following five years (5-year CRS) exceeds the conventional threshold of

  1. The prevalence and reliability of self-reported penicillin allergy in a community hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khasawneh FA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Faisal A Khasawneh,1 Megan A R Slaton,2 Stephen L Katzen,2 Ashley A Woolbert,2 Sean D Anderson,2 Michelle B Parker,2 Rachel M Anderson,2 Krystal K Haase,3 Roger D Smalligan41Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, 2School of Medicine, 3School of Pharmacy, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Amarillo, TX, USABackground: Penicillin (PCN accounts for most cases of antibiotic allergies. Reported PCN allergy deprives the patient from this class of antibiotics and creates hesitancy in using other beta-lactam antibiotics. The aim of this study is to report the prevalence of self-reported PCN allergy among adult patients admitted to the hospital and to examine the probable validity of these reports.Methods: A questionnaire was conducted among 192 patients with self-reported PCN allergy who were admitted to a community hospital between July 25, 2011 and January 25, 2012. Patients admitted with an infection and treated with a beta-lactam were also followed until hospital discharge.Results: The mean age of patients at the time of their self-reported allergic reaction was 20.3 years. The most common allergic symptoms reported in decreasing order of frequency were itchy rash, angioedema, and urticaria. Based on analysis of the questionnaires, 121 patients (63.0% had probable PCN allergy, 54 (28.1% had possible PCN allergy, and 17 (8.9% were unlikely to have a PCN allergy. Fifty-one participants (26.6% had self-reported subsequent exposure to PCN in their life. This subsequent exposure was well tolerated in 86.3% of the participants. Fifty participants (25.9% had self-reported subsequent exposure to a first generation cephalosporin and it was well tolerated in 78.4% of them.Conclusion: Taking a detailed history from patients with self-reported PCN allergy can help to distinguish a true PCN allergy from a false positive report of allergy and hence allow clinicians to use this important class

  2. Increase in self-reported migraine prevalence in the Danish adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Han; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Skytthe, Axel

    2012-01-01

    It is uncertain whether migraine prevalence has increased in modern society. The aim of this study was to assess any change in migraine prevalence over an 8-year period among the adult population in Denmark.......It is uncertain whether migraine prevalence has increased in modern society. The aim of this study was to assess any change in migraine prevalence over an 8-year period among the adult population in Denmark....

  3. Violência na gestação entre usuárias de serviços públicos de saúde da Grande São Paulo: prevalência e fatores associados Violence during pregnancy among public health care users in the Greater São Paulo area: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Garcia Durand

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta investigação é estimar a prevalência da violência por parceiro íntimo na gestação entre usuárias de serviços públicos de saúde da Grande São Paulo e verificar sua associação com fatores sociodemográficos, de saúde reprodutiva, sexual e mental. A estratégia metodológica deste estudo consistiu na realização de entrevistas estruturadas (questionário com 1.922 usuárias, entre 15 e 49 anos, em 14 serviços públicos de saúde. A análise dos dados revelou que 20% das usuárias que já engravidaram (IC95% 18,2 a 21,8 referem algum episódio de violência por parceiro íntimo na gestação. Em análise multivariada, observou-se que 'ter sofrido violência psicológica e física perpetrada por familiar', 'início da vida sexual antes dos 19 anos', 'recusa de uso de camisinha pelo parceiro', 'Transtorno Mental Comum' e 'não coabitar com parceiro' são fatores associados à violência na gestação. Conclui-se que a alta prevalência da violência por parceiro íntimo na gestação, sua associação com diversos fatores de saúde sexual, reprodutiva e mental são resultados que indicam a relevância de se tomar a violência como questão de saúde.OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of IPV (intimate partner violence during pregnancy and its association with demographic and reproductive, sexual and mental health factors among public health care users in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: a interview with 1,922 health care users, ages 15 to 49, in 14 public healthcare services. RESULTS: 20% (CI95% 18.2 to 21.8 reported IPV during pregnancy. Multiple logistic regression indicated that frequent family violence, having more than 2 pregnancies, beginning sexual life before 19 years of age, partner's refusal to wear condom, mental health problems, and being single are factors associated with IPV during pregnancy. CONCLUSION: The high prevalence rate for IPV during pregnancy indicates that this issue should be regarded as a

  4. Prevalence, correlates, and description of self-reported diabetes in brazilian capitals - results from a telephone survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betine Pinto Moehlecke Iser

    Full Text Available The prevalence of diabetes is increasing worldwide. The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of self-reported diabetes in Brazilian adults and to describe its population correlates as well as the clinical characteristics of the reported cases.We analyzed basic and supplementary data of 54.144 subjects participating in VIGITEL 2011 (Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases, a telephone survey based on a probabilistic sample of subjects ≥ 18 years old residing in Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District. Estimates reported are weighted so as to represent the surveyed population.The prevalence of self-reported diabetes was 6.3% (95% CI 5.9-6.7, increasing markedly with age and nutritional status, and decreasing with level of education. Prevalence was higher among those self-declaring their race/color as black. Most cases (90% reported the diagnosis being made at 35 years or older. The vast majority (99.8% of self-reported cases informed having previously performed at least one glucose test, and 76% of those not reporting diabetes also informed having previously performed glucose testing. Most cases (92.6% reported following some form of diabetes treatment, 79% taking medication.The estimated prevalence of known diabetes found, 6.3%, is consistent with estimates given by international summaries. The additional data collected in VIGITEL 2011 regarding previous glucose testing and current treatment support the use of telephone-based information to monitor the prevalence of known diabetes in Brazilian capitals.

  5. Suicidal ideation among inmate-patients in state prison: prevalence, reluctance to report, and treatment preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Bruce B; Kaufman, Andrew R; Knoll, James L; Chlebowski, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, willingness to report, and treatment preferences for suicidal ideation among state prison inmates. The Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS) and a novel questionnaire were completed by 67 inmate-patients. The BSS score was in the high range for 15% of general population (GP) and 40% of Intermediate Care Program (ICP) patients, with 19% of ICP inmates reporting a "moderate to strong" desire to commit suicide. A majority (64% GP, 86% ICP) had prior suicide attempt(s). Forty-two percent of GP and 31% of ICP inmate-patients were unlikely to tell mental health staff about suicidal thoughts. Family contact and talking with mental health staff were preferred interventions. ICP inmates preferred staff visits and observation in their own cells, but GP inmates did not. Only a small minority (14% GP, 21% ICP) favored transfer to a crisis observation cell, but the least desired option was talking to a corrections officer. While many inmate-patients reported experiencing suicidal thoughts, they preferred not to inform staff. Almost 80% did not favor the current primary intervention: the observation cell. Alternative or supplementary options should be considered. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Lodging Update: Greater Boston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Roginsky

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pinnacle Advisory Group provides an update of lodging industry performance in New England and Boston for the first half of 2012. While the New England region outpaced the nation, the specific story varies from state to state. Only Massachusetts and Vermont achieved REVPAR performance better than the national average. A review of the Greater Boston lodging market reveals that a healthy local economy and strong convention calendar, combined with a number of one-time events and limited new supply, boosted the local market in 2012. The outlook for 2013 in Greater Boston remains positive, with expectations of a 4.7% growth in REVPAR.

  7. Extraspinal incidental findings on routine MRI of lumbar spine: Prevalence and reporting Rates in 1278 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuncel, Sedat Alpaslan; Cagli, Bekir; Tekatas, Aslan; Kirici, Yadigar Mehmet; Unlu, Ercument; Genchellac, Haken [Trakya University Faculty of Medicine, Balkan Campus, Edirne (Turkmenistan)

    2015-08-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and reporting rate of incidental findings (IF) in adult outpatients undergoing lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Re-evaluation of a total of 1278 lumbar MRI images (collected from patients with a mean age of 50.5 years, range 16-91 years) captured between August 2010-August 2011 was done by a neuroradiologist and a musculoskeletal radiologist. IFs were classified according to organ or system (liver, gallbladder, kidney, bladder, uterus, ovary, lymph node, intestine and aorta). The rate of reporting of a range of IF was examined. The outcome of each patient's treatment was evaluated based on review of hospital records and by telephone interviews. A total of 253 IFs were found in 241 patients (18.8% of 1278). Among these, clinically significant IFs (n = 34) included: 2 renal masses (0.15%), 2 aortic aneurysms (0.15%), 2 cases of hydronephrosis (0.15%), 11 adrenal masses (0.86%), 7 lymphadenopathies (0.55%), 6 cases of endometrial or cervical thickening (0.47%), 1 liver hemangioma (0.08%), 1 pelvic fluid (0.08%) and 2 ovarian dermoid cysts (0.15%). Overall, 28% (71/253) of IFs were included in the clinical reports, while clinically significant findings were reported in 41% (14/34) of cases. Extraspinal IFs are commonly detected during a routine lumbar MRI, and many of these findings are not clinically significant. However, IFs including clinically important findings are occasionally omitted from formal radiological reports.

  8. Trends in self-reported prevalence and management of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes in Swiss adults, 1997-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Switzerland has a low mortality rate from cardiovascular diseases, but little is known regarding prevalence and management of cardiovascular risk factors (CV RFs: hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes) in the general population. In this study, we assessed 10-year trends in self-reported prevalence and management of cardiovascular risk factors in Switzerland. Methods data from three national health interview surveys conducted between 1997 and 2007 in representative samples of the Swiss adult population (49,261 subjects overall). Self-reported CV RFs prevalence, treatment and control levels were computed. The sample was weighted to match the sex - and age distribution, geographical location and nationality of the entire adult population of Switzerland. Results self-reported prevalence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes increased from 22.1%, 11.9% and 3.3% in 1997 to 24.1%, 17.4% and 4.8% in 2007, respectively. Prevalence of self-reported treatment among subjects with CV RFs also increased from 52.1%, 18.5% and 50.0% in 1997 to 60.4%, 38.8% and 53.3% in 2007 for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, respectively. Self-reported control levels increased from 56.4%, 52.9% and 50.0% in 1997 to 80.6%, 75.1% and 53.3% in 2007 for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, respectively. Finally, screening during the last 12 months increased from 84.5%, 86.5% and 87.4% in 1997 to 94.0%, 94.6% and 94.1% in 2007 for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes, respectively. Conclusion in Switzerland, the prevalences of self-reported hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and diabetes have increased between 1997 and 2007. Management and screening have improved, but further improvements can still be achieved as over one third of subjects with reported CV RFs are not treated. PMID:21332996

  9. Prevalence and bother of patient-reported lower urinary tract symptoms in the muscular dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Laura A; Askeland, Eric J; Mathews, Katherine D; Erickson, Bradley A; Cooper, Christopher S

    2016-12-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and the less severe Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) are characterized by progressive muscle weakness and eventual loss of ambulation, and result from mutations in the dystrophin gene. Dystrophin is essential for skeletal muscle functioning but its role in smooth muscle function is not as well established. In a retrospective review, our group previously demonstrated that roughly half of these patients have at least one documented urologic diagnosis, most commonly being lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and nephrolithiasis. To better understand the frequency of LUTS and the degree to which they impact quality of life in this patient population, we performed a cross-sectional evaluation. Following IRB approval, a survey modified from multiple validated surveys was distributed to DMD and BMD patients. The survey contained questions derived from multiple validated questionnaires, including the American Urological Association Symptom Score and the Dysfunctional Voiding Symptoms Score, which assessed both the frequency of lower urinary tract symptoms (i.e. urinary urgency, frequency, enuresis, dysuria, and bowel function) as well as how bothersome patients found these symptoms. Of the 56 respondents (mean age 15.3; range 4-33), 40 (71.4%) reported at least one LUTS, most commonly urgency (n = 31, 55%) and hesitancy of stream (n = 32, 57%) (Figure). Although the majority of the patients reported being happy with their symptoms, 16% (n = 9) expressed dissatisfaction. We did not find any correlation between LUTS and disease progression, as measured by years non-ambulatory, on chi-square analysis. In this cross-sectional study of the frequency and degree of bother of LUTS in D/BMD patients, we found that a high percentage experience LUTS. Despite this high prevalence, the majority report that they are not especially bothered by these symptoms; however, over 16% express dissatisfaction with their current LUTS. With this patient

  10. Hypertension: Development of a prediction model to adjust self-reported hypertension prevalence at the community level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mentz Graciela

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate estimates of hypertension prevalence are critical for assessment of population health and for planning and implementing prevention and health care programs. While self-reported data is often more economically feasible and readily available compared to clinically measured HBP, these reports may underestimate clinical prevalence to varying degrees. Understanding the accuracy of self-reported data and developing prediction models that correct for underreporting of hypertension in self-reported data can be critical tools in the development of more accurate population level estimates, and in planning population-based interventions to reduce the risk of, or more effectively treat, hypertension. This study examines the accuracy of self-reported survey data in describing prevalence of clinically measured hypertension in two racially and ethnically diverse urban samples, and evaluates a mechanism to correct self-reported data in order to more accurately reflect clinical hypertension prevalence. Methods We analyze data from the Detroit Healthy Environments Partnership (HEP Survey conducted in 2002 and the National Health and Nutrition Examination (NHANES 2001–2002 restricted to urban areas and participants 25 years and older. We re-calibrate measures of agreement within the HEP sample drawing upon parameter estimates derived from the NHANES urban sample, and assess the quality of the adjustment proposed within the HEP sample. Results Both self-reported and clinically assessed prevalence of hypertension were higher in the HEP sample (29.7 and 40.1, respectively compared to the NHANES urban sample (25.7 and 33.8, respectively. In both urban samples, self-reported and clinically assessed prevalence is higher than that reported in the full NHANES sample in the same year (22.9 and 30.4, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy between clinical and self-reported hypertension prevalence were ‘moderate to good’ within

  11. [Greater trochanteric pain syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollwitzer, H; Opitz, G; Gerdesmeyer, L; Hauschild, M

    2014-01-01

    Greater trochanteric pain is one of the common complaints in orthopedics. Frequent diagnoses include myofascial pain, trochanteric bursitis, tendinosis and rupture of the gluteus medius and minimus tendon, and external snapping hip. Furthermore, nerve entrapment like the piriformis syndrome must be considered in the differential diagnosis. This article summarizes essential diagnostic and therapeutic steps in greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Careful clinical evaluation, complemented with specific imaging studies and diagnostic infiltrations allows determination of the underlying pathology in most cases. Thereafter, specific nonsurgical treatment is indicated, with success rates of more than 90 %. Resistant cases and tendon ruptures may require surgical intervention, which can provide significant pain relief and functional improvement in most cases.

  12. Prevalence of and factors associated with self-reported high blood pressure in Brazilian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Andrade, Silvânia Suely Caribé de Araújo; Silva, Marta Maria Alves da; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

    2017-06-01

    To analyze factors associated with self-reported high blood pressure among adults in Brazilian state capitals. The study uses data from Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (Vigitel - Surveillance System of Risk and Protection Factors of Noncommunicable Diseases by Telephone Survey) collected in 2013. Prevalence rates and their respective 95% confidence intervals by gender were estimated according to sociodemographic variables, lifestyle, reported noncommunicable diseases and self-rated health status. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to identify variables associated with self-reported high blood pressure with α Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (Vigitel) coletados no ano de 2013. Foram estimadas as prevalências e seus respectivos intervalos de confiança 95% por sexo segundo variáveis sociodemográficas, estilos de vida, doenças crônicas relatadas e avaliação do estado de saúde. Modelagem de regressão logística multivariada foi utilizada para identificar as variáveis associadas à hipertensão arterial autorreferida com α < 0,05. A prevalência de hipertensão arterial autorreferida entre os adultos residentes nas capitais brasileiras e Distrito Federal foi de 24,1%. Foram identificadas as seguintes associações com hipertensão arterial autorreferida: faixa etária, tomando 18 a 24 anos como referência, todas as faixas etárias apresentaram maior chance - de 25 a 34 anos (RC = 2,6; IC95% 2,0-3,4) até 65 anos ou mais (RC = 28,1; IC95% 21,7-36,4); baixa escolaridade (9 a 11 anos de estudo - RC = 0,8; IC95% 0,7-0,9; e 12 anos ou mais - RC = 0,6; IC95% 0,6-0,7); raça/cor da pele preta (RC = 1,3; IC95% 1,1-1,5); ser ex-fumante (RC = 1,2; IC95% 1,1-1,3); obesidade (RC = 2,7; IC95% 2,4-3,0); diabetes (RC = 2,9; IC95% 2,5-3,5); e colesterol elevado (RC = 1,9; IC95% 1,8-2,2). Cerca de um quarto da

  13. Temporal trend in the reported birth prevalence of cleft lip and/or cleft palate in Brazil, 2000 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães; Lee, Kyu Ha; Luquetti, Daniela Varela; Starr, Jacqueline Rose

    2016-09-01

    The birth prevalence of cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) in Brazil increased between the years from 1975 to 1994 but has not been evaluated for temporal trend since then. We used data from the Brazilian National Health Information System for the years 2000 through 2013. We calculated the reported CL/P birth prevalence each year per 10,000 live births and estimated the average increase in reported prevalence per year (and 95% confidence interval [CI]) by fitting a negative binomial regression model. We also estimated the temporal trend in each of the five Brazilian regions for this time period. The overall reported birth prevalence was 4.85 (95% CI, 4.78-4.91) per 10,000 live births. The reported birth prevalence of CL/P increased over this time period, from 3.94 (95% CI, 3.73-4.17) per 10,000 in 2000 to 5.46 (95% CI, 5.20-5.74) per 10,000 in 2013. The temporal trend differed for different Brazilian geographic regions, being confined primarily to the Northeast (4.7% per year; 95% CI, 4.0%-5.5%), North (3.3% per year; 95% CI, 1.8%-4.7%), and Central (2.9% per year; 95% CI, 0.9%-4.9%) regions. In recent years, there appears to be an upward trend in the reported prevalence of CL/P in Brazil, confined to the less developed regions of the country. The increase likely reflects improved surveillance; whether it also reflects etiologic differences is unknown. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:789-792, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Challenges associated with drunk driving measurement: combining police and self-reported data to estimate an accurate prevalence in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Tanara; Lunnen, Jeffrey C; Gonçalves, Veralice; Schmitz, Aurinez; Pasa, Graciela; Bastos, Tamires; Sripad, Pooja; Chandran, Aruna; Pechansky, Flavio

    2013-12-01

    Drunk driving is an important risk factor for road traffic crashes, injuries and deaths. After June 2008, all drivers in Brazil were subject to a "Zero Tolerance Law" with a set breath alcohol concentration of 0.1 mg/L of air. However, a loophole in this law enabled drivers to refuse breath or blood alcohol testing as it may self-incriminate. The reported prevalence of drunk driving is therefore likely a gross underestimate in many cities. To compare the prevalence of drunk driving gathered from police reports to the prevalence gathered from self-reported questionnaires administered at police sobriety roadblocks in two Brazilian capital cities, and to estimate a more accurate prevalence of drunk driving utilizing three correction techniques based upon information from those questionnaires. In August 2011 and January-February 2012, researchers from the Centre for Drug and Alcohol Research at the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul administered a roadside interview on drunk driving practices to 805 voluntary participants in the Brazilian capital cities of Palmas and Teresina. Three techniques which include measures such as the number of persons reporting alcohol consumption in the last six hours but who had refused breath testing were used to estimate the prevalence of drunk driving. The prevalence of persons testing positive for alcohol on their breath was 8.8% and 5.0% in Palmas and Teresina respectively. Utilizing a correction technique we calculated that a more accurate prevalence in these sites may be as high as 28.2% and 28.7%. In both cities, about 60% of drivers who self-reported having drank within six hours of being stopped by the police either refused to perform breathalyser testing; fled the sobriety roadblock; or were not offered the test, compared to about 30% of drivers that said they had not been drinking. Despite the reduction of the legal limit for drunk driving stipulated by the "Zero Tolerance Law," loopholes in the legislation permit many

  15. Caregiver Report of Prevalence and Appearance Order of Linguistic Symptoms in Alzheimer's Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayles, Kathryn A.; Tomoeda, Cheryl K.

    1991-01-01

    Interviewed primary caregivers of 99 Alzheimer's patients about existence and appearance order of linguistic symptoms to study disease effects on communication. Found that prevalence of linguistic symptoms strongly correlated with order of symptom appearance. Discusses symptom prevalence and order of appearance in relation to onset of…

  16. Dizziness reported by elderly patients in family practice: prevalence, incidence, and clinical characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarsingh, O.R.; Dros, J.; Schellevis, F.G.; van Weert, H.C.; Bindels, P.J.; van der Horst, H.E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although dizziness in elderly patients is very common in family practice, most prevalence studies on dizziness are community-based and include a study population that is not representative of family practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and incidence of dizzin

  17. Dizziness reported by elderly patients in family practice: Prevalence, incidence, and clinical characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.R. Maarsingh (Otto); J. Dros (Jacquelien); F.G. Schellevis (François); H.C. van Weert (Henk); P.J.E. Bindels (Patrick); H.E. van der Horst (Henriette)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Although dizziness in elderly patients is very common in family practice, most prevalence studies on dizziness are community-based and include a study population that is not representative of family practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and inciden

  18. Dizziness reported by elderly patients in family practice: prevalence, incidence, and clinical characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarsingh, O.R.; Dros, J.; Schellevis, F.G.; Weert, H.C. van; Bindels, P.J.; Horst, H.E. van der

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although dizziness in elderly patients is very common in family practice, most prevalence studies on dizziness are community-based and include a study population that is not representative of family practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and incidence of dizzin

  19. Brief Report: Prevalence of Autistic Spectrum Disorders in the Sultanate of Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al-Shafaee, Mohammed S.; Brooks, Daniel R.; Waly, Mostafa I.

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in Oman is unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of ASD among 0-14 year old children. Diagnoses were made as per DSM-IV-TR criteria and supplemented with information collected with the standard Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) questionnaire. A total 113 cases of…

  20. Prevalência de Diabetes Mellitus autorreferida entre trabalhadores de enfermagem Self-reported prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus among nursing workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Andrade Martins

    2010-10-01

    de riesgo reconocidos fueron: edad, sexo, peso e histórico familiar. Se detectó que el plantón nocturno concentraba más de la mitad de los diabéticos. CONCLUSIÓN: La prevalencia de DM autorreferida en ese hospital fue menor que la esperada para la ciudad de Sao Paulo. Entre los factores de riesgo encontrados, el sobrepeso es el único modificable. El plantón nocturno concentra la mayoría de los funcionarios con diabetes.OBJECTIVES: To verify the self-reported prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in nursing workers at a university hospital, to identify the main risk factors for diabetes mellitus (DM and, among those who already have the disease, to identify the difficulties related to its control. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional epidemiological study, conducted between August 2007 and January 2008. Of the total (1,287 interviewed, 82% were nurses. It was used a questionnaire containing 22 closed questions. The data analysis was performed with Chi-square test and Fisher exact test. Student t test was used for continuous variables. RESULTS: There was a prevalence of 3% of self-reported DM. The main recognized risk factors were: age, sex, weight and, family history. It was found that the night shift contained more than half of diabetics. CONCLUSION: The self-reported prevalence of DM at the hospital was less than the expected value for the city of Sao Paulo. Among the risk factors found, the overweight was the only modifiable. The night shift concentrated most of the workers with diabetes.

  1. Self-Reported Prevalence of Gluten-Related Disorders and Adherence to Gluten-Free Diet in Colombian Adult Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Aguilar, Alejandro; Magaña-Ordorica, Dalia

    2016-01-01

    Background. Celiac disease seems to be rare in Colombians, but there are currently no data about the prevalence rates of symptomatic adverse reactions to gluten or adherence to gluten-free diet (GFD) in this population. Aim. to evaluate the self-reported prevalence rates of adverse reactions to gluten, adherence to GFD, and gluten-related disorders at population level in Colombia. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted in a population from Northwest Colombia. Results. The estimated prevalence rates were (95% CI) 7.9% (6.5–9.6) and 5.3% (4.1–6.7) for adverse and recurrent adverse reactions to wheat/gluten, respectively, adherence to GFD 5.9% (4.7–7.4), wheat allergy 0.74% (0.3–1.4), and nonceliac gluten sensitivity 4.5% (3.5–5.8). There were no self-reported cases of celiac disease. Prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders was 0.41% (0.17–0.96). Most respondents reported adherence to GFD without a physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders (97.2%). The proportion of gluten avoiders was 17.2% (15.2–19.5). Most of them did not report recurrent adverse reactions to wheat/gluten (87.0%). Conclusions. Nonceliac gluten sensitivity is rarely formally diagnosed in Colombia, but this population has the highest prevalence rate of adherence to GFD reported to date. Consequently, most respondents were avoiding wheat- and/or gluten-based products for reasons other than health-related symptoms. PMID:27648068

  2. Self-Reported Prevalence of Gluten-Related Disorders and Adherence to Gluten-Free Diet in Colombian Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cabrera-Chávez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Celiac disease seems to be rare in Colombians, but there are currently no data about the prevalence rates of symptomatic adverse reactions to gluten or adherence to gluten-free diet (GFD in this population. Aim. to evaluate the self-reported prevalence rates of adverse reactions to gluten, adherence to GFD, and gluten-related disorders at population level in Colombia. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted in a population from Northwest Colombia. Results. The estimated prevalence rates were (95% CI 7.9% (6.5–9.6 and 5.3% (4.1–6.7 for adverse and recurrent adverse reactions to wheat/gluten, respectively, adherence to GFD 5.9% (4.7–7.4, wheat allergy 0.74% (0.3–1.4, and nonceliac gluten sensitivity 4.5% (3.5–5.8. There were no self-reported cases of celiac disease. Prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders was 0.41% (0.17–0.96. Most respondents reported adherence to GFD without a physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders (97.2%. The proportion of gluten avoiders was 17.2% (15.2–19.5. Most of them did not report recurrent adverse reactions to wheat/gluten (87.0%. Conclusions. Nonceliac gluten sensitivity is rarely formally diagnosed in Colombia, but this population has the highest prevalence rate of adherence to GFD reported to date. Consequently, most respondents were avoiding wheat- and/or gluten-based products for reasons other than health-related symptoms.

  3. Prevalence of Parent-Reported ASD and ADHD in the UK: Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Ginny; Rodgers, Lauren R.; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Ford, Tamsin

    2014-01-01

    The UK prevalence of parent-reported autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were estimated from the Millennium Cohort Study. Case definition was if a doctor or health care professional had ever told parents that their child had ASD and/or ADHD. Data were collected in 2008/2009 for 14,043 children. 1.7%…

  4. Brief Report: Prevalence of Self-Injurious Behaviors among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder--A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soke, Gnakub N.; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Hamman, Richard F.; Fingerlin, Tasha; Robinson, Cordelia; Carpenter, Laura; Giarelli, Ellen; Lee, Li-Ching; Wiggins, Lisa D.; Durkin, Maureen S.; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Self-injurious behaviors (SIB) have been reported in more than 30% of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in clinic-based studies. This study estimated the prevalence of SIB in a large population-based sample of children with ASD in the United States. A total of 8,065 children who met the surveillance case definition for ASD in the…

  5. Prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and occupational risk factors among professional cooks: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagasu, M.; Sakai, K.; Ito, A.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Tomita, S.; Temmyo, Y.; Ueno, M.; Miyagi, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have pointed out that the school lunch workers in Japan are suffering from work-related disorders including finger deformations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and the association with job-related risk fac

  6. Contrasting adolescent female and male sexual aggression: A self-report study on prevalence and predictors of sexual aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slotboom, A.-M.; Hendriks, J.; Verbruggen, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we investigated the prevalence of sexual aggression as reported by adolescent males and females in the Netherlands. Data were collected from a low-risk school-based sample (n=219; 119 adolescent females and 100 adolescent males), a medium-risk school-based sample (vocational training)

  7. Prevalence of Self-reported Skin Complaints and Avoidance of Common Daily Life Consumer Products in Selected European Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naldi, Luigi; Cazzaniga, Simone; Goncalo, Margarida; Diepgen, Thomas; Bruze, Magnus; Elsner, Peter; Coenraads, Peter J.; Svensson, Ake; Bertuccio, Paola; Ofenloch, Robert

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Skin disorders are common in the general population, and they may be associated with significant disability. The use of daily skin products may affect the appearance and severity of skin conditions. OBJECTIVES To assess the prevalence of reported itchy rash lasting longer than 3 days amon

  8. Prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and occupational risk factors among professional cooks: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagasu, M.; Sakai, K.; Ito, A.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Tomita, S.; Temmyo, Y.; Ueno, M.; Miyagi, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have pointed out that the school lunch workers in Japan are suffering from work-related disorders including finger deformations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and the association with job-related risk

  9. HPV genotype prevalence in cervical specimens with abnormal cytology: a report from north-east Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassu, Mario; Bertoloni, Giulio; Mengoli, Carlo; Peron, Antonella; Benedetti, Paolo; Palu', Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the prevalence of HPV DNA in cervical samples collected from 1335 women with abnormal Pap test and analysed the degree of association of HPV genotype with cervical cytological abnormality and also with patient age. The study was principally aimed at providing some cross-sectional figures on the epidemiology of HPV in our area, where the ethnic background is expected to rapidly evolve due to extensive immigration from overseas. 471 (35.3%) of the 1335 patients screened were positive for HPV DNA. A clear association was observed between cytological findings and the proportion of patients with positive HPV PCR, namely 24.0% HPV positivity in the ASCUS group (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance), 48.7% in LSIL group (low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions), and 71.9% in HSIL group (high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions) (p-value < 0.001). High-risk (HR) HPV prevalence appeared to be different from other areas of the world; we have detected a high prevalence rate of HPV-16, 31, and 58 and a low prevalence rate of HPV-18 and 11. The prevalence of both HR and low risk (LR) genotype groups was clearly related to age (p-value < 0.001), since the prevalence of LR group had a nadir between 41 and 50 y of age and 2 peaks at 15-20 y and at over 60 y, while the curve of prevalence of HR genotypes displayed an almost inverse trend.

  10. National sample survey organization survey report: An estimation of prevalence of mental illness and its association with age in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhan, Ram; Ekúndayò, Olúgbémiga T

    2015-01-01

    The Indian population suffers with significant burden of mental illness. The prevalence rate and its association with age and other demographic indicators are needed for planning purpose. This study attempted to calculate age-wise prevalence of mental illness for rural and urban settings, and its association with age. Data published in National Sample Survey Organization (2002) report on disability is used for the analysis. Spearman correlation for strength of association, z-test for difference in prevalence, and regression statistics for predicting the prevalence rate of mental illness are used. Overall population have 14.9/1000 prevalence of mental illness. It is higher in rural setting 17.1/1000 than urban 12.7/1000 (P < 0.001). There is a strong correlation found with age in rural (ϱ = 0.910, P = 0.001) and urban (ϱ = 0.940, P = 0.001). Results of this study confirm other epidemiological research in India. Large-population epidemiological studies are recommended.

  11. Public acceptance of management actions and judgments of responsibility for the wolves of the southern Greater Yellowstone Area: Report to Grand Teton National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jonathan G.; Johnson, S. Shea; Shelby, Lori B.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Wolves of Grand Teton National Park and the Greater Yellowstone Area Gray wolves (Canis lupus) appeared in Grand Teton National Park (GRTE) in October of 1998, two years after being reintroduced to Yellowstone National Park (YNP). Since that time, five packs have been within the GRTE borders - Gros Ventre Pack, Nez Perce Pack, Yellowstone Delta Pack, Teton Pack, and Green River Pack (Table 1). Wolves in the Greater Yellowstone Area are increasing and spreading out geographically (USFWS and others, 2004). This dispersion was demonstrated recently by the death of a 2-year-old female wolf from the Swan Lake pack on I-70 in Colorado (June 7, 2004; http://mountain-prairie.USFWS.gov/pressrel /04-43.htm). The organization of wolf packs in the GYA is dynamic and highly structured. In 2003, for example, a wolf from the Teton Pack joined with the Green River Pack, and several young wolves left the Teton Pack and moved south (USFWS and others, 2004). Pack size (averaging five to ten members) is dependent on hunting efficiency, which depends on prey size, type, and density. Each pack defends home ranges of several hundred square miles. The social structure of the pack is based on a breeding pair (an alpha male and female). Other wolves in the pack can be categorized as betas (males and/or females second in rank to the alphas), subordinates, pups, and occasional omegas (outcasts). Because generally only the alpha pair breeds, subordinate wolves of reproductive age must disperse from their packs and form new associations in order to breed. (http://www.nps.gov/grte/wolf/biolo.htm). The reintroduced wolves are classified by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) as "nonessential experimental" under section 10(j) of the Endangered Species Act. The recovery criteria for the GYA wolves were met in 2002 for removing the wolves from the Endangered Species List (30 or more breeding pairs). Currently, the USFWS manages wolf populations in the GYA until delisting occurs

  12. Prevalence of febrile syndromes in dengue surveillance, havana city, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez, Otto; Sánchez, Lizet; Más, Pedro; Pérez, Suzette; Kourí, Gustavo; Guzmán, María G

    2011-04-01

    Determine point prevalence of febrile syndromes and compare with prevalence reported by habitual clinical and seroepidemiologic dengue surveillance system in Havana City. In October 2007, a descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out in a representative sample, calculating prevalences of febrile syndromes and undifferentiated febrile syndromes. Chi-square analysis was used for rate comparisons. Point prevalences of febrile syndromes and undifferentiated febrile syndromes were 352.6 and 144.2 times greater, respectively, than those reported by the habitual clinical and seroepidemiologic dengue surveillance system; these differences were statistically significant (p < 0.001). Point prevalence of febrile syndromes was far greater than prevalence reported by the habitual clinical and seroepidemiologic dengue surveillance system, an indication of underreporting.

  13. Self-reported prevalence of childhood allergic diseases in three cities of China: a multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jing

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies conducted during the 1990s indicated that childhood allergic diseases were increasing worldwide, but more recent investigations in some Western countries have suggested that the trend is stabilizing or may even be reversing. However, few data are available on the current status of allergic disease prevalence in Chinese children. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence rates of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema in children of three major cities of China, to determine the status of allergic diseases among Chinese children generally, and to evaluate the prevalence of allergic diseases in children of different ages. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey between October 2008 and May 2009 in three major cities of China (Beijing, Chongqing, and Guangzhou to evaluate the prevalence rates of childhood allergic diseases including asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema, using a questionnaire of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC group. A total of 24,290 children aged 0-14 years were interviewed, using a multi-stage sampling method. To acquire data on children aged 3-14 years, we visited schools and kindergartens. To access children too young to attend school or kindergarten, we extended our survey to community health service centers. Each questionnaire was completed by a parent or guardian of a child after an informed consent form was signed. Results Of the 24,290 children in our study, 12,908 (53.14% were males and 11,382 (46.86% females; 10,372 (42.70% were from Beijing, 9,846 (40.53% from Chongqing, and 4,072 (16.77% from Guangzhou. Our survey indicated that in Beijing, Chongqing, and Guangzhou, the prevalence rates of asthma were 3.15%, 7.45%, and 2.09%, respectively; the rates of allergic rhinitis were 14.46%, 20.42%, and 7.83%; and the rates of eczema were 20.64%, 10.02%, and 7.22%. The prevalence of allergic diseases varied with age. Asthma was

  14. Prevalence of self-reported specific phobia symptoms in an Israeli sample of young conscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, Iulian; Levin, Jennifer; Dannon, Pinhas N; Poreh, Amir; Yehuda, Yoram Ben; Kotler, Moshe

    2007-01-01

    Specific phobia is a very prevalent disorder with high comorbidity rates. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence of specific phobia symptoms in a sample of Israeli young adults. Eight hundred fifty young Israeli soldiers participated in the study. Measures included a questionnaire on specific phobias and a socio-demographic questionnaire. Data on eight specific fears representing DSM-IV-TR specific phobias were analyzed to evaluate prevalence of phobic symptoms and find potential socio-demographic correlates. Prevalence of fears and specific phobic symptoms was 49.1 and 8.7%, respectively. Most frequent phobic symptoms were from animals, being alone, heights, injury and closed places. The following variables were accompanied by more phobic symptoms: male gender, role of mechanic, not having completed the matriculation exams, lack of friends and romantic relationships, therapy prior to enlistment or during the military service and having received psychotropic drugs in the past. Based on a stepwise regression analysis, the following variables contributed significantly to the prediction of phobic symptoms: lack of friends and romantic relationships, school absenteeism and role of mechanic. Our findings corroborate results from other studies in the Western world regarding the high prevalence of specific phobia symptomatology, as well as its distribution and socio-demographic correlates.

  15. Prevalence of Self-Reported Gluten Sensitivity and Adherence to a Gluten-Free Diet in Argentinian Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Chávez, Francisco; Dezar, Gimena V A; Islas-Zamorano, Anna P; Espinoza-Alderete, Jesús G; Vergara-Jiménez, Marcela J; Magaña-Ordorica, Dalia; Ontiveros, Noé

    2017-01-21

    Previous studies suggest that the prevalence of wheat/gluten sensitivity and adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) are high in Latin population despite a poor diagnosis of celiac disease. However, these prevalence rates still remain unknown in most Latin American countries. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in Santa Fe, Argentina. The estimated self-reported prevalence rates were (95% Confidence Interval [CI]): self-reported gluten sensitivity (SR-GS) 7.61% (6.2-9.2), SR-GS currently following a GFD 1.82% (1.2-2.7), celiac disease 0.58% (0.3-1.2), wheat allergy 0.33% (0.12-0.84), self-reported non-celiac gluten sensitivity (SR-NCGS) 6.28% (5.1-7.8), SR-NCGS currently following a GFD 0.91% (0.5-1.6), and adherence to a GFD 6.37% (5.1-7.9). SR-GS was more common in women (6.0%; p syndrome (p gluten sensitivity is commonly reported and it seems that physicians/gastroenterologists are aware of celiac disease diagnosis. Trustable information about the benefits and potential consequences of following a GFD should be given to the general population.

  16. Sources and prevalence of self-reported asthma diagnoses in adults in urban and rural settings of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Emily; Parr, John; Lindeboom, Wietze; Khanam, Masuma Akter; Koehlmoos, Tracy Pérez

    2013-01-01

    This study provides data on the sources of asthma diagnoses in the adult Bangladeshi population in urban and rural settings. The paper also reports the prevalence of self-reported asthma diagnoses and associated socio-demographic factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in three communities: two rural settings and one urban setting, with a total sample size of 32,665 subjects. Pre-existing surveillance data provided individual socio-demographic factors. Provider categories were based on previous research describing provider plurality in Bangladesh. Descriptive statistics, univariate regression and multivariate regression analyses were performed. Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) generalists provided the largest proportion of diagnoses in both urban (54.6%) and rural (42.4%) sites. The largest proportion of non-MBBS-trained healthcare workers providing diagnoses of asthma was spiritual healers (13.3%) in the urban settings and village doctors (42.4%) in rural settings. The overall prevalence of self-reported asthma diagnoses was 5.0% in the urban population and 3.5% in the rural population. The results highlight the importance of non-MBBS doctors in serving the healthcare needs of the Bangladeshi population. This study reveals a higher prevalence of self-reported asthma diagnoses in the urban setting than in rural ones, which is consistent with international literature on the topic.

  17. Prevalence, age at onset, and risk factors of self-reported asthma among Swedish adolescent elite cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, L M; Irewall, T; Lindberg, Anne; Stenfors, Nikolai

    2017-03-17

    The objective of the study was to compare the prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma and age at asthma onset between Swedish adolescent elite skiers and a reference group and to assess risk factors associated with asthma. Postal questionnaires were sent to 253 pupils at the Swedish National Elite Sport Schools for cross-country skiing, biathlon, and ski-orienteering ("skiers") and a random sample of 500 adolescents aged 16-20, matched for sport school municipalities ("reference"). The response rate was 96% among the skiers and 48% in the reference group. The proportion of participants with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma was higher among skiers than in the reference group (27 vs. 19%, p = 0.046). Female skiers reported a higher prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma compared to male skiers (34 vs. 20%, p = 0.021). The median age at asthma onset was higher among skiers (12.0 vs. 8.0 years; p < 0.001). Female sex, family history of asthma, nasal allergy, and being a skier were risk factors associated with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma. Swedish adolescent elite cross-country skiers have a higher asthma prevalence and later age at asthma onset compared to a reference population. Being an adolescent elite skier is an independent risk factor associated with asthma. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Emotional scenes elicit more pronounced self-reported emotional experience and greater EPN and LPP modulation when compared to emotional faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Nathaniel; Knight, Justin; Dishman, Rod; Sabatinelli, Dean; Johnson, Douglas C; Clementz, Brett

    2014-06-01

    Emotional faces and scenes carry a wealth of overlapping and distinct perceptual information. Despite widespread use in the investigation of emotional perception, expressive face and evocative scene stimuli are rarely assessed in the same experiment. Here, we evaluated self-reports of arousal and pleasantness, as well as early and late event-related potentials (e.g., N170, early posterior negativity [EPN], late positive potential [LPP]) as subjects viewed neutral and emotional faces and scenes, including contents representing anger, fear, and joy. Results demonstrate that emotional scenes were rated as more evocative than emotional faces, as only scenes produced elevated self-reports of arousal. In addition, viewing scenes resulted in more extreme ratings of pleasantness (and unpleasantness) than did faces. EEG results indicate that both expressive faces and emotional scenes evoke enhanced negativity in the N170 component, while the EPN and LPP components show significantly enhanced modulation only by scene, relative to face stimuli. These data suggest that viewing emotional scenes results in a more pronounced emotional experience that is associated with reliable modulation of visual event-related potentials that are implicated in emotional circuits in the brain.

  19. Brief Report: Prevalence of Co-Occurring Epilepsy and Autism Spectrum Disorder--The U.S. National Survey of Children's Health 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Shiny; Hovinga, Mary E.; Rai, Dheeraj; Lee, Brian K.

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy is reported to co-occur in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous studies across the world have found prevalence estimates ranging from 4 to 38%. We examined parent-reported prevalence of co-occurring epilepsy and ASD in the most recent U.S. National Survey of Children's Health, 2011-2012. All analyses accounted for…

  20. Brief Report: Prevalence of Co-Occurring Epilepsy and Autism Spectrum Disorder--The U.S. National Survey of Children's Health 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Shiny; Hovinga, Mary E.; Rai, Dheeraj; Lee, Brian K.

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy is reported to co-occur in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous studies across the world have found prevalence estimates ranging from 4 to 38%. We examined parent-reported prevalence of co-occurring epilepsy and ASD in the most recent U.S. National Survey of Children's Health, 2011-2012. All analyses accounted for…

  1. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Brief Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Agh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low bone mass is a serious health problem mostly seen in postmeno-pausal women with rheumatoid arthritis. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis and some related risk factors in postmenopausal women with rheumatoid arthritis.Methods: The data for this descriptive analytical study was extracted from the medical records of 98 postmenopausal women with rheumatoid arthritis who had attended the 5th of Azar Teaching Hospital affiliated to Gorgan University of Medical Sciences, in Iran, in 2009.Results: The mean durations of menopause and rheumatoid arthritis were 9.39 and 5.13 years, respectively. The overall prevalence of osteoporosis was 13.3%. We found a significant correlation between age, disease duration, and duration of menopause with bone mineral density (P<0.05.Conclusion: Our results indicate a high prevalence of osteoporosis at the lumbar spine of postmenopausal women with rheumatoid arthritis.

  2. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in a group of morbidly obese Saudi patients undergoing bariatric surgery: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Akwaa Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Earlier reports from Saudi Arabia have shown high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection. However, recent studies have documented a reduction in the infection prevalence. No prior study has assessed the prevalence in morbidly obese Saudi patients. We aimed to study the prevalence of H. pylori infection in a group morbidly obese Saudi patients referred for endoscopy prior to bariatric surgery. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients who were referred for upper endoscopy prior to bariatric surgery from June 2006 to September 2008. All data were recorded including patient′s demographics, comorbid conditions, endoscopic and histological findings. Results: There were 62 patients included, 20 males and 42 females. The mean age was 34 years (range 18 - 51 with a mean BMI of 55 Kg/m 2 (range 35 -92. H. pylori were present in 53 patients (85.5% with chronic active gastritis. All patients with positive H. pylori had chronic gastritis of variable severity. Intestinal metaplasia was present in 5%. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was similar in patients with and without co-morbid conditions. Main endoscopic findings were gastritis in 67.7%, hiatus hernia in 13%, and gastric erosions in 13%. No patient had duodenal or gastric ulcer. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of H. pylori infection in morbidly obese Saudi patients undergoing bariatric surgery being referred for upper GI endoscopy. Further prospective studies are needed to evaluate the clinical implication and benefit of eradication treatment of infection in these patients.

  3. Prevalence of self-reported hypercholesterolaemia and its relation to dietary habits, in Greek adults; a national nutrition & health survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milias, George A; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Pitsavos, Christos; Xenaki, Dimitra; Panagopoulos, George; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2006-01-01

    Background The strong causal role of hypercholesterolaemia on the progression of atherosclerosis and subsequently on the development of cardiovascular disease is well described. Main aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of self-reported hypercholesterolaemia and its relation to nutritional habits, in a representative nationwide sample of adult Greek population. Methods Cross sectional survey. Based on a multistage sampling, 5003 adults (18 – 74 yr) were enrolled (men: 48.8%, women: 51.2%). All participants were interviewed by trained personnel who used a standard questionnaire. The questionnaire included demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, medical history, lifestyle habits and nutritional assessment. Results The prevalence of self-reported hypercholesterolaemia was 16.4% in men and 21.8% in women (P Hypercholesterolaemia seems to affect a large part of Greek population. It is hopeful that hypercholesterolaemics may have started adopting some more healthy nutritional behaviour compared to normocholesterolaemic ones. PMID:16529663

  4. Prevalence of self-reported hypercholesterolaemia and its relation to dietary habits, in Greek adults; a national nutrition & health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagopoulos George

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The strong causal role of hypercholesterolaemia on the progression of atherosclerosis and subsequently on the development of cardiovascular disease is well described. Main aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of self-reported hypercholesterolaemia and its relation to nutritional habits, in a representative nationwide sample of adult Greek population. Methods Cross sectional survey. Based on a multistage sampling, 5003 adults (18 – 74 yr were enrolled (men: 48.8%, women: 51.2%. All participants were interviewed by trained personnel who used a standard questionnaire. The questionnaire included demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, medical history, lifestyle habits and nutritional assessment. Results The prevalence of self-reported hypercholesterolaemia was 16.4% in men and 21.8% in women (P Conclusion Hypercholesterolaemia seems to affect a large part of Greek population. It is hopeful that hypercholesterolaemics may have started adopting some more healthy nutritional behaviour compared to normocholesterolaemic ones.

  5. Report summary Prevalence and monetary costs of dementia in Canada (2016): a report by the Alzheimer Society of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Dementia prevalence estimates vary among population-based studies, depending on the definitions of dementia, methodologies and data sources and types of costs they use. A common approach is needed to avoid confusion and increase public and stakeholder confidence in the estimates. Since 1994, five major studies have yielded widely differing estimates of dementia prevalence and monetary costs of dementia in Canada. These studies variously estimated the prevalence of dementia for the year 2011 as low as 340 170 and as high as 747 000. The main reason for this difference was that mild cognitive impairment (MCI) was not consistently included in the projections. The estimated monetary costs of dementia for the same year also varied, from $910 million to $33 billion. This discrepancy is largely due to three factors: (1) the lack of agreed-upon methods for estimating financial costs; (2) the unavailability of prevalence estimates for the various stages of dementia (mild, moderate and severe), which directly affect the amount of money spent; and (3) the absence of tools to measure direct, indirect and intangible costs more accurately. Given the increasing challenges of dementia in Canada and around the globe, reconciling these differences is critical for developing standards to generate reliable information for public consumption and to shape public policy and service development.

  6. Prevalence of fatigue reported by physiotherapists operating diathermy equipment for microwave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Anguera

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To Analyze the association between prevalence of fatigue referred by physical therapists and their occupational exposure to radiation emitted by therapeutic microwave diathermy equipment. Methods: A Cross-sectional study conducted in 193 physical therapists from four cities of the west of Paraná State, Brazil. A specified structured web questionnaire was applied for collecting data about microwave diathermy exposition and potential confounders, plus the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue (MAF. Statistical analysis included logistic regression and Student's t-test. Results: The prevalence of fatigue in the category exposed to microwave diathermy was higher (15.0% than in non-exposed (2.9%. On multivariate logistic regression, a significant independent association between exposure to microwave diathermy and prevalence of fatigue was observed (odds ratio 4.93; 95% confidence interval 1.04 - 23.25; p = 0.04. The Student's t-test showed significant difference between the number of hours exposed to diathermy microwave, being 3,839.1 within physical therapists who referred fatigue and 497.6 within others (p = 0.004. Conclusion: The results demonstrate a significant and independent association between occupational exposure of physical therapists to radiation of microwave diathermy and prevalence of fatigue. Therefore, occupational safety guidelines aimed at these professionals as a prevention of possible adverse effects, as well as the replication of this study are suggested.

  7. Prevalence of self-reported lactose intolerance in multiethnic sample of adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, between 30 and 50 million Americans have the potential for lactose-intolerance symptoms. However, lactose-intolerance prevalence rates in practical life settings may be lower than originally suggested. The goal of thi...

  8. Brief Report: Prevalence of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among Individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Ellen; Cerban, Bettina M.; Slater, Chelsea M.; Caccamo, Laura M.; Bacic, Janine; Chan, Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Currently, both the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 preclude the diagnosis of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in cases that present with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This criterion will be removed in the upcoming DSM-V, but the relationship between ASD and ADHD, and in particular the prevalence of ADHD among the ASD population, remains…

  9. The impact of definition and question order on the prevalence of bullying victimization using student self-reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Francis L; Cornell, Dewey G

    2015-12-01

    Accurate measurement is essential to determining the prevalence of bullying and evaluating the effectiveness of intervention efforts. The most common measurement approach is through anonymous self-report surveys, but previous studies have suggested that students do not adhere to standard definitions of bullying and may be influenced by the order of questions about types of victimization. In the current study, we have presented findings from 2 randomized experiments designed to determine (a) the impact of using or not using a definition of bullying and (b) asking about general versus specific types of bullying victimization and how the order of these questions affects victimization-prevalence rates. The study was conducted using a sample of 17,301 students attending 119 high schools. Findings indicate that the use of a definition had no impact on prevalence rates, but asking specific bullying-victimization questions (e.g., "I have been verbally bullied at school") prior to general bullying-victimization questions (e.g., "I have been bullied at school"), resulted in a 29-76% increase in victimization-prevalence rates. Results suggest that surveys that ask general-to-specific bullying-victimization questions, such as those found in national and international surveys, may be underreporting bullying victimization.

  10. Self-reported diabetes in older people: comparison of prevalences and control measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopa, Sheila Rizzato; César, Chester Luiz Galvão; Segri, Neuber José; Goldbaum, Moisés; Guimarães, Vanessa Martins Valente; Alves, Maria Cecília Goi Porto; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of diabetes in older people and the adopted control measures. METHODS Data regarding older diabetic individuals who participated in the Health Surveys conducted in the Municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, ISA-Capital, in 2003 and 2008, which were cross-sectional studies, were analyzed. Prevalences and confidence intervals were compared between 2003 and 2008, according to sociodemographic variables. The combination of the databases was performed when the confidence intervals overlapped. The Chi-square (level of significance of 5%) and the Pearson’s Chi-square (Rao-Scott) tests were performed. The variables without overlap between the confidence intervals were not tested. RESULTS The age of the older adults was 60-69 years. The majority were women, Caucasian, with an income of between > 0.5 and 2.5 times the minimum salary and low levels of schooling. The prevalence of diabetes was 17.6% (95%CI 14.9;20.6) in 2003 and 20.1% (95%CI 17.3;23.1) in 2008, which indicates a growth over this period (p at the limit of significance). The most prevalent measure adopted by the older adults to control diabetes was hypoglycemic agents, followed by diet. Physical activity was not frequent, despite the significant differences observed between 2003 and 2008 results. The use of public health services to control diabetes was significantly higher in older individuals with lower income and lower levels of education. CONCLUSIONS Diabetes is a complex and challenging disease for patients and the health systems. Measures that encourage health promotion practices are necessary because they presented a smaller proportion than the use of hypoglycemic agents. Public health policies should be implemented, and aimed mainly at older individuals with low income and schooling levels. These changes are essential to improve the health condition of older diabetic patients. PMID:25210814

  11. Prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and occupational risk factors among professional cooks: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomita Shigeru

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have pointed out that the school lunch workers in Japan are suffering from work-related disorders including finger deformations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of self-reported finger deformations and the association with job-related risk factors. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire study of 5,719 subjects (response rate: 81%, 982 men and 4,737 women was undertaken during September 2003 to February 2004. Results Finger deformations were found among 11.7% of the men and 35.6% of the women studied, with significant differences among sex, age and sex-age groups. For both men and women the pattern of finger deformations across the hand was similar for the right and the left hand. For women, the deformations were found in about 10% of the distal interphalangeal joints of all fingers. Based on multiple logistic regression analyses, the factors female sex, age, the number of cooked lunches per cook and cooking activities were independently associated with the prevalence of finger deformations. High prevalence odds ratios were found for those frequently carrying or using tools by hands such as delivering containers, distributing meals, preparing dishes, washing equipment, cutting and stirring foods. Conclusions Among the school lunch workers studied, women had a higher prevalence of finger deformations on all joints of both hands. Various cooking tasks were associated with the prevalence of finger deformations. The results suggest that improvements in working conditions are important for preventing work-related disorders such as finger deformations.

  12. Higher prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia in triple iron ultra-triathletes than reported for ironman triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-06-30

    "In a recent study of male and female ultra-marathoners in a 161-km ultra-marathon, the prevalence of exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) was higher than reported for marathoners. Regarding triathletes, the prevalence of EAH has been investigated in Ironman triathletes, but not in Triple Iron ultra-triathletes. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of EAH in male ultra-triathletes competing in a Triple Iron ultra-triathlon over 11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling, and 126.6 km running. Changes in body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, total body water, haematocrit, plasma volume, plasma sodium concentration ([Na ⁺ ]) and urine specific gravity were determined in 31 male athletes with (means ± standard deviation) 42.1 ± 8.1 years of age, 77.0 ± 7.0 kg body mass, 1.78 ± 0.06 m body height and a BMI of 24.3 ± 1.7 kg/m² in the 'Triple Iron Triathlon Germany'. Of the 31 finishers, eight athletes (26%) developed asymptomatic EAH. Body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, and haematocrit decreased, plasma volume increased ( P Iron ultra-triathletes compared to existing reports on Ironman triathletes. Body fluid homeostasis remained stable in these ultra-triathletes although body mass decreased."

  13. Prevalence and risk factors for self-reported non-communicable diseases among older Ugandans: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Ojiambo Wandera

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is limited evidence about the prevalence and risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs among older Ugandans. Therefore, this article is aimed at investigating the prevalence of self-reported NCDs and their associated risk factors using a nationally representative sample. Design: We conducted a secondary analysis of the 2010 Uganda National Household Survey (UNHS using a weighted sample of 2,382 older people. Frequency distributions for descriptive statistics and Pearson chi-square tests to identify the association between self-reported NCDs and selected explanatory variables were done. Finally, multivariable complementary log–log regressions to estimate the risk factors for self-reported NCDs among older people in Uganda were done. Results: About 2 in 10 (23% older persons reported at least one NCD [including hypertension (16%, diabetes (3%, and heart disease (9%]. Among all older people, reporting NCDs was higher among those aged 60–69 and 70–79; Muslims; and Pentecostals and Seventh Day Adventists (SDAs. In addition, the likelihood of reporting NCDs was higher among older persons who depended on remittances and earned wages; owned a bicycle; were sick in the last 30 days; were disabled; and were women. Conversely, the odds of reporting NCDs were lower for those who were relatives of household heads and were poor. Conclusions: In Uganda, self-reported NCDs were associated with advanced age, being a woman, having a disability, ill health in the past 30 days, being rich, depended on remittances and earning wages, being Muslim, Pentecostal and SDAs, and household headship. The Ministry of Health should prevent and manage NCDs by creating awareness in the public and improving the supply of essential drugs for these health conditions. Finally, there is a need for specialised surveillance studies of older people to monitor the trends and patterns of NCDs over time.

  14. The Prevalence of Bruxism and Correlated Factors in Children Referred to Dental Schools of Tehran, Based on Parent's Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraj, Bahman; Shahrabi, Mehdi; Ghadimi, Sara; Ahmadi, Rahil; Nikfarjam, Jaleh; Zayeri, Farid; Taghi, Fatemeh Pour; Zare, Hadi

    2010-01-01

    Objective Bruxism is defined as the habitual nonfunctional forceful contact between occlusal tooth surfaces. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of bruxism and correlated factors in children referred to dental schools of Tehran, based on Parent's report. Methods This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 600 4-12 year-old children with a mean age of 7.4±2.4 years, who were referred to four dental schools in Tehran. After collecting information with questionnaire filled out by parents, χ2, Fisher Test, Mann-Whitney and t-Test were used to analyze the data. Findings The prevalence of bruxism was 26.2%. Bruxism begun in average at the age of 4.9±2 years. Also it occurred 2.6 times more in children who had a family history of bruxism (father-mother), compared to children who didn't have such a history. 87% of children with bruxism had a history of distressing events in their life, and 13% of children with bruxism did not report any history of distressing events in their life. In this study most common oral habit was nail biting. In study of parasomnias, drooling was the most, and snoring the least reported sleep disorder. Bruxism in children with drooling was twice more than in other children. The prevalence of bruxism in children with temporomandibular disorder was 63.6% and in children without TMD was 24.7%. Conclusion Based on Parent's report, 26.2% of children showed bruxism and there was a significant relation between bruxism and mother's job, family history, distressing event in life, parasomnias, especially drooling and sleep walking, TMD, hyperactivity, depression, acrophobia and lygophobia. PMID:23056700

  15. Prevalence of Self-Reported Gluten Sensitivity and Adherence to a Gluten-Free Diet in Argentinian Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cabrera-Chávez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies suggest that the prevalence of wheat/gluten sensitivity and adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD are high in Latin population despite a poor diagnosis of celiac disease. However, these prevalence rates still remain unknown in most Latin American countries. Methods: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in Santa Fe, Argentina. Results: The estimated self-reported prevalence rates were (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: self-reported gluten sensitivity (SR-GS 7.61% (6.2–9.2, SR-GS currently following a GFD 1.82% (1.2–2.7, celiac disease 0.58% (0.3–1.2, wheat allergy 0.33% (0.12–0.84, self-reported non-celiac gluten sensitivity (SR-NCGS 6.28% (5.1–7.8, SR-NCGS currently following a GFD 0.91% (0.5–1.6, and adherence to a GFD 6.37% (5.1–7.9. SR-GS was more common in women (6.0%; p < 0.001 and associated with irritable bowel syndrome (p < 0.001. Among the GFD followers, 71.4% were doing it for reasons other than health-related benefits and 50.6% without medical/dietitian advice. In the non-SR-GS group, the main motivations for following a GFD were weight control and the perception that a GFD is healthier. Conclusion: In Argentina, gluten sensitivity is commonly reported and it seems that physicians/gastroenterologists are aware of celiac disease diagnosis. Trustable information about the benefits and potential consequences of following a GFD should be given to the general population.

  16. Prevalence of Self-Reported Gluten Sensitivity and Adherence to a Gluten-Free Diet in Argentinian Adult Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Chávez, Francisco; Dezar, Gimena V. A.; Islas-Zamorano, Anna P.; Espinoza-Alderete, Jesús G.; Vergara-Jiménez, Marcela J.; Magaña-Ordorica, Dalia; Ontiveros, Noé

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggest that the prevalence of wheat/gluten sensitivity and adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) are high in Latin population despite a poor diagnosis of celiac disease. However, these prevalence rates still remain unknown in most Latin American countries. Methods: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in Santa Fe, Argentina. Results: The estimated self-reported prevalence rates were (95% Confidence Interval [CI]): self-reported gluten sensitivity (SR-GS) 7.61% (6.2–9.2), SR-GS currently following a GFD 1.82% (1.2–2.7), celiac disease 0.58% (0.3–1.2), wheat allergy 0.33% (0.12–0.84), self-reported non-celiac gluten sensitivity (SR-NCGS) 6.28% (5.1–7.8), SR-NCGS currently following a GFD 0.91% (0.5–1.6), and adherence to a GFD 6.37% (5.1–7.9). SR-GS was more common in women (6.0%; p < 0.001) and associated with irritable bowel syndrome (p < 0.001). Among the GFD followers, 71.4% were doing it for reasons other than health-related benefits and 50.6% without medical/dietitian advice. In the non-SR-GS group, the main motivations for following a GFD were weight control and the perception that a GFD is healthier. Conclusion: In Argentina, gluten sensitivity is commonly reported and it seems that physicians/gastroenterologists are aware of celiac disease diagnosis. Trustable information about the benefits and potential consequences of following a GFD should be given to the general population. PMID:28117706

  17. A UK study assessing the population prevalence of self-reported gluten sensitivity and referral characteristics to secondary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Imran; Lewis, Nina R; Hadjivassiliou, Marios; Winfield, Stefanie N; Rugg, Nathan; Kelsall, Alan; Newrick, Laurence; Sanders, David S

    2014-01-01

    Reports suggest that gluten sensitivity (GS) exists in the absence of coeliac disease (CD). This clinical entity has been termed noncoeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). To determine the population prevalence of self-reported GS and referral characteristics to secondary care. A UK population-based questionnaire screened for GS and related symptoms. Diagnostic outcomes were also analyzed in patients referred to secondary care with GS. CD diagnosis entailed a positive coeliac serology (endomysial and/or tissue transglutaminase antibodies) plus Marsh 1-3 on duodenal biopsies. NCGS diagnosis was based on exclusion of CD. Clinical comparisons were made between NCGS and CD. A total of 1002 adults in the population (female 55%, mean age 39 years). The self-reported prevalence for GS was 13% (female 79%, mean age 39.5 years, P<0.0001), with 3.7% consuming a gluten-free diet and 0.8% known to have a doctor diagnosis of CD. Individuals with GS had an increased prevalence of fulfilling the Rome III criteria for irritable bowel syndrome, in comparison with those without GS (20 vs. 3.89%, odds ratio 6.23, P<0.0001).In secondary care 200 GS patients (female 84%, mean age 39.6 years) were investigated, in whom 7% were found to have CD and 93% to have NCGS. All CD patients were human leucocyte antigen DQ2 or DQ8 positive compared with 53% of NCGS cases (P=0.0003). Nutritional deficiencies (P≤0.003), autoimmune disorders (23.1 vs. 9.7%, P=0.0001) and a lower mean BMI (23.7 vs. 25.8, P=0.001) were significantly associated with CD compared with NCGS. GS is commonly self-reported with symptoms suggesting an association with irritable bowel syndrome. The majority of patients have NCGS, an entity which demonstrates clinical and immunologic difference to CD.

  18. A report on the high prevalence of Anaplasma sp. in buffaloes from two provinces in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Qurat U A; Khan, Asmat Ullah; Khattak, Rehman Mehmood; Ali, Muhammad; Shaikh, Rehan Sadiq; Ali, Muhammad; Iqbal, Furhan

    2013-09-01

    The present study was designed to use a PCR-RFLP protocol for the molecular detection of Anaplasma sp. and to compare its prevalence in blood samples from buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) from 2 provinces of Pakistan and to determine the risk factors associated with the spread of Anaplasma infection. A total of 281 blood samples were collected from adults and calves of buffaloes from 4 sampling sites in Southern Punjab (Bahawalnagar, Burewala, Layyah, and Multan districts) and 2 in Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa (Peshawer and Kohat districts) from randomly selected herds. Data on the characteristics of the animals (gender, age, tick presence or absence, prior treatment for Anaplasma infection) and the herd (location, size, dogs associated with the herds, tick burden of dogs associated with the herds) were collected through questionnaires. One hundred and sixteen blood samples (41% of total) produced the 577-base pairs DNA fragment specific for the 16S rRNA gene of Anaplasma sp. by PCR amplification. Twenty of the 116 Anaplasma sp.-positive PCR products were confirmed to be Anaplasma marginale upon restriction with BssNa1, specific to cut A. marginale sequences. ANOVA results revealed a highly significant association between sampling sites and prevalence of Anaplasma sp. (PAnaplasma sp. prevalence was variable among all 6 sampling sites. Risk factor analysis indicated that the association of dogs with the herd was the only significant (P=0.029) risk factor associated with the spread of Anaplasma sp. in buffaloes while sex, age, presence of ticks on animals or herd size showed no association with Anaplasma infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Workplace bullying in the UK NHS: a questionnaire and interview study on prevalence, impact and barriers to reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Madeline; Thompson, Neill; Crampton, Paul; Morrow, Gill; Burford, Bryan; Gray, Christopher; Illing, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prevalence and impact of bullying behaviours between staff in the National Health Service (NHS) workplace, and to explore the barriers to reporting bullying. Design Cross-sectional questionnaire and semi-structured interview. Setting 7 NHS trusts in the North East of England. Participants 2950 NHS staff, of whom 43 took part in a telephone interview. Main outcome measures Prevalence of bullying was measured by the revised Negative Acts Questionnaire (NAQ-R) and the impact of bullying was measured using indicators of psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire, GHQ-12), intentions to leave work, job satisfaction and self-reported sickness absence. Barriers to reporting bullying and sources of bullying were also examined. Results Overall, 20% of staff reported having been bullied by other staff to some degree and 43% reported having witnessed bullying in the last 6 months. Male staff and staff with disabilities reported higher levels of bullying. There were no overall differences due to ethnicity, but some differences were detected on several negative behaviours. Bullying and witnessing bullying were associated with lower levels of psychological health and job satisfaction, and higher levels of intention to leave work. Managers were the most common source of bullying. Main barriers to reporting bullying were the perception that nothing would change, not wanting to be seen as a trouble-maker, the seniority of the bully and uncertainty over how policies would be implemented and bullying cases managed. Data from qualitative interviews supported these findings and identified workload pressures and organisational culture as factors contributing to workplace bullying. Conclusions Bullying is a persistent problem in healthcare organisations which has significant negative outcomes for individuals and organisations.

  20. Prevalence of Psychiatric Morbidity in Females amongst Infertile Couples- A Hospital Based Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Pragati; Goyal, Lajya Devi; Kaur, Gurmeet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Infertility leads to significant stress among couple and the reaction to infertility differs among males and females. Aim To know the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in infertile couples and compare the prevalence of various psychiatric disorders among husband and wife. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 couples diagnosed with infertility from outdoor clinics. Both male and female partner of couple were interviewed for detailed history and clinical examination was done. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was applied to detect any psychological strain in couples and in those with illness, final diagnosis were made on the basis of DSM -IV (TR). The data thus generated was subjected to appropriate Statistical Analysis. Results Out of the 50 couples, 54% of females had psychiatric morbidity. The most common diagnosis amongst the female participants was MDD (Major Depressive Disorder) (18%), whereas the second most common diagnosis was GAD (Generalized Anxiety Disorder) (16%). Psychiatric morbidity was found in only 26% of males suffering with Adjustment Disorder being most common diagnosis (8%) and Dysthymia and MDD as the second most common diagnosis (6% each). Majority of patients having psychiatric morbidity were from age group 20-29 years. The difference between females and male counterparts was statistically significant. Conclusion Psychiatric morbidity was higher among female partners than male partners. The difference was statistically significant and the situation needs further workup. PMID:27630933

  1. The prevalence of self-reported halitosis and oral hygiene practices among Libyan students and office workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldarrat, A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims:The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of self-reported halitosis, oral hygiene practices and related diseases among Libyan students and employees.Methods: Six hundred self-administered structured questionnaires were used to investigate self-perception of halitosis and oral hygiene practices among a group of Libyan volunteers. Chi square test was used to detect significant differences between frequencies and to test correlation between self-perception of halitosis and measures of oral hygiene. Results: Forty three percent of the subjects were males and 57% were females. Forty four percent of the males and 54% of the females revealed self-perception malodour. Malodour was reported with the highest frequency (68% during wake up time. Malodour was perceived by 31.7% of the females and 23.4% of the males during the hand-on-mouth test (p=0.04. Significantly more females (89.9% than males (75.7% practiced brushing (p<0.001. Fifty one percent of the males and 49.6% of females had dental caries. Smoking was significantly (p<0.001 more prevalent among males (17% than among females (1%. Brushing was practiced by 85% of non-smokers and 68% of smokers (p=0.004. About 71% of the subjects who practiced brushing reported malodour during wake up time in comparison to subjects who did not practice brushing (p=0.041. Conclusions: The prevalence of self-perceived malodour among the Libyan volunteers in this study is within the range of other studies. There is a great demand to reduce the incidence of dental caries and periodontal diseases.

  2. Self-Reported Migraine and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Are More Prevalent in People with Myofascial vs Nonmyofascial Temporomandibular Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Haissam; Shir, Yoram; Nicolau, Belinda; Keith, David; Allison, Paul

    2016-01-01

    To compare the number of comorbidities and the prevalence of five specific comorbidities in people who have temporomandibular disorders (TMD) with or without myofascial pain. This cross-sectional study included 180 patients seeking TMD treatment in Boston and Montreal hospitals. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on sociodemographic and behavioral factors, as well as the presence of the following five comorbidities: migraine, chronic fatigue syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, interstitial cystitis, and restless leg syndrome. TMD was diagnosed using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD. Chi-square and Student t tests were used for categorical and continuous variables, respectively, to test for differences between myofascial (n = 121) and nonmyofascial (n = 59) TMD groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to compare the type and number of self-reported comorbidities in both groups, controlling for confounding variables. The following were found to be significantly higher in the myofascial TMD group than in the nonmyofascial TMD group: self-reported migraine (55% vs 28%, P = .001), chronic fatigue syndrome (19% vs 5%, P = .01), and the mean total number of comorbidities (1.30 vs 0.83, P = .01). Individuals with myofascial TMD had a higher prevalence of self-reported migraine and chronic fatigue syndrome than those with nonmyofascial TMD.

  3. Distance threshold for the effect of urban agriculture on elevated self-reported malaria prevalence in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoler, Justin; Weeks, John R; Getis, Arthur; Hill, Allan G

    2009-04-01

    Irrigated urban agriculture (UA), which has helped alleviate poverty and increase food security in rapidly urbanizing sub-Saharan Africa, may inadvertently support malaria vectors. Previous studies have not identified a variable distance effect on malaria prevalence from UA. This study examines the relationships between self-reported malaria information for 3,164 women surveyed in Accra, Ghana, in 2003, and both household characteristics and proximity to sites of UA. Malaria self-reports are associated with age, education, overall health, socioeconomic status, and solid waste disposal method. The odds of self-reported malaria are significantly higher for women living within 1 km of UA compared with all women living near an irrigation source, the association disappearing beyond this critical distance. Malaria prevalence is often elevated in communities within 1 km of UA despite more favorable socio-economic characteristics than communities beyond 1 km. Neighborhoods within 1 km of UA should be reconsidered as a priority for malaria-related care.

  4. Feline hyperthyroidism reported in primary-care veterinary practices in England: prevalence, associated factors and spatial distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, M J; O'Neill, D G; Church, D B; McGreevy, P D; Thomson, P C; Brodbelt, D C

    2014-11-08

    Feline hyperthyroidism is a commonly diagnosed endocrinopathy that can have a substantial deleterious impact on the welfare of affected cats. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence, associated factors and geographical distribution for feline hyperthyroidism in England, using primary-care veterinary practice clinical data from the VetCompass Animal Surveillance Project. Prevalence was estimated from the overall cat cohort. Associated factor analysis used an age-matched, nested, case-control design with multivariable logistic regression. There were 2,276 cases of feline hyperthyroidism identified from 95,629 cats attending 84 practices from September 2009 to December 2011. Cases were aged 6-25 years. 3.7 per cent of cases and 9.9 per cent of controls were purebred, 56.4 per cent of cases and 56.5 per cent of controls were female, and 88.1 per cent of cases and 86.0 per cent of controls were neutered. The apparent prevalence was 2.4 per cent (95% CI 2.3 to 2.5 per cent) overall, and 8.7 per cent (95% CI 8.3 to 9.0 per cent) in cats aged 10 years or above. Burmese (OR 0.15, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.32, Phyperthyroidism than non-purebred cats. Insured cats had increased odds (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.56 to 2.03, Phyperthyroidism as a high-prevalence disease in England, and reports reduced odds of diagnosis in certain breeds and purebred cats overall.

  5. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in patients undergoing CABG: brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Yaribeygi

    2014-11-01

    Methods: The present study is a descriptive, cross-sectional survey on 1592 patients which suffered coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG from May 2009 to May 2013 in Baqiyatallah Hospital, Tehran. Before surgery, all patients were carefully assessed and typical and atypical cardiovascular risk factors were determined and the desired data were collected. Results: More than 70.8% of subjects were men and 29.2% were women. Average age of all patients was 60.39±7.5 years and the mean weight was 73.91±6.3 kg. Typical risk factors including: smoking, plasma cholesterol level, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and family history of cardiac problems, were common in these patients. Forty seven percent of patients had diabetes mellitus, 79.4% had hypercholesterolemia, 34.3% had a smoking history, 64.5% had hypertension and 44.2% of patients had a family history of cardiovascular disease. Among atypical risk factors, various types of angina (chest pain had high prevalence (88.8% of all. Also, mean body mass index (BMI were higher than normal (27.46±2.1 which showed the incidence of obesity among these patients. But, other atypical risk factors did not have high incidence. Conclusion: We demonstrated that typical and well known risk factors have also high prevalence in CABG patients. Our results indicates that we can recognize high risk persons with continuous and accurate screening as a safe and inexpensive preventive tool. This can be done in both apparently healthy subjects and in cardiovascular patients. We can prevent the occurrence of severe degrees of atherosclerosis and also CABG. So the cost and performing surgeries will be decreased.

  6. The prevalence of statistical reporting errors in psychology (1985-2013)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuijten, M.B.; Hartgerink, C.H.J.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.; Epskamp, S.; Wicherts, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study documents reporting errors in a sample of over 250,000 p-values reported in eight major psychology journals from 1985 until 2013, using the new R package “statcheck.” statcheck retrieved null-hypothesis significance testing (NHST) results from over half of the articles from this period. I

  7. prevalence of self-reported low back pain among patients with type ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diabetic patients, those with T2DM reported higher disability scores (U =1029.0, p =0.001) despite reporting .... with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Variable. Frequency. (%). Gender. Male. 66 ... 12.79, p=0.005), those with primary level education.

  8. [Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen in general population of coast, mountain and forest regions of Peru. A preliminary report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vildósola, H; Farfán, G; Colan, E; Delgado, G; Mendoza, L; Pineda, R; Linares, O; Miyasato, D; Lescano, R

    1990-01-01

    A prospective study was performed in order to establish HBsAg prevalence on population living in urban areas of three geographical regions of Peru. There were included 100 apparently healthy people of each city, with a residence major to 5 years, no migrate neither transitory. Each subdivided group in 50 adults and 50 children. Of these last ones 15 between 1 to 7 years old and 20 cases between 7 to 14 years old. Samples were obtained by venipuncture, then they were centrifuged and the serum obtained was stored at -20 degrees C before being sent to Lima for processing. Determination of HBsAg was made by the Elisa's technic (Abbott Lab-III.-USA). In this preliminary report we informed about results in 7 cities (Lima, Iquitos, Chiclayo, Arequipa,Ica, Chachapoyas y Tarapoto) that include 680 persons of which 373 were adults and 307 children. The HBsAg, was positive in 26 cases (3.8%). In the adult group were 13 positives (3.4%), and in the children also 13 cases (4.2%). Result of all sample shows figures of prevalence (3.8%) major to that reported before at national level. The same phenomenon was observed in the cost while in the jungle our results were similar to those found before. In the andean area not studied previously there were obtained similar results to the rest of the country. It is also interesting to mention the high percentages of prevalence in children. These results indicate that hepatitis B is a serious problem of public health in our country that merit to take immediate prophylactic measures.

  9. Year-round prevalence of norovirus in the environment of catering companies without a recently reported outbreak of gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxman, Ingeborg L A; Verhoef, Linda; Dijkman, Remco; Hägele, Geke; Te Loeke, Nathalie A J M; Koopmans, Marion

    2011-05-01

    Food handlers play an important role in the transmission of norovirus (NoV) in food-borne outbreaks of gastroenteritis (GE). In a year-round prevalence study, the prevalence of NoV in catering companies without recently reported outbreaks of GE was investigated and compared to the observed prevalence in catering companies with recently reported outbreaks. Swab samples were collected from surfaces in the kitchens and (staff) bathrooms in 832 randomly chosen companies and analyzed for the presence of NoV RNA. In total, 42 (1.7%) out of 2,496 environmental swabs from 35 (4.2%) catering companies tested positive. In contrast, NoV was detected in 147 (39.7%) of the 370 samples for 44 (61.1%) of the 72 establishments associated with outbreaks of gastroenteritis. NoV-positive swabs were more frequently found in winter, in specific types of companies (elderly homes and lunchrooms), and in establishments with separate bathrooms for staff. We found a borderline association with population density but no relation to the number of employees. Sequence analysis showed that environmental strains were interspersed with strains found in outbreaks of illness in humans. Thus, the presence of NoV in catering companies seemed to mirror the presence in the population but was strongly increased when associated with food-borne GE. Swabs may therefore serve as a valuable tool in outbreak investigations for the identification of the causative agent, although results should be interpreted with care, taking into account all other epidemiological data.

  10. Physical health symptoms reported by trafficked women receiving post-trafficking support in Moldova: prevalence, severity and associated factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Many trafficked people suffer high levels of physical, sexual and psychological abuse. Yet, there has been limited research on the physical health problems associated with human trafficking or how the health needs of women in post-trafficking support settings vary according to socio-demographic or trafficking characteristics. Methods We analysed the prevalence and severity of 15 health symptoms reported by 120 trafficked women who had returned to Moldova between December 2007 and December 2008 and were registered with the International Organisation for Migration Assistance and Protection Programme. Women had returned to Moldova an average of 5.9 months prior to interview (range 2-12 months). Results Headaches (61.7%), stomach pain (60.9%), memory problems (44.2%), back pain (42.5%), loss of appetite (35%), and tooth pain (35%) were amongst the most commonly reported symptoms amongst both women trafficked for sexual exploitation and women trafficked for labour exploitation. The prevalence of headache and memory problems was strongly associated with duration of exploitation. Conclusions Trafficked women who register for post-trafficking support services after returning to their country of origin are likely to have long-term physical and dental health needs and should be provided with access to comprehensive medical services. Health problems among women who register for post-trafficking support services after returning to their country of origin are not limited to women trafficked for sexual exploitation but are also experienced by victims of labour exploitation. PMID:22834807

  11. Physical health symptoms reported by trafficked women receiving post-trafficking support in Moldova: prevalence, severity and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oram, Siân; Ostrovschi, Nicolae V; Gorceag, Viorel I; Hotineanu, Mihai A; Gorceag, Lilia; Trigub, Carolina; Abas, Melanie

    2012-07-26

    Many trafficked people suffer high levels of physical, sexual and psychological abuse. Yet, there has been limited research on the physical health problems associated with human trafficking or how the health needs of women in post-trafficking support settings vary according to socio-demographic or trafficking characteristics. We analysed the prevalence and severity of 15 health symptoms reported by 120 trafficked women who had returned to Moldova between December 2007 and December 2008 and were registered with the International Organisation for Migration Assistance and Protection Programme. Women had returned to Moldova an average of 5.9 months prior to interview (range 2-12 months). Headaches (61.7%), stomach pain (60.9%), memory problems (44.2%), back pain (42.5%), loss of appetite (35%), and tooth pain (35%) were amongst the most commonly reported symptoms amongst both women trafficked for sexual exploitation and women trafficked for labour exploitation. The prevalence of headache and memory problems was strongly associated with duration of exploitation. Trafficked women who register for post-trafficking support services after returning to their country of origin are likely to have long-term physical and dental health needs and should be provided with access to comprehensive medical services. Health problems among women who register for post-trafficking support services after returning to their country of origin are not limited to women trafficked for sexual exploitation but are also experienced by victims of labour exploitation.

  12. Prevalence of self-reported hypertension and its relation to dietary habits, in adults; a nutrition & health survey in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xenaki Dimitra

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertension leads to many degenerative diseases, the most common being cardiovascular in origin. This study has been designed to estimate the prevalence of self-reported hypertension in a random nationwide sample of adult Greek population, while focus was set to the assessment of participants' nutritional habits in relation to their hypertension status. Methods A random-digit dialed telephone survey. Based on a multistage, stratified sampling, 5003 adults (18 – 74 yr participated (men: 48.8%, women: 51.2%. All participants were interviewed via telephone by trained personnel who used a standard questionnaire. The questionnaire included demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, medical history, lifestyle habits and nutritional assessment. Results The prevalence of self-reported hypertension was 13.3% in men and 17.7% in women (P Conclusion Hypertension seems to be a serious public health problem in Greece. It is encouraging that hypertensives may have started adopting some more healthy nutritional behaviour compared to normotensive ones. However, they can gain significant benefits regarding to blood pressure control, if they increase the level of compliance with dietary recommendations.

  13. Frequent alcohol drinking is associated with lower prevalence of self-reported common cold: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouchi Eriko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol intake has been associated with reduced incidence of common cold symptoms in 2 European studies. However, no study has addressed the association between the frequency of alcohol intake and the incidence of common cold. This study aimed to investigate the association between the amount and frequency of alcohol drinking and the retrospective prevalence of common cold in Japanese men. Methods This retrospective study included men who participated in an annual health examination conducted in Sendai, Japan. The frequency of common cold episodes in the previous year was self-reported. The weekly frequency and amount of alcohol consumed, as well as the type of alcoholic drink, were reported by a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between the amount and frequency of alcohol intake and the retrospective prevalence of common cold. Results Among 899 men, 83.4% of the subjects reported drinking alcohol, and 55.4% of the subjects reported having experienced at least one episode of common cold in the previous year. Compared with non-drinkers, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for having had 1 or more episodes of common cold during the past year across categories of alcohol intake frequency of 3 or less, 4–6, and 7 days/week were 0.827 (0.541–1.266, 0.703 (0.439–1.124, and 0.621 (0.400–0.965, respectively (P for trend = 0.025; the adjusted ORs with 95% CIs for having had of 2 or more episodes of common cold across the same categories were 0.642 (0.395–1.045, 0.557 (0.319–0.973, and 0.461 (0.270–0.787, respectively (P for trend = 0.006. Compared with subjects who consumed 11.5–35.8 g of alcohol per day, the non-drinkers were significantly more likely to experience 2 or more episodes of common cold (OR, 1.843; 95% CI, 1.115–3.047. Conclusion The frequency, not the amount, of alcohol intake was

  14. Cyberbullying among primary school students in Turkey: self-reported prevalence and associations with home and school life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Sevda; Savaser, Sevim; Hallett, Victoria; Balci, Serap

    2012-10-01

    The current study examined the self-reported prevalence and nature of cyberbullying and victimization among second, third, and fourth grade students (N=372) and explored associated features of home and school life. Of the children in the current sample, 27 percent had been victims of cyberbullying, 18 percent had been aggressors, and 15 percent had been both cyberbullies and victims. Boys were significantly more likely to carry out cyberbullying than girls. Cyberbullying exposure (as both a bully and a victim) was significantly associated with low levels of self-reported school satisfaction (bullies odds ratio [OR]: 2.45; victims OR: 2.10; pcyberbully. Increased awareness and regulation is now required within schools and within the home to tackle this escalating problem.

  15. Reporting and handling of missing data in predictive research for prevalent undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masconi, Katya L; Matsha, Tandi E; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Erasmus, Rajiv T; Kengne, Andre P

    2015-01-01

    Missing values are common in health research and omitting participants with missing data often leads to loss of statistical power, biased estimates and, consequently, inaccurate inferences. We critically reviewed the challenges posed by missing data in medical research and approaches to address them. To achieve this more efficiently, these issues were analyzed and illustrated through a systematic review on the reporting of missing data and imputation methods (prediction of missing values through relationships within and between variables) undertaken in risk prediction studies of undiagnosed diabetes. Prevalent diabetes risk models were selected based on a recent comprehensive systematic review, supplemented by an updated search of English-language studies published between 1997 and 2014. Reporting of missing data has been limited in studies of prevalent diabetes prediction. Of the 48 articles identified, 62.5% (n = 30) did not report any information on missing data or handling techniques. In 21 (43.8%) studies, researchers opted out of imputation, completing case-wise deletion of participants missing any predictor values. Although imputation methods are encouraged to handle missing data and ensure the accuracy of inferences, this has seldom been the case in studies of diabetes risk prediction. Hence, we elaborated on the various types and patterns of missing data, the limitations of case-wise deletion and state-of the-art methods of imputations and their challenges. This review highlights the inexperience or disregard of investigators of the effect of missing data in risk prediction research. Formal guidelines may enhance the reporting and appropriate handling of missing data in scientific journals.

  16. Prevalence and correlates of sleep paralysis in adults reporting childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Murray P; Mulligan, Ashlee D; Carleton, R Nicholas; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2008-12-01

    Sleep paralysis (SP) occurs when rapid eye movement (REM) activity and concomitant paralysis of the skeletal muscles persist as an individual awakens and becomes conscious of his/her surroundings. SP is often accompanied by frightening hallucinations that some researchers suggest may be confounded with memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA; [McNally, R. J., & Clancy, S. A. (2005). Sleep paralysis in adults reporting repressed, recovered, or continuous memories of childhood sexual abuse. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 19, 595-602]). The purpose of this study was to evaluate relationships between CSA and SP. Based on self-report, participants (n=263) were categorized into three CSA groups: confirmed, unconfirmed, or no history of CSA. Relative to participants reporting no CSA history, those reporting CSA reported more frequent and more distressing episodes of SP. Post hoc analyses revealed that participants with clinically significant post-traumatic symptoms (irrespective of CSA history) also reported more frequent and more distressing episodes of SP. Significant correlations were found among SP indices and measures of post-traumatic symptoms, depression, dissociation, and absorption. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

  17. Prevalence of pulmonary edema among the deceased cases with acute Methadone poisoning: A report from Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eizadi-Mood, Nastaran; Naeini, Seyed Amir Hossein Madani; Hedaiaty, Mahrang; Sabzghabaee, Ali Mohammad; Moudi, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Methadone poisoning is common in our society, mainly in drug addicts. One of its lethal complications is pulmonary edema. Therefore, we evaluated the prevalence of pulmonary edema in the deceased cases with methadone poisoning and its possible relationship with some medical variables. Methods: In this cross-sectional study which was done in 2014, we have investigated the deceased patients with methadone toxicity who underwent autopsy at Isfahan Forensic Medicine Department (Iran). All variables including age, gender, and autopsy findings were recorded and analyzed. Demographic characteristics and medical complications of the patients were compared between the patients with or without pulmonary edema in the autopsy findings. Findings: There were 64 cases who died with methadone poisoning during the 1-year study period. The average age of cases (±standard deviation) was 32.1 ± 10.29 years, among which 92.2% were male. Based on the autopsy findings, 64.1% were diagnosed with pulmonary edema. There was no statistically significant relationship between pulmonary edema and age, gender, history of addiction, and hepatic or cardiovascular complications. Conclusion: Pulmonary edema is a common finding in deceased methadone poisoning cases and must be considered and ruled out in patients with acute methadone toxicity. PMID:27843967

  18. Conscientiousness predicts greater recovery from negative emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Kristin N Javaras; Schaefer, Stacey M.; van Reekum, Carien M.; Lapate, Regina C.; Greischar, Lawrence L.; Bachuber, David R.; Love, Gale; Ryff, Carol D.; Richard J Davidson

    2012-01-01

    Greater levels of conscientiousness have been associated with lower levels of negative affect. We focus on one mechanism through which conscientiousness may decrease\\ud negative affect: effective emotion regulation, as reflected by greater recovery from negative stimuli. In 273 adults who were 35 - 85 years old, we collected self-report measures of personality including conscientiousness and its self-control facet, followed\\ud on average 2 years later by psychophysiological measures of emotio...

  19. Malaria prevalence and morbidity among children reporting at health facilities in Nouakchott, Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekweiry, Khadijetou Mint; Basco, Leonardo K; Salem, Mohamed Salem O Ahmedou; Hafid, Jamal Eddine; Marin-Jauffre, Adeline; Weddih, Abdallahi O; Briolant, Sébastien; Bogreau, Hervé; Pradines, Bruno; Rogier, Christophe; Trape, Jean-François; Boukhary, Ali O Mohamed Salem O

    2011-12-01

    Although malaria has become a serious public health problem in Mauritania since the late 1990s, few documented data on its epidemiology exist. The objective of this study was to assess the morbidity of clinical malaria among children in Nouakchott. Three hundred and one febrile children, consulting at three health facilities of Nouakchott, were screened for malaria in 2009 (n=216) and 2010 (n=85). Plasmodium species identification and parasite density were determined by microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thin and thick films and confirmed by rapid diagnostic test and nested PCR. Of 301 febrile children, 105 (34.9%) were malaria-positive by nested PCR and 87 (28.9%) by microscopy. Plasmodium vivax represented 97.1% (102/105) and P. falciparum accounted for 2.9% (3/105) of positive cases. All positive children under five years old were infected with P. vivax. The highest numbers of malaria positives were found during or shortly after the rainy season and the lowest during the dry season. Fifty-four of 105 (51.4%) malaria cases, all with P. vivax, had never travelled outside Nouakchott. Individuals belonging to the Moors ethnic group represented 97.0% of P. vivax cases. Results of the present study indicate that malaria is endemic in Nouakchott and that P. vivax is the principal causative agent. Regular surveillance is required to monitor malaria prevalence and incidence, and further measures are needed to counter the possible spread of malaria in the country. Copyright © 2011 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence of and risk factors for equine obesity in Great Britain based on owner-reported body condition scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, C A; Ireland, J L; Wylie, C E; Collins, S N; Verheyen, K L P; Newton, J R

    2015-03-01

    Few data are available on the prevalence of obesity in the general equine population of Great Britain (GB), and its associated risk factors. To estimate the prevalence of owner-reported obesity in veterinary-registered horses and ponies in GB, and identify factors associated with obesity. A cross-sectional survey of horse/pony owners in GB was undertaken using a postal questionnaire. Thirty veterinary practices randomly selected horse/pony owners to complete a self-administered postal questionnaire. Owners estimated body condition score using a modified Carroll and Huntington method (1-6 scale), and animals were classified as obese if they were scored as either 5 (fat) or 6 (very fat). Factors associated with obesity were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Prevalence of obesity was 31.2% (n = 247/792; 95% confidence interval [CI] 27.9-34.2%). Factors associated with increased odds of obesity were breed (Pobese. Animals described as 'good doers' were more likely to be obese than those described as readily maintaining normal weight (OR 3.7; 95% CI 2.6-5.3). Compared to competition animals, animals used for pleasure riding (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.4-4.4) and nonridden animals (OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.5-5.5) were more likely to be obese. Identification of at-risk breeds and other horse- and management-level risk factors for obesity will enable optimal targeting of owner education regarding management strategies to reduce the frequency of equine obesity. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  1. Hepatitis C Virus (HCV Prevalence in Special Populations and Associated Risk Factors: A Report From a Tertiary Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyekwere

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background With the advent of highly effective anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV drugs, efforts to identify infected cases, high-risk groups, and associated risk factors have become the focus of current control measures. Objectives To determine the prevalence of the HCV antibody among diabetics and patients with lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD who presented to the outpatient clinics of a university hospital and its associated risk factors Patients and Methods Consecutively consenting patients who had been previously diagnosed with diabetes mellitus and LPD at the outpatient department of the Lagos State University teaching hospital were recruited. A case record form was used to extract their demographics and physical examination findings as well as any risk factors for HCV infection; blood was also drawn to run a serological assay for the HCV antibody. All data were collated and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20. Student T-test, Chi square, and logistic regression were some of the inferential statistics used in addition to descriptive statistics. Results In all, 438 patients (405 diabetics and 33 patients with LPD were recruited. Their ages ranged from 17 - 87 years with a mean + Standard deviation of 59.61 + 11.859 years. The prevalence of hepatitis C among the diabetic subgroup was 0.7%, while the antibody was present in 9.1% of the LPD patients. The occurrence of the HCV antibody was, however, not significantly associated with age, sex, educational level, or marital status (P > 0.05. Having multiple sexual partners was identified as the only significant risk factor for hepatitis C (OR = 9.148; P = 0.017. Conclusions This survey suggested that a higher HCV prevalence exists in this population than is currently reported in the general population, and having sex with multiple partners was a risk factor for HCV infection.

  2. Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Prevalence in Special Populations and Associated Risk Factors: A Report From a Tertiary Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyekwere, Charles Asabamaka; O Ogbera, Anthonia; Olusola Dada, Akinola; O Adeleye, Olufunke; O Dosunmu, Adedoyin; Akinbami, Akinsegun A; Osikomaiya, Bodunrin; Hameed, Oladipupo

    2016-01-01

    Background With the advent of highly effective anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) drugs, efforts to identify infected cases, high-risk groups, and associated risk factors have become the focus of current control measures. Objectives To determine the prevalence of the HCV antibody among diabetics and patients with lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) who presented to the outpatient clinics of a university hospital and its associated risk factors Patients and Methods Consecutively consenting patients who had been previously diagnosed with diabetes mellitus and LPD at the outpatient department of the Lagos State University teaching hospital were recruited. A case record form was used to extract their demographics and physical examination findings as well as any risk factors for HCV infection; blood was also drawn to run a serological assay for the HCV antibody. All data were collated and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20. Student T-test, Chi square, and logistic regression were some of the inferential statistics used in addition to descriptive statistics. Results In all, 438 patients (405 diabetics and 33 patients with LPD) were recruited. Their ages ranged from 17 - 87 years with a mean + Standard deviation of 59.61 + 11.859 years. The prevalence of hepatitis C among the diabetic subgroup was 0.7%, while the antibody was present in 9.1% of the LPD patients. The occurrence of the HCV antibody was, however, not significantly associated with age, sex, educational level, or marital status (P > 0.05). Having multiple sexual partners was identified as the only significant risk factor for hepatitis C (OR = 9.148; P = 0.017). Conclusions This survey suggested that a higher HCV prevalence exists in this population than is currently reported in the general population, and having sex with multiple partners was a risk factor for HCV infection. PMID:27313634

  3. Reported high salt intake is associated with increased prevalence of abdominal aortic aneurysm and larger aortic diameter in older men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Golledge

    Full Text Available Salt intake has been implicated in the pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA through studies in rodent models but not previously studied in humans. The aim of this study was to examine the association between reported addition of salt to food and the prevalence of AAA.A risk factor questionnaire which contained a question about salt intake was included as part of a population screening study for AAA in 11742 older men. AAA presence was assessed by abdominal ultrasound imaging using a reproducible protocol.The prevalence of AAA was 6.9, 8.5 and 8.6% in men who reported adding salt to food never, sometimes and always, respectively, p = 0.005. Addition of salt to food sometimes (odds ratio [OR]: 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.44 or always (OR: 1.23, 95% CI 1.04-1.47 was independently associated with AAA after adjustment for other risk factors including age, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure, history of hypertension, high cholesterol, angina, diabetes, myocardial infarction and stroke. Salt intake was also independently associated with aortic diameter (beta 0.023, p = 0.012. In men with no prior history of hypertension, high cholesterol, angina, myocardial infarction or stroke (n = 4185, the association between addition of salt to food sometimes (OR: 1.41, 95% CI 0.96-2.08 or always (OR: 1.52, 95% CI 1.04-2.22 and AAA remained evident.Reported salt intake is associated with AAA in older men. Additional studies are needed to determine whether reducing salt intake would protect against AAA.

  4. Standards for reporting chronic periodontitis prevalence and severity in epidemiologic studies: Proposed standards from the Joint EU/USA Periodontal Epidemiology Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtfreter, Birte; Albandar, Jasim M; Dietrich, Thomas; Dye, Bruce A; Eaton, Kenneth A; Eke, Paul I; Papapanou, Panos N; Kocher, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Periodontal diseases are common and their prevalence varies in different populations. However, prevalence estimates are influenced by the methodology used, including measurement techniques, case definitions, and periodontal examination protocols, as well as differences in oral health status. As a consequence, comparisons between populations are severely hampered and inferences regarding the global variation in prevalence can hardly be drawn. To overcome these limitations, the authors suggest standardized principles for the reporting of the prevalence and severity of periodontal diseases in future epidemiological studies. These principles include the comprehensive reporting of the study design, the recording protocol, and specific subject-related and oral data. Further, a range of periodontal data should be reported in the total population and within specific age groups. Periodontal data include the prevalence and extent of clinical attachment loss (CAL) and probing depth (PD) on site and tooth level according to specific thresholds, mean CAL/PD, the CDC/AAP case definition, and bleeding on probing. Consistent implementation of these standards in future studies will ensure improved reporting quality, permit meaningful comparisons of the prevalence of periodontal diseases across populations, and provide better insights into the determinants of such variation.

  5. Farmer reported prevalence and factors associated with contagious ovine digital dermatitis in Wales: A questionnaire of 511 sheep farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, J W; Duncan, J S; Carter, S D; Grove-White, D H

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, 2000 questionnaires were sent to a random sample of Welsh sheep farmers. The questionnaire investigated farmers' knowledge and views on contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) - an emerging disease of sheep responsible for causing severe lameness, welfare and production problems. The overall response rate was 28.3% with a usable response rate of 25.6%. The between farm prevalence of CODD was 35.0% and the median farmer estimated prevalence of CODD was 2.0%. The disease now appears endemic and widespread in Wales. Furthermore, there has been a rapid increase in reports of CODD arriving on farms since the year 2000. Risk factors for CODD identified in this study include the presence of bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) in cattle on the farm and larger flocks. Farmers also consider concurrent footrot/interdigital dermatitis, buying in sheep, adult sheep, time of year and housing to be associated with CODD. Further experimental research is necessary to establish whether these observations are true associations.

  6. Prevalence of self-reported morbidity and knowledge about diabetes: population-based study in Southern Brazil. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n5p562

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Goularte Knuth

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the knowledge about diabetes and the prevalence of self-reported diabetes in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out including 972 subjects aged from 20 to 69 years. The prevalence of self-reported diabetes was 5.3% (95% CI: 3.9% – 6.7%. Most individuals (73.4% considered that physical exercise is beneficial for diabetic patients. Approximately 90% of the sample correctly identified the characteristics of diabetes, and greater knowledge was observed among those aged 20 to 49 years and from high socioeconomic status. More than half of the sample (54.9% correctly identified the risk factors for diabetes and greater knowledge was observed among females and subjects from high socioeconomic level. Kno­wledge on diabetes seems to be widespread among the population, although it is marked, mainly, by socioeconomic differences. Government health promotion strategies are urgent to raise awareness about this morbidity in the population.

  7. Classical Swine Fever in Wild Hog: Report of its Prevalence in Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, N N; Bora, D P; Khatoon, E; Mandal, S; Rakshit, A; Rajbongshi, G; Depner, K; Chakraborty, A; Kumar, S

    2016-10-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease, hog cholera in pigs. The disease is endemic in many parts of the world and vaccination is the only way to protect the animals from CSFV infection. Wild hogs belong to the species Sus Scrofa Cristatus under the family Suidae are quite susceptible to CSFV infection. The epidemiological role concerning classical swine fever (CSF) in India is largely unknown. We report here the three isolated cases of CSF in wild hogs from three National parks, namely Kaziranga National Park, Manas National Park and Jaldapara National Park, from north-east part of India. The post-mortem and histopathological findings were clearly indicative for CSFV infection. The presence of CSFV genome was demonstrated in several organs and tissues collected from hogs died due to viral infection. In addition, CSF-specific antibodies were detected in two wild hogs as well as in eighteen feral pigs from the same locations. The phylogenetic analysis of the partial E2 protein gene and 5' untranslated region of CSFV isolates from the wild hog showed identities with genotype 2.2 of the Indian isolates. Occurrence of CSF in wild hogs may pose a potent threat in the epidemiology of the virus in Northeast part of India. To the best of our knowledge, the report presented in the manuscript is the first comprehensive report on CSF in wild hogs form Northeast India. The findings reported would help us to understand the epidemiology and biology of CSFV in wild animals.

  8. Variations of Lipoprotein(a Levels in the Metabolic Syndrome: A Report from the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmore Bermúdez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Lipoprotein(a [Lp(a] is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease, yet its influence on metabolic syndrome (MS is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact generated by this diagnosis in serum Lp(a concentrations. Materials and Methods. A total of 1807 subjects of both genders (55.3% women and 44.7% men belonging to the Maracaibo City Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence Study were evaluated. Results were expressed as Mean ± SD, determining differences through Student’s t-test and One-Way ANOVA test. Multiple logistic regression models were utilized for analyzing factors associated with elevated serum Lp(a levels and MS. Total cholesterol and LDL-C were corrected according to Lp(a-Cholesterol when necessary. Results. No differences were found in Lp(a values between genders; P=0,292. The association between MS and the classification of Lp(a was statistically significant (χ2=28.33; P<0,0001, with greater levels in subjects with this diagnosis. In the univariate analysis, subjects with each of the separate diagnostic criteria showed higher serum Lp(a concentrations, except for hyperglycemia. Conclusions. Lp(a values exhibit important variations regarding MS and each of its components. Impaired fasting glucose appeared as a protecting factor against elevated Lp(a concentrations, whereas its association with LDL-C and hs-CRP suggests a potential pro-inflammatory role.

  9. Self-Reported High-Cholesterol Prevalence in the Brazilian Population: Analysis of the 2013 National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotufo, Paulo A; Santos, Raul D; Sposito, Andrei C; Bertolami, Marcelo; Rocha-Faria, Jose; Izar, M Cristina; Szwarcwald, Celia; Prado, Rogério R; Stoppa, Sheila R; Malta, Deborah C; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2017-05-01

    Data on the prevalence of dyslipidemia in Brazil are scarce, with surveys available only for some towns. To evaluate the prevalence of the self-reported medical diagnosis of high cholesterol in the Brazilian adult population by use of the 2013 National Health Survey data. Descriptive study assessing the 2013 National Health Survey data, a household-based epidemiological survey with a nationally representative sample and self-reported information. The sample consisted of 60,202 individuals who reported a medical diagnosis of dyslipidemia. The point prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol/triglyceride by gender, age, race/ethnicity, geographic region and educational level were calculated. Adjusted odds ratio was calculated. Of the 60,202 participants, 14.3% (95%CI=13.7-14.8) never had their cholesterol or triglyceride levels tested, but a higher frequency of women, white individuals, elderly and those with higher educational level had their cholesterol levels tested within the last year. The prevalence of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol was 12.5% (9.7% in men and 15.1% in women), and women had 60% higher probability of a diagnosis of high cholesterol than men. The frequency of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol increased up to the age of 59 years, being higher in white individuals or those of Asian heritage, in those with higher educational level and in residents of the Southern and Southeastern regions. The importance of dyslipidemia awareness in the present Brazilian epidemiological context must be emphasized to guide actions to control and prevent coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in Brazil and worldwide. A prevalência de hipercolesterolemia no Brasil não é conhecida para todo o país, havendo somente inquéritos em algumas cidades. Avaliar a prevalência de diagnóstico médico de colesterol alto autorreferido na população adulta brasileira, utilizando-se dos dados da

  10. Is Sexual Victimization Gender Specific? The Prevalence of Forced Sexual Activity Among Men and Women in Denmark, and Self-Reported Well-Being Among Survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundaram, Vanita; Laursen, Bjarne; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2008-01-01

    adolescents (N = 5,829) and adults (N = 3,932) and analyze differences in self-reported health outcomes between male and female victims and corresponding controls. Gender differences are found in the reported prevalence of sexual victimization. Significantly more females than males reported forced sexual......The present study investigates the prevalence of sexual victimization and correlations between sexual victimization and indicators of poor health in two representative samples of men and women in Denmark. Specifically, the authors explore the prevalence of self-reported victimization among...... experiences in both samples. Associations between sexual victimization and poor health outcomes are found for both genders. Comparable patterns of association for men and women are found on a number of variables, particularly those pertaining to risk behavior....

  11. Self-reported arm-lymphedema and functional impairment after breast cancer treatment--a nationwide study of prevalence and associated factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gärtner, Rune; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Ewertz, Marianne;

    2010-01-01

    swelling/sensation of heaviness (lymphedema) and on function, reporting prevalence in 12 subgroups of modern treatment and offering estimates for treatment-related associated factors. 3253 Women (87%) returned the study questionnaire. Depending on treatment group prevalence of perceived swelling....../heaviness, younger age, ALND, chemotherapy, time elapsed since surgery, and surgery on the dominant side. Radiotherapy and type of breast surgery were of no importance....

  12. Are Prevalent Self-reported Cardiovascular Disorders Associated with Delayed Recovery From Whiplash-associated Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmlöf, Lina; Côté, Pierre; Holm, Lena W;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:: The aim of this cohort study was to investigate the association between self-reported cardiovascular disorders (CVD) and recovery from whiplash associated disorder (WAD) after a traffic collision. METHODS:: This study was based on the Saskatchewan Government Insurance cohort, including...... individuals over 18 years of age, who made a traffic- injury claim or received health care after a traffic injury, between 1997 and 1999. Participants completed a baseline questionnaire and were followed up by telephone interviews at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 12 months post injury. Our sample...... on the recovery of individuals with whiplash-associated disorders....

  13. Prevalence and Predictors of Self-Reported Sexual Abuse in Severely Obese Patients in a Population-Based Bariatric Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle L. Gabert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sexual abuse may be associated with poorer weight loss outcomes following bariatric treatment. Identifying predictors of abuse would enable focused screening and may increase weight management success. Methods. We analyzed data from 500 consecutively recruited obese subjects from a population-based, regional bariatric program. The prevalence of self-reported sexual abuse was ascertained using a single interview question. Health status was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify sexual abuse predictors. Results. The mean age was 43.7 y (SD 9.6, 441 (88.2% were females, 458 (91.8% were white, and the mean body mass index (BMI was 47.9 kg/m2 (SD 8.1. The self-reported prevalence of past abuse was 21.8% (95% CI 18.4–25.4%. Abused subjects had worse health status (VAS score 53.1 (SD 21.2 versus 58.0 (SD 20.1, P=0.03. BMI was not associated with abuse (P>0.5. Age, sex, BMI, and covariate-adjusted independent predictors of abuse included alcohol addiction (adjusted odds ratio 15.8; 95% CI 4.0–62.8, posttraumatic stress disorder (4.9; 2.5–9.5, borderline personality (3.8; 1.0–13.8, depression (2.4; 1.3–4.3, and lower household income (3.4; 1.6–7.0. Conclusions. Abuse was common amongst obese patients managed in a population-based bariatric program; alcohol addiction, psychiatric comorbidities, and low-income status were highly associated with sexual abuse.

  14. The impact of 'social determinants of health' on epilepsy prevalence and reported medication use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, John O; Lu, Bo; Shneker, Bassel F; Moore, J Layne; McAuley, James W

    2009-04-01

    There is a limited understanding of the complex relationship between poverty and epilepsy. To address the complex interaction of environmental and psychosocial factors in epilepsy a 'social determinants of health' model is presented where individual factors are influenced through three pathways (social environment, work and material factors). In the 2005 California Health Interview Survey, 246 of 604 (41%) persons with a history of epilepsy were in poverty, defined as Poverty Level (FPL). Multivariable logistic regression analyses revealed persons in poverty are not more likely to report a history of epilepsy compared to those not in poverty. However, persons with a history of epilepsy in poverty were significantly less likely than those not in poverty to report taking medication for epilepsy (OR 0.5) once material factors (annual income and living situation) and healthcare access were controlled for in the final sequential model. Healthcare practitioners must continue to recognize that connection to social services and the cost of medications are significant barriers to optimal care in persons with epilepsy. Improved connection to patient advocacy organizations and medication assistance programs may help close these gaps.

  15. Self-reported creativity in bipolar disorder: prevalence, types and associated outcomes in mania versus hypomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCraw, Stacey; Parker, Gordon; Fletcher, Kathryn; Friend, Paul

    2013-12-01

    Bipolar (BP) disorder has been linked to creativity following investigation of prominent artists and controlled trials of creativity in BP disorder patients. However, it is unclear whether creativity is differentially expressed across the BP I and BP II subtypes. 219 patients (aged 19-63 years) diagnosed with BP disorder by clinical interview and DSM-IV criteria were asked whether they tended to be more creative during hypo/manic episodes, and answered five questions about personality styles associated with creativity. Qualitative analyses were performed on a smaller subset of 69 BP patients (n=19 BP I, n=50 BP II) who provided written responses of the types of creative activities engaged in when hypo/manic and any perceived advantages or disadvantages of their creative pursuits. 82% of BP patients affirmed being creative when hypo/manic, with comparable results for the BP I and BP II subtypes (84% and 81% respectively). Both BP subtypes engaged mostly in writing, painting, work or business ideas and 'other' forms of art; however BP II patients were more likely to draw and be musical. Both subgroups reported the consequences of feeling good, being productive or quitting their project. BP I patients were more likely to overspend during their creative highs while BP II patients were more likely to experience improved focus and clarity. BP patients affirming creative highs were significantly more likely to report creative personality styles more generally outside of a mood episode. BP patients' self-reported creative activities were not retrospectively judged for quality or originality and so may reflect common creative abilities rather than exceptional quality. The impact of depressive episodes on creativity was not assessed. Uneven sample sizes in the BP I and BP II subgroups may have compromised statistical power. Creativity during hypo/manic episodes was extremely common in both BP subtypes. While some nuances in activity type and outcomes were observed, no

  16. Conscientiousness predicts greater recovery from negative emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaras, Kristin N; Schaefer, Stacey M; van Reekum, Carien M; Lapate, Regina C; Greischar, Lawrence L; Bachhuber, David R; Love, Gayle Dienberg; Ryff, Carol D; Davidson, Richard J

    2012-10-01

    Greater levels of conscientiousness have been associated with lower levels of negative affect. We focus on one mechanism through which conscientiousness may decrease negative affect: effective emotion regulation, as reflected by greater recovery from negative stimuli. In 273 adults who were 35-85 years old, we collected self-report measures of personality including conscientiousness and its self-control facet, followed on average 2 years later by psychophysiological measures of emotional reactivity and recovery. Among middle-aged adults (35-65 years old), the measures of conscientiousness and self-control predicted greater recovery from, but not reactivity to, negative emotional stimuli. The effect of conscientiousness and self-control on recovery was not driven by other personality variables or by greater task adherence on the part of high conscientiousness individuals. In addition, the effect was specific to negative emotional stimuli and did not hold for neutral or positive emotional stimuli.

  17. The prevalence of unwanted and unlawful sexual experiences reported by Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Bøving Larsen, Helmer

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To obtain current data about child sexual abuse in Denmark and to assess abused children's own perception of early sexual experiences, which are unlawful according to the Danish Penal Code. METHODS: Multimedia computer-based self-administered questionnaires (CASI) were completed by a national...... representative sample of 15-16-y-olds. Child sexual abuse was defined according to the penal code and measured by questions defining specific sexual activities, the relationship between the older person and the child, and the youth's own perception of the incident. RESULTS: Among 5829 respondents, 11% reported...... unlawful sexual experiences, 7% of boys and 16% of girls. Only 1% of boys and 4% of girls felt that they "definitely" or "maybe" had been sexually abused. CONCLUSION: A relatively high percentage of Danish adolescents have early, unlawful sexual experiences. However, young people's own perception of sexual...

  18. Racial and Ethnic Heterogeneity in Self-Reported Diabetes Prevalence Trends Across Hispanic Subgroups, National Health Interview Survey, 1997–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mincey, Krista D.; Ackermann, Nicole; Milam, Laurel; Goodman, Melody S.; Colditz, Graham A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We examined racial/ethnic heterogeneity in self-reported diabetes prevalence over 15 years. Methods We used National Health Interview Survey data for 1997 through 2012 on 452,845 adults aged 18 years or older. Annual self-reported diabetes prevalence was estimated by race/ethnicity and education. We tested for trends over time by education and race/ethnicity. We also analyzed racial/ethnic and education trends in average annual prevalence. Results During the 15 years studied, diabetes prevalence differed significantly by race/ethnicity (P < .001) and by Hispanic subgroup (P < .001). Among participants with less than a high school education, the 5-year trend in diabetes prevalence was highest among Cubans and Cuban Americans (β5YR = 4.8, P = .002), Puerto Ricans (β5YR = 2.2, P = .06), non-Hispanic blacks (β5YR = 2.2, P < .001), and non-Hispanic whites (β5YR = 2.1, P < .001). Among participants with more than a high school education, non-Hispanic blacks had the highest average annual prevalence (5.5%) and Puerto Ricans had the highest 5-year trend in annual diabetes prevalence (β5YR = 2.6, P = .001). Conclusions In this representative sample of US adults, results show ethnic variations in diabetes prevalence. The prevalence of diabetes is higher among Hispanics than among non-Hispanic whites, unevenly distributed across Hispanic subgroups, and more pronounced over time and by education. Findings support disaggregation of data for racial/ethnic populations in the United States to monitor trends in diabetes disparities and the use of targeted, culturally appropriate interventions to prevent diabetes. PMID:26796518

  19. Prevalence and origin of De Novo duplications in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A: First report of a De Novo duplication with a maternal origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, I.P.; Nash, J.; Gordon, M.J.; Nicholson, G.A. [Univ. of Sydney, New South Wales (United Kingdom)

    1996-03-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most common inherited peripheral neuropathy. Sporadic cases of CMT have been described since the earliest reports of the disease. The most frequent form of the disorder, CMT1A, is associated with a 1.5-Mb DNA duplication on chromosome 17p11.2, which segregates with the disease. In order to investigate the prevalence of de novo CMT1A duplications, this study examined 118 duplication-positive CMT1A families. In 10 of these families it was demonstrated that the disease had arisen as the result of a de novo mutation. By taking into account the ascertainment of families, it can be estimated that {>=}10% of autosomal dominant CMT1 families are due to de novo duplications. The CMT1A duplication is thought to be the product of unequal crossing over between parental chromosome 17 homologues during meiosis. Polymorphic markers from within the duplicated region were used to determine the parental origin of these de novo duplications in eight informative families. Seven were of paternal and one of maternal origin. This study represents the first report of a de novo duplication with a maternal origin and indicates that it is not a phenomenon associated solely with male meioses. Recombination fractions for the region duplicated in CMT1A are larger in females than in males. That suggests that oogenesis may be afforded greater protection from misalignment during synapsis, and/or that there may be lower activity of those factors or mechanisms that lead to unequal crossing over at the CMT1A locus. 41 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Undifferentiated connective tissue disease presenting with prevalent interstitial lung disease: Case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sfriso Paolo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Undifferentiated connective tissue diseases (UCTDs are clinical entities characterised by signs and symptoms suggestive of a systemic autoimmune disease, which do not fulfil the diagnostic criteria for a defined connective tissue disease. Lung involvement can complicate the course and management of the disease, often determining a worse outcome. Respiratory dysfunction as the first clinical manifestation has seldom been reported. We describe a case of a female patient who developed significant respiratory dysfunction as the principal clinical sign. Video-assisted thoracoscopy was performed and a histological pattern of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP was found. A pathological diagnosis suggested careful follow-up with extensive immunological screening which then detected Raynaud's phenomenon and positivity of antinuclear antibodies. After a multidisciplinary discussion (pneumologist, radiologist, pathologist and rheumatologist a final diagnosis of NSIP associated with UCTD was made. The diagnosis of UCTD should be considered when NSIP is diagnosed even in cases with evident first clinical manifestations of severe respiratory dysfunction. A multidisciplinary approach in the field of interstitial lung disease with NSIP, also including rheumatologic expertise, is fundamental to achieve a prompt and correct diagnosis.

  1. Gambling problems in the family – A stratified probability sample study of prevalence and reported consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øren Anita

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior studies on the impact of problem gambling in the family mainly include help-seeking populations with small numbers of participants. The objective of the present stratified probability sample study was to explore the epidemiology of problem gambling in the family in the general population. Methods Men and women 16–74 years-old randomly selected from the Norwegian national population database received an invitation to participate in this postal questionnaire study. The response rate was 36.1% (3,483/9,638. Given the lack of validated criteria, two survey questions ("Have you ever noticed that a close relative spent more and more money on gambling?" and "Have you ever experienced that a close relative lied to you about how much he/she gambles?" were extrapolated from the Lie/Bet Screen for pathological gambling. Respondents answering "yes" to both questions were defined as Concerned Significant Others (CSOs. Results Overall, 2.0% of the study population was defined as CSOs. Young age, female gender, and divorced marital status were factors positively associated with being a CSO. CSOs often reported to have experienced conflicts in the family related to gambling, worsening of the family's financial situation, and impaired mental and physical health. Conclusion Problematic gambling behaviour not only affects the gambling individual but also has a strong impact on the quality of life of family members.

  2. Diabetes mellitus auto-referido no Município de São Paulo: prevalência e desigualdade Self-reported diabetes mellitus in the city of São Paulo: prevalence and inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulete Goldenberg

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Constitui objetivo do presente trabalho a caracterização da prevalência do Diabetes Mellitus Auto-Referido (DMAR no Município de São Paulo, obtida a partir do inquérito domiciliar realizado pelo Estudo Multicêntrico sobre a Prevalência do Diabetes no Brasil, de 1986 a 1988. A amostra foi composta por 2007 indivíduos de 30 a 69 anos de idade, de ambos os sexos, selecionados em três áreas de distintas condições sociais, nas quais estavam sendo implantados programas assistenciais aos diabéticos. A prevalência, obtida através de glicemia capilar, 2h após sobrecarga de 75 g de glicose, foi de 9,7%. A prevalência do DMAR foi de 4,7%, tendo sido observado aumento de acordo com a idade, e estreita relação com o relato de história familiar de diabetes. Observou-se, ainda, diferença significante segundo o sexo (3,5% na população masculina e 5,7% na feminina, concentrando-se maiores valores nos níveis sócio-econômicos mais elevados, na população masculina, e, nos níveis mais baixos, na população feminina.This report analyzes characteristics of self-reported diabetes mellitus in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The data were obtained from the Brazilian Multicenter Study on Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus, a household survey performed in 1986-88. The São Paulo sample consisted of 2,007 individuals aged 30-69 years, of both sexes, selected from three areas with distinct socio-economic levels. The estimated prevalence using a 75g glucose load and measurement of two-hour capillary glycemia was 9.7%. Prevalence of self-reported diabetes was 4.7% and increased with age and presence of family history of diabetes. There was a significant difference between sexes (3.5% in men and 5.7% in women, with higher rates of self-reported diabetes at higher economic levels among men and higher rates at lower socio-economic levels among women.

  3. A report on the prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with frozen shoulder and their relations to disease status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Huairong; Tang, Yanming; Xue, Yuan; Yang, Zhong; Li, Zhiyang; He, Dong; Zhao, Ying; Zong, Yaqi

    2014-01-01

    Musculoskeletal diseases often have concomitant psychological disorders, such as depression and anxiety. Frozen shoulder (FS) is a musculoskeletal disease, and causes pain and stiffness in the shoulder. The relationship between FS and psychological disorders has rarely been investigated. This cross-sectional study was to evaluate the risk of depression and anxiety in patients with primary FS, and to explore the relationship between psychological disorders and disease status. In this study, anxiety and depression were evaluated in 124 patients (78 women and 46 men) with primary FS, compared with 130 (72 women and 58 men) age-, sex- and education matched healthy controls between March 2009 and June 2012. Simple shoulder test (SST); shoulder pain and disability index (SPADI); the range of motion (ROM); visual analog scales (VAS) for pain and sleep disturbances; hospital anxiety and depression scale for depression (HADS-D) and for anxiety (HADS-A); and health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) were used to assess clinical and psychological status. In FS patients, the prevalence of depression and anxiety was 28.2 and 24.2%, respectively. Compared with the healthy controls, higher HADS-D (6.41 ± 3.69, 5. 23 ± 2.87 p = 0.006) and HADS-A (6.16 ± 3.62, 4.90 ± 3.05 p = 0.003) were detected. The FS patients with depression or anxiety had significantly lower SST and HAQ scores, significantly higher VAS and SPADI scores and significantly higher prevalence of sleep disturbances compared with the FS patients with normal psychological status. The correlations of SST, SPADI, VAS and sleep disturbances but not ROM with HADS-A and HADS-D were significant ( p anxiety and depression may coexist with FS; patients with psychological disorders have more severe self-reported shoulder pain and functional restriction.

  4. Prevalence of HIV among MSM in Europe: comparison of self-reported diagnoses from a large scale internet survey and existing national estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Ulrich

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Country level comparisons of HIV prevalence among men having sex with men (MSM is challenging for a variety of reasons, including differences in the definition and measurement of the denominator group, recruitment strategies and the HIV detection methods. To assess their comparability, self-reported data on HIV diagnoses in a 2010 pan-European MSM internet survey (EMIS were compared with pre-existing estimates of HIV prevalence in MSM from a variety of European countries. Methods The first pan-European survey of MSM recruited more than 180,000 men from 38 countries across Europe and included questions on the year and result of last HIV test. HIV prevalence as measured in EMIS was compared with national estimates of HIV prevalence based on studies using biological measurements or modelling approaches to explore the degree of agreement between different methods. Existing estimates were taken from Dublin Declaration Monitoring Reports or UNAIDS country fact sheets, and were verified by contacting the nominated contact points for HIV surveillance in EU/EEA countries. Results The EMIS self-reported measurements of HIV prevalence were strongly correlated with existing estimates based on biological measurement and modelling studies using surveillance data (R2=0.70 resp. 0.72. In most countries HIV positive MSM appeared disproportionately likely to participate in EMIS, and prevalences as measured in EMIS are approximately twice the estimates based on existing estimates. Conclusions Comparison of diagnosed HIV prevalence as measured in EMIS with pre-existing estimates based on biological measurements using varied sampling frames (e.g. Respondent Driven Sampling, Time and Location Sampling demonstrates a high correlation and suggests similar selection biases from both types of studies. For comparison with modelled estimates the self-selection bias of the Internet survey with increased participation of men diagnosed with HIV has to be

  5. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids: Prevalence, Knowledge, and Attitudes in Junior and Senior High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetkemeier, Maurie J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports a survey of junior and senior high school students that investigated the prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroid use and examined gender, sports participation, and illicit drug use. Results indicated the prevalence of steroid use was 3.3%. Steroid use was greater for males, users of other drugs, and strength trainers. (SM)

  6. [Prevalence and Comorbidity of Self-Reported Diagnosis of Burnout Syndrome in the General Population - Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maske, Ulrike E; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Jacobi, Frank; Hapke, Ulfert

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and comorbid mental disorders of self-reported diagnosis of burnout syndrome in the general population of Germany. Methods: In the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (DEGS1) self-reported diagnosis of a burnout syndrome made by a physician or psychotherapist was assessed in a standardized interview (N = 7987). For N = 4483 mental disorders were determined with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Weighted lifetime and 12-month prevalences were calculated. Results: Lifetime prevalence of diagnosed burnout syndrome was 4.2 % (women 5.2 %, men 3.3 %), 12-month prevalence was 1.5 % (women 1.9 %, men 1.1 %). Highest prevalences were found in 40 - 59 year olds, in people with middle and high socio-economic status and in women with low and men with high social support. Among the 12-month cases, 70.9 % had at least one DSM-IV disorder. Associations were found for the diagnosis of burnout syndrome with somatoform, affective and anxiety disorders. Conclusion: The diagnosis of burnout syndrome is less frequently given and reported than expected. People with a burnout diagnosis often have a manifest mental disorder. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Incidental lung nodules on CT examinations of the abdomen: Prevalence and reporting rates in the PACS era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi, Maria Francesca [Radiologia III - Azienda Ospedaliera Pol. S.Orsola-Malpighi, via Massarenti 9 - 40138 Bologna (Italy); Bartalena, Tommaso, E-mail: t.bartalena@email.i [Radiologia III - Azienda Ospedaliera Pol. S.Orsola-Malpighi, via Massarenti 9 - 40138 Bologna (Italy); Giannelli, Giovanni; Rinaldi, Giovanni [Radiologia III - Azienda Ospedaliera Pol. S.Orsola-Malpighi, via Massarenti 9 - 40138 Bologna (Italy); Sverzellati, Nicola [Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche, sezione di Radiologia - Universita di Parma, via Gramsci 14 - 43100 Parma (Italy); Canini, Romeo [Dipartimento Clinico di Scienze Radiologiche ed Istocitopatologiche, divisione di Diagnostica per Immagini - Universita di Bologna, via Massarenti 9 - 40138 Bologna (Italy); Gavelli, Giampaolo [Servizio di Diagnostica per Immagini, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (I.R.S.T.), via Piero Maroncelli, 40 - 47014 Meldola (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    Objectives: To retrospectively evaluate prevalence, reporting rates and clinical implications of incidental pulmonary nodules detected in multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) abdominal studies. Materials and methods: Abdominal MDCT studies of 243 consecutive patients, 94 of whom had a history of cancer, were evaluated. Lung bases included in the scan were reviewed on a PACS workstation with different window settings and post-processing techniques. Nodules were classified according to their density (calcified, solid noncalcified, non-solid, part-solid) and size (<4 mm; 4-6 mm; 6-8 mm; >8 mm). The study findings were compared with the corresponding radiologic reports. Previous of following CT studies, when available from the PACS, were also reviewed to evaluate changes in number and size of the detected nodules. Results: An average of 8.2 cm of lung parenchyma was imaged in each patient. 213 noncalcified nodules (NCNs) were identified in 95 patients (39.1%) but only 8 patients (8.4%) had it mentioned in the final report. Comparison CT studies were available for 44 out of the 95 positive patients showing disappearance of the nodules in 2 cases, no interval change in 26 and progression in size and/or number in 16 patients, in whom a final diagnosis of metastasis or primary lung cancers was achieved. Conclusion: Radiologists tend to overlook lung portions on abdominal CT studies. Underreporting may affect patient care and have medico-legal implications since images are permanently stored in digital format on PACS and CD-ROMs. Management of the discovered nodules should be tailored to the clinical situation of the patient, and particular care should be reserved to patients with oncologic history.

  8. Prevalence of mood and anxiety disorder in self reported irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. An epidemiological population based study of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykletun Arnstein

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is commonly regarded as a functional disorder, and is hypothesized to be associated with anxiety and depression. This evidence mainly rests on population-based studies utilising self-report screening instruments for psychopathology. Other studies applying structured clinical interviews are generally based on small clinical samples, which are vulnerable to biases. The extant evidence base for an association between IBS and psychopathology is hence not conclusive. The aim of this study was therefore to re-examine the hypothesis using population-based data and psychiatric morbidity established with a structured clinical interview. Methods Data were derived from a population-based epidemiological study (n = 1077. Anxiety and mood disorders were established using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID-I/NP and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12. Current and lifetime IBS was self-reported. Hypertension and diabetes were employed as comparison groups as they are expected to be unrelated to mental health. Results Current IBS (n = 69, 6.4% was associated with an increased likelihood of current mood and/or anxiety disorders (OR = 2.62, 95%CI 1.49 - 4.60. Half the population reporting a lifetime IBS diagnosis also had a lifetime mood or anxiety disorder. Exploratory analyses demonstrated an increased prevalence of IBS across most common anxiety and mood disorders, the exception being bipolar disorder. The association with IBS and symptoms load (GHQ-12 followed a curved dose response pattern. In contrast, hypertension and diabetes were consistently unrelated to psychiatric morbidity. Conclusions IBS is significantly associated with anxiety and mood disorders. This study provides indicative evidence for IBS as a disorder with a psychosomatic aspect.

  9. Source of parental reports of child height and weight during phone interviews and influence on obesity prevalence estimates among children aged 3-17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Miles, Donna; Perrin, Eliana M; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Ford, Carol

    2013-01-01

    We compared parental reports of children's height and weight when the values were estimated vs. parent-measured to determine how these reports influence the estimated prevalence of childhood obesity. In the 2007 and 2008 North Carolina Child Health Assessment and Monitoring Program surveys, parents reported height and weight for children aged 3-17 years. When parents reported the values were not measured (by doctor, school, or home), they were asked to measure their child and were later called back. We categorized body mass index status using standard CDC definitions, and we used Chi-square tests and the Stuart-Maxwell test of marginal homogeneity to examine reporting differences. About 80% (n=509) of the 638 parents who reported an unmeasured height and/or weight participated in a callback and provided updated measures. Children originally classified as obese were subsequently classified as obese (67%), overweight (13%), and healthy weight (19%). An estimated 28% of younger children (children (aged ≥10 years) were reclassified on callback. Having parents who guessed the height and weight of their children and then reported updated values did not significantly change the overall population estimates of obesity. Our findings demonstrate that using parent-reported height and weight values may be sufficient to provide reasonable estimates of obesity prevalence. Systematically asking the source of height and weight information may help improve how it is applied to research of the prevalence of childhood obesity when gold-standard measurements are not available.

  10. Linking Sleep to Hypertension: Greater Risk for Blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Evidence suggests that insufficient sleep duration is associated with an increased likelihood for hypertension. Both short (8 hour sleep durations as well as hypertension are more prevalent among blacks than among whites. This study examined associations between sleep duration and hypertension, considering differential effects of race and ethnicity among black and white Americans. Methods. Data came from a cross-sectional household interview with 25,352 Americans (age range: 18–85 years. Results. Both white and black short sleepers had a greater likelihood of reporting hypertension than those who reported sleeping 6 to 8 hours. Unadjusted logistic regression analysis exploring the race/ethnicity interactions between insufficient sleep and hypertension indicated that black short (8 hours sleepers were more likely to report hypertension than their white counterparts (OR = 1.34 and 1.37, resp.; P<0.01. Significant interactions of insufficient sleep with race/ethnicity were observed even after adjusting to effects of age, sex, income, education, body mass index, alcohol use, smoking, emotional distress, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke. Conclusion. Results suggest that the race/ethnicity interaction is a significant mediator in the relationship between insufficient sleep and likelihood of having a diagnosis of hypertension.

  11. Variation in Cuspal Morphology in Maxillary First Permanent Molar with Report of 3 Cusp Molar- A Prevalence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Human teeth has always been known for morphological variations in both the crown and root structures. The corono-morphological variations can be in the form of extra cusp or missing cusp. Permanent maxillary first molars are the biggest teeth in maxillary arch and have a high anchorage value and are known for their four cusp and five cusp patterns, if present with cusp of Carebelli. Aim The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cuspal variations and quantification of cusps of permanent maxillary first molar in Malwa population. Materials and Methods A total of 1249 individuals were studied at Government College of Dentistry, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India, to evaluate the number of cusps in permanent maxillary first molars. Results Of the studied 1249 individuals, permanent maxillary first molars had five cusps in 407 (32.6%) cases while 838 (67.08%) cases had four cusp and four (0.32%) cases had three cusps. The four cases having three cusp permanent maxillary first molars were present unilaterally and only in females. Conclusion This article emphasizes the presence of permanent maxillary first molar with only three cusps in the Malwa population of India. It also reviews the literature in respect to this rare anomaly and calls for continuous and close monitoring to report such cases in the future. PMID:27790576

  12. Examining the Prevalence of Self-Reported Foodborne Illnesses and Food Safety Risks among International College Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyonga, Agnes Ngale; Eighmy, Myron A.; Garden-Robinson, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Foodborne illness and food safety risks pose health threats to everyone, including international college students who live in the United States and encounter new or unfamiliar foods. This study assessed the prevalence of self-reported foodborne illness among international college students by cultural regions and length of time in the United…

  13. Differences in prevalence of bullying victimization between native and immigrant children in the Nordic countries: a parent-reported serial cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjereld, Y; Daneback, K; Petzold, M

    2015-07-01

    Bullying among children is a problem with severe consequences for the victim. The present study examined parent-reported bullying victimization among children in the Nordic countries at two points in time, 1996 and 2011, and studied differences in prevalence of bullying victimization between immigrant and native children. Data came from the parent-reported NordChild, carried out in the Nordic countries in 1996 and 2011. NordChild is a serial cross-sectional comparative study. A total of 7107 children aged 7-13 were included in the analyses. The prevalence of bullying victimization in the total Nordic countries was lower in 2011 (19.2%) than 1996 (21.7%). Difference in prevalence of bullying victimization was found both between native and immigrant children, and between countries. The largest difference in prevalence of bullying victimization was measured in Sweden 2011, where 8.6% of the native children were bullied, to be compared with the 27.8% of the immigrant children. Immigrant children had higher odds to be bullied than native children in Norway, Sweden and in the total Nordic countries at both measurements, also when adjusted for potentially confounding factors. The higher prevalence of bullying victimization among immigrant children should be taken into consideration in the design and development of preventive work against bullying. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. First report on the molecular prevalence of Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (Mccp) in goats the cause of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) in Balochistan province of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Mohammad Arif; Abbas, Ferhat; Yasinzai, Masoom; Nicholas, Robin A J; Babar, Shakeel; Ayling, Roger D; Attique, Mohammad Adnan; Ahmed, Zafar; Wadood, Abdul; Khan, Faisal Ameer

    2010-10-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (Mccp) is a disease of goats which causes high morbidity and mortality and is reported in many countries of the world. There are probably no reports on the molecular prevalence of Mccp, Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum (Mcc) and Mycoplasma putrefaciens (Mp) in Balochistan and any other part of Pakistan. Thirty goats (n = 30) with marked respiratory symptoms were selected and procured from forty goat flocks in Pishin district of Balochistan in 2008. The genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from the lung samples (n = 30) of the slaughtered goats was purified and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the presence of Mycoplasma mycoides cluster members and Mp. The PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) was also used to further confirm the Mccp. Of the thirty lung samples 17 (56.67%) were positive for the molecular prevalence of Mcc, Mccp and Mp. In total the molecular prevalence was observed as 17.65% for Mccp (n = 3), 70.59% for Mcc (n = 12) and 11.76% for Mp (n = 2). The RFLP profile has also validated the PCR results of Mccp by yielding two bands of 190 and 126 bp. The results of PCR-RFLP coupled with the presence of fibrinous pleuropneumonia and pleurisy during postmortem of goats (n = 3) strongly indicated the prevalence of CCPP in this part of world. Moreover the prevalence of Mcc and Mp is also alarming in the study area. We report for the very first time the molecular prevalence of Mcc, Mccp, and Mp in the lung tissues of goats in the Pishin district of Balochistan, Pakistan.

  15. Psychotropic medication in the French child and adolescent population: prevalence estimation from health insurance data and national self-report survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legleye Stéphane

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this work is to estimate the French frequencies of dispensed psychotropic prescriptions in children and adolescents. Prevalence estimations of dispensed prescriptions are compared to the frequencies of use of psychotropic reported by 17 year-old adolescents. Methods Prescription data is derived from national health insurance databases. Frequencies of dispensed prescriptions are extrapolated to estimate a range for the 2004 national rates. Self-report data is derived from the 2003 and 2005 ESCAPAD study, an epidemiological study based on a questionnaire focused on health and drug consumption. Results The prevalence estimation shows that the prevalence of prescription of a psychotropic medication to young persons between 3 and 18 years is about 2.2%. In 2005, the self-report study (ESCAPAD shows that 14.9% of 17 year-old adolescents took medication for "nerves" or "to sleep" during the previous 12 months. The same study in 2003 also shows that 62.3% of adolescents aged 17 and 18 reporting psychotropic use, took the medication for anxiety and 56.8% to sleep. Only 49.7% of these medications are suggested by a doctor. Conclusion This study underlines a similar range of prevalence of psychotropic prescriptions in France to that observed in other European countries. Nevertheless, the proportion of antipsychotics and benzodiazepines seems to be higher, whereas the proportion of methylphenidate is lower. Secondly, a disparity between the prevalence of dispensed prescriptions and the self-report of actual use of psychotropics has been highlighted by the ESCAPAD study which shows that these treatments are widely used as "self-medication".

  16. Self-reported arm-lymphedema and functional impairment after breast cancer treatment--a nationwide study of prevalence and associated factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gärtner, Rune; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Kronborg, Lise

    2010-01-01

    Lymphedema and impairment of function are well-established sequelae to breast cancer treatment and affect an increasing number of women due to continually improved survival. The aim of the present nationwide questionnaire study was to examine the impact of breast cancer treatment on perceived...... swelling/sensation of heaviness (lymphedema) and on function, reporting prevalence in 12 subgroups of modern treatment and offering estimates for treatment-related associated factors. 3253 Women (87%) returned the study questionnaire. Depending on treatment group prevalence of perceived swelling...

  17. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide.

  18. A systematic review of hereditary spherocytosis reported in Chinese biomedical journals from 1978 to 2013 and estimation of the prevalence of the disease using a disease model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Cui, Yazhou; Li, Yan; Liu, Xiao; Han, Jinxiang

    2015-05-01

    Epidemiological information of hereditary spherocytosis in China is slight. This systematic review summarizes the number of cases of hereditary spherocytosis reported in China Biology Medicine disc from 1978 to 2013. In total, 2,043 cases were reported in the past 36 years. We describe its distribution from time and space. We also estimate the literature reported prevalence of hereditary spherocytosis by DisMod-II software, overall prevalence in China was estimated to be: 1.27 cases per 100,000 people in males and 1.49 cases per 100,000 people in females. All results suggest a stronger network of diagnosis and treatment including all levels of hospitals should be created to improve healthcare for hereditary spherocytosis and even other rare diseases in the future, meanwhile we can obtain more useful information for orphan drug designation purposes and make public health decisions regarding such diseases through the use of the burden of disease models.

  19. Greater trochanter apophysitis in the adolescent athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Simon W; Safran, Marc R

    2015-05-01

    Lower limb traction apophysitis is common in young athletes, occurring at sites such as the tibial tubercle (Osgood-Schlatter disease) and distal patella (Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease). Around the hip, iliac apophysitis is well recognized, but no cases of greater trochanter apophysitis have previously been reported. We describe the case of a 15-year-old male basketball player with a 2-month history of the right hip pain and significant functional limitation. X-rays revealed widening of the greater trochanter apophysis with subchondral sclerosis, consistent with a diagnosis of traction apophysitis. The patient was treated with a period of relative rest and anti-inflammatory medication. He gradually returned to full athletic activity, including basketball, without recurrence of pain or limitation. We describe the first reported case of traction apophysitis of the greater trochanter. The unique muscular anatomy of this apophysis with balanced forces explains the rarity of this condition. If encountered, rest and activity modification is the recommended treatment.

  20. Differences in prevalence of self-reported musculoskeletal symptoms among computer and non-computer users in a Nigerian population: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayanniyi O

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Literature abounds on the prevalent nature of Self Reported Musculoskeletal Symptoms (SRMS among computer users, but studies that actually compared this with non computer users are meagre thereby reducing the strength of the evidence. This study compared the prevalence of SRMS between computer and non computer users and assessed the risk factors associated with SRMS. Methods A total of 472 participants comprising equal numbers of age and sex matched computer and non computer users were assessed for the presence of SRMS. Information concerning musculoskeletal symptoms and discomforts from the neck, shoulders, upper back, elbows, wrists/hands, low back, hips/thighs, knees and ankles/feet were obtained using the Standardized Nordic questionnaire. Results The prevalence of SRMS was significantly higher in the computer users than the non computer users both over the past 7 days (χ2 = 39.11, p = 0.001 and during the past 12 month durations (χ2 = 53.56, p = 0.001. The odds of reporting musculoskeletal symptoms was least for participants above the age of 40 years (OR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.31-0.64 over the past 7 days and OR = 0.61; 95% CI = 0.47-0.77 during the past 12 months and also reduced in female participants. Increasing daily hours and accumulated years of computer use and tasks of data processing and designs/graphics significantly (p Conclusion The prevalence of SRMS was significantly higher in the computer users than the non computer users and younger age, being male, working longer hours daily, increasing years of computer use, data entry tasks and computer designs/graphics were the significant risk factors for reporting musculoskeletal symptoms among the computer users. Computer use may explain the increase in prevalence of SRMS among the computer users.

  1. Prevalence of taking actions to control blood pressure among adults with self-reported hypertension in 18 states and the District of Columbia, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Carma; Fang, Jing; Yuan, Keming

    2015-03-01

    The authors used 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data to assess the prevalence of taking actions to control hypertension among adults with self-reported hypertension. Differences by descriptive characteristics (sex, age, race/ethnicity, access to health care, medication adherence), presence of other health risk factors (overweight/obesity, smoking, heavy drinking, inadequate fruit/vegetable intake, and physical inactivity), and comorbidities (diabetes, high cholesterol, coronary heart disease, and stroke) were compared. The prevalence of hypertension was 29.6%, and 75.0% of these patients reported taking antihypertensive medications, 73.1% changed eating habits, 72.8% decreased the use of salt, 78.8% reduced alcohol consumption, and 69.9% increased their physical activity. Overall, 87.2% reported taking two or more actions to reduce blood pressure. Patients taking antihypertensive medications were more likely to take two or more actions than their counterparts (90.6% vs 79.4%, Ptake two or more actions as their counterparts (95% confidence interval, 1.18-2.92 times). More than 80% of hypertensive adults reported taking two or more actions to control blood pressure. The prevalence of taking actions differed significantly by descriptive characteristics, the presence health risk factors, and comorbidities.

  2. Prevalence of Self-Reported Shaking and Smothering and Their Associations with Co-Sleeping among 4-Month-Old Infants in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujiko Yamada

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have investigated the prevalence of shaking and smothering and whether they are associated with co-sleeping. In Japan, co-sleeping is common during infancy and early childhood. This study investigates the prevalence of shaking and smothering and their associations with co-sleeping among 4-month-old infants in Japan. A questionnaire was administered to mothers who participated in a 4-month health checkup program in Kamagaya City in Japan (n = 1307; valid response rate, 82%. The questionnaire investigated the frequency of self-reported shaking and smothering during the past one month, co-sleeping status, and living arrangements with grandparents, in addition to traditional risk factors such as stress due to crying. Associations between co-sleeping and self-reported shaking or smothering were analyzed using multiple logistic regression. The prevalence of self-reported shaking and smothering at least one time during the past one month was 3.4% (95% confidence interval (CI, 2.4%–4.3% and 2.4% (95% CI, 1.5%–3.2%, respectively. Co-sleeping was marginally associated with the amount of crying and not associated with stress due to crying. Further, co-sleeping was not associated with either self-reported shaking or smothering, although stress due to crying showed strong association with shaking and smothering. Co-sleeping was not a risk factor for shaking and smothering.

  3. The prevalence of common mental disorders among hospital physicians and their association with self-reported work ability: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruitenburg Martijn M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We studied the prevalence of common mental disorders among Dutch hospital physicians and investigated whether the presence of a mental disorder was associated with insufficient self-reported work ability. Methods A questionnaire was sent to all (n = 958 hospital physicians of one academic medical center, using validated scales to assess burnout, work-related fatigue, stress, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, anxiety and depression. Furthermore, respondents were asked to rate their current work ability against the work ability in their own best period (adapted version of the first WAI item. The prevalence of each common mental disorder was calculated. In addition, odds ratios of reporting insufficient work ability for subjects with high complaint scores compared to physicians with low complaint scores were calculated for each mental disorder. Results The response rate was 51%, and 423 questionnaires were eligible for analysis. The mental disorder prevalence rates were as follows: work-related fatigue 42%, depression 29%, anxiety 24%, posttraumatic stress complaints 15%, stress complaints 15% and burnout 6%. The mean score for self-reported work ability was 8.1 (range 0–10, and 4% of respondents rated their own work ability as insufficient. Physicians with high mental health complaints were 3.5- for fatigue, 5.6- for PTSD, 7.1- for anxiety, 9.5- for burnout, 10.8- for depression and 13.6-fold for stress more likely to report their work ability as insufficient. Conclusions The prevalence of common mental disorders among hospital physicians varied from 6% for burnout to 42% for work-related fatigue. Those physicians with high complaints had significantly 4- to 14 times increased odds of reporting their own work ability as insufficient. This work suggests that to ensure future workers health and patients safety occupational health services should plan appropriate intervention strategies.

  4. Hipertensão arterial na cidade de São Paulo: prevalência referida por contato telefônico Hipertensión arterial en la ciudad de São Paulo: prevalencia referida por contacto telefónico Hypertension in the city of São Paulo: self-reported prevalence assessed by telephone surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Décio Mion Jr

    2010-07-01

    ,8% presentan historia de accidente cerebro vascular, 27,8% cardiopatía y 38,7% hipercolesterolemia; 71,2% recibieron orientación de disminuir la sal, 64,6% de realizar actividad física, 60,0% para perder peso y 26,2% de controlar el stress; y 78,9% medían la presión regularmente. Hubo relación estadísticamente significativa (p BACKGROUND: Little is known about the prevalence of hypertension in São Paulo, Brazil. OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence of self-reported hypertension in the city of São Paulo. METHODS: There were 613 telephone interviews using directories of household landlines. The sample was calculated with an estimated prevalence of hypertension in 20.0%. RESULTS: The prevalence of self-reported hypertension was 23.0% and 9.0% of respondents reported that the value of their last pressure measurement was greater than 140/90 mmHg, but they were unaware that they were hypertensive, with a total prevalence 32.0%. Hypertensive patients reported that: 89.0% were under treatment and 35.2% were controlled; 27.0% miss medical appointments; 16.2% stop taking drugs; 14.8% have a history of stroke; 27.8% had heart disease and 38.7% had hypercholesterolemia; 71.2% received advice to reduce salt, 64.6% to perform physical activity, 60.0% to lose weight loss and 26.2% to control stress; and 78.9% measured pressure regularly. There was a statistically significant relation (p < 0.05 for: 1 missing medical appointments with longer treatment and irregular health monitoring; 2 stop taking the drugs with smoking, alcohol and failure to monitore health; 3 carry out treatment for hypertension with dyslipidemia, higher age and longer use of contraceptives for women; and 4 body mass index changed with diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, uncontrolled systolic blood pressure and use of more than one anti-hypertension drug. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of self-reported hypertension in the city of São Paulo resembles the prevalence found in other studies.

  5. Greater Trochanter Tuberculosis : MRI Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    My Youssef Alaoui Lamrani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis has been reported in almost all bones of body. The great trochanter tuberculosis (GTT installation is insidious and clinical symptoms are often vague with moderate painful swelling and stiffness. GTT is about 0,2 to 2% of all osteo-articular tuberculosis, occurring most commonly by hematogenous seeding secondary to primary focus elsewhere, more commonly in the lungs. Isolated GTT is unusual and thus its awareness is slow and diagnosis is often delayed.

  6. Prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk among indigenous Sami and non-Sami in Northern- and Mid-Norway – the SAMINOR study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketil Lenert Hansen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main purpose of this work was to identify the prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk among Sami and non-Sami adults. Study design: A cross-sectional population-based study (the SAMINOR study. Data were collected by self-administrated questionnaires. Method: SAMINOR is a population-based study of health and living conditions conducted in 24 municipalities in Northern Norway during 2003 and 2004. The present study included 15,546 individuals aged between 36 and 79, whose ethnicity was categorized as Sami (33.4%, Kven (7.3% and Norwegian majority population (57.2%. Results: Sami respondents had a higher prevalence of self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk than the Norwegian majority population. The reporting was highest among Sami females (27.1%. Consumption of milk and dairy products (yoghurt and cheese was high among all the ethnic groups. However, significantly more Sami than non-Sami never (or rarely consume milk or cheese, and individuals who reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk had an significant lower intake of dairy products than those not reporting stomach symptoms after consuming dairy products. Sami reported general abdominal pain more often than the majority population. The adjusted models show a significant effect of Sami ethnicity in both men and women on self-reported stomach symptoms after consuming milk. In females, the odds ratio (OR=1.77 (p=0.001 and in males OR=1.64 (p=0.001. Conclusion: Our study shows that the Sami population reported more stomach symptoms after consuming milk, suggesting a higher prevalence of milk intolerance among the Sami population than the Norwegian majority population.

  7. Prevalence of self-reported eczema in relation to living environment, socio-economic status and respiratory symptoms assessed in a questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyberg Per

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Potential links between eczema and obstructive pulmonary diseases have been postulated. Previously we have reported the prevalence of upper and lower respiratory diseases and the relation to environmental and socio-economic factors in a randomly selected adult population in southern Sweden using a postal questionnaire. In the present study we wanted to analyse the prevalence of eczema and its relation to socio-economic status, heredity factors and environmental factors in an adult population. Methods Self-reported eczema, upper and lower respiratory symptoms, asthma and Chronic Bronchitis Emphysema (CBE were examined in 12,071 adults, aged 20–59 years, living in southern Sweden by using a postal questionnaire. There were comparable numbers of males and females in all age groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis (forward conditional was applied to estimate the association between the proposed risk factors (heredity, self-reported asthma and CBE, nasal symptoms, socio-economic group, environmental factors, age, gender and smoking habits and self-reported eczema. Results The response rate was 70.1%. In all, 1240 subjects (14.6% stated that they had eczema. In all age cohorts self-reported eczema was more frequently reported by women than by men (p Conclusions In this epidemiological study we see that self-reported eczema is a common disease in an adult population especially among women. Eczema seems to be linked to environment factors, obstructive pulmonary diseases and rhinitis.

  8. Renal disease in adult Nigerians with sickle cell anemia: A report of prevalence, clinical features and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R A Bolarinwa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal abnormalities in adult Nigerians with sickle cell anemia (SCA have not been extensively studied. To determine the prevalence, pattern and the associated risk factors of renal disease, 72 subjects with SCA from two centers in the southwestern Nigeria were investigated. Socio-demographic data, body mass index and clinical findings were documented. The urine analysis, serum bio-chemistry, hemogram and renal factors attributable to SCA were determined. Presence of albuminuria of at least 1+ or microalbuminuria in those negative with dipstick; and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR using the Cockcroft-Gault formula categorized subjects to various stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD. Subjects with and without albuminuria were compared to determine the relative risk associated with renal disease. Four (5.6% subjects had macro-albuminuria, while 32 (44.4% had micro-albuminuria and 30 (41.7% had hemoglobinuria. In the subjects with albuminuria, age, hematocrit, systolic blood pressure, serum creatinine, urea and creatinine clearance were numerically higher while the eGFR was numerically lower. There was no significant difference in the clinical parameters studied in the two groups of subjects. The diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in the albuminuric group. Based on eGFR, 22 (30.6% subjects had hyperfiltration (GFR > 140 mL/min/1.73 m2, of whom 36.4% had albuminuria, 18 (25.0% had stage 1 CKD, 30 (41.7% had stage 2 CKD and two (2.7% subjects had stage 3 CKD with albuminuria. None had stage 4 and 5 CKD. We conclude that renal abnormalities, importantly albuminuria, is common in adult Nigerians with SCA and the pattern and incidence are similar to those reported from other parts of the world. Regular blood pressure monitoring, early diagnosis and active intervention are advocated to delay progression to end-stage kidney disease in view of poor outcomes of renal replacement therapy in SCA patients with nephropathy.

  9. Prevalence of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Phenotypes Using Updated Criteria for Polycystic Ovarian Morphology: An Assessment of Over 100 Consecutive Women Self-reporting Features of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Nina M.; Podolski, Amanda J.; Brooks, Eric D; Chizen, Donna R.; Pierson, Roger A.; Lehotay, Denis C; Lujan, Marla E.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and its distinct clinical phenotypes were assessed using 3 sets of international diagnostic criteria in women self-reporting concerns over outward features of PCOS. Revised ultrasonographic criteria for polycystic ovaries (PCO) based on modern ultrasound technology were used. Of the participants, 53%, 62%, and 70% were diagnosed with PCOS using National Institutes of Health, Androgen Excess and PCOS Society, and Rotterdam criteria, respective...

  10. Prevalence and risk factors for parent-reported recurrent otitis media during early childhood in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan-Jones, Christopher G; Whitehouse, Andrew Jo; Park, Jae; Hegarty, Mary; Jacques, Angela; Eikelboom, Robert H; Swanepoel, De Wet; White, Joanna D; Jamieson, Sarra E

    2015-04-01

    To describe the prevalence and risk factors of recurrent otitis media (rOM) in an urban Australian population at 3 years of age. Cross-sectional examination of prevalence and risk factors of rOM in 2280 participants from the Raine Study enrolled from public and private hospitals in Perth, Western Australia, between 1989 and 1991. Parental report questionnaires at 3 years of age were used for rOM identification, with secondary confirmation by otoscopic examination at 1, 2 or 3 years of age. The prevalence of parent-reported rOM was 26.8% (611/2280) and 5.5% (125/2280) for severe rOM in the Study. Independent associations were found between rOM and the presence of older siblings, attendance at day care and the introduction of other milk products at ≤4 months of age. Independent associations for severe rOM were the presence of allergies and attendance at day care. Prevalence rates of rOM within the Raine Study children are similar to a number of other known cohorts. Parity, presence of allergies, attendance at day care and introduction of other milk products at ≤4 months are highlighted as specific risk factors for rOM in this population and presence of allergies and attendance at day care being risk factors for severe rOM. Diagnosis of rOM by parent report and the delay between data collection and reporting are limitations of this study. However, as there is very limited data on OM in urban, non-Indigenous Australian children, this study improves our understanding of OM for this group. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  11. High prevalence of self-reported symptoms of digital ischemia in elite male volleyball players in the Netherlands: a cross-sectional national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pol, Daan; Kuijer, P Paul F M; Langenhorst, Ton; Maas, Mario

    2012-10-01

    In the past 3 years, 6 volleyball players with ischemic digits and small microemboli in the digital arteries of the dominant hand presented themselves in our hospital. These complaints were caused by an aneurysmatic dilation of the posterior circumflex humeral artery (PCHA) with distal occlusion and digital emboli in the isolateral limb. All were elite male volleyball players active in the national top league. Little is known about the exact symptoms associated with PCHA pathological lesions with digital emboli (PCHAP with DE) and its prevalence in elite volleyball players. If vascular injury can be identified at an early stage, thromboembolic complications and irreversible damage to the digits might be prevented. To assess the prevalence of symptoms that are consistent with digital ischemia and may be caused by PCHAP with DE in elite male volleyball players in the Netherlands. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A questionnaire survey was performed among elite volleyball players in the Dutch national top league and the Dutch beach volleyball team. The questionnaire was constructed using literature-based data on symptoms associated with PCHAP with DE, together with data retrieved from medical files. A total of 99 of the 107 athletes participated, with a response rate of 93%. The most frequently reported symptoms associated with PCHAP with DE were cold, blue, or pale digits in the dominant hand during or immediately after practice or competition. The prevalence of these symptoms ranged from 11% to 27%. The prevalence of cold digits during practice and competition was 27%. The prevalence of cold, blue, and pale digits during or immediately after practice and competition was 12%. An unexpectedly high percentage of elite volleyball players reported symptoms that are associated with PCHAP with DE in the dominant hand. Because these athletes are considered potentially at risk for developing critical digital ischemia, further analysis of the presence of digital

  12. Corrimento vaginal referido entre gestantes em localidade urbana no Sul do Brasil: prevalência e fatores associados Self-reported vaginal discharge among pregnant women in an urban area in Southern Brazil: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia M. V. da Fonseca

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Por intermédio de delineamento transversal, buscou-se determinar a prevalência e identificar fatores associados à ocorrência de corrimento vaginal referido entre gestantes da cidade de Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Utilizando-se de questionário padrão, foram investigadas características sócio-econômicas, demográficas, reprodutivas, condições de moradia, assistência recebida e ocorrência de corrimento vaginal referido entre estas gestantes. Para as comparações entre proporções utilizou-se teste do qui-quadrado e para análise multivariada regressão de Poisson. Dentre as 339 gestantes estudadas, 51,6% referiram corrimento vaginal na gestação. As seguintes variáveis mostraram-se significativamente associadas à ocorrência de corrimento vaginal referido: idade (razão de prevalências: RP= 1,49, estado civil (RP = 1,31, ocorrência de infecção urinária (RP = 1,56, hiperglicemia na gestação atual (RP = 1,48, uso de dispositivo intra-uterino (RP = 2,35, ocorrência prévia de parto prematuro (RP = 1,37 e utilização de anticoncepcional oral como fator de proteção (RP = 0,79. Este estudo mostrou prevalência elevada de corrimento vaginal referido entre as gestantes estudadas e permitiu identificar aquelas com maior risco de adoecer por esta causa, o que pode contribuir para a adoção de medidas preventivas.The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with self-reported vaginal discharge among pregnant women in the city of Rio Grande, South Brazil. Using a cross-sectional design, a standard interview was applied to pregnant women at home by previously trained interviewers, covering the following: demographic, reproductive, and socioeconomic data, household conditions, health care, and illnesses during pregnancy, including vaginal discharge. The chi-square test was used to compare proportions, and Poisson regression was used in the multivariate analysis. Among the 339

  13. Prevalence and clinical correlations of BRCA1/BRCA2 unclassified variant carriers among unselected primary ovarian cancer cases - preliminary report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majdak, EJ; De Bock, GH; Brozek, [No Value; Perkowska, M; Ochman, K; Debniak, J; Milczek, T; Cornelisse, CJ; Jassem, J; Emerich, J; Limon, J; Devilee, P; Brozek, I.

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations in unselected ovarian cancer patients, and to analyse clinical and pathological features of ovarian cancer unclassified variant mutation carriers in comparison with BRCA1 pathogenic mutation carriers and

  14. The Prevalence of Nocturnal Enuresis: Do DSM III Criteria Need to Be Changed? A Brief Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, F. C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Based on a study of the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in a random sample of 2,070 children aged 4 to 16 years, argues that the DSM III age limit for enuresis should be raised to 8 years for boys. (NH)

  15. Prevalence and clinical correlations of BRCA1/BRCA2 unclassified variant carriers among unselected primary ovarian cancer cases - preliminary report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majdak, EJ; De Bock, GH; Brozek, [No Value; Perkowska, M; Ochman, K; Debniak, J; Milczek, T; Cornelisse, CJ; Jassem, J; Emerich, J; Limon, J; Devilee, P; Brozek, I.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations in unselected ovarian cancer patients, and to analyse clinical and pathological features of ovarian cancer unclassified variant mutation carriers in comparison with BRCA1 pathogenic mutation carriers and sp

  16. Myiasis in Dogs in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sherry A M; Gakuya, Daniel W; Mbuthia, Paul G; Mande, John D; Afakye, Kofi; Maingi, Ndichu

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of tissues of live vertebrate animals and humans with dipterous larvae. In sub-Saharan Africa, Cordylobia anthropohaga and Cordylobia rodhaini are known to be responsible for cutaneous myiasis in animals and humans. Human cases of myiasis, purportedly acquired in Ghana but diagnosed in other countries, have been reported; however, published data on its occurrence in animals in Ghana is unavailable. This study assessed the prevalence of canine myiasis among owned dogs in the Greater Accra region (GAR) of Ghana. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Greater Accra region of Ghana, selected for being the region with the highest estimated population density of owned dogs. Physical examination and demographic characteristics of the study dogs were assessed. Management of the dogs was assessed through a questionnaire administered to the dog owners. A total of 392 owned dogs were sampled. Twenty-nine (7.4%) had cutaneous myiasis caused by C. rodhaini. In addition, one (0.2%) of the dogs had intestinal myiasis, with Dermatobia hominis as the offending larvae. Among the breeds of dogs with myiasis, the mongrel was most affected, with 24 (82.8%) out of the 29 cases. The mongrels, majority of which (24; 82.8%) were males, were left to roam freely in the community. Results from this study demonstrate that C. rodhaini and D. hominis are important causes of myiasis in owned dogs in the GAR of Ghana. Dogs could play a role in the spread of myiasis to humans, with its attendant public health implications.

  17. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Self-Reported Smell and Taste Alterations: Results from the 2011–2012 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Shristi; Hoffman, Howard J.; Bainbridge, Kathleen E.; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.

    2016-01-01

    Chemosensory problems challenge health through diminished ability to detect warning odors, consume a healthy diet, and maintain quality of life. We examined the prevalence and associated risk factors of self-reported chemosensory alterations in 3603 community-dwelling adults (aged 40+ years), from the nationally representative, US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011–2012. In this new NHANES component, technicians surveyed adults in the home about perceived smell and taste problems, distortions, and diminished abilities since age 25 (termed “alterations”), and chemosensory-related health risks and behaviors. The prevalence of self-reported smell alteration was 23%, including phantosmia at 6%; taste was 19%, including dysgeusia at 5%. Prevalence rates increased progressively with age, highest in those aged 80+ years (smell, 32%; taste, 27%). In multivariable logistic regression, controlling for sociodemographics, health behaviors, and chemosensory-related conditions, the strongest independent risk factor for smell alteration was sinonasal symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.63–2.61), followed by heavy drinking, loss of consciousness from head injury, family income ≤110% poverty threshold, and xerostomia. For taste, the strongest risk factor was xerostomia (OR = 2.65; 95% CI: 1.97–3.56), followed by nose/facial injury, lower educational attainment, and fair/poor health. Self-reported chemosensory alterations are prevalent in US adults, supporting increased attention to decreasing their modifiable risks, managing safety/health consequences, and expanding chemosensory screening/testing and treatments. PMID:26487703

  18. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Self-Reported Smell and Taste Alterations: Results from the 2011-2012 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Shristi; Hoffman, Howard J; Bainbridge, Kathleen E; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Duffy, Valerie B

    2016-01-01

    Chemosensory problems challenge health through diminished ability to detect warning odors, consume a healthy diet, and maintain quality of life. We examined the prevalence and associated risk factors of self-reported chemosensory alterations in 3603 community-dwelling adults (aged 40+ years), from the nationally representative, US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012. In this new NHANES component, technicians surveyed adults in the home about perceived smell and taste problems, distortions, and diminished abilities since age 25 (termed "alterations"), and chemosensory-related health risks and behaviors. The prevalence of self-reported smell alteration was 23%, including phantosmia at 6%; taste was 19%, including dysgeusia at 5%. Prevalence rates increased progressively with age, highest in those aged 80+ years (smell, 32%; taste, 27%). In multivariable logistic regression, controlling for sociodemographics, health behaviors, and chemosensory-related conditions, the strongest independent risk factor for smell alteration was sinonasal symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.63-2.61), followed by heavy drinking, loss of consciousness from head injury, family income ≤110% poverty threshold, and xerostomia. For taste, the strongest risk factor was xerostomia (OR = 2.65; 95% CI: 1.97-3.56), followed by nose/facial injury, lower educational attainment, and fair/poor health. Self-reported chemosensory alterations are prevalent in US adults, supporting increased attention to decreasing their modifiable risks, managing safety/health consequences, and expanding chemosensory screening/testing and treatments. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Self-Reported Prevalence of Symptomatic Adverse Reactions to Gluten and Adherence to Gluten-Free Diet in an Adult Mexican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontiveros, Noe; López-Gallardo, Jesús A; Vergara-Jiménez, Marcela J; Cabrera-Chávez, Francisco

    2015-07-21

    The prevalence of symptomatic adverse reactions to gluten and adherence to gluten-free diet in Latin American countries is unknown. These measurements are strongly linked to gluten-related disorders. This work aimed to estimate the prevalence of adverse reactions to oral gluten and the adherence to gluten-free diet in the adult Mexican population. To reach this aim, a self-administered questionnaire was designed and tested for clarity/comprehension and reproducibility. Then, a self-administered questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Mexican population. The estimated prevalence rates were (95% CI): 11.9% (9.9-13.5) and 7.8 (6.4-9.4) for adverse and recurrent adverse reactions to gluten respectively; adherence to gluten-free diet 3.7% (2.7-4.8), wheat allergy 0.72% (0.38-1.37); celiac disease 0.08% (0.01-0.45), and NCGS 0.97% (0.55-1.68). Estimated pooled prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders was 0.88% (0.49-1.5), and 93.3% respondents reported adherence to gluten-free diet without a physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders. Symptom comparisons between those who reported recurrent adverse reactions to gluten and other foods showed statistically significant differences for bloating, constipation, and tiredness (p Gluten-related disorders may be underdiagnosed in the Mexican population and most people adhering to a gluten-free diet are doing it without proper diagnostic work-up of these disorders, and probably without medical/dietician advice.

  20. Self-Reported Prevalence of Symptomatic Adverse Reactions to Gluten and Adherence to Gluten-Free Diet in an Adult Mexican Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noe Ontiveros

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of symptomatic adverse reactions to gluten and adherence to gluten-free diet in Latin American countries is unknown. These measurements are strongly linked to gluten-related disorders. This work aimed to estimate the prevalence of adverse reactions to oral gluten and the adherence to gluten-free diet in the adult Mexican population. To reach this aim, a self-administered questionnaire was designed and tested for clarity/comprehension and reproducibility. Then, a self-administered questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Mexican population. The estimated prevalence rates were (95% CI: 11.9% (9.9–13.5 and 7.8 (6.4–9.4 for adverse and recurrent adverse reactions to gluten respectively; adherence to gluten-free diet 3.7% (2.7–4.8, wheat allergy 0.72% (0.38–1.37; celiac disease 0.08% (0.01–0.45, and NCGS 0.97% (0.55–1.68. Estimated pooled prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders was 0.88% (0.49–1.5, and 93.3% respondents reported adherence to gluten-free diet without a physician-diagnosis of gluten-related disorders. Symptom comparisons between those who reported recurrent adverse reactions to gluten and other foods showed statistically significant differences for bloating, constipation, and tiredness (p < 0.05. Gluten-related disorders may be underdiagnosed in the Mexican population and most people adhering to a gluten-free diet are doing it without proper diagnostic work-up of these disorders, and probably without medical/dietician advice.

  1. Prevalence of Bowel Incontinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rectum Vol. 44, No. 1 January 2001. FAQs Prevalence Causes of Incontinence Childbirth and Delivery Neurologic Disease or Injury Colorectal Cancer Other Contributing Factors Fecal Incontinence in Children Reporter's ...

  2. [The impact of methodology on the reported prevalence of thyroid pathology: comparison of two autopsy series from Switzerland performed with different methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, A; Hardmeier, Th

    2004-06-09

    To investigate the impact of methodology on the detection and hence reported prevalence of pathological findings in thyroids, in the geographic area of Kt. Thurgau in Switzerland, we used two different methods in two consecutive autopsy series of 420 patients. In series A, the thyroids were sliced unfixed and only suspect lesions were examined histologically. In series B, the thyroids were fixed in formalin and sectioned in a standardized manner. At least one specimen per lobe was taken for histological examination. Series A revealed that five patients had adenomas, four malignant primary tumors, two metastases and four inflammatory changes in the thyroid. Series B detected ten patients with adenomas, eight with primary malignant tumors, eleven with metastases and twenty-eight with inflammatory changes in the thyroid. These differences were significant (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the methodology has an important impact on the detected prevalence of pathological findings in the thyroid.

  3. Gestational diabetes mellitus prevalence in Maela refugee camp on the Thai–Myanmar Border: a clinical report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ellen Gilder

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Individuals in conflict-affected areas rarely get appropriate care for chronic or non-infectious diseases. The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is increasing worldwide, and new evidence shows conclusively that the negative effects of hyperglycemia occur even at mild glucose elevations and that these negative effects can be attenuated by treatment. Scientific literature on gestational diabetes in refugee camp settings is critically limited. Methods: A 75 g 2-hour glucose tolerance test was administered to 228 women attending the antenatal care (ANC clinic in Maela refugee camp on the Thai–Myanmar border. Prevalence of GDM was determined using the HAPO trial cut-offs [≥92 mg/dL (fasting,≥180 (1 hour, and≥153 (2 hour] and the WHO criteria [≥126 mg/dL (fasting, and 140 mg/dL (2 hour]. Results: From July 2011 to March 2012, the prevalence of GDM was 10.1% [95% confidence interval (CI: 6.2–14.0] when the cut-off determined by the HAPO trial was applied. Applying the older WHO criteria yielded a prevalence of 6.6% (95% CI 3.3–9.8. Age, parity, and BMI emerged as characteristics that may be significantly associated with GDM in this population. Other risk factors that are commonly used in screening guidelines were not applicable in this diabetes-naïve population. Discussion: The prevalence of GDM is lower in this population compared with other populations, but still complicates 10% of pregnancies. New evidence regarding gestational diabetes raises new dilemmas for healthcare providers in resource-poor settings. Efforts to identify and treat patients at risk for adverse outcomes need to be balanced with awareness of the risks and burdens associated with over diagnosis and unnecessary interventions. Screening approaches based on risk factors or using higher cut-off values may help minimize this burden and identify those most likely to benefit from intervention.

  4. Prevalência e fatores associados à percepção de ocorrência de corrimento vaginal patológico entre gestantes Prevalence of self-reported vaginal discharge and associated factors in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraci A. Cesar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo medir a prevalência e identificar fatores associados à percepção de corrimento vaginal patológico por gestantes residentes em Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Aplicou-se questionário padronizado a todas as parturientes nas maternidades do município em 2007. Utilizou-se teste do qui-quadrado para comparar proporções e análise multivariável por regressão de Poisson. A prevalência de corrimento vaginal foi de 40%. Análise ajustada mostrou as seguintes razões de prevalência: 1,6 (1,4-1,8 para adolescentes; 1,3 (1,1-1,6 para aquelas com até oito anos de escolaridade; 1,3 (1,1-1,5 para aquelas que ingeriram álcool; 2,0 (1,8-2,2 para aquelas que referiram corrimento vaginal em gestação anterior; 1,4 (1,3-1,6 para infecção urinária na gestação atual; prematuridade em gestação anterior mostrou-se protetor com RP = 0,8 (0,7-0,9. Os serviços de saúde deveriam priorizar diagnóstico e tratamento de corrimento vaginal entre gestantes adolescentes, de baixa renda familiar e escolaridade, com história prévia de corrimento em gravidez anterior e infecção urinária na gravidez atual.This study aims to determine the prevalence self-reported abnormal vaginal discharge and to identify associated risk factors in pregnant women in the municipality of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A standardized questionnaire was applied to all pregnant women admitted for delivery in local maternity hospitals. The chi-square test was used to compare proportions, and Poisson regression was applied using multivariate analysis. Prevalence of vaginal discharge was 40%. Adjusted analysis showed the following prevalence ratios for vaginal discharge: 1.6 (1.4-1.8 for adolescents; 1.3 (1.1-1.6 for 8 years of schooling or less; 1.3 (1.1-1.5 for alcohol consumption; 2.0 (1.8-2.2 for vaginal discharge in the previous pregnancy; 1.4 (1.3-1.6 for urinary tract infection in the current pregnancy; and 0.8 (0

  5. Commercial Integrated Heat Pump with Thermal Storage --Demonstrate Greater than 50% Average Annual Energy Savings, Compared with Baseline Heat Pump and Water Heater (Go/No-Go) FY16 4th Quarter Milestone Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abu-Heiba, Ahmad [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    For this study, we authored a new air source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) model in EnergyPlus, and conducted building energy simulations to demonstrate greater than 50% average energy savings, in comparison to a baseline heat pump with electric water heater, over 10 US cities, based on the EnergyPlus quick-service restaurant template building. We also assessed water heating energy saving potentials using ASIHP versus gas heating, and pointed out climate zones where AS-IHPs are promising.

  6. Prevalence and inter-relationship of different Doppler measures of dyssynchrony in patients with heart failure and prolonged QRS: a report from CARE-HF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maru Fikru

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT improves mortality and morbidity in heart failure patients with wide QRS. Observational studies suggest that patients having more left ventricular dyssynchrony pre-implantation obtain greater benefit on ventricular function and symptoms with CRT. Aim To provide an analysis of the prevalence and type of dyssynchrony in patients included in the CARE-HF trial. Methods 100 patients 67 (58 to 71 years were examined with echocardiography including tissue doppler imaging before receiving a CRT-pacemaker. Atrio-ventricular dyssynchrony (LVFT/RR was defined as left ventricular filling time 40 ms. Intra-ventricular (regional dyssynchrony in a 16-segment model was expressed either as a delayed longitudinal contraction (DLC during the postsystolic phase or by tissue synchronisation imaging (TSI with a predefined time-difference in systolic maximal velocities >85 ms. Results LVFT/RR was present in 34% and IVMD in 60% of patients while intra-ventricular dyssynchrony was present in 85% (DLC and 86% (TSI with a high agreement between the measures (Kappascore 0.86–1.00, indicating the methods being interchangeable. Patients with cardiomyopathy (53% were more likely to have LVFT/RR Conclusion The prevalence of intra-ventricular dyssynchrony is high in patients with heart failure, wide QRS and depressed systolic function. Most important, TSI appears to be a fast and reliable method to identify patients with intra-ventricular dyssynchrony likely to benefit from CRT.

  7. Reported versus measured body weight and height of 4-year-old children and the prevalence of overweight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Scholtens (Salome); B. Brunekreef (Bert); T.L.S. Visscher (Tommy); H.A. Smit (Henriëtte); M. Kerkhof (Marjan); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); J. Gerritsen (Jorrit); A.H. Wijga (Alet)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In adults, body weight tends to be underestimated when based on self-reported data. Whether this discrepancy between measured and reported data exists in healthy young children is unclear. We studied whether parental reported body weight and height of 4-year-old children corr

  8. Reported versus measured body weight and height of 4-year-old children and the prevalence of overweight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Salome; Brunekreef, Bert; Visscher, Tommy L. S.; Smit, Henriette A.; Kerkhof, Marjan; de Jongste, Johan C.; Gerritsen, Jorrit; Wijga, Alet H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: In adults, body weight tends to be underestimated when based on self-reported data. Whether this discrepancy between measured and reported data exists in healthy young children is unclear. We studied whether parental reported body weight and height of 4-year-old children corresponded wit

  9. Reported versus measured body weight and height of 4-year-old children and the prevalence of overweight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Salome; Brunekreef, Bert; Visscher, Tommy L. S.; Smit, Henriette A.; Kerkhof, Marjan; de Jongste, Johan C.; Gerritsen, Jorrit; Wijga, Alet H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: In adults, body weight tends to be underestimated when based on self-reported data. Whether this discrepancy between measured and reported data exists in healthy young children is unclear. We studied whether parental reported body weight and height of 4-year-old children corresponded wit

  10. Prevalence of self-reported nonmedical use of prescription stimulants in North Carolina Doctor of Pharmacy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volger, Emily J; McLendon, Amber N; Fuller, Stephen H; Herring, Charles T

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the prevalence, associated factors, and opinions regarding nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (NMUPS) in Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students. An electronic survey was distributed to professional year 1 through 4 for students at 2 schools of pharmacy (public and private) in North Carolina. The survey was available for 3 weeks. Descriptive statistics (proportion of responders plus 95% confidence intervals [CIs]) were used to describe the primary objective. Of the 1043 surveys distributed, 407 were completed giving a 39% response rate. The results indicated that 9% (95% CI: 6.44-11.93) of PharmD students acknowledge NMUPS at least once during their pharmacy education. Additionally, 3% (95% CI: 1.90-5.45) acknowledge NMUPS at least once during the current pharmacy school year (past 5 months). Nonmedical prescription stimulant users were 9 times more likely to participate in NMUPS prior to pharmacy school (P risk of abuse of prescription drug stimulants, which requires further research and attention. Additionally, there was a clear upward trend in the prevalence of NMUPS, and this misuse was associated with other detrimental behaviors.

  11. Prevalence of eating disorders in males: a review of rates reported in academic research and UK mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeting, Helen; Walker, Laura; MacLean, Alice; Patterson, Chris; Räisänen, Ulla; Hunt, Kate

    Media presentations of health issues affect evaluations of personal susceptibility to particular illnesses and hence help-seeking behaviours. We examined data on prevalence of eating disorders (EDs - which are often characterised as 'female') among males in: scientific literature; readily-accessible web-based information; and UK newspaper articles (published 7/12/2002-7/12/2012). This revealed conflicting statistics. Academic papers suggest men comprise around 25% of community-based samples, but much lower proportions (10% or less) of clinic samples. Websites and newspapers present widely differing statistics both on prevalence overall (numbers with EDs in the UK ranged from 60,000 to 2.7 million), and in men (generally suggesting they constituted 10-25% of those with EDs), rarely distinguishing between diagnosed and non-diagnosed samples. By 2011, newspapers were more consistent on overall numbers with EDs in the UK (1.6 million) and the proportion who were men (20%), drawing on one website as the authoritative source. Conflicting statistics may confuse men searching for ED (or other) health-related information, lead to underestimations of male susceptibility to EDs and/or reinforce inappropriate stereotypes of EDs as confined to adolescent girls.

  12. Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy in Urban Slums: The Aditya Jyot Diabetic Retinopathy in Urban Mumbai Slums Study-Report 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunita, Mohan; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Rogye, Ashwini; Sonawane, Manish; Gaonkar, Ravina; Srinivasan, Radhika; Natarajan, Sundaram; Stevens, Fred C J; Scherpbier, A J J A; Kumaramanickavel, Govindasamy; McCarty, Catherine

    2017-10-01

    The aims of the study were to estimate the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and enumerate history-based risk factors in the urban slums of Western India. The population-based study was conducted in seven wards of Mumbai urban slums, where we screened 6569 subjects of ≥ 40 years age, with a response rate of 98.4%, for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) based on American Diabetes Association criteria. All subjects with T2DM underwent dilated 30° seven-field stereo-fundus-photography for DR severity grading based on modified Airlie House classification. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the correlation of DR with the history-based risk factors. The prevalence of DR in the general population of Mumbai urban slums was 1.41% (95% CI 0.59-2.23) and in the T2DM population it was 15.37% (95% CI 8.87-21.87). The positive associations with DR were the longer duration of DM (≥ 11 years: OR, 12.77; 95% CI 2.93-55.61) and male gender (OR, 2.05; 95% CI 1.08-3.89); increasing severity of retinopathy was also significantly associated with longer duration of DM (p urban slums. Duration of DM and male gender were significantly associated with DR. The slums in Western India show the trends of urban lifestyle influences similar to the rest of urban India.

  13. Prevalence of streptococcus group B in tracheal tube secretions of neonates with respiratory distress: a brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosravi N

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infection with group B streptococcus (GBS can present with respiratory distress, Pneumonia, meningitis and Osteomyelitis in neonates. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of GBS colonization in trachea of intubated neonates.Methods: This observational analytic study was performed upon 33 intubated neonates due to respiratory distress in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU Rasoul Hospital in Tehran, Iran during 2010-2012. Tracheal secretions cultured upon TODD-HEWITT BROTH and sheep blood agar 5%., chi-square test was used for compare the qualitative variables. P<0.05 was considered meaningful.Results: Three cases had positive streptococcal culture (9.1% and four cases had posi-tive culture for non-streptococcal organisms. no meaningful relation observed between positive GBS culture and neonatal gender, kind of delivery, PROM.Conclusion: Prevalence of GBS positive results (9% in present study is very close to GBS colonization in pregnant women; although the higher colonization rate of pregnant women are expected.

  14. Prevalence of burnout among musculoskeletal radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chew, Felix S.; Porrino, Jack A.; Mulcahy, Hyojeong; Relyea-Chew, Annemarie [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Mulcahy, Michael J. [Central Washington University, Department of Sociology, Ellensburg, WA (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Burnout is a job-related psychological syndrome with three aspects: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and perceived lack of personal accomplishment. Burnout is associated with deleterious effects on both workers and their work. When burnout affects physicians, their well-being, longevity, and care of patients are at risk. Recent studies concerning physician burnout treat specialists such as radiologists as one group. We studied burnout in musculoskeletal (MSK) subspecialist radiologists. An institutional review board exemption was obtained. Society of Skeletal Radiology members received invitations to an anonymous survey that included questions from the Maslach Burnout Inventory trademark (MBI) measuring all three aspects of burnout. The response rate was 36.4% (433/1190). The prevalence of emotional exhaustion was 61.7% (255/413), of depersonalization 53.3% (219/411), and of perceived lack of personal accomplishment 39.6% (161/407). Only 19.5% (79/405) of MSK radiologists reported no burnout, while 80.5% (326/405) reported burnout along one or more dimensions. For all three dimensions, the prevalence was higher and the mean severity was worse for private practice compared with academic practice. The prevalence of burnout was affected more by practice setting than by gender. Burnout prevalence and severity also varied systematically with years since completion of training. Among MSK radiologists, we found a much higher prevalence and greater severity of burnout than has been previously reported for radiologists and other physicians. There were differences in prevalence and severity of burnout among practice settings, genders, and longevity cohorts. (orig.)

  15. Prevalence of burnout among musculoskeletal radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Felix S; Mulcahy, Michael J; Porrino, Jack A; Mulcahy, Hyojeong; Relyea-Chew, Annemarie

    2017-04-01

    Burnout is a job-related psychological syndrome with three aspects: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and perceived lack of personal accomplishment. Burnout is associated with deleterious effects on both workers and their work. When burnout affects physicians, their well-being, longevity, and care of patients are at risk. Recent studies concerning physician burnout treat specialists such as radiologists as one group. We studied burnout in musculoskeletal (MSK) subspecialist radiologists. An institutional review board exemption was obtained. Society of Skeletal Radiology members received invitations to an anonymous survey that included questions from the Maslach Burnout Inventory ™ (MBI) measuring all three aspects of burnout. The response rate was 36.4% (433/1190). The prevalence of emotional exhaustion was 61.7% (255/413), of depersonalization 53.3% (219/411), and of perceived lack of personal accomplishment 39.6% (161/407). Only 19.5% (79/405) of MSK radiologists reported no burnout, while 80.5% (326/405) reported burnout along one or more dimensions. For all three dimensions, the prevalence was higher and the mean severity was worse for private practice compared with academic practice. The prevalence of burnout was affected more by practice setting than by gender. Burnout prevalence and severity also varied systematically with years since completion of training. Among MSK radiologists, we found a much higher prevalence and greater severity of burnout than has been previously reported for radiologists and other physicians. There were differences in prevalence and severity of burnout among practice settings, genders, and longevity cohorts.

  16. Prevalence of and interventions for sarcopenia in ageing adults: a systematic review. Report of the International Sarcopenia Initiative (EWGSOP and IWGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso J.; Landi, Francesco; Schneider, Stéphane M.; Zúñiga, Clemente; Arai, Hidenori; Boirie, Yves; Chen, Liang-Kung; Fielding, Roger A.; Martin, Finbarr C.; Michel, Jean-Pierre; Sieber, Cornel; Stout, Jeffrey R.; Studenski, Stephanie A.; Vellas, Bruno; Woo, Jean; Zamboni, Mauro; Cederholm, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    Objective: to examine the clinical evidence reporting the prevalence of sarcopenia and the effect of nutrition and exercise interventions from studies using the consensus definition of sarcopenia proposed by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP). Methods: PubMed and Dialog databases were searched (January 2000–October 2013) using pre-defined search terms. Prevalence studies and intervention studies investigating muscle mass plus strength or function outcome measures using the EWGSOP definition of sarcopenia, in well-defined populations of adults aged ≥50 years were selected. Results: prevalence of sarcopenia was, with regional and age-related variations, 1–29% in community-dwelling populations, 14–33% in long-term care populations and 10% in the only acute hospital-care population examined. Moderate quality evidence suggests that exercise interventions improve muscle strength and physical performance. The results of nutrition interventions are equivocal due to the low number of studies and heterogeneous study design. Essential amino acid (EAA) supplements, including ∼2.5 g of leucine, and β-hydroxy β-methylbutyric acid (HMB) supplements, show some effects in improving muscle mass and function parameters. Protein supplements have not shown consistent benefits on muscle mass and function. Conclusion: prevalence of sarcopenia is substantial in most geriatric settings. Well-designed, standardised studies evaluating exercise or nutrition interventions are needed before treatment guidelines can be developed. Physicians should screen for sarcopenia in both community and geriatric settings, with diagnosis based on muscle mass and function. Supervised resistance exercise is recommended for individuals with sarcopenia. EAA (with leucine) and HMB may improve muscle outcomes. PMID:25241753

  17. Prevalence, Incidence, and Clearance of Anogenital Warts in Kenyan Men Reporting High-Risk Sexual Behavior, Including Men Who Have Sex With Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neme, Santiago; Wahome, Elizabeth; Mwashigadi, Grace; Thiong'o, Alexander N.; Stekler, Joanne D.; Wald, Anna; Sanders, Eduard J.; Graham, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes a spectrum of disease, ranging from warts to cancer. Prevalence, incidence, and factors associated with anogenital warts in East African men are unknown. Methods. Kenyan men reporting high-risk sexual behavior were inspected for anogenital warts at enrollment and follow-up visits. Logistic regression was performed to identify associations with anogenital warts at baseline. Cox regression was performed to analyze predictors of incident anogenital warts, and Kaplan–Meier curves were used to estimate clearance. Results. Baseline anogenital wart prevalence in 1137 men was 2.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0%–4.0%) overall, 2.0% in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected men, and 9.4% in HIV-1-infected men (adjusted odds ratio, 5.43; 95% CI, 2.03–11.29). Over a median of 1.4 years, anogenital wart incidence among 1104 men was 5.3 (95% CI, 4.3–6.5) per 100 person-years. Having HIV-1 infection at baseline (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.66; 95% CI, 1.01–2.72) or a genital syndrome during follow-up (aHR, 4.78; 95% CI, 3.03–7.56) was associated with increased wart incidence. Wart clearance was lower in HIV-1-infected men (log-rank Pwart prevalence and incidence were increased in HIV-1-infected men, and anogenital warts co-occurred with other genital syndromes. Quadrivalent HPV vaccination should be recommended for young men in settings with high HIV-1 prevalence. PMID:26110169

  18. Prevalence and genetic mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus species: A multicentre report of the indian council of medical research antimicrobial resistance surveillance network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Sunanda; Sistla, Sujatha; Manoharan, Meerabai; Sugumar, Madhan; Nagasundaram, Niveditha; Parija, Subhash Chandra; Ray, Pallab; Bakthavatchalam, Yamuna Devi; Veeraraghavan, Balaji; Kapil, Arti; Walia, Kamini; Ohri, V C

    2017-01-01

    Routine surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an essential component of measures aimed to tackle the growing threat of resistant microbes in public health. This study presents a 1-year multicentre report on AMR in Staphylococcus species as part of Indian Council of Medical Research-AMR surveillance network. Staphylococcus species was routinely collected in the nodal and regional centres of the network and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed against a panel of antimicrobials. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of vancomycin (VAN), daptomycin, tigecycline and linezolid (LNZ) against selected methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) isolates were determined by E-test and MIC creep, if any, was determined. Resistant genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction for those isolates showing phenotypic resistance. The prevalence of MRSA was found to be range from moderate (21%) to high (45%) among the centres with an overall prevalence of 37.3%. High prevalence of resistance was observed with commonly used antimicrobials such as ciprofloxacin and erythromycin in all the centres. Resistance to LNZ was not encountered except for a single case. Full-blown resistance to VAN in S. aureus was not observed; however, a few VAN-intermediate S. aureus isolates were documented. The most common species of coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) identified was Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Resistance among CoNS was relatively higher than S. aureus. Most phenotypically resistant organisms possessed the corresponding resistance genes. There were localised differences in the prevalence of resistance between the centres. The efficacy of the anti-MRSA antimicrobials was very high; however, almost all these antimicrobials showed evidence of creeping MIC.

  19. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in relation to water or salt fluoridation and reported use of fluoride toothpaste in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagheri, D; McLoughlin, J; Clarkson, J J

    2007-03-01

    To compare prevalence of dental fluorosis (DF) in permanent teeth in children whose domestic water supply was fluoridated since birth with that in a community where fluoridated salt was available. A second aim was to analyse the relationship between DF prevalence and reported use of fluoride toothpaste in early childhood. Cross-sectional study. A representative, random sample of 12-year-old children was examined in water fluoridated Dublin (Ireland) and non-water fluoridated Freiburg (Germany), where fluoridated salt was available. DF was recorded using the Dean's Index. The child's early experience of toothpaste use was recorded using a questionnaire. 377 children in Dublin and 322 children in Freiburg were examined. In Dublin 11.7% of the whole sample had a 'Questionable' level of DF, 9.8% had 'Very Mild', 3.7% had 'Mild' and 0.3% had 'Moderate' fluorosis. The corresponding percentages in Freiburg for all children were 10.9%, 4.0%, 3.4% and 0%. The results suggest that children in Dublin started brushing their teeth at an older age than in Freiburg, but no difference in DF levels was found between 'early' and 'late' users. Fisher's test revealed that the difference in DF levels between the two populations was statistically significant (p=0.03). The prevalence of aesthetically important DF ('Mild' and 'Moderate') was low and similar in both communities and considerably lower than the expected level at water fluoridation concentrations of 1 ppm. However, the prevalence of 'Very Mild' fluorosis was twice as frequent in Dublin than in Freiburg.

  20. Post-irradiation angiosarcoma of the greater omentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westenberg, A.H.; Wiggers, T.; Henzen-Logmans, S.C.; Verweij, J.; Meerwaldt, J.A.; Geel, A.N. van (Dr Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands))

    1989-04-01

    A case of angiosarcoma of the greater omentum is reported. This angiosarcoma developed 8 years after irradiation for cervical carcinoma and presented with an intra-abdominal hemorrhage. The authors describe her clinical course, treatment and follow-up. Although several other locations of irradiation-induced sarcomas have been published, this is the first report in literature of a postirradiation angiosarcoma in the greater omentum. (author).

  1. Post-irradiation angiosarcoma of the greater omentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westenberg, A H; Wiggers, T; Henzen-Logmans, S C; Verweij, J; Meerwaldt, J A; van Geel, A N

    1989-04-01

    A case of angiosarcoma of the greater omentum is reported. This angiosarcoma developed 8 years after irradiation for cervical carcinoma and presented with an intra-abdominal hemorrhage. We describe her clinical course, treatment and follow-up. Although several other locations of irradiation-induced sarcomas have been published, this is the first report in literature of a postirradiation angiosarcoma in the greater omentum.

  2. Monitoring and research on the Bi-State Distinct Population Segment of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Pine Nut Mountains, California and Nevada—Study progress report, 2011–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Andrle, Katie M.; Ziegler, Pilar T.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2016-09-29

    The Bi-State distinct population segment (DPS) of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) that occurs along the Nevada–California border was proposed for listing as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) in October 2013. However, in April 2015, the FWS determined that the Bi-State DPS no longer required protection under the ESA and withdrew the proposed rule to list the Bi-State DPS (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2015). The Bi-State DPS occupies portions of Alpine, Mono, and Inyo Counties in California, and Douglas, Esmeralda, Lyon, Carson City, and Mineral Counties in Nevada. Unique threats facing this population include geographic isolation, expansion of single-leaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma), anthropogenic activities, and recent changes in predator communities. Estimating population vital rates, identifying seasonal habitat, quantifying threats, and identifying movement patterns are important first steps in developing effective sage-grouse management and conservation plans. During 2011–15, we radio- and Global Positioning System (GPS)-marked (2012–14 only) 44, 47, 17, 9, and 3 sage-grouse, respectively, for a total of 120, in the Pine Nut Mountains Population Management Unit (PMU). No change in lek attendance was detected at Mill Canyon (maximum=18 males) between 2011 and 2012; however, 1 male was observed in 2014 and no males were observed in 2013 and 2015. Males were observed near Bald Mountain in 2013, making it the first year this lek was observed to be active during the study period. Males were observed at a new site in the Buckskin Range in 2014 during trapping efforts and again observed during surveys in 2015. Findings indicate that pinyon-juniper is avoided by sage-grouse during every life stage. Nesting females selected increased sagebrush cover, sagebrush height, and understory horizontal cover, and brood-rearing females selected similar areas

  3. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among farmers: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Aoife; Blake, Catherine; Fullen, Brona M; Meredith, David; Phelan, James; McNamara, John; Cunningham, Caitriona

    2012-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among farmers and to establish the most common regional MSDs reported. Comprehensive electronic searches of Pubmed, Web of Science, CINAHL, SCOPUS, EMBASE, Agris Database, and Cochrane Library were carried out using keywords for MSDs and farmers. Pooled estimates of prevalence with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for overall MSD prevalence and the most common regional MSDs reported. Twenty-four studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were incorporated into this review. From these studies, life-time prevalence of any form of MSD among farmers was 90.6% while 1-year MSD prevalence was 76.9% (95% CI 69.8-82.7). The majority of studies focused on spinal MSDs with low back pain (LBP) the most frequently investigated. Life-time LBP prevalence was 75% (95% CI 67-81.5) while 1-year LBP prevalence was 47.8% (95% CI 40.2-55.5). The next most common regional MSDs reported were upper (range 3.6-71.4%) and lower extremities (range 10.4-41%). The systematic review identified the prevalence of MSDs by body region in farmers and established that LBP was the most common MSD, followed by upper and then lower extremity MSDs. Reported trends suggest that the prevalence of MSDs in farmers is greater than in non-farmer populations. Case-definition uniformity among MSD researchers is warranted. More studies are needed regarding upper and lower extremity MSDs, gender, workplace, and task context of MSDs. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. HIV/AIDS prevalence and behaviour in drug users and pregnant women in Kashgar Prefecture: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzwarryne C

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Second Generation sub-population HIV Surveillance was undertaken in Kashgar City and Shache County, Xinjiang, Peoples Republic of China between December 2003 and January 2004, targeting injecting and mixed method drug users and pregnant and postnatal women. The study aimed to determine the extent to which the epidemic is shifting from a concentrated stage to a more generalised epidemic. One hundred and forty two (142 exclusively injecting drug users (66 and mixed method drug users (injecting and non-injecting-76 participated in this survey. Eight hundred and two (802 pregnant and postnatal women participated in the survey. In Kashgar City and Shache County the serum prevalence of HIV amongst injecting drug users was 56.06%, for mixed method drug users 48.68% and 0.38% in pregnant women. In Shache County HIV infection rates were significantly lower in drug user groups and amongst pregnant and post-natal women, at 2.22% and 0% respectively. The behavioral survey indicated that 15% of injecting drug users have shared needles (however sero prevalence and knowledge in relation to access to clean needles and syringes suggests that this may not reflect the actual situation. Knowledge of prevention of transmission strategies (not sharing needles and condom utilisation is similar between both groups at 60–70%. However it appears that this knowledge has not significantly impacted on behavior such as needle sharing and condom utilisation. In Kashgar City and Shache County there have been very few interventions to support HIV/AIDS prevention, care and control. The results from this survey will inform future directions and the development and implementation of targeted interventions including targeted information dissemination and harm reduction strategies. This survey was funded by the Xinjiang HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care Project, a bilateral project jointly implemented by the Government of the People's Republic of China and the Government of

  5. Grant Monitoring: Department of Education Could Improve Its Processes with Greater Focus on Assessing Risks, Acquiring Financial Skills, and Sharing Information. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-10-57

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Cornelia M.

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Education (Education) awards about $45 billion in grants each year to school districts, states, and other entities. In addition, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided an additional $97 billion in grant funding. In a series of reports from 2002 to 2009, Education's Inspector General cited a number of grantees…

  6. DSM-5 Changes and the Prevalence of Parent-Reported Autism Spectrum Symptoms in Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Anne C.; Mussey, Joanna; Villagomez, Adrienne; Bishop, Ellen; Raspa, Melissa; Edwards, Anne; Bodfish, James; Bann, Carla; Bailey, Donald B.

    2015-01-01

    We used survey methodology to assess parent-reported autism symptomology in 758 individuals (639 males; 119 females) with fragile X syndrome (FXS). Caregivers reported whether their child with FXS had been diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and endorsed symptoms based on a list of observable behaviors related to ASD diagnoses.…

  7. DSM-5 Changes and the Prevalence of Parent-Reported Autism Spectrum Symptoms in Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Anne C.; Mussey, Joanna; Villagomez, Adrienne; Bishop, Ellen; Raspa, Melissa; Edwards, Anne; Bodfish, James; Bann, Carla; Bailey, Donald B.

    2015-01-01

    We used survey methodology to assess parent-reported autism symptomology in 758 individuals (639 males; 119 females) with fragile X syndrome (FXS). Caregivers reported whether their child with FXS had been diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and endorsed symptoms based on a list of observable behaviors related to ASD diagnoses.…

  8. A population-based study of prevalence of complementary methods use by cancer survivors: a report from the American Cancer Society's studies of cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gansler, Ted; Kaw, Chiewkwei; Crammer, Corinne; Smith, Tenbroeck

    2008-09-01

    The use of complementary methods (CMs) is widespread and increasing in the United States. Most literature on CM use among cancer survivors focuses on the treatment period, whereas only a few studies address use further along the cancer continuum. This study analyzed the prevalence and the medical and demographic associations of CM use among cancer survivors surveyed 10 to 24 months after diagnosis. The study's sample-4139 survivors of 1 of 10 adult cancers-was selected from stratified random samples provided by statewide cancer registries and surveyed by mail and telephone. Three logistic regression models examined associations between medical and demographic factors and CM use among survivors of sex-specific and non-sex-specific cancers. Of the 19 CMs included in the survey, the CMs most frequently reported were prayer/spiritual practice (61.4%), relaxation (44.3%), faith/spiritual healing (42.4%), nutritional supplements/vitamins (40.1%), meditation (15%), religious counseling (11.3%), massage (11.2%), and support groups (9.7%). Among these 19 CMs, the least prevalent were hypnosis (0.4%), biofeedback therapy (1.0%), and acupuncture/acupressure (1.2%). Survivors more likely to use CMs were female, younger, white, higher income, and more educated. This study provides information regarding prevalence and medical-demographic determinants of CM use reported by a large, population-based sample of survivors of 10 cancers surveyed 10 to 24 months after diagnosis. These findings may be used by clinicians and researchers to inform their decisions regarding which CMs to address in practice and research. (c) 2008 American Cancer Society.

  9. Reported prevalence of gestational diabetes in Scotland: The relationship with obesity, age, socioeconomic status, smoking and macrosomia, and how many are we missing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Andrew; Abraham, E Christie; Armstrong, Julie; Godwin, Jon; Monteath, Kirsten; Lindsay, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as 'carbohydrate intolerance of varying degrees of severity with onset or first recognition during pregnancy,' and is associated with increased fetal and maternal risks. The aims of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of GDM in Scotland over 32 years (1981-2012), and using the data from 2012, to assess how GDM related to maternal body mass index, maternal age, parity, smoking, Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation, infant gender and macrosomia status. GDM prevalence along with anthropometric, obstetric and demographic data were collected on a total of 1,891,097 women with a delivery episode between 1 January 1981 and 31 December 2012 using data extracted from the Scottish Morbidity Record 02. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was undertaken to investigate their association with GDM. A ninefold increase in GDM prevalence was observed from 1981 to 2012 (P macrosomia were positively associated with GDM. Reported smoking status at booking was inversely associated with GDM. Multivariable analysis showed that fetal macrosomia was not associated with GDM status. The present study confirmed that the reporting of GDM is low in Scotland, and that GDM is associated with maternal body mass index, maternal age, multiparity and social deprivation. GDM was negatively associated with smoking and requires further investigation. The lack of association between GDM and macrosomia (following multivariate analysis) might reflect the screening processes undertaken in Scotland. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Prevalência de diagnóstico auto-referido de osteoporose, Brasil, 2006 Prevalencia de diagnóstico auto-referido de osteoporosis, Brasil, 2006 Prevalence of self-reported diagnosis of osteoporosis in Brazil, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Araujo Martini

    2009-11-01

    variable individualmente, y en modelo multivariado, considerándose odds ratio como proxy de la razón de prevalencia. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de osteoporosis referida fue de 4,4%, predominantemente entre mujeres (7,0%, con edad >45 años, estado civil no soltero y ex-fumador. Entre hombres, tener más de 65 años, ser casado o viudo y sedentario se asociaron positivamente a osteoporosis. CONCLUSIONES: Entre los factores asociados a la osteoporosis, se destacan aspectos modificables relacionados con la prevención de la enfermedad, como la actividad física y tabaquismo.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of self-reported osteoporosis (with previous medical diagnosis and the associated risk and protection factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out, based on data from the system Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (VIGITEL - telephone-based surveillance of risk and protective factors for chronic diseases. A total of 54,369 individuals aged >18 years living in homes served by at least one fixed telephone line in Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District in 2006 were interviewed. Estimates of osteoporosis in relation to socioeconomic and behavioral factors and the body mass index were stratified according to sex. The risk of occurrence of osteoporosis was calculated for each variable separately and through a multivariate model, taking the odds ratio to be a proxy for the prevalence ratio. RESULTS: The reported prevalence of osteoporosis was 4.4%, predominantly among women (7.0% >45 years of age whose marital status was not single and who were former smokers. Among men, age > 65 years, married or widowed status and sedentarism were positively associated with this outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Among the factors associated with osteoporosis, modifiable characteristics relating to disease prevention were highlighted, such as physical activity and smoking habits.

  11. Finnish women and men who self-report no sexual attraction in the past 12 months: prevalence, relationship status, and sexual behavior history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglund, Jannike; Jern, Patrick; Sandnabba, N Kenneth; Santtila, Pekka

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of not reporting sexual attraction in the past year and its associations with factors related to partner relations as well as sexuality-related characteristics in a population-based sample of Finnish twins. The present study was based on a total of 3,540 participants (1,304 men and 2,236 women) aged 33-43 years. A total of 19 men and 73 women reported complete absence of sexual interest in women or men during the past year. Older age was associated with absence of sexual interest in the past year in women, but not men. Individuals who reported absence of sexual interest in the past year were more likely than individuals who reported sexual interest to be single, but those who were in a relationship did not express more dissatisfaction with their relationships. Individuals who reported absence of sexual interest in the past year had had fewer sexual partners and reported less experience of sexual behavior in childhood. Women who reported no sexual interest in the past year, but who were nevertheless sexually active, reported higher frequencies of sexual dysfunctions than matched controls. No significant differences regarding the tendency to fake orgasm were found between the sexually active individuals who reported absence of sexual interest in the past year and the group of matched controls. The present study suggests that absence of sexual interest may be a lifelong phenomenon which does not necessarily affect relationship satisfaction, but is associated with variation in sexual behaviors.

  12. Diabetes auto-referido em idosos: prevalência, fatores associados e práticas de controle Self-reported diabetes in the elderly: prevalence, associated factors, and control practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Maria Stolses Bergamo Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a prevalência de diabetes auto-referido em idosos, identificando fatores associados, conhecimento e práticas quanto às opções de tratamento. Trata-se de estudo transversal de base populacional, com amostra estratificada por conglomerados e em dois estágios, em municípios do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Dos 1.949 idosos, 15,4% referiram diabetes. O índice de massa corporal e a prática de exercício físico estiveram associados à doença. Houve diferença entre diabéticos e não diabéticos quanto à auto-avaliação da saúde, internação, morbidade auto-referida nos últimos 15 dias, e relato das seguintes doenças: hipertensão, anemia, doença renal e cardiovascular. Não houve desigualdade em relação à renda familiar per capita quanto à visita ao médico/serviço de saúde, à participação em grupos de discussão e às práticas de controle da doença. O estudo sugere a importância de mudanças comportamentais, como estratégias de prevenção e controle da doença e suas complicações, bem como a necessidade de oferta de intervenções educativas com ampliação da cobertura de cuidados aos diabéticos.The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of self-reported diabetes in the elderly, identifying associated factors, knowledge, and practices related to treatment options. This was a cross-sectional population-based study with stratified clustered two-stage sampling in six municipalities in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Among the 1,949 elderly, 15.4% presented self-reported diabetes. Body mass index and exercising were statistically associated with diabetes. There was a significant difference between diabetics and non-diabetics in terms of self-rated health, hospitalization, self-reported illness in the previous two weeks, and report of the following diseases: hypertension, anemia, chronic kidney disease, and heart disease. In terms of per capita family income, there was no

  13. Coronary artery disease prevalence and outcome in patients hospitalized with acute heart failure: an observational report from seven Middle Eastern countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Amar M; Sulaiman, Kadhim; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi; Aljaraallah, Mohammed; Al Faleh, Husam; Elasfar, Abdelfatah; Panduranga, Prasanth; Singh, Rajvir; Abi Khalil, Charbel; Al Suwaidi, Jassim

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to report prevalence, clinical characteristics, precipitating factors, management and outcome of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) among patients hospitalized with heart failure (HF) in seven Middle Eastern countries and compare them to non-CAD patients. Data were derived from Gulf CARE (Gulf aCute heArt failuRe rEgistry), a prospective multicenter study of 5005 consecutive patients hospitalized with acute HF during February-November 2012 in 7 Middle Eastern countries. The prevalence of CAD among Acute Heart Failure (AHF) patients was 60.2% and varied significantly among the 7 countries (Qatar 65.7%, UAE 66.6%, Kuwait 68.0%, Oman 65.9%, Saudi Arabia 62.5%, Bahrain 52.7% and Yemen 49.1%) with lower values in the lower income countries. CAD patients were older and more likely to have diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and chronic kidney disease. Moreover, CAD patients were more likely to have history of cerebrovascular and peripheral vascular disease when compared to non-CAD patients. In-hospital mortality rates were comparable although CAD patients had more frequent re-hospitalization and worse long-term outcome. However, CAD was not an independent predictor of poor outcome. The prevalence of CAD amongst patients with HF in the Middle East is variable and may be related to healthcare sources. Regional and national studies are needed for assessing further the impact of various etiologies of HF and for developing appropriate strategies to combat this global concern.

  14. Greater Celandine hepatotoxicity: a clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Frenzel, Christian; Glass, Xaver; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Herbal hepatotoxicity is a rare and poorly described disease because reported cases are mostly scattered and lack an appropriate causality assessment. We now describe in detail the clinical picture of herbal hepatotoxicity by extracts of Greater Celandine (GC), syn. Chelidonium majus L. from the Papaveraceae family, which contain more than 20 ingredients including various biologically active isoquinoline alkaloids. For this purpose, we analyzed and reviewed published cases of 16 patients from various European countries. In all patients, herbal hepatotoxicity was of probable and highly probable causality for GC, using the original and updated scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences). GC associated hepatotoxicity usually has an acute clinical course exhibiting a hepatocellular pattern of injury and is correlated to an idiosyncratic reaction with its metabolic subtype. Jaundice combined with high values of serum aminotransferases was present in virtually all cases with favourable outcome despite severe clinical course. In conclusion, GC hepatotoxicity is a typical herbal hepatotoxicity with a sound causality track for GC, but there is uncertainty regarding the respective causative compound(s). The present detailed review of GC hepatotoxicity may serve as an example for clinical causality assessments of future cases of liver injury due to other herbs.

  15. Greater learnability is not sufficient to produce cultural universals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Anna N; Griffiths, Thomas L; Ettlinger, Marc

    2013-10-01

    Looking across human societies reveals regularities in the languages that people speak and the concepts that they use. One explanation that has been proposed for these "cultural universals" is differences in the ease with which people learn particular languages and concepts. A difference in learnability means that languages and concepts possessing a particular property are more likely to be accurately transmitted from one generation of learners to the next. Intuitively, this difference could allow languages and concepts that are more learnable to become more prevalent after multiple generations of cultural transmission. If this is the case, the prevalence of languages and concepts with particular properties can be explained simply by demonstrating empirically that they are more learnable. We evaluate this argument using mathematical analysis and behavioral experiments. Specifically, we provide two counter-examples that show how greater learnability need not result in a property becoming prevalent. First, more learnable languages and concepts can nonetheless be less likely to be produced spontaneously as a result of transmission failures. We simulated cultural transmission in the laboratory to show that this can occur for memory of distinctive items: these items are more likely to be remembered, but not generated spontaneously once they have been forgotten. Second, when there are many languages or concepts that lack the more learnable property, sheer numbers can swamp the benefit produced by greater learnability. We demonstrate this using a second series of experiments involving artificial language learning. Both of these counter-examples show that simply finding a learnability bias experimentally is not sufficient to explain why a particular property is prevalent in the languages or concepts used in human societies: explanations for cultural universals based on cultural transmission need to consider the full set of hypotheses a learner could entertain and all of

  16. Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome in general Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Brinks (Tineke)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis focuses on patients with greater trochanteric pain syndrome. These patients suffer from local pain at the lateral side of the hip. The syndrome is characterized by chronic intermittent or continuous pain at and around the greater trochanter, sometimes radiating to the lateral

  17. Prevalence of self-reported diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and associated risk factors in a national survey in the US population: SHIELD (Study to Help Improve Early evaluation and management of risk factors Leading to Diabetes)

    OpenAIRE

    Reed Michael L; Lewis Sandra J; Green Andrew J; Gavin James R; Clark Nathaniel G; Bazata Debbra D; Bays Harold E; Stewart Walter; Chapman Richard H; Fox Kathleen M; Grandy Susan

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies derived from continuous national surveys have shown that the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes mellitus in the US is increasing. This study estimated the prevalence in 2004 of self-reported diagnosis of diabetes and other conditions in a community-based population, using data from the Study to Help Improve Early evaluation and management of risk factors Leading to Diabetes (SHIELD). Methods The initial screening questionnaire was mailed in 2004 to a stratified rando...

  18. Prevalence and risk factors of caregiver reported Severe Early Childhood Caries in Manitoba First Nations children: results from the RHS Phase 2 (2008–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Schroth

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The high prevalence and severity of caries among Canadian First Nations children is a growing concern. Dental surgery in hospital is often necessary to treat the signs of decay but does not address the underlying factors contributing to its development. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of caregiver-reported Baby Bottle Tooth Decay (BBTD, or Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC, among preschool children recruited in Phase 2 of the First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey (RHS. Study Design. Cross-sectional study including interviews with caregivers. Methods. This study was limited to data from Manitoba First Nations participating in the RHS Phase 2 (2008–10. Data were restricted to caregiver interviews for their child <72 months of age. The main variable of interest was caregiver-reported BBTD, an antecedent term for S-ECC. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses; p≤0.05 was significant. Results. Overall, caregivers of 431 preschool children responded. According to caregiver reports, 102/410 (24.9% children had S-ECC. Further, 65.0% responded that their child had already undergone treatment for caries. Children with S-ECC were significantly older than those without. S-ECC was also associated with paternal education levels and employment status, and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Breastfed children were less likely to have S-ECC, while consuming drink crystal beverages in bottles, and daily intake of soft drinks, juice, sweets and fast food were associated with increased risk. Those who reported that healthcare services were not available and were not culturally appropriate were significantly more likely to have children with S-ECC. Conclusions. Caregiver reports suggest that nearly 1 in every 4 children has been affected by S-ECC. Identified risk factors for Manitoba First Nations children included age, education and employment, dietary practices

  19. Prevalence of Falls and Risk Factors in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Kelly; Rimmer, James; Heller, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of falls and risk factors for falls in 1,515 adults (greater than or equal to 18 years) with intellectual disability using baseline data from the Longitudinal Health and Intellectual Disability Study. Nearly 25% of adults from the study were reported to have had one or more falls in the past…

  20. Greater happiness for a greater number: is that possible and desirable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractGREATER HAPPINESS FOR A GREATER NUMBER: IS THAT POSSIBLE AND DESIRABLE? Utilitarian philosophy holds that public policy should aim at greater happiness for a greater number of people. This moral tenet meets many objections, on pragmatic grounds it is denounced as unfeasible and on ideolo

  1. Greater happiness for a greater number: is that possible and desirable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractGREATER HAPPINESS FOR A GREATER NUMBER: IS THAT POSSIBLE AND DESIRABLE? Utilitarian philosophy holds that public policy should aim at greater happiness for a greater number of people. This moral tenet meets many objections, on pragmatic grounds it is denounced as unfeasible and on

  2. Prevalence of smoking and other smoking related behaviors reported by the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS in four Peruvian cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Charles W

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In 2004, Peru ratified the Health Organization (WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC and in 2006 passed Law 28705 for tobacco consumption and exposure reduction. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS provides data on youth tobacco use for development of tobacco control programs. Findings from the GYTS conducted in four main cities in Peru in 2000 and 2003 are reported in this paper and can be used to monitor provisions of the WHO FCTC. Methods The GYTS is a school-based survey that uses a standardized methodology for sampling, questionnaire construction, field procedures, and data management. In total, 5,332 and 7,824 students aged 13 to 15 years participated in the 2000 and 2003 surveys conducted in Huancayo, Lima, Tarapoto and Trujillo. Results In both years, Lima had the highest lifetime (54.6% and 59.6% and current use of tobacco (18.6% and 19.2% of the four cities. According to gender, boys smoked more than girls and less than 20% of students initiated smoking before the age of 10. Among smokers, more than 60% bought their cigarettes in a store with no restriction for their age, and approximately 12% had ever been offered "free cigarettes". Around 90% of students were in favor of banning smoking in public places. Changes between 2000 and 2003 included an increase in the percentage of smokers who wanted to have a cigarette first thing in the morning in Tarapoto (from 0% to 1.2% and a decrease in exposure to tobacco at home in Huancayo (from 23.7% to 17.8% and Trujillo (from 27.8% to 19.8% Conclusion While few changes in tobacco use among youth have been observed in the GYTS in Peru, the data in this report can be used as baseline measures for future evaluation efforts. At this time, tobacco control efforts in Peru need to focus on enhancing Law 28705 to include enforcement of existing provisions and inclusion of new laws and regulations. Most of these provisions are required of all countries, such as Peru

  3. Country Report on China's Participation in Greater Mekong Subregion Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    1.Executive SummaryThe Mekong River,which originates from the Danggula Mountain Range on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China and runs 4,880 km southward through six countries,namely,China,Myartmar,Laos,Thailand,Cambodia and Viet Nam,is an important transnational river in Asia and even the world.The section in China is called the Lancang River.Since the 1990s,the international cooperation in the Lancang-Mekong subregiun has received wide attention from the international community.Related countries and intemational organizations have carried out extensive cooperation,which has produced good results and forcefully facilitated economic and social development of the subregion.

  4. Hailstones across the Greater Sydney Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Rasuly

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the recent climatology of hail occurrence in the Greater Metropolitan Severe Thunderstorm Warning Area (GMSTWA of New South Wales, Australia, which is a sprawling suburban area, with a population of nearly 4.7 million and one of Australia's largest metropolis. The main objective is to highlight the recent temporal-spatial fluctuations of hailstone frequencies and magnitudes for each of recognized and vastly inhabited Local Government Areas (LGAs. The relevant hail event data from 1989 to 2013 were initially derived from the severe storm archive of Australian Bureau of Meteorology. A climatologically oriented GIS technique was applied in the examining and mapping procedure of all hail events and hail days reported throughout the study area. By applying a specific criterion, all severe hails (defined as 2 cm or more in diameter were cautiously selected and then imported into the ArcGIS software for relevant analysis. Appropriate data layers were stored in a unique database to allow logical integration of the data directly into some geoprocessing functions, mainly for querying, analyzing and mapping purposes in a model-builder setting. The database includes 357 hailstones with sizes 2–11 cm and occurred in 169 hail days across the region during the past 25 years. The models have established that hailstones are neither temporally nor spatially uniform in magnitude throughout the study area. Temporal analysis indicated that most of hail events occurred predominately in the afternoons with peak time of 1–5 p.m. EST. They were particularly common in spring and summer, and reached maximum frequency in November and December. There was an average of 14.3 events each year, but a significant decreasing trend in terms of hail frequency and associated magnitude in the recent years has been identified. In turn, spatial models also established three main distribution patterns over the study area, which include the Sydney Metropolitan

  5. Prevalence and possible etiology of dental enamel hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Najjar, M Y; DeSanti, M V; Ozebek, L

    1978-02-01

    Two hundred black and white adult human skeletons and 200 living black and white children from the greater Cleveland area were examined for evidence of enamel hypoplasia. Enamel hypoplasia, present in varying expressings (pits, lines and grooves), was found to be more prevalent in both skeletal samples, than in the living groups. In the majority of cases, sex differences between white and black males and females through time and space are highly significant for all tooth catagories. Regardless of the mechanisms behind it, prevalence of enamel hypoplasia for both white and black group has significantly declined through time. No evidence suggesting specific etiologies responsible for enamel hypoplasia can be found. In the majority of previously published reports, the etiology is still idiopathic. The reduction in the prevalence of enamel hypoplasia in the groups examined through time may be related to improved nutritional conditions and the elimination or decline of childhood diseases that have been implicated in this condition.

  6. Prevalence of SCN1A-related dravet syndrome among children reported with seizures following vaccination: a population-based ten-year cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienke E Verbeek

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of Dravet syndrome, an epileptic encephalopathy caused by SCN1A-mutations, often with seizure onset after vaccination, among infants reported with seizures following vaccination. To determine differences in characteristics of reported seizures after vaccination in children with and without SCN1A-related Dravet syndrome. METHODS: Data were reviewed of 1,269 children with seizures following immunization in the first two years of life, reported to the safety surveillance system of the Dutch national immunization program between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2006. Selective, prospective follow-up was performed of children with clinical characteristics compatible with a diagnosis of Dravet syndrome. RESULTS: In 21.9% (n = 279 of children, a diagnosis of Dravet syndrome could not be excluded based on available clinical data (median age at follow-up 16 months. Additional follow-up data were obtained in 83.9% (n = 234 of these children (median age 8.5 years. 15 (1.2% of 1,269; 95%CI:0.6 to 1.8% children were diagnosed with SCN1A-related Dravet syndrome. Of all reported seizures following vaccinations in the first year of life, 2.5% (95%CI:1.3 to 3.6% were due to SCN1A-related Dravet syndrome, as were 5.9% of reported seizures (95%CI:3.1 to 8.7% after 2(nd or 3(rd DTP-IPV-Hib vaccination. Seizures in children with SCN1A-related Dravet syndrome occurred more often with a body temperature below 38.5°C (57.9% vs. 32.6%, p = 0.020 and reoccurred more often after following vaccinations (26.7% vs. 4.0%, p = 0.003, than in children without a diagnosis of SCN1A-related Dravet Syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Although Dravet syndrome is a rare genetic epilepsy syndrome, 2.5% of reported seizures following vaccinations in the first year of life in our cohort occurred in children with this disorder. Knowledge on the specific characteristics of vaccination-related seizures in this syndrome might promote early diagnosis

  7. Prevalence of scabies and impetigo worldwide: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Lucia; Steer, Andrew C; Whitfeld, Margot J; Kaldor, John M

    2015-08-01

    Scabies is a skin disease that, through secondary bacterial skin infection (impetigo), can lead to serious complications such as septicaemia, renal disease, and rheumatic heart disease. Yet the worldwide prevalence of scabies is uncertain. We undertook a systematic review, searching several databases and the grey literature, for population-based studies that reported on the prevalence of scabies and impetigo in a community setting. All included studies were assessed for quality. 2409 articles were identified and 48 studies were included. Data were available for all regions except North America. The prevalence of scabies ranged from 0·2% to 71·4%. All regions except for Europe and the Middle East included populations with a prevalence greater than 10%. Overall, scabies prevalence was highest in the Pacific and Latin American regions, and was substantially higher in children than in adolescents and adults. Impetigo was common, particularly in children, with the highest prevalence in Australian Aboriginal communities (49·0%). Comprehensive scabies control strategies are urgently needed, such as a community-based mass drug administration approach, along with a more systematic approach to the monitoring of disease burden.

  8. Mood Sensitivity to Seasonal Changes in African College Students Living in the Greater Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Guzman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the degree of seasonality and prevalence of winter- and summer-type seasonal affective disorder (SAD in African immigrant college students in comparison with African American peers. A convenience sample of 246 African immigrants and 599 African Americans studying in Washington, D.C. completed the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ, which was used to calculate a global seasonality score (GSS and to estimate the prevalence of winter- and summer-type SAD. Degree of seasonality was related to a complex interaction between having general awareness of SAD, ethnicity, and gender. A greater percentage of African students reported experiencing a problem with seasonal changes relative to African American students, and had summer SAD, but the groups did not differ on GSS and winter SAD. African students reported more difficulties with seasonal changes than their African American peers, which could represent a manifestation of incomplete acclimatization to a higher latitude and temperate climate. As Africans also had a greater rate of summer SAD, this argues against acclimatization to heat.

  9. Greater Somalia, the never-ending dream?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an historical analysis of the concept of Greater Somalia, the nationalist project that advocates the political union of all Somali-speaking people, including those inhabiting areas in current Djibouti, Ethiopia and Kenya. The Somali territorial unification project of “lost ter...

  10. Greater trochanteric fracture with occult intertrochanteric extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Michael; O'Brien, Seth D; Bui-Mansfield, Liem T; Alderete, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Proximal femoral fractures are frequently encountered in the emergency department (ED). Prompt diagnosis is paramount as delay will exacerbate the already poor outcomes associated with these injuries. In cases where radiography is negative but clinical suspicion remains high, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the study of choice as it has the capability to depict fractures which are occult on other imaging modalities. Awareness of a particular subset of proximal femoral fractures, namely greater trochanteric fractures, is vital for both radiologists and clinicians since it has been well documented that they invariably have an intertrochanteric component which may require surgical management. The detection of intertrochanteric or cervical extension of greater trochanteric fractures has been described utilizing MRI but is underestimated with both computed tomography (CT) and bone scan. Therefore, if MRI is unavailable or contraindicated, the diagnosis of an isolated greater trochanteric fracture should be met with caution. The importance of avoiding this potential pitfall is demonstrated in the following case of an elderly woman with hip pain and CT demonstrating an isolated greater trochanteric fracture who subsequently returned to the ED with a displaced intertrochanteric fracture.

  11. Prevalence and Predictors of Self-Reported Consistent Condom Usage among Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saumya Rastogi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clients of female sex workers (FSWs possess a high potential of transmitting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections from high risk FSWs to the general population. Promotion of safer sex practices among the clients is essential to limit the spread of HIV/AIDS epidemic. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of consistent condom use (CCU among clients of FSWs and to assess the factors associated with CCU in Tamil Nadu. 146 male respondents were recruited from the hotspots who reportedly had sex with FSWs in exchange for cash at least once in the past one month. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate methods. Overall, 48.6 and 0.8 percent clients consistently used condoms in the past 12 months with FSWs and regular partners, respectively. Logistic regression showed that factors such as education, peers’ use of condoms, and alcohol consumption significantly influenced clients’ CCU with FSWs. Strategies for safe sex-behaviour are needed among clients of FSWs in order to limit the spread of HIV/AIDS epidemic in the general population. The role of peer-educators in experience sharing and awareness generation must also be emphasized.

  12. Bullying among school-age children in the greater Beirut area: risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of bullying at schools in the Greater Beirut Area and the extent to which differences in children's sociodemographics, family and school environment, and coping strategies could account for variation in academic achievement, PTSD and emotional and behavioral disorders. Participants were 665 male and female children of mean age 13.8 years. Results indicated that a high proportion of children had been involved in bullying on a regular basis with victims having a higher prevalence ratio than bullies and bully/victims. Verbal bullying including spreading rumors was the most common type of victimization, followed by being rejected from a group. Being bullied about one's religion or sect comprised one of the most common bullying behaviors in schools. Students rarely tried to stop a student from being bullied and teachers were reported to have done relatively little or nothing to counteract bullying. Prevalence of bullying was more among boys than girls. School bullying was not associated with academic achievement or with having difficulties in reading and math. Children who were identified as bully/victim, victim, and bully suffered from PTSD compared to those who were not identified as being involved in bullying The study showed that both bullies and victims are at-risk for short term and long-term adjustment difficulties including hyperactivity, emotional symptoms, conduct problems and peer problems. Child's gender and emotion-focused coping stood out as risk factors for the development of bullying behaviors whereas age, problem-focused coping, family environment, and school environment were significant protective factors.

  13. Prevalence of self-reported suicidal thoughts in SLiCA. The survey of living conditions in the Arctic (SLiCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Ragnhild Broderstad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The Survey of Living Condition in the Arctic (SLiCA is an international research project on health and living conditions among Arctic indigenous peoples. The main objective of this article is to examine the prevalence of self-reported suicide thoughts among the study population in Alaska, Greenland, Sweden and Norway. Study design: Population-based survey. Methods: Indigenous participants aged 16 years (15 years in Greenland and older living in traditional settlement regions in Alaska, Sweden and Norway and across the entire Greenland were invited to participate. Data were collected in three periods: in Alaska from January 2002 to February 2003, in Greenland from December 2003 to August 2006, in Sweden from spring 2004 to 2006 and in Norway in 2003 and from June 2006 to June 2008. The principal method in SLiCA was standardised face-to-face interviews using a questionnaire. A questionnaire had among other things, questions about health, education, traditional activities, ethnicity and suicidal thoughts. Results: Information about suicidal thoughts, gender and age were available in 2,099 participants between the ages of 16 and 84 from Alaska, Greenland, Sweden and Norway. Greenland had the highest rates of suicidal thoughts when adjusting for age and gender (p=0.003. When stratifying on age and gender, significant differences across countries were only found for females in the two youngest age groups. Differences in suicidal thoughts across countries could partly be explained by educational level. Conclusion: Swedish respondents had less suicidal thoughts than those in any other countries. In the future, analyses of suicidal thoughts should take socioeconomic status into account as well as self- reported health, depression and anxiety.

  14. Risks of Brucella abortus spillover in the Greater Yellowstone area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, B

    2013-04-01

    Recurrent spillover of Brucella abortus from wildlife reservoirs to domestic cattle in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) has prevented the United States from completely eradicating bovine brucellosis. Risks to cattle are a function of the size and location of wildlife and livestock populations, the degree and nature of spatio-temporal interactions between the various hosts, the level of disease in wildlife, and the susceptibility of livestock herds. While the brucellosis prevalence in wild, free-ranging GYA bison (Bison bison) is high, current management actions have successfully limited contact between bison and cattle. Under current management practices, the risks to cattle in the GYA are predominantly from wild elk (Cervus elaphus). Intra- and inter-species transmission events, while uncommon, are nevertheless crucial for the maintenance of brucellosis in the GYA. Future management actions should focus on decreasing elk herd densities and group sizes and on understanding the behavioural and environmental drivers that result in co-mingling that makes transmission possible.

  15. The Greater Plains Collaborative: a PCORnet Clinical Research Data Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitman, Lemuel R; Aaronson, Lauren S; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Connolly, Daniel W; Campbell, James R

    2014-01-01

    The Greater Plains Collaborative (GPC) is composed of 10 leading medical centers repurposing the research programs and informatics infrastructures developed through Clinical and Translational Science Award initiatives. Partners are the University of Kansas Medical Center, Children's Mercy Hospital, University of Iowa Healthcare, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the Medical College of Wisconsin and Marshfield Clinic, the University of Minnesota Academic Health Center, the University of Nebraska Medical Center, the University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. The GPC network brings together a diverse population of 10 million people across 1300 miles covering seven states with a combined area of 679 159 square miles. Using input from community members, breast cancer was selected as a focus for cohort building activities. In addition to a high-prevalence disorder, we also selected a rare disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  16. Environmental planning and management in Greater Johannesburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Schirnding, Y E

    1996-03-01

    This article describes the actions among urban environmental, management, and development planners in Greater Johannesburg, South Africa. Initiatives, such as the Healthy Cities Project and Model Communities, are being integrated into an environmental management and development approach that attains the goals of Agenda 21. Greater Johannesburg has housing shortages and homelessness. Priority needs include the areas of housing, water, electricity, public transportation, and sanitation. Clean water and air are inequitably distributed. Other key environmental problems include illegal dumping, inadequate waste disposal, poor environmental hygiene in overcrowded inner city areas, lack of open spaces, flooding, and water scarcities. The newly formed metropolitan authority offers opportunities to improve coordination and integration of environmental problems. Stakeholders from government at all levels, politicians, nongovernmental organizations, and the business sector formed an intersectoral, interdepartmental environment management committee in 1995. Stakeholders will integrate Agenda 21 within broader urban development plans and processes. The executive committee and the full council approved a set of guiding principles on environmental policy and an administrative framework for management. Four workshops were held to ensure a participatory consultation process in 1995. The WHO Collaborating Center for Urban Health will be used to facilitate the work of the Greater Johannesburg Metropolitan Council. Changes are being made in the way local governments work.

  17. Prevalence, virulence and antibiotic susceptibility of Salmonella spp. strains, isolated from beef in Greater Tunis (Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oueslati, Walid; Rjeibi, Mohamed Ridha; Mhadhbi, Moez; Jbeli, Mounir; Zrelli, Samia; Ettriqui, Abdelfettah

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the presence of Salmonella spp. in 300 beef meat samples collected from cattle carcasses of different categories (young bulls, culled heifers and culled cows). The detection of Salmonella spp. was performed by the alternative VIDAS Easy Salmonella technique and confirmed by PCR using Salmonella specific primers. Salmonella serotypes were determined by slide agglutination tests. The resistance to 12 antibiotics was determined by the diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar antibiotic discs. The overall contamination rate of beef by Salmonella spp. was 5.7% (17/300). This rate varied from naught (0/100) in bulls' meat to 14% (14/100) in culled cows' meat (pinvA and negative for the virulence gene spvC. Only one isolate (S. Kentucky) harbored the h-li virulence gene.

  18. Greater ethnic diversity correlates with lower HIV prevalence in Africa: justification for an alloimmunity vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamani C

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Zamani, Jared D Elzey, James EK Hildreth Center for AIDS Health Disparities Research at Meharry Medical College, Nashville, Tennessee, USA Purpose: After decades of research, AIDS continues to be a major pandemic and to date, adaptive immunity vaccine designs have had little to no success. Data indicate the alloimmune response is a potent mitigator of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, for which experiments of nature should be demonstrable to justify pursuit of an alloimmune vaccine strategy. We sought to determine if large-scale alloimmune diversity correlates with lower HIV infection rates. Methods: Using published data of African linguistic groups to determine sub-Saharan country ethnicity profiles as a proxy for human leukocyte antigen (HLA diversity, a correlation analysis was performed against respective sub-Saharan country HIV infection rates. Ethnicity data from 37 sub-Saharan nations in 2003 and from 38 nations in 2005 were used to calculate the Meyers-Macintosh ethnic diversity score for each nation as the independent variable. World Health Organization data on HIV infection rates for the same countries were used as the dependent variable. The main outcome measure was the correlation coefficient of ethnic diversity versus HIV infection rate. Results: A significant negative correlation was shown between ethnic diversity and HIV infection: for 2003 data, -0.4586 (two-tailed P-value of 0.0043; and, for 2005 data, -0.3866 (two-tailed P-value of 0.0165. Conclusion: In conjunction with substantial evidence that alloimmunity confers protection against HIV transmission and recent work identifying specific anti-HIV mechanisms, this analysis strongly justifies an HLA-based alloimmune vaccine strategy against HIV. Keywords: AIDS, adaptive immunity, human leukocyte antigen (HLA

  19. Fatores associados à prevalência de diabetes auto-referido entre idosos de Minas Gerais Factores asociados a la prevalencia de diabetes auto-referida entre ancianos de Minas Gerais, 2003 Factors associated with the prevalence of diabetes as self-reported by elderly persons in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Franco Viegas-Pereira

    2008-12-01

    modelos de regresión logística multivariada. El primer modelo incluyó solamente variables más distantes; las demás fueron incluidas sucesivamente, de acuerdo con su proximidad a la diabetes. En el modelo final, la probabilidad de tener diabetes fue mayor para: los ancianos residentes en el área urbana en relación a la rural; las mujeres versus los hombres; los hipertensos en relación a los no hipertensos; aquéllos con enfermedades del corazón en relación a los sin enfermedades del corazón; pensionistas versus no pensionistas; sin instrucción y con 1 a 3 años de estudios en comparación a los con cinco años o más de estudios. La probabilidad fue menor entre aquéllos en hogares unipersonales versus los de más de una persona, con 70 a 74 años versus 60 a 64 años, con ingresos inferiores a un salario mínimo y más de 3 hasta 5 salarios mínimos en relación a aquéllos con cinco y más salarios mínimos. La relación entre el ingreso individual del anciano y la diabetes indica la necesidad de estudios que investiguen el acceso de los ancianos a los servicios de salud y que influencian la auto-referencia a la morbilidad.The prevalence of diabetes has been increasing worldwide. This study has the objective of analyzing the prevalence of self-reported diabetes among the elderly of age 60 or over living in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods: The study is based on cross-sectional data derived from PNAD-2003 taken from a sample of 3662 persons aged 60 years or over. Factors associated with diabetes were organized according to individual and community/household levels and analyzed using five multivariate logistic regression models. The first model included only more distant variables while the others were included progressively, according to their proximity to diabetes. In the final model, the chance of acquiring diabetes was greater for elderly residents living in urban areas over rural areas, women over men, those who have high blood pressure over

  20. Greater omentum in reconstruction of refractory wounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈余明; 沈祖尧

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of greater omentum in reconstruction of refractory wounds. Methods: From August 1988 to May 2001, 20 patients with refractory wound underwent pedicle or microvascular free transfer of the greater omentum. Indications of surgery were electrical injury of the wrist and hand in 9 patients, electrical injury of the scalp and cranial bones in 3, avulsion injury of the scalp in 2, radiation-related ulcer of the chest wall in 2, ulcer and osteomyelitis following resection of the sternum sarcoma in 1, electrical injury of the abdomen in 1, bone and soft tissue defects following compound fracture of the leg in 1, and extensive scar and ulcer of the leg and footdrop following trauma in 1. Severe infection and extensive tissue necrosis were present prior to surgical operation in 12 patients. Eleven patients were treated with pedicled omental flaps, and 9 patients with free omental flaps. The size of the omental flaps ranged from 20 cm×12 cm to 38 cm×23 cm. Results: All the omental flaps survived. Healing at the first intention of the wounds was achieved in 17 cases. The on-top skin grafts resulted in partial necrosis of lipid liquefaction developed in the omentum and healed with dressing change in 2 cases. A sinus tract of osteomyelitis occurred in one case and healed after delayed excision of the necrosed bone. Follow-up study of all cases from 3 to 24 months showed no recurrent wounds and post-operative abdominal complication. Recovery with acceptable appearance and restoration of function was satisfactory. Conclusions: Greater omentum provides a well-vascularized tissue with lymphatic ducts for wound coverage. It has strong resistance against infection. It is very malleable and can be molded easily. Therefore it is an ideal tissue in filling cavities and repairing defects, especially in covering large and irregular defects that can not be treated with skin or muscle flaps.

  1. Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanser, Steven E.; Manier, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    The condition of the sagebrush ecosystem has been declining in the Western United States, and greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a sagebrush-obligate species, has experienced concurrent decreases in distribution and population numbers. This has prompted substantial research and management over the past two decades to improve the understanding of sage-grouse and its habitats and to address the observed decreases in distribution and population numbers. The amount of research and management has increased as the year 2015 approaches, which is when the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is expected to make a final decision about whether or not to protect the species under the Endangered Species Act. In 2012, the Sage-Grouse Executive Oversight Committee (EOC) of the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA) requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) lead the development of a Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy (hereafter Research Strategy). This request was motivated by a practical need to systematically connect existing research and conservation plans with persisting or emerging information needs. Managers and researchers also wanted to reduce redundancy and help focus limited funds on the highest priority research and management issues. The USGS undertook the development of this Research Strategy, which addresses information and science relating to the greater sage-grouse and its habitat across portions of 11 Western States. This Research Strategy provides an outline of important research topics to ensure that science information gaps are identified and documented in a comprehensive manner. Further, by identifying priority topics and critical information needed for planning, research, and resource management, it provides a structure to help coordinate members of an expansive research and management community in their efforts to conduct priority research.

  2. Prevalence of Self-Reported Work-Related Injuries and Their Association with Psychological Symptoms in General Working Population of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Pei-Hua; Cheng, Yawen

    2016-05-02

    Objectives This study investigated the prevalence of self-reported work-related injuries across occupational groups and examined their association with the risk of psychological symptoms in general working population of Taiwan. Methods Data from a national survey conducted in 2013 of a representative sample of general working people of Taiwan was analyzed, consisting of 12,528 male and 8396 female workers aged 25~65 years. Information about work-related injuries including work-related disease occurred over the previous 12 months prior to the survey was obtained by a standardized questionnaire. The presence of psychological symptoms was assessed by the Brief Symptom Rating Scale (BSRS). Also obtained were participants' socio-demographic characteristics, working hours, job control, psychological job demands, physical job demands and job insecurity. Results Over a year, 14.91 % of male and 11.53 % of female working people had experienced work-related injuries. Workers with lower educational level, manual workers, the self-employed as well as employers of small enterprise were at higher risks for work-related injuries. Findings from multivariate logistic regression analyses with adjustment of gender, age, working hours and psychosocial work conditions showed that employees with experiences of work-related injuries over the past year were at a substantially higher risk for psychological symptoms (OR = 2.42) as compared to employees who had no experiences of work-related injuries. Conclusion A sizable proportion of workers are affected by work-related injuries and these workers are at higher risk for psychological symptoms. The psychosocial consequences of work-related injuries deserve further investigation and interventions.

  3. Interspecific hybridization between greater kudu and nyala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Desiré L; Tordiffe, Adrian; Luther, Ilse; Duran, Assumpta; van Wyk, Anna M; Brettschneider, Helene; Oosthuizen, Almero; Modiba, Catherine; Kotzé, Antoinette

    2014-06-01

    Hybridization of wildlife species, even in the absence of introgression, is of concern due to wasted reproductive effort and a reduction in productivity. In this study we detail an accidental mating between a female nyala (Tragelaphus angasii) and a male greater kudu (T. strepsiceros). The hybrid was phenotypically nyala and was identified as such based on mitochondrial DNA. Further genetic analysis based on nine microsatellite markers, chromosome number and chromosome morphology however, confirmed its status as an F1 hybrid. Results obtained from a reproductive potential assessment indicated that this animal does not have the potential to breed successfully and can be considered as sterile.

  4. Waist circumference, BMI and the prevalence of self-reported diabetes among the elderly of the United States and six cities of Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceló, A; Gregg, E W; Pastor-Valero, M; Robles, S C

    2007-12-01

    Using data from the Salud Bienestar y Envejecimiento (SABE) project and the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2004), we examined the prevalence of obesity and diagnosed diabetes among older adults in the Americas; we also examined the association of age, sex, level of education, weight status, waist circumference, smoking, and race/ethnicity with diabetes among older adults. The prevalence of diagnosed diabetes was highest in the US Blacks and Mexican Americans, followed by Bridgetown and Mexico City (22% for each) and lowest in Santiago, Montevideo, Havana, and US Whites (13-15%). Diagnosed diabetes was significantly associated with BMI among participants from Bridgetown, Sao Paulo, and the three US ethnic groups, while it was associated with waist circumference in all sites except Mexico City. Our findings suggest major geographical and ethnic variation in the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes among older adults. Waist circumference was more consistently associated with the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes than BMI. Higher prevalences of diabetes are found among the elderly of African or Mexican descent in the United States and in other countries of the Americas when compared to the prevalence among whites in the United States and in other Latin American countries with populations of predominant Western European descent.

  5. Greater trochanteric stippling in trisomy 7p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, Justin R. [Starship Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Auckland (New Zealand); Teele, Rita L. [Starship Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Auckland (New Zealand); Aftimos, Salim [Auckland City Hospital, Northern Regional Genetic Services, Auckland, Private Bag 92024 (New Zealand)

    2006-08-15

    Trisomy 7p is a rare condition involving partial or complete duplication of the short arm of chromosome 7. Radiological features include large fontanelles, widened sutures, dolicocephaly and asymmetrical skull. We report a new radiological finding of punctate calcifications in the region of femoral trochanters. This finding has not previously been reported with chromosome 7p duplication. (orig.)

  6. Prevalence of self-reported tuberculosis, knowledge about tuberculosis transmission and its determinants among adults in India: results from a nation-wide cross-sectional household survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeramareddy Chandrashekhar T

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about symptoms and transmission of tuberculosis determines health seeking behavior and helps in prevention of tuberculosis transmission in the community. Such data is useful for policy makers to formulate information, education and communication strategies for tuberculosis control. Methods A secondary data analysis of India demographic and health survey, 2005/6 was carried out. Questions about self-reported tuberculosis, transmission and curability of tuberculosis were analysed. Correct knowledge (without misconceptions about tuberculosis transmission was used as a dependant variable and the explanatory variables tested were: demographic data, education, wealth quintiles, frequency of exposure to media and the curability of tuberculosis. Determinants of correct knowledge without misconceptions were tested by univariate and multivariate analyses using national weighting factor to adjust for complex sampling design. Results A total of 109,070 households (response rate of 93.5% and 198,718 participants (response rate of 91.6% completed the survey. The samples of men and women interviewed were 74,360 and 124,358 respectively. Prevalence rate of self-reported tuberculosis was 445 per 100,000 usual household residents and 4.60 per 1,000 participants. The number of respondents who had “heard of an illness called tuberculosis” was 177,423 (89.3%. Of these 47,487 (26.8% participants did not know and 55.5% knew about the correct mode of tuberculosis transmission i.e. “Through the air when coughing or sneezing”. The common misconceptions about transmission were “Through food” (32.4%, “Sharing utensils” (18.2%, and “Touching a person with tuberculosis” (12.3%. Only 52,617 (29.7% participants had correct knowledge without misconceptions. Being male (aOR 1.17, 95% CIs 1.14, 1.21, being a Hindu (aOR 1.20, 95% CIs 1.14, 1.26 or Muslim (aOR 1.26, 95% CIs 1.18, 1.34, listening to radio (aOR 1.08, 95% CIs 1.04, 1

  7. Greater patient confidence yields greater functional outcomes after primary total shoulder arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styron, Joseph F; Higuera, Carlos A; Strnad, Greg; Iannotti, Joseph P

    2015-08-01

    Patient satisfaction is increasingly being tied to reimbursement rates, and patient satisfaction is often associated with improving functionality and decreasing disability postoperatively. This study sought to determine if a total shoulder arthroplasty patient's preoperative confidence in his or her ability to attain the level of activity desired would influence postoperative functional scores. Patients undergoing a primary total shoulder arthroplasty at a single institution were asked to complete a preoperative questionnaire with multiple items including baseline symptom severity measures and their confidence in reaching their level of desired functionality postoperatively (scored 0-10). Patients then completed an identical postoperative questionnaire at their follow-up visits. Associations between the patient's confidence in attaining treatment goals and functional outcomes was established by multiple linear regression models that were adjusted for gender, age, body mass index, baseline 12-Item Short Form Health Survey mental component scores, college education, smoking status, baseline functional scores, and length of follow-up. Patients had a high level of confidence that their outcome would match their expectations, with an average score of 7.8 (range, 0-10; 28.4% reported a full 10/10 confidence). For every 1-point increase in confidence, patients experienced an average increase in their function score of 2.7 points (P = .039) and improvement in their pain score of 2.0 (P = .033) according to the Penn Shoulder Score. There was no significant association with the patient's 12-Item Short Form Health Survey score postoperatively. Patients with greater preoperative confidence actually have significantly better postoperative functional outcomes than their less confident peers even with adjustment for other known risk factors. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of self-reported diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and associated risk factors in a national survey in the US population: SHIELD (Study to Help Improve Early evaluation and management of risk factors Leading to Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed Michael L

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies derived from continuous national surveys have shown that the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes mellitus in the US is increasing. This study estimated the prevalence in 2004 of self-reported diagnosis of diabetes and other conditions in a community-based population, using data from the Study to Help Improve Early evaluation and management of risk factors Leading to Diabetes (SHIELD. Methods The initial screening questionnaire was mailed in 2004 to a stratified random sample of 200,000 households in the US, to identify individuals, age ≥ 18 years of age, with diabetes or risk factors associated with diabetes. Follow-up disease impact questionnaires were then mailed to a representative, stratified random sample of individuals (n = 22,001 in each subgroup of interest (those with diabetes or different numbers of risk factors for diabetes. Estimated national prevalence of diabetes and other conditions was calculated, and compared to prevalence estimates from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999–2002. Results Response rates were 63.7% for the screening, and 71.8% for the follow-up baseline survey. The SHIELD screening survey found overall prevalence of self-reported diagnosis of diabetes (either type 1 or type 2 was 8.2%, with increased prevalence with increasing age and decreasing income. In logistic regression modeling, individuals were more likely to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes if they had abdominal obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 3.50; p 2 (OR = 4.04; p Conclusion The SHIELD design allowed for a very large, community-based sample with broad demographic representation of the population of interest. When comparing results from the SHIELD screening survey (self-report only to those from NHANES 1999–2002 (self-report, clinical and laboratory evaluations, the prevalence of diabetes was similar. SHIELD allows the identification of respondents with and without a current diagnosis of the

  9. The post-orgasmic prolactin increase following intercourse is greater than following masturbation and suggests greater satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Krüger, Tillmann H C

    2006-03-01

    Research indicates that prolactin increases following orgasm are involved in a feedback loop that serves to decrease arousal through inhibitory central dopaminergic and probably peripheral processes. The magnitude of post-orgasmic prolactin increase is thus a neurohormonal index of sexual satiety. Using data from three studies of men and women engaging in masturbation or penile-vaginal intercourse to orgasm in the laboratory, we report that for both sexes (adjusted for prolactin changes in a non-sexual control condition), the magnitude of prolactin increase following intercourse is 400% greater than that following masturbation. The results are interpreted as an indication of intercourse being more physiologically satisfying than masturbation, and discussed in light of prior research reporting greater physiological and psychological benefits associated with coitus than with any other sexual activities.

  10. Prevalence of ataxia in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, Cristina T.; Marasigan, Rhul; Jenkins, Mary E.; Konczak, Jürgen; Morton, Susanne M.; Bastian, Amy J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of childhood ataxia resulting from both genetic and acquired causes. Methods: A systematic review was conducted following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) statement. Five databases were searched for articles reporting a frequency measure (e.g., prevalence, incidence) of ataxia in children. Included articles were first grouped according to the World Health Organization (WHO) regions and subsequently classified according to etiology (genetic, acquired, or mixed). Each article was assessed for its risk of bias on the domains of sampling, measurement, and analysis. Incidence values were converted to prevalence estimates whenever possible. European prevalence estimates for different etiologies of ataxia were summed to gauge the overall prevalence of childhood ataxia. Results: One hundred fifteen articles were included in the review. More than 50% of the data originated from the Europe WHO region. Data from this region also showed the least susceptibility to bias. Little data were available for Africa and Southeast Asia. The prevalence of acquired ataxias was found to vary more greatly across regions than the genetic ataxias. Ataxic cerebral palsy was found to be a significant contributor to the overall prevalence of childhood ataxia across WHO regions. The prevalence of childhood ataxias in Europe was estimated to be ∼26/100,000 children and likely reflects a minimum prevalence worldwide. Conclusions: The findings show that ataxia is a common childhood motor disorder with a higher prevalence than previously assumed. More research concerning the epidemiology, assessment, and treatment of childhood ataxia is warranted. PMID:24285620

  11. Prevalence of temporomandibular dysfunction in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Fernandes de Sena

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD in children and adolescents, verifying the methodological variations. DATA SOURCES: Research conducted in Medline, PubMed, Lilacs and BBO databases, including manuscripts (except reviews and case reports published from 1990 to 2012. The descriptors were "temporomandibular joint syndrome", "temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome", "temporomandibular joint disorders", "prevalence studies", and "cross-sectional studies"; the words "dysfunction", "disorder", "temporomandibular", "children", "adolescents", "prevalence", "frequency", and "transversal" were used. DATA SYNTHESIS: Seventeen articles were selected, and the TMD frequency varied from 16 to 68%. Regarding the methodological criteria, only three articles (18% reported sample size determination, three (18% clearly described the sample selection process by stratified selection technique, and nine studies (53% carried out the calibration of the examiners. The diagnostic criteria used in the studies were: Helkimo index (n=2; 12%, Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD (n=4; 24%, the jaw index (n=1; 6%, clinical protocols (n=10; 59%, and anamnestic questionnaires (n=6; 35%. CONCLUSIONS: The TMD prevalence in children and adolescents varies in the literature. Appropriate and standardized methods are needed to identify, with greater validity, the presence of TMD in this population, allowing a better understanding of the pathological aspects in order to address more effective preventive and therapeutic procedures.

  12. Prevalence of Asthma in Children of Chemical Warfare Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsadraee, Majid; Mozaffari, Abolfazl; Attaran, Davood

    2011-01-01

    Objective Exposure of DNA to sulfur mustard gas may increase the inheritance of asthma in chemical warfare victims' (CWV) offspring. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma in children of CWV and compare it to asthmatic children in the general population. Methods Four hundred and nine children from 130 CWV fathers and 440 children from 145 asthmatic parents from two cities in Iran participated in this study. The prevalence of asthma was determined by standard questionnaire released for epidemiological survey of asthma in children and compared between two groups. Findings The prevalence of asthma in the CWV group was 15%; this was not significantly different from the control group (12.5%). The children of the CWV group reported a significantly greater incidence of wheezing (1.2±3.1 attacks) per year, but the control group reported more severe attacks leading to speech difficulties (3%) and coughing (7%). Regression analysis showed that with increasing family size in the control group, the number of subjects suffering from asthmatic symptoms decreases significantly (r=0.86, P=0.001). Conclusion Chemical agents may increase the prevalence of asthma in the offspring of CWV. PMID:23056804

  13. Prevalence and determinants of hypertension among Iranian adults, Birjand, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toba Kazemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension (HTN is a major cause of noncommunicable diseases. In this study, we report the prevalence rate of HTN in Birjand population. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1286 individuals in Birjand in 2014. Individuals with systolic blood pressure (SBP ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP ≥90 mmHg were considered as hypertensive. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test, independent t-test, and one-way ANOVA.P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Among the 1286 participants, 659 were women (51.2%. Prevalence of HTN was 20.1% (10.3% systolic HTN and 6.9% diastolic HTN. Prevalence self-reported HTN was 12.3%. SBP and DBP means were higher in men (P < 0.001. Mean scores of SBP and DBP increased by aging and body mass index (P < 0.001. Diabetic individuals had higher SBP scores (P < 0.001. Dyslipidemic patients had greater SBP and DBP (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Prevalence of HTN in our study is high. About one-fifth of the participants had HTN. In addition, BP is higher in men, elderly, and diabetic individual. Therefore, it is necessary to control BP regularly in different groups in society.

  14. Regional Differences in Pathogen Prevalence and Defensive Reactions to the “Swine Flu” Outbreak among East Asians and Westerners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Hamamura

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Research has found that contagion-minimizing behavioral tendencies are amplified in pathogen-prevalent regions. We investigated whether reactions to the “swine flu” outbreak of 2009 were stronger among East Asians than Westerners, populations residing in regions that now enjoy comparable advances in healthcare but that are characterized by relatively high and low historical pathogen prevalence, respectively. In a survey, East Asians reported greater concerns about infection, especially from foreigners. Analyses of international air travel data around the time of the outbreak provided corroborating evidence: Immediately following the outbreak, airports in the Asia-Pacific region lost more international traffic relative to their Western counterparts, and East Asian airlines reported greater declines in international traffic compared to Western airlines. These differences are unlikely to reflect objective threat posed by swine flu (whose casualties were concentrated in the Americas; rather, they appear to reflect culturally adapted behavioral patterns forged and sustained by regionally variable levels of pathogen prevalence.

  15. Contraceptive prevalence in Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, L; Anderson, J E; Monteith, R S; Kriskovich, R; Schoemaker, J; Frutos, O

    1978-01-01

    Contraceptive use, source of contraception, history of abortion, current pregnancy intention, and fertility rates are evaluated for a national sample of women using data from the Paraguay Contraceptive Prevalence Survey, conducted in 1977. The survey found that 15.5 percent of all women aged 15--44 and 23.6 percent of ever-married women were using effective contraceptive methods. The urban/rural difference in contraceptive use paralleled fertility differentials: over 40 percent of ever-married women were using contraception in Greater Asuncion and other urban areas compared with 15 percent in rural areas. Overall, the data indicate that high-parity rural women have the greatest need for family planning services in Paraguay.

  16. Range-wide patterns of greater sage-grouse persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, C.L.; Nielsen, S.E.; Beyer, H.L.; Boyce, M.S.; Connelly, J.W.; Knick, S.T.; Schroeder, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a shrub-steppe obligate species of western North America, currently occupies only half its historical range. Here we examine how broad-scale, long-term trends in landscape condition have affected range contraction. Location: Sagebrush biome of the western USA. Methods: Logistic regression was used to assess persistence and extirpation of greater sage-grouse range based on landscape conditions measured by human population (density and population change), vegetation (percentage of sagebrush habitat), roads (density of and distance to roads), agriculture (cropland, farmland and cattle density), climate (number of severe and extreme droughts) and range periphery. Model predictions were used to identify areas where future extirpations can be expected, while also explaining possible causes of past extirpations. Results: Greater sage-grouse persistence and extirpation were significantly related to sagebrush habitat, cultivated cropland, human population density in 1950, prevalence of severe droughts and historical range periphery. Extirpation of sage-grouse was most likely in areas having at least four persons per square kilometre in 1950, 25% cultivated cropland in 2002 or the presence of three or more severe droughts per decade. In contrast, persistence of sage-grouse was expected when at least 30 km from historical range edge and in habitats containing at least 25% sagebrush cover within 30 km. Extirpation was most often explained (35%) by the combined effects of peripherality (within 30 km of range edge) and lack of sagebrush cover (less than 25% within 30 km). Based on patterns of prior extirpation and model predictions, we predict that 29% of remaining range may be at risk. Main Conclusions: Spatial patterns in greater sage-grouse range contraction can be explained by widely available landscape variables that describe patterns of remaining sagebrush habitat and loss due to cultivation, climatic trends, human

  17. Prevalence and Functioning of Children with Cerebral Palsy in Four Areas of the United States in 2006: A Report from the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Russell S.; Wingate, Martha S.; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Doernberg, Nancy S.; Arneson, Carrie L.; Benedict, Ruth E.; Mulvihill, Beverly; Durkin, Maureen S.; Fitzgerald, Robert T.; Maenner, Matthew J.; Patz, Jean A.; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To estimate the prevalence of cerebral palsy (CP) and the frequency of co-occurring developmental disabilities (DDs), gross motor function (GMF), and walking ability using the largest surveillance DD database in the US. Methods: We conducted population-based surveillance of 8-year-old children in 2006 (N = 142,338), in areas of Alabama,…

  18. Prevalence of reported physical health problems in people with severe or profound intellectual and motor disabilities : a cross-sectional study of medical records and care plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Timmeren, E. A.; van der Putten, A. A. J.; Lantman-de Valk, H. M. J. van Schrojenstein; van der Schans, C. P.; Waninge, A.

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundPeople with severe or profound intellectual and motor disabilities (SPIMD) experience numerous serious physical health problems and comorbidities. Knowledge regarding the prevalence of these problems is needed in order to detect and treat them at an early stage. Data concerning these probl

  19. Prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency viruses, and evaluation of risk factors for transmission: Report of a population screening in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U C Okonkwo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV and HIV are common blood-borne infections unevenly distributed across regions in Nigeria. Few population-based prevalence studies have been done in Nigeria. Objective. To determine the prevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV and risk factors for infection with these viruses in a Nigerian population. Methods. Hepatitis B surface antigen, anti-HCV and HIV were assayed in 1 498 healthy adult participants. A structured questionnaire was used to assess risk factors for viral acquisition. Bivariate analysis was used to compare differences in sociodemographic characteristics. Significant risk factors were identified by stepwise logistic regression. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results. The prevalences of HBV, HCV and HIV were 8.8%, 10.0% and 12.9%, respectively, with urban/rural disparity. HBV/HCV positivity was higher among males than females. The reverse was true for HIV. Age was significantly associated with being HBV-, HCV- or HIV-positive. Communal use of a toothbrush was significantly associated with HBV positivity in the final model (odds ratio 2.46, 95% confidence interval 1.45 - 4.18. Conclusions. The prevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV infection is high in Nigeria, with urban/rural disparity. HCV may be more of a public health concern than HBV in some communities. Population-based studies are required to provide vital data to inform optimal national control strategies.

  20. Alteração vocal auto-referida em professores: prevalência e fatores associados Alteración vocal auto-referida en profesores: prevalencia y factores asociados Self-reported voice problems among teachers: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Cossentino Bruck Marçal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de alteração vocal auto-referida em professores e identificar fatores associados. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com amostra de 393 professores do ensino fundamental de Florianópolis, SC, por meio de questionário autoaplicado em 2009. Foi realizada análise multivariável de regressão de Poisson estimando-se as razões de prevalência e intervalos de 95% de confiança. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de alteração vocal foi de 47,6% (IC95% 42,6;52,5. Após o ajuste, permaneceram associados à maior prevalência de alteração vocal ser do sexo feminino e a presença de rinite/sinusite e faringite. CONCLUSÕES: Foi observada elevada prevalência de alteração vocal auto-referida entre os professores estudados.OBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de alteración vocal auto-referida en profesores e identificar factores asociados. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal con muestra de 393 profesores de enseñanza fundamental de Florianópolis, Sur de Brasil, por medio de cuestionario auto-aplicado en 2009. Se realizó análisis multivariable de regresión de Poisson, estimándose las tasas de prevalencia e intervalos de 95% de confianza. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de alteración vocal fue de 47,6% (IC95% 42,6;52,5. Posterior al ajuste, permanecieron asociados a la mayor prevalencia de alteración vocal ser del sexo femenino y la presencia de rinitis/sinusitis y faringitis. CONCLUSIONES: Se observó elevada prevalencia de alteración vocal auto-referida entre los profesores estudiados.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of self-reported voice problems and to identify associated factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 393 public elementary and middle school teachers in Florianópolis, Southern Brazil, in 2009. A self-administered questionnaire was used. A multivariable Poisson regression model was performed to estimate prevalence ratios and their related 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: The

  1. F-35 Sustainment: Need for Affordable Strategy, Greater Attention to Risks, and Improved Cost Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    F - 35 SUSTAINMENT Need for Affordable Strategy, Greater Attention to Risks, and Improved Cost Estimates Report...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE F - 35 Sustainment: Need for Affordable Strategy, Greater...House of Representatives September 2014 F - 35 SUSTAINMENT Need for Affordable Strategy, Greater Attention to Risks, and Improved Cost Estimates Why

  2. Grassroots Action Research and the Greater Good

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainey Isobel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    This study examines the action research topics and topic preferences of two groups of grassroots teachers: active researchers, and potential researchers. The analysis of the topics appears to indicate that, over the past decade, action research at the teaching of English at the grassroots level to speakers of other languages has been principally understood in terms of professional development with respect to teachers’ methodologies and learners’ learning behaviours. A nascent concern for a more ample approach to professional development and issues conducive to the greater good of the profession can, it is mooted, flourish only with the collaboration of all relevant stakeholders.

    En este estudio se examinan los temas de investigación acción y los temas preferidos por dos grupos de profesores de base: uno de investigadores activos y otro de investigadores potenciales. El análisis sugiere que, durante la última década, la investigación acción en el aula de inglés para hablantes de otras lenguas se ha entendido principalmente en términos del desarrollo profesional con respecto a las metodologías de los profesores y las conductas estudiantiles de aprendizaje. Se considera que un incipiente interés por un enfoque más amplio y por asuntos conducentes al beneficio general de la profesión, solamente puede florecer con la colaboración de todos los actores más importantes.

  3. Prevalence of self-reported chronic diseases in individuals over the age of 40 in São Paulo, Brazil: the Platino study Prevalência de doenças crônicas autorrelatadas em indivíduos acima de 40 anos em São Paulo, Brasil: estudo Platino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa K. Carvalho

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have been conducted to determine the prevalence of chronic diseases and its impact in individuals aged 40 years or over in Brazil. The objective of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of some common chronic diseases in the Brazilian subgroup assessed by the PLATINO study using a self-reported survey. A total of 918 individuals (55% women with a mean age of 54.6 ± 10.9 years were evaluated. The most prevalent diseases were obesity (62.5%, hypertension (39.2% and gastritis (30.9%. We conclude from this study that there is a high prevalence of chronic diseases in the population over 40 years of age: 88% of the population suffers from a minimum of one disease and 26% of the sample suffers from at least three diseases. We also observed that the number of comorbidities increases with age.Poucos estudos foram desenvolvidos para determinar a prevalência de doenças crônicas e suas associações em indivíduos com mais de 40 anos de idade no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a prevalência de algumas doenças crônicas altamente prevalentes no país, de modo autorreferido, avaliadas no Estudo PLATINO em São Paulo, em uma amostra de base populacional. Novecentos e dezoito indivíduos (55% mulheres com média de idade de 54,6 ± 10,9 anos foram avaliados. As três doenças mais prevalentes foram obesidade (62,5%, hipertensão (39,2% e gastrite (30,9%. Há uma alta prevalência de doenças crônicas na população acima de 40 anos: 88% da amostra apresentaram pelo menos uma doença e 26%, pelo menos, três doenças; e o número de doenças apresentava tendência a aumentar com a idade.

  4. Potentials for Heat Savings in Greater Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen; Karlsson, Kenneth

    1998-01-01

    are suggested. Two scenarios for future heat savings are established, deviating in the rates of renovation, demolition, and construction of buildings, as well as in the thermal insulation standards, ventilation systems ,and in the daily behaviour. The results are that compared to the base year 1995, heat......This report describes methodologies for analysing heat saving potentials. The background for the lack of activities in that field is suggested. Various elements of heat savings are described, including changes in daily behaviour and life styles. Definition of various levels of potentials...

  5. Appeal for legislation on greater safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2011-10-01

    An Essex-headquartered company which claims to manufacture the world's leading "brand" of glass vision panel, is calling for legislation to regulate the quality and design of such products. With no statutory governance currently in place, it is concerned that a rash of badly-designed, poorer quality variants, that it says have emerged in recent years, pose a significant self-harm and ligature risk to mentally unwell patients in hospitals, and a potential danger to staff when components like internal fittings and the glass itself, especially should the latter be too thin and thus easy to break, are used as "weapons". HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie reports.

  6. Prevalence of self-reported systemic arterial hypertension in urban and rural environments in Brazil: a population-based study Prevalencia de hipertensión arterial sistémica autorreferida en los ambientes urbano y rural de Brasil: un estudio de base poblacional Prevalência de hipertensão arterial sistêmica autorreferida nos ambientes urbano e rural do Brasil: um estudo de base populacional

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Pronestino de Lima Moreira; José Rodrigo de Moraes; Ronir Raggio Luiz

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this paper were to estimate the prevalence rates of self-reported high blood pressure among adults in urban and rural environments in Brazil and identify possible associations stratified according to household location. Data from the Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (PNAD) was used, incorporating information from the sampling plan. Logistic regression was used to obtain the odds ratio (OR) as a measure of association between variables and the outcome. The prevalence of s...

  7. Association between social capital and the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus: An interim report of the Japan Environment and Children's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Satoshi; Nishigori, Hidekazu; Sugiyama, Takashi; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Iwama, Noriyuki; Watanabe, Zen; Sakurai, Kasumi; Ishikuro, Mami; Obara, Taku; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Nishijima, Ichiko; Fujiwara, Ikuma; Arima, Takahiro; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Metoki, Hirohito; Nakai, Kunihiko; Inadera, Hidekuni; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2016-10-01

    Social capital is generally defined as the quality and frequency of social interactions with relatives, neighbors, and society. Social capital refers to broad concepts of social interactions and structures in individuals, communities and societies such as trust (e.g., neighborhood trust, which is social cohesion with neighbors) and social support (e.g., emotional support, which is the level of the feeling of being loved). Studies during the last few decades have shown that there is a significant inverse association between social capital and the prevalences of diseases such as depression and acute coronary syndrome. Significant inverse associations between trust, social support and the prevalence of diabetes have also been shown. However, associations between social capital and the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are less clear. We used the primary dataset of the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS), including 10,228 mothers with recorded obstetric outcomes from January to December 2011. In this study, we included 8874 the 10,228 participants. Diagnosis of GDM was determined using the criteria of the Japan Diabetes Society (JDS). The quality and quantity of social capital were measured with nine questions on a self-administered questionnaire during the second or third trimester. Using principal component analysis (PCA), we distinguished the following three components (indices) of social capital: (A) index of all nine questions about social capital, (B) index of emotional support and neighborhood trust and (C) index of generalized trust. The high factor loading variants of indices were as follows; (A) all nine variants, (B) five variants about emotional support and neighborhood trust and (C) two variants about generalized trust. Multivariate random effect modeling was used to calculate the odd ratios (ORs) for evaluating the association between these indices of social capital and the prevalence of GDM. This model was adjusted for baseline

  8. Report on Childhood Obesity in China (4) Prevalence and Trends of Overweight and Obesity in Chinese Urban School-age Children and Adolescents, 1985-2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG-YE JI; WORKING GROUP ON OBESITY IN CHINA (WGOC)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To describe the nationwide prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity, and their group variations and trends over the past 20 years in the Chinese urban population. Methods Data sets of boys and girls at the age of 7-18 years collected from the series of Chinese national surveillance on students' constitution and health (CNSSCH) between 1985 and 2000 were divided into five socioeconomic and demographic groups, while BMI classification reference proposed by Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC) was used as screening reference to calculate the prevalence and trends of overweight/obesity in these groups. Results In 2000, the prevalence of obesity and overweight in boys aged 7-18 years was 11.3% and 6.5% in Beijing, 13.2% and 4.9% in Shanghai, 9.9% and 4.5% in coastal big cities, and 5.8% and 2.0% in coastal medium/small-sized cities, respectively, while the prevalence of of obesity and overweight in girls of the same age group was 8.2% and 3.7% in Beijing, 7.3% and 2.6% in Shanghai, 5.9% and 2.8% in coastal big cities, and 4.8% and 1.7% in coastal medium/small-sized cities, respectively. The prevalence of obesity was low in most of the inland cities at an early stage of epidemic overweight. The epidemic manifested a gradient distribution in groups, which was closely related to socioeconomic status (SES) of the study population. However, a dramatic and steady increasing trend was witnessed among all sex-age subgroups in the five urban groups, and such a trend was stronger in boys than in girls, and much stronger in children than in adolescents. Conclusion Although China is at an early stage of epidemic obesity by and large, the prevalence of obesity in her urban population, particularly in coastal big cities has reached the average level of developed countries. The increasing trend has been rapid since early 1990s, and the increments in obesity and overweight are exceptionally high. The prospect of epidemic obesity in China is in no way optimistic

  9. Filial caregiving is associated with greater neuroendocrine dysfunction: Evidence from the 2005 National Survey of Midlife in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SunWoo Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study examined associations between providing caregiving for a biological or adoptive parent and clinically assessed biological risk factors (allostatic load and its three subscales—inflammatory dysfunction, metabolic dysfunction, and neuroendocrine dysfunction, as well as moderation of these associations by gender. Methods: Regression models were estimated using telephone and self-report data from 962 men and women who participated in the National Survey of Midlife in the United States in 2005. Results: Filial caregivers demonstrated higher levels of neuroendocrine dysfunction. No gender difference in biological risks was found. Discussion: Filial caregiving is the most prevalent form of family caregiving, and results indicating the presence of greater neuroendocrine dysfunction among filial caregivers in contrast to noncaregivers suggest an important public health concern. Future research needs to continue to examine different relationship types of caregivers and include a range of biological risk measurement to further the understanding of how family caregiving is linked to biological health risks.

  10. Obesity Prevalence Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Adult Obesity Prevalence Maps Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Obesity Prevalence in 2016 by Education and Age Obesity ...

  11. Inferior glenohumeral joint dislocation with greater tuberosity avulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohd Faizan; Latif Zafar Jilani; Mazhar Abbas; Yasir Salam Siddiqui; Aamir Bin Sabir; M.K.A.Sherwani; Saifullah Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Inferior glenohumeral dislocation is the least common type of glenohumeral dislocations.It may be associated with fractures of the adjacent bones and neurovascular compromise.It should be treated immediately by close reduction.The associated neuropraxia usually recovers with time.Traction-counter traction method is commonly used for reduction followed by immobilization of the shoulder for three weeks.Here,we report a case of inferior glenohumeral joint dislocation with greater tuberosity fracture with transient neurovascular compromise and present a brief review of the literature.

  12. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome due to tumoral calcinosis in a patient with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Dongjin; Lee, Sang Eun; Kim, Woo-Jin; Jeon, Sanghoon; Lee, Kihwa; Jung, Jaewook; Joo, Hyunchul; Park, Jaehong; Kim, Yonghan; Choi, Young-gyun

    2014-01-01

    Tumoral calcinosis is a rare syndrome characterized by massive subcutaneous soft tissue deposits of calcium phosphate near the large joints. It is more prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing dialysis. A 57-year-old woman was referred to our pain clinic with the complaint of severe pain in the left buttock and lateral hip. The patient had been suffering from chronic kidney disease for 10 years and had been undergoing peritoneal dialysis over the past 5 years. The patient's symptom was initially suspected to be of lumbar origin at the L5 level and a left L5 transforaminal epidural block was performed, but without success. Re-evaluation of the physical examination revealed severe tenderness over the left greater trochanter and piriformis muscle. On ultrasonographic evaluation, multiple mass-like lesions in the left buttock were observed. About 30 mL of fluid was aspirated from the cystic lesions, followed by 30 mL mixture of 0.08% levobupivacaine and triamcinolone 40 mg injected into the bursa under ultrasound guidance, which brought pain relief. Trochanteric bursitis was thought of as the cause of the symptoms. The patient was diagnosed with tumoral calcinosis based on the past medical history, simple plain radiographs, and hip magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We diagnosed a case of greater trochanteric pain syndrome due to tumoral calcinosis related to chronic kidney disease in a patient whose symptoms had initially been considered to be radiating leg pain caused by lumbar spinal disease. We report our experience of symptomatic improvement following the repeated ultrasound-guided aspiration of calcific fluid and the injection of a mixture of local anesthetic and steroid.

  13. The Prevalence of Accidental Needle Stick Injury and their Reporting among Healthcare Workers in Orthopaedic Wards in General Hospital Melaka, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, A; Sivapathasundaram, N; Yusof, Mf; Minghat, Ah; Swe, Kmm; Sinha, Nk

    2014-07-01

    Background :Accidental needle-stick injuries (NSIs) are a hazard for health-care workers and general public health. Orthopaedic surgeons may be more prone to NSIs due to the prevalence of bone spikes in the operative field and the use of sharp orthopaedic instruments such as drills, saws and wires. A hospital-based cross sectional study was conducted in the orthopedic wards of Melaka General Hospital. The prevalence of NSIs was 32 (20.9%) and majority of it occurred during assisting in operation theatre 13(37.4%). Among them six (18.8%) were specialist, 12(37.5%) medical officer, 10 (31.2%) house officer and four staff nurses (12.5%). Among the respondents 142 (92.8%) had been immunized against Hepatitis B and 148 (96.7%) participants had knowledge regarding universal precaution. The incidence of NSI among health care workers at orthopaedics ward was not any higher in comparison with the similar studies and it was found out that the prevalence was more in junior doctors compared with specialist and staff nurses and it was statistically significant. Needle sticks injury, health care workers, and standard precaution.

  14. The Prevalence of Accidental Needle Stick Injury and their Reporting among Healthcare Workers in Orthopaedic Wards in General Hospital Melaka, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhardwaj A

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Accidental needle-stick injuries (NSIs are a hazard for health-care workers and general public health. Orthopaedic surgeons may be more prone to NSIs due to the prevalence of bone spikes in the operative field and the use of sharp orthopaedic instruments such as drills, saws and wires. A hospital-based cross sectional study was conducted in the orthopedic wards of Melaka General Hospital. The prevalence of NSIs was 32 (20.9% and majority of it occurred during assisting in operation theatre 13(37.4%. Among them six (18.8% were specialist, 12(37.5% medical officer, 10 (31.2% house officer and four staff nurses (12.5%. Among the respondents 142 (92.8% had been immunized against Hepatitis B and 148 (96.7% participants had knowledge regarding universal precaution. The incidence of NSI among health care workers at orthopaedics ward was not any higher in comparison with the similar studies and it was found out that the prevalence was more in junior doctors compared with specialist and staff nurses and it was statistically significant.

  15. Analysis of the prevalence of atelectasis in patients undergoing bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Baltieri

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective: To observe the prevalence of atelectasis in patients undergoing bariatric surgery and the influence of the body mass index (BMI, gender and age on the prevalence of atelectasis. Method: Retrospective study of 407 patients and reports on chest X-rays carried out before and after bariatric surgery over a period of 14 months. Only patients who underwent bariatric surgery by laparotomy were included. Results: There was an overall prevalence of 37.84% of atelectasis, with the highest prevalence in the lung bases and with greater prevalence in women (RR = 1.48. There was a ratio of 30% for the influence of age for individuals under the age of 36, and of 45% for those older than 36 (RR = 0.68. There was no significant influence of BMI on the prevalence of atelectasis. Conclusion: The prevalence of atelectasis in bariatric surgery is 37% and the main risk factors are being female and aged over 36 years.

  16. Analysis of the prevalence of atelectasis in patients undergoing bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltieri, Letícia; Peixoto-Souza, Fabiana Sobral; Rasera-Junior, Irineu; Montebelo, Maria Imaculada de Lima; Costa, Dirceu; Pazzianotto-Forti, Eli Maria

    To observe the prevalence of atelectasis in patients undergoing bariatric surgery and the influence of the body mass index (BMI), gender and age on the prevalence of atelectasis. Retrospective study of 407 patients and reports on chest X-rays carried out before and after bariatric surgery over a period of 14 months. Only patients who underwent bariatric surgery by laparotomy were included. There was an overall prevalence of 37.84% of atelectasis, with the highest prevalence in the lung bases and with greater prevalence in women (RR=1.48). There was a ratio of 30% for the influence of age for individuals under the age of 36, and of 45% for those older than 36 (RR=0.68). There was no significant influence of BMI on the prevalence of atelectasis. The prevalence of atelectasis in bariatric surgery is 37% and the main risk factors are being female and aged over 36 years. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. [Analysis of the prevalence of atelectasis in patients undergoing bariatric surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltieri, Letícia; Peixoto-Souza, Fabiana Sobral; Rasera-Junior, Irineu; Montebelo, Maria Imaculada de Lima; Costa, Dirceu; Pazzianotto-Forti, Eli Maria

    To observe the prevalence of atelectasis in patients undergoing bariatric surgery and the influence of the body mass index (BMI), gender and age on the prevalence of atelectasis. Retrospective study of 407 patients and reports on chest X-rays carried out before and after bariatric surgery over a period of 14 months. Only patients who underwent bariatric surgery by laparotomy were included. There was an overall prevalence of 37.84% of atelectasis, with the highest prevalence in the lung bases and with greater prevalence in women (RR=1.48). There was a ratio of 30% for the influence of age for individuals under the age of 36, and of 45% for those older than 36 (RR=0.68). There was no significant influence of BMI on the prevalence of atelectasis. The prevalence of atelectasis in bariatric surgery is 37% and the main risk factors are being female and aged over 36 years. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  18. Community Teaching Practice for Greater Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siao-cing Guo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experience has been considered a vital part of teacher education. Universities have to search for ways for student teachers to gain experience in an authentic teaching environment. Several successful models incorporating service learning have been reported across fields (Brooks & Schramm, 2007; Nandan, 2010; Salas, Safaradan, & Ugarte, 2008, but there is still insufficient research found that combined English teacher preparation and service learning (Hsieh, 2002. Consequently, this researcher incorporated service learning into an English methodology course in Taiwan to engage students in higher learning experiences that take them beyond traditional teacher training. This paper describes a four-stage process of community service teaching, presenting its benefits and challenges. This study which incorporated quantitative and qualitative methodologies proved that teaching practices in collaboration with community libraries created three-way benefits: advancing the quality of college education and bringing valuable learning opportunities to the student teachers as well as the children who participated; and creating memorable experiences for the students and the communities that participated. Keywords: service learning, teacher preparation, university partnership, higher education

  19. Greater length-for-age increases the odds of attaining motor milestones in Vietnamese children aged 5-18 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Shibani; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Dearden, Kirk A; Marsh, David R; Ha, Tran Thu; Tran, Thach Duc; Pachón, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood malnutrition has been associated with delayed development. Limited data exist however about the timing of developmental delay early in life. We assessed motor milestone (MM) achievement using the World Health Organization's windows of achievement for gross motor milestones. We performed secondary analysis of baseline data of 158 Vietnamese children aged 5-18 months from a randomized community intervention trial. Median age of motor milestone achievement was compared to WHO reported medians. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify socioeconomic, anthropometric and dietary factors associated with motor milestone achievement during the windows of achievement. Thirty four per cent of the children were stunted. Median age of MM achievement of Vietnamese children lagged by 2.4-3.7 months, compared to the WHO median for all MMs. Greater length-for-age increased the odds for walking with assistance, standing alone and walking alone by more than 3 times. Greater weight-for-age increased the odds by 3.6 for hand-and-knees crawling. Likewise, frequency of daily complementary feeding raised the odds by 3.6 for standing with assistance. In this first application of WHO windows of achievement in Viet Nam, pre-schoolers achieved motor milestones later than WHO reported median age. High prevalence of stunting and association of length-for-age with motor milestone achievement underscore the importance of addressing chronic malnutrition to optimize children's growth and development.

  20. Pterygium: prevalence and severity in an Amazonian ophthalmic setting, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Joanna Coutts

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This is a cross sectional ophthalmic clinic-based study to estimate the prevalence and severity of pterygium in a selected population in the Amazon Basin, Brazil. METHODS: The study included 225 subjects above 20 years age from three different places of residence of Manaus city (group 1, n=89, river based communities (group 2, n= 116 and indigenous rainforest inhabitants (group 3, n=20. Pterygia was graded 1-4 by torch examination and gender, age and occupation determined. RESULTS: were assessed to have pterygia (grades 2-4 117 people; 52% against 108 control subjects with bilateral disease in 43% of subjects. Prevalence of grades 2-4 increased from 36% in group 1 to 62.5 % in group 2 and 75% in group 3. Of these subjects the percentage with outdoor professions increased across the groups from 31.2% to 67.1 % and 70% respectively. Also subjects of group 2 who worked largely outdoors, showed increasing pterygia severity, from grades 2 at 57% (p=0.0002, grade 3 at 93.3% (p,0.0001 to grade 4 at 100% (p=0.0004 CONCLUSION: Amazonian communities have a high prevalence of pterygia, which correlates to greater outdoor occupation and sun exposure. This study agrees with previous worldwide reports and it is the first study to compare the prevalence of pterygium in rural and urban living in Amazonian in Brazil. This study highlights the public health significance and gross need for intervention studies.

  1. The prevalence and risk factors for age-related macular degeneration in rural-urban India, Sankara Nethralaya Rural-Urban Age-related Macular degeneration study, Report No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, R; Pal, S S; Ganesan, S; Gella, L; Vaitheeswaran, K; Sharma, T

    2016-05-01

    PurposeTo report the age- and gender-adjusted prevalence rates of early and late age-related maculopathy (ARM) and associated risk factors in rural and urban Indian population.MethodsA population-based cross-sectional study was carried out in South India between 2009 and 2011. Of the 6617 subjects ≥60 years enumerated ones, 5495 (83.04%) participated in the eye examination. A detailed history including data on demographic, socioeconomic, and ocular history was obtained. Participants underwent detailed ophthalmic evaluation including 30° 3-field photograph as per Age-Related Eye Disease Study protocol. The ARM was graded according to the International ARM Epidemiological Study Group.ResultsAge- and gender-adjusted prevalence of early ARM was 20.91% (20.86-20.94) in the rural population and 16.37% (16.32-16.42) in the urban population. Similarly, the prevalence of late ARM was 2.26% (2.24-2.29) and 2.32% (2.29-2.34) in the rural and urban population, respectively. In both rural and urban populations, risk factors that were related to both early and late ARM were age, per year increase (OR, range 1.00-1.08); middle socioeconomic status (OR, range 1.05-1.83); and smokeless tobacco (OR, range 1.11-2.21). Protective factor in both was the presence of diabetes mellitus in all ARM (OR, range 0.34-0.83). Risk factors, only in the rural arm, were female gender (OR, range 1.06-1.64), past smoker (OR, 1.14), and serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (OR, 1.03).ConclusionsThe study reports smokessless tobacco as a risk factor for both early and late ARM and identified a higher prevalence of early ARM in the rural population compared with urban population.

  2. Juxtaposing beliefs and reality: prevalence rates of intimate partner violence and attitudes to violence and gender roles reported by New Zealand women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanslow, Janet; Robinson, Elizabeth; Crengle, Sue; Perese, Lana

    2010-07-01

    This study documents the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) for four ethnic groups and explores ethnic-specific differences and similarities in women's attitudes. Data are from a cross-sectional survey of 2,674 ever-partnered women aged 18 to 64 years. High rates of IPV among all ethnic groups reinforce the need to retain and expand current prevention and intervention efforts. Violence was not regarded as normative for any ethnic group. All women, but Pacific and Asian women in particular, would benefit from interventions that reinforce women's acceptance of seeking and utilizing outside intervention in cases of partner maltreatment.

  3. Prevalência de incontinência urinária autorreferida no pós-parto e fatores relacionados Prevalencia de incontinencia urinaria autorreferida en el postparto y factores relacionados Prevalence and related factors of self-reported urinary incontinence in the postpartum period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Biguetti Martins Lopes

    2012-01-01

    identificación de los factores relacionados a la IU en mujeres en el postparto y su prevalencia contribuye en la planificación de atención de enfermería obstétrica a la mujer que vivencia el período reprodutivo.OBJECTIVES: To verify the prevalence of self-reported urinary incontinence (UI in women after childbirth, and to identify related factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted between January and August 2009. We interviewed 288 women, who were 30 days to 6 months postpartum. Data were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: The prevalence of self-reported postpartum UI was 24.6%. The average age of women was 26 years; only skin color showed a statistically significant difference, with the largest representation among white women. Among the 71 women who reported postpartum UI, the majority were primiparas and underwent normal delivery. CONCLUSION: The occurrence of self-reported urinary incontinence after childbirth is associated with skin color, predominantly in primiparous women as compared to non primiparous. Identification of factors related to UI in women after childbirth and its prevalence contribute to the planning of midwifery care for women who experience reproductive events.

  4. Greater Happiness for a Greater Number: Did the Promise of Enlightenment Come True?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenhoven, Ruut

    2017-01-01

    In the eighteenth century 'Enlightened' thinkers challenged the belief that happiness exists only in Heaven. They claimed that happiness is possible in earthly life and foresaw that greater happiness would be achieved using reason. Did this promise of greater happiness come true? Several scholars doubt that we have become any happier and some claim that happiness has declined. These critical claims are tested using the time trend data available in the World Database of Happiness, which cover the period 1950-2010 and involve 1531 data points in 67 nations yielding 199 time-series ranging for 10 to more than 40 years. The analysis reveals that happiness has risen in most nations. The average yearly rise in the 67 nations was +0.012 on scale 0-10, which equals a rise of one full point every 83 years. At this rate happiness must have improved by more than two points over the past two centuries and, together with increasing longevity, this denotes an unprecedented rise in happy life years.

  5. Prevalence of Congenital Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhavan Karbasi Sedighah

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Congenital malformation (CM will begin to emerge as one of the major childhood health problems .Treatment and rehabilitation of children with congenital malformations are costly and complete recovery is usually impossible. The aim of this study was to determine frequency of CM in Yazd central city of the Islamic Republic of Iran to find out if there has been any difference in the rate and types of CM in this area. This descriptive-observational study carried on 4800 births delivered at all maternity hospitals in Yazd from October 2003 to June 2004. Prevalence of CM was 2.83% (2.86 % in male and 2.68 % in female out of the 136 cases 69(51.88% were males and 64 (48.12% were females and 3 with ambiguous genitalia. Positive family history of CM in sibling was in only 6 cases (4.41%.Overall, musculoskeletal (0.83%, central nerv-ous system (0.47% and genital system (0.37% were accounted as the most common. Frequency of CM was more seen in still birth (12.5% as in comparison to live birth (2.71%. There was not statistical difference be-tween prevalence of CM and neonatal's gender, gestational age, birth order and mother's age, drug ingestion, illness and parental consanguinity. In this study the overall prevalence of congenital malformation among the newborn was higher than those previous reported in Iran and determining the causes of this difference needs more extensive studies.

  6. Do rod signals control stimulus field prevalence in binocular rivalry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R S; Young, G A

    1979-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that rod signals mediate the effect of luminance on field prevalence in binocular rivalry. Results show that (1) field prevalence saturates at a luminance that is less than 0.001 that of the value reported for rod saturation, (2) the spectral sensitivity inferred from the prevalence-luminance relationship is not scotopic, and (3) the prevalence-luminance relationship does not behave univariantly under all chromatic conditions. We conclude that rod signals alone do not control field prevalence.

  7. Solitary fibrous tumor of the greater omentum mimicking an ovarian tumor in a young woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Rodriguez Tarrega

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of solitary fibrous tumor (SFT of greater omentum in a young woman. SFT arising from the greater omentum can mimic a gynecologic neoplasm. SFTs are generally benign but some of them are malignant and have uncertain prognosis. An adequate follow-up is essential in these patients.

  8. Sonography of greater trochanteric pain syndrome and the rarity of primary bursitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Suzanne S; Surrey, David E; Nazarian, Levon N

    2013-11-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is a common condition with clinical features of pain and tenderness at the lateral aspect of the hip. Diagnosing the origin of greater trochanteric pain is important because the treatment varies depending on the cause. We hypothesized that sonographic evaluation of sources for greater trochanteric pain syndrome would show that bursitis was not the most commonly encountered abnormality. We performed a retrospective review of musculoskeletal sonographic examinations performed at our institution over a 6-year period for greater trochanteric pain syndrome; completed a tabulation of the sonographic findings; and assessed the prevalence of trochanteric bursitis, gluteal tendon abnormalities, iliotibial band abnormalities, or a combination of findings. Prevalence of abnormal findings, associations of bursitis, gluteal tendinosis, gluteal tendon tears, and iliotibial band abnormalities were calculated. The final study population consisted of 877 unique patients: 602 women, 275 men; average age, 54 years; and age range, 15-87 years). Of the 877 patients with greater trochanteric pain, 700 (79.8%) did not have bursitis on ultrasound. A minority of patients (177, 20.2%) had trochanteric bursitis. Of the 877 patients with greater trochanteric pain, 438 (49.9%) had gluteal tendinosis, four (0.5%) had gluteal tendon tears, and 250 (28.5%) had a thickened iliotibial band. The cause of greater trochanteric pain syndrome is usually some combination of pathology involving the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus tendons as well as the iliotibial band. Bursitis is present in only the minority of patients. These findings have implications for treatment of this common condition.

  9. Characteristics Predicting Tuberculosis Risk under Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Inhibitors: Report from a Large Multicenter Cohort with High Background Prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisacik, Bunyamin; Pamuk, Omer Nuri; Onat, Ahmet Mesut; Erer, Sait Burak; Hatemi, Gulen; Ozguler, Yesim; Pehlivan, Yavuz; Kilic, Levent; Ertenli, Ihsan; Can, Meryem; Direskeneli, Haner; Keser, Gökhan; Oksel, Fahrettin; Dalkilic, Ediz; Yilmaz, Sedat; Pay, Salih; Balkarli, Ayse; Cobankara, Veli; Cetin, Gözde Yildirim; Sayarlioglu, Mehmet; Cefle, Ayse; Yazici, Ayten; Avci, Ali Berkant; Terzioglu, Ender; Ozbek, Suleyman; Akar, Servet; Gul, Ahmet

    2016-03-01

    Screening strategies for latent tuberculosis (TB) before starting tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors have decreased the prevalence of TB among patients who are treated with these agents. However, despite vigilant screening, TB continues to be an important problem, especially in parts of the world with a high background TB prevalence. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to TB among a large multicenter cohort of patients who were treated with anti-TNF. Fifteen rheumatology centers participated in this study. Among the 10,434 patients who were treated with anti-TNF between September 2002 and September 2012, 73 (0.69%) had developed TB. We described the demographic features and disease characteristics of these 73 patients and compared them to 7695 patients who were treated with anti-TNF, did not develop TB, and had complete data available. Among the 73 patients diagnosed with TB (39 men, 34 women, mean age 43.6 ± 13 yrs), the most frequent diagnoses were ankylosing spondylitis (n = 38) and rheumatoid arthritis (n = 25). More than half of the patients had extrapulmonary TB (39/73, 53%). Six patients died (8.2%). In the logistic regression model, types of anti-TNF drugs [infliximab (IFX), OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.88-6.10, p = 0.001] and insufficient and irregular isoniazid use (< 9 mos; OR 3.15, 95% CI 1.43-6.9, p = 0.004) were independent predictors of TB development. Our results suggest that TB is an important complication of anti-TNF therapies in Turkey. TB chemoprophylaxis less than 9 months and the use of IFX therapy were independent risk factors for TB development.

  10. Current Status of Malignant Neuropathic Pain in Chinese Patients with Cancer: Report of a Hospital-based Investigation of Prevalence, Etiology, Assessment, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fan; Song, Li; Xie, Tian; Tian, Jie; Fan, Yuchao; Liu, Hui

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence, etiology, assessment, treatment of pain in patients with cancer as well as their quality of life (QOL). Patients at the West China Hospital Cancer Center were invited to complete a questionnaire under the guidance of pain specialists. The questionnaire included general information, cancer pain status, its assessment, use of analgesics, and the effects of pain on QOL. In total, 1,050 patients were enrolled in the study. Of these, valid data were collected from 919 patients, among whom 454 (49.4%) suffered from pain, including 333 (36.2%) patients who had neuropathic pain symptoms. On average, the visual analog scale (VAS) score of patients with cancer pain was 3.30 ± 1.68. Significant differences in the VAS score and pain frequency between patients with nociceptive and neuropathic pain were observed (both P pain ranked first (64, 52.9%) among the patients with nociceptive pain, whereas pins and needles pain (97, 64.7%) was the most common type of pain in patients with neuropathic pain. There was a significant difference in QOL between the nociceptive and neuropathic pain groups (P pain used analgesics. Compared with the patients with pain not using any analgesics, those receiving analgesics had a significantly lower average pain relief rate (P = 0.027). Adjuvant analgesics were inadequately used (9.3%) in patients with neuropathic cancer pain. This study revealed the prevalence of neuropathic cancer pain in Chinese patients with cancer. Malignant neuropathic pain significantly impaired the patients' QOL. Insufficient assessment and inadequate analgesia still exist. These require more awareness and attention from both doctors and patients. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  11. Prevalence and Prognostic Significance of Apparent Treatment Resistant Hypertension in Chronic Kidney Disease: Report From the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, George; Xie, Dawei; Chen, Hsiang-Yu; Anderson, Amanda H; Appel, Lawrence J; Bodana, Shirisha; Brecklin, Carolyn S; Drawz, Paul; Flack, John M; Miller, Edgar R; Steigerwalt, Susan P; Townsend, Raymond R; Weir, Matthew R; Wright, Jackson T; Rahman, Mahboob

    2016-02-01

    The association between apparent treatment resistant hypertension (ATRH) and clinical outcomes is not well studied in chronic kidney disease. We analyzed data on 3367 hypertensive participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) to determine prevalence, associations, and clinical outcomes of ATRH in nondialysis chronic kidney disease patients. ATRH was defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg on ≥3 antihypertensives, or use of ≥4 antihypertensives with blood pressure at goal at baseline visit. Prevalence of ATRH was 40.4%. Older age, male sex, black race, diabetes mellitus, and higher body mass index were independently associated with higher odds of having ATRH. Participants with ATRH had a higher risk of clinical events than participants without ATRH-composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, congestive heart failure (CHF), and all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.38 [1.22-1.56]); renal events (1.28 [1.11-1.46]); CHF (1.66 [1.38-2.00]); and all-cause mortality (1.24 [1.06-1.45]). The subset of participants with ATRH and blood pressure at goal on ≥4 medications also had higher risk for composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, CHF, and all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], (1.30 [1.12-1.51]) and CHF (1.59 [1.28-1.99]) than those without ATRH. ATRH was associated with significantly higher risk for CHF and renal events only among those with estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥30 mL/min per 1.73 m(2). Our findings show that ATRH is common and associated with high risk of adverse outcomes in a cohort of patients with chronic kidney disease. This underscores the need for early identification and management of patients with ATRH and chronic kidney disease.

  12. Dietary supplementation is more prevalent among adults with arthritis in the United States population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patrick B

    2016-12-01

    Sparse data are available to describe the prevalence of dietary supplementation among individuals with arthritis. Using a nationally representative sample, this investigation assessed the prevalence of dietary supplement use among Americans self-reporting arthritis. Data from 4606 participants of the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed, including from 1170 participants self-reporting arthritis. Participants reported dietary supplementation over the past 30days. Approximately 62.5% of adults with arthritis reported taking at least one dietary supplement, which was greater than the 49.0% among individuals without arthritis (PArthritis was not independently associated with higher odds of supplement use (odds ratio=1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.88-1.42) in a multivariate logistic regression model. Among individuals with arthritis, supplement use was more prevalent in older adults (≥50 years), non-Hispanic whites, those with greater education, and those with health insurance. Among 721 participants with arthritis that were taking at least one supplement, 15.1% (95% CI=12.8-17.8%) indicated at least one of their supplements was 'for healthy joints, arthritis', compared to only 7.7% (95% CI=6.4-9.3%) of participants without arthritis (Parthritis. Given that roughly three out of five individuals with arthritis regularly use dietary supplements, health practitioners should be prepared to discuss potential benefits and risks of supplementation for the management of pain and function in arthritis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in Asian adults: a systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirrakhimov Aibek E

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a common disease, affecting approximately 2% of women and 4% of men residing in Western communities. No systematically reviewed data are available about the prevalence of this disease in Asia, the most heavily populated continent. Methods PubMed/Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar were searched for articles published from 1993 to May 2012 that reported the prevalence of OSA diagnosed via sleep monitoring and the prevalence of patients at risk for OSA as assessed by symptomatology and/or sleep questionnaires. We have also searched abstract database of major pulmonary and sleep scientific societies for relevant abstracts presented from 2010 to 2012. The following inclusion criteria were used: articles published in English, age ≥ 18 years, ≥ 100 participants in studies using sleep monitoring for the diagnosis of OSA, ≥ 300 participants in studies using questionnaires to detect patients at high risk for OSA. Exclusion criteria: duplicate publications, studies reporting the prevalence of central sleep apnea only, hospital based studies as well as studies assessing OSA prevalence among patients with resistant arterial hypertension, chronic kidney disease, heart failure and in patients with concomitant neurological disease. Results Twenty four articles were found to meet the inclusion criteria, covering 47,957 subjects (26,042 men and 21,915 women and four relevant abstracts were noted. OSA prevalence ranged from 3.7% to 97.3%. Male gender, older age, a higher BMI and waist to hip ratio, greater neck circumference, arterial hypertension, smoking, snoring and daytime sleepiness were associated with OSA. Sample size, difference between the populations studied and the fact that some works included patients with a high pre-test probability of OSA explain the difference in prevalence rates. Conclusion This systematic review highlights the lack of data regarding the prevalence of OSA in Asians

  14. Prevalence of problematic internet use in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macur Mirna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Internet use is an integral part of our everyday activities; however, Internet use may become problematic and harmful in a minority of cases. The majority of reported prevalence rates of problematic Internet use refer to adolescent samples, whereas epidemiological studies on representative adult populations are lacking. This study aimed to reveal the prevalence and characteristics of problematic Internet use in Slovenia.

  15. Where Two Are Fighting, the Third Wins: Stronger Selection Facilitates Greater Polymorphism in Traits Conferring Competition-Dispersal Tradeoffs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Lampert

    Full Text Available A major conundrum in evolution is that, despite natural selection, polymorphism is still omnipresent in nature: Numerous species exhibit multiple morphs, namely several abundant values of an important trait. Polymorphism is particularly prevalent in asymmetric traits, which are beneficial to their carrier in disruptive competitive interference but at the same time bear disadvantages in other aspects, such as greater mortality or lower fecundity. Here we focus on asymmetric traits in which a better competitor disperses fewer offspring in the absence of competition. We report a general pattern in which polymorphic populations emerge when disruptive selection increases: The stronger the selection, the greater the number of morphs that evolve. This pattern is general and is insensitive to the form of the fitness function. The pattern is somewhat counterintuitive since directional selection is excepted to sharpen the trait distribution and thereby reduce its diversity (but note that similar patterns were suggested in studies that demonstrated increased biodiversity as local selection increases in ecological communities. We explain the underlying mechanism in which stronger selection drives the population towards more competitive values of the trait, which in turn reduces the population density, thereby enabling lesser competitors to stably persist with reduced need to directly compete. Thus, we believe that the pattern is more general and may apply to asymmetric traits more broadly. This robust pattern suggests a comparative, unified explanation to a variety of polymorphic traits in nature.

  16. Where Two Are Fighting, the Third Wins: Stronger Selection Facilitates Greater Polymorphism in Traits Conferring Competition-Dispersal Tradeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Adam; Tlusty, Tsvi

    2016-01-01

    A major conundrum in evolution is that, despite natural selection, polymorphism is still omnipresent in nature: Numerous species exhibit multiple morphs, namely several abundant values of an important trait. Polymorphism is particularly prevalent in asymmetric traits, which are beneficial to their carrier in disruptive competitive interference but at the same time bear disadvantages in other aspects, such as greater mortality or lower fecundity. Here we focus on asymmetric traits in which a better competitor disperses fewer offspring in the absence of competition. We report a general pattern in which polymorphic populations emerge when disruptive selection increases: The stronger the selection, the greater the number of morphs that evolve. This pattern is general and is insensitive to the form of the fitness function. The pattern is somewhat counterintuitive since directional selection is excepted to sharpen the trait distribution and thereby reduce its diversity (but note that similar patterns were suggested in studies that demonstrated increased biodiversity as local selection increases in ecological communities). We explain the underlying mechanism in which stronger selection drives the population towards more competitive values of the trait, which in turn reduces the population density, thereby enabling lesser competitors to stably persist with reduced need to directly compete. Thus, we believe that the pattern is more general and may apply to asymmetric traits more broadly. This robust pattern suggests a comparative, unified explanation to a variety of polymorphic traits in nature.

  17. Greater Sandhill Crane colt survival on the Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report details Greater Sandhill Crane colt survival at Ruby lake NWR during the time period from 1984 to 2006. Management recommendations are suggested to...

  18. The prevalence and risk factors for depression symptoms in a rural Chinese sample population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinghu Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is essential to understand how we can prevent and treat the epidemic of depression. Several studies have reported the prevalence of depressive symptoms in the urban population in China, but there is a lack of information regarding the prevalence of depression in rural populations. OBJECTIVE: To understand the prevalence of depression in a rural Chinese population and to analyze the risk factors for depression. METHODS: This study used a cross-sectional approach. A total of 11,473 subjects were surveyed and completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9 and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief scales. Living conditions, per capita income, marital status, and information about dietary health and chronic disease status were assessed. RESULTS: The prevalence of depressive symptoms in the population was 5.9%. The prevalence in women (8.1% was higher compared with men (3.5% and also increased with age. The per capita income level, amount of sleep obtained per day, education level, weekly consumption of meat and beans or bean products, salt intake, and chronic disease status were associated with depressive symptoms. The quality of life of individuals with a score less than 10 points on the PHQ-9 was significantly better compared with individuals with a score greater than 10. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of depressive symptoms among rural population is higher than some southern cities in China. Dietary patterns may be an important risk factor linked to this disorder in the Chinese rural population.

  19. The Prevalence of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emma L; Howe, Laura D; Jones, Hayley E; Higgins, Julian P T; Lawlor, Debbie A; Fraser, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    Narrative reviews of paediatric NAFLD quote prevalences in the general population that range from 9% to 37%; however, no systematic review of the prevalence of NAFLD in children/adolescents has been conducted. We aimed to estimate prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in young people and to determine whether this varies by BMI category, gender, age, diagnostic method, geographical region and study sample size. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of all studies reporting a prevalence of NAFLD based on any diagnostic method in participants 1-19 years old, regardless of whether assessing NAFLD prevalence was the main aim of the study. The pooled mean prevalence of NAFLD in children from general population studies was 7.6% (95%CI: 5.5% to 10.3%) and 34.2% (95% CI: 27.8% to 41.2%) in studies based on child obesity clinics. In both populations there was marked heterogeneity between studies (I2 = 98%). There was evidence that prevalence was generally higher in males compared with females and increased incrementally with greater BMI. There was evidence for differences between regions in clinical population studies, with estimated prevalence being highest in Asia. There was no evidence that prevalence changed over time. Prevalence estimates in studies of children/adolescents attending obesity clinics and in obese children/adolescents from the general population were substantially lower when elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was used to assess NAFLD compared with biopsies, ultrasound scan (USS) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Our review suggests the prevalence of NAFLD in young people is high, particularly in those who are obese and in males.

  20. The Prevalence of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L Anderson

    Full Text Available Narrative reviews of paediatric NAFLD quote prevalences in the general population that range from 9% to 37%; however, no systematic review of the prevalence of NAFLD in children/adolescents has been conducted. We aimed to estimate prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in young people and to determine whether this varies by BMI category, gender, age, diagnostic method, geographical region and study sample size.We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of all studies reporting a prevalence of NAFLD based on any diagnostic method in participants 1-19 years old, regardless of whether assessing NAFLD prevalence was the main aim of the study.The pooled mean prevalence of NAFLD in children from general population studies was 7.6% (95%CI: 5.5% to 10.3% and 34.2% (95% CI: 27.8% to 41.2% in studies based on child obesity clinics. In both populations there was marked heterogeneity between studies (I2 = 98%. There was evidence that prevalence was generally higher in males compared with females and increased incrementally with greater BMI. There was evidence for differences between regions in clinical population studies, with estimated prevalence being highest in Asia. There was no evidence that prevalence changed over time. Prevalence estimates in studies of children/adolescents attending obesity clinics and in obese children/adolescents from the general population were substantially lower when elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT was used to assess NAFLD compared with biopsies, ultrasound scan (USS or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI.Our review suggests the prevalence of NAFLD in young people is high, particularly in those who are obese and in males.

  1. Fifty percent prevalence of extracampine hallucinations in Parkinson's disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A Wood

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Extracampine hallucinations (EH, the sense of a presence or fleeting movement in the absence of an associated visual percept, have been reported in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients but their prevalence, characteristics and temporal relationship to visual hallucinations (VH remain unclear. Given that VH are predictive of cognitive impairment in PD, improved understanding of EH may have significant prognostic implications. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of EH in a large unselected population with PD and to assess the temporal relationship between EH, VH and memory decline. Cross-sectional data were collected using a questionnaire circulated to 414 PD patients via an online patient community. Data were obtained regarding the occurrence, timing and characteristics of VH and EH and symptoms of PD, disease duration, disease severity and medication history. 50.4% of respondents reported EH and 15.5% reported VH. EH were typically experienced alongside, rather than behind, the individual (p<0.001 without clear lateralisation (p=0.438, and were more likely to be of unfamiliar presences (p<0.001. The occurrence of EH was associated with Hoehn and Yahr score (p=0.002 but not disease duration (p=0.158. EH onset was associated with VH onset (p=0.046 and occurred after the onset of anosmia (p<0.001, cognitive decline (p=0.002 and sleep disturbance (p=0.002. The reported prevalence of EH in PD patients was threefold greater than that of VH, with similar timings of onset, suggesting that EH are under-recognised and under-reported. Further work is needed to determine whether EH are predictive of cognitive decline.

  2. Prevalence of obesity and diabetes in Spanish adults 1987-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basterra-Gortari, Francisco Javier; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Gea, Alfredo; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel Ángel

    2017-03-22

    The prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM) has increased worldwide. Our objective was to examine trends in the prevalence of overweight, obesity, morbid obesity and DM in Spain from 1987 to 2012. Data were obtained from 8 waves of the national health surveys which are cross-sectional studies conducted in representative samples of the Spanish adult population. Self-reported data of 156,440 adults (≥16 years) from 1987 to 2012 were used. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported weight and height. Overweight was defined as a BMI of 25.0 to 29.9kg/m(2), obesity as a BMI≥30kg/m(2) and morbid obesity as a BMI≥40kg/m(2). DM was considered present if the participant reported having been diagnosed. Age-adjusted prevalence was adjusted by the direct standardisation method to the 2003 survey population. From 1987 to 2012 age-adjusted prevalence of overweight increased from 34.0% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 33.2-34.8) to 35.8% (95% CI 35.0-36.6), prevalence of obesity from 8.0% (95% CI 7.5-8.5) to 16.5% (95% CI 15.7-17.1%) and DM prevalence from 4.2% (95% CI 3.9-4.5) to 7.1% (95% CI 6.7-7.4%). Morbid obesity increased from 0.20% (95% CI 0.13-0.27) in 1993 to 0.88% (95% CI 0.70-1.05) in 2012. The growth rate was greater among males. An increasing trend of the prevalence of overweight, obesity, morbid obesity and DM was found in Spain from 1987 to 2012, particularly in males. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence and consequences of substance use among high school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies ... Further, cannabis was used in selected high schools, and its abuse prevalence was greater in urban private schools, ... enhanced sexual activity, with increased risks for negative consequences.

  4. Prevalence of transradial coronary angiography and intervention in China: report from the Transradial coronary intervention Registration Investigation in China (TRI-China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Yuejin; Zhou, Yujie; Xu, Bo; Zhao, Lin

    2010-11-19

    To investigate the prevalence of TRA and TRI in China in the years 2006 and 2007. About 400 TRI-China questionnaires were sent to hospitals all over China from February to May in 2007 and 2008. Data was collected from 163 and 111 hospitals all over China in the year 2006 and 2007, respectively. A total of 108,658 CAG and 45,176 PCI cases in 2006 and 115,124 CAG and 48,379 PCI cases in 2007 were enrolled in the study. There were more TRA and TRI in 2007 than 2006 (TRA, 60.23% vs. 47.84%, pTRI, 56.28%vs. 44.69%, pTRI could be completed through 6 French GC in the majority of cases (85.49% in 2006 vs. 93.13% in 2007). Unfractionated heparin (UFH) was the major anticoagulant during TRA and TRI (88.76% in 2006 vs. 99.10% in 2007,). Nitroglycerine (NTG) was the major vasodilator to prevent radial artery spasm (75.80% in 2006 vs. 92.79% in 2007). Transradial approach has become the primary access of CAG and PCI in China. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of ultrasound imaging and physical examination findings in greater trochanteric pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulya Bakılan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of greater trochanteric bursitis and gluteus medius tendinopathy using ultrasound in patients with greater trochanteric pain and assess the value of the pain on resisted hip abduction and pain on resisted hip internal rotation in predicting the presence of gluteus medius tendinopathy. Methods: The study was a retrospective analysis of 75 patients with greater trochanteric pain. The physical examination records were identified as pain on resisted hip abduction and hip internal rotation. After observing physical examination records, presence of greater trochanteric bursitis or gluteus medius tendinopathy were assessed in documented ultrasound findings. Results: Of the 75 patients with greater trochanteric pain, trochanteric bursitis was found in 41.4% of patients, gluteus medius tendinopathy was found in 20% of patients. A significant difference was found in both presence of pain on resisted hip abduction and internal rotation between patients with gluteus medius tendinopathy and patients with other abnormalities in favor of gluteus medius tendinopathy. Conclusion: In order to determine the etiology of greater trochanteric pain, physical examination and ultrasound imaging is important, especially examination of pain on resisted hip abduction and hip internal rotation is essential to detect gluteus medius tendinopathy.

  6. Increase in Reported Prevalence of Microcephaly in Infants Born to Women Living in Areas with Confirmed Zika Virus Transmission During the First Trimester of Pregnancy - Brazil, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleber de Oliveira, Wanderson; Cortez-Escalante, Juan; De Oliveira, Wanessa Tenório Gonçalves Holanda; do Carmo, Greice Madeleine Ikeda; Henriques, Cláudio Maierovitch Pessanha; Coelho, Giovanini Evelim; Araújo de França, Giovanny Vinícius

    2016-03-11

    Widespread transmission of Zika virus by Aedes mosquitoes has been recognized in Brazil since late 2014, and in October 2015, an increase in the number of reported cases of microcephaly was reported to the Brazil Ministry of Health.* By January 2016, a total of 3,530 suspected microcephaly cases had been reported, many of which occurred in infants born to women who lived in or had visited areas where Zika virus transmission was occurring. Microcephaly surveillance was enhanced in late 2015 by implementing a more sensitive case definition. Based on the peak number of reported cases of microcephaly, and assuming an average estimated pregnancy duration of 38 weeks in Brazil (1), the first trimester of pregnancy coincided with reports of cases of febrile rash illness compatible with Zika virus disease in pregnant women in Bahia, Paraíba, and Pernambuco states, supporting an association between Zika virus infection during early pregnancy and the occurrence of microcephaly. Pregnant women in areas where Zika virus transmission is occurring should take steps to avoid mosquito bites. Additional studies are needed to further elucidate the relationship between Zika virus infection in pregnancy and microcephaly.

  7. Species and prevalence determination of Human Intestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Species and prevalence determination of Human Intestinal Parasites among Patients attending two ... the maintenance of proper personal hygiene, creating awareness to the ..... (2007), who reported a value of 21.1% in Owerri,. Imo State and ...

  8. Prevalence and Parasite Density of Asymptomatic Malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and Parasite Density of Asymptomatic Malaria Parasitemia among Unbooked .... of two experienced laboratory scientists dedicated to the study to ensure quality control. .... Roll Back Malaria Annual Report. Abuja: Malaria Control.

  9. Prevalence of masturbation and associated factors in a British national probability survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerressu, Makeda; Mercer, Catherine H; Graham, Cynthia A; Wellings, Kaye; Johnson, Anne M

    2008-04-01

    A stratified probability sample survey of the British general population, aged 16 to 44 years, was conducted from 1999 to 2001 (N = 11,161) using face-to-face interviewing and computer-assisted self-interviewing. We used these data to estimate the population prevalence of masturbation, and to identify sociodemographic, sexual behavioral, and attitudinal factors associated with reporting this behavior. Seventy-three percent of men and 36.8% of women reported masturbating in the 4 weeks prior to interview (95% confidence interval 71.5%-74.4% and 35.4%-38.2%, respectively). A number of sociodemographic and behavioral factors were associated with reporting masturbation. Among both men and women, reporting masturbation increased with higher levels of education and social class and was more common among those reporting sexual function problems. For women, masturbation was more likely among those who reported more frequent vaginal sex in the last four weeks, a greater repertoire of sexual activity (such as reporting oral and anal sex), and more sexual partners in the last year. In contrast, the prevalence of masturbation was lower among men reporting more frequent vaginal sex. Both men and women reporting same-sex partner(s) were significantly more likely to report masturbation. Masturbation is a common sexual practice with significant variations in reporting between men and women.

  10. Enzootic reticuloendotheliosis in the endangered Attwater's and greater prairie chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Guillermo; Cheng, Sunny; Barbosa, Taylor; Haefele, Holly

    2006-12-01

    Reticuloendotheliosis (RE) in captive greater prairie chickens (GPC, Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) and Attwater's prairie chickens (APC, Tympanuchus cupido attwateri) was first reported in 1998. RE is caused by avian reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), an oncogenic and immunosuppressive retrovirus infecting multiple species of wild and domestic birds. During August 2004 through May 2006 a captive population of prairie chickens was affected simultaneously with a neoplastic condition and also avian pox, the latter being detected in 7.4% (2 of 27) of all birds submitted for histopathology. A survey for REV was conducted in order to examine its possible role in mortality observed primarily in juvenile and adult specimens of prairie chickens. The investigative procedures included postmortem examinations, histopathology, molecular detection, and virus isolation. In total, 57 Attwater's prairie chickens and two greater prairie chickens were included in the study. REV infection was diagnosed using virus isolation or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or both in 59.5% (28 of 47) of blood samples and/or tumors from suspect birds. Lymphosarcomas were detected in the tissues of 37% (10 of 27) of the birds submitted for histopathology. Such lymphosarcomas suggestive of RE represented the most frequent morphologic diagnosis on histopathology among 27 separate submissions of naturally dead prairie chickens. Overall, REV was detected or RE diagnosed in 34 of 59 prairie chickens (57.62%). The average death age of all birds diagnosed with lymphosarcomas on histopathology was 2.2 yr, ranging from birds of undetermined gender). Reticuloendotheliosis virus was confirmed as a significant cause of mortality in captive prairie chickens.

  11. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from central nervous system specimens as reported by U.S. hospital laboratories from 2000 to 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlowsky James A

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial infections of the central nervous system, especially acute infections such as bacterial meningitis require immediate, invariably empiric antibiotic therapy. The widespread emergence of resistance among bacterial species is a cause for concern. Current antibacterial susceptibility data among central nervous system (CNS pathogens is important to define current prevalence of resistance. Methods Antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens isolated from CNS specimens was analyzed using The Surveillance Database (TSN® USA Database which gathers routine antibiotic susceptibility data from >300 US hospital laboratories. A total of 6029 organisms derived from CNS specimen sources during 2000–2002, were isolated and susceptibility tested. Results Staphylococcus aureus (23.7% and Streptococcus pneumoniae (11.0% were the most common gram-positive pathogens. Gram-negative species comprised approximately 25% of isolates. The modal patient age was 1 or S. aureus from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and brain abscesses were 29.9–32.9%. Penicillin resistance rates were 16.6% for S. pneumoniae, 5.3% for viridans group streptococci, and 0% for S. agalactiae. For CSF isolates, ceftriaxone resistance was S. pneumoniae (3.5%, E. coli (0.6%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (2.8%, Serratia marcescens (5.6%, Enterobacter cloacae (25.0%, Haemophilus influenzae (0%. Listeria monocytogenes and N. meningitidis are not routinely susceptibility tested. Conclusions Resistance is commonly detected, albeit still at relatively low levels for key drugs classes such as third-generation cephalosporins. This data demonstrates the need to consider predominant resistance phenotypes when choosing empiric therapies to treat CNS infections.

  12. Malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion: Heterogeneity and Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Cao, Yaming; Chen, Bin; Chen, Xiaoguang; Fan, Qi; Fang, Qiang; Jongwutiwes, Somchai; Parker, Daniel; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Su, Xin-zhuan; Yang, Henglin; Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Baomin; Xu, Jianwei; Zheng, Bin; Zhong, Daibin; Zhou, Guofa

    2011-01-01

    The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), comprised of six countries including Cambodia, China's Yunnan Province, Lao PDR, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand and Vietnam, is one of the most threatening foci of malaria. Since the initiation of the WHO's Mekong Malaria Program a decade ago, malaria situation in the GMS has greatly improved, reflected in the continuous decline in annual malaria incidence and deaths. However, as many nations are moving towards malaria elimination, the GMS nations still face great challenges. Malaria epidemiology in this region exhibits enormous geographical heterogeneity with Myanmar and Cambodia remaining high-burden countries. Within each country, malaria distribution is also patchy, exemplified by ‘border malaria’ and ‘forest malaria’ with high transmission occurring along international borders and in forests or forest fringes, respectively. ‘Border malaria’ is extremely difficult to monitor, and frequent malaria introductions by migratory human populations constitute a major threat to neighboring, malaria-eliminating countries. Therefore, coordination between neighboring countries is essential for malaria elimination from the entire region. In addition to these operational difficulties, malaria control in the GMS also encounters several technological challenges. Contemporary malaria control measures rely heavily on effective chemotherapy and insecticide control of vector mosquitoes. However, the spread of multidrug resistance and potential emergence of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum make resistance management a high priority in the GMS. This situation is further worsened by the circulation of counterfeit and substandard artemisinin-related drugs. In most endemic areas of the GMS, P. falciparum and P. vivax coexist, and in recent malaria control history, P. vivax has demonstrated remarkable resilience to control measures. Deployment of the only registered drug (primaquine) for the radical cure of vivax malaria is

  13. Guidance on Compatibility of UST Systems with Ethanol Blends Greater Than 10 Percent and Biodiesel Blends Greater Than 20 Percent

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA guidance on complying with the federal compatibility requirement for underground storage tank (UST) systems storing gasoline containing greater than 10 percent ethanol or diesel containing greater than 20 percent biodiesel.

  14. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in HIV-infected patients: report of 2 cases. Julius Chacha ... affected adults are women, and direct causes or predisposing risk factors can be .... Some studies have reported a high prevalence of antibodies.

  15. Lifetime prevalence of traumatic brain injury with loss of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, John D; Yang, Jingzhen; Singichetti, Bhavna; Manchester, Kara; Bogner, Jennifer

    2017-08-28

    To determine the prevalence of lifetime history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) with loss of consciousness (LOC) among adult, non-institutionalised residents of Ohio. We analysed data from 2014 Ohio Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, which included a state-specific module designed to elicit lifetime history of TBI. Of non-institutionalised adults 18 years and over living in Ohio, 21.7% reported at least one lifetime TBI with LOC, 2.6% experienced at least one moderate or severe such injury, 9.1% experienced a TBI with LOC before age 15 years and 10.8% experienced either TBI with LOC before age 15 years or a moderate or severe injury. Males, those with lower incomes and those unable to work were more likely to have incurred at least one TBI with LOC, multiple TBIs with LOC, a moderate or severe TBI and a TBI with LOC before age15. One in five adults experienced TBIs of sufficient severity to cause LOC; 3% experienced at least one moderate or severe TBI and almost 10% experienced a first TBI with LOC before the age of 15 years. The prevalence of lifetime TBI in the present study suggests that there may be a substantially greater burden of injury than concluded from previous prevalence estimates. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. 上海宝山地区儿童变应性鼻炎患病率调查%Self-reported prevalence of pediatrics allergic rhinitis in Baoshan district

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍爱春; 龚齐; 章如新; 朱静静; 支纪治; 刘燕萍

    2011-01-01

    目的 调查上海市宝山区7~12岁儿童变应性鼻炎自报患病率并分析其相关危险因素.方法 2010年3~6月,选择宝山区5所小学-~五年级(7~12岁)学生为研究对象,设计"宝山区儿童变应性鼻炎问卷调查表",进行流行病学调查.对结果进行统计学处理.结果 发放问卷总数为3046份,回收2464份,应答率80.9%,有效问卷2313份.宝山区7~12岁儿童变应性鼻炎自诉现患率为23.9%(553/2313),其中男26.1%(314/1203),女21.5%(239/1110),有统计学意义(X=6.627,P<0.01).自报患病率随年龄增长而上升.在变应性鼻炎的危险因素中,被动吸烟、家养宠物、居住环境、湿疹史,个人过敏史、家族过敏史可能与变应性鼻炎有一定相关性.结论 宝山区7~12岁儿童变应性鼻炎自报现患率为23.9%.初步了解宝山区变应性鼻炎流行病现状,为上海变应性鼻炎防治提供参考.%Objective To investigate the self-reported prevalence of pediatric allergic rhinitis(AR)sufferers and analyze its related risk factors in Baoshan district, Shanghai city. Methods The pupils in Baoshan district of shanghai from 7 to 12 years old from March to June were included in the study. A questionnaire survey on AR was designed for the study. The data were performed statistical analysis.Results Totally 2464 were returned in 3046 questionnaires,the response rate was 80.9 %. 2313 questionnaires were available. The selfreported prevalence of AR was 23.9% (558/2313), male was 26.1%(314/1203),female was 21.5 %(239/1110, there were significant difference in then.The self-reported prevalence of AR was increasing as children age. Passive smoking favor animal, living environment,history of eczema,personal and family allergen history might be related to prevalence of AR. Conclusion The self-reported prevalence of AR in children aged from 7 to 12 in Baoshan is 23.9 %. This survey proveides a first-hand data on epidemic features of children with AR in Baoshan

  17. Malaria in South Asia: prevalence and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Chery, Laura; Biswas, Chinmoy; Dubhashi, Nagesh; Dutta, Prafulla; Dua, Virendra Kumar; Kacchap, Mridula; Kakati, Sanjeeb; Khandeparkar, Anar; Kour, Dalip; Mahajan, Satish N; Maji, Ardhendu; Majumder, Partha; Mohanta, Jagadish; Mohapatra, Pradyumna K; Narayanasamy, Krishnamoorthy; Roy, Krishnangshu; Shastri, Jayanthi; Valecha, Neena; Vikash, Rana; Wani, Reena; White, John; Rathod, Pradipsinh K

    2012-03-01

    The "Malaria Evolution in South Asia" (MESA) program project is an International Center of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) sponsored by the US National Institutes of Health. This US-India collaborative program will study the origin of genetic diversity of malaria parasites and their selection on the Indian subcontinent. This knowledge should contribute to a better understanding of unexpected disease outbreaks and unpredictable disease presentations from Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections. In this first of two reviews, we highlight malaria prevalence in India. In particular, we draw attention to variations in distribution of different human-parasites and different vectors, variation in drug resistance traits, and multiple forms of clinical presentations. Uneven malaria severity in India is often attributed to large discrepancies in health care accessibility as well as human migrations within the country and across neighboring borders. Poor access to health care goes hand in hand with poor reporting from some of the same areas, combining to possibly distort disease prevalence and death from malaria in some parts of India. Corrections are underway in the form of increased resources for disease control, greater engagement of village-level health workers for early diagnosis and treatment, and possibly new public-private partnerships activities accompanying traditional national malaria control programs in the most severely affected areas. A second accompanying review raises the possibility that, beyond uneven health care, evolutionary pressures may alter malaria parasites in ways that contribute to severe disease in India, particularly in the NE corridor of India bordering Myanmar Narayanasamy et al., 2012.

  18. Malaria in South Asia: Prevalence and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Chery, Laura; Biswas, Chinmoy; Dubhashi, Nagesh; Dutta, Prafulla; Dua, Virendra Kumar; Kacchap, Mridula; Kakati, Sanjeeb; Khandeparkar, Anar; Kour, Dalip; Mahajanj, Satish N.; Maji, Ardhendu; Majumder, Partha; Mohanta, Jagadish; Mohapatra, Pradyumna K.; Narayanasamy, Krishnamoorthy; Roy, Krishnangshu; Shastri, Jayanthi; Valecha, Neena; Vikash, Rana; Wani, Reena; White, John; Rathod, Pradipsinh K

    2013-01-01

    The “Malaria Evolution in South Asia” (MESA) program project is an International Center of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) sponsored by the US National Institutes of Health. This US–India collaborative program will study the origin of genetic diversity of malaria parasites and their selection on the Indian subcontinent. This knowledge should contribute to a better understanding of unexpected disease outbreaks and unpredictable disease presentations from Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections. In this first of two reviews, we highlight malaria prevalence in India. In particular, we draw attention to variations in distribution of different human-parasites and different vectors, variation in drug resistance traits, and multiple forms of clinical presentations. Uneven malaria severity in India is often attributed to large discrepancies in health care accessibility as well as human migrations within the country and across neighboring borders. Poor access to health care goes hand in hand with poor reporting from some of the same areas, combining to possibly distort disease prevalence and death from malaria in some parts of India. Corrections are underway in the form of increased resources for disease control, greater engagement of village-level health workers for early diagnosis and treatment, and possibly new public–private partnerships activities accompanying traditional national malaria control programs in the most severely affected areas. A second accompanying review raises the possibility that, beyond uneven health care, evolutionary pressures may alter malaria parasites in ways that contribute to severe disease in India, particularly in the NE corridor of India bordering Myanmar Narayanasamy et al., 2012. PMID:22248528

  19. First report for the seasonal and annual prevalence of flea-borne bartonella from rodents and soricomorphs in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Baek-Jun; Kim, Su-Jin; Kang, Jun-Gu; Ko, Sungjin; Won, Sohyun; Kim, Hyewon; Kim, Heung-Chul; Kim, Myung-Soon; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A; Lee, Sanghun; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2013-07-01

    Rodents and soricomorphs are animal hosts of fleas and associated zoonotic microbial pathogens. A total of 4,889 small mammals were collected from Gyeonggi and Gangwon Provinces, Republic of Korea, from 2008 through 2010, including: Apodemus agrarius (4,122, 84.3%), followed by Crocidura lasiura (282, 5.8%), Microtus fortis (257, 5.3%), Myodes regulus (77, 1.6%), Micromys minutus (71, 1.5%), Mus musculus (63, 1.3%), and 4 other species (17, 0.3%). A total of 1,099 fleas belonging to 10 species and 7 genera were collected. Ctenophthalmus congeneroides (724, 65.9%) was the most commonly collected flea, followed by Stenoponia sidimi (301, 27.4%), Neopsylla bidentatiformis (29, 2.6%), and Rhadinopsylla insolita (25, 2.3%). The remaining species accounted for only 1.8% (20, range 1-6) of all fleas collected. The 2 dominant flea species, C. congeneroides and S. sidimi, showed an inverse seasonal pattern, with higher populations of C. congeneroides from January-September, whereas S. sidimi was more frequently collected during October-December. The overall flea infestation rates (FIR) and flea indices (FI) were 14.1% and 0.22, respectively, and were highest during April-June (19.7% and 0.30, respectively). A total of 735 of the 1,099 fleas were assayed for the detection of Bartonella spp. by PCR using Bartonella-specific primers, of which 515 were positive for Bartonella, with an overall maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of 700.7/1,000. The highest MLE values were observed during April-June (899.2) and July-September (936.2) trapping periods and, although lower, were similar for January-March (566.7) and October-December (574.1). C. congeneroides demonstrated high MLEs for all seasons (range 752.5-934.8), while S. sidimi was positive for Bartonella only during January-March (MLE=342.1) and October-December (MLE=497.2) collection periods. Continued long-term surveillance of small mammals and associated ectoparasites is needed to improve our understanding of the prevalence

  20. Annual Report to the Nation on the status of cancer, 1975-2010, featuring prevalence of comorbidity and impact on survival among persons with lung, colorectal, breast, or prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Brenda K; Noone, Anne-Michelle; Mariotto, Angela B; Simard, Edgar P; Boscoe, Francis P; Henley, S Jane; Jemal, Ahmedin; Cho, Hyunsoon; Anderson, Robert N; Kohler, Betsy A; Eheman, Christie R; Ward, Elizabeth M

    2014-05-01

    The American Cancer Society (ACS), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the National Cancer Institute (NCI), and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) collaborate annually to provide updates on cancer incidence and death rates and trends in these outcomes for the United States. This year's report includes the prevalence of comorbidity at the time of first cancer diagnosis among patients with lung, colorectal, breast, or prostate cancer and survival among cancer patients based on comorbidity level. Data on cancer incidence were obtained from the NCI, the CDC, and the NAACCR; and data on mortality were obtained from the CDC. Long-term (1975/1992-2010) and short-term (2001-2010) trends in age-adjusted incidence and death rates for all cancers combined and for the leading cancers among men and women were examined by joinpoint analysis. Through linkage with Medicare claims, the prevalence of comorbidity among cancer patients who were diagnosed between 1992 through 2005 residing in 11 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) areas were estimated and compared with the prevalence in a 5% random sample of cancer-free Medicare beneficiaries. Among cancer patients, survival and the probabilities of dying of their cancer and of other causes by comorbidity level, age, and stage were calculated. Death rates continued to decline for all cancers combined for men and women of all major racial and ethnic groups and for most major cancer sites; rates for both sexes combined decreased by 1.5% per year from 2001 through 2010. Overall incidence rates decreased in men and stabilized in women. The prevalence of comorbidity was similar among cancer-free Medicare beneficiaries (31.8%), breast cancer patients (32.2%), and prostate cancer patients (30.5%); highest among lung cancer patients (52.9%); and intermediate among colorectal cancer patients (40.7%). Among all cancer patients and especially for patients diagnosed with local and

  1. Internet addiction prevalence and quality of (real) life: a meta-analysis of 31 nations across seven world regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cecilia; Li, Angel Yee-lam

    2014-12-01

    Internet addiction (IA) has emerged as a universal issue, but its international estimates vary vastly. This multinational meta-analysis fills this gap by providing estimates of its global prevalence. Two hypotheses were formulated to explain the cross-national variations. The accessibility hypothesis predicts that IA prevalence is positively related to Internet penetration rate and GDP per capita, whereas the quality of (real) life hypothesis predicts that IA prevalence is inversely related to a global national index of life satisfaction and specific national indices of environmental quality. Multiple search strategies were used in an attempt to retrieve all empirical reports from 1996 to 2012 that adopted the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire or Internet Addiction Test for assessing generalized IA. The data set comprised 164 prevalence figures derived from 80 reports, including 89,281 participants from 31 nations across seven world regions. A random effects meta-analysis showed a global prevalence estimate of 6.0% [95% CI 5.1-6.9], with moderate heterogeneity (I(2)=44%, p<0.0001). The highest prevalence was in the Middle East with 10.9% [95% CI 5.4-16.3], and the lowest was in Northern and Western Europe with 2.6% [95% CI 1.0-4.1]. Moreover, IA prevalence was higher for nations with greater traffic time consumption, pollution, and dissatisfaction with life in general. The prevalence rate of IA varies across world regions. IA prevalence is inversely associated with the quality of life, as reflected by both subjective (life satisfaction) and objective (quality of environmental conditions) indicators.

  2. Internet Addiction Prevalence and Quality of (Real) Life: A Meta-Analysis of 31 Nations Across Seven World Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angel Yee-lam

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Internet addiction (IA) has emerged as a universal issue, but its international estimates vary vastly. This multinational meta-analysis fills this gap by providing estimates of its global prevalence. Two hypotheses were formulated to explain the cross-national variations. The accessibility hypothesis predicts that IA prevalence is positively related to Internet penetration rate and GDP per capita, whereas the quality of (real) life hypothesis predicts that IA prevalence is inversely related to a global national index of life satisfaction and specific national indices of environmental quality. Multiple search strategies were used in an attempt to retrieve all empirical reports from 1996 to 2012 that adopted the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire or Internet Addiction Test for assessing generalized IA. The data set comprised 164 prevalence figures derived from 80 reports, including 89,281 participants from 31 nations across seven world regions. A random effects meta-analysis showed a global prevalence estimate of 6.0% [95% CI 5.1–6.9], with moderate heterogeneity (I2=44%, p<0.0001). The highest prevalence was in the Middle East with 10.9% [95% CI 5.4–16.3], and the lowest was in Northern and Western Europe with 2.6% [95% CI 1.0–4.1]. Moreover, IA prevalence was higher for nations with greater traffic time consumption, pollution, and dissatisfaction with life in general. The prevalence rate of IA varies across world regions. IA prevalence is inversely associated with the quality of life, as reflected by both subjective (life satisfaction) and objective (quality of environmental conditions) indicators. PMID:25489876

  3. Peptic disease and Helicobacter pylori are highly prevalent in patients with the indeterminate form of chagas’ disease: report of 21 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Marques de OLIVEIRA

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Given that chagasic patients in the indeterminate form of this disease, can have abnormal motility of the digestive tract and immunologic abnormalities, we decided to assess the frequency of peptic disease and Helicobacter pylori (Hp infection in these individuals. Twenty-one individuals, 13 males and 8 females, mean age 37.6 ± 11.1 years, were examined. Biopsies of the duodenum, antrum, lesser and greater gastric curvature and esophagus were performed. The endoscopic findings were of chronic gastritis in 20 (95.2% patients, duodenal ulcer in 3 (14.3%, gastric and duodenal ulcer in 3 (14.3%, gastric ulcer alone in 1 (4.8%, esophagitis in 5 (23.8%, and duodenitis in 5 (23.8%. The diagnosis of infection by the Hp was done by the urease test and histologic examination. Hp infection was found in 20 (95.2% individuals: in 20 out of them in the antrum, in 17 in the lesser curvature, and in 17 in the greater curvature. Hp was not found in the esophagus and duodenum. The only individual with no evidence of infection by Hp was also the only one with normal endoscopic and histologic examinations. The histologic examinations confirmed the diagnoses of gastric ulcer as peptic, chronic gastritis in 20 patients, duodenitis in 14, and esophagitis in 9. In this series the patients had a high frequency of peptic disease, which was closely associated with Hp infectionDoença péptica e Helicobacter pylori são freqüentes em pacientes com a forma indeterminada da doença de Chagas: relato sobre 21 pacientes Uma vez que, pacientes chagásicos com a forma indeterminada da doença de Chagas podem apresentar dismotilidade do tubo digestivo e anormalidades imunológicas, decidimos verificar a freqüência de doença péptica e infecção por Helicobacter pylori (Hp nestes indivíduos. Avaliamos 21 pacientes, sendo 13 do sexo masculino e 8 do sexo feminino, com idade média de 37,6 ± 11,1 anos. Realizamos biópsias no bulbo duodenal, antro, pequena e grande

  4. Comparative prevalence of isolated sleep paralysis in Kuwaiti, Sudanese, and American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadalla, Abdelwahid; Al-Fayez, Ghenaim; Harville, Michael; Arikawa, Hiroko; Tomeo, Marie E; Templer, Donald I; Underwood, Rocky

    2004-08-01

    A questionnaire measuring the incidence of isolated sleep paralysis was administered to 527 Kuwaiti, 762 Sudanese, and 649 American college students in what was the first study assessing the prevalence of isolated sleep paralysis in two Middle Eastern countries. Using the item "unable to move," 28.8% of Kuwaiti, 29.9% of Sudanese, and 24.5% of American participants reported experiencing the disorder at least once. When a second item, "pressure to the chest," was also used, the respective percentages were 19.2%, 20.7%, and 11.4%. With both criteria, the Kuwaiti and Sudanese had a significantly greater prevalence than did the American students. The Kuwaiti and Sudanese students did not differ significantly from each other in the percentage who reported the symptoms.

  5. Prevalência das manifestações clínicas iniciais da granulomatose de Wegener no Brasil: relato de seis casos e revisão da literatura Wegener's granulomatosis: prevalence of the initial clinical manifestations - report of six cases and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ewerton Maia Rodrigues

    2010-04-01

    identified 49 patients, 15 (31% males and 34 (69% females. Systemic disease was observed in 35 patients (73%: 28 adults, 5 children, and 2 teenagers. Limited disease was observed in 13 adults and 1 child. The average age of onset in adults was 42.2 years (18 to 65 years. Acute clinical manifestations, with the onset of symptoms less than three months before the diagnosis, were observed in 41% (20/49 of the patients, and the insidious presentation in 59% (29/49 of the patients. The prevalence of the initial clinical manifestations in adults with systemic disease (n = 28 was 64% (18/28, upper airways, 36% (10/28, lungs, 18% (5/28, kidneys, 25% (7/28, eyes, 11% (3/28 skin, 25% (7/28, musculoskeletal, and 7% (2/28, neurological. In adults (n = 13 with limited disease, prevalent symptoms included: upper airway, 84% (10/13, eyes, 23% (3/13, and lungs, 15% (2/13. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of the initial clinical manifestations of WG in Brazil was similar to that reported in the literature. The lack of specific symptoms may delay diagnosis cases with insidious presentation of the disease and increase the morbidity and mortality in acute disease.

  6. Prevalence of self-reported overweight-obesity and its association with socioeconomic and health factors among older Mexican adults Prevalencia de sobrepeso-obesidad autorreportados y su asociación con factores socioeconómicos y de salud en población de edad avanzada en México

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Ruiz-Arregui; Lilia Castillo-Martínez; Arturo Orea-Tejeda; Silvia Mejía-Arango; Alejandro Miguel-Jaimes

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of obesity and its association with socioeconomic factors and comorbidities in a population-based study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were examined from 4 605 persons ages 60 and older that participated in the 2001 Mexican Health and Aging Study, conducted in rural and urban communities in Mexico. The prevalence of obesity (according to self-reported weight and height) was obtained, stratified by age, and logistic regression was used to study cross-secti...

  7. The effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the prevalence of self-reported hand eczema: a cross-sectional population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Linneberg, A; Menné, T

    2010-01-01

    . It has been debated whether life-style factors such as tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption are associated with hand eczema. OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to investigate whether self-reported hand eczema was associated with smoking and alcohol consumption in the general population. METHODS...... heavy smokers (OR = 1.38; CI = 0.99-1.92) compared with never-smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoking was positively associated with hand eczema among adults from the general population in Denmark. Apparently, current light smokers (... smokers (> 15 g daily) but this needs to be reconfirmed. Alcohol consumption was not associated with hand eczema....

  8. Greater Phoenix Forward: Sustaining and Enhancing the Human-Services Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison Institute for Public Policy, Arizona State University, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report provides descriptive data for understanding the status of human services in Greater Phoenix, describes provocative issues that certain populations and providers face, and offers a starting point for determining Maricopa Valley's aspirations for tomorrow's human-services infrastructure. This report describes an array of populations that…

  9. Giant solitary fibrous tumor arising from greater omentum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Zong; Ping Chen; Guang-Yao Wang; Qun-Shan Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Extrathoracic solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) have been described at almost every anatomic location of human body,but reports of SFT in the abdominal cavity are rare.We herein present a rare case of SFT originating from greater omentum.Computed tomography revealed a 15.8 cm x 21.0 cm solid mass located at superior aspect of stomach.Open laparotomy confirmed its mesenchymal origin.Microscopically,its tissue was composed of non-organized and spindle-shaped cells exhibiting atypical nuclei,which were divided up by branching vessel and collagen bundles.Immunohistochemical staining showed that this tumor was negative for CD117,CD99,CD68,cytokeratin,calretinin,desmin,epithelial membrane antigen,F8 and S-100,but positive for CD34,bcl-2,α-smooth muscle actin and vimentin.The patient presented no evidence of recurrence during follow-up.SFT arising from abdominal cavity can be diagnosed by histological findings and immunohistochemical markers,especially for CD34 and bcl-2 positive cases.

  10. Evaluation and management of greater trochanter pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Edward P; Middleton, Emily F; Brunette, Meredith

    2015-08-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is an enigmatic but common cause of lateral hip symptoms in middle-aged active women. The most common manifestation of this syndrome is a degenerative tendinopathy of the hip abductors similar to the intrinsic changes seen with rotator cuff pathology in the shoulder. There are no definitive tests to isolate the underlying pathology and palpation is a non-specific means by which to differentiate the source of the pain generator. The physical examination must comprehensively evaluate for a cluster of potential impairments and contributing factors that will need to be addressed to effectively manage the likely functional limitations and activity challenges the syndrome presents to the patient. Compressive forces through increased tension in the iliotibial band should be avoided. Intervention strategies should include education regarding postural avoidance, activity modifications, improvement of lumbopelvic control, and a patient approach to resolving hip joint restrictions and restoring the tensile capabilities of the deep rotators and abductors of the hip. A number of reliable and validated hip-specific self-report outcome tools are available to baseline a patient's status and monitor their progress. Further investigations to identify the epidemiological risk factors, establish effective treatment strategies, and predict prognosis are warranted.

  11. Brief Report: Estimated Prevalence of a Community Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder by Age 4 Years in Children from Selected Areas in the United States in 2010--Evaluation of Birth Cohort Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soke, Gnakub N.; Maenner, M. J.; Christensen, D.; Kurzius-Spencer, M.; Schieve, L. A.

    2017-01-01

    We compared early-diagnosed autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (defined as diagnosis by age 4 years) between the 2002 and 2006 birth cohorts, in five sites of the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network. In the 2002 cohort, the prevalence/1000 of early-diagnosed ASD was half the 8-year-old prevalence (7.2 vs. 14.7, prevalence ratio…

  12. STRESS FRACTURE PREVALENCE IN ELITE FIGURE SKATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Dubravcic-Simunjak

    2008-09-01

    reported a stress fracture, which had occurred in the last years of their skating career. The site and the number of stress fractures in female and male junior and senior figure skaters throughout their skating disciplines are shown in Table 1. From all stress fractures reported, 21 (51% occurred in females and 12 (48% in male figure skaters during the competitive season, while 20 (49% stress fractures in females and 13 (52% in male figure skaters occurred during summer training. Of the investigated skaters 93% trained almost all year round with a 1-2 month break, after the end of a skating season. There were no differences in training duration between the groups of skaters that did and did not report a stress fracture, but all skaters with stress fractures reported changes to their training routine before the occurrence of stress fractures. The overall prevalence of stress fractures in the present study was 16.7% in female and 13.8% in male figure skaters with different prevalence among the figure skating disciplines that can be explained by their different training patterns. Single skaters spend most of their training time practicing different difficult jumps and their legs suffer great impact during the whole training session. In pair skaters the female counterpart has higher stress fracture prevalence than the male, which is comparable to ice dancers. This is probably because pair skaters not only do synchronous jumps but also use throw jumps where the female skater is thrown, while the men stays on the ice. Consequently the lower extremity of the female suffers repeated high impact during landing. Pair skaters and ice dancers practice on different kind of team elements, unison and synchrony. Their lower extremities are less exposed to excessive repetitive impacts compared to single figure skaters (Dubravcic-Simunjak et al., 2003; Moran, 2000, as confirmed by James et al, 2006. Concerning possible contributing factors to stress fractures, all female and male figure

  13. Prevalence, severity and risk factors for depressive symptoms and insomnia in college undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gress-Smith, Jenna L; Roubinov, Danielle S; Andreotti, Charissa; Compas, Bruce E; Luecken, Linda J

    2015-02-01

    Although the college years represent a high-risk period for depressive symptoms and insomnia, little research has explored their prevalence, comorbidities and risk factors within this developmental period. Two studies were conducted; the first evaluated the prevalence and comorbidity of depressive symptoms and insomnia in 1338 students (ages 18-23 years) from a large Southwestern University. Mild depressive symptoms were endorsed by 19% of students and 14.5% reported moderate to severe symptoms. Forty-seven percent of students reported mild insomnia and 22.5% endorsed moderate to severe insomnia severity. A second study investigated perceived stress as a potential mediator of the relation between self-reported childhood adversity and concurrent depressive symptoms and insomnia. Undergraduates (N = 447) from a Southwestern and Southeastern University reported prior childhood adversity, current perceived stress, insomnia and depressive symptoms. Self-reported childhood adversity predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms and insomnia severity, partially mediated by perceived stress. Results support the high prevalence of depressive symptoms and insomnia among undergraduates. The risk for depressive and insomnia symptoms may be increased among students who experienced greater levels of childhood adversity.

  14. Bullying prevalence across contexts: a meta-analysis measuring cyber and traditional bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modecki, Kathryn L; Minchin, Jeannie; Harbaugh, Allen G; Guerra, Nancy G; Runions, Kevin C

    2014-11-01

    Bullying involvement in any form can have lasting physical and emotional consequences for adolescents. For programs and policies to best safeguard youth, it is important to understand prevalence of bullying across cyber and traditional contexts. We conducted a thorough review of the literature and identified 80 studies that reported corresponding prevalence rates for cyber and traditional bullying and/or aggression in adolescents. Weighted mean effect sizes were calculated, and measurement features were entered as moderators to explain variation in prevalence rates and in traditional-cyber correlations within the sample of studies. Prevalence rates for cyber bullying were lower than for traditional bullying, and cyber and traditional bullying were highly correlated. A number of measurement features moderated variability in bullying prevalence; whereas a focus on traditional relational aggression increased correlations between cyber and traditional aggressions. In our meta-analytic review, traditional bullying was twice as common as cyber bullying. Cyber and traditional bullying were also highly correlated, suggesting that polyaggression involvement should be a primary target for interventions and policy. Results of moderation analyses highlight the need for greater consensus in measurement approaches for both cyber and traditional bullying. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Avian cholera exposure and carriers in greater white-fronted geese breeding in Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, M.D.; Shadduck, D.J.; Goldberg, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a 3-yr study (2001a??03) on greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) breeding in Alaska, USA, to determine the exposure of this population to Pasteurella multocida and the potential role of these birds as disease carriers. We tested sera from nearly 600 adult geese for antibodies to P. multocida serotype 1. We found a low prevalence (birds sampled. Based on comparison with other waterfowl species, we concluded that these geese may be exposed to avian cholera during the winter or spring migration but are unlikely to play a significant role as carriers of the bacterium causing avian cholera.

  16. A Review of the Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiang; Allison, Carrie

    2010-01-01

    Electronic databases and bibliographies were searched for English language articles on the prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Asia over time to estimate prevalence. The overall reported prevalence of ASD in recent studies was higher than the previously reported in Asia. The average prevalence of ASD before 1980 was around 1.9/10,000 while…

  17. Diets of greater prairie chickens on the Sheyenne National Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble; Jay A. Newell; John E. Toepfer

    1988-01-01

    Diets of greater prairie chickens on the Sheyenne National Grassland of North Dakota were examined. During the winter months agricultural crops (primarily corn) were the predominant food items. Green vegetation was consumed in greater quantities as spring progressed. Dandelion flowers and alfalfa/sweetclover were the major vegetative food items through the summer. Both...

  18. Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Human capital is one of the critical issues that impacts the Greater Philadelphia region's ability to grow and prosper. The CEO Council for Growth (CEO Council) is committed to ensuring a steady and talented supply of quality workers for this region. "Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action" provides…

  19. 5 CFR 630.1210 - Greater leave entitlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Greater leave entitlements. 630.1210 Section 630.1210 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1210 Greater leave entitlements. (a) An agency shall...

  20. Exposure to fluoridated water and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder prevalence among children and adolescents in the United States: an ecological association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Ashley J; Till, Christine

    2015-02-27

    Epidemiological and animal-based studies have suggested that prenatal and postnatal fluoride exposure has adverse effects on neurodevelopment. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between exposure to fluoridated water and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) prevalence among children and adolescents in the United States. Data on ADHD prevalence among 4-17 year olds collected in 2003, 2007 and 2011 as part of the National Survey of Children's Health, and state water fluoridation prevalence from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) collected between 1992 and 2008 were utilized. State prevalence of artificial water fluoridation in 1992 significantly positively predicted state prevalence of ADHD in 2003, 2007 and 2011, even after controlling for socioeconomic status. A multivariate regression analysis showed that after socioeconomic status was controlled each 1% increase in artificial fluoridation prevalence in 1992 was associated with approximately 67,000 to 131,000 additional ADHD diagnoses from 2003 to 2011. Overall state water fluoridation prevalence (not distinguishing between fluoridation types) was also significantly positively correlated with state prevalence of ADHD for all but one year examined. Parents reported higher rates of medically-diagnosed ADHD in their children in states in which a greater proportion of people receive fluoridated water from public water supplies. The relationship between fluoride exposure and ADHD warrants future study.

  1. Movement Disorders in Non-Wilsonian Cirrhotic Patients: A Report of the Prevalence and Risk Factors from a Study Done in a Medical School in an Agricultural-Based Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulthida Methawasin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Parkinsonism and other movement disorders have previously been reported in the acquired hepatocerebral degeneration associated with portosystemic shunting. However, there is no study to date about their prevalence as has been noted in general practice. Methods One hundred and forty-three patients with hepatic cirrhosis from the gastroenterology clinic and internal medicine wards were enrolled. Liver data included the diagnoses, etiologies, assessments of complications, and treatments for cirrhosis. Hepatic encephalopathy was classified with regard to the West Haven criteria for semi-quantitative grading for mental status. Neurological examination results and abnormal involuntary movements were recorded as primary outcomes. Neuro-radiology was used for the detection of severe brain lesions. Results Alcoholism was the most common cause of liver cirrhosis. Eighty-three patients (58% presented with movement disorders. Asterixis was found in one of the cases. The most common movement disorder seen was an intentional tremor at 37.1%, which was followed by bradykinesia, Parkinsonism, and postural tremors at 29.4%, 10.5%, and 6.3%, respectively. The prevalence of movement disorders simultaneously increased with a high Child-Turcotte-Pugh score. The hepatic encephalopathy was grade 1 and 2. With the inclusion of age-range adjustments, we found that alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy are statistically significant factors [p < 0.05, odds ratio (OR = 6.41, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.38–29.71 and p < 0.001, OR = 13.65, 95% CI 4.71–39.54] for the development of movement disorders in non-Wilsonian cirrhotic patients. Conclusions Intentional tremor is a common abnormal movement. Alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy are significant risk factors in the development of movement disorders in non-Wilsonian cirrhotic patients.

  2. Interspecific nest parasitism by chukar on greater sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Michelle L.; Coates, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Nest parasitism occurs when a female bird lays eggs in the nest of another and the host incubates the eggs and may provide some form of parental care for the offspring (Lyon and Eadie 1991). Precocial birds (e.g., Galliformes and Anseriformes) are typically facultative nest parasites of both their own and other species (Lyon and Eadie 1991). This behavior increases a female’s reproductive success when she parasitizes other nests while simultaneously raising her own offspring. Both interspecific and conspecific nest parasitism have been well documented in several families of the order Galliformes, particularly the Phasianidae (Lyon and Eadie 1991, Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001, Krakauer and Kimball 2009). The Chukar (Alectoris chukar) has been widely introduced as a game bird to western North America from Eurasia and is now well established within the Great Basin from northeastern California east to Utah and north to Idaho and Oregon (Christensen 1996). Over much of this range the Chukar occurs with other phasianids, including the native Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), within sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) steppe (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999, Connelly et al. 2000). Chukar typically exploit a broader range of habitats than do sage-grouse, but both species use the same species of sagebrush and other shrubs for nesting cover (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999). Chukar are known to parasitize nests of other individuals of their own species (Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001), but we are unaware of reported evidence that Chukar may parasitize nests of sage-grouse. Here we describe a case of a Chukar parasitizing a sage-grouse nest in the sagebrush steppe of western Nevada.

  3. Influence of Delhi Pollution on Aerosol Properties Over Greater Noida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M.; Singh, R. P.; Kumar, R.

    2015-12-01

    Influence of Delhi Pollution on Aerosol Properties over Greater NoidaManish Sharma1, Ramesh P. Singh2 and Rajesh Kumar3 1Research and Technology Development Centre, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India. 2School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Schmid College of Science, Chapman University, Orange 92866, USA 3School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida, India. Delhi capital of India is highly polluted during winter and summer seasons. Due to dominant westerly winds the air mass influence its neighboring city Greater Noida which is located 60 km south east of Delhi. Detailed analysis of multi satellite data and ground observations have been carried out during 2001-2015. The ground observation and satellite data show dynamic aerosol optical parameters over Greater Noida. During winter and summer seasons, dominant westerly wind outflow pollutants of Delhi that mix with the local anthropogenic emissions of Greater Noida influencing aerosol properties at different pressure levels. The characteristics of trace gases and aerosol parameters over Delhi and Greater Noida will be presented. The air quality is severely affected from the outflow of pollutants from Delhi which is threat to people living in the area. Due to dominant winds the air mass further transported towards eastern parts of Indo-Gangetic plains affecting weather conditions of the major cities.

  4. Cameron lesions in patients with hiatal hernias: prevalence, presentation, and treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D M; Kushnir, V; Kalra, G; Rosenstock, A; Alsakka, M A; Patel, A; Sayuk, G; Gyawali, C P

    2015-07-01

    Cameron lesions, as defined by erosions and ulcerations at the diaphragmatic hiatus, are found in the setting of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in patients with a hiatus hernia (HH). The study aim was to determine the epidemiology and clinical manifestations of Cameron lesions. We performed a retrospective cohort study evaluating consecutive patients undergoing upper endoscopy over a 2-year period. Endoscopy reports were systematically reviewed to determine the presence or absence of Cameron lesions and HH. Inpatient and outpatient records were reviewed to determine prevalence, risk factors, and outcome of medical treatment of Cameron lesions. Of 8260 upper endoscopic examinations, 1306 (20.2%) reported an HH. When categorized by size, 65.6% of HH were small (Cameron lesions, with a prevalence of 3.3% in the presence of HH. Prevalence was highest with large HH (12.8%). On univariate analysis, large HH, frequent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use, GI bleeding (both occult and overt), and nadir hemoglobin level were significantly greater with Cameron lesions compared with HH without Cameron lesions (P ≤ 0.03). Large HH size and NSAID use were identified as independent risk factors for Cameron lesions on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Cameron lesions are more prevalent in the setting of large HH and NSAID use, can be associated with GI bleeding, and can respond to medical management. © 2014 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  5. Pain prevalence in hospitalized children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Larsen, S; Pedersen, M T; Friis, S M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pain management in hospitalized children is often inadequate. The prevalence and main sources of pain in Danish university hospitals is unknown. METHODS: This prospective mixed-method cross-sectional survey took place at four university hospitals in Denmark. We enrolled 570 pediatric...... pain in the previous 24 hours. One hundred and thirty four (24%) indicated moderate to severe pain and 43% would have preferred an intervention to alleviate the pain. In children hospitalized for more than 24 hours, the prevalence of moderate/severe pain was significantly higher compared to children...... patients who we asked to report their pain experience and its management during the previous 24 hours. For patients identified as having moderate to severe pain, patient characteristics and analgesia regimes were reviewed. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirteen children (37%) responded that they had experienced...

  6. “What are my chances of developing COPD if one of my parents has the disease?” A systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence of co-occurrence of COPD diagnosis in parents and offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lok Sze Katrina; Paquet, Catherine; Johnston, Kylie; Williams, Marie T

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Intergenerational associations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been well recognized and may result from genetic, gene environment, or exposure to life course factors. Consequently, adult offspring of parents with COPD may be at a greater risk of developing COPD. The aim of this study was to review the prevalence of co-occurrence of COPD in adult offspring with one or both parents having COPD independent of specific genetic variations. Methods In total, five databases were searched for original studies in which prevalence of COPD was reported in both offspring (children) and one or both parents. Studies were excluded if COPD was not clearly defined, COPD was linked to specific genetic variations, COPD was combined with other chronic respiratory conditions, or estimates included other first-degree relatives. Data extraction (ie, sample characteristics, prevalence of COPD, and odds ratio [OR] if reported) was completed by two independent reviewers. A meta-analysis of prevalence and OR was conducted, where possible. Results Of the 3,382 citations, 129 full texts were reviewed to include eight studies (six case–control, one cross-sectional, and one cohort) reflecting either prevalence of COPD in offspring of parents with COPD (descendent approach, n=3), which ranged from 0% to 17.3%, or prevalence of people with COPD reporting positive parental history of COPD (antecedent approach, n=5), for which the pooled prevalence was 28.6%. Offspring of people with COPD had 1.57 times greater odds (95% confidence interval =1.29–1.93; P<0.001) of having COPD compared with people not having a parental history of COPD. Conclusion The prevalence of COPD in adult offspring of people with COPD is greater than population-based estimates, and the ORs indicate a higher risk in this group. This offers clinicians a potential strategy for opportunistic screening, early identification, and intervention in this at-risk group. PMID:28182144

  7. On the Adaptive Origins and Maladaptive Consequences of Human Inbreeding : Parasite Prevalence, Immune Functioning, and Consanguineous Marriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoben, Ashley D.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Fincher, Corey L.; Thornhill, Randy; Schaller, Mark

    2010-01-01

    We propose that consanguineous marriages arise adaptively in response to high parasite prevalence and function to maintain coadapted gene complexes and associated local adaptation that defend against local pathogens. Therefore, a greater prevalence of inbreeding by consanguineous marriage is

  8. Hyperhidrosis: an update on prevalence and severity in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, James; Walker, Patricia; Mills, Thomas; Thurston, Jane

    2016-12-01

    Current published estimates of the prevalence of hyperhidrosis in the United States are outdated and underestimate the true prevalence of the condition. The objectives of this study are to provide an updated estimate of the prevalence of hyperhidrosis in the US population and to further assess the severity and impact of sweating on those affected by the condition. For the purposes of obtaining prevalence, a nationally representative sample of 8160 individuals were selected using an online panel, and information as to whether or not they experience hyperhidrosis was obtained. The 393 individuals (210 female, 244 non-Hispanic white, 27 black, mean age 40.3, SE 0.64) who indicated that they have hyperhidrosis were asked further questions, including body areas impacted, severity of symptoms, age of onset, and socioemotional impact of the condition. Current results estimate the prevalence of hyperhidrosis at 4.8 %, which represents approximately 15.3 million people in the United States. Of these, 70 % report severe excessive sweating in at least one body area. In spite of this, only 51 % have discussed their excessive sweating with a healthcare professional. The main reasons are a belief that hyperhidrosis is not a medical condition and that no treatment options exist. The current study's findings with regard to age of onset and prevalence by body area generally align with the previous research. However, current findings suggest that the severity and prevalence are both higher than previously thought, indicating a need for greater awareness of the condition and its associated treatment options among medical professionals.

  9. Update on Prevalence of Periodontitis in Adults in the United States: NHANES 2009 – 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Paul I.; Dye, Bruce A.; Wei, Liang; Slade, Gary D.; Thornton-Evans, Gina O.; Borgnakke, Wenche S.; Taylor, George W.; Page, Roy C.; Beck, James D.; Genco, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes prevalence, severity, and extent of periodontitis in the US adult population using combined data from the 2009–2010 and 2011–2012 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods Estimates were derived for dentate adults 30 years and older from the civilian non-institutionalized population. Periodontitis was defined by combinations of clinical attachment loss (CAL) and periodontal probing depth (PPD) from six sites per tooth on all teeth, except third molars, using standard surveillance case definitions. For the first time in NHANES history, sufficient numbers of Non-Hispanic Asians were sampled in 2011–2012 to provide reliable estimates of their periodontitis prevalence. Results In 2009–2012, 46% of US adults representing 64.7 million people had periodontitis, with 8.9% having severe periodontitis. Overall, 3.8% of all periodontal sites (10.6% of all teeth) had PPD≥4 mm and 19.3% of sites (37.4% teeth) had CAL≥3 mm. Periodontitis prevalence was positively associated with increasing age and was higher among males. Periodontitis prevalence was highest in Hispanics (63.5%) and Non-Hispanic blacks (59.1%), followed by Non-Hispanic Asian Americans (50.0%), and lowest in Non-Hispanic whites (40.8%). Prevalence varied two-fold between the lowest and highest levels of socioeconomic status, whether defined by poverty or education. Conclusion(s) This study confirms a high prevalence of periodontitis in US adults aged 30 years and older. Prevalence was greater in Non-Hispanic Asians than Non-Hispanic whites, although lower than other minorities. The distribution provides valuable information for population-based action to prevent periodontitis in US adults. PMID:25688694

  10. Update on Prevalence of Periodontitis in Adults in the United States: NHANES 2009 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Paul I; Dye, Bruce A; Wei, Liang; Slade, Gary D; Thornton-Evans, Gina O; Borgnakke, Wenche S; Taylor, George W; Page, Roy C; Beck, James D; Genco, Robert J

    2015-05-01

    This report describes prevalence, severity, and extent of periodontitis in the US adult population using combined data from the 2009 to 2010 and 2011 to 2012 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Estimates were derived for dentate adults, aged ≥30 years, from the US civilian non-institutionalized population. Periodontitis was defined by combinations of clinical attachment loss (AL) and periodontal probing depth (PD) from six sites per tooth on all teeth, except third molars, using standard surveillance case definitions. For the first time in NHANES history, sufficient numbers of non-Hispanic Asians were sampled in 2011 to 2012 to provide reliable estimates of their periodontitis prevalence. In 2009 to 2012, 46% of US adults, representing 64.7 million people, had periodontitis, with 8.9% having severe periodontitis. Overall, 3.8% of all periodontal sites (10.6% of all teeth) had PD ≥4 mm, and 19.3% of sites (37.4% teeth) had AL ≥3 mm. Periodontitis prevalence was positively associated with increasing age and was higher among males. Periodontitis prevalence was highest in Hispanics (63.5%) and non-Hispanic blacks (59.1%), followed by non-Hispanic Asian Americans (50.0%), and lowest in non-Hispanic whites (40.8%). Prevalence varied two-fold between the lowest and highest levels of socioeconomic status, whether defined by poverty or education. This study confirms a high prevalence of periodontitis in US adults aged ≥30 years, with almost fifty-percent affected. The prevalence was greater in non-Hispanic Asians than non-Hispanic whites, although lower than other minorities. The distribution provides valuable information for population-based action to prevent or manage periodontitis in US adults.

  11. The prevalence of culture-confirmed toenail onychomycosis in at-risk patient populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A K; Daigle, D; Foley, K A

    2015-06-01

    Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nail and is the most common nail affliction in the general population. Certain patient populations are at greater risk of infection and the prevalence of onychomycosis reported in the literature has yet to be summarized across these at-risk groups. We performed a systematic review of the literature and calculated pooled prevalence estimates of onychomycosis in at-risk patient populations. The prevalence of dermatophyte toenail onychomycosis was as follows: general population 3.22% (3.07, 3.38), children 0.14% (0.11, 0.18), the elderly 10.28% (8.63, 12.18), diabetic patients 8.75% (7.48, 10.21), psoriatic patients 10.22% (8.61, 12.09), HIV positive patients 10.40% (8.02, 13.38), dialysis patients 11.93% (7.11, 19.35) and renal transplant patients 5.17% (1.77, 14.14). Dialysis patients had the highest prevalence of onychomycosis caused by dermatophytes, elderly individuals had the highest prevalence of onychomycosis caused by yeasts (6.07%; 95% CI = 3.58, 10.11) and psoriatic patients had the highest prevalence of onychomycosis caused by non-dermatophyte moulds (2.49%; 95% CI = 1.74, 3.55). An increased prevalence of onychomycosis in certain patient populations may be attributed to impaired immunity, reduced peripheral circulation and alterations to the nail plate which render these patients more susceptible to infection.

  12. Prevalence of workplace bullying and risk groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortega, Adriana; Høgh, Annie; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of bullying and to identify risk groups in a representative population sample. METHODS: The data for this study was taken from the second Danish Psychosocial Work Environment Study (DPWES). The sample consisted of 3,429 employees between 20 and 59-years....... The response rate for the study was 60.4%. RESULTS: The study showed that 8.3% of the respondents had been bullied within the past year, 1.6% of the sample reported daily to weekly bullying. Co-workers (71.5%) and managers/supervisors (32.4%) were most often reported as perpetrators of bullying, but bullying...... from subordinates (6%) was also reported. We found significant differences in the prevalence of bullying for both occupational status and work process, a variable characterizing the employees main task in their job. Unskilled workers reported the highest prevalence of bullying, while managers...

  13. Tuberculosis and poverty: why are the poor at greater risk in India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxlade, Olivia; Murray, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Although poverty is widely recognized as an important risk factor for tuberculosis (TB) disease, the specific proximal risk factors that mediate this association are less clear. The objective of our study was to investigate the mechanisms by which poverty increases the risk of TB. Using individual level data from 198,754 people from the 2006 Demographic Health Survey (DHS) for India, we assessed self-reported TB status, TB determinants and household socioeconomic status. We used these data to calculate the population attributable fractions (PAF) for each key TB risk factor based on the prevalence of determinants and estimates of the effect of these risk factors derived from published sources. We conducted a mediation analysis using principal components analysis (PCA) and regression to demonstrate how the association between poverty and TB prevalence is mediated. The prevalence of self-reported TB in the 2006 DHS for India was 545 per 100,000 and ranged from 201 in the highest quintile to 1100 in the lowest quintile. Among those in the poorest population, the PAFs for low body mass index (BMI) and indoor air pollution were 34.2% and 28.5% respectively. The PCA analysis also showed that low BMI had the strongest mediating effect on the association between poverty and prevalent TB (12%, p = 0.019). TB control strategies should be targeted to the poorest populations that are most at risk, and should address the most important determinants of disease--specifically low BMI and indoor air pollution.

  14. Congenital malformations prevalent among Egyptian children and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    on World Health Organization report, about 3 million fetuses and infants are born each year with ... Surveys of CMs must be done in every country to provide prevalence, pattern of occur- rence, nature, identify causes, and associated risk factors to prevent or reduce ..... The same was also reported in Brazil, where CMs were.

  15. Is undergraduate physiotherapy study a risk factor for low back pain? A prevalence study of LBP in physiotherapy students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimmer Karen

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following reports of high prevalence of low back pain (LBP in young physiotherapists 171819202122, we investigated whether LBP was a problem for undergraduate physiotherapy students. Method Physiotherapy students enrolled in one Australian tertiary institution completed a validated self-administered questionnaire in April 2001, seeking information on LBP prevalence (lifetime, 12 month, one-month, one-week, and its risk factors. The survey incorporated the Nordic back questionnaire, questions on common risks for LBP, and purpose-built questions regarding educational exposures. Univariate logistic regression models were applied to test associations. Results and Discussion 72% students responded. LBP prevalence was 69% (lifetime, 63% (12-month, 44% (one-month, 28% (one-week. The risk of LBP increased significantly for students once they completed first year. Being aged 20 or 21 years (final year students was significantly associated with all measures of LBP, compared with the youngest students. Exposure to tertiary study of greater than two years was associated with lifetime, 12 month and one-month LBP prevalence. Spending more than 20 hours in the past month 'sitting looking down' was significantly associated with one-month LBP prevalence. Similar exposure to 'treating patients' was significantly associated with one-month and one-week LBP prevalence. Conclusions Physiotherapy students should be alerted to the likelihood of LBP and is potential causes during their training, so that they enter the workforce with reduced risk of LBP. The potential for other undergraduate students to suffer LBP should also be considered.

  16. Prevalence of comorbidity of chronic diseases in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roughead Elizabeth E

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of comorbidity is high, with 80% of the elderly population having three or more chronic conditions. Comorbidity is associated with a decline in many health outcomes and increases in mortality and use of health care resources. The aim of this study was to identify, review and summarise studies reporting the prevalence of comorbidity of chronic diseases in Australia. Methods A systematic review of Australian studies (1996 – May 2007 was conducted. The review focused specifically on the chronic diseases included as national health priorities; arthritis, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease (CVD, diabetes mellitus and mental health problems. Results A total of twenty five studies met our inclusion criteria. Over half of the elderly patients with arthritis also had hypertension, 20% had CVD, 14% diabetes and 12% mental health problem. Over 60% of patients with asthma reported arthritis as a comorbidity, 20% also had CVD and 16% diabetes. Of those with CVD, 60% also had arthritis, 20% diabetes and 10% had asthma or mental health problems. Conclusion There are comparatively few Australian studies that focused on comorbidity associated with chronic disease. However, they do show high prevalence of comorbidity across national health priority areas. This suggests integration and co-ordination of the national health priority areas is critical. A greater awareness of the importance of managing a patients' overall health status within the context of comorbidity is needed together with, increased research on comorbidity to provide an appropriate scientific basis on which to build evidence based care guidelines for these multimorbid patients.

  17. Surgical Treatment of Displaced Greater Tuberosity Fractures of the Humerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouleau, Dominique M; Mutch, Jennifer; Laflamme, Georges-Yves

    2016-01-01

    Greater tuberosity fractures of the humerus can be successfully treated nonsurgically in most patients. However, as little as 3 to 5 mm of superior greater tuberosity displacement may adversely affect rotator cuff biomechanics and lead to subacromial impingement in patients who are active. In these cases, surgical treatment is recommended. Multiple surgical techniques include open and arthroscopic options tailored to fracture morphology, and strategies for repair include the use of suture anchors, transosseous sutures, tension bands, and plates/screws. Three classification systems are commonly used to describe greater tuberosity fractures: the AO, Neer, and morphologic classifications. Several hypotheses have been discussed for the mechanism of greater tuberosity fractures and the deforming forces of the rotator cuff, and the use of advanced imaging is being explored.

  18. Management plan for Midcontinent greater white-fronted geese

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this plan is to provide guidelines for management decisions affecting the Midcontinent Population of Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons...

  19. Greater Sage-grouse Telemetry - Mono Co. [ds68

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Combined telemetry locations for sage grouse in Mono County which were fitted with radio-transmitters for the USGS Greater sage-grouse project. Contains spatial and...

  20. THE GREATER CENTRAL ASIA PROJECT: PRESENT STATE AND EVOLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Tulepbergenova, Gulsana

    2009-01-01

    The Greater Central Asia (GCA) project initiated in 2005 confirmed that the United States treated the region as a foreign policy and security priority. The project was primarily promoted by the changed balance of forces in favor of Russia and partly China, which called for an adequate strategic and geopolitical response. At the same time, the Greater Central Asia idea can be viewed as a conceptual and ideological substantiation of what the United States is trying to accomplish in the region. ...

  1. Constipation - prevalence and incidence among medical patients acutely admitted to hospital with a medical condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noiesen, Eline; Trosborg, Ingelise; Bager, Louise;

    2014-01-01

    To examine the prevalence and incidence of patient-reported symptoms of constipation in acutely hospitalised medical patients.......To examine the prevalence and incidence of patient-reported symptoms of constipation in acutely hospitalised medical patients....

  2. [Prevalence and clinical characteristics of the IBS subtypes according to the Rome III criteria in patients from a clinical, multicentric trial. A report from the Mexican IBS Working Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmulson, M; Vargas, J A; López-Colombo, A; Remes-Troche, J M; López-Alvarenga, J C

    2010-01-01

    In Mexico the prevalence of irritable bowel síndrome (IBS) using Rome II criteria varies between 16 and 35%. To analyze the relative frequency of the IBS subtypes according to the Rome III criteria. A multicentric study in 1677 IBS-Rome III patients that consulted private medical clinics. They all answered a structured interview by their physicians to determine the IBS subtype and to evaluate their symptoms intensity (Likert Scales). Patients self-evaluated their symptoms as well by using 10 cm visual analog scales for each one. Women represented 76.8% of the patients for a F:M ratio of 3.3:1. The relative frequencies of the IBS subtypes were IBS-M: 48.4%, IBS-E: 43.0%, IBS-D: 5.6% and IBS-U: 2.8% with females predominating among all. However, IBS-D included 1.7 to 2.4 times more men than any of the other subtypes. The IBS-M reported a higher frequency and intensity of halitosis and vomiting and a higher intensity of burping; while those with IBS-E reported a higher frequency and intensity of straining and the IBS-D more urgency for a bowel movement, fecal incontinence and mucous in the stools. In IBS-Rome III patients in Mexico, IBS-M is the most common subtype and is more commonly associated with dyspeptic symptoms while the IBS-E reported more outlet symptoms and the IBS-D fecal incontinence. There is a higher female predominance amongst all, however men are more likely to be in IBS-D.

  3. Women's and men's reports of past-year prevalence of intimate partner violence and rape and women's risk factors for intimate partner violence: A multicountry cross-sectional study in Asia and the Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Jewkes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the past-year prevalence of male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV and risk factors is essential for building evidence-based prevention and monitoring progress to Sustainable Development Goal (SDG 5.2, but so far, population-based research on this remains very limited. The objective of this study is to compare the population prevalence rates of past-year male-perpetrated IPV and nonpartner rape from women's and men's reports across 4 countries in Asia and the Pacific. A further objective is to describe the risk factors associated with women's experience of past-year physical or sexual IPV from women's reports and factors driving women's past-year experience of partner violence.This paper presents findings from the United Nations Multi-country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific. In the course of this study, in population-based cross-sectional surveys, 5,206 men and 3,106 women aged 18-49 years were interviewed from 4 countries: Cambodia, China, Papua New Guinea (PNG, and Sri Lanka. To measure risk factors, we use logistic regression and structural equation modelling to show pathways and mediators. The analysis was not based on a written plan, and following a reviewer's comments, some material was moved to supplementary files and the regression was performed without variable elimination. Men reported more lifetime perpetration of IPV (physical or sexual IPV range 32.5%-80% than women did experience (physical or sexual IPV range 27.5%-67.4%, but women's reports of past-year experience (physical or sexual IPV range 8.2%-32.1% were not very clearly different from men's (physical or sexual IPV range 10.1%-34.0%. Women reported much more emotional/economic abuse (past-year ranges 1.4%-5.7% for men and 4.1%-27.7% for women. Reports of nonpartner rape were similar for men (range 0.8%-1.9% in the past year and women (range 0.4%-2.3% in past year, except in Bougainville, where they were higher for men (11.7% versus 5

  4. Women's and men's reports of past-year prevalence of intimate partner violence and rape and women's risk factors for intimate partner violence: A multicountry cross-sectional study in Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel; Fulu, Emma; Tabassam Naved, Ruchira; Chirwa, Esnat; Dunkle, Kristin; Haardörfer, Regine; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the past-year prevalence of male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) and risk factors is essential for building evidence-based prevention and monitoring progress to Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 5.2, but so far, population-based research on this remains very limited. The objective of this study is to compare the population prevalence rates of past-year male-perpetrated IPV and nonpartner rape from women's and men's reports across 4 countries in Asia and the Pacific. A further objective is to describe the risk factors associated with women's experience of past-year physical or sexual IPV from women's reports and factors driving women's past-year experience of partner violence. This paper presents findings from the United Nations Multi-country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific. In the course of this study, in population-based cross-sectional surveys, 5,206 men and 3,106 women aged 18-49 years were interviewed from 4 countries: Cambodia, China, Papua New Guinea (PNG), and Sri Lanka. To measure risk factors, we use logistic regression and structural equation modelling to show pathways and mediators. The analysis was not based on a written plan, and following a reviewer's comments, some material was moved to supplementary files and the regression was performed without variable elimination. Men reported more lifetime perpetration of IPV (physical or sexual IPV range 32.5%-80%) than women did experience (physical or sexual IPV range 27.5%-67.4%), but women's reports of past-year experience (physical or sexual IPV range 8.2%-32.1%) were not very clearly different from men's (physical or sexual IPV range 10.1%-34.0%). Women reported much more emotional/economic abuse (past-year ranges 1.4%-5.7% for men and 4.1%-27.7% for women). Reports of nonpartner rape were similar for men (range 0.8%-1.9% in the past year) and women (range 0.4%-2.3% in past year), except in Bougainville, where they were higher for men (11.7% versus 5.7%). The

  5. The prevalence of Giardia infection in dogs and cats, a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence studies from stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Maha; Halai, Kapil; Jeffreys, Danielle; Hunter, Paul R

    2015-01-30

    Giardia has a wide range of host species and is a common cause of diarrhoeal disease in humans and animals. Companion animals are able to transmit a range of zoonotic diseases to their owners including giardiasis, but the size of this risk is not well known. The aim of this study was to analyse giardiasis prevalence rates in dogs and cats worldwide using a systematic search approach. Meta-analysis enabled to describe associations between Giardia prevalence and various confounding factors. Pooled prevalence rates were 15.2% (95% CI 13.8-16.7%) for dogs and 12% (95% CI 9.2-15.3%) for cats. However, there was very high heterogeneity between studies. Meta-regression showed that the diagnostic method used had a major impact on reported prevalence with studies using ELISA, IFA and PCR reporting prevalence rates between 2.6 and 3.7 times greater than studies using microscopy. Conditional negative binomial regression found that symptomatic animals had higher prevalence rates ratios (PRR) than asymptomatic animals 1.61 (95% CI 1.33-1.94) in dogs and 1.94 (95% CI 1.47-2.56) in cats. Giardia was much more prevalent in young animals. For cats >6 months, PRR=0.47 (0.42-0.53) and in dogs of the same age group PRR=0.36 (0.32-0.41). Additionally, dogs kept as pets were less likely to be positive (PRR=0.56 (0.41-0.77)) but any difference in cats was not significant. Faecal excretion of Giardia is common in dogs and slightly less so in cats. However, the exact rates depend on the diagnostic method used, the age and origin of the animal. What risk such endemic colonisation poses to human health is still unclear as it will depend not only on prevalence rates but also on what assemblages are excreted and how people interact with their pets. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Greater tibial bone strength in male tennis players than controls in the absence of greater muscle output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Ireland

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: Results suggest that sports with quick turning movements are highly osteogenic, even in the absence of greater muscular output. This may be related to the large torsional stresses produced during turning movements.

  7. Prevalence of dermographism in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, A; Sanz, J; Ortiz, M; Julve, N; Cerdá, J C; Ferriols, E; Alvarez, V

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of dermographism in our pediatric population was studied in 238 children of both sexes (128 boys and 110 girls) aged 2-14 years, randomly selected from a health care center. Skin reaction was evaluated after 5 min pressure (3,200 g/cm2) applied with a dermatographometer on a 5-cm length of dorsal skin. The reaction was considered positive when a wheal of more than 2 mm was observed. The prevalence of dermographism was found to be 24%, with a significant female predominance (33%) over males (16%). Forty-one percent of the children with dermographism reported exanthema in response to friction and pressure, which was compatible with symptomatic dermographism, compared with only 5% of those who yielded negative reactions. In order to assess the prevalence of dermographism in the atopic population, 100 patients in the 4-14 age range with respiratory disease (perennial allergic rhinitis and/or bronchial asthma) involving sensitization to aeroallergens (house dust mites and/or Alternaria) were studied. A positive response to the application of pressure (3,200 g/cm2) was observed in 47% of cases, this figure being significantly higher than in the general pediatric population.

  8. Prevalence, Knowledge, and Concern About Bed Bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaylor, Mary Beth; Wenning, Paul; Eddy, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the resurgence of bed bugs in the U.S. has occurred at an alarming rate. Assumptions have been made that socioeconomic status is not associated with the prevalence of bed bug infestations. Little information is available at the local level, however, about the prevalence of bed bugs in private homes. The authors' pilot study aimed to identify prevalence, knowledge, and concern about bed bugs in one higher income village in Ohio utilizing survey methodology. Responses from 96 individuals who completed the Prevalence, Knowledge, and Concern About Bed Bugs survey were utilized for analysis. The majority of the sample respondents were white and 95% reported that they owned their residence. Only 6% knew someone with bed bugs. Additionally, 52% reported they were somewhat concerned about bed bugs. About 46% reported that they had changed their behavior. For a higher income area, the prevalence was dissimilar to the rate reported in the general public (about 20%). This suggests that bed bugs may be an environmental issue effecting low-income populations disproportionately. Further research is needed in areas of differing socioeconomic levels.

  9. Eimeria spp. infecting quenda (Isoodon obesulus) in the greater Perth region, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Alison E; Yang, Rongchang; Lymbery, Alan J; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2016-11-01

    Parasites of wildlife inhabiting urbanised and peri-urban environments are of interest regarding wildlife population health, and also veterinary public health in the case of parasites that can also infect humans and domestic animals. This study aimed to: identify, and estimate the prevalence of, species of Eimeria parasitic in quenda (Isoodon obesulus) in the greater Perth region, Western Australia; 2) morphologically describe and genetically characterise a novel observed species of Eimeria as E. angustus; and 3) genetically characterise E. kanyana. Eimeria spp. prevalence was 76.1% (95% CI 64.9-84.5%), and four putative species of Eimeria were identified. Eimeria kanyana was identified infecting quenda for the first time, with a prevalence of 54.9% (43.4-66.0%). Eimeria quenda was less prevalent, at 7.0% (3.1-15.5%). The novel species E. angustus was present in 45.1% of sampled quenda (34.0-56.6%). A second novel morphotype of Eimeria was present in 2.8% of sampled quenda (0.9-9.7%). Mixed Eimeria spp. infections were present in 21/71 quenda (29.6%, 95% CI 20.2-41.1%). Molecular phylogenetic analyses of E. kanyana and E. angustus were conducted at the 18S rRNA and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase loci. At both loci, two isolates identified as E. kanyana grouped in a phylogenetic clade with E. trichosuri. Five isolates identified as the novel E. angustus were most closely related to E. tropidura at the 18S locus. At the COI locus, no sequence data were available for E. tropidura; isolates of E. angustus grouped with E. sciurorum.

  10. Genotype frequencies of C/T-13910 and G/A-22018 polymorphisms in a Colombian Caribbean population do not correspond with lactase persistence prevalence reported in the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Antonio Villanueva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The C/T-13910 and G/A-22018 polymorphisms located upstream of the lactase gene are reliable predictors of lactase persistence in Caucasian-derived populations. Assessing the presence and distribution of these polymorphisms in other populations is central to developing genotyping assays and understanding the evolutionary mechanism behind this trait in several human populations.Objective: Genotyping the C/T-13910 and G/A-22018 polymorphisms in a sample of Colombian Caribbean individuals.Materials and methods: The polymorphisms were identified through Polymerase Chain Reaction/Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. Amplified fragments were digested using Hinf I and Hha I. Arlequin v. 3.1 was used to determine allelic and genotypic frequencies, Hardy Weinberg equilibrium, and linkage disequilibrium.Results: Genotypic frequencies were CC (81.4%, CT (18.6%, and TT (0% for the C/T-13910 polymorphism. Frequencies were AA (55.5%, GA (45.5%, and GG (0% for the G/A-22018 polymorphism. No linkage disequilibrium was found between the two loci. Only the locus containing the C/T-13910 polymorphism was found in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium.Conclusion: The allelic and genotypic distributions observed in this first genotyping study in a Colombian Caribbean population indicate a distribution pattern different from the one of the North European Caucasians and do not correspond to the lactase persistence prevalence reported for Caribbean populations.

  11. Genotype frequencies of C/T-13910 and G/A-22018 polymorphisms in a Colombian Caribbean population do not correspond with lactase persistence prevalence reported in the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Mendoza

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The C/T-13910 and G/A-22018 polymorphisms located upstream of the lactase gene are reliable predictors of lactase persistence in Caucasian-derived populations. Assessing the presence and distribution of these polymorphisms in other populations is central to developing genotyping assays and understanding the evolutionary mechanism behind this trait in several human populations. Objective: Genotyping the C/T-13910 and G/A-22018 polymorphisms in a sample of Colombian Caribbean individuals. Materials and methods: The polymorphisms were identified through Polymerase Chain Reaction/Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. Amplified fragments were digested using Hinf I and Hha I. Arlequin v. 3.1 was used to determine allelic and genotypic frequencies, Hardy Weinberg equilibrium, and linkage disequilibrium. Results: Genotypic frequencies were CC (81.4%, CT (18.6%, and TT (0% for the C/T-13910 polymorphism. Frequencies were AA (55.5%, GA (45.5%, and GG (0% for the G/A-22018 polymorphism. No linkage disequilibrium was found between the two loci. Only the locus containing the C/T-13910 polymorphism was found in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. Conclusion: The allelic and genotypic distributions observed in this first genotyping study in a Colombian Caribbean population indicate a distribution pattern different from the one of the North European Caucasians and do not correspond to the lactase persistence prevalence reported for Caribbean populations.

  12. Prevalence of Trichinella spp. in black bears, grizzly bears, and wolves in the Dehcho Region, Northwest Territories, Canada, including the first report of T. nativa in a grizzly bear from Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larter, Nicholas C; Forbes, Lorry B; Elkin, Brett T; Allaire, Danny G

    2011-07-01

    Samples of muscle from 120 black bears (Ursus americanus), 11 grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), and 27 wolves (Canis lupus) collected in the Dehcho Region of the Northwest Territories from 2001 to 2010 were examined for the presence of Trichinella spp. larvae using a pepsin-HCl digestion assay. Trichinella spp. larvae were found in eight of 11 (73%) grizzly bears, 14 of 27 (52%) wolves, and seven of 120 (5.8%) black bears. The average age of positive grizzly bears, black bears, and wolves was 13.5, 9.9, and approximately 4 yr, respectively. Larvae from 11 wolves, six black bears, and seven grizzly bears were genotyped. Six wolves were infected with T. nativa and five with Trichinella T6, four black bears were infected with T. nativa and two with Trichinella T6, and all seven grizzly bears were infected with Trichinella T6 and one of them had a coinfection with T. nativa. This is the first report of T. nativa in a grizzly bear from Canada. Bears have been linked to trichinellosis outbreaks in humans in Canada, and black bears are a subsistence food source for residents of the Dehcho region. In order to assess food safety risk it is important to monitor the prevalence of Trichinella spp. in both species of bear and their cohabiting mammalian food sources.

  13. Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandercock, Brett K. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2013-05-22

    This report summarizes the results of a seven-year, DOE-funded research project, conducted by researchers from Kansas State University and the National Wind Coordinating Collaborative, to assess the effects of wind energy development in Kansas on the population and reproduction of greater prairie chickens.

  14. Aspartame intake is associated with greater glucose intolerance in individuals with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuk, Jennifer L; Brown, Ruth E

    2016-07-01

    This study examined whether sucrose, fructose, aspartame, and saccharin influences the association between obesity and glucose tolerance in 2856 adults from the NHANES III survey. Aspartame intake significantly influenced the association between body mass index (BMI) and glucose tolerance (interaction: P = 0.004), wherein only those reporting aspartame intake had a steeper positive association between BMI and glucose tolerance than those reporting no aspartame intake. Therefore, consumption of aspartame is associated with greater obesity-related impairments in glucose tolerance.

  15. Prevalence rates for diabetes mellitus in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, L; de Conty, I T

    1991-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze prevalence data for diabetes mellitus obtained from a household interview of a random sample of the general population by the Department of Health of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for the years 1975-1986. Details of the prevalence rate by sex and age were analyzed for the years 1981, 1984, 1985, and 1986 and for the urban and rural population in 1985. The mean prevalence rate of known cases of diabetes showed a tendency to increase from 3.1% in 1975 to 5.1% in 1986. Prevalence rates adjusted for age and sex showed an increase in the mean prevalence for 1986 compared with that of 1981. The prevalence rate was significantly higher for the rural population for the age-group 45-64 yr old and for the urban population for the age-group greater than or equal to 65 yr. The prevalence rate compares with that of Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans in the New York City area. On the basis of the prevalence data, approximately 90% of the diabetic population is non-insulin dependent and 10% are insulin dependent. Major risk factors thought to explain the increased prevalence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes are increasing longevity of the Puerto Rican population, genetic predisposition, obesity, and changes in life-styles. In conclusion, Puerto Ricans, as other Hispanic Americans, have a higher prevalence of diabetes than the white American population.

  16. Adjustment of Business Expatriates in Greater China: A Strategic Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Research has found that due to similarities, firms which have gained business experience elsewhere in Greater China may exhibit relatively better performance in mainland China. Hence, the experience of business expatriates could be of strategic importance for the expansion path of their firms....... Based on data collected by a survey, this study compares how business expatriates adjust to life and work in different locations in Greater China. Results show that expatriates assigned to Singapore had a higher degree of general adjustment and interaction adjustment than their counterparts elsewhere...... longer both in Hong Kong and mainland China than in Singapore. Implications of these results for business firms contemplating to enter Greater China and specifically mainland China are discussed in detail....

  17. High prevalence of blaOXA-23 in Acinetobacter spp. and detection of blaNDM-1 in A. soli in Cuba: report from National Surveillance Program (2010–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Quiñones

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As a first national surveillance of Acinetobacter in Cuba, a total of 500 Acinetobacter spp. isolates recovered from 30 hospitals between 2010 and 2012 were studied. Acinetobacter baumannii–calcoaceticus complex accounted for 96.4% of all the Acinetobacter isolates, while other species were detected at low frequency (A. junii 1.6%, A. lwoffii 1%, A. haemolyticus 0.8%, A. soli 0.2%. Resistance rates of isolates were 34–61% to third-generation cephalosporins, 49–50% to β-lactams/inhibitor combinations, 42–47% to aminoglycosides, 42–44% to carbapenems and 55% to ciprofloxacin. However, resistance rates to colistin, doxycycline, tetracycline and rifampin were less than 5%. Among carbapenem-resistant isolates, 75% harboured different blaOXA genes (OXA-23, 73%; OXA-24, 18%; OXA-58, 3%. The blaNDM-1 gene was identified in an A. soli strain, of which the species was confirmed by sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene, rpoB, rpoB–rpoC and rpoL–rpoB intergenic spacer regions and gyrB. The sequences of blaNDM-1 and its surrounding genes were identical to those reported for plasmids of A. baumannii and A. lwoffi strains. This is the first report of blaNDM-1 in A. soli, together with a high prevalence of OXA-23 carbapenemase for carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter spp. in Cuba.

  18. High prevalence of blaOXA-23 in Acinetobacter spp. and detection of blaNDM-1 in A. soli in Cuba: report from National Surveillance Program (2010–2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones, D.; Carvajal, I.; Perez, Y.; Hart, M.; Perez, J.; Garcia, S.; Salazar, D.; Ghosh, S.; Kawaguchiya, M.; Aung, M.S.; Kobayashi, N.

    2015-01-01

    As a first national surveillance of Acinetobacter in Cuba, a total of 500 Acinetobacter spp. isolates recovered from 30 hospitals between 2010 and 2012 were studied. Acinetobacter baumannii–calcoaceticus complex accounted for 96.4% of all the Acinetobacter isolates, while other species were detected at low frequency (A. junii 1.6%, A. lwoffii 1%, A. haemolyticus 0.8%, A. soli 0.2%). Resistance rates of isolates were 34–61% to third-generation cephalosporins, 49–50% to β-lactams/inhibitor combinations, 42–47% to aminoglycosides, 42–44% to carbapenems and 55% to ciprofloxacin. However, resistance rates to colistin, doxycycline, tetracycline and rifampin were less than 5%. Among carbapenem-resistant isolates, 75% harboured different blaOXA genes (OXA-23, 73%; OXA-24, 18%; OXA-58, 3%). The blaNDM-1 gene was identified in an A. soli strain, of which the species was confirmed by sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene, rpoB, rpoB–rpoC and rpoL–rpoB intergenic spacer regions and gyrB. The sequences of blaNDM-1 and its surrounding genes were identical to those reported for plasmids of A. baumannii and A. lwoffi strains. This is the first report of blaNDM-1 in A. soli, together with a high prevalence of OXA-23 carbapenemase for carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter spp. in Cuba. PMID:26236494

  19. [Prevalence of clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy in a pregnant women population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Cruz, Edgar Alonso; Ramírez-Torres, Aurora; Pimentel-Nieto, Diana; Roque Sánchez, Armando Miguel

    2014-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of hypothyroidism during pregnancy in a group of pregnant patients attending antenatal care at the National Institute of Perinatology and to meet cases not detected by universal screening. Was conducted from October 2012 to March 2013, in a group of pregnant patients attending to National Institute of Perinatology, thyroid profile was performed according to the recom- mendations of the American Thyroid Association. Patients were referred to endocrinology consultation and treatment was started in case of abnormal thyroid profile. We used central tendency and non-parametric measures for description of the sample. The prevalence of thyroid disease in pregnancy was 33.9% (n = 37), 12.8% (n = 14) with clinical hypothyroidism and 21.1% (n = 23) subclinical hypothyroidism. The 87.1% (n = 95) of patients reported at least one symptom or risk factor history for thyroid disease, only 12.8% (n = 14), had no history or symptoms related to thyroid disease. There is no relationship between a history or symptoms reported and the presence of thyroid disease. The prevalence of thyroid clinical and subclinical disease is greater than that reported in the literature. There is not relationship with each risk factor for thyroid disease. Perform universal screening detects almost twice thyroid disease during pregnancy.

  20. Utilizing hunter harvest effort to survey for wildlife disease: a case study of West Nile virus in greater sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Robert J.; Hagen, Christian A.; Franson, J. Christian; Budeau, David A.; Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2014-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; sage-grouse) are highly susceptible to infection with West Nile virus (WNV), with substantial mortality reported in wild populations and in experimentally infected birds. Although sage-grouse are hunted throughout much of their range, they have also recently been considered for protection under the Endangered Species Act. We used blood samples collected on filter-paper strips during the 2006–2010 Oregon, USA, annual sage-grouse hunt to survey for specific WNV-neutralizing antibodies that indicate a previous infection with WNV. During this period, hunters submitted 1,880 blood samples from sage-grouse they harvested. Samples obtained were proportional for all 12 Oregon sage-grouse hunting units. Laboratory testing of 1,839 samples by the WNV epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA) followed by plaque reduction neutralization test on bELISA-positive samples yielded 19 (1%) and 1 (0.05%) positive samples, respectively. These data provided early baseline information for future comparisons regarding the prevalence of WNV-specific neutralizing antibodies in sage-grouse in Oregon. This methodology may provide other states where sage-grouse (or other species) populations are hunted and where WNV constitutes a species conservation concern with a viable option to track the relative prevalence of the virus in populations.

  1. Has increased provision of treatment reduced the prevalence of common mental disorders? Review of the evidence from four countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorm, Anthony F; Patten, Scott B; Brugha, Traolach S; Mojtabai, Ramin

    2017-02-01

    Many people identified as having common mental disorders in community surveys do not receive treatment. Modelling has suggested that closing this "treatment gap" should reduce the population prevalence of those disorders. To evaluate the effects of reducing the treatment gap in industrialized countries, data from 1990 to 2015 were reviewed from four English-speaking countries: Australia, Canada, England and the US. These data show that the prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders and symptoms has not decreased, despite substantial increases in the provision of treatment, particularly antidepressants. Several hypotheses for this lack of improvement were considered. There was no support for the hypothesis that reductions in prevalence due to treatment have been masked by increases in risk factors. However, there was little evidence relevant to the hypothesis that improvements have been masked by increased reporting of symptoms because of greater public awareness of common mental disorders or willingness to disclose. A more strongly supported hypothesis for the lack of improvement is that much of the treatment provided does not meet the minimal standards of clinical practice guidelines and is not targeted optimally to those in greatest need. Lack of attention to prevention of common mental disorders may also be a factor. Reducing the prevalence of common mental disorders remains an unsolved challenge for health systems globally, which may require greater attention to the "quality gap" and "prevention gap". There is also a need for nations to monitor outcomes by using standardized measures of service provision and mental disorders over time.

  2. Prevalence of Parasomnia in Autistic Children with Sleep Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Walters, Arthur S.; Michael Brimacombe; Roberto V. Nachajon; Xue Ming; Ye-Ming Sun

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of sleep related complaints is reported by questionnaire studies to be as high as 83.3% in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Questionnaire studies report the presence of various parasomnia in ASD. However, no polysomnographic study reports non-REM parasomnias and only a single study reports REM related parasomnias in ASD. We investigated the prevalence and characteristics of sleep disorders by polysomnographic study and questionnaires in a cohort of 23 children wit...

  3. Prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and co-morbid disorders among students of Cumhuriyet University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onder Kavakci

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Most of the previous studies investigated prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD among university students with self report measures. Present study investigated actual prevalence of ADHD and co-morbid disorders among university students in Cumhuriyet University of Sivas in Turkey. Methods: In the first stage, 980 university students filled in the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale and socio-demographic form, 79 of whom were above the cut-off score of Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, considered as possible ADHD. They were evaluated in the second stage via structured interview SCID I, SCID II, Adult ADHD Module of MINI Plus. In addition, subjects filled in the self report Adult ADD/ADHD DSM IV-Based Diagnostic Screening and Rating Scale. Results: The self report ADHD prevalence rate was 10.1% and the actual prevalence rate of ADHD among the university students was calculated 6.1%. The prevalence of ADHD was greater among male than female (7.0% vs. 5.5%. Among the male students inattentive subtype was 1.6%, hyperactive-impulsive 0.24%, combined 5.1%. Female students were found to be inattentive by 1.45%, hyperactive-impulsive by 0.56% and combined type by 3.48%. Most of the students with ADHD had Axis I (especially depressive disorders and Axis II disorders (especially cluster B personality disorders. ADHD diagnosis was associated with more cigarette and alcohol use, academic failure, legal problems, somatic complaints and suicide attempts. Students with ADHD were spending more time on the Internet than students without ADHD. Only one student diagnosed with ADHD reported to have had previous ADHD diagnosis. Conclusions: ADHD is common among university students. Having a diagnosis of ADHD in early adulthood seems to be associated with psychological, social, and academic problems.

  4. Prevalence of chronic conditions in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Harrison

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate prevalence of chronic conditions among patients seeing a general practitioner (GP, patients attending general practice at least once in a year, and the Australian population. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A sub-study of the BEACH (Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health program, a continuous national study of general practice activity conducted between July 2008 and May 2009. Each of 290 GPs provided data for about 30 consecutive patients (total 8,707 indicating diagnosed chronic conditions, using their knowledge of the patient, patient self-report, and patient's health record. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Estimates of prevalence of chronic conditions among patients surveyed, adjusted prevalence in patients who attended general practice at least once that year, and national population prevalence. RESULTS: Two-thirds (66.3% of patients surveyed had at least one chronic condition: most prevalent being hypertension (26.6%, hyperlipidaemia (18.5%, osteoarthritis (17.8%, depression (13.7%, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (11.6%, asthma (9.5% and Type 2 diabetes (8.3%. For patients who attended general practice at least once, we estimated 58.8% had at least one chronic condition. After further adjustment we estimated 50.8% of the Australian population had at least one chronic condition: hypertension (17.4%, hyperlipidaemia (12.7%, osteoarthritis (11.1%, depression (10.5% and asthma (8.0% being most prevalent. CONCLUSIONS: This study used GPs to gather information from their knowledge, the patient, and health records, to provide prevalence estimates that overcome weaknesses of studies using patient self-report or health record audit alone. Our results facilitate examination of primary care resource use in management of chronic conditions and measurement of prevalence of multimorbidity in Australia.

  5. Racial and Ethnic Subgroup Disparities in Hypertension Prevalence, New York City Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Kezhen; Rodriguez-Lopez, Jesica S; Ramos, Marcel; Islam, Nadia; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Yi, Stella S; Chernov, Claudia; Perlman, Sharon E; Thorpe, Lorna E

    2017-04-20

    Racial/ethnic minority adults have higher rates of hypertension than non-Hispanic white adults. We examined the prevalence of hypertension among Hispanic and Asian subgroups in New York City. Data from the 2013-2014 New York City Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to assess hypertension prevalence among adults (aged ≥20) in New York City (n = 1,476). Hypertension was measured (systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg or self-reported hypertension and use of blood pressure medication). Participants self-reported race/ethnicity and country of origin. Multivariable logistic regression models assessed differences in prevalence by race/ethnicity and sociodemographic and health-related characteristics. Overall hypertension prevalence among adults in New York City was 33.9% (43.5% for non-Hispanic blacks, 38.0% for Asians, 33.0% for Hispanics, and 27.5% for non-Hispanic whites). Among Hispanic adults, prevalence was 39.4% for Dominican, 34.2% for Puerto Rican, and 27.5% for Central/South American adults. Among Asian adults, prevalence was 43.0% for South Asian and 39.9% for East/Southeast Asian adults. Adjusting for age, sex, education, and body mass index, 2 major racial/ethnic minority groups had higher odds of hypertension than non-Hispanic whites: non-Hispanic black (AOR [adjusted odds ratio], 2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-3.9) and Asian (AOR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.2-3.4) adults. Two subgroups had greater odds of hypertension than the non-Hispanic white group: East/Southeast Asian adults (AOR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.6-4.9) and Dominican adults (AOR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.5). Racial/ethnic minority subgroups vary in hypertension prevalence, suggesting the need for targeted interventions.

  6. African American Race and Prevalence of Atrial Fibrillation:A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlow B. Hernandez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It has been observed that African American race is associated with a lower prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF compared to Caucasian race. To better quantify the association between African American race and AF, we performed a meta-analysis of published studies among different patient populations which reported the presence of AF by race. Methods. A literature search was conducted using electronic databases between January 1999 and January 2011. The search was limited to published studies in English conducted in the United States, which clearly defined the presence of AF in African American and Caucasian subjects. A meta-analysis was performed with prevalence of AF as the primary endpoint. Results. In total, 10 studies involving 1,031,351 subjects were included. According to a random effects analysis, African American race was associated with a protective effect with regard to AF as compared to Caucasian race (odds ratio 0.51, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.59, <0.001. In subgroup analyses, African American race was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of AF in the general population, those hospitalized or greater than 60 years old, postcoronary artery bypass surgery patients, and subjects with heart failure. Conclusions. In a broad sweep of subjects in the general population and hospitalized patients, the prevalence of AF in African Americans is consistently lower than in Caucasians.

  7. African American Race and Prevalence of Atrial Fibrillation:A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Marlow B.; Asher, Craig R.; Hernandez, Adrian V.; Novaro, Gian M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. It has been observed that African American race is associated with a lower prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) compared to Caucasian race. To better quantify the association between African American race and AF, we performed a meta-analysis of published studies among different patient populations which reported the presence of AF by race. Methods. A literature search was conducted using electronic databases between January 1999 and January 2011. The search was limited to published studies in English conducted in the United States, which clearly defined the presence of AF in African American and Caucasian subjects. A meta-analysis was performed with prevalence of AF as the primary endpoint. Results. In total, 10 studies involving 1,031,351 subjects were included. According to a random effects analysis, African American race was associated with a protective effect with regard to AF as compared to Caucasian race (odds ratio 0.51, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.59, P < 0.001). In subgroup analyses, African American race was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of AF in the general population, those hospitalized or greater than 60 years old, postcoronary artery bypass surgery patients, and subjects with heart failure. Conclusions. In a broad sweep of subjects in the general population and hospitalized patients, the prevalence of AF in African Americans is consistently lower than in Caucasians. PMID:22548197

  8. The Educational Afterlife of Greater Britain, 1903-1914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Following its late nineteenth-century emergence as an important element within federalist thinking across the British Empire, the idea of Greater Britain lost much of its political force in the years following the Boer War. The concept however continued to retain considerable residual currency in other fields of Imperial debate, including those…

  9. On Dalai Lama's “Greater Tibet”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BYOURCOMMENTATOR

    2004-01-01

    Referring to the point of the “middle road” made by the 14th Dalai Lama, there is a concept of “Greater Tibet” which covers the existing Tibet Autonomous Region, the entire area of Qinghai Province, one-fifth of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, two-thirds of Gansu Province, two-thirds of Sichuan Province and half of Yunnan Province.

  10. An ovarian adenocarcinoma in a greater flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, P F; Jones, D M

    1981-01-01

    An ovarian adenocarcinoma was diagnosed in a greater flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus) which had been maintained in captivity for over 32 years. Neoplastic epithelial cells showed both solid and tubular patterns of growth. Metastases were found in the lung, liver and on the peritoneal surface of the pancreas.

  11. Adjustment of Business Expatriates in Greater China: A Strategic Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Research has found that due to similarities, firms which have gained business experience elsewhere in Greater China may exhibit relatively better performance in mainland China. Hence, the experience of business expatriates could be of strategic importance for the expansion path of their firms...

  12. Surgical treatment of high-standing greater trochanter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, K; Maniwa, S; Ochi, M

    1999-01-01

    Eleven patients with high-standing greater trochanter (13 joints) aged 13-36 years underwent surgery. Distal transfer of the greater trochanter (group T) was performed in 4 patients (5 joints) and lateral displacement osteotomy (group L) in 7 (8 joints). The average follow-up duration was 13.4 years in group T and 5.9 years in group L. Clinical results were evaluated by the hip score according to Merle d'Aubigne. The mean hip score in group T was 13.4 points before operation and 15.4 points after operation, and in group L, 12.8 and 17.4 points, respectively. The postoperative clinical results of group L were significantly better than those of group T (P = 0.0494). In radiological evaluation, although the articulo-trochanteric distance (ATD) increased in both groups in group L it improved remarkably from 9.8 to 24.3, indicating a large descending distance of the greater trochanter. The lever arm ratio (LAR) did not change significantly in group T, but it decreased from 1.97 to 1.60 in group L (P = 0.004). This means that the lever arm of the abductors can certainly be extended by lateral displacement osteotomy. Lateral displacement osteotomy is the most effective procedure for high-standing greater trochanter.

  13. assessing human impacts on the greater akaki river, ethiopia using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    proceeded from the upper reaches to the lower reaches along the Greater Akaki River. The upper ... measures of biological and chemical oxygen demand. Among the ... level, are good indicators of localized conditions and integrate the ... collected in 1L polyethylene bottles and were taken to the .... Tamiru Ale- mayehu et al ...

  14. The Educational Afterlife of Greater Britain, 1903-1914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Following its late nineteenth-century emergence as an important element within federalist thinking across the British Empire, the idea of Greater Britain lost much of its political force in the years following the Boer War. The concept however continued to retain considerable residual currency in other fields of Imperial debate, including those…

  15. On the Occurrence of Standardized Regression Coefficients Greater than One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, John, Jr.

    1978-01-01

    It is demonstrated here that standardized regression coefficients greater than one can legitimately occur. Furthermore, the relationship between the occurrence of such coefficients and the extent of multicollinearity present among the set of predictor variables in an equation is examined. Comments on the interpretation of these coefficients are…

  16. Radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in greater trochanter and lschium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, So Hee; Lee, Ye Ri [Hanil Hospital Affiliated to KEPCO, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Jin; Sung, Ki Jun [Yonsei Univ. Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jong Nam [Konkuk Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To evaluate, if possible, the radiographic features of tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium, and to determine the cause of the lesions. We reterospectively reviewed the plain radiographic findings of 14 ptients with histologically proven tuberculous osteitis involving the greater trochanter and ischium. In each case, the following were analyzed:morphology of bone destruction, including cortical erosion;periosteal reaction;presence or abscence of calcific shadows in adjacent soft tissue. On the basis of an analysis of radiographic features and correlation of the anatomy with adjacent structures we attempted to determine causes. Of the 14 cases evaluated, 12 showed varrious degrees of extrinsic erosion on the outer cortical bone of the greater trochanter and ischium ; in two cases, bone destruction was so severe that the radiographic features of advanced perforated osteomyelitis were simulated. In addition to findings of bone destruction, in these twelve cases, the presence of sequestrum or calcific shadows was seen in adjacent soft tissue. Tuberculous osteitis in the greater trochanter and ischium showed the characteristic findings of chronic extrinsic erosion. On the basis of these findings we can suggest that these lesions result from an extrinsic pathophysiologic cause such as adjacent bursitis.

  17. College Students with ADHD at Greater Risk for Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaultney, Jane F.

    2014-01-01

    The pediatric literature indicates that children with ADHD are at greater risk for sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and some sleep disorders than children with no diagnosed disability. It has not been determined whether this pattern holds true among emerging adults, and whether comorbid sleep disorders with ADHD predict GPA. The present study…

  18. 163 COUNTER-TERRORISM IN THE GREATER HORN OF AFRICA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2010-07-11

    Jul 11, 2010 ... serous signals to the defence and national security formations in the Greater Horn of ... provoke a state of terror in the general public, a group of persons or particular persons. ... others using the environment of the Somali collapsed state as a safe haven to ..... They don't know any other way of life but war.

  19. Estimated prevalence of compulsive buying behavior in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koran, Lorrin M; Faber, Ronald J; Aboujaoude, Elias; Large, Michael D; Serpe, Richard T

    2006-10-01

    Compulsive buying (uncontrolled urges to buy, with resulting significant adverse consequences) has been estimated to affect from 1.8% to 16% of the adult U.S. population. To the authors' knowledge, no study has used a large general population sample to estimate its prevalence. The authors conducted a random sample, national household telephone survey in the spring and summer of 2004 and interviewed 2,513 adults. The interviews addressed buying attitudes and behaviors, their consequences, and the respondents' financial and demographic data. The authors used a clinically validated screening instrument, the Compulsive Buying Scale, to classify respondents as either compulsive buyers or not. The rate of response was 56.3%, which compares favorably with rates in federal national health surveys. The cooperation rate was 97.6%. Respondents included a higher percentage of women and people ages 55 and older than the U.S. adult population. The estimated point prevalence of compulsive buying among respondents was 5.8% (by gender: 6.0% for women, 5.5% for men). The gender-adjusted prevalence rate was 5.8%. Compared with other respondents, compulsive buyers were younger, and a greater proportion reported incomes under 50,000 US dollars. They exhibited more maladaptive responses on most consumer behavior measures and were more than four times less likely to pay off credit card balances in full. A study using clinically valid interviews is needed to evaluate these results. The emotional and functional toll of compulsive buying and the frequency of comorbid psychiatric disorders suggests that studies of treatments and social interventions are warranted.

  20. Prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in four English cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, I A; Boothman, N; Morris, J; MacKay, L; Liu, Z; McGrady, M; Goodwin, M

    2016-12-01

    To assess the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in four city-b